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Sample records for semen preservation electronic

  1. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

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    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of four diluents for the retriever dogs semen preservation

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    A. Wicaksono

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of chilled semen depends on the composition of diluent. The choice of the buffer, anti-cold shock and nutrition sources can be the first decision in order to choose appropriate diluents. Nowadays a lot of diluent are used for canine semen preservation such as Tris buffer and Citrate buffer. This study was aimed to observe the differences of diluent for preserving Retriever dog spermatozoa. The semen sample collected from four Retriever dogs with three times repetition. The semen was evaluated macro-and microscopically. The semen with >70% sperm motility was divided into four tubes and diluted with diluter 1 (P1, diluter: P2, P3 and P4 (modified P3. The diluted semen was divided into two tubes and each sample was stored at room and 50C temperature. The viability of chilled semen was observed every 3 hours at room temperature and 12 hours at 50C. The result showed that P2 keep the sperm viability better than the other diluents. On 50C at 24 hours storage P2 showed the highest motile and live sperm percentage (46.25 ± 0.22%; 57.11 ± 0.25%. In room temperature at 6 hours P2 showed the highest motile and live sperm percentage (40.94 ± 0.20%; 52.65 ± 0.23%. It is concluded that P2 can keep the sperm viability by 84 hours of 50C and 21 hours at room temperature.

  3. Effects of semen preservation on boar spermatozoa head membranes.

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    Buhr, M M; Canvin, A T; Bailey, J L

    1989-08-01

    Head plasma membranes were isolated from the sperm-rich fraction of boar semen and from sperm-rich semen that had been subjected to three commercial preservation processes: Extended for fresh insemination (extended), prepared for freezing but not frozen (cooled), and stored frozen for 3-5 weeks (frozen-thawed). Fluorescence polarization was used to determine fluidity of the membranes of all samples for 160 min at 25 degrees C and also for membranes from the sperm-rich and extended semen during cooling and reheating (25 to 5 to 40 degrees C, 0.4 degrees C/min). Head plasma membranes from extended semen were initially more fluid than from other sources (P less than 0.05). Fluidity of head membranes from all sources decreased at 25 degrees C, but the rate of decrease was significantly lower for membranes from cooled and lower again for membranes from frozen-thawed semen. Cooling to 5 degrees C reduced the rate of fluidity change for plasma membranes from the sperm-rich fraction, while heating over 30 degrees C caused a significantly greater decrease. The presence of Ca++ (10 mM) lowered the fluidity of the head plasma membranes from sperm-rich and extended semen over time at 25 degrees C but did not affect the membranes from the cooled or frozen-thawed semen. The change in head plasma membrane fluidity at 25 degrees C may reflect the dynamic nature of spermatozoa membranes prior to fertilization. Extenders, preservation processes and temperature changes have a strong influence on head plasma membrane fluidity and therefore the molecular organization of this membrane.

  4. Preservation of Domesticated Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drone Semen.

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    Paillard, M; Rousseau, A; Giovenazzo, P; Bailey, J L

    2017-08-01

    Preservation of honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) sperm, coupled with instrumental insemination, is an effective strategy to protect the species and their genetic diversity. Our overall objective is to develop a method of drone semen preservation; therefore, two experiments were conducted. Hypothesis 1 was that cryopreservation (-196 °C) of drone semen is more effective for long-term storage than at 16 °C. Our results show that after 1 yr of storage, frozen sperm viability was higher than at 16 °C, showing that cryopreservation is necessary to conserve semen. However, the cryoprotectant used for drone sperm freezing, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), can harm the queen and reduce fertility after instrumental insemination. Hypothesis 2 was that centrifugation of cryopreserved semen to reduce DMSO prior to insemination optimize sperm quality. Our results indicate that centrifuging cryopreserved sperm to remove cryoprotectant does not affect queen survival, spermathecal sperm count, or sperm viability. Although these data do not indicate that centrifugation of frozen-thawed sperm improves queen health and fertility after instrumental insemination, we demonstrate that cryopreservation is achievable, and it is better for long-term sperm storage than above-freezing temperatures for duration of close to a year. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A comparative study of boar semen extenders with different proposed preservation times and their effect on semen quality and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Anastasia Karageorgiou; Georgios Tsousis; Constantin M. Boscos; Eleni D. Tzika; Panagiotis D. Tassis; Ioannis A. Tsakmakidis

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the quality characteristics of boar semen diluted with three extenders of different proposed preservation times (short-term, medium-term and long-term). A part of extended semen was used for artificial insemination on the farm (30 sows/extender), while the remaining part was stored for three days (16–18 °C). Stored and used semen was also laboratory assessed at insemination time, on days 1 and 2 after the collection (day 0). The long-term extender was used for a sho...

  6. Collection and preservation of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) semen.

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    Saragusty, J; Hildebrandt, T B; Bouts, T; Göritz, F; Hermes, R

    2010-09-01

    Knowledge about the reproduction of the endangered pygmy hippopotamus is almost non-existent. This study takes the first step toward changing this by devising a protocol for the collection, evaluation, and short-term preservation of semen of this endangered species. Semen was collected successfully from seven bulls by electroejaculation, using a specially designed rectal probe. Mean +/- SEM values of native sperm parameters from combined best fractions were: motility-80.0 +/- 4.1%, concentration-2421 +/- 1530 x 10(6) cells/mL, total collected cell number-759 +/- 261 x 10(6) cells, intact acrosome-87.8 +/- 1.2%, intact morphology-52.7 +/- 4.3%, and, for some, hypoosmotic swelling test-79.3 +/- 4.4% and seminal plasma osmolarity-297.5 +/- 3.3 mOsm. Seven different extenders were tested for sperm storage under chilling conditions: Berliner Cryomedium (BC), Biladyl, modification of Kenney modified Tyrode's medium (KMT), MES medium, Androhep((R)), boar M III() extender and Human Sperm Refrigeration Medium. While differences between males were apparent, the BC was consistently superior to all other extenders in sperm motility and facilitated storage for 7 d with up to 30% motility and some motility even after 3 weeks. With this knowledge in hand, the obvious two directions for future research are to conduct artificial insemination and to develop a technique for sperm cryopreservation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

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    G. S. Meena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%, KMnO4 (0.02% and savlon (2.0% to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at −196°C semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM, non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST, total plate count (TPC and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation.

  8. A comparative study of boar semen extenders with different proposed preservation times and their effect on semen quality and fertility

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    Marina Anastasia Karageorgiou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the quality characteristics of boar semen diluted with three extenders of different proposed preservation times (short-term, medium-term and long-term. A part of extended semen was used for artificial insemination on the farm (30 sows/extender, while the remaining part was stored for three days (16–18 °C. Stored and used semen was also laboratory assessed at insemination time, on days 1 and 2 after the collection (day 0. The long-term extender was used for a short time, within 2 days from semen collection, with the aim to investigate a possible advantage over the others regarding laboratory or farm fertility indicators at the beginning of the preservation time. Viability, motility, kinetic indicators, morphology and DNA fragmentation were estimated. The results showed reduced viability, higher values for most of the kinetics, and higher immotile spermatozoa from day 1 to day 2 in all extenders; however, the long-term extender was superior compared to the other two on both days. With regard to morphology and chromatin integrity, the percentage of abnormal and fragmented spermatozoa increased on day 2 compared to day 1 for all of the extenders. However, based on the farrowing rate and the number of piglets born alive after the application of conventional artificial insemination within 2 days from semen collection/dilution, it was found that the medium-term diluents were more effective. In conclusion, it seems that the in vivo fertilization process involves more factors than simply the quality of laboratory evaluated sperm indicators, warranting further research.

  9. The Effect of Phyto-Lecithin on Preservation and Cryopreservation of Semen: A Review

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    AS Aku

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial insemination represents one of technologies in livestock reproduction that can be applied to cattle, sheep, goats and other livestock. Application of livestock reproduction technology includes artificial insemination to increase reproductive efficiency. Semen processing is one critical phase in an artificial insemination program. The use of animal origin ingredient for semen extenders, such as egg yolk and milk, presents a risk of microbial contamination, which lead to the search for alternatives. To increase standard of quality, researchers exploits phyto-lesitin for semen extender and the results showed no significant differences in motility, viability, and acrosomal status of spermatozoa with phyto-lesitin extender when compared to tris-egg yolk-containing extenders. (Animal Production 9(1: 49-52 (2007 Key Words : Phyto-Lechitin, preservation, cryopreservation, semen

  10. Dose rates of antimicrobial substances in boar semen preservation-time to establish new protocols.

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    Schulze, M; Grobbel, M; Riesenbeck, A; Brüning, S; Schaefer, J; Jung, M; Grossfeld, R

    2017-06-01

    To achieve a standardized number of spermatozoa in the final AI dose, varying amounts of extender fluid with a fixed concentration of antimicrobial substances are currently added to boar ejaculates. This practice ignores the different degrees of dilution of the antimicrobials in the end product. In calculating the final concentration of gentamicin in AI doses from 27,538 processed boar ejaculates, we demonstrated varying gentamicin concentrations in the resultant extended boar semen samples. The median concentration was 220.37 mg/L. In 25 of the samples (0.09%), the gentamicin concentration fell below 5 mg/L, which is close to or below the epidemiological cut-off value for many bacteria. We calculated the minimum inhibitory concentration of gentamicin for bacteria isolated from raw and extended ejaculates. Five of the isolates from extended ejaculates exceeded the maximum test concentration of 512 mg/L. As a result, we are presenting an alternative method of boar semen preservation whereby a particular combination of gentamicin concentrate and antibiotic-free extender is incorporated that standardizes the antibiotic concentration in the diluted semen. The addition of standardized antibiotic concentrations did not negatively affect sperm quality when compared to the use of ready-to-use extenders. In conclusion, an end volume-based and standardized addition of gentamicin to boar ejaculates can be a helpful alternative to prevent insufficient dosage of antibiotics in liquid preserved boar semen without affecting semen quality. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. When to ask male adolescents to provide semen sample for fertility preservation?

    OpenAIRE

    Dabaja, Ali A.; Wosnitzer, Matthew S.; Bolyakov, Alexander; Schlegel, Peter N.; Paduch, Darius A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fertility preservation in adolescents undergoing sterilizing radiation and/or chemotherapy is the standard of care in oncology. The opportunity for patients to provide a semen sample by ejaculation is a critical issue in adolescent fertility preservation. Methods Fifty males with no medical or sexual developmental abnormalities were evaluated. The subjects were screened for evidence of orgasmic, erectile, and ejaculatory dysfunction. A detailed sexual development history was obtain...

  12. Preservation of tomcat (Felis catus) semen in variable temperatures.

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    Siemieniuch, Marta; Dubiel, Andrzej

    2007-05-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate the viability of cat epididymal sperm in short time storage at +4 degrees C and in long term storage at -196 degrees C and to assess the percentage of live sperm in fresh semen using eosin/nigrosin staining compared to the flow cytometry method. The testes with epididymides were obtained after routine castration procedure. The sperm for further research were collected after flushing the epididymides using extender consist of: Tris 2.4 g, citric acid 1.4 g, glucose 0.8 g, 0.06% (w/v) Na-benzylpenicillin, 0.1% (w/v) streptomycin sulphate and distilled water. Half of each sample was equilibrated with the dilution and loaded in 0.25 ml plastic straws. The straws were placed on a rack in liquid nitrogen vapour at -120 degrees C for 10 min, plunged in liquid nitrogen for 10 min, replaced to marked goblets and loaded into canes for long term storage in liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C. Sixty percent of motile spermatozoa was accomplished after thawing. However, the percentage of the sperm with intact acrosomes was decreased and the share of cells with midpiece and tail defects was increased. The storage of sperm flushed from epididymides at +4 degrees C for a short time and the usage of sperm during 2-3 days after collection seems to be better than cryopreservation. In our study, normospermia was present in 72.7 +/- 8.8% of fresh semen. The most common defect was the presence of distal droplets, imperfect heads or abnormal acrosomal outline. The motility of fresh sperm flushed from epididymides achieved 77.9 +/- 6.8%. The viability of sperm amounting to 52.5 +/- 13.8% was achieved on third day of conservation in the liquid extender. The percentage of viable sperm in fresh epididymal spermatozoa was 84.9 +/- 7.8%. Compared to these results, the percentage of live cells using SYBR-14/propidium iodide staining was insignificantly lower (82.2 +/- 8%). The live, non-apoptotic cells were 79.0 +/- 7.8%. The share of live, early

  13. Cationic synthetic peptides: assessment of their antimicrobial potency in liquid preserved boar semen.

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    Stephanie Speck

    Full Text Available Various semen extender formulas are in use to maintain sperm longevity and quality whilst acting against bacterial contamination in liquid sperm preservation. Aminoglycosides are commonly supplemented to aid in the control of bacteria. As bacterial resistance is increasing worldwide, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs received lively interest as alternatives to overcome multi-drug resistant bacteria. We investigated, whether synthetic cationic AMPs might be a suitable alternative for conventional antibiotics in liquid boar sperm preservation. The antibacterial activity of two cyclic AMPs (c-WWW, c-WFW and a helical magainin II amide analog (MK5E was studied in vitro against two Gram-positive and eleven Gram-negative bacteria. Isolates included ATCC reference strains, multi-resistant E. coli and bacteria cultured from boar semen. Using broth microdilution, minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for all AMPs. All AMPs revealed activity towards the majority of bacteria but not against Proteus spp. (all AMPs and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (MK5E. We could also demonstrate that c-WWW and c-WFW were effective against bacterial growth in liquid preserved boar semen in situ, especially when combined with a small amount of gentamicin. Our results suggest that albeit not offering a complete alternative to traditional antibiotics, the use of AMPs offers a promising solution to decrease the use of conventional antibiotics and thereby limit the selection of multi-resistant strains.

  14. Cationic Synthetic Peptides: Assessment of Their Antimicrobial Potency in Liquid Preserved Boar Semen

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    Speck, Stephanie; Courtiol, Alexandre; Junkes, Christof; Dathe, Margitta; Müller, Karin; Schulze, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Various semen extender formulas are in use to maintain sperm longevity and quality whilst acting against bacterial contamination in liquid sperm preservation. Aminoglycosides are commonly supplemented to aid in the control of bacteria. As bacterial resistance is increasing worldwide, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) received lively interest as alternatives to overcome multi-drug resistant bacteria. We investigated, whether synthetic cationic AMPs might be a suitable alternative for conventional antibiotics in liquid boar sperm preservation. The antibacterial activity of two cyclic AMPs (c-WWW, c-WFW) and a helical magainin II amide analog (MK5E) was studied in vitro against two Gram-positive and eleven Gram-negative bacteria. Isolates included ATCC reference strains, multi-resistant E. coli and bacteria cultured from boar semen. Using broth microdilution, minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for all AMPs. All AMPs revealed activity towards the majority of bacteria but not against Proteus spp. (all AMPs) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (MK5E). We could also demonstrate that c-WWW and c-WFW were effective against bacterial growth in liquid preserved boar semen in situ, especially when combined with a small amount of gentamicin. Our results suggest that albeit not offering a complete alternative to traditional antibiotics, the use of AMPs offers a promising solution to decrease the use of conventional antibiotics and thereby limit the selection of multi-resistant strains. PMID:25148109

  15. Current status of semen preservation in the ram, boar and stallion.

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    Graham, E F; Crabo, B G; Pace, M M

    1978-01-01

    From the studies cited it was concluded that short and long term preservation of stallion semen has encountered major obstacles. Fertilizing capacity of extended or extended and cooled spermatozoa has been impaired. With the hydrogen ion extenders, the fertility was depressed either with or without glycerol when the semen was inseminated immediately after extension. With the cream-gel extender, fertility was not impaired when inseminated immediately after extension, but was impaired after storage at 5 C for 24 hr or in the presence of glycerol. The fertilizing capacity of extended frozen spermatozoa particularly from some stallions has been more adversely affected than that of others. These studies show that the pregnancy rate range was from 50 to 80% for raw semen from the same stallion used in the frozen studies. Pregnancy rate with this magnitude of difference must be carefully weighed in applying the results from a few stallions to the population. Sufficient information has been generated to suggest that the preservation of stallion spermatozoa is possible but the fertilizing capacity is impaired. Causes of this impairment must be further investigated. When this is accomplished, the number of motile spermatozoa needed per insemination and the frequency of insemination required for optimal fertilization reported in this review must then be reevaluated.

  16. Oxidoreductive capability of boar sperm mitochondria in fresh semen and during their preservation in BTS extender.

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    Gaczarzewicz, Dariusz; Piasecka, Małgorzata; Udała, Jan; Błaszczyk, Barbara; Laszczyńska, Maria; Kram, Andrzej

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of dilution and liquid-preservation of boar sperm on oxidoreductive capability of their mitochondria. The semen was diluted with BTS extender produced from water purified by destillation or by reverse osmosis. The spermatozoa were stored over a four-day period at 16-18 degrees C. The function of sperm mitochondria was assessed using the screening cytochemical test for NADH-dependent oxidoreductases (diaphorase/NADH, related to flavoprotein). Morphological assessment of cytochemical reaction was carried out using a light microscope. The intensity of the reaction was evaluated by means of a computer image analysing system (Quantimet 600S), measuring the integrated optical density (IOD) and mean optical density (MOD) of the reaction product (formazans) occurring in the sperm midpieces. In the non-diluted semen, intensive cytochemical reaction throughout the length of the sperm midpiece was observed. Furthermore, spermatozoa with the intensive reaction displayed the high optical density values. After dilution the semen with two variants of experimental extender, and as the conservation time expired, the cytochemical reaction was less intensive. Moreover, the absence of formazan deposits in various parts of the sperm midpiece was also noted. These morphological features corresponded to low values of optical density. These findings suggest that the dilution of semen and the time of sperm preservation may be critical factors that handicap energy metabolism of sperm mitochondria. The type of water used in preparing BTS extender does not have any significant effect on the oxidoreductive capability of sperm boar mitochondria.

  17. Comparison of different extenders on the preservability of rabbit semen stored at 5°C for 72 hours

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    Michele Di Iorio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to compare Cortalap® extender with tris-citric acid-glucose (TCG, Lepus® and Merk III®, to assess the in vitro preservability of rabbit spermatozoa stored for 72 h at 5°C. The best extender identified in vitro was then compared with fresh semen to determine fertility and prolificacy rates in vivo. Eight semen pools were split into four subsamples and each of them was diluted to a ratio of 1:10 (volume:volume with four different extenders (Lepus®, Cortalap®, TCG and Merk III® and stored at 5°C for 72 h. Sperm motility, viability, sperm membrane and acrosome integrity were evaluated in both fresh and chilled semen at 4, 24, 48 and 72 h of storage. The results showed that Cortalap® was the best extender to preserve the quality of rabbit semen in vitro over 72 h in comparison with the other extenders (P<0.05. Then, Cortalap® was used for an artificial insemination (AI trial to be compared with fresh semen. Two groups of does (n=30 each were inseminated with fresh and chilled semen. The fertility and prolificacy rates for the does inseminated with chilled semen were significantly lower compared with those inseminated with fresh semen (P<0.05. In conclusion, although Cortalap® proved to be the best extender to preserve semen quality in vitro after 72 h at 5°C, the in vivo results showed that its use is not recommended in AI programmes.

  18. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen.

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    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-08-21

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H2O2 level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Coenzyme Q10 and soyphosphatidylcholine in EK extender on preservation of Rhode Island Red poultry semen

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    Amit Kumar Nath

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of EK extender alone or incorporation with CoenzymeQ10 (CoQ10 and/or soyphosphatidylcholine (SPC in poultry semen and their effects on seminal traits during temporal storage at 4⁰C for different time intervals (12 h, 24 h, and 36 h. Heterospermic pooled semen samples diluted (1:4 with EK, EK + SPC, EK+ CoQ10 and EK + SPC + CoQ10 extenders separately, preserved and different spermiogram were assessed. Various seminal traits within the same extender differ significantly (p<0.05 among different groups and with different time intervals of storage. CoQ10 and SPC in the EK extender exhibited favorable synergistic effect on sperm quality and were able to protect the male gametes against cold-stress up to 36h at 4⁰C. In this study, we concluded that incorporation of SPC and CoQ10 together in EK extender possess novel potentiality to maintain seminal quality during liquid storage of poultry semen at 4⁰C and for their safe transportation and further use for Artificial Reproductive technologies (ARTs.

  20. TRIXcell+, a new long-term boar semen extender containing whey protein with higher preservation capacity and litter size

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    B.M. van den Berg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was the aim of the present study to test whey as protective protein for the sperm cell in the long-term boar semen preservation medium TRIXcell. Analyses of sperm cell motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA indicated that the whey protein Porex has a similar protective effect as bovine serum albumin (BSA in maintaining viability of stored boar sperm. Boar sperm diluted in TRIXcell+ maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60% for 10 days, while swine sperm diluted in the semen preservation medium Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60% for 3-5 days for most boars. To test the on-farm fertility performance of TRIXcell+ compared to BTS, inseminations were started on 35 commercial pig production farms in the summer of 2006. During the period of July 2006 until July 2012 for each farm and each calendar year the mean farrowing rate and litter size for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and stored for 3-5 days was found higher than that of semen stored for 1-2 days in BTS. Based on data gained from a total of 583.749 sows inseminated through the years 2006-2012, the mean farrowing rate for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 90.4 ± 4.0 and 87.9 ± 3.6, respectively, which is not significantly different. Based on the same data, the mean total number of piglets born alive for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 14.2 ± 0.7 and 13.6 ± 0.6, respectively, which is significantly different. We conclude that whey protein can effectively be used in the long-term preservation medium TRIXcell resulting in a higher litter size.

  1. TRIXcell+, a new long-term boar semen extender containing whey protein with higher preservation capacity and litter size

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    van den Berg, B.M.; Reesink, J.; Reesink, W.

    2014-01-01

    It was the aim of the present study to test whey as protective protein for the sperm cell in the long-term boar semen preservation medium TRIXcell. Analyses of sperm cell motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) indicated that the whey protein Porex has a similar protective effect as bovine serum albumin (BSA) in maintaining viability of stored boar sperm. Boar sperm diluted in TRIXcell+ maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60%) for 10 days, while swine sperm diluted in the semen preservation medium Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60%) for 3-5 days for most boars. To test the on-farm fertility performance of TRIXcell+ compared to BTS, inseminations were started on 35 commercial pig production farms in the summer of 2006. During the period of July 2006 until July 2012 for each farm and each calendar year the mean farrowing rate and litter size for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and stored for 3-5 days was found higher than that of semen stored for 1-2 days in BTS. Based on data gained from a total of 583.749 sows inseminated through the years 2006-2012, the mean farrowing rate for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 90.4 ± 4.0 and 87.9 ± 3.6, respectively, which is not significantly different. Based on the same data, the mean total number of piglets born alive for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 14.2 ± 0.7 and 13.6 ± 0.6, respectively, which is significantly different. We conclude that whey protein can effectively be used in the long-term preservation medium TRIXcell resulting in a higher litter size. PMID:26623335

  2. Superoxide Dismutase: A Predicting Factor for Boar Semen Characteristics for Short-Term Preservation

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    Nemec Svete, Alenka

    2014-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in seminal plasma were evaluated on the basis of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis as predictors for distinguishing satisfactory from unsatisfactory boar semen samples after storage. SOD on day 0 correlated significantly with progressive motility (r = −0.686; P Semen samples that, after 3 days of storage, fulfilled all criteria for semen characteristics (viability > 85%, motility > 70%, progressive motility > 25%, and normal morphology > 50%) had significantly lower SOD levels on the day 0 than those with at least one criterion not fulfilled (P semen will suit the requirements for satisfactory semen characteristics after storage, while semen with SOD levels higher than 1.05 U/mL will not fulfill with 100% accuracy at least one semen characteristic after storage. These results support the proposal that SOD in fresh boar semen can be used as a predictor of semen quality after storage. PMID:24729963

  3. When to ask male adolescents to provide semen sample for fertility preservation?

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    Dabaja, Ali A; Wosnitzer, Matthew S; Bolyakov, Alexander; Schlegel, Peter N; Paduch, Darius A

    2014-03-01

    Fertility preservation in adolescents undergoing sterilizing radiation and/or chemotherapy is the standard of care in oncology. The opportunity for patients to provide a semen sample by ejaculation is a critical issue in adolescent fertility preservation. Fifty males with no medical or sexual developmental abnormalities were evaluated. The subjects were screened for evidence of orgasmic, erectile, and ejaculatory dysfunction. A detailed sexual development history was obtained under an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. Fifty males, aged 18-65 years (mean 39±16.03 years) volunteered to be part of this study. The mean reported age for the onset of puberty was 12.39 years (95% CI, 11.99-12.80 years), 13.59 years (95% CI, 13.05-14.12 years) for the first ejaculation, 12.56 years (95% CI, 11.80-13.32 years) for the start of masturbation, and 17.26 years (95% CI, 16.18-18.33 years) for the first experienced intercourse. Seventy-five percent of the cohort reached puberty by the age of 13.33, experienced masturbation by 14.5, first ejaculated by the age of 14.83, and had intercourse at age of 19.15 years. The first experienced ejaculation fell 1.5 years after the onset of puberty in 80% present of the cohort, and 84% starts masturbation 1.5 years after the onset of puberty. The mean response between the younger and the older subject was not statistical significance. It is appropriate to consider a request for semen specimens by masturbation from teenagers at one year and six months after the onset of puberty; the onset age of puberty plus 1.5 years is an important predictor of ejaculation and sample collection for cryopreservation.

  4. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun, E-mail: parkck@kangwon.ac.kr

    2015-08-21

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level were significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. - Highlights: • Magnetized water is water that has been passed through a magnetic field. • Magnetized extender improve viability and decrease oxidative stress of boar sperm for preservation. • Ejaculated semen diluted with magnetized extender can improve liquid preservation period.

  5. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-01-01

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H 2 O 2 level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H 2 O 2 level were significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. - Highlights: • Magnetized water is water that has been passed through a magnetic field. • Magnetized extender improve viability and decrease oxidative stress of boar sperm for preservation. • Ejaculated semen diluted with magnetized extender can improve liquid preservation period

  6. Bacterial Contamination of Boar Semen and its Relationship to Sperm Quality Preserved in Commercial Extender Containing Gentamicin Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gączarzewicz, D; Udała, J; Piasecka, M; Błaszczyk, B; Stankiewicz, T

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the degree and type of bacterial contamination in boar semen (79 ejaculates from Large White and Landrace boars) and its consequences for sperm quality during storage (27 extended semen samples, 16°C for five days) under practical conditions of artificial insemination (AI). The results revealed the presence of aerobic bacteria in 99% of the ejaculates (from 80 to 370 ×106 colony-forming units/mL). Most of the ejaculates contained two or three bacterial contaminants, while the Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas bacterial genera were most frequently isolated. Also detected were Enterobacter spp., Bacillus spp., Proteus spp., Escherichia coli, P. fluorescens, and P. aeruginosa. In general, the growth of certain bacterial types isolated prior to semen processing (Enterobacter spp., E. coli, P. fluorescens, and P. aeruginosa) was not discovered on different days of storage, but fluctuations (with a tendency towards increases) were found in the frequencies of Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Staphylococcus spp. isolates up to the end of storage. Semen preserved for five days exhibited decreases in sperm motility and increases in the average number of total aerobic bacteria; this was associated with sperm agglutination, plasma membrane disruption, and acrosome damage. We inferred that, due to the different degrees and types of bacterial contaminants in the boar ejaculates, the inhibitory activity of some antimicrobial agents used in swine extenders (such as gentamicin sulfate) may be limited. Because such agents can contribute to the overgrowth of certain aerobic bacteria and a reduction in the quality of stored semen, procedures with high standards of hygiene and microbiological control should be used when processing boar semen.

  7. Effect of split ejaculation and seminal extenders on longevity of donkey semen preserved at 5° C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello S.L.V.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the longevity of donkey sperm comparing the rich seminal fraction and the whole semen in two extenders, Kenney and modified Baken extenders. Semen of five donkeys were collected through an open-end artificial vagina once a week for five consecutive weeks. The two first jets (rich fraction of semen were collected separately from the rest of the ejaculate. Whole semen samples were obtained mixing proportionally part of the rich with part of the poor seminal fractions. Seminal samples were immediately diluted 1:1 in each extender and maintained at room temperature during sperm concentration analysis. Samples were further diluted to rich 50×10(6 sperm per ml, cooled in a refrigerator at the initial rate of -0.6° C/min and preserved at 5° C. Total motility (TM, progressive motility (PM and sperm vigor (V were examined after final dilution and cooling, and every 24 hours up to the decrease of total motility under 10%. Sperm morphology was evaluated using a phase contrast microscope directly after dilution, on days 3, 6 and 9 post collection. It was used a 2×2 factorial design in a randomised bloc experiment, and means were compared by Student?s t test. Longevity did not vary between the rich seminal fraction and the whole semen for both extenders used. TM, PM, V and sperm morphology were better preserved in the extender with egg yolk (modified Baken extender than in the one with skimmed milk (Kenney in both seminal fractions.

  8. Assessing in vivo fertilizing capacity of liquid-preserved boar semen according to the 'Hanover gilt model'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardón, F; Döhring, A; Le Thi, X; Weitze, K F; Waberski, D

    2003-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the ability of the Hanover gilt model to assess in vivo fertilizing capacity of preserved sperm and to consider whether any modifications to this model were needed. This model evaluates the fertilizing capacity of semen based on the fertilization rate, the rate of normal embryos and the accessory sperm count of 3-5-day embryos. Its distinguishing characteristics are the use of one-time insemination of sperm in reduced numbers, of spontaneously ovulating gilts and of ovulation detection through ultrasound examination of ovaries. Reduced sperm numbers allow for an accurate evaluation of the fertilizing potential of different semen treatments, thereby avoiding the compensatory effect of doses calibrated to maximize fertility. The model's usefulness was assessed in a trial run designed to compare the fertilizing capacity of liquid boar semen diluted into two different extenders. The diluent, the boar and the backflow, had no significant effect on any of the parameters studied. Gilts inseminated less than 24 h before ovulation had a significantly higher (p semen), while using relatively few gilts and little time.

  9. Soybean lecithin-based extender preserves spermatozoa membrane integrity and fertilizing potential during goat semen cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelucci, Sara; Pasciu, Valeria; Succu, Sara; Addis, Daniela; Leoni, Giovanni G; Manca, Maria E; Naitana, Salvatore; Berlinguer, Fiammetta

    2015-04-01

    Soybean lecithin may represent a suitable alternative to egg yolk for semen cryopreservation in livestock species. However, additional studies are needed to elucidate its effects on spermatozoa functional properties. Semen collected from five Sarda bucks was cryopreserved in Tris-based extender and glycerol (4% v:v) with different supplementations. In a preliminary experiment, different soybean lecithin concentrations were tested (1%-6% wt/vol) and results in terms of viability, percentages of progressive motile and rapid spermatozoa, and DNA integrity after thawing showed that the most effective concentration was 1%. In the second experiment, semen was frozen in a Tris-based extender with no supplementation (EXT), with 1% lecithin (EXT LC), and 20% egg yolk (EXT EY). The effectiveness of these extenders was also compared with a commercial extender. The EXT EY led to the highest viability and motility parameters after freezing and thawing (P lecithin can be considered as a suitable alternative to egg yolk in goat semen cryopreservation, because it ensures higher fertilization rates and a better protection from membrane damage by cold shock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Boar Semen Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G. J.; Macpherson, J. W.

    1966-01-01

    A successful method for low temperature preservation of bull semen was modified for use with boar semen. Observations were made on the effects of varying cooling rate, equilibration time, freezing rate, glycerol concentration, method of glycerol addition, packaging containers, extender pH and tonicity. Observations indicate that boar semen should be cooled and frozen at a slower rate than bull semen. Within the ranges or methods examined, the other factors had little effect on recovery of motility after freezing. PMID:4226548

  11. Preservasi Semen Kambing Peranakan Etawa dalam Pengencer Tris dan Sitrat Kuning Telur dengan Penambahan Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (THE PRESERVATION OF ETTAWA GRADE BUCK SEMEN IN TRIS AND CITRATE EGG YOLK DILUENTS SUPPLEMENTED WITH SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determineSDS concentration also to compare Tris egg yolk and citrateegg yolk on the quality of ettawa grade chilled semen. The study consist of two experiments. The firstexperiment was to determine the best SDS concentration in Tris egg yolk diluents and the second experimentwas to compare the SDS suplementation in tris and citrate egg yolk in the quality of ettawa grade chilledsemen. The semen were collected from three bucks, immediately after collection the semen evalutedmacro and microscopycally. Semen demonstrate more than 70% motility and less than 10% spermatozoaabnormality, individually divided into four tube, each tube was diluted in egg yolk supplemented with 0;0,025; 0,05; and 0.075% SDS then stored at 5°C for 72 hours. The quality of chilled semen was observefor motility and viability every 12 hours. Result demonstrated that 0.05% SDS was the best concentrationcompared to others. In the second experiment,the semen were diluted in four different diluents, it wereTris egg yolk (TEY, Tris egg yolk with 0.05% SDS (TEYS, citrate egg yolk (CEY and citrate egg yolk with0.05% SDS (CEYS. Result demonstrated that the mean value of motility and viability of spermatozoa inTEYSdiluents (67.08 ± 6.43% and77.07 ± 6.78% was higher (p<0.05 than CEYS (60.42 ± 9.05% and72.31± 7.45%, TEY (59.23 ± 9.41% and71.21 ± 8.56% and CEY (53.45 ± 11.33% and67.74 ± 8.90%. In conclusion,supplementation of 0.05% SDS in TEY was maintained best sperm quality compared to other diluentsduring preservation.

  12. Advances in Stallion Semen Cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio; Papa, Frederico Ozanam; Ramires Neto, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    The use of stallion frozen semen minimizes the spread of disease, eliminates geographic barriers, and preserves the genetic material of the animal for an unlimited time. Significant progress on the frozen thawed stallion semen process and consequently fertility has been achieved over the last decade. These improvements not only increased fertility rates but also allowed cryopreservation of semen from "poor freezers." This article reviews traditional steps and new strategies for stallion semen handling and processing that are performed to overcome the deleterious effects of semen preservation and consequently improve frozen semen quality and fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of electronic orders. 1305.27 Section... II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.27 Preservation of electronic orders. (a) A... two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must be...

  14. Preservation of Electronic Scholarly Publishing: An Analysis of Three Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Sadie L.

    2005-01-01

    Scholars publish in journals to preserve their work and to make sure that it is available for current and future researchers. More and more of this publishing is done in electronic format. Libraries, the institutions that have traditionally overseen the preservation of print publications, are now struggling with the preservation of digital…

  15. Semen analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... analysis URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003627.htm Semen analysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Semen analysis measures the amount and quality of a man's semen and sperm. Semen is ...

  16. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  17. Supplemental effect of different levels of taurine in Modena on boar semen quality during liquid preservation at 17°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Fang, Qian; Liu, Qi; Du, Ren-Rang; Yang, Gong-She; Wang, Li-Qiang; Hu, Jian-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Peroxidation damage induces sublethal injury to boar sperm during the storage process. Taurine has already been demonstrated to protect cells effectively from oxidant-induced injury. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of taurine (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mmol/L) in Modena diluent on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C. Ejaculates from sexually mature Duroc pigs were collected, pooled and preserved in the Modena containing different concentrations of taurine. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) activity and malondialdehyde content (MDA) were examined every 24 h. Modena diluent containing taurine suppressed the reduction in sperm qualities during the process of liquid preservation compared with those of the control group. After 5 days of liquid preservation, the addition of taurine at 5 mmol/L had the optimal effect on survival time as well as maintenance of motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, T-AOC activity and MDA content. These results may suggest the possibility that the proper addition of taurine to the semen extender improves the swine production system using artificial insemination by the suppressing of sperm damage and subsequent dysfunction during liquid preservation. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  19. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy discloses differences in dehydration of frozen boar semen stored in large containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwall, H

    2009-02-01

    In general, freezing in flat plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bags (FlatPacks) at 50 degrees C/min gives better post-thaw viability, in terms of sperm motility and membrane integrity, than does freezing in plastic maxi-straws, probably owing to differences in cryobiology. To test the hypothesis that this better survival post-thaw relates to the degree of sperm dehydration during freezing, the present study investigated the structure of boar semen in a frozen state using cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) to compare two different packages (FlatPacks and maxi-straws) for single artificial insemination (AI) doses, and three different freezing rates. The semen was split-sample frozen in maxi-straws or FlatPacks (both holding 5 ml) using 3% glycerol as cryoprotectant. Three freezing rates were applied from -5 degrees C to -100 degrees C, namely 2 degrees C/min, 50 degrees C/min and 1200 degrees C/min, the lattermost by plunging the samples into liquid nitrogen (LN(2)). The samples were thereafter fractured into LN(2) and larger areas of extra-cellular, unbound frozen water ('ice lakes') were measured to determine the degree of dehydration of the spermatozoa. These areas decreased in size with an increase in cooling rate, the differences in size being more dramatic for maxi-straws than for FlatPacks. Size of ice lakes was also influenced by location within package in relation to cooling rate, the central values being always smaller in maxi-straws than in Flatpacks (p < 0.05 at 2 degrees C/min and 50 degrees C/min) but not at 1200 degrees C/min, which suggested the FlatPack allows for more homogenous freezing of boar semen.

  20. Progress of electron processing system useful for environmental preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Yasuhisa

    1998-01-01

    Electron Processing has been used in the field of industrial application, mainly to process plastics or polymers, which is represented by the cross-linking of Polyethylene to improve heat resistance. On the other hand, there has been many research studies to use Electron Beam for an environmental preservation. Typical examples are Sterilization of Food, Flue Gas Treatment, Sterilization of Waste Water Sludge, Purification of Water, Removal of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC), etc. These research works have been done in the USA, Germany, Austria, Japan, etc. They reported some of the features of electron beam method. In addition, there is an unique report that the combination of Ozone and Electron Beam provides a better efficiency of the purification of the water. Recently, they have started the investigation for the practical use of Electron Beam in the environmental application. Flue gas treatment is a remarkable example of the investigation. They built the demonstration plant last year and they started the operation last fall. Presently, the system is in a demonstrative operation. This paper will report an outline of the R and D works of environmental applications of Electron Beam and also will introduce the latest technologies of Electron Processing Systems which will be available for the environmental preservation. (author)

  1. Preservation effect of high energy electron beam on kyoho grape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiufeng; Chen Zhaoliang; Qiao Yongjin; Wang Haihong; Qiao Xuguang

    2010-01-01

    The Kyoho grapes were kept in cold storage of-0.5 degree C ∼ 0.5 degree C, RH 85% ∼ 95% after irradiation of 400, 700, 1000, 1500, 2500 Gy and SO 2 treatment, and the antiseptic effect and storage quality were studied. The result showed that high energy electron beam could control the growth of bacteria, mould, yeast, coliform, alleviate the deterioration of grapes during storage. Irradiation below the dose 1000 Gy can decrease the respiration intensity, prevent the decreasing of titratable acid, ascorbic acid content, and keep higher activity of SOD enzyme. The Vc content was 3.79 mg /100 g after 700 Gy irradiation 90 days, the titratable acid and total soluble sugar content were 0.348%, 11.44%, and the activity of SOD was 14.89 U /g, which was higher than the control significantly (P 2 bleaching spot. Integrate the effects on microorganism control and grape quality, treatment of 700 Gy had the best preservation effect in this study. After preserved for 98 d, the good fruit rate of 700 Gy treatment was 93.33% , significantly higher than other treatments (P < 0.05). (authors)

  2. Semen Analysis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sources Ask Us Also Known As Sperm Analysis Sperm Count Seminal Fluid Analysis Formal Name Semen Analysis This ... semen Viscosity—consistency or thickness of the semen Sperm count—total number of sperm Sperm concentration (density)—number ...

  3. Blood in Semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Blood in semen By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood in semen (hematospermia) can be frightening, but the cause of this uncommon condition is usually benign. Typically, blood in semen goes away on its own. If you're ...

  4. A Novel Method for the Discrimination of Semen Arecae and Its Processed Products by Using Computer Vision, Electronic Nose, and Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut, commonly known locally as Semen Arecae (SA in China, has been used as an important Chinese herbal medicine for thousands of years. The raw SA (RAW is commonly processed by stir-baking to yellow (SBY, stir-baking to dark brown (SBD, and stir-baking to carbon dark (SBC for different clinical uses. In our present investigation, intelligent sensory technologies consisting of computer vision (CV, electronic nose (E-nose, and electronic tongue (E-tongue were employed in order to develop a novel and accurate method for discrimination of SA and its processed products. Firstly, the color parameters and electronic sensory responses of E-nose and E-tongue of the samples were determined, respectively. Then, indicative components including 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF and arecoline (ARE were determined by HPLC. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA and discriminant factor analysis (DFA were performed. The results demonstrated that these three instruments can effectively discriminate SA and its processed products. 5-HMF and ARE can reflect the stir-baking degree of SA. Interestingly, the two components showed close correlations to the color parameters and sensory responses of E-nose and E-tongue. In conclusion, this novel method based on CV, E-nose, and E-tongue can be successfully used to discriminate SA and its processed products.

  5. Electron-electron bound states in parity-preserving QED3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belich, H.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas; Cima, O.M. del; Ferreira Junior, M.M.; Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA

    2002-04-01

    By considering the Higgs mechanism in the framework of a parity-preserving Planar Quantum Electrodynamics, one shows that an attractive electron-electron interaction may dominate. The e - e - interaction potential emerges as the non-relativistic limit of the Moeller scattering amplitude and it results attractive with a suitable choice of parameters. Numerically values of the e - e - binding energy are obtained by solving the two-dimensional Schroedinger equation. The existence of bound states is a strong indicative that this model may be adopted to address the pairing mechanism of high-T c superconductivity. (author)

  6. Electron-electron bound states in parity-preserving QED{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Universidade Catolica do Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica]|[Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas; Cima, O.M. del [Universidade Catolica do Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica; Ferreira Junior, M.M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]|[Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2002-04-01

    By considering the Higgs mechanism in the framework of a parity-preserving Planar Quantum Electrodynamics, one shows that an attractive electron-electron interaction may dominate. The e{sup -}e{sup -} interaction potential emerges as the non-relativistic limit of the Moeller scattering amplitude and it results attractive with a suitable choice of parameters. Numerically values of the e{sup -}e{sup -} binding energy are obtained by solving the two-dimensional Schroedinger equation. The existence of bound states is a strong indicative that this model may be adopted to address the pairing mechanism of high-T{sub c} superconductivity. (author)

  7. Rooster Semen Cryopreservation: Effect of Pedigree Line and Male Age on Post-Thaw Sperm Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fertility rates of cryopreserved poultry semen are highly variable and not reliable for use in preservation of commercial genetic stocks. Our objective was to evaluate the cryosurvival of semen from 8 pedigreed layer lines at the onset and end of production. Semen from 160 roosters (20/line) was...

  8. Organizational needs for managing and preserving geospatial data and related electronic records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Downs

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Government agencies and other organizations are required to manage and preserve records that they create and use to facilitate future access and reuse. The increasing use of geospatial data and related electronic records presents new challenges for these organizations, which have relied on traditional practices for managing and preserving records in printed form. This article reports on an investigation of current and future needs for managing and preserving geospatial electronic records on the part of localand state-level organizations in the New York City metropolitan region. It introduces the study and describes organizational needs observed, including needs for organizational coordination and interorganizational cooperation throughout the entire data lifecycle.

  9. Long-term preservation of bacon by high energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannah, K.W.; Simic, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Extra long-term storage of frozen, vacuum packed, cured bacon can be achieved by electronation, using 3 MeV electrons generated by an electron accelerator. A combination process consisting of low nitrite curing (40 ppm), smoking, vacuum packaging in Saran plastic, electronation (1 to 3 Mrad), and freezing (-10 C) allows storage for at least 2 1/2 years without any noticeable loss in quality, e.g. color, appearance, smell, or taste. This process also eliminates microbiological hazards associated with Salmonella and C. botulinum. Six Mrad tons/hour throughput of a 3 MeV 50 kw electron beam accelerator for standard sliced bacon packaging indicates a practical and economic commercial use for this combination process. (author)

  10. Blood in the semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semen - bloody; Blood in ejaculation ... Most of the time, blood in the semen is caused by swelling or infection of the prostate or seminal vesicles. The problem may occur after a prostate biopsy . Blood in the ...

  11. Effect of magnetized extender on sperm membrane integrity and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a magnetized extender on sperm membrane damage and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen. Before semen dilution, extender was flowed through a neodymium magnet (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000G) for 5min and collected semen was preserved for 168h at 18°C. In results, plasma membrane integrity with live sperm was significantly higher in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000G than sperm treated with extenders magnetized at 0G during semen preservation for 120-168h (psemen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000 and 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G during semen preservation for 168h (psemen treated with extenders magnetized at 2000G than other groups during semen preservation for 168h. The ability of semen to achieve successful in vitro fertilization was also not significantly different among the groups during preservation. However, when the semen was preserved for 168h, the blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher at 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G (psemen extender could protect the sperm membrane from damage, and improve the ability of rates of in vitro blastocyst development and magnetized semen diluter is beneficial for long liquid preservation of boar semen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dissemination and preservation of French print and electronic theses

    OpenAIRE

    Paillassard , Pierrette; Schöpfel , Joachim; Stock , Christiane

    2007-01-01

    International audience; How do you discover and locate a French thesis, how do you get hold of a paper copy and how do you access the full text of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDS)? What are the catalogues and databases referencing theses? Where are the archives, and are they open? What is the legal environment that rules the emerging structures and tools? This paper presents the former database for print theses “Téléthèses” that merged with the national academic union catalogue “Sud...

  13. Effects of glucose metabolism pathways on sperm motility and oxidative status during long-term liquid storage of goat semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian-Hua; Li, You-Wei; Xie, Hong-Li; Li, Qing; Dong, Hai-Bo; Sun, Ming-Ju; Gao, Wei-Qiang; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-08-01

    Although great efforts were made to prolong the fertility of liquid-stored semen, limited improvements have been achieved in different species. Although it is expected that energy supply and the redox potential will play an essential role in sperm function, there are few reports on the impact of specific energy substrates on spermatozoa during liquid semen storage. Furthermore, although it is accepted that glucose metabolism through glycolysis provides energy, roles of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and tricarboxylic acid cycle remain to be unequivocally found in spermatozoa. We have studied the pathways by which spermatozoa metabolize glucose during long-term liquid storage of goat semen. The results indicated that among the substrates tested, glucose and pyruvate were better than lactate in maintaining goat sperm motility. Although both glycolysis and PPP were essential, PPP was more important than glycolysis to maintain sperm motility. Pentose phosphate pathway reduced oxidative stress and provided glycolysis with more intermediate products such as fructose-6-phosphate. Pyruvate entered goat spermatozoa through monocarboxylate transporters and was oxidized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle and electron transfer to sustain sperm motility. Long-term liquid semen storage can be used as a good model to study sperm glucose metabolism. The data are important for an optimal control of sperm survival during semen handling and preservation not only in the goat but also in other species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preservation of high resolution protein structure by cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sader, Kasim; Studer, Daniel; Zuber, Benoit; Gnaegi, Helmut; Trinick, John

    2009-01-01

    We have quantitated the degree of structural preservation in cryo-sections of a vitrified biological specimen. Previous studies have used sections of periodic specimens to assess the resolution present, but preservation before sectioning was not assessed and so the damage due particularly to cutting was not clear. In this study large single crystals of lysozyme were vitrified and from these X-ray diffraction patterns extending to better than 2.1 A were obtained. The crystals were high pressure frozen in 30% dextran, and cryo-sectioned using a diamond knife. In the best case, preservation to a resolution of 7.9 A was shown by electron diffraction, the first observation of sub-nanometre structural preservation in a vitreous section.

  15. Cryopreservation of crane semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Harris, James

    1991-01-01

    The method for the cryopreservation of crane semen at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center is described in detail. Cryopreservation is useful for the long-term storage of crane semen and for specialized propagation needs. A 50% fertility rate from most sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis, inseminated with frozen-thawed semen can be expected. Additional research should improve the fertility rate and determine how applicable the technique is to other crane species.

  16. Indian story on semen loss and related Dhat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Kar, Sujit Kumar; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S

    2014-10-01

    India is a country of many religions and ancient cultures. Indian culture is largely directed by the Vedic culture since time immemorial. Later Indian culture is influenced by Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. Indian belief system carries the footprints of these cultures. Every culture describes human behaviors and an interpretation of each human behavior is largely influenced by the core cultural belief system. Sexuality is an important domain which is colored by different cultural colors. Like other cultures, Indian culture believes "semen" as the precious body fluid which needs to be preserved. Most Indian beliefs consider loss of semen as a threat to the individual. Ancient Indian literature present semen loss as a negative health related event. Dhat syndrome (related to semen loss) is a culture-bound syndrome seen in the natives of Indian subcontinent. This article gathers the Indian concepts related to semen loss. It also outlines belief systems behind problems of Dhat syndrome.

  17. Privacy preservation and information security protection for patients' portable electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Chou; Chu, Huei-Chung; Lien, Chung-Yueh; Hsiao, Chia-Hung; Kao, Tsair

    2009-09-01

    As patients face the possibility of copying and keeping their electronic health records (EHRs) through portable storage media, they will encounter new risks to the protection of their private information. In this study, we propose a method to preserve the privacy and security of patients' portable medical records in portable storage media to avoid any inappropriate or unintentional disclosure. Following HIPAA guidelines, the method is designed to protect, recover and verify patient's identifiers in portable EHRs. The results of this study show that our methods are effective in ensuring both information security and privacy preservation for patients through portable storage medium.

  18. The effects of electron beam irradiation on sterilization and preservation of chilled pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yanhong; Mao Duobin; Zhao Dianbo; Zhang Xiaoyan; Li Quanshun; Yang Gongming

    2009-01-01

    S The effects of electron beam irradiation on the sterilization and preservation of chilled pork were studied. The aim of this investigation was to provide academic and technical basis for application of electron beam irradiation on meat industry. The response surface analysis was used with electron beam energy(X 1 ) and dose(X 2 ) as factors and colony form unit(Y) as responses. The results have been shown that the model of sterilization of chilled pork by electron beam irradiation can be expressed Y=3.78-0.24X 1 -0.13X 2 -0.16X 1 X 2 -0.18X 1 2 +0.15X 1 2 (R 2 =0.9755). It has been found there is a interaction between electron beam energy and absorbed doses, and the significance sequence of factors is absorbed dose>interaction> electron beam energy. When absorbed doses are in range from 3.23 kGy to 4.0 kGy and electron beam energy is in range from 2.3 MeV to 3.8 MeV, the colony form unit would drop 2 logarithm units. The shelf life of samples treated with electron beam irradiation is longer by about 12 d than that of control samples when the samples are stored at 4 degree C. When the samples are stored at 7∼10 degree C, shelf life of samples treated with electron beam irradiation is longer by about 9 d than that of control samples. The results showed that electron beam irradiation has the effects of sterilization and preservation on chilled pork. This study has been confirmed that the application of electron beam irradiation is very useful for meat industry. (authors)

  19. Publishing data from electronic health records while preserving privacy: a survey of algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris; Loukides, Grigorios; Sun, Jimeng

    2014-01-01

    The dissemination of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) can be highly beneficial for a range of medical studies, spanning from clinical trials to epidemic control studies, but it must be performed in a way that preserves patients’ privacy. This is not straightforward, because the disseminated data need to be protected against several privacy threats, while remaining useful for subsequent analysis tasks. In this work, we present a survey of algorithms that have been proposed for publishing struc...

  20. An Efficient Electronic English Auction System with a Secure On-Shelf Mechanism and Privacy Preserving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the Internet, electronic commerce has become more and more popular. As an important element of e-commerce, many Internet companies such as Yahoo! and eBay have launched electronic auction systems. However, like most electronic commerce products, safety is an important issue that should be addressed. Many researchers have proposed secure electronic auction mechanisms, but we found that some of them do not exhibit the property of unlinkability, which leads to the leakage of users’ privacy. Considering the importance of privacy preservation, we have designed a new auction mechanism. Through symmetrical key establishment in the registration phase, all messages transmitted over the Internet would be protected and, meanwhile, achieve the property of unlinkability. The security analysis and performance analysis show that our protocol fulfills more security properties and is more efficient for implementation compared with recent works.

  1. Privacy-preserving data cube for electronic medical records: An experimental evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyung; Lee, Hyukki; Chung, Yon Dohn

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of privacy-preserving data cubes of electronic medical records (EMRs). An EMR data cube is a complex of EMR statistics that are summarized or aggregated by all possible combinations of attributes. Data cubes are widely utilized for efficient big data analysis and also have great potential for EMR analysis. For safe data analysis without privacy breaches, we must consider the privacy preservation characteristics of the EMR data cube. In this paper, we introduce a design for a privacy-preserving EMR data cube and the anonymization methods needed to achieve data privacy. We further focus on changes in efficiency and effectiveness that are caused by the anonymization process for privacy preservation. Thus, we experimentally evaluate various types of privacy-preserving EMR data cubes using several practical metrics and discuss the applicability of each anonymization method with consideration for the EMR analysis environment. We construct privacy-preserving EMR data cubes from anonymized EMR datasets. A real EMR dataset and demographic dataset are used for the evaluation. There are a large number of anonymization methods to preserve EMR privacy, and the methods are classified into three categories (i.e., global generalization, local generalization, and bucketization) by anonymization rules. According to this classification, three types of privacy-preserving EMR data cubes were constructed for the evaluation. We perform a comparative analysis by measuring the data size, cell overlap, and information loss of the EMR data cubes. Global generalization considerably reduced the size of the EMR data cube and did not cause the data cube cells to overlap, but incurred a large amount of information loss. Local generalization maintained the data size and generated only moderate information loss, but there were cell overlaps that could decrease the search performance. Bucketization did not cause cells to overlap

  2. Publishing data from electronic health records while preserving privacy: a survey of algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris; Loukides, Grigorios; Sun, Jimeng

    2014-08-01

    The dissemination of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) can be highly beneficial for a range of medical studies, spanning from clinical trials to epidemic control studies, but it must be performed in a way that preserves patients' privacy. This is not straightforward, because the disseminated data need to be protected against several privacy threats, while remaining useful for subsequent analysis tasks. In this work, we present a survey of algorithms that have been proposed for publishing structured patient data, in a privacy-preserving way. We review more than 45 algorithms, derive insights on their operation, and highlight their advantages and disadvantages. We also provide a discussion of some promising directions for future research in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitrification of neat semen alters sperm parameters and DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Adib, Maryam; Halvaei, Iman; Nabi, Ali

    2014-05-06

    Our aim was to evaluate the effect of neat semen vitrification on human sperm vital parameters and DNA integrity in men with normal and abnormal sperm parameters. Semen samples were 17 normozoospermic samples and 17 specimens with abnormal sperm parameters. Semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Then, the smear was provided from each sample and fixed for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Vitrification of neat semen was done by plunging cryoloops directly into liquid nitrogen and preserved for 7 days. The samples were warmed and re-evaluated for sperm parameters as well as DNA integrity. Besides, the correlation between sperm parameters and DNA fragmentation was assessed pre- and post vitrification. Cryopreserved spermatozoa showed significant decrease in sperm motility, viability and normal morphology after thawing in both normal and abnormal semen. Also, the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly higher after vitrification compared to fresh samples in normal (24.76 ± 5.03 and 16.41 ± 4.53, P = .002) and abnormal (34.29 ± 10.02 and 23.5 ± 8.31, P < .0001), respectively. There was negative correlation between sperm motility and sperm DNA integrity in both groups after vitrification. Vitrification of neat ejaculates has negative impact on sperm parameters as well as DNA integrity, particularly among abnormal semen subjects. It is, therefore, recommend to process semen samples and vitrify the sperm pellets.

  4. Motility and fertilizing capacity of boar semen stored in raffia palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... These results portray RPE-2 as a reliable short-term liquid semen storage medium for swine ... allowing to cool to room temperature, aliquots of 15, 10 and 5 ml of .... Effect of ionic strength, ... Preservation of semen: A review.

  5. Addressing preservation of elastic contrast in energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H.G.; D' Alfonso, A.J.; Forbes, B.D.; Allen, L.J., E-mail: lja@unimelb.edu.au

    2016-01-15

    Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) images with resolutions of the order of an Ångström can be obtained using modern microscopes corrected for chromatic aberration. However, the delocalized nature of the transition potentials for atomic ionization often confounds direct interpretation of EFTEM images, leading to what is known as “preservation of elastic contrast”. In this paper we demonstrate how more interpretable images might be obtained by scanning with a focused coherent probe and incoherently averaging the energy-filtered images over probe position. We dub this new imaging technique energy-filtered imaging scanning transmission electron microscopy (EFISTEM). We develop a theoretical framework for EFISTEM and show that it is in fact equivalent to precession EFTEM, where the plane wave illumination is precessed through a range of tilts spanning the same range of angles as the probe forming aperture in EFISTEM. It is demonstrated that EFISTEM delivers similar results to scanning transmission electron microscopy with an electron energy-loss spectrometer but has the advantage that it is immune to coherent aberrations and spatial incoherence of the probe and is also more resilient to scan distortions. - Highlights: • Interpretation of EFTEM images is complicated by preservation of elastic contrast. • More direct images obtained by scanning with a focused coherent probe and averaging. • This is equivalent to precession EFTEM through the solid angle defined by the probe. • Also yields similar results to energy-loss scanning transmission electron microscopy. • Scanning approach immune to probe aberrations and resilient to scan distortions.

  6. PENGARUH PERBEDAAN DURASI APLIKASI KONDISIONER TERHADAP GAMBARAN PENETRASI SEMEN IONOMER KACA PADA DENTIN SULUNG (Evaluasi Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanty Ariany

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether different durations of conditioner application influenced glass ionomer cement penetration in dentin primary teeth. The conditioner being used was 10% polyacrylic acid. Samples in this study were 40 non-carious primary mandibular incisors. Samples were divided into 4 groups (10 samples each: group A, withoud conditioner, group B, with 10 seconds of conditioner application, group C, with 20 seconds of conditioner application, and group D with 30 seconds of conditioner application. Penetration of glass ionomer cement was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM with 200x magnification. One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test showed significant difference between groups. Longer conditioner application resulted in longer glass ionomer penetration in dentin of primary teeth.

  7. Electronic bound states in parity-preserving QED3 applied to high-Tc cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, H.R.; Cima, O.M. Del; Ferreira Junior, M.M.; Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA; Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas

    2001-08-01

    We consider a parity-preserving QED 3 model with spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry as a framework for the evaluation of the electron-electron interaction potential underlying high-T e superconductivity. The fact that resulting potential, - C s K o (Mr), is non-confining and weak (in the sense of Kato) strongly suggests the mechanism of pair-condensation. This potential, compatible with an s-wave order parameters, is then applied to the Schrodinger equation for the sake of numerical calculations, thereby enforcing the existence of bound states. The results worked out by means of our theoretical framework are checked by considering a number of phenomenological data extracted from different copper oxide superconductors. The agreement may motivate a deeper analysis of our model viewing an application to quasi-planar cuprate superconductors. The data analyzed here suggest an energy scale of 1-10 meV for the breaking of the U(1)-symmetry. (author)

  8. A computationally efficient moment-preserving Monte Carlo electron transport method with implementation in Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.A., E-mail: ddixon@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS P365, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Prinja, A.K., E-mail: prinja@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, MSC01 1120, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Franke, B.C., E-mail: bcfrank@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87123 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents the theoretical development and numerical demonstration of a moment-preserving Monte Carlo electron transport method. Foremost, a full implementation of the moment-preserving (MP) method within the Geant4 particle simulation toolkit is demonstrated. Beyond implementation details, it is shown that the MP method is a viable alternative to the condensed history (CH) method for inclusion in current and future generation transport codes through demonstration of the key features of the method including: systematically controllable accuracy, computational efficiency, mathematical robustness, and versatility. A wide variety of results common to electron transport are presented illustrating the key features of the MP method. In particular, it is possible to achieve accuracy that is statistically indistinguishable from analog Monte Carlo, while remaining up to three orders of magnitude more efficient than analog Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, it is shown that the MP method can be generalized to any applicable analog scattering DCS model by extending previous work on the MP method beyond analytical DCSs to the partial-wave (PW) elastic tabulated DCS data.

  9. Comparative study on five different commercial extenders for boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyt, P; Maes, D; Dejonckheere, E; Castryck, F; Van Soom, A

    2004-02-01

    Increasing interest in a longer preservation of diluted boar sperm raises questions in the field concerning the choice of the extender. The aim of this study was to evaluate the longevity of boar sperm extended in currently used commercial semen extenders. Three long-term extenders and two short-term extenders were compared for different semen quality parameters that can be assessed under routine laboratory conditions. Sperm morphology, motility, pH and bacteriological contamination were investigated during a 7-day period. The number of dead spermatozoa did not differ significantly among the extenders (p > 0.05). Sperm motility was not only related with storage period but most of all with pH, especially in long-term extenders. Differences between the different extenders were prominent (p extender showed good motility during the whole test period. In all cases, the pH of the extended semen increased by 0.3-0.5 in the first days of storage and was significantly correlated with a decrease in motility. Bacteriological quality had no significant influence on motility or pH of the semen. In conclusion, we can state that in both short-term extenders and in only one long-term extender, sperm longevity, as evaluated by the parameters used in this study, was sufficient during the preservation period. To preserve the quality of diluted boar semen during long-term storage, the choice of the long-term extender is important. In addition, the monitoring of the pH of extended boar semen in our study emphasizes the importance of the buffering capacity of semen extenders.

  10. Cryopreservation of canine semen - new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farstad, W

    2009-07-01

    Egg yolk (EY) protects cell membranes against cold shock, and it prevents or restores the loss of phospholipids from the membrane. EY has been widely used in semen extenders. It has been added to Tris-Glucose buffer and has been widely used for cooling and cryopreservation of canine semen. EY is not a defined entity, but a complex biological compound containing proteins, vitamins, phospholipids, glucose and antioxidants which are all potentially useful for cell membrane integrity. Unfortunately, it also is a biologically hazardous compound. Hence, whole EY needs to be replaced by other chemically defined components for semen processing in dogs. Freezing poor semen does not improve its quality, so attention must be focused on how to cope with dogs whose semen does not freeze well, and on designing individual freezing extenders for semen from such males. Furthermore, differences have been found among canid species in the ability of their spermatozoa to withstand freezing. There are differences in sperm membrane fatty acid composition among species, which may explain part of these differences. If the presence of long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids contributes to increased membrane fluidity, this relationship may be biphasic, i.e. either too much membrane fluidity, or too little, could compromise successful sperm cryopreservation. An increase in fluidity of the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane has been shown in frozen thawed dog spermatozoa. The protective effect of exogenous lipids may lie in close association with the membrane rather than in modification or rearrangement of the membrane. This also points at lipids as an important, if not entirely new group of substances, which may substitute standard EY-based diluents in preserving sperm survival during freezing. EY-derived phospholipids or lecithin could be used to replace whole EY. Vegetable lecithin is currently investigated to avoid using substances of animal origin. EY also contains antioxidants which

  11. Cryopreservation of mammalian semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa were among the very first cells to be successfully cryopreserved and over the last five decades the use of frozen-thawed semen for artificial insemination has come to play an important role in domestic livestock production. More recently, semen freezing has increasingly been utilized in the establishment of genetic resource banks for endangered species. Semen is collected, most commonly either by use of an artificial vagina or by electroejaculation of an anaesthetized animal, and basic sperm parameters assessed. Semen is extended using a TEST-egg yolk-glycerol diluent, packaged in 0.25-mL plastic straws and slowly cooled to 5 degrees C over a period of 1-2 h. Cooled straws are frozen by suspending within liquid nitrogen vapor above the liquid nitrogen surface before plunging into the liquid phase. Straws are thawed briefly in air before immersing in a 35 degrees C water bath for 15 s, and often are used directly for insemination without any further processing.

  12. Cryopreservation of turkey semen: effect of breeding line and freezing method on post-thaw sperm quality, fertilization, and hatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryopreservation methods for poultry semen are not reliable for germplasm preservation, especially for turkeys, where fertility rates from frozen/thawed semen are particularly low. The objective was to evaluate cryopreservation methods for effectiveness in promoting cryosurvival and post-thaw funct...

  13. Effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides on liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schulze

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are mandatory additives in semen extenders to control bacterial contamination. The worldwide increase in resistance to conventional antibiotics requires the search for alternatives not only for animal artificial insemination industries, but also for veterinary and human medicine. Cationic antimicrobial peptides are of interest as a novel class of antimicrobial additives for boar semen preservation. The present study investigated effects of two synthetic cyclic hexapeptides (c-WFW, c-WWW and a synthetic helical magainin II amide derivative (MK5E on boar sperm during semen storage at 16 °C for 4 days. The standard extender, Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS containing 250 µg/mL gentamicin (standard, was compared to combinations of BTS with each of the peptides in a split-sample procedure. Examination revealed peptide- and concentration-dependent effects on sperm integrity and motility. Negative effects were more pronounced for MK5E than in hexapeptide-supplemented samples. The cyclic hexapeptides were partly able to stimulate a linear progressive sperm movement. When using low concentrations of cyclic hexapeptides (4 µM c-WFW, 2 µM c-WWW sperm quality was comparable to the standard extender over the course of preservation. C-WFW-supplemented boar semen resulted in normal fertility rates after AI. In order to investigate the interaction of peptides with the membrane, electron spin resonance spectroscopic measurements were performed using spin-labeled lipids. C-WWW and c-WFW reversibly immobilized an analog of phosphatidylcholine (PC, whereas MK5E caused an irreversible increase of PC mobility. These results suggest testing the antimicrobial efficiency of non-toxic concentrations of selected cyclic hexapeptides as potential candidates to supplement/replace common antibiotics in semen preservation.

  14. Effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides on liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Martin; Junkes, Christof; Mueller, Peter; Speck, Stephanie; Ruediger, Karin; Dathe, Margitta; Mueller, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are mandatory additives in semen extenders to control bacterial contamination. The worldwide increase in resistance to conventional antibiotics requires the search for alternatives not only for animal artificial insemination industries, but also for veterinary and human medicine. Cationic antimicrobial peptides are of interest as a novel class of antimicrobial additives for boar semen preservation. The present study investigated effects of two synthetic cyclic hexapeptides (c-WFW, c-WWW) and a synthetic helical magainin II amide derivative (MK5E) on boar sperm during semen storage at 16 °C for 4 days. The standard extender, Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) containing 250 µg/mL gentamicin (standard), was compared to combinations of BTS with each of the peptides in a split-sample procedure. Examination revealed peptide- and concentration-dependent effects on sperm integrity and motility. Negative effects were more pronounced for MK5E than in hexapeptide-supplemented samples. The cyclic hexapeptides were partly able to stimulate a linear progressive sperm movement. When using low concentrations of cyclic hexapeptides (4 µM c-WFW, 2 µM c-WWW) sperm quality was comparable to the standard extender over the course of preservation. C-WFW-supplemented boar semen resulted in normal fertility rates after AI. In order to investigate the interaction of peptides with the membrane, electron spin resonance spectroscopic measurements were performed using spin-labeled lipids. C-WWW and c-WFW reversibly immobilized an analog of phosphatidylcholine (PC), whereas MK5E caused an irreversible increase of PC mobility. These results suggest testing the antimicrobial efficiency of non-toxic concentrations of selected cyclic hexapeptides as potential candidates to supplement/replace common antibiotics in semen preservation.

  15. A framework to preserve the privacy of electronic health data streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyung; Sung, Min Kyoung; Chung, Yon Dohn

    2014-08-01

    The anonymization of health data streams is important to protect these data against potential privacy breaches. A large number of research studies aiming at offering privacy in the context of data streams has been recently conducted. However, the techniques that have been proposed in these studies generate a significant delay during the anonymization process, since they concentrate on applying existing privacy models (e.g., k-anonymity and l-diversity) to batches of data extracted from data streams in a period of time. In this paper, we present delay-free anonymization, a framework for preserving the privacy of electronic health data streams. Unlike existing works, our method does not generate an accumulation delay, since input streams are anonymized immediately with counterfeit values. We further devise late validation for increasing the data utility of the anonymization results and managing the counterfeit values. Through experiments, we show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method for the real-time release of data streams. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electronic Health Records: An Enhanced Security Paradigm to Preserve Patient's Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamanig, Daniel; Stingl, Christian

    In recent years, demographic change and increasing treatment costs demand the adoption of more cost efficient, highly qualitative and integrated health care processes. The rapid growth and availability of the Internet facilitate the development of eHealth services and especially of electronic health records (EHRs) which are promising solutions to meet the aforementioned requirements. Considering actual web-based EHR systems, patient-centric and patient moderated approaches are widely deployed. Besides, there is an emerging market of so called personal health record platforms, e.g. Google Health. Both concepts provide a central and web-based access to highly sensitive medical data. Additionally, the fact that these systems may be hosted by not fully trustworthy providers necessitates to thoroughly consider privacy issues. In this paper we define security and privacy objectives that play an important role in context of web-based EHRs. Furthermore, we discuss deployed solutions as well as concepts proposed in the literature with respect to this objectives and point out several weaknesses. Finally, we introduce a system which overcomes the drawbacks of existing solutions by considering an holistic approach to preserve patient's privacy and discuss the applied methods.

  17. Viability and fertility of cooled equine semen diluted with skimmed milk or glycine egg yolk-based extenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Pugliesi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two semen extenders were compared for their ability to maintain viability of horse semen during 24 hours of cold preservation, and for the pregnancy rate after artificial insemination. In the experiment 1, five ejaculates from three stallions were split-diluted in either a skimmed milk-based extender (Kenney extender or a glycine egg yolk-based extender (Foote extender and cooled at 6-8 ºC for 24 hours. Semen samples stored in Kenney extender for 24 hours had higher motility and spermatic vigor compared with those stored in Foote extender. However, samples stored in Foote extender had higher number of reactive sperm by hypoosmotic test and greater viability by epifluorescence test compared with those in Kenney extender. In the experiment 2, 17 and 23 ejaculates from two stallions were split-diluted with Kenney extender and Foote extender. The sperm concentration in each extender was adjusted to 500 million viable sperms per insemination dose. Semen was cooled to 6-8 ºC and stored for 24 hours. Seventy-four cycles of crossbred mares were inseminated with either semen diluted in Kenney extender or semen diluted in Foote extender. The pregnancy rate was higher from semen diluted in Kenney extender than that from semen in Foote extender (0.553 vs. 0.306. The Kenney extender is effective in preserving the motility, vigor and fertility of stallion semen after 24 hours of cold storage, whereas the Foote extender is not acceptable.

  18. Field investigations of bacterial contaminants and their effects on extended porcine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, G C; Kuster, C E; Clark, S G; Weisiger, R M

    2000-03-15

    Field investigations (n=23) were made over a 3-yr period at North American boar studs and farms in which the primary complaint was sperm agglutination in association with decreased sperm longevity of extended semen, and increased regular returns to estrus and/or vaginal discharges across parity. Microscopic examination of extended semen from these units revealed depressed gross motility (usually semen collection and processing regardless of the semen extender used. The extended semen exhibited a high number of induced acrosome abnormalities (>20%). Sample pH was acidic (5.7 to 6.4) in 93% of the submitted samples. Aerobic culture yielded a variety of bacteria from different genera. A single bacterial contaminant was obtained from 66% of the submitted samples (n=37 doses); 34% contained 2 or more different bacterial genera. The most frequently isolated contaminant bacteria from porcine extended semen were Alcaligenes xylosoxydans (n=3), Burkholderia cepacia (n=6), Enterobacter cloacae (n=6), Escherichia coli (n=6), Serratia marcescens (n=5), and Stenotrophomonas [Xanthomonas] maltophilia (n=6); these 6 bacteria accounted for 71% of all contaminated samples, and were spermicidal when re-inoculated and incubated in fresh, high quality extended semen. All contaminant bacteria were found to be resistant to the aminoglycoside gentamicin, a common preservative antibiotic used in commercial porcine semen extenders. Eleven genera were spermicidal in conjunction with an acidic environment, while 2 strains (E. coli, S. maltophilia) were spermicidal without this characteristic acidic environment. Bacteria originated from multiple sources at the stud/farm, and were of animal and nonanimal origin. A minimum contamination technique (MCT) protocol was developed to standardize hygiene and sanitation. This protocol focused on MCT's during boar preparation, semen collection, semen processing and laboratory sanitation. Implementation of the MCT, in addition to specific recommendations

  19. [Macrophages in human semen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Beatriz Reina; Brufman, Adriana Silvia; Paparella, Cecilia Vicenta; Feldman, Rodolfo Nestor; Gatti, Vanda Nora; Solis, Edita Amalia

    2003-11-01

    To investigate the presence of macrophages in human semen samples and the function they carry out in the seminal fluid. Their presence was studied in relation to spermatic morphology, percentage of spermatozoids with native DNA, and presence of antispermatic antibodies. The work was performed with semen samples from 31 unfertile males from 63 couples in which the "female factor" was ruled out as the cause of infertility. Sperm study according to WHO (1992) was carried out in all samples, in addition to: DNA study with acridine orange as fluorocrom, macrophage concentration by neutral red in a Neubauer camera, and detection of antispermatic antibodies with a mixed agglutination test (TAC II) (validated with Mar Screen-Fertility technologies). Sperm morphology was evaluated by Papanicolaou test. 19/31 selected sperm samples (61.3%) showed increased concentration of macrophages, 13 of them (41.9%) with denaturalized DNA, and 8 (25.8%) abnormal morphology. Six samples showed increased macrophage concentration and predominance of native DNA, whereas 11 samples showed increased macrophages and abnormal morphology. Among 18 (58.1%) samples showing antispermatic antibodies 14 (77.7%) had an increased concentration of macrophages. Statistical analysis resulted in a high correlation between macrophage concentration and increased percentage of spermatozoids with denaturalized DNA (p < 0.05). An increased concentration of macrophages is associated with the presence of antispermatic antibodies (p < 0.05). There was not evidence of significant association between concentration of macrophages and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoids (p < 0.05). We can conclude that macrophages are present in human semen and participate in immunovigilance contributing to improve the seminal quality.

  20. Proses Knowledge Management di Semen Indonesia Group

    OpenAIRE

    Putri, Natalia Yan

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui prosesknowledge management yang ada di Perusahaan Semen IndonesiaGroup, yakni PT Semen Gresik, PT Semen Padang, PT SemenTonasa. Proses knowledge management dapat dilakukan denganpenciptaan pengetahuan, berbagi pengetahuan dan penggunaankembali pengetahuan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metodekualitatif dengan wawancara. Validasi data menggunakan codingdan uji triangulasi sumber data dan teori.

  1. Semen analysis and prediction of natural conception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leushuis, Esther; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Steures, Pieternel; Repping, Sjoerd; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Hompes, Peter G. A.; van der Veen, Fulco

    2014-01-01

    Do two semen analyses predict natural conception better than a single semen analysis and will adding the results of repeated semen analyses to a prediction model for natural pregnancy improve predictions? A second semen analysis does not add helpful information for predicting natural conception

  2. Design and implementation of a privacy preserving electronic health record linkage tool in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Abel N; Cashy, John P; Jackson, Kathryn L; Pah, Adam R; Goel, Satyender; Boehnke, Jörn; Humphries, John Eric; Kominers, Scott Duke; Hota, Bala N; Sims, Shannon A; Malin, Bradley A; French, Dustin D; Walunas, Theresa L; Meltzer, David O; Kaleba, Erin O; Jones, Roderick C; Galanter, William L

    2015-09-01

    To design and implement a tool that creates a secure, privacy preserving linkage of electronic health record (EHR) data across multiple sites in a large metropolitan area in the United States (Chicago, IL), for use in clinical research. The authors developed and distributed a software application that performs standardized data cleaning, preprocessing, and hashing of patient identifiers to remove all protected health information. The application creates seeded hash code combinations of patient identifiers using a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant SHA-512 algorithm that minimizes re-identification risk. The authors subsequently linked individual records using a central honest broker with an algorithm that assigns weights to hash combinations in order to generate high specificity matches. The software application successfully linked and de-duplicated 7 million records across 6 institutions, resulting in a cohort of 5 million unique records. Using a manually reconciled set of 11 292 patients as a gold standard, the software achieved a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 100%, with a majority of the missed matches accounted for by patients with both a missing social security number and last name change. Using 3 disease examples, it is demonstrated that the software can reduce duplication of patient records across sites by as much as 28%. Software that standardizes the assignment of a unique seeded hash identifier merged through an agreed upon third-party honest broker can enable large-scale secure linkage of EHR data for epidemiologic and public health research. The software algorithm can improve future epidemiologic research by providing more comprehensive data given that patients may make use of multiple healthcare systems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Gallic Acid Is an Antagonist of Semen Amyloid Fibrils That Enhance HIV-1 Infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoRicco, Josephine G.; Xu, Changmingzi Sherry; Neidleman, Jason; Bergkvist, Magnus; Greene, Warner C.; Roan, Nadia R.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2016-01-01

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that amyloid fibrils found in semen from healthy and HIV-infected men, as well as semen itself, can markedly enhance HIV infection rates. Semen fibrils are made up of multiple naturally occurring peptide fragments derived from semen. The best characterized of these fibrils are SEVI (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection), made up of residues 248–286 of prostatic acidic phosphatase, and the SEM1 fibrils, made up of residues 86–107 of semenogelin 1. A small molecule screen for antagonists of semen fibrils identified four compounds that lowered semen-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity. One of the four, gallic acid, was previously reported to antagonize other amyloids and to exert anti-inflammatory effects. To better understand the mechanism by which gallic acid modifies the properties of semen amyloids, we performed biophysical measurements (atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, thioflavin T and Congo Red fluorescence assays, zeta potential measurements) and quantitative assays on the effects of gallic acid on semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and inflammation. Our results demonstrate that gallic acid binds to both SEVI and SEM1 fibrils and modifies their surface electrostatics to render them less cationic. In addition, gallic acid decreased semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection but did not decrease the inflammatory response induced by semen. Together, these observations identify gallic acid as a non-polyanionic compound that inhibits semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and suggest the potential utility of incorporating gallic acid into a multicomponent microbicide targeting both the HIV virus and host components that promote viral infection. PMID:27226574

  4. Gallic Acid Is an Antagonist of Semen Amyloid Fibrils That Enhance HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoRicco, Josephine G; Xu, Changmingzi Sherry; Neidleman, Jason; Bergkvist, Magnus; Greene, Warner C; Roan, Nadia R; Makhatadze, George I

    2016-07-01

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that amyloid fibrils found in semen from healthy and HIV-infected men, as well as semen itself, can markedly enhance HIV infection rates. Semen fibrils are made up of multiple naturally occurring peptide fragments derived from semen. The best characterized of these fibrils are SEVI (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection), made up of residues 248-286 of prostatic acidic phosphatase, and the SEM1 fibrils, made up of residues 86-107 of semenogelin 1. A small molecule screen for antagonists of semen fibrils identified four compounds that lowered semen-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity. One of the four, gallic acid, was previously reported to antagonize other amyloids and to exert anti-inflammatory effects. To better understand the mechanism by which gallic acid modifies the properties of semen amyloids, we performed biophysical measurements (atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, thioflavin T and Congo Red fluorescence assays, zeta potential measurements) and quantitative assays on the effects of gallic acid on semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and inflammation. Our results demonstrate that gallic acid binds to both SEVI and SEM1 fibrils and modifies their surface electrostatics to render them less cationic. In addition, gallic acid decreased semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection but did not decrease the inflammatory response induced by semen. Together, these observations identify gallic acid as a non-polyanionic compound that inhibits semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and suggest the potential utility of incorporating gallic acid into a multicomponent microbicide targeting both the HIV virus and host components that promote viral infection. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. USE OF ALTERNATIVE EXTENDERS AND TEMPERATURES IN LONG TERM STORAGE OF BOAR SEMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Raquel Santos Araújo; Tatyane Bandeira Barros; Daianny Barboza Guimarães; Ludymila Furtado Cantanhêde; Aline Viana Dias; Ricardo Toniolli

    2016-01-01

    The use of appropriate extenders is important for the success of an artificial insemination program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative extenders for swine semen at different temperatures (17 to 10 °C). The following extenders were used: Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), powdered coconut water (ACP-103®), and skimmed milk powder (LPD). The 50 ejaculates were analyzed daily, in natura and after dilution, during the 5-day period of semen preservation  (D0...

  6. Privacy-Preserving Verifiability: A Case for an Electronic Exam Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giustolisi, Rosario; Iovino, Vincenzo; Lenzini, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the notion of privacy-preserving verifiability for security protocols. It holds when a protocol admits a verifiability test that does not reveal, to the verifier that runs it, more pieces of information about the protocol’s execution than those required to run the test. Our definition...... of privacy-preserving verifiability is general and applies to cryptographic protocols as well as to human security protocols. In this paper we exemplify it in the domain of e-exams. We prove that the notion is meaningful by studying an existing exam protocol that is verifiable but whose verifiability tests...... are not privacy-preserving. We prove that the notion is applicable: we review the protocol using functional encryption so that it admits a verifiability test that preserves privacy according to our definition. We analyse, in ProVerif, that the verifiability holds despite malicious parties and that the new...

  7. Detection of macrophages in rabbit semen and their relationship with semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuželová, Lenka; Vašíček, Jaromír; Rafay, Ján; Chrenek, Peter

    2017-07-15

    We aimed at the evaluating the occurrence of macrophages in rabbit semen and finding possible relationship between macrophage concentration and spermatozoa quality. The concentration of macrophages in semen samples from broiler rabbit males of lines M91 and P91 (n = 30) without overt evidence of genital tract infections was determined using monocyte/macrophage lineage antigen CD14 and flow cytometry. Then the rabbits were assigned into three groups according to the macrophage concentration in semen (MΦ1 group with less than 1 × 10 6 macrophages/mL, MΦ2 group with 1.5-3.5 × 10 6 macrophages/mL and MΦ3 group with more than 8 × 10 6 macrophages/mL). Spermatozoa viability parameters such as occurrence of apoptotic (Yo-Pro-1) and dead/necrotic (propidium iodide) spermatozoa and plasma membrane integrity (PNA-Fluos) were evaluated using flow cytometry. Sperm motility parameters were determined by CASA (Computer Assisted Semen Analysis). Ultrastructural detection of macrophages was performed using transmission electron microscopy. Spermatozoa fertility potential was examined after intravaginal artificial insemination of rabbit doses. Significantly higher proportions of the apoptotic and necrotic spermatozoa and spermatozoa with lower plasma membrane integrity were revealed in the MΦ3 group compared to MΦ1 and MΦ2 groups. The percentage value of total motility and progressive movement was significantly highest in the MΦ1 group, whilst lowest in the MΦ3 group. The conception rate and the kindling rate were significantly decreased in the group with the highest macrophage concentration (MΦ3). Based on our results we can conclude that the abundance of seminal macrophages in the rabbit semen may be closely associated with poor spermatozoa quality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS AND SEMEN QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are common byproducts of chlorinating drinking water. The effects of disinfection byproducts on semen quality have not yet been studied in humans, despite animal studies linking exposure to sperm abnormalities. We are currently analyzing the relationship of...

  9. Environmental factors and semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech; Radwan, Michal

    2009-01-01

    , trihalomethanes (THMs), mobile phones) on semen quality, by reviewing most recent published literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to environmental factors and semen quality for the last ten years were identified by a search of the Pubmed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola...... to sperm motility. In case of air pollution, studies suggest a link between ambient air pollutants and various semen characteristics. Additional research is needed to corroborate this association and to establish the causal agents. Results of few studies on subfertile men demonstrate associations between...... phthalate levels commonly experienced by the public and impaired sperm quality (impact on sperm concentration, morphology, motility), but the findings have not been corroborated in studies of men from the general population. Mobile phones might adversely affect the quality of semen by decreasing mostly...

  10. Prinsip termodinamika dalam proses pendinginan sperma sapi (semen) beku

    OpenAIRE

    Kholifah, Kholifah; Bahari Nurdin, Wira; Harimei, Bambang; Yusuf, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian prinsip termodinamika dalam proses pendinginan sperma sapi (semen) beku. Sperma sapi (semen) sebagai sampel utama dan besi sebagai sampel pembanding. Nitrogen cair sebagai bahan pendingin untuk membekukan semen dalam tangki kriogenik. Motility Analysis Semen dilakukan untuk mengetahui gerakan massa atau kualitas semen. Hasil Motility Analysis Semen menggunakan mikroskop menunjukkan bahwa semen Messi memiliki kualitas yang baik dengan gerakan massa (+++) dan semen Ro...

  11. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  12. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.36 Animal semen from Canada. (a) General importation requirements for animal semen from Canada. If the product is . . . Then . . . (1) Equine semen...

  13. Effect of Air Space in Storage Vials on Motility of Spermatozoa in Chilled Buck Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Paul K and Lali F Anand 1

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to find out the effect of air space on the top of glass vial in which semen is stored, on the motility of spermatozoa. 45 samples collected from two bucks over a span of 6 months were used for experiment. Goat milk extender was the diluent used. Two ml each of diluted semen after noting their initial motility was stored in 2 ml and 5 ml vials. Samples were stored at 5°C and motility of spermatozoa noted at 24 and 48 hours. Semen without air space was found to preserve the motility better than semen with air space on 24 and 48 hours of incubation. This could be better attributed to reactive oxygen species production by the spermatozoa, but further investigation is needed in this aspect to confirm it. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 421-423

  14. Enzyme-immobilized SiO2-Si electrode: Fast interfacial electron transfer with preserved enzymatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Yau, Siu-Tung

    2005-12-01

    The enzyme, glucose oxidase (GOx), is immobilized using electrostatic interaction on the native oxide of heavily doped n-type silicon. Voltammetric measurement shows that the immobilized GOx gives rise to a very fast enzyme-silicon interfacial electron transfer rate constant of 7.9s-1. The measurement also suggests that the enzyme retains its native conformation when immobilized on the silicon surface. The preserved native conformation of GOx is further confirmed by testing the enzymatic activity of the immobilized GOx using glucose. The GOx-immobilized silicon is shown to behave as a glucose sensor that detects glucose with concentrations as low as 50μM.

  15. Liquid storage of boar semen: Current and future perspectives on the use of cationic antimicrobial peptides to replace antibiotics in semen extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Dathe, M; Waberski, D; Müller, K

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are of great importance in boar semen extenders to ensure long shelf life of spermatozoa and to reduce transmission of pathogens into the female tract. However, the use of antibiotics carries a risk of developing resistant bacterial strains in artificial insemination laboratories and their spread via artificial insemination. Development of multiresistant bacteria is a major concern if mixtures of antibiotics are used in semen extenders. Minimal contamination prevention techniques and surveillance of critical hygiene control points proved to be efficient in reducing bacterial load and preventing development of antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, novel antimicrobial concepts are necessary for efficient bacterial control in extended boar semen with a minimum risk of evoking antibiotic resistance. Enhanced efforts have been made in recent years in the design and use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. The male genital tract harbors a series of endogenic substances with antimicrobial activity and additional functions relevant to the fertilization process. However, exogenic AMPs often exert dose- and time-dependent toxic effects on mammalian spermatozoa. Therefore, it is important that potential newly designed AMPs have only minor impacts on eukaryotic cells. Recently, synthetic magainin derivatives and cyclic hexapeptides were tested for their application in boar semen preservation. Bacterial selectivity, proteolytic stability, thermodynamic resistance, and potential synergistic interaction with conventional antibiotics propel predominantly cyclic hexapeptides into highly promising, leading candidates for further development in semen preservation. The time scale for the development of resistant pathogens cannot be predicted at this moment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Recent advances in cooled-semen technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurich, Christine

    2008-09-01

    The majority of horse registries approve the use of artificial insemination, and horse breeding has widely taken benefit from the use of cooled-stored semen. New insights into cooled-semen technology open possibilities to reduce problems such as impaired semen quality after cooled-storage in individual stallions. The stallion itself has major impacts on quality and fertility of cooled-stored semen. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants and polyunsaturated fatty acids improves semen quality in a variety of species, but only few studies on this topic exist in the horse. Proper semen collection and handling is the main key to the maintenance of semen quality during cooled-storage. Semen collection should be achieved by minimal sexual stimulation with a single mount; this results in high sperm concentration, low content of seminal plasma and minimal contamination with bacteria. Milk-based semen extenders are most popular for semen processing and storage. The development of more defined extenders containing only the beneficial milk ingredients has made extender quality more constant and reliable. Semen is often centrifuged to decrease the seminal plasma content. Centrifugation results in a recovery rate of only 75% of spermatozoa in the semen pellet. Recovery rates after centrifugation may be improved with use of a "cushion technique" allowing higher centrifugation force and duration. However, this is not routinely used in cooled-semen technology. After slow-cooling, semen-storage and shipping is best performed at 5 degrees C, maintaining semen motility, membrane integrity and DNA integrity for up to 40 h after collection. Shipping containers created from Styrofoam boxes provide maintenance of semen quality at low cost.

  17. Bacteriospermia in extended porcine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Gary C; Lu, Kristina G

    2005-01-15

    Bacteriospermia is a frequent finding in freshly extended porcine semen and can result in detrimental effects on semen quality and longevity if left uncontrolled. The primary source of bacterial contamination is the boar. Other sources that have been identified include environment, personnel, and the water used for extender preparation. A 1-year retrospective study was performed on submissions of extended porcine semen for routine quality control bacteriological screening at the University of Pennsylvania. Out of 250 sample submissions, 78 (31.2%) tested positive for bacterial contamination. The most popular contaminants included Enterococcus spp. (20.5%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (15.4%), Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (10.3%), Serratia marcescens (10.3%), Acinetobacter lwoffi (7.7%), Escherichia coli (6.4%), Pseudomonas spp. (6.4%), and others (23.0%). Prudent individual hygiene, good overall sanitation, and regular monitoring can contribute greatly in controlling bacterial load. Strategies that incorporate temperature-dependent bacterial growth and hyperthermic augmentation of antimicrobial activity are valuable for effective control of susceptible bacterial loads. Aminoglycosides remain the most popular antimicrobial class used in porcine semen extenders, with beta-lactam and lincosamide use increasing. With the advent of more novel antimicrobial selection and semen extender compositions in swine, prudent application and understanding of in vitro pharmacodynamics are becoming paramount to industry success in the use of this breeding modality.

  18. Discolored Semen: What Does It Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it mean? Should I be concerned about discolored semen? Answers from Todd B. Nippoldt, M.D. Semen is normally a whitish-gray color. It's usually ... within 30 minutes. Changes in the appearance of semen might be temporary and not a health concern. ...

  19. Electron beam accelerator: A new tool for environmental preservation in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Siti Aiasah; Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Othman, Mohd Nahar

    2012-09-01

    Electron beam accelerators are widely used for industrial applications such as surface curing, crosslinking of wires and cables and sterilization/ decontamination of pharmaceutical products. The energy of the electron beam determines the type of applications. This is due to the penetration power of the electron that is limited by the energy. In the last decade, more work has been carried out to utilize the energetic electron for remediation of environmental pollution. For this purposes, 1 MeV electron beam accelerator is sufficient to treat wastewater from textile industry and flue gases from fossil fuel combustions. In Nuclear Malaysia, a variable energy Cockroft Walton type accelerator has been utilized to initiate investigations in these two areas. An electron beam flue gas treatment test rig was built to treat emission from diesel combustion, where it was found that using EB parameters of 1MeV and 12mA can successfully remove at least 80% of nitric oxide in the emission. Wastewater from textile industries was treated using combination of biological treatment and EB. The initial findings indicated that the quality of water had improved based on the CODCr, BOD5 indicators.

  20. Electron beam accelerator: A new tool for environmental preservation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, Siti Aiasah; Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Othman, Mohd Nahar

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam accelerators are widely used for industrial applications such as surface curing, crosslinking of wires and cables and sterilization/ decontamination of pharmaceutical products. The energy of the electron beam determines the type of applications. This is due to the penetration power of the electron that is limited by the energy. In the last decade, more work has been carried out to utilize the energetic electron for remediation of environmental pollution. For this purposes, 1 MeV electron beam accelerator is sufficient to treat wastewater from textile industry and flue gases from fossil fuel combustions. In Nuclear Malaysia, a variable energy Cockroft Walton type accelerator has been utilized to initiate investigations in these two areas. An electron beam flue gas treatment test rig was built to treat emission from diesel combustion, where it was found that using EB parameters of 1MeV and 12mA can successfully remove at least 80% of nitric oxide in the emission. Wastewater from textile industries was treated using combination of biological treatment and EB. The initial findings indicated that the quality of water had improved based on the COD Cr , BOD 5 indicators.

  1. Semenic Mountains’ alpine skiing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BANIAȘ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents, after a short history of alpine skiing which describes apparition, necessity, utility and universality of skiing during time, a comparative study referring to the alpine skiing domain in the Semenic Mountains area. In the paper are also presented general notions about alpine skiing methodology together with an ample description of the plateau area form Semenic Mountains, describing localization and touristic potential. Based on the SWOT analysis made for each slope, was realized a complex analysis of the entire skiing domain, an analysis which includes technical, financial, climatic and environmental aspects, along with an analysis of the marketing policy applied for the specific zone.

  2. Karakteristik Semen Segar dan Kualitas Semen Cair Kuda dalam Pengencer Dimitropoulos yang Disuplementasi dengan Fruktosa, Trehalosa dan Rafinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to study the characteristics of stallion fresh semen and the quality of sperm preserved in Dimitropoulos extender (DV supplemented with different concentration of fructose, trehalose and raffinose. Semen were collected using artificial vagina from three stallions. Semen characteristics and quality were evaluated macro- and microscopically. Prior to extension, semen were centrifugated at 3000 rpm for 20 minutes. The condensed sperm were re-suspended in DV supplemented with different types of carbohydrate to meet the concentration of 200 million spz/ml. All samples were stored at room and chilled temperature, and were evaluated for motility and viability every 3 h and 12 h. The results of the experiments indicated that fresh semen characteristics were fair good; the volume, consistency, motility, live-dead ratio, concentration (106/ml, total spermatozoa (109/ejaculate and abnormality were 29.25±9.33 ml, watery, 7.00±0.12, 67.08±9.08%, 77.89±6.46%, 211.88±21.15, 6.28±2.45 and 27.26±4.64%, respectively. The supplementation of different type and concentration of carbohydrates did not significantly affect the motility and viability. However, the supplementation of 50 mM fructose significantly increased the motility and viability of the sperm compared to the control. In conclusion, carbohydrate supplementation in DV may not maintain the sperm quality, particularly in the medium with the osmolarity higher than 400 mOsm/kg.

  3. Poor Semen Quality Predicts Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Bostofte, Erik; Jacobsen, Rune

    Objective: Over recent decades a possible decrease in semen quality and an increase in the incidence of testicular cancer have been reported. In addition, men with poor semen quality have been reported to be at increased risk of developing testicular cancer whereas the risk of other cancers...... is not increased. The long-term survival of men with poor semen quality is, however, unknown. We therefore studied the associations between semen characteristics and subsequent mortality. Back to Top Material and Methods: The Copenhagen Sperm Analysis Laboratory is one of several public semen analysis laboratories...... in Denmark and examines semen samples mostly from men in the area of Copenhagen. Men are referred to the clinic by general practitioners and urologists, and the investigations are paid for through the public health system. A total of 34.442 men had a semen analysis done at the laboratory during 1963 to 1995...

  4. Electron cooling application for luminosity preservation in an experiment with internal targets at COSY

    CERN Document Server

    Meshkov, I N; Maier, R; Prasuhn, D; Sidorin, A O; Smirnov, A V; Stein, H J; Stockhorst, H; Trubnikov, G V

    2003-01-01

    This report is an investigation of the beam parameter evolution in the experiments with internal target. In calculations of the proton and deuteron beams we concentrated on cluster, atomic beam, storage cell and pellet targets at ANKE experiment mainly. In these calculations electron and stochastic cooling, intrabeam scattering, scattering on the target and residual gas atoms are taken into account. Beam parameter evolution is investigated in the long-term time scale, up to one hour, at different beam energies in the range from 1.0 to 2.7 GeV for proton beam and from 1 to 2.11 GeV for deuteron beam. The results of numerical simulations of the proton and deuteron beam parameters at different energies obtained using new version of BETACOOL program (elaborated at the first stage of this work [1]) are presented. Optimum parameters of the electron cooling system are estimated. The COSY experiment requirements can be satisfied even when electron cooling time is rather long. That allows to apply an electron cooling ...

  5. Analysis of semen parameters in a young cohort of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNofia, Amanda M; Wang, Xingmei; Yannekis, Gia; Ogle, Sue; Hobbie, Wendy L; Carlson, Claire A; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2017-02-01

    Infertility can be the result of some common cancer treatments and can significantly impact quality of life. Semen cryopreservation allows for fertility preservation. We analyzed the semen parameters of specimens collected from pubertal males from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) in order to expand current knowledge on the quality of these specimens and inform a standard clinical practice. Males who were at least Tanner stage III and newly diagnosed with cancer at CHOP were approached regarding sperm banking. The success and quality of the samples collected were analyzed and compared in relation to prior treatment, age, and diagnosis. From 399 patients approached for semen collection, 339 (85%) attempted to bank sperm, of which 265 (78%) were successful and 60 (15%) refused to participate. Therapy prior to sperm banking significantly impacted a successful collection (P semen. There was no difference in azoospermia across diagnostic groups (P = 0.35), though there were differences in quality of semen parameters across diagnoses. Our data support that sperm banking pubertal males prior to the initiation of therapy is feasible. While there were differences in quality of semen parameters across age and diagnostic groups, most males, regardless of age or diagnosis, had adequate specimens for cryopreservation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Factors affecting storage of Slovak native rabbit semen in the gene bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulíková, Barbora; Oravcová, Marta; Baláži, Andrej; Supuka, Peter; Chrenek, Peter

    2017-10-01

    In this study, fresh and frozen-thawed semen of Nitra and Zobor rabbit breeds were evaluated for potential inter-breed or inter-male differences in sperm quality traits. Individual male semen from four rabbits of each breed were diluted (v:v; 1:1) in a freezing medium composed of a commercial diluent, 16% of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), 4% of Ficoll 70 and 2% of sucrose and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapours before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Different motility traits, viability and plasma membrane integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed semen were evaluated in vitro using computer-assisted sperm analysis and flow cytometry. To evaluate the sperm fertilization ability, artificial insemination of fresh and frozen-thawed sperm was performed. Our results showed the effect of breed (P ≤ 0.05) on frozen-thawed sperm viability and plasma membrane integrity. Moreover, individual variability in semen quality among the rabbits was revealed (0.31 to 0.71 among quality traits). Our results thereby confirmed that the cryopreservation procedure could not ensure comparable sperm post-thaw survival for different breeds or males. Nevertheless, correlations between numbers of fresh total motile and progressively moving sperm and several quality parameters measured post thawing were revealed. Therefore, we suggest that the objective assessment of fresh rabbit sperm motility may be an effective indicator of frozen-thawed semen quality. Consequently, regular semen assessment is required in order to preserve good-quality insemination doses from native breeds.

  7. The effects of gelatin supplementation prior to cooling on ram semen quality and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physical and chemical characteristics of gelatin have been used to justify its inclusion in extenders to preserve the sperm quality and improve results of cervical artificial insemination with cooled semen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of gelatin supplementation in cool...

  8. An Economic Analysis for using Gamma and Electron Irradiation Technology in Preservation of Wheat in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gameel, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study discusses the economic analysis of wheat irradiation in Egypt. This study was divided into four sections; the first section included the arrangement of the equation of simple regression foretelling the future of wheat import and national production. The second section include the financial analysis of electron beam accelerator facility, the third section discusses the financial analysis of gamma irradiation facility and the fourth section discusses the national return of wheat irradiation

  9. Preservation of protein fluorescence in embedded human dendritic cells for targeted 3D light and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, K; Fuchs, J; Fröber, A; Kirmse, R; Glass, B; Anders-Össwein, M; Walther, P; Kräusslich, H-G; Dietrich, C

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we present a correlative microscopy workflow to combine detailed 3D fluorescence light microscopy data with ultrastructural information gained by 3D focused ion beam assisted scanning electron microscopy. The workflow is based on an optimized high pressure freezing/freeze substitution protocol that preserves good ultrastructural detail along with retaining the fluorescence signal in the resin embedded specimens. Consequently, cellular structures of interest can readily be identified and imaged by state of the art 3D confocal fluorescence microscopy and are precisely referenced with respect to an imprinted coordinate system on the surface of the resin block. This allows precise guidance of the focused ion beam assisted scanning electron microscopy and limits the volume to be imaged to the structure of interest. This, in turn, minimizes the total acquisition time necessary to conduct the time consuming ultrastructural scanning electron microscope imaging while eliminating the risk to miss parts of the target structure. We illustrate the value of this workflow for targeting virus compartments, which are formed in HIV-pulsed mature human dendritic cells. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. Effects of pH during liquid storage of goat semen on sperm viability and fertilizing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-He; Dong, Hai-Bo; Ma, Dong-Li; Li, You-Wei; Han, Dong; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Chang, Zhong-Le; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-01-01

    A specific problem in goat semen preservation is the detrimental effect of seminal plasma on sperm viability in extenders containing yolk or milk. Thus, the use of chemically defined extenders will have obvious advantages. Although previous studies indicate that the initial pH of an extender is crucial to sustain high sperm motility, changes in extender pH during long-term semen storage have not been observed. Monitoring extender pH at different times of semen storage and modeling its variation according to nonlinear models is thus important for protocol optimization for long-term liquid semen preservation. The present results showed that during long-term liquid storage of goat semen, both sperm motility and semen pH decreased gradually, and a strong correlation was observed between the two. Whereas increasing the initial extender pH from 6.04 to 6.25 or storage with stabilized pH improved, storage with artificially lowered pH impaired sperm motility. Extender renewal improved sperm motility by maintaining a stable pH. Sperm coating with chicken (Gallus gallus) egg yolk improved motility by increasing tolerance to pH decline. A new extender (n-mZAP) with a higher buffering capacity was formulated, and n-mZAP maintained higher sperm motility, membrane integrity and acrosome intactness than the currently used mZAP extender did. Goat semen liquid-stored for 12 d in n-mZAP produced pregnancy and kidding rates similar to those obtained with freshly collected semen following artificial insemination. In conclusion, maintenance of a stable pH during liquid semen storage dramatically improved sperm viability and fertilizing potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  12. Direct visualization of HIV-enhancing endogenous amyloid fibrils in human semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, Shariq M.; Zirafi, Onofrio; Müller, Janis; Sandi-Monroy, Nathallie; Yadav, Jay K.; Meier, Christoph; Weil, Tanja; Roan, Nadia R.; Greene, Warner C.; Walther, Paul; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Hammarström, Per; Wetzel, Ronald; Pilcher, Christopher D.; Gagsteiger, Friedrich; Fändrich, Marcus; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring fragments of the abundant semen proteins prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and semenogelins form amyloid fibrils in vitro. These fibrils boost HIV infection and may play a key role in the spread of the AIDS pandemic. However, the presence of amyloid fibrils in semen remained to be demonstrated. Here, we use state of the art confocal and electron microscopy techniques for direct imaging of amyloid fibrils in human ejaculates. We detect amyloid aggregates in all semen samples and find that they partially consist of PAP fragments, interact with HIV particles and increase viral infectivity. Our results establish semen as a body fluid that naturally contains amyloid fibrils that are exploited by HIV to promote its sexual transmission. PMID:24691351

  13. Electronic bound states in parity-preserving QED{sub 3} applied to high-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, H.R. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]. E-mail: hugo@cbpf.br; Cima, O.M. Del [Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica]. E-mail: delcima@gft.ucp.br; Ferreira Junior, M.M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]|[Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: manojr@cbpf.br; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica]|[Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]. E-mail: helayel@gft.ucp.br

    2001-08-01

    We consider a parity-preserving QED{sub 3} model with spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry as a framework for the evaluation of the electron-electron interaction potential underlying high-T{sub e} superconductivity. The fact that resulting potential, - C{sub s} K{sub o} (Mr), is non-confining and weak (in the sense of Kato) strongly suggests the mechanism of pair-condensation. This potential, compatible with an s-wave order parameters, is then applied to the Schrodinger equation for the sake of numerical calculations, thereby enforcing the existence of bound states. The results worked out by means of our theoretical framework are checked by considering a number of phenomenological data extracted from different copper oxide superconductors. The agreement may motivate a deeper analysis of our model viewing an application to quasi-planar cuprate superconductors. The data analyzed here suggest an energy scale of 1-10 meV for the breaking of the U(1)-symmetry. (author)

  14. Microbunch preserving bending system for a helical radiator at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available At the European X-ray Free Electron Laser there is a planar undulator system under construction called SASE3, which produces intense linearly polarized light in the wavelength range from 0.4–1.6 nm. Nevertheless there is a strong demand for circularly polarized radiation in this wavelength range. An important part of a potential solution is described in this paper. After the planar undulator the electron beam, which is completely bunched, is sent through a suitable radiator. This can be an economically and technically convenient method to generate radiation with polarization properties, which are determined only by the radiator. If in addition a bend is used to separate the light created by the linear SASE3 from that of the radiator, two beam lines may be served, one with planar and one with circular radiation. In this case the light of the helical radiator is not contaminated by the light generated by the planar system. In order to obtain coherent radiation in the radiator, the microbunching of the planar undulator must be preserved throughout the bend. This is the basic problem. In this paper a fundamental, basic study is made. Several solutions for bending systems are presented, whose complexities, wavelength ranges, and debunching effects are different. The expected circular polarization and radiation power by such a bend are simulated for a model radiator.

  15. Electron beam for preservation of biodeteriorated cultural heritage paper-based objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewska-Śmietanko, Dagmara; Gryczka, Urszula; Migdał, Wojciech; Kopeć, Kamil

    2018-02-01

    Unsuitable storage conditions or accidents such as floods can present a serious threat for large quantities of book making them prone to attack by harmful microorganisms. The microbiological degradation of archives and book collections can be efficiently inhibited with irradiation processing. Application of EB irradiation to book and archive collections can also be a very effective alternative to the commonly used ethylene oxide treatment, which is toxic to the human and natural environment. In this study was evaluated the influence of EB irradiation used for microbiological decontamination process on paper-based objects. Three different kinds of paper (Whatman CHR 1, office paper and newsprint paper) were treated with 0.4, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 25 kGy electron beam irradiation. Optical and mechanical properties of different sorts of paper treated with e-beam, before and after the radiation process were studied. These results, which correlated with absorbed radiation doses effective for the elimination of Aspergillus niger (A. niger) allowed to determine that EB irradiation with absorbed radiation dose of 5 kGy ensures safe decontamination of different sorts of paper-based objects.

  16. Semen Anxiety: Materiality, Agency and the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shand, Alex

    2007-12-01

    Semen is a potent cultural symbol of masculinity. The social life of semen is poorly understood because of the intensely personal nature of its being. But the Internet has opened up new avenues for people to explore sensitive issues without disclosing their identity. This paper examines a set of questions submitted anonymously for answering by a medical team over a three month period to a UK-based consumer health website. The questions are analysed for emergent themes and these are divided into three groups: those concerning the material quality of semen; semen relating to masturbation; and those that concern semen and potency. It argues that far from being a phenomenon isolated to non-western cultures, semen anxiety is present in the UK in the twenty-first century and is the expression of anxieties surrounding shifting gender roles and masculine identities.

  17. Survival of chlamydiae in human semen prepared for artificial insemination by donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Møller, Birger R.; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Semen specimens from 21 men with urethral infection with Chlamydia trachomatis were tested for the presence of the organism before and after cryopreservation for 3 weeks of storage at -196 degrees C. Five specimens were chlamydia-positive before preservation and four of them were still positive...... after storage when examined by enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme). When examined by cell culture, four proved chlamydia- positive before storage and two afterwards. The results indicate that testing for C. trachomatis has to be performed from the urethra of all donors of semen used for artificial...

  18. Semen parameters in polyzoospermic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sh. Khayat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyzoospermia is extremely high (above 250 mln/ml sperm concentration with normal volume of ejaculate. In the laboratory of genetic disorders of reproduction of Research Centre for Medical Genetics in 2007–2012 years we analyzed more than 14 000 semen samples from infertile men and men with reproductive disorders in order to study the distribution and characteristics of spermatogenesis in polyzoospermic men. Only polyzoospermic men semen analysis results were interpretered in present article. Polyzoospermia (sperm count over 250 mln/ml in volume over 1,5 ml was detected in 191 semen samples (1.3 %. At the same time 15 % of the samples with polyzoospermia were normozoospermic. Among 85 % of the sperm pathology samples asthenozoospermia occured most frequently (77 %, astenoteratozoospermia was detected in 8 % of cases with polyzoospermia. The average proportion of vitality was 90.09 ± 10.02 %, normal morphology – 14.93 ± 8.51 %, and progressive motility – 17.72 ± 11.81 %. The average concentration of spermatozoa in the ejaculate in the examined samples was 313.29 ± 64.78 mln/ml. More than half of the tested samples with polyzoospermia had a concentration 250–300 mln/ml. Concentration of 450 mln/ml and more detected in 3 % of samples. The maximum total number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate in our study was more than 2 billion sperm cells and was observed in two polyzoospermic men. One of these patients had the maximum concentration (615 mln/ml also. We found a high correlation (r = 0.89; p < 0.01 between the volume of ejaculate and the total number of spermatozoa. Immature germ cells from ejaculate were estimated in 7 patients. There was a partial spermatogenesis arrest at meiosis I prophase in 5 out 7 of the examined semen samples. 

  19. Artificial fertilization of oocytes and sperm activation in pacu: effects of the spermatozoa:oocyte ratio, water volume, and in natura semen preservation Fertilização artificial de ovócitos e ativação espermática em pacus: efeito da razão espermatozoide:ovócito, volume de água e preservação do sêmen in natura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antônio Sanches

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate artificial fertilization and the duration of sperm motility in pacu with different insemination doses, water volume, and in natura semen preservation. It was carried out four experimentsfor evaluation of insemination doses (7x10³, 7x10(4, 7x10(5, 7x10(6, and 7x10(7 spermatozoa oocytes-1 on the artificial fertilization of oocytes; the effect of water volume (0.5, 15.0, 30.0, 45.0, and 60.0 mL water mL-1 of oocyte with insemination doses of 105,481 and 210,963 spermatozoa oocytes-1; the effect of semen dilutions (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 µL semen mL-1 of water on sperm motility duration; and the effect of storage at 15ºC for 9h on sperm motility duration and sperm survival ratio. The highest results obtained were: insemination doses from 7x10³ to 7x10(7 spermatozoa oocytes-1; from 15 to 60mL water mL-1 of oocytes; semen dilution of 0.005 µL semen/mL water and 98.65% sperm survival until 2h45min 36s preservation time. Preservation at 15ºC for 9h does not influence sperm motility duration. The highest fertilization rates can be observed by using 0.27 to 270 µL semen mL-1 of oocytes with 15 at 60 mL water for activation.Objetivou-se foi avaliar a fertilização artificial e a duração da motilidade espermática em pacus com diferentes doses inseminantes, volumes de água e preservação do sêmen in natura. Foram realizados quatro experimentos para avaliação do efeito de doses inseminantes (7x10³, 7x10(4, 7x10(5, 7x10(6 e 7x10(7 espermatozoides ovócito-1 sobre a fertilização artificial dos ovócitos; do efeito do volume de água (0,5; 15,0; 30,0; 45,0 e 60,0 mL de água mL-1 de ovócitos com doses inseminantes de 105.481 e 210.963 espermatozoides ovócito-1; do efeito de diluição do sêmen (0,005; 0,05; 0,5 e 5,0 µL de sêmen mL-1 de água sobre a duração da motilidade espermática; e do efeito do armazenamento a 15 ºC por 9 h sobre a duração da motilidade espermática e o

  20. Effect of chronic glomerulonephritis on the semen quality and cytokines in the semen of infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huina; Ying, Yingfen; Chen, Yilu; Lu, Xiaosheng; Huang, Yonggang

    2017-01-01

    The effects of chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) on semen quality and cytokine levels in the semen of infertile males remain undetermined. Fifty-eight semen samples from normal males and CGN males with and without infertility, respectively, were analyzed. Semen volume, semen pH, sperm density, percentage of forward movement of sperm, sperm activate rate, sperm survival rate, and rate of normal sperm morphology of infertility males with CGN were significantly lower than those of CGN males without infertility and normal males (Psemen quality and might result in male infertility. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Time to pregnancy and semen parameters: a cross-sectional study among fertile couples from four European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slama, Remy; Eustache, Florence; Ducot, B.

    2001-01-01

    fecundability; semen; sper morphology; threshold values of semen characteristics; time to pregnancy......fecundability; semen; sper morphology; threshold values of semen characteristics; time to pregnancy...

  2. Laboratory assessment of oxidative stress in semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Agarwal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate different laboratory assessments of oxidative stress (OS in semen and identify a cost-efficient and highly sensitive instrument capable of providing a comprehensive measure of OS in a clinical setting, as early intervention and an accurate diagnostic test are important because they help maintain a balance of free radicals and antioxidants; otherwise, excessive OS could lead to sperm damage and result in male infertility. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was performed through a MedLine database search using the keywords ‘semen’ AND ‘oxygen reduction potential’. We also reviewed the references of retrieved articles to search for other potentially relevant research articles and additional book chapters discussing laboratory assessments for OS, ranging from 1994 to 2017. A total of 29 articles and book chapters involving OS-related laboratory assays were included. We excluded animal studies and articles written in languages other than English. Results: Direct laboratory techniques include: chemiluminescence, nitro blue tetrazolium, cytochrome C reduction test, fluorescein probe, electron spin resonance and oxidation–reduction potential (ORP. Indirect laboratory techniques include: measurement of Endtz test, lipid peroxidation, chemokines, antioxidants/micronutrients/vitamins, ascorbate, total antioxidant capacity, or DNA damage. Each of these laboratory techniques has its advantages and disadvantages. Conclusion: Traditional OS laboratory assessments have their limitations. Amongst the prevalent laboratory techniques, ORP is novel and better option as it can be easily used in a clinical setting to provide a comprehensive review of OS. However, more studies are needed to evaluate its reproducibility across various laboratory centres. Keywords: Semen, male infertility, Oxidative stress, Chemiluminescence, Total antioxidant capacity, Oxidation-reduction potential

  3. An automated smartphone-based diagnostic assay for point-of-care semen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakasabapathy, Manoj Kumar; Sadasivam, Magesh; Singh, Anupriya; Preston, Collin; Thirumalaraju, Prudhvi; Venkataraman, Maanasa; Bormann, Charles L; Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Petrozza, John C; Shafiee, Hadi

    2017-03-22

    Male infertility affects up to 12% of the world's male population and is linked to various environmental and medical conditions. Manual microscope-based testing and computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) are the current standard methods to diagnose male infertility; however, these methods are labor-intensive, expensive, and laboratory-based. Cultural and socially dominated stigma against male infertility testing hinders a large number of men from getting tested for infertility, especially in resource-limited African countries. We describe the development and clinical testing of an automated smartphone-based semen analyzer designed for quantitative measurement of sperm concentration and motility for point-of-care male infertility screening. Using a total of 350 clinical semen specimens at a fertility clinic, we have shown that our assay can analyze an unwashed, unprocessed liquefied semen sample with time and provide the user a semen quality evaluation based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines with ~98% accuracy. The work suggests that the integration of microfluidics, optical sensing accessories, and advances in consumer electronics, particularly smartphone capabilities, can make remote semen quality testing accessible to people in both developed and developing countries who have access to smartphones. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Semen collection and preservation in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.

    2002-01-01

    Stock improvement using quantitative and molecular genetics is an essential part of nowadays production of farm animals and fish. To achieve this in aquaculture, germplasm of both parental sexes should be obtained in a life-saving manner. In captivity, male African catfish,

  5. Fertility response of artificial insemination methods in sheep with fresh and frozen-thawed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Reza; Zare Shahneh, Ahmad; Towhidi, Armin; Kohram, Hamid; Akbarisharif, Abbas; Sharafi, Mohsen

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertility response of artificial insemination (AI) methods with fresh and frozen sperm in sheep. In experiment 1, one hundred and fifty fat tailed Zandi ewes were assigned into 3 equal groups and inseminated with three AI methods consisting of vaginal, laparoscopic and trans-cervical AI with fresh semen. In experiment 2, a factorial study (3 AI methods × 2 extenders) was used to analyze the effects of three AI methods and two freezing extenders containing soybean lecithin (SL) or Egg yolk (EY) on reproductive performance of 300 fat tailed Zandi ewes. Also, total motility, progressive motility, viability and lipid peroxidation of semen were evaluated after freeze-thawing in two extenders. In result, there was no significant difference among three AI methods when fresh semen was used. In experiment 2, the highest percentage of pregnancy rate, parturition rate and lambing rate were obtained in laparoscopic AI group (P semen, trans-cervical AI was more efficient than vaginal method when frozen-thawed semen was used, but its efficiency was not as high as laparoscopic method. Also, SL extender can be an efficient alternative extender to preserve ram sperm during cryopreservation procedure without adverse effects of EY. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. 'Semen contains vitality and heredity, not germs': seminal discourse in the AIDS era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sharful Islam; Hudson-Rodd, Nancy; Saggers, Sherry; Bhuiyan, Mahbubul Islam; Bhuiya, Abbas; Karim, Syed Afzalul; Rauyajin, Oratai

    2006-12-01

    Perspectives of public health generally ignore culture-bound sexual health concerns, such as semen loss, and primarily attempt to eradicate sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Like in many other countries, sexual health concerns of men in Bangladesh have also received less attention compared to STIs in the era of AIDS. This paper describes the meanings of non-STI sexual health concerns, particularly semen loss, in the masculinity framework. In a qualitative study on male sexuality, 50 men, aged 18-55 years, from diverse sociodemographic backgrounds and 10 healthcare practitioners were interviewed. Men considered semen the most powerful and vital body fluid representing their sexual performance and reproductive ability. Rather than recognizing the vulnerability to transmission of STIs, concerns about semen were grounded in the desire of men to preserve and nourish seminal vitality. Traditional practitioners supported semen loss as a major sexual health concern where male heritage configures male sexuality in a patriarchal society. Currently, operating HIV interventions in the framework of disease and death may not ensure participation of men in reproductive and sexual health programmes and is, therefore, less likely to improve the quality of sexual life of men and women.

  7. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert J; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions.

  8. Semen quality of fertile Japanese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwamoto, Teruaki; Nozawa, Shiari; Yoshiike, Miki

    2013-01-01

    To establish a base line for future studies on temporal trends, to describe potential geographical differences in semen quality and reference values for studies of men from the general population.......To establish a base line for future studies on temporal trends, to describe potential geographical differences in semen quality and reference values for studies of men from the general population....

  9. Liquid storage of miniature boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatsu, Yoshiki; Uchida, Masaki; Niki, Rikio; Imai, Hiroshi

    2002-04-01

    The effects of liquid storage at 15 degrees C on the fertilizing ability of miniature pig semen were investigated. Characterization of ejaculated semen from 3 miniature boars was carried out. Semen volume and pH were similar among these boars. In one of the boars, sperm motility was slightly low, and sperm concentration and total number of sperm were significantly lower than in the others (P semen was substituted with various extenders (Kiev, Androhep, BTS and Modena) by centrifugation and semen was stored for 7 days at 15 degrees C. Sperm motility was estimated daily at 37 degrees C. For complete substitution of seminal plasma, Modena was significantly more efficient than the other extenders (P Semen from each of the 3 miniature boars that had been stored for 5 to 7 days at 15 degrees C in Modena was used for artificial insemination of 15 miniature sows. The farrowing rates were 100, 100 and 60%, and litter sizes were 6.4 +/- 1.5, 5.8 +/- 0.8 and 5.0 +/- 1.0 for each boar semen, respectively. The boar that sired the smallest farrowing rate was the same one that showed lower seminal quality with respect to sperm motility, sperm concentration and total number of sperm. These results suggest that miniature boar semen can be stored for at least 5 days at 15 degrees C by the substitution of seminal plasma with Modena extender.

  10. Semen quality improves marginally during young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perheentupa, Antti; Sadov, Sergey; Rönkä, Riitta

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does semen quality improve during early adulthood? SUMMARY ANSWER: Semen variables change little during the third decade of life, however some improvement in sperm morphology and motility may occur. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A suspicion of deteriorating semen quality has been raised...... in several studies. The longitudinal development of semen quality in early adulthood is insufficiently understood. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A longitudinal follow-up of two cohorts of volunteer young adult Finnish men representing the general population was carried out. Cohorts A (discovery cohort, born...... 1979-1981, n = 336) and B (validation cohort, born 1983, n = 197) were followed up from the age of 19 years onward for 10 years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Inclusion criteria included that both the men and their mothers were born in Finland. Semen analysis was performed in cohorts...

  11. Fertilisation rate obtained with frozen-thawed boar semen supplemented with rosmarinic acid using a single insemination timed according to vulvar skin temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luño, Victoria; Gil, Lydia; Olaciregui, Maite; Grandía, Juan; Ansó, Trinidad; De Blas, Ignacio

    2015-03-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of sows with frozen-thawed semen usually results in lower pregnancy rates and litter sizes than the use of liquid preserved semen. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of vulvar skin temperature changes as a predictor of ovulation in sows and determined the fertility rates obtained after AI with frozen-thawed semen supplemented with rosmarinic acid (RA). Semen was collected from mature boars and cryopreserved in experimental extenders supplemented with or without 105 μM of RA. Multiparous sows were inseminated with a single dose of semen when vulvar skin temperature decreased to a value below 35 °C. Intrauterine insemination was performed using 1.5 × 109 spermatozoa. The sows were slaughtered 48 h after AI and the embryos and oocytes were recovered from the oviducts. Total and progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity were significantly (P semen samples compared with the control. Fertilisation occurred in all sows inseminated in the study, although there were no significant differences between the experimental groups. Sows inseminated with RA-supplemented semen showed a slight increase in the number of embryos recovered as compared to sows inseminated with control semen. In conclusion, insemination according to vulvar skin temperature changes resulted in successful fertilisation in all sows, although supplementation of the freezing media with RA did not improve the fertilising ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm.

  12. Seasonal variation in semen quality of Boer and Angora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tage live sperm, determine the quality of the semen. The ob- ject of this trial was to evaluate the quality of Angora and. Boer goat semen collected throughout the year by means of artificial vagina and/or electrical stimulation, for the purpose of freezing semen and doing AI throughout the year. Procedure. Semen from five ...

  13. Fertility rate of daily collected and cryopreserved fowl semen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorst, van A.; Leenstra, F.R.

    1995-01-01

    Semen was collected for 4 consecutive d individually from experimental broiler breeder males that had not been massaged for 7 d. The semen was mixed and diluted with the Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as cryoprotectant and cryopreserved. After thawing of the semen,

  14. Alternatives to Antibiotics in Semen Extenders: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Morrell, Jane M.; Wallgren, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are added to semen extenders to be used for artificial insemination (AI) in livestock breeding to control bacterial contamination in semen arising during collection and processing. The antibiotics to be added and their concentrations for semen for international trade are specified by government directives. Since the animal production industry uses large quantities of semen for artificial insemination, large amounts of antibiotics are currently used in semen extenders. Possible alt...

  15. Simple and effective methods of freezing capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L. semen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Kowalczyk

    Full Text Available A continuous decline in the number and range of capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L. in many European countries can be observed, mostly due to habitat destruction by human activity, unecological forestry management, and increased density of natural predators. Ex situ in vitro gene banks provide a unique opportunity to preserve the genetic material for future generations. Simple and effective cryopreservation methods for capercaillie semen are discussed. Semen was collected from seven males kept in the Capercaillie Breeding Centre at Forestry Wisła in Poland. Within five minutes after collection, ejaculates were diluted with EK diluent, then divided into two parts, and subjected to two freezing procedures: in pellets and in straws. In fresh semen, ejaculate clearness, viscosity, color and volume, as well as sperm concentration, motility and morphology, were evaluated, while in frozen-thawed semen only motility and morphology of sperm were determined. Fertilizing ability of thawed semen was examined for samples frozen in straws. Significant (P<0.05 differences between individual males were found in relation to the majority of fresh semen traits: ejaculate volume averaged 102.1 µL (varying from 49.0 to 205.0; average sperm concentration was 632.5 x 10⁶ mL⁻¹ (178.8-1257.1; percentage of live normal cells varied from 39.2 to 70.3% (58.7% on an average; percentage of motile cells ranged from 76.0 to 85.7% and motility parameters were male dependent, as well. Both cryopreservation methods had a negative effect on morphology and motility of frozen-thawed semen; however, the straw method yielded 60.7% and the pellet method 42.5% of live cells in total in thawed semen (P<0.05, while the number of live normal (intact cells was similar (22.4 and 22.2%, respectively. Egg fertility varied between 77.8 and 91.7% (average 84.4%. Both freezing procedures seem to be effective in obtaining acceptable viability and high fertilizing potency of thawed sperm and

  16. Fertility test of frozen boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinowa, O; Salamon, S

    1976-10-01

    The fertility results of two experiments are presented. In experiment 1, the semen was frozen in tris-fructose-EDTA or BF3 diluents at 0-25 X 10(9)/ml sperm concentration and extended after thawing with either seminal plasma (SP) or the freezing medium (FM) containing no cryoprotective agent. In the second experiment the semen was glycerolated by two methods, frozen at 1-0 X 10(9)/ml sperm concentration, and extended wtih FM before insemination. Fertility after double insemination within one oestrus with semen frozen in tris-fructose-EDTA or BF3 diluents varied depending on the medium used for extension of thawed semen. The farrowing rates for semen frozen in the former diluent with FM and SP post-thawing media were 4/8 and 1/8 respectively, and for semen frozen BF3 diluent with FM and SP post-thawing extenders 1/8 and 5/8. The mean farrowing for the 32 animals inseminasted was 34-4%. Pregnancies for semen frozen in tris-fructose-EDTA and glycerolated at 30 or 5 degrees C were 5/12 and 4/12 respectively, and for single and double inseminations 6/12 and 3/12 respectively. Of 24 animals inseminated 37-5% farrowed.

  17. Do cigarette and alcohol affect semen analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zeynel Keskin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are a number of studies about the effect of cigarette and alcohol on semen parameters in the literature. There is not a consensus on the relationship between use of cigarette and alchol and semen parameters in those studies. The number of studies in which cigarette and alcohol use are evaluated together is limited. This study was aimed to analyze the effect of cigarette and/or alcohol use on semen parameters. Methods: In this prospective study, 762 patients who applied to an hospital urology polyclinic between January 2015 and March 2015 due to infertility, were questioned for alcohol and cigarette use in anamnesis. The remaining 356 patients were included in our study. Then, semen analysis of the patients was performed. The patients were divided into five groups according to cigarette use, into five groups according to alcohol use and into four groups according to cigarette and/or alcohol use. Significant differences were analyzed between the groups in terms of semen volume, semen concentration, total motility, forward motility and morphological (normality, head anomaly, neck anomaly, tail anomaly values. Results: According to cigarette use, only in group 4 (who use more than 20 package-years cigarette semen volume was significantly lower than the control group (Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.009. There was no significant difference in any of the other parameters and groups compared with the control group (Mann-Whitney U, p > 0,05 Conclusion:According to our study, using more than 20 package- years cigarette decreases semen volume. The reason of this result might be the fact that the threshold value, from which the effect of cigarette and alcohol use on the semen parameters has to be determined.

  18. PENGARUH PENGHILANGAN RAFINOSA DALAM PENGENCER TRIS AMINOMETHANE KUNING TELUR TERHADAP KUALITAS SEMEN KAMBING BOER SELAMA SIMPAN DINGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rochim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to examine the effect of removal raffinose in tris aminomethane egg yolk diluents to semen quality of Boer goat during chilled preservation. This research was carried out at Animal Reproduction Laboratory and Sumber Sekar Laboratory, Animal Husbandry Faculty, Brawijaya University from December 11th 2016 to  January 31th 2017. Semen diluent was divided into two groups, there were P0 (80% Tris Aminomethane + 20% Egg Yolk; and P1 (80% Tris Aminomethane (without raffinose + 20% Egg Yolk. Parameter of this research was motility percentage, viability percentage, and abnormality percentage. Data of this research was analyzed using paired design t test. The result showed that after five days chilled preservation, was different (P0,05 in P1 treatment compared to the expectation value of 40 million sperm/ml. The conclution of this research was the tris aminomethane egg yolk diluent without raffinose could protect of Boer goat semen quality during chilled preservation.   Keywords: boer goat semen, tris aminomethane, raffinose, chilled preservation

  19. Stainless steel welding and semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, J E; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1988-01-01

    Questionnaire studies of patients from fertility clinics suggest that welders may have an increased risk of reduced semen quality. In this study, welders and nonwelders from the same plants were asked to provide blood, urine, and semen samples. Urine was analyzed for chromium and nickel, and for ...... and nonwelders. Because the metal dust exposure of nonwelders in the plant may be higher than that in the general population, welders were also compared to referents not working in the metal industry. Again, no decrease in semen quality associated with welding was demonstrated....

  20. Rooster semen cryopreservation: effect of pedigree line and male age on postthaw sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J A; Bongalhardo, D C; Pelaéz, J; Saxena, S; Settar, P; O'Sullivan, N P; Fulton, J E

    2010-05-01

    The fertility rates of cryopreserved poultry semen are highly variable and not reliable for use in preservation of commercial genetic stocks. Our objective was to evaluate the cryosurvival of semen from 8 pedigreed layer lines at 2 different ages: the onset and end of commercial production. Semen from 160 roosters (20/line) was frozen individually with 11% glycerol at 6 and 12 mo of age. Glycerol was removed from thawed semen by Accudenz gradient centrifugation. The viability of thawed sperm from each male was determined using fluorescent live-dead staining and flow cytometry; sperm velocity parameters were measured using computerized motion analysis. The fertilizing ability of thawed sperm was evaluated in vitro by assessing hydrolysis of the inner perivitelline membrane. The postthaw function of sperm from the elite lines varied widely, despite the fact that fresh semen from all of these lines typically yielded high fertility rates. The percentage of thawed sperm with intact plasma membranes ranged from 27.8 + or - 2.1 to 49.6 + or - 1.9 and varied among lines and between age groups. Thawed sperm from 2 lines consistently demonstrated the highest and lowest motility parameters, whereas the velocity parameters of the remaining 6 lines varied widely. The mean number of hydrolysis points per square millimeter of inner perivitelline membrane ranged from 12.5 + or - 4.1 (line 2) to 103.3 + or - 30.2 (line 6). Age effects were observed for 4 out of 8 lines; however, improved postthaw sperm function at 12 mo of age was not consistent for all 3 assays. These results demonstrate variability among pedigreed lines in withstanding glycerol-based semen cryopreservation and provide a model for delineating genotypic and phenotypic factors affecting sperm cryosurvival.

  1. Freezing African elephant semen as a new population management tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hermes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The captive elephant population is not self-sustaining and with a limited number of breeding bulls, its genetic diversity is in decline. One way to overcome this is to import young and healthy animals from the wild. We introduce here a more sustainable alternative method - importation of semen from wild bulls without removing them from their natural habitat. Due to the logistics involved, the only practical option would be to transport cryopreserved sperm. Despite some early reports on African elephant semen cryopreservation, the utility of this new population management tool has not been evaluated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Semen was collected by electroejaculation from 14 wild African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana bulls and cryopreserved using the directional freezing technique. Sperm treatments evaluated included the need for centrifugation, the use of hen or quail yolk, the concentration of glycerol (3%, 5% or 7% in the extender, and maintenance of motility over time after thawing. Our results suggest that dilution in an extender containing hen yolk and 7% glycerol after centrifugation best preserved post-thaw sperm motility when compared to all other treatments (P≤0.012 for all. Using this approach we were able to achieve after thawing (mean ± SD 54.6±3.9% motility, 85.3±2.4% acrosome integrity, and 86.8±4.6% normal morphology with no decrease in motility over 1 h incubation at 37°C. Sperm cryopreserved during this study has already lead to a pregnancy of a captive female elephant following artificial insemination. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With working techniques for artificial insemination and sperm cryopreservation of both African and Asian elephants in hand, population managers can now enrich captive or isolated wild elephant populations without removing valuable individuals from their natural habitat.

  2. Alternatives to Antibiotics in Semen Extenders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. Morrell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are added to semen extenders to be used for artificial insemination (AI in livestock breeding to control bacterial contamination in semen arising during collection and processing. The antibiotics to be added and their concentrations for semen for international trade are specified by government directives. Since the animal production industry uses large quantities of semen for artificial insemination, large amounts of antibiotics are currently used in semen extenders. Possible alternatives to antibiotics are discussed, including physical removal of the bacteria during semen processing, as well as the development of novel antimicrobials. Colloid centrifugation, particularly Single Layer Centrifugation, when carried out with a strict aseptic technique, offers a feasible method for reducing bacterial contamination in semen and is a practical method for semen processing laboratories to adopt. However, none of these alternatives to antibiotics should replace strict attention to hygiene during semen collection and handling.

  3. Semen quality in the 21(st) century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Helena E; Jørgensen, Niels; Toppari, Jorma

    2017-01-01

    Although semen quality is an important determinant of fertility, defining clear thresholds for normal ranges has proven difficult. According to 'time to pregnancy' studies, fecundity starts to decline when sperm concentrations fall below 30-55 × 10(6)/ml, whereas the WHO criterion for normal values...... is currently 15 × 10(6)/ml. Multiple studies over the past 15 years have reported median sperm concentrations of 41-55 × 10(6)/ml in young men (mean age 18-21 years) from the general population, suggesting that many of them have suboptimal semen quality. Sperm numbers remain fairly constant between 19 and 29...... years of age, which points to the importance of developmental effects. Discussion on whether population semen quality has declined has continued for decades, as regional differences in trends have been noted. The reasons for poor semen quality and adverse trends are not well established, but some...

  4. Semen proteomics and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, Meritxell; Soler-Ventura, Ada; Oliva, Rafael

    2017-06-06

    Semen is a complex body fluid containing an admixture of spermatozoa suspended in secretions from the testes and epididymis which are mixed at the time of ejaculation with secretions from other accessory sex glands such as the prostate and seminal vesicles. High-throughput technologies have revealed that, contrary to the idea that sperm cells are simply a silent delivery vehicle of the male genome to the oocyte, the sperm cells in fact provide both a specific epigenetically marked DNA together with a complex population of proteins and RNAs crucial for embryogenesis. Similarly, -omic technologies have also enlightened that seminal fluid seems to play a much greater role than simply being a medium to carry the spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract. In the present review, we briefly overview the sperm cell biology, consider the key issues in sperm and seminal fluid sample preparation for high-throughput proteomic studies, describe the current state of the sperm and seminal fluid proteomes generated by high-throughput proteomic technologies and provide new insights into the potential communication between sperm and seminal fluid. In addition, comparative proteomic studies open a window to explore the potential pathogenic mechanisms of infertility and the discovery of potential biomarkers with clinical significance. The review updates the numerous proteomics studies performed on semen, including spermatozoa and seminal fluid. In addition, an integrative analysis of the testes, sperm and seminal fluid proteomes is also included providing insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the generation, maturation and transit of spermatozoa. Furthermore, the compilation of several differential proteomic studies focused on male infertility reveals potential pathways disturbed in specific subtypes of male infertility and points out towards future research directions in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ambient air pollution and semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Carrie J; Schisterman, Enrique F; Ha, Sandie; Kim, Keewan; Mumford, Sunni L; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Danping; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline

    2018-05-01

    Ambient air pollution is associated with systemic increases in oxidative stress, to which sperm are particularly sensitive. Although decrements in semen quality represent a key mechanism for impaired fecundability, prior research has not established a clear association between air pollution and semen quality. To address this, we evaluated the association between ambient air pollution and semen quality among men with moderate air pollution exposure. Of 501 couples in the LIFE study, 467 male partners provided one or more semen samples. Average residential exposure to criteria air pollutants and fine particle constituents in the 72 days before ejaculation was estimated using modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models. Generalized estimating equation models estimated the association between air pollutants and semen quality parameters (volume, count, percent hypo-osmotic swollen, motility, sperm head, morphology and sperm chromatin parameters). Models adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking and season. Most associations between air pollutants and semen parameters were small. However, associations were observed for an interquartile increase in fine particulates ≤2.5 µm and decreased sperm head size, including -0.22 (95% CI -0.34, -0.11) µm 2 for area, -0.06 (95% CI -0.09, -0.03) µm for length and -0.09 (95% CI -0.19, -0.06) µm for perimeter. Fine particulates were also associated with 1.03 (95% CI 0.40, 1.66) greater percent sperm head with acrosome. Air pollution exposure was not associated with semen quality, except for sperm head parameters. Moderate levels of ambient air pollution may not be a major contributor to semen quality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Update on sexed semen technology in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, G E

    2014-05-01

    The technology in current use for sexing sperm represents remarkable feats of engineering. These flow cytometer/cell sorters can make over 30 000 consecutive evaluations of individual sperm each second for each nozzle and sort the sperm into three containers: X-sperm, Y-sperm and unsexable plus dead sperm. Even at these speeds it is not economical to package sperm at standard numbers per inseminate. However, with excellent management, pregnancy rates in cattle with 2 million sexed sperm per insemination dose are about 80% of those with conventional semen at normal sperm doses. This lowered fertility, in part due to damage to sperm during sorting, plus the extra cost of sexed semen limits the applications that are economically feasible. Even so, on the order of 2 million doses of bovine semen are sexed annually in the United States. The main application is for dairy heifers to have heifer calves, either for herd expansion or for sale as replacements, often for eventual export. Breeders of purebred cattle often use sexed semen for specific matings; thawing and then sexing frozen semen and immediately using the few resulting sexed sperm for in vitro fertilization is done with increasing frequency. Beef cattle producers are starting to use sexed semen to produce crossbred female replacements. Proprietary improvements in sperm sexing procedures, implemented in 2013, are claimed to improve fertility between 4 and 6 percentage points, or about 10%.

  7. Human semen assays for workplace monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Gledhill, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    Decades of human semen studies have yielded compelling evidence that sperm can be used to access reproductive potential and diagnose pathology. With these studies as background, the small number of detailed semen studies of men exposed to physical and chemical agents point with optimism to the application of human semen assays as efficient, effective means to monitor for reproductive hazards in the workplace. Sperm are the most accessible of human gonadal tissue and provide a means of monitoring exposure induced changes in the human testes, changes which may result in infertility and increased frequencies of genetically abnormal gametes. The focus on semen has precipitated the development of new sperm bioassays which use older conventional andrological methods (i.e., sperm counts, motility, and morphology) as well as recently developed high speed flow and scanning methods for automated cytological analyses. The status of these sperm assays for workplace surveillance is reviewed, procedures are suggested with examples of use, and their effectiveness is evaluated. The available mouse models of induced semen changes are briefly described and the importance of these models for evaluating the genetic implications of findings in human semen is discussed

  8. Variation in semen parameters derived from computer-aided semen analysis, within donors and between donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijchman, JG; De Wolf, BTHM; Graaff, R; Arts, EGJM

    2001-01-01

    The development of computer-aided semen analysis (CASA) has made it possible to study sperm motility characteristics objectively and longitudinally. In this 2-year study of 8 sperm donors, we used CASA to measure 7 semen parameters (concentration, percentage of motile spermatozoa, curvilinear

  9. USE OF ALTERNATIVE EXTENDERS AND TEMPERATURES IN LONG TERM STORAGE OF BOAR SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Raquel Santos Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of appropriate extenders is important for the success of an artificial insemination program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative extenders for swine semen at different temperatures (17 to 10 °C. The following extenders were used: Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS, powdered coconut water (ACP-103®, and skimmed milk powder (LPD. The 50 ejaculates were analyzed daily, in natura and after dilution, during the 5-day period of semen preservation  (D0 to D4, regarding spermatic vigor and motility. Acrosome integrity and sperm viability were evaluated on D0 and D4. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Students, Tukey and chi-square tests (p<0.05. The LPD extender at 10 °C presented higher motility and sperm vigor compared to BTS and ACP until D2, and to treatments stored at 17 °C. Acrosome vitality and integrity remained higher (p<0.001 with LPD at 10 °C on D0 and D4. LPD showed to be a good extender for the swine semen at lower temperature (10 °C. Furthermore, it provided better protection to sperm cells, by allowing greater integrity and vitality of the acrosome. Keywords: coconut water; conservation; skimmed milk; semen boar.

  10. Foreword [IJEGMBE 2015: India-Japan expert group meeting on biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environment preservation, Fukuoka (Japan), 23-26 December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    There is increased interest in organic nanotechnology and biomolecular electronics for environmental preservation, and in their anticipated impact on the economics of both the developing and the developed world. Keeping this in mind, the Department of Biological Functions, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology (KIT), Kitakyushu, Japan, and the Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics (DSTCBE), National Physical Laboratory (NPL) jointly organized the India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics and Organic Nanotechnology for Environmental Preservation (IJWBME 2009) at NPL, New Delhi from 17 th - 19 th December 2009, IJWBME 2011 at EGRET Himeji, Himeji, from 7 th - 10 th December, Japan, and IJWBME 2013 at Delhi Technological University, New Delhi, from 13 th - 15 th December. The India-Japan Expert Group Meeting on Biomolecular Electronics and Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation (IJEGMBE) will be held from 22 th – 25 th , December, 2015, at Nakamura Centenary Memorial Hall, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan in association with Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India. Recent years have seen rapid growth in the area of Biomolecular Electronics involving the association and expertise of physicists, biologists, chemists, electronics engineers and information technologists. There is increasing interest in the development of nanotechnology and biomolecular electronic devices for the preservation of our precious environment. In this context, the world of the electronics, which developed on Si semiconductors, is going to change drastically. A paradigm shift towards organic or printed electronics is more likely in the future. The field of organic electronics promises exciting new technologies based on inexpensive and mechanically flexible electronic devices, and is now starting to see commercial success. On the sidelines of this increasingly well

  11. History of febrile illness and variation in semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Elisabeth; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of a history of febrile illness on semen quality.......The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of a history of febrile illness on semen quality....

  12. Enriching the captive elephant population genetic pool through artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen collected in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, T B; Hermes, R; Saragusty, J; Potier, R; Schwammer, H M; Balfanz, F; Vielgrader, H; Baker, B; Bartels, P; Göritz, F

    2012-10-01

    The first successful AI in an elephant was reported in 1998, using fresh semen. Since then almost 40 calves have been produced through AI in both Asian and African elephants worldwide. Following these successes, with the objective of enriching the captive population with genetic material from the wild, we evaluated the possibility of using frozen-thawed semen collected from wild bulls for AI in captivity. Semen, collected from a 36-yr-old wild African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) in South Africa was frozen using the directional freezing technique. This frozen-thawed semen was used for four inseminations over two consecutive days, two before and two after ovulation, in a 26-yr-old female African savanna elephant in Austria. Insemination dose of 1200 × 10(6) cells per AI with 61% motility resulted in pregnancy, which was confirmed through ultrasound examination 75, 110 and 141 days after the AI procedure. This represents the first successful AI using wild bull frozen-thawed semen in elephants. The incorporation of AI with frozen-thawed semen into the assisted reproduction toolbox opens the way to preserve and transport semen between distant individuals in captivity or, as was done in this study, between wild and captive populations, without the need to transport stressed or potentially disease-carrying animals or to remove animals from the wild. In addition, cryopreserved spermatozoa, in combination with AI, are useful methods to extend the reproductive lifespan of individuals beyond their biological lifespan and an important tool for genetic diversity management and phenotype selection in these endangered mammals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  14. Liquid Storage of Boar Semen Using Commercial Extenders

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu BOGDAN; Mihai CENARIU; Mihai BORZAN; Simona CIUPE; Lehel SZABO; Emoke PALL

    2018-01-01

    The research was focused on the modern evaluation of boar semen parameters, using computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA), before and after liquid storage at 15ºC. Semen was collected from 15 sexually mature boars by manual stimulation. Macroscopical and microscopical evaluation of semen was performed, followed by a detailed CASA analysis of all ejaculates. Subsequently, semen was diluted using 4 different extenders (Semtest, Androstar, MIII and Cronos) and stored at 15ºC for 24 hours. Next, ...

  15. Vitamin B12 and Semen Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Saleem Ali

    2017-06-09

    Various studies have revealed the effects of vitamin B12, also named cobalamin, on semen quality and sperm physiology; however, these studies collectively are still unsummarized. Here, we systematically discuss and summarize the currently understood role of vitamin B12 on semen quality and sperm physiology. We searched the Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases for only English language articles or abstracts from September 1961 to March 2017 (inclusive) using the key words "vitamin B12" and "cobalamin" versus "sperm". Certain relevant references were included to support the empirical as well as the mechanistic discussions. In conclusion, the mainstream published work demonstrates the positive effects of vitamin B12 on semen quality: first, by increasing sperm count, and by enhancing sperm motility and reducing sperm DNA damage, though there are a few in vivo system studies that have deliberated some adverse effects. The beneficial effects of vitamin B12 on semen quality may be due to increased functionality of reproductive organs, decreased homocysteine toxicity, reduced amounts of generated nitric oxide, decreased levels of oxidative damage to sperm, reduced amount of energy produced by spermatozoa, decreased inflammation-induced semen impairment, and control of nuclear factor-κB activation. However, additional research, mainly clinical, is still needed to confirm these positive effects.

  16. Vitamin B12 and Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Ali Banihani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have revealed the effects of vitamin B12, also named cobalamin, on semen quality and sperm physiology; however, these studies collectively are still unsummarized. Here, we systematically discuss and summarize the currently understood role of vitamin B12 on semen quality and sperm physiology. We searched the Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases for only English language articles or abstracts from September 1961 to March 2017 (inclusive using the key words “vitamin B12” and “cobalamin” versus “sperm”. Certain relevant references were included to support the empirical as well as the mechanistic discussions. In conclusion, the mainstream published work demonstrates the positive effects of vitamin B12 on semen quality: first, by increasing sperm count, and by enhancing sperm motility and reducing sperm DNA damage, though there are a few in vivo system studies that have deliberated some adverse effects. The beneficial effects of vitamin B12 on semen quality may be due to increased functionality of reproductive organs, decreased homocysteine toxicity, reduced amounts of generated nitric oxide, decreased levels of oxidative damage to sperm, reduced amount of energy produced by spermatozoa, decreased inflammation-induced semen impairment, and control of nuclear factor-κB activation. However, additional research, mainly clinical, is still needed to confirm these positive effects.

  17. Do perfluoroalkyl compounds impair human semen quality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Bossi, Rossana; Leffers, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in wildlife and humans and are suspected to act as endocrine disruptors. There are no previous reports of PFAA levels in adult men from Denmark or of a possible association between semen quality and PFAA exposure. OBJECTIVES: We investig......BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in wildlife and humans and are suspected to act as endocrine disruptors. There are no previous reports of PFAA levels in adult men from Denmark or of a possible association between semen quality and PFAA exposure. OBJECTIVES: We...... investigated possible associations between PFAAs and testicular function. We hypothesized that higher PFAA levels would be associated with lower semen quality and lower testosterone levels. METHODS: We analyzed serum samples for levels of 10 different PFAAs and reproductive hormones and assessed semen quality......-gonadal hormones among men with high PFOS-PFOA levels. CONCLUSION: High PFAA levels were associated with fewer normal sperm. Thus, high levels of PFAAs may contribute to the otherwise unexplained low semen quality often seen in young men. However, our findings need to be corroborated in larger studies....

  18. Male obesity and semen quality: Any association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obose Rufus

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Infertility as well as obesity are risng global concern. Whilst there is an established association between female obesity and infertility, a similar link is yet to be proven in men. Objective: To determine the effects of elevated body mass index (BMI on semen quality among male partners of infertile couples attending an infertility clinic. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 206 men who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Selected participants were grouped according to their BMI (kg/m2: normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2 and elevated BMI (≥25 kg/m2. The effect of weight on semen quality was assessed based on sperm count, percentage motility, and morphology. Results: The number of participants with normal BMI was 110 (53.4% while those with elevated BMI were 96 (46.6%. Of the participants in elevated BMI group, 52 (25.2% were overweight and 44 (21.4% were obese. There was no statistically significant difference in the semen quality as well as the pattern of semen parameter abnormalities between males with normal and elevated BMI (overweight or obese (p=0.813. Conclusion: Elevated BMI did not significantly influence semen quality.

  19. Effects of in vitro storage time and semen-extender on membrane quality of boar sperm assessed by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, K E; De Angelis, P M; Haugan, T; Paulenz, H; Hofmo, P O; Farstad, W

    2004-12-01

    The Norwegian AI company Norsvin has used the short-term semen-extender BTS to extend and store boar semen since the late 1980s. Fertility results have been consistent when extended semen has been used for AI within 3 days after collection, however, from a production and economic point of view it is preferable that semen stored for up to 5 days can be used. The aim of this study was to compare membrane quality of sperm stored in BTS for 3 days with sperm stored in the long-term semen-extenders Androstar, Mulberry III and X-cell for 5 days. Using a split-sample design, plasma membrane- and acrosome-integrity were assessed flow cytometrically by use of Yo-Pro-1 and PNA-FITC, and fluidity and phospholipid asymmetry of the membrane were assessed by use of MC540 and Annexin V-FITC. Due to observed sperm fragmentation in Androstar after Day 1, the data for Androstar were excluded from the analyses. After 5 days of storage, the membrane quality of X-cell-stored sperm was not statistically different from that of sperm stored in BTS for 3 days, while membrane quality of sperm stored in Mulberry III was statistically better on Day 5 compared to BTS on Day 3. In conclusion, Mulberry III and X-cell preserve sperm quality, as well as that of BTS on Day 3, for up to 5 days after collection.

  20. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32... semen. (a) Honeybees from any country may be imported into the U.S. by the Department of Agriculture for.... (b) Honeybee semen may be imported into the U.S. only from countries determined by the Secretary of...

  1. Revisit Of Current Patterns Of Semen Quality Among Male Partners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 61% of the patients produced semen by coitus interruptus while, 34.3% obtained their samples by masturbation. Majority of the patients (70.1%) produced semen volume of greater than 2mls, while 29.9% produced semen of less than 2mls. Of the total number, 34.7% were normozoospermia while, 65.3% had one ...

  2. Characterization and usage of sexed semen from US field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to characterize sexed semen available and its usage from US field data. This included investigating active Holstein proven bulls with sexed semen available, as well as percentages and frequencies of sexed semen matings for heifers and cows. Herds were also characterized for the...

  3. Between male variation in semen characteristics and preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Semen was collected daily from one or two pairs of males using the dummy female method, each pair being replicated twice. Spermatozoa viability in neat semen, SPS, SPD and DMEM was assessed using nigrosin-eosin staining and the proportions of live normal, live abnormal and dead sperm were determined. Semen ...

  4. Inter- and intra-breed comparative study of sperm motility and viability in Iberian and Duroc boar semen during long-term storage in MR-A and XCell extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hidalgo, D; Barón, F J; Robina, A; Bragado, M J; Llera, A Hurtado de; García-Marín, L J; Gil, M C

    2013-06-01

    During boar semen liquid preservation, extender is one of the factors that influence storage tolerance of spermatozoa. However, there are few studies about intra-breed variation in the preservation of semen quality during storage in different extenders. Similarly, boar breed is generally not considered a possible factor influencing variation in the semen storage tolerance in a particular extender. The aim of this study was to compare boar semen storage potential, in terms of the ability to maintain sperm viability and motility, of two currently used long-term extenders, MR-A and XCell. Extended semen from two breeds, Iberian and Duroc that had been stored at 17°C for up to 7 days was used. Intra- and inter-breed effect was studied. On Days 1, 4 and 7 (Day 0=day of semen collection), motility parameters and the percentage of total motile sperm and progressively motile sperm using a CASA system was evaluated. Viability (SYBR-14/PI) was evaluated by flow cytometry. Within each breed and for each storage day, there were differences between extenders, although semen tolerance to preservation was more influenced by the extender in the Iberian than in the Duroc breed. Neither breed nor extender influenced the percentage of viable spermatozoa during the storage time. Moreover, differences in motility parameters were observed between breeds, although the differences were greater when the XCell extender was used. In conclusion, both extender and breed influence motility characteristics of liquid-stored boar semen, so both aspects have to be considered in the design of comparative studies about stored boar semen quality from different breeds or with different extenders. Further studies are needed to corroborate these findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Semen quality in Peruvian pesticide applicators: association between urinary organophosphate metabolites and semen parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasco Manuel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphates are broad class of chemicals widely used as pesticides throughout the world. We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphates and semen quality among pesticide applicators in Majes (Arequipa, Peru. Methods Thirty-one men exposed to organophosphate (OP pesticides and 31 non-exposed were recruited (age, 20–60 years. In exposed subjects, semen and a blood sample were obtained one day after the last pesticide application. Subjects were grouped according to levels of OP metabolites in urine. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, percentage of normal morphology, semen leucocytes and concentrations of fructose and zinc. Exposure to OP was assessed by measuring six urinary OP metabolites (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates and thiophosphates by gas chromatography using a single flame photometric detector. Results Diethyldithiophosphate (p = 0.04 and diethylthiophosphate (p = 0.02 better reflected occupational pesticide exposure than other OP metabolites. Semen analysis revealed a significant reduction of semen volume and an increase in semen pH in men with OP metabolites. Multiple regression analysis showed that both occupational exposure to pesticides and the time of exposure to pesticides were more closely related to alterations in semen quality parameters than the single measurement of OP metabolites in urine. Conclusion The study demonstrated that occupational exposure to OP pesticides was more closely related to alterations in semen quality than a single measurement of urine OP metabolites. Current measurement of OP metabolites in urine may not reflect the full risk.

  6. Cryopreservation of boar semen in mini- and maxi-straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, C O; de Braganca, M M; Einarsson, S; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    1990-10-01

    Split ejaculates from four boars were frozen with a programmable freezing machine, in mini- (0.25 ml) and maxi- (5 ml) plastic straws with an extender at either acidic (6.3) or alkaline (7.4) pH. Glycerol (3%) was used as cryoprotectant. The freezing of the semen was monitored by way of thermocouples placed in the straws. Post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity were evaluated; the latter using phase contrast microscopy, eosin-nigrosin stain and electron microscopy. Post-thaw sperm motility was significantly higher when semen was frozen in mini-straws than in maxi-straws. For the mini-straws, the motility was better when semen was exposed to an acidic environment during freezing, but this beneficial effect of the low extracellular pH was not evident when maxi-straws were thawed. The motility of the spermatozoa diminished significantly during the thermoresistance test (0 h and 2 h time) at 37 degrees C in a similar way for both straws and extracellular pH's. The freezing procedure, no matter the extracellular pH, did not cause major acrosomal damages, but significantly more normal apical ridges were present in the mini-straws than in the maxi-straws. This in vitro evaluation indicated that the freezing method employed was better for mini- than for maxi-straws since the freezing of the 5 ml volumes was not homogeneous, due to the large section area between the surface and the core of the straw.

  7. Technique of radiation polymerization in fine art conservation: a potentially new method of restoration and preservation. [Uv and electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnett, J.L. (Univ. of New South Wales, Kensington, Australia); Major, G.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of using radiation polymerization for the restoration and preservation of art treasures is considered. The processes discussed include both radiation grafting and rapid cure procedures, particularly reactions initiated by uv and eb. Representative examples where the technique has already been used are treated including typical applications with paintings, tapestries, leather and archival repair. The structure of the monomers and oligomers used in both grafting and rapid cure systems is outlined. The experimental conditions where grafting may occur during radiation rapid cure processing are discussed. Possible future developments of the technique are outlined. 1 figure, 8 tables.

  8. Development of soya milk extender for semen cryopreservation of Karan Fries (crossbreed cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V K; Singh, A K; Kumar, R; Atreja, S K

    2013-01-01

    Egg yolk based semen extenders are used widely, with the potential risk of xenobiotic contamination. This study was designed to develop a soya milk based extender to substitute egg yolk based extender for bovine semen cryopreservation. In the first experiment soya milk was prepared from fresh soya bean (Glycine max). Concentration of soya milk in tris based extender was standardized based on quality parameters of spermatozoa during liquid preservation at 5°C up to 72 h and compared with egg yolk tris (EYT) extender. Sperm in soya milk tris (SMT) extender with 25 percent soya milk showed no significant (P > 0.05) differences in all the quality parameters like motility, viability, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity, as compared to sperm in EYT extender up to 72h in liquid dilution. In the second experiment the Karan Fries semen was cryopreserved in SMT extender with 25 percent soya milk (selected from the first experiment) using different concentration of glycerol, as cryoprotectant, ranging from 6-7 percent with a difference of 0.2 percent to standardize optimum concentration based on post thaw motility of spermatozoa. Glycerol at a final concentration of 6.4 percent was found to be the best among all. Further, semen samples were split and cryopreserved in newly developed SMT extender containing 6.4 percent glycerol and compared with conventional EYT extender for post thaw sperm quality parameters and degree of cryocapacitation. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between sperm in EYT extender and SMT extender for post thaw motility, viability, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and cryocapacitation. In conclusion, the newly developed SMT extender maintained comparable semen quality as compared to EYT extender hence it can.

  9. Semen quality before cryopreservation and after thawing in 543 patients with testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenna, Antonio; Crosby, Javier; Huidobro, Cristián; Correa, Eduardo; Duque, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to assess semen characteristics of patients with testicular cancer before cryopreservation and after thawing, to evaluate the consequences of this technique on sperm quality in patients with testicular cancer. Methods Five hundred eighty-nine samples from 543 patients with testicular cancer were cryopreserved between 1995 and 2015, one aliquot per patient was used for a thawing test to assess the impact of cryopreservation on sperm motility; semen analysis was performed before cryo preservation and after thawing, the result interpretation was carried out using the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) Laboratory Manual, and consent forms were signed by the patients for freezing and when sperm was used for reproductive purposes. Results Hypospermia was observed in 28.7% of samples, the median sperm concentration was 18 million/mL with 35% oligozoospermia; twenty-two patients (4.1%) had azoospermia and 12.7% had severe oligozoospermia, the median sperm count was 31.3 million and 261 semen samples (44.3%) were normal in all parameters according to the WHO; total motile sperm count before cryopreservation and after thawing was 12 (0-412.2) and 7 (0-303.9) million sperm, respectively (p < 0.00001, 95% CI 5.48-14.91), which represents a 32% reduction; concerning the utilization of cryopreserved semen samples, only twelve patients (2.2%) used their frozen sperm for reproductive purposes. Conclusions An impairment in semen quality was found in almost half of the samples from patients with testicular cancer, only few patients had azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia; sperm cryopreservation significantly reduces sperm motility and total motile sperm count and very few patients use their frozen sperm for reproductive purposes. PMID:28333030

  10. Urethral anatomy and semen flow during ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Diane

    2016-11-01

    Ejaculation is critical for reproductive success in many animals, but little is known about its hydrodynamics. In mammals, ejaculation pushes semen along the length of the penis through the urethra. Although the urethra also carries urine during micturition, the flow dynamics of micturition and ejaculation differ: semen is more viscous than urine, and the pressure that drives its flow is derived primarily from the rhythmic contractions of muscles at the base of the penis, which produce pulsatile rather than steady flow. In contrast, Johnston et al. (2014) describe a steady flow of semen through the crocodilian urethral groove during ejaculation. Anatomical differences of tissues associated with mammalian and crocodilian urethral structures may underlie these differences in flow behavior.

  11. Comparison of Two Different Methods Used for Semen Evaluation: Analysis of Semen Samples from 1,055 Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçer, Murat; Kucukdurmaz, Faruk; Salabas, Emre; Ortac, Mazhar; Aktan, Gulsan; Kadioglu, Ates

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is a difference between gravimetrically and volumetrically measured semen samples and to assess the impact of semen volume, density, and sperm count on the discrepancy between gravimetric and volumetric methods. This study was designed in an andrology laboratory setting and performed on semen samples of 1,055 men receiving infertility treatment. Semen volume was calculated by gravimetric and volumetric methods. The total sperm count, semen density and sperm viability were also examined according to recent version of World Health Organization manual. The median values for gravimetric and volumetric measurements were 3.44 g and 2.96 ml respectively. The numeric difference in semen volume between 2 methods was 0.48. The mean density of samples was 1.01 ± 0.46 g/ml (range 0.90-2.0 g/ml). The numeric difference between 2 methods gets higher as semen volume increases (p semen volume measurements were strongly correlated for all samples and for each subgroup of semen volume, semen density and sperm count, with minimum correlation coefficient of 0.895 (p semen volume increases. However, further studies are needed to offer the use of gravimetrical method, which was thought to minimize laboratory errors, particularly for a high amount of semen samples. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Effect of alternate day collection on semen quality of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with poor initial fresh semen quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imrat, P.; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote; Suthanmapinanth, P.; Kornkaewrat, K.; Sombutputorn, P.; Jansittiwate, S.; Thongtip, Nikorn; Pinyopummin, A.; Colenbrander, B.; Holt, W.V.; Stout, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In captivity, male Asian elephants often yield poor quality semen after transrectal manually assisted semen collection; however, the reasons for the disappointing semen quality are not clear. Here we test the hypothesis that accumulation of senescent spermatozoa is a contributory factor, and that

  13. Pembuatan dan Pengujian Kualitas Semen Portland Yang Diperkaya Silikat Abu Ampas Tebu

    OpenAIRE

    Suci Wulandari, Indah Pratama

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini mengkaji pengaruh penambahan abu ampas tebu terhadap kuat tekan mortar dan sifat fisis semen portland komposit, meliputi: kehalusan semen, kebutuhan air semen, waktu pengikatan semen, pemuaian dan komposisi kimia semen. Dari hasil penelitian, besar kuat tekan pada penggunaan abu ampas tebu dengan kadar 9% merupakan penambahan optimum pada mortar yang direndam larutan kapur jenuh Sedangkan dari hasil pengujian fisis yang meliputi kehalusan semen, kebutuhan air semen, waktu pengi...

  14. Strategies for Processing Semen from Subfertile Stallions for Cooled Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Dickson D

    2016-12-01

    Subfertility can be a confusing term because some semen of good quality can have reduced fertility following cooled transport if the semen is processed in an improper manner. General procedures aimed at processing stallion semen for cooled transport are well described. An array of factors could exist in reduced fertility of cool-transported semen. This article focuses on centrifugation techniques that can be used to maximize sperm quality of stallions whose semen is intended for cooled transport. Clinical cases are also provided for practical application of techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Collection and characterization of semen from green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Dawn M; Mitchell, Mark A; Perry, Brittany Heggem

    2013-12-01

    To determine an efficient method for the collection of semen samples by means of electroejaculation, characterize spermatozoa quality and quantity, and determine the effect of refrigerated storage on motility of spermatozoa obtained from green iguanas (Iguana iguana). 18 adult green iguanas. Green iguanas were anesthetized, and semen samples were obtained by means of electroejaculation. Up to 3 series of electrostimulations were performed; the procedure was stopped after a semen sample was obtained. Various semen sample variables were evaluated. Semen samples were obtained from 16 iguanas; most (n = 10) iguanas produced a semen sample after the second series of electrostimulations. Median semen sample volume was 0.05 mL. Mean spermatozoa concentration was 2 69.0 × 10(6) spermatozoa/mL. Median percentage of motile spermatozoa was 78%. The only morphological abnormality of spermatozoa was bent tails (mean percentage in a semen sample, 5.7%). Spermatozoa motility decreased significantly during refrigeration (4°C); median percentage motility after 24, 48, and 72 hours of refrigeration was 60%, 33%, and 0%, respectively. Results of this study suggested electroejaculation can be performed to collect semen samples from green iguanas, characteristics of iguana semen samples are similar to those for semen samples obtained from other reptiles, and motility of iguana spermatozoa decreases during refrigeration within 48 to 72 hours.

  16. Collecting, Preserving, and Interpreting the History of Electronic Games: An Interview with Jon-Paul C. Dyson

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Play, 2017

    2017-01-01

    Jon-Paul C. Dyson is vice president for exhibits and director of the International Center for the History of Electronic Games (ICHEG) at The Strong. Trained as a cultural and intellectual historian, he joined The Strong in 1998 and has worked on and supervised the development of dozens of exhibits on play and video games. He initiated the museum's…

  17. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  18. Cryopreservation of South African indigenous goat semen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... sperm cell motility rate of 83.1%, progressive sperm cell motility of 49.3% ... cells can be stored and used after a long period of time. ... artificial insemination to enhance improvement of .... Effect of cryopreservation on semen quality (mean ± S.E) of South African .... Successful pregnancies with directional.

  19. Correlation of phthalate exposures with semen quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, Niraj; Shukla, Manju; Kumar Patel, Devendra; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Mathur, Neeraj; Kumar Gupta, Yogendra; Saxena, Daya Krishna

    2008-01-01

    Phthalates are widely used man-made chemical released in the environment and human exposure is mainly through diet. As the phthalate plasticizers are not covalently bound to PVC, they can leach, migrate or evaporate into the environment and as a result have become ubiquitously contaminants. The present study investigates the correlation, if any, between the phthalate esters (DEP, DEHP, DBP, DMP, DOP) and sperm mitochondrial status, ROS, LPO, SCSA, and sperm quality. The study was conducted in the urban/rural population of Lucknow visiting Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, CSMMU, Lucknow. Semen analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines while phthalate analysis by HPLC and LPO by spectrophotometer and the sperm mitochondrial status, ROS, SCSA using flow cytometry. The questionnaire data showed no significant difference in the demographic characteristics among the groups. In general, urban population was found to have statistically significant higher levels of phthalate esters than the rural. Further, infertile men showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) higher levels of pollutants in the semen than fertile men. A negative correlation between semen phthalate level viz DEHP and sperm quality and positive association with depolarized mitochondria, elevation in ROS production and LPO, DNA fragmentation was established. The findings are suggestive that phthalates might be one among the contributing factors associated with the deterioration in semen quality and these adverse effects might be ROS, LPO and mitochondrial dysfunction mediated

  20. Presence of human papillomavirus in semen in relation to semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttmer, Roosmarijn; Dijkstra, Maaike G; Snijders, Peter J F; Hompes, Peter G A; Pronk, Divera T M; Hubeek, Isabelle; Berkhof, Johannes; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2016-02-01

    Is the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in semen associated with impairment of semen quality? In a large cohort of males seeking fertility evaluation, no associations were observed between seminal HPV presence and semen parameters. HPV is commonly detected in semen samples. Whether the presence of HPV is related to impairment of semen quality, remains unclear. This cross-sectional study included a cohort of 430 males. Male partners in couples seeking fertility evaluation provided one semen sample per person. Semen samples were tested for HPV-DNA using GP5+/6+-PCR. Sperm concentration was counted and motility was assessed in a Makler counting chamber at a magnification of ×200. The presence of antisperm antibodies was assessed by a mixed agglutination reaction (MAR)-test. Overall HPV was detected in 14.9% (64/430) of semen samples, including 2.1% (9/430) that contained both high-risk (hr) HPV and low-risk (lr) HPV types, 8.8% (38/430) with exclusively hrHPV types and 4.0% (17/430) with exclusively lrHPV types. The presence of HPV in semen was not associated with the age of the participants, seminal pH, semen volume, total sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility or the presence of antisperm antibodies. This study did not observe an association between HPV presence in semen and impairment of semen quality. However, we cannot exclude an effect of seminal HPV on early embryo development and clinical reproductive outcomes. As HPV is frequently present in semen, screening of donor semen for HPV should be considered to prevent iatrogenic cervical HPV infections in the recipient. However our findings do not support standardized HPV testing of semen in the diagnostic work-up of subfertile couples. This study was sponsored by an unrestricted grant of Stichting Researchfonds Pathology Amsterdam, the Netherlands. P.J.F.S. has been on the speakers bureau of Roche, Gen-Probe, Abbott, Qiagen and Seegene and has been a consultant for Crucell B.V. J.B. has been

  1. Cryopreservation of Sambar deer semen in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongpralub, Thevin; Chinchiyanond, Wittaya; Hongkuntod, Pornchai; Sanchaisuriya, Pitcharat; Liangpaiboon, Sanan; Thongprayoon, Areeya; Somphol, Noppadon

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of the different freezing and thawing techniques for post-thaw survival of spermatozoa in Sambar deer. So, this study determined the effect of seminal plasma, egg yolk and glycerol extenders and their concentrations, plus cooling, freezing, and thawing protocols on the post-thaw quality of their semen. Semen samples were collected by electro-ejaculation from four Thai Sambar deer stags (Cervus unicolor equinus). As evaluated by post-thaw progressive motility and acrosome integrity removal of seminal plasma was beneficial; Tris-egg yolk was the most efficient extender; a 20% egg yolk concentration was better than the 0%, 10%, or 30%; and a 3% glycerol concentration was better than 5%, 7%, or 9%. Using the optimum dilution techniques, semen was loaded in 0.5 ml plastic straws. Cooling times from ambient temperature to 5°C in 3 hr resulted in higher post-thaw progressive motility and acrosome integrity than 1, 2, or 4 hr. Suspending the straws 4 cm above the surface for 15 min before plunging into liquid nitrogen was better than suspending at 2 or 6 cm. For thawing frozen semen, an intermediate thawing (50°C, 8 sec) protocol was more effective than the slower (37°C, 10 sec) or faster (70°C, 5 sec) thawing rates. Timed insemination following estrus synchronization of 10 hinds resulted in six confirmed pregnancies at 60 days. Five hinds delivered live fawns. This study provides an effective approach for semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI), which should be valuable to scientists for genetics and reproductive management of Sambar deer in developing countries. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effect of production management on semen quality during long-term storage in different European boar studs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Kuster, C; Schäfer, J; Jung, M; Grossfeld, R

    2018-03-01

    The processing of ejaculates is a fundamental step for the fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa. The aim of the present study was to identify factors that affect quality of boar semen doses. The production process during 1 day of semen processing in 26 European boar studs was monitored. In each boar stud, nine to 19 randomly selected ejaculates from 372 Pietrain boars were analyzed for sperm motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and thermo-resistance (TRT). Each ejaculate was monitored for production time and temperature for each step in semen processing using the special programmed software SEQU (version 1.7, Minitüb, Tiefenbach, Germany). The dilution of ejaculates with a short-term extender was completed in one step in 10 AI centers (n = 135 ejaculates), in two steps in 11 AI centers (n = 158 ejaculates) and in three steps in five AI centers (n = 79 ejaculates). Results indicated there was a greater semen quality with one-step isothermal dilution compared with the multi-step dilution of AI semen doses (total motility TRT d7: 71.1 ± 19.2%, 64.6 ± 20.0%, 47.1 ± 27.1%; one-step compared with two-step compared with the three-step dilution; P < .05). There was a marked advantage when using the one-step isothermal dilution regarding time management, preservation suitability, stability and stress resistance. One-step dilution caused significant lower holding times of raw ejaculates and reduced the possible risk of making mistakes due to a lower number of processing steps. These results lead to refined recommendations for boar semen processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Case studies in live electronic music preservation : Recasting Jorge Peixinho's Harmónicos (1967-1986 and Sax-Blue (1984-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António de Sousa Dias

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We present two examples of technology transfer from analogical to digital systems, in two works of live electroacoustic music by the Portuguese composer Jorge Peixinho (1940-1995, Harmónicos (1967 and Sax-Blue (1982. These works require the use of analogue technology that has become obsolete or difficult to access by the average performer. We think that migration from electronics to software, also referred as recast represents a necessary step to preserve live electroacoustic music. However, this process can pose multiple questions as it also relies on aesthetic considerations. In this case, we put on a considerable effort into understanding both the composer's intentions and the equipment operating mode and we think the solutions proposed are adequate to perform both works. Finally, we discuss some of the questions, solutions and limitations that arose with these recasts and how they can contribute to the sustainability problem concerning these works.

  4. Membrane status and in vitro capacitation of porcine sperm preserved in long-term extender at 16 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo-Nava, J; Fierro, R; Gutierrez, C G; Betancourt, M

    2003-01-01

    Preservation of porcine semen in long-term extenders at 15-18 degrees C for more than 5 days results in decreased farrowing rates and reduced litter size after artificial insemination, despite the high progressive motility rates of sperm. To improve this preservation system it is necessary to understand sperm physiology under storage conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of storing diluted porcine semen (during 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days) on the sperm membranes status and the ability of sperm to respond to in vitro capacitation treatment. Ten semen samples from 5 adult boars were analyzed. Two aliquots were obtained from the sperm-rich fraction: one was used to assess fresh semen and the other was diluted in Reading extender and stored at 16 degrees C. Both semen samples were stained with chlortetracycline to assess the status of sperm membranes and with Hoechst 33258 to determine viability. Semen storage for 4-8 days increased the proportion of prematurely capacitated sperm. After 4 days of storage, in vitro capacitation treatment did not increase the percentage of capacitated sperm, but increased the percentage of acrosome reacted sperm. This phenomenon could explain the reduced fertilizing ability of porcine semen stored at 16 degrees C for over 4 days, in spite of the acceptable sperm viability and progressive motility.

  5. Semen collection and fertility in naturally fertile sandhill cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Taylor, J.A.; Urbanek, R.P.; Stahlecker, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Aviculturists often ask if semen collection will interfere with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had produced fertile eggs in previous years and were in out-of-doors pens scattered throughout different pen complexes, within auditory range but physically isolated. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection did not affect semen quality or quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm live, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation (P semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we observed no differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. Sires consistently producing better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60).

  6. Uso do diluente água de coco em pó (ACP-103® na conservação prolongada do sêmen do varrão: avaliação in vitro e in vivo Use of powder coconut water as extender (ACP-103® for boar semen longer preservation: in vitro and in vivo evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Toniolli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O sêmen de oito reprodutores foi coletado e de cada ejaculado separou-se um total de 1,75x10(9sptz, com concentração de 35x10(6sptz/mL. Usou-se o Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS como controle para testar o diluente água de coco em pó (ACP. O dia de coleta foi o dia zero (D0, sendo o sêmen conservado durante cinco dias, com análises diárias no D0 e nos quatro dias seguintes (D1, D2, D3 e D4. A avaliação da qualidade espermática baseou-se nos resultados do vigor espermático, da porcentagem de células móveis, da morfologia espermática, da integridade da membrana plasmática e dos resultados de fertilidade. As avaliações do vigor espermático (4,1 e da porcentagem de espermatozoides móveis (91% ficaram acima dos parâmetros mínimos exigidos (3,0 e 70% para sua utilização em programas de inseminação artificial, pois não houve influência sobre as variáveis analisadas pelo protocolo experimental. O resultado médio da resistência osmótica foi de 71,3% de espermatozoides com cauda enrolada. Não houve diferenças entre os dois diluentes testados para a característica células com acrossoma intacto (BTS = 67,1%; ACP = 71,2%. O sêmen diluído em ACP apresentou maior número de células vivas (77,7 % com membrana plasmática íntegra (74,2% após a conservação. A escolha do diluente ACP é aconselhável para uso de rotina em laboratórios que trabalhem com conservação de sêmen suíno. Apesar dos bons resultados in vitro obtidos com o diluente ACP, o BTS apresentou os melhores resultados de fertilidade, 86,7% e 96,7%, respectivamente.The semen of eight boars was collected and a total of 1.75x10(9 spermatozoa were separated from each ejaculate, obtaining a concentration of 35x10(6sptz/mL. The Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS was used as control, being tested the powder coconut water as extender (PCW. The day of collection was considered day zero (D0, and the semen was conserved for five days, with analyses on D0 and on

  7. The effect of kinds and concentration of cryoprotectant and thawing methods on frozen semen of Arab chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The success of freezing chicken semen is the hope for preserving Indonesian native chickens. Semen from twenty Arab roosters were collected using massage technique once in a week. Cryoprotectant DMA (dimethyl acetamide or DMF (dimethyl formalmide of 7 or 9% and thawing A at temperature of 30oC for 30 seconds or in B at 5oC for 5 minutes. The volume of fresh semen was 0.3 ± 0.072 ml/ejaculate, white colour, rather thick to thick, with 2200 ± 372 millions sperms/ml and pH 6.95 ± 0.32, 4+/3+ mass movement, 80% motility, 84 ± 4.48% and abnormality of 14.75 ± 1.28%. There were not statistically significant (P>0.05 effect of interaction of treatments (kinds and concentrations of cryoprotectant, and thawing methods on motility and live-sperms. Sperm motility preserved with DMA (34.69% significantly higher than with DMF (29.84%. Sperm motility was also significantly higher (34.53% when preserved with 7% cryoprotectant than with 9% (30%. Thawing-A significantly gave higher motility (35.31% than thawing-B did (29.22%. Live-sperms of semen preserved with DMA (46.75% was significantly higher than with DMF (41.72%. Cryoprotectant concentration of 7% gave higher live-sperms (46.98% than of 9% did (41.48%. Thawing-A left live-sperms of 47.14%, which was significantly higher than thawing-B did (41.30%.

  8. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  9. The Exploration, Discovery, Recovery, and Preservation of Endangered Electronic Scientific Records, the Lunar Orbiter Image Recovery Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, D. R.; Harper, M.

    2017-12-01

    In 1966 and 1967 NASA sent five photo reconnaissance satellites to the Moon to scout out sites for the first Apollo landings. This was the first mission in human history to extensively map the Moon to one meter resolution. The Lunar Orbiter spacecraft obtained photographs via 70 millimeter film in high resolution (one meter), and medium resolution (7-8) meter. Each mission took approximately 200 medium and high resolution photographs. These were processed in an on board film laboratory and then scanned via a 6.5 micron light beam.. These images were then transmitted to the Earth as analog waveforms double modulated as a vestigial sideband (VSB) and Frequency Modulation With Feedback (FMFB). The spacecraft transmissions were received at NASA's Deep Space Network at Goldstone (DSS-12), Madrid (DSS-61) and Woomera (DSS-41). The signals received were shifted to a 10 MHz intermediate frequency spectrum which was then written to 2"analog instrumentation tape drives (Ampex-FR-900's). In parallel the signals were demodulated and displayed on a kinescope, which then was photographed using a 35mm camera, and the 35mm film was then rephotographed, processed, and printed for initial analysis by the landing site selection team. The magnetic tape based analog sigals preserved the higher dynamic range of the spacecraft 70mm film, and this was then digitized utilizing digitizer and fed to a Univac 1170 computer for analysis of rock height, slope angles, and geologic context. After the Apollo missions these tapes were largely forgotten. In 2007, retired NASA archivist Nancy Evans, who had saved the last surviving Ampex FR-900's donated the drives to the Lunar Orbiter Image Recovery Project. The project obtained the 1474 hours of original tapes from NASA JPL, and at NASA Ames refurbished the drives. Additionally, the demodulator system was recreated from archived documentation using modern techniques. The project digitized the 1474 tapes, processed the 20 terabyes of raw data. The

  10. Effect of Age and Bulls on Fresh Semen Quality and Frozen Semen Production of Holstein Bulls in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiris, A.; Ondho, Y. S.; Santoso, S. I.; Kurnianto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Artificial Insemination is a compatible method of reproduction in an effort to increase dairy productivity. Artificial Insemination Center as a producer of frozen semen was required to maximize bulls in producing high quality frozen semen optimally. The purpose of this research was to determine effect of age and bulls on fresh semen quality and frozen semen production of Holstein bulls in Indonesia. The research was conducted at Lembang and Singosari AI Centers. The material used were 24.634 data of qualified fresh semen and frozen semen production from 81 Holstein Bulls aged 1-9 years that used as frozen semen producer in period of 2008 to 2016. The variables observed in this research were data of age of bulls, fresh semen volume (mL); sperm motility (%); mass movement; concentrations (million/mL) and frozen semen doses at each production at age of bulls. Nested design was applied to obtain and analyze data. Results showed that Age and bulls have significant effect (PAI Centre might adapt management of AI bulls to improve semen production.

  11. Semen phthalate metabolites, semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones: A cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Pan; Wang, Peng; Li, Jin; Huang, Zhen; You, Ling; Huang, Yue-Hui; Wang, Cheng; Li, Yu-Feng; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to phthalates has been found to have adverse effects on male reproductive function in animals. However, the findings from human studies are inconsistent. Here we examined the associations of phthalate exposure with semen quality and reproductive hormones in a Chinese population using phthalate metabolite concentrations measured in semen as biomarkers. Semen (n = 687) and blood samples (n = 342) were collected from the male partners of sub-fertile couples who presented to the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels were determined. Semen concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Associations of the semen phthalate metabolites with semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones were assessed using confounder-adjusted linear and logistic regression models. Semen phthalate metabolites were significantly associated with decreases in semen volume [mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)], sperm curvilinear velocity [monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), MEHP, the percentage of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate metabolites excreted as MEHP (%MEHP)], and straight-line velocity (MBzP, MEHP, %MEHP), and also associated with an increased percentage of abnormal heads and tails (MBzP) (all p for trend hormones. Our findings suggest that environmental exposure to phthalates may impair human semen quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of Male Obesity on Semen Quality and Serum Sex Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdoh Eskandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To investigate the association of high Body Mass Index (BMI with semen parameters and reproductive hormones in men of reproductive age. Setting. The Saudi Center for Assisted Reproduction. Method. This study was conducted during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Subjects were exposed through medical history evaluation as well as physical examination. BMI was calculated. Two semen samples about 1 week apart were taken from each participant by masturbation after 2–5 days of abstinence. The samples were assessed according to the WHO Criteria. Blood samples (5 ml were withdrawn; centrifuged and the resulting sera were preserved at −4 degrees Centigrade. Serum FSH, LH, PRL, and Testosterone levels were estimated by the ELISA method. Results. There was no significant correlation between BMI and any of semen and hormonal parameters. There was significant negative correlation between age and total motility. Only the advanced paternal age has shown significant association with low motility (=0.007. Conclusion. Our study showed a significant effect of aging on sperm motility and concentration.

  13. Relationship between seminal plasma levels of anandamide congeners palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide and semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoako, Akwasi Atakora; Marczylo, Timothy Hywel; Elson, Janine; Taylor, Anthony Henry; Willets, Jonathon M; Konje, Justin Chi

    2014-11-01

    To determine whether changes in seminal plasma concentrations of the endogenous lipid signaling molecules palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) have significant effects on sperm quality. Biochemical and physiological studies of human seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Academic tertiary care medical center. Ninety men attending an infertility clinic for semen analysis. Palmitoylethanolamide and OEA extracted from seminal plasma were quantified by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry. Patient sperm from semen with normal parameters were exposed in vitro to PEA or OEA to determine effects on sperm motility, viability, and mitochondrial activity. The relationship between seminal plasma concentrations of PEA and OEA and sperm quality and the effect of these compounds on sperm motility, viability, and mitochondria activity in vitro. Palmitoylethanolamide and OEA concentrations in seminal plasma were lower in men with asthenozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozospermia compared with men with normal semen parameters. Palmitoylethanolamide and OEA rapidly and significantly improved sperm motility and maintained viability without affecting mitochondria activity in vitro. Maintenance of normal PEA and OEA tone in human seminal plasma may be necessary for the preservation of normal sperm function and male fertility. Exocannabinoids found in Cannabis, such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, could compete with these endocannabinoids upsetting their finely balanced, normal functioning and resulting in male reproductive failure. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. SIFAT FISIKA DAN KETEGUHAN PATAH PAPAN SEMEN PARTIKEL DARI PELEPAH KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis guineensis Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet Burhanuddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemungkinan pemanfaatan pelepah kelapa sawit sebagai bahan baku papan semen partikel dan untuk mengetahui sifat fisika dan mekanika papan semen partikel pada berbagai perbandingan semen dan partikel dari dua merek semen (Tonasa dan Tiga Roda. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan pola faktorial 2 x 3 sebanyak 5 kali ulangan, dimana faktor A adalah merek semen yaitu semen tonasa dan semen Tiga Roda kemudian faktor B adalah perbandingan antara partikel dan semen. Hasil pengujian sifat fisika dan mekanika masing-masing menunjukan pengaruh yang sangat berbeda nyata, hal ini disebabkan karena semakin banyak penambahan jumlah perekat semen maka semakin baik pula sifat fisika dan mekanika papan semen yang dibuat, sedangkan untuk faktor merek semen tidak menunjukan perbedaan yang nyata. Kata kunci : Pelapah kelapa sawit, sifat fisika dan mekanika, papan semen partikel

  15. Urine Preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  16. The benefits of cooling boar semen in long-term extenders prior to cryopreservation on sperm quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, K; Zasiadczyk, Ł; Fraser, L; Mogielnicka-Brzozowska, M; Kordan, W

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term extenders on post-thaw sperm quality characteristics following different holding times (HT) of boar semen at 17 and 10°C. Sperm-rich fractions, collected from five boars, were diluted in Androhep(®) Plus (AHP), Androstar(®) Plus (ASP), Safecell(®) Plus and TRIXcell(®) Plus (TCP) extenders. The extended semen samples were held for 2 hr at 17°C (HT 1) and additionally for 24 hr at 10°C (HT 2), after they were evaluated and frozen. CASA sperm motility and motion patterns, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal apical ridge (NAR) acrosome integrity were assessed in the pre-freeze and frozen-thawed semen. The Vybrant Apoptosis Assay Kit was used to analyse the proportions of viable and plasma membrane apoptotic-like changes in spermatozoa. Results indicated that boar variability, extender and HT significantly affected the sperm quality characteristics, particularly after freezing-thawing. Differences in the pre-freeze semen were more marked in the sperm motion patterns between the HTs. Pre-freeze semen in HT 2 showed significantly higher VCL and VAP, whereas no marked effects were observed in the sperm membrane integrity and viability (YO-PRO-1(-) /PI(-) ) among the extenders. Post-thaw sperm TMOT and PMOT were significantly higher in the AHP and ASP extenders of HT 2 group, whereas VSL, VCL and VAP were markedly lower in the TCP extender. Furthermore, spermatozoa from the AHP- and ASP-extended semen of HT 2 group were characterized by higher MMP, PMI and NAR acrosome integrity following freezing-thawing. In most of the extenders, the incidence of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with apoptotic-like changes was greater in HT 1. The findings of this study indicate that holding of boar semen at 10°C for 24 hr in long-term preservation extenders modulates post-thaw sperm quality characteristics in an extender-dependent manner. These results will further contribute to the

  17. Transverse emittance-preserving arc compressor for high-brightness electron beam-based light sources and colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mitri, S.; Cornacchia, M.

    2015-03-01

    Bunch length magnetic compression is used in high-brightness linacs driving free-electron lasers (FELs) and particle colliders to increase the peak current of the injected beam. To date, it is performed in dedicated insertions made of few degrees bending magnets and the compression factor is limited by the degradation of the beam transverse emittance owing to emission of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). We reformulate the known concept of CSR-driven optics balance for the general case of varying bunch length and demonstrate, through analytical and numerical results, that a 500 pC charge beam can be time-compressed in a periodic 180 deg arc at 2.4 GeV beam energy and lower, by a factor of up to 45, reaching peak currents of up to 2 kA and with a normalized emittance growth at the 0.1 μ \\text{m} rad level. The proposed solution offers new schemes of beam longitudinal gymnastics; an application to an energy recovery linac driving FEL is discussed.

  18. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  19. Monitoring environmental exposures with semen assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Semen studies in humans and animals have yielded extensive and compelling evidence that sperm can be used to assess reproductive potential and diagnose pathology. More recent studies on mutagens and carcinogens both at this and other laboratories suggest that a combination of mouse and human assays can be an efficient, effective approach to monitoring for reproductive hazards in the environment. We are investigating the potential of using variability in sperm morphology and DNA content to quantify and monitor the effects of environmental agents on the human testes. Here we review the status of human and mouse assays for environmental surveillance, discuss the genetic and fertility implications of chemically induced semen changes, and describe the high-speed flow methods being developed to automate sperm assays

  20. Uranium quantification in semen by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Todor I.; Ejnik, John W.; Guandalini, Gustavo S.; Xu, Hanna; Hoover, Dennis; Anderson, Larry W.; Squibb, Katherine; McDiarmid, Melissa A.; Centeno, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report uranium analysis for human semen samples. Uranium quantification was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No additives, such as chymotrypsin or bovine serum albumin, were used for semen liquefaction, as they showed significant uranium content. For method validation we spiked 2 g aliquots of pooled control semen at three different levels of uranium: low at 5 pg/g, medium at 50 pg/g, and high at 1000 pg/g. The detection limit was determined to be 0.8 pg/g uranium in human semen. The data reproduced within 1.4–7% RSD and spike recoveries were 97–100%. The uranium level of the unspiked, pooled control semen was 2.9 pg/g of semen (n = 10). In addition six semen samples from a cohort of Veterans exposed to depleted uranium (DU) in the 1991 Gulf War were analyzed with no knowledge of their exposure history. Uranium levels in the Veterans’ semen samples ranged from undetectable (<0.8 pg/g) to 3350 pg/g. This wide concentration range for uranium in semen is consistent with known differences in current DU body burdens in these individuals, some of whom have retained embedded DU fragments.

  1. Twin pregnancy possibly associated with high semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, Camilla; Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies found an association between a long waiting time to pregnancy (TTP) and reduced probability of twinning and a reduced dizygotic (DZ) twinning rate in subfertile men. However, it remains unsolved whether semen quality is associated with twin offspring. We therefore studied...... the semen quality in a group of fathers of naturally conceived twins. METHODS: In this study, 37 fathers of DZ twins and 15 fathers of monozygotic (MZ) twins participated, and 349 normal fertile men served as a reference group. All men delivered a semen sample, underwent a physical examination and completed...... points higher than the reference group (P semen quality than the reference group, which supports...

  2. Random laser action in bovine semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuk, Andrei; Lazaro, Edgar; Olson, Leif P.; Lawandy, N. M.

    2011-03-01

    Experiments using bovine semen reveal that the addition of a high-gain water soluble dye results in random laser action when excited by a Q-switched, frequency doubled, Nd:Yag laser. The data shows that the linewidth collapse of the emission is correlated to the sperm count of the individual samples, potentially making this a rapid, low sample volume approach to count determination.

  3. Microbial quality of equine frozen semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, A; Cherchi, R

    2009-10-01

    Bacteriological surveillance is little applied in management of equine frozen semen but it is quite important to verify the microbial contamination in order to find out the chance of transmission of pathology to the mare in AI. Authors describe a qualitative and quantitative analysis for bacterial contamination on long time (3-17 years) equine frozen semen stored in liquid nitrogen. The semen checked, produced in Italy and in another Europe country, was cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen inside sealed plastic straws. One hundred and ten straws were checked out for pathogenic and no pathogenic bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes and fungi (moulds and yeasts). The Total Microbial Charge was quite variable with an average of about 1.4 x 10(5)CFU/ml. Mostly the microbial agents identified were fungi (17.5%), Enterobacter-coccus spp. (15%), Pseudomonas spp. (6.25%), Stenothophomonas maltophila (6.25%) and anaerobic bacteria like Propionibacterium granulosum (7.5%) and Clostridium spp. (3.75%). 3.75% were unidentified Gram-negative rod and cocci. Streptococcus spp., Staph. aureus, E. coli, Th. equigenitalis and Mycoplasma spp. were not detected. The most represented species were Enterobacter-coccus spp. (1.1 x 10(5)CFU/ml), St. maltophila (8 x 10(4)CFU/ml) and Pr. granulosum (7 x 10(4)CFU/ml) while yeast and even more moulds were little abundant (4.7 x 10(4) and 3.4 x 10(4)CFU/ml respectively). The knowledge of equine frozen semen microbial quality is essential to check out transmission of venereal disease and improve the quality of cryopreserved germplasm.

  4. Why is intelligence correlated with semen quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey; Arden, Rosalind; Gottfredson, Linda S

    2009-01-01

    We recently found positive correlations between human general intelligence and three key indices of semen quality, and hypothesized that these correlations arise through a phenotype-wide ‘general fitness factor’ reflecting overall mutation load. In this addendum we consider some of the biochemical pathways that may act as targets for pleiotropic mutations that disrupt both neuron function and sperm function in parallel. We focus especially on the inter-related roles of polyunsaturated fatty acids, exocytosis and receptor signaling. PMID:19907694

  5. Teamwork and Electronic Health Record Implementation: A Case Study of Preserving Effective Communication and Mutual Trust in a Changing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anne H; Leib, Ryan K; Tonachel, Anne; Tonachel, Richard; Bowers, Danielle M; Burnard, Rachel A; Rhinehart, Catherine A; Valentim, Rahila; Bunnell, Craig A

    2016-11-01

    This article describes how trust among team members and in the technology supporting them was eroded during implementation of an electronic health record (EHR) in an adult outpatient oncology practice at a comprehensive cancer center. Delays in care of a 38-year-old woman with high-risk breast cancer occurred because of ineffective team communication and are illustrated in a case study. The case explores how the patient's trust and mutual trust between team members were disrupted because of inaccurate assumptions about the functionality of the EHR's communication tool, resultant miscommunications between team members and the patient, and the eventual recognition that care was not being effectively coordinated, as it had been previously. Despite a well-established, team-based culture and significant preparation for the EHR implementation, the challenges that occurred point to underlying human and system failures from which other organizations going through a similar process may learn. Through an analysis and evaluation of events that transpired before and during the EHR rollout, suggested interventions for preventing this experience are offered, which include: a thorough crosswalk between old and new communication mechanisms before implementation; understanding and mitigation of gaps in the communication tool's functionality; more robust training for staff, clinicians, and patients; greater consideration given to the pace of change expected of individuals; and development of models of collaboration between EHR users and vendors in developing products that support high-quality, team-based care in the oncology setting. These interventions are transferable to any organizational or system change that threatens mutual trust and effective communication.

  6. Assessment of motion and kinematic characteristics of frozen-thawed Sirohi goat semen using computer-assisted semen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mukul; Yadav, Sarvajeet

    2016-02-01

    The aim was to determine the motion and kinematics characteristic of frozen-thawed spermatozoa in Sirohi goat using computer-assisted semen analysis. A study was carried out in Sirohi buck. Semen collection was made biweekly from each buck with the help of artificial vagina. A total of 12 ejaculates were collected from two bucks (six ejaculates from each buck). Freshly collected semen was pooled and later evaluated. The pooled semen sample was extended with standard glycerolated egg yolk tris extender and later subjected to a process of cryopreservation. The motion and kinematic characteristics of spermatozoa were studied during freez-thawing process. Significantly (plive percent, hypo-osmotic swelling test, and acrosomal integrity were recorded in neat semen followed by diluted and frozen thaw semen. The proportion of spermatozoa showing slow progression were the highest in the neat and diluted semen followed by rapid and non-progressively motile, while a reverse pattern was observed in the frozen thaw semen where the proportion of non-progressively motile spermatozoa were significantly (pvitality, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome status were obtained in the neat semen followed by diluted and frozen thaw semen. Further, the process of cryopreservation results in a shift of motility from slow to non-progressive in the post-thaw semen with a significant decrease in the path velocities when compared to neat and diluted semen. Hence, it can be concluded that freezing-thawing process reduces the motility and kinematic characters spermatozoa and may be an important factor affecting the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa resulting in poor conception rate after insemination in goats.

  7. Assessment of motion and kinematic characteristics of frozen-thawed Sirohi goat semen using computer-assisted semen analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul Anand

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the motion and kinematics characteristic of frozen-thawed spermatozoa in Sirohi goat using computer-assisted semen analysis. Materials and Methods: A study was carried out in Sirohi buck. Semen collection was made biweekly from each buck with the help of artificial vagina. A total of 12 ejaculates were collected from two bucks (six ejaculates from each buck. Freshly collected semen was pooled and later evaluated. The pooled semen sample was extended with standard glycerolated egg yolk tris extender and later subjected to a process of cryopreservation. The motion and kinematic characteristics of spermatozoa were studied during freez-thawing process. Results: Significantly (p<0.01 higher value of live percent, hypo-osmotic swelling test, and acrosomal integrity were recorded in neat semen followed by diluted and frozen thaw semen. The proportion of spermatozoa showing slow progression were the highest in the neat and diluted semen followed by rapid and non-progressively motile, while a reverse pattern was observed in the frozen thaw semen where the proportion of non-progressively motile spermatozoa were significantly (p<0.01 higher followed by slow and rapid progression. Conclusion: This study showed that the best results for motion, vitality, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome status were obtained in the neat semen followed by diluted and frozen thaw semen. Further, the process of cryopreservation results in a shift of motility from slow to non-progressive in the post-thaw semen with a significant decrease in the path velocities when compared to neat and diluted semen. Hence, it can be concluded that freezing-thawing process reduces the motility and kinematic characters spermatozoa and may be an important factor affecting the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa resulting in poor conception rate after insemination in goats.

  8. PENGARUH PENGGANTIAN BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN (BSA DENGAN PUTIH TELUR DALAM PENGENCER DASAR Cep-2 TERHADAP KUALITAS SEMEN KAMBING BOER PADA SIMPAN DINGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Sulvi Istanty

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research wasinvestigated the substitution effect of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA with albumen on CEP-2 diluent to semen quality of Boer goat that was stored at 3-50C. Research was conducted at Reproduction Laboratory and Field Laboratory SumberSekarDau Animal Husbandry Faculty of Brawijaya University from December 2016until January 2017. The materials used for this research were fresh semen from 3,5-4,5 years old Boer goat which was collected with artificial vagina. Semen diluent was divided into two groups, those were P0 (90% CEP-2 + 10% Egg Yolk and P1 (90% CEP-2 (without BSA + 0,4% albumen + 10% Egg Yolk. Data of the research were analyzed using paired design t test. The result showed that after eight days of chilled preservation, the sperm motility of P0 was not significantly different with P1 (P>0,05. The average percentage of motility during eight days preservation P0 was higher than P1. The viability between P0 and P1 showed highly significantly difference (P<0,01. The average percentage of viability during eight days preservation P0 was higher than P1. The abnormality between P0 and P1 showed highly significant difference (P<0,01. The average percentage of abnormality between eight dayspreservation P1 was higher than P0. Total motile sperms count after seven days chilled preservation was not significantly different with hope value 40 million motile sperm/ml. The conclusion of this research was the substitution of BSA with albumen could maintain Boer goat semen quality.   Keywords : CEP-2, Bovine SerumAlbumin, Semen, Cryoprotectant

  9. Emittance preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, V; Arduini, G; Goddard, B; Holzer, B J; Jowett, J M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, T; Roncarolo, F; Schaumann, M; Versteegen, R; Wenninger, J [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Emittance measurements during the LHC proton run 2011 indicated a blow-up of 20 % to 30 % from LHC injection to collisions. This presentation will show the emittance preservation throughout the different parts of the LHC cycle and discuss the current limitations on emittance determination. An overview of emittance preservation through the injector complex as function of bunch intensity will also be given. Possible sources for the observed blow-up and required tests in 2012 will be presented. Possible improvements of emittance diagnostics and analysis tools for 2012 will be shown.

  10. Porcine semen as a vector for transmission of viral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Dominiek; Van Soom, Ann; Appeltant, Ruth; Arsenakis, Ioannis; Nauwynck, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Different viruses have been detected in porcine semen. Some of them are on the list of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and consequently, these pathogens are of socioeconomic and/or public health importance and are of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. Artificial insemination (AI) is one of the most commonly used assisted reproductive technologies in pig production worldwide. This extensive use has enabled pig producers to benefit from superior genetics at a lower cost compared to natural breeding. However, the broad distribution of processed semen doses for field AI has increased the risk of widespread transmission of swine viral pathogens. Contamination of semen can be due to infections of the boar or can occur during semen collection, processing, and storage. It can result in reduced semen quality, embryonic mortality, endometritis, and systemic infection and/or disease in the recipient female. The presence of viral pathogens in semen can be assessed by demonstration of viable virus, nucleic acid of virus, or indirectly by measuring serum antibodies in the boar. The best way to prevent disease transmission via the semen is to assure that the boars in AI centers are free from the disease, to enforce very strict biosecurity protocols, and to perform routine health monitoring of boars. Prevention of viral semen contamination should be the primary focus because it is easier to prevent contamination than to eliminate viruses once present in semen. Nevertheless, research and development of novel semen processing treatments such as single-layer centrifugation is ongoing and may allow in the future to decontaminate semen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Semen phthalate metabolites, semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones: A cross-sectional study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Pan; Wang, Peng; Li, Jin; Huang, Zhen; You, Ling; Huang, Yue-Hui; Wang, Cheng; Li, Yu-Feng; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to phthalates has been found to have adverse effects on male reproductive function in animals. However, the findings from human studies are inconsistent. Here we examined the associations of phthalate exposure with semen quality and reproductive hormones in a Chinese population using phthalate metabolite concentrations measured in semen as biomarkers. Semen (n = 687) and blood samples (n = 342) were collected from the male partners of sub-fertile couples who presented to the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels were determined. Semen concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Associations of the semen phthalate metabolites with semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones were assessed using confounder-adjusted linear and logistic regression models. Semen phthalate metabolites were significantly associated with decreases in semen volume [mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)], sperm curvilinear velocity [monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), MEHP, the percentage of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate metabolites excreted as MEHP (%MEHP)], and straight-line velocity (MBzP, MEHP, %MEHP), and also associated with an increased percentage of abnormal heads and tails (MBzP) (all p for trend <0.05). These associations remained suggestive or significant after adjustment for multiple testing. There were no significant associations between semen phthalate metabolites and serum reproductive hormones. Our findings suggest that environmental exposure to phthalates may impair human semen quality. - Highlights: • We quantified 8 phthalate metabolites in the semen samples from 687 adult men. • We assessed associations of the metabolites with semen quality and serum hormones.

  12. Seasonal and cryopreservation impacts on semen quality in boars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal boar infertility occurs worldwide and contributes to economic loss to the pork industry. The current study evaluated cooled vs cryopreserved semen quality of 11 Duroc boars collected in June (cool season) and August 2014 (warm season). Semen was cooled to 16°C (cooled) or frozen over liquid...

  13. Standardinng initial cooling of sheep semen before freezing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sheep semen before freezing. C. Kemp. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2,. Irene, 1675 Republic of South Africa. Received 6 June 1985. A practical and repeatable method for the cooling, during the processing phase, of sheep semen, with the aim of minimizing inter-experiment variation is ...

  14. Semen bacterial flora of Rhode Island Breeder cocks in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The semen used in this study was collected from 77 Rhode Island Breeder cocks reared in battery cages under intensive management from a private farm in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria using the back massage procedure, 27 of the 77 semen samples (35.1%) contained bacterial isolates. None of the samples grew fungi.

  15. Prevalence of Low Sperm Count and Abnormal Semen Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    In order to provide an insight to the prevalence of low sperm count and abnormal semen ... function based on its poor prediction of fertility ... consecutively consenting male partners of women ... Interestingly, 30 (25%) of the semen from 21-30 ... Percentage. Normospermia. = 20.0. 45. 26. Oligospermia. < 10.0. 118. 70.

  16. Prostaglandin levels and semen quality in male partners of infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To provide data on semen prostaglandins in Nigerian men and relate this to fertility potential as provided by semen analysis results. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Infertility Clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria Subjects: All male partners of infertile couples who ...

  17. 9 CFR 98.34 - Import permits for poultry semen and animal semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be destroyed or disposed of as the Administrator, may direct. (7) Porcine semen from the People's... the United States from the People's Republic of China (PRC) only after the official veterinary... have contact with other domestic farm livestock (this term does not include pets such as dogs and cats...

  18. Influence of occupation and living habits on semen quality in men (scrotal insulation and semen quality)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laven, J.S.E.; Haverkorn, M.J.; Bots, R.S.G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-six males from infertile couples were categorised into two different groups and their semen quality examined. Patients in which there was no evidence of interference with normal testicular thermoregulation either during the day or the night were classified as ‘cool workers’ and ‘cool sleepers’

  19. Semen amyloids participate in spermatozoa selection and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roan, Nadia R; Sandi-Monroy, Nathallie; Kohgadai, Nargis; Usmani, Shariq M; Hamil, Katherine G; Neidleman, Jason; Montano, Mauricio; Ständker, Ludger; Röcker, Annika; Cavrois, Marielle; Rosen, Jared; Marson, Kara; Smith, James F; Pilcher, Christopher D; Gagsteiger, Friedrich; Sakk, Olena; O'Rand, Michael; Lishko, Polina V; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan; Greene, Warner C

    2017-06-27

    Unlike other human biological fluids, semen contains multiple types of amyloid fibrils in the absence of disease. These fibrils enhance HIV infection by promoting viral fusion to cellular targets, but their natural function remained unknown. The similarities shared between HIV fusion to host cell and sperm fusion to oocyte led us to examine whether these fibrils promote fertilization. Surprisingly, the fibrils inhibited fertilization by immobilizing sperm. Interestingly, however, this immobilization facilitated uptake and clearance of sperm by macrophages, which are known to infiltrate the female reproductive tract (FRT) following semen exposure. In the presence of semen fibrils, damaged and apoptotic sperm were more rapidly phagocytosed than healthy ones, suggesting that deposition of semen fibrils in the lower FRT facilitates clearance of poor-quality sperm. Our findings suggest that amyloid fibrils in semen may play a role in reproduction by participating in sperm selection and facilitating the rapid removal of sperm antigens.

  20. AZF Microdeletions in Human Semen Infected with Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfa H Hassani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections are associated with infertility in men. This study was aimed to investigate microdeletions on Yq chromosome in semen infected with bacteria by using bacteriological, biochemical, and serological assays. The investigation showed that 107 of 300 (84.80% semen samples collected from infertile men with primary or secondary infertility were infected with different species of bacteria. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrheae were the most frequently diagnosed bacteria in the infected semen samples. The percentages of infections of semen samples with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhea were 42.31% and 35.28% respectively. Genomic DNA from each semen sample infected with predominant bacteria was analyzed for AZF deletions by using multiplex PCR. Different patterns of AZF microdeletions were obtained. It can be concluded that sexually transmitted bacteria may contribute in microdeletions of Yq chromosome by indirectly producing reactive oxygen species and causing gene defect in AZF regions.

  1. Clinical relevance of routine semen analysis and controversies surrounding the 2010 World Health Organization criteria for semen examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Semen analysis is the corner stone of infertility evaluation as it provides information on the functional status of the seminiferous tubules, epididymis and accessory sex glands. The methods on how the human semen should be evaluated are provided by the World Health Organization, which periodically releases manuals that include specific protocols and reference standards. In 2010, the WHO published new criteria for human semen characteristics that were markedly lower than those previously reported. In this review initially it is discussed the limitations of semen analysis as a surrogate measure of a man’s ability to father a pregnancy. Secondly, it is analyzed methodology issues that could explain why the newly released reference values were different from those earlier reported. Thirdly, it is speculated on the likely effects of the 2010 WHO criteria in the management of male infertility. Due to the several inherent limitations of semen analysis as a surrogate marker of male infertility, physicians should exercise caution when interpreting results. A template for semen analysis reports that incorporates the distribution of the semen characteristics of recent fathers in centiles rather than solely the minimum thresholds could aid clinicians to better understand how a given patient results compare with the reference population. Importantly, a male infertility evaluation must go far beyond a simple semen analysis, as it has to be complemented with a proper physical examination, a comprehensive history taking, and relevant endocrine, genetic, and other investigations.

  2. Semen parameters of a semen donor before and after infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, E.; Cornelissen, M.; de Vries, J. W.; Lowe, S. H.; Jurriaans, S.; Repping, S.; van der Veen, F.

    2004-01-01

    Semen samples from a donor who seroconverted for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) during the period that he was donating at our clinic were stored before and after infection. Semen analysis was done on all of these samples before cryopreservation. Retrospectively, both qualitative and

  3. 9 CFR 98.33 - Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of certain animal semen. 98.33 Section 98.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.33 Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following air and ocean...

  4. Effect of semen extender and storage temperature on ram sperm motility over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage of ram semen for long period of time depends on a number of factors, including type of extender and storage temperature. A study compared the effect of semen extender and storage temperature on motility of ram semen stored for 72 h. Semen collected via electroejaculator from 5 mature Katahd...

  5. Effect of dialysis before storage or cryopreservation on fertilizing ability of fowl semen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorst, van A.; Leenstra, F.R.

    1995-01-01

    Semen of broiler breeder males was collected and used for artificial insemination. Semen was used undiluted and diluted and both inseminated immediately after collection. Only diluted semen was used after storage. Half of the semen samples to be stored were first dialyzed. Storage of fresh, diluted

  6. Semen A Altshuler: scientist, mentor, teacher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochelaev, Boris I

    2011-01-01

    International Conference 'Resonances in Condensed Matter' is devoted to 100 years of the birthday of the Corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Professor of the Kazan University Semen Alexandrovich Altshuler (1911–1983). He is well known by pioneer works on EPR, the prediction and grounds for an existence of the neutron magnetic moment, the prediction and the theory of the acoustic paramagnetic resonance, and as a founder of the Kazan scientific school 'Magnetic radiospectroscopy of condensed matter' (with E K Zavoiskii and B M Kozyrev)

  7. How to preserve foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.; Vadassova, J.

    1979-01-01

    The use of gamma and fast electron radiations for food preservation is described. Examples are given of the application of ionizing radiation for retarding potato germination, onion growth, and fruit ripening, for limiting the action of microorganisms, and removing salmonella from meat products. The method has remarkable prospects although it may not be considered to be a general-purpose method. Geographic and economic conditions should always be taken into consideration. (J.P.)

  8. Prevention of sexual transmission of Ebola in Liberia through a national semen testing and counselling programme for survivors: an analysis of Ebola virus RNA results and behavioural data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soka, Moses J; Choi, Mary J; Baller, April; White, Stephen; Rogers, Emerson; Purpura, Lawrence J; Mahmoud, Nuha; Wasunna, Christine; Massaquoi, Moses; Abad, Neetu; Kollie, Jomah; Dweh, Straker; Bemah, Philip K; Christie, Athalia; Ladele, Victor; Subah, Oneykachi C; Pillai, Satish; Mugisha, Margaret; Kpaka, Jonathan; Kowalewski, Stephen; German, Emilio; Stenger, Mark; Nichol, Stuart; Ströher, Ute; Vanderende, Kristin E; Zarecki, Shauna Mettee; Green, Hugh Henry W; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Rollin, Pierre; Marston, Barbara; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Gasasira, Alex; Knust, Barbara; Williams, Desmond

    2016-10-01

    Ebola virus has been detected in semen of Ebola virus disease survivors after recovery. Liberia's Men's Health Screening Program (MHSP) offers Ebola virus disease survivors semen testing for Ebola virus. We present preliminary results and behavioural outcomes from the first national semen testing programme for Ebola virus. The MHSP operates out of three locations in Liberia: Redemption Hospital in Montserrado County, Phebe Hospital in Bong County, and Tellewoyan Hospital in Lofa County. Men aged 15 years and older who had an Ebola treatment unit discharge certificate are eligible for inclusion. Participants' semen samples were tested for Ebola virus RNA by real-time RT-PCR and participants received counselling on safe sexual practices. Participants graduated after receiving two consecutive negative semen tests. Counsellors collected information on sociodemographics and sexual behaviours using questionnaires administered at enrolment, follow up, and graduation visits. Because the programme is ongoing, data analysis was restricted to data obtained from July 7, 2015, to May 6, 2016. As of May 6, 2016, 466 Ebola virus disease survivors had enrolled in the programme; real-time RT-PCR results were available from 429 participants. 38 participants (9%) produced at least one semen specimen that tested positive for Ebola virus RNA. Of these, 24 (63%) provided semen specimens that tested positive 12 months or longer after Ebola virus disease recovery. The longest interval between discharge from an Ebola treatment unit and collection of a positive semen sample was 565 days. Among participants who enrolled and provided specimens more than 90 days since their Ebola treatment unit discharge, men older than 40 years were more likely to have a semen sample test positive than were men aged 40 years or younger (p=0·0004). 84 (74%) of 113 participants who reported not using a condom at enrolment reported using condoms at their first follow-up visit (pEbola virus RNA by real-time RT

  9. EFFECTS OF PHOTOSTIMULATION ON SEMEN PRODUCTION IN RHODE ISLAND ROOSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA LADOSI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In mammals the length of daylight has an oscillatory influence on semen production. It is known that in mammalian males highest semen output occurs mainly in spring and fall. It is possible that there is the same pattern in rooster semen production despite the anatomic differences regarding the testis location and, obviously local temperature. Considering these facts the present trial was set up in order to reveal effects of prolonged daylight – photo stimulation – on semen production in young roosters. All young roosters in the trial were divided in 3 groups, according to the age when photo stimulating schedule started. Photo stimulation was performed by moving young roosters from an 8h/day light to 14h / day light. Attempts of collecting semen up to the age of 20 weeks have failed showing relationship between body general development and semen output. Under prolonged light semen parameters as volume, motility and concentration changed from one week to the other. However, light is not the single factor inducing sexual maturity of the genital tract, but it could be used in young roosters in order to stimulate feed intake and thus overall body growth and development.

  10. Palmitoleate enhances quality of rooster semen during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Hamed Mirzaei; Eslami, Mohsen; Ghanie, Abolfazl

    2016-02-01

    The practice of artificial insemination is widely utilized in poultry; and this requires a broad use of semen storage techniques to prevent the reduction of fertilizing ability of stored semen. The antioxidant activity of palmitoleic acid with in vitro experiments has been shown. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of palmitoleic acid on the quality of rooster semen stored at 4C. Semen was collected from ten roosters twice a week. Ejaculates with greater than 80% forward spermatozoa motility were pooled and after dilution semen was enriched with 0 (control), 0.125 (P 0.125), 0.25 (P 0.25), 0.5 (P 0.5) and 1 (P 1) millimolar palmitoleate. Forward spermatozoa progressive motility and viability, as well as amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant activity (AOA) were evaluated in seminal plasma and spermatozoa at 0, 24 and 48h of storage. Motility was 78.5±2.21, 77.5±1.04, and 69.5±2.32% at 24h and 58.66±1.35, 49.33±1.36 and 43.00±2.08% at 48h in P 0.125, P 0.25 and control, respectively (Prooster semen with small doses of palmitoleate has beneficial effects on the semen quality during cold storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationships between rabbit semen characteristics and fertilising ability after insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theau-Clément, M; Ailloud, E; Sanchez, A; Saleil, G; Brun, J M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to analyse the relationship between rabbit semen characteristics and semen fertilising ability after insemination, which is generally found to be weak. Our hypothesis was that using high semen dilutions (1 : 19), non-oestrus-stimulated does, and homospermic inseminations would make it easier to predict semen fertilising ability. Semen characteristics were evaluated on 275 ejaculates of 128 INRA1001 bucks, distributed into five successive batches. A total of 1970 inseminations were performed. The continuous semen variables were subdivided into three classes of similar size to account for any non-linear relationship between semen characteristics and fertilising ability. Mass motility was divided into two classes according to the presence or absence of waves under microscope observation. Libido, the presence or absence of gel, volume, percentage of progressive sperms, curvilinear velocity, beat frequency of the flagellum, and straightness and linearity of sperm movement did not affect fertility, prolificacy or productivity. It was confirmed that mass motility, estimated by visual observation under the microscope, significantly influenced fertility as well as the percentage of motile and of rapid sperms, and the amplitude of lateral head displacement, estimated by a computer-assisted semen analysis system. To a lesser extent, the percentage of motile cells and of rapid cells significantly influenced prolificacy. Consequently, mass motility and the percentage of motile cells significantly influenced rabbit doe productivity (+1 live births/AI when the semen showed at least a beginning of wave movement, or when the percentage of motile cells was >84%). Interestingly, a gain of 1.5 rabbits was observed when the percentage of rapid cells changed from 64% to 79%, whereas productivity significantly dropped beyond 83% of rapid cells, reflecting a non-linear relationship.

  12. Perfluorochemicals and human semen quality: the LIFE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Germaine M Buck; Chen, Zhen; Schisterman, Enrique F; Kim, Sungduk; Sweeney, Anne M; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Lynch, Courtney D; Gore-Langton, Robert E; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    The relation between persistent environmental chemicals and semen quality is evolving, although limited data exist for men recruited from general populations. We examined the relation between perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) and semen quality among 501 male partners of couples planning pregnancy. Using population-based sampling strategies, we recruited 501 couples discontinuing contraception from two U.S. geographic regions from 2005 through 2009. Baseline interviews and anthropometric assessments were conducted, followed by blood collection for the quantification of seven serum PFCs (perfluorosulfonates, perfluorocarboxylates, and perfluorosulfonamides) using tandem mass spectrometry. Men collected a baseline semen sample and another approximately 1 month later. Semen samples were shipped with freezer packs, and analyses were performed on the day after collection. We used linear regression to estimate the difference in each semen parameter associated with a one unit increase in the natural log-transformed PFC concentration after adjusting for confounders and modeling repeated semen samples. Sensitivity analyses included optimal Box-Cox transformation of semen quality end points. Six PFCs [2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH), perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)] were associated with 17 semen quality end points before Box-Cox transformation. PFOSA was associated with smaller sperm head area and perimeter, a lower percentage of DNA stainability, and a higher percentage of bicephalic and immature sperm. PFDeA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFOS were associated with a lower percentage of sperm with coiled tails. Select PFCs were associated with certain semen end points, with the most significant associations observed for PFOSA but with results in varying directions.

  13. Inverse correlation between reactive oxygen species in unwashed semen and sperm motion parameters as measured by a computer-assisted semen analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Teppei; Yumura, Yasushi; Yasuda, Kengo; Sanjo, Hiroyuki; Kuroda, Shinnosuke; Yamanaka, Hiroyuki; Iwasaki, Akira

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between sperm motion parameters obtained by a computer-assisted semen analyzer and levels of reactive oxygen species in unwashed semen. In total, 847 patients, except for azoospermic patients were investigated. At the time of each patient's first consultation, semen parameters were measured using SMAS™ or CellSoft 3000™, and production of reactive oxygen species was measured using a computer-driven LKB Wallac Luminometer 1251 Analyzer. The patients were divided into two groups: reactive oxygen species - positive and negative. The semen parameters within each group were measured using one of the two computer-assisted semen analyzer systems and then compared. Correlations between reactive oxygen species levels and sperm motion parameters in semen from the reactive oxygen species - positive group were also investigated. Reactive oxygen species were detected in semen samples of 282 cases (33.3%). Sperm concentration (P semen damage sperm concentration, motility, and other sperm motion parameters.

  14. Cryopreservation of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen using different freezing curves, straw sizes, and thawing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Peixoto, G C X; Castelo, T S; Lima, G L; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effect of different freezing curves, straw sizes, and thawing rates on the cryopreservation of collared peccary semen. Twelve ejaculates were obtained from captive adult males by electroejaculation, and evaluated for sperm motility, kinetic rating, viability, morphology, and functional membrane integrity. The ejaculates were diluted in a coconut water extender (ACP-116c) with egg yolk and glycerol, packaged into 0.25 mL or 0.50 mL plastic straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen following a slow (-10 °C/min) or a fast (-40 °C/min) freezing curve. After one week, samples were thawed at 37 °C/1 min or 70 °C/8s and evaluated as reported for fresh semen, and also for kinematic parameters (computerized analysis). A significant decrease in sperm motility and kinetic rating was observed after glycerol addition at 5 °C and also after thawing for all the treatments (Pstraw size and thawing rate were taken as reference (P>0.05). In general, values for sperm characteristics found after thawing at 37 °C were better preserved than at 70 °C (Pstraws, which were similar for semen packaging (P>0.05). The evaluation of the kinematic parameters of sperm motility confirmed these results at values varying from 20% to 30% motile sperm for the samples tha wed at 37 °C, and values fewer than 12% motile sperm for samples thawed at 70 °C (Pstraws, but the thawing should be conducted at 37 °C/1 min. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between varicocele grade and semen analysis parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Ariyati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Varicocele is a condition characterized by elongation, dilatation and tortuousity of spermatic vein in pampiniform plexus. Approximately 50% of infertility cases among men are caused by varicocele. The varicocele may affect the components of sperm. This study aimed to determine the association between varicocele grade based on ultrasound Doppler examination and sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm morphology based on semen analysis examination.Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study which used secondary data from 85 patients that visited Department of Urology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, then underwent ultrasonography examination at Department of Radiology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital and semen analysis examination at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital.Results: Varicocele grade was significantly associated with sperm morphology, concentration and motility (all p<0.05. Significant association was found between maximum condition and semen analysis component.Conclusion: Varicocele grade may affect semen analysis component.

  16. Factors predictive of abnormal semen parameters in male partners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analysis was used to determine the predictive factors associated with abnormal semen parameters. .... for frequency, mean and χ2 with the level of significance set at p<0.05. ... was obtained from each couple participating in the study, following.

  17. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on drake semen quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sp3

    2014-01-30

    Jan 30, 2014 ... This study was conducted to determine the effect on semen quality traits of supplementing the diets of. Iraqi drakes with L-carnitine. ... Keywords: Carnitine, ducks, reproductive performance ..... clinical result. Drug Exp. Clin.

  18. Parental age at delivery and a man's semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina K; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is parental age at delivery associated with a man's semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER: In this large register-based study both mother's and father's age are found to have minimal effects on semen quality in men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Both maternal and paternal age have been associated...... with a range of adverse health effects in the offspring. Given the varied health effects of parental age upon offspring, and the sensitivity of genital development to external factors, it is plausible that the age of a man's mother and father at conception may impact his reproductive health. To our knowledge...... this is the first examination of the effects of parental age on semen quality. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective cohort study of 10 965 men with semen data and parental data. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The study was based on Danish men referred to the Copenhagen Sperm Analysis Laboratory...

  19. Semen Characteristics of the West African Dwarf Rams in The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WAD) rams in Makurdi. Semen samples were collected from five rams twice a week by electroejaculation method over a period of two months (September to October). The ejaculate volume, concentration, mass activity, progressive motility, the ...

  20. Association of Sleep Disturbances With Reduced Semen Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have found an association between sleep duration and morbidity and mortality, but no previous studies have examined the association between sleep disturbances and semen quality. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 953 young Danish men from the general population who were...... recruited in Copenhagen at the time of determination of fitness for military service between January 2008 and June 2011. All of the men delivered a semen sample, had a blood sample drawn, underwent a physical examination, and answered a questionnaire including information about sleep disturbances. Sleep...... score of 11-20. This appears to be the first study to find associations between sleep disturbances and semen quality. In future studies, investigators should attempt to elucidate mechanistic explanations and prospectively assess whether semen quality improves after interventions restoring a normal...

  1. SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL INVESTIGATIONS IN SEMENIC MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. URDEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous Potential Investigations in Semenic Mountains. The use of geophysical methods such as that of Spontaneous Potential (SP to investigate areas where the geomorphological processes occur, has the role to identify less visible processes as for example subcutaneous erosion or piping, subsoil water drainage and finding specific spatial differences of these processes. Comparative study of these sites allows correlation between geomorphological factors, soil and climate, but also to observe the evolution of subsurface erosion or underground water infiltration over time. During this investigation a series of mesh grids have been made in areas with different characteristics (lithology, pedology, slope, exposition, etc. at different time periods in order to spot and analyse the change in data in the chosen sites, various conditions given. Values expressed in millivolts (mV obtained by the Spontaneous Potential method have been put into an algorithm for interpolation looking to yield a pattern of values of what is happening in the soil during that period of time. Thus, in the autumn, the investigation site at the nivation niche Baia Vulturilor, returned values of between -22.6 mV and 65.6 mV, while in spring in the same site, values were within the range of -14.4 mV / 30.1 mV. On the other hand, on the site of the cryopediment under the Semenic peak, in the spring, return values ranged from -40.4 mV and -1.1 mV. A particular case is that of the glacis near Piatra Goznei peak; in this area anthropogenic electricity influences on soil can be found. Based on some models a trend of water movement in the soil could be established, this depending heavily on the amount of precipitation infiltration, local lithology, depth of soil and their structure, and evapotranspiration process. Water movement in the soil may be a correlation with sediment movement in soil horizons and instability manifested on the slopes.

  2. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Triclosan (2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine−1 (interquartile range, 0.41–2.95 ng (mg·creatinine−1. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = −0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI (−0.32, −0.02. Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = −0.35; 95% CI (−0.68, −0.03, percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = −1.64; 95% CI (−3.05, −0.23, as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  3. Pengaruh penggantian Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA dengan putih telur pada pengencer CEP-2 terhadap kualitas semen sapi Peranakan Ongole pada suhu penyimpanan 3-5oC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa’us Sholikah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of Bovine Serum Albumin substitution by albumen on CEP-2 to semen quality Ongole CrossBred bull stored at 3-5oC. Research was conducted at Research Centre Beef Cattle Laboratory, Grati, Pasuruan on February 2016. Semen diluent was divided into two groups, there were P0 (90% CEP-2 + 10% Egg Yolk (EY; and P1 (90% CEP + 0.4% albumen + 10% EY. Data of the research were analyzed using paired design t test. The result showed that after eight days chilled preservation, percentage of motility P1 (47.4±10.9% was higher than P0 (47±9.2%. Percentage of viability P0 (83.1±1.9% was higher than P1 (81.3±1.5%. Percentage of abnormality P1 (3.6±0.4% was lower than P0 (3.8±0.3%. Total motile sperm count after six days chilled preservation was significantly higher in all treatments compared to the standard criteria of SNI 40% motile sperm/ml. The conclusion of this research was 0,4% albumen could replace the BSA capability on CEP-2. Keywords: CEP-2, Bovine Serum Albumin, chilled preservation, semen quality

  4. Effect of storage in short--and long-term commercial semen extenders on the motility, plasma membrane and chromatin integrity of boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ambrogi, Marco; Ballester, Juan; Saravia, Fernando; Caballero, Ignacio; Johannisson, Anders; Wallgren, Margareta; Andersson, Magnus; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto

    2006-10-01

    For artificial insemination (AI) in pigs, preservation of liquid boar semen at 16-20 degrees C is still common practice as sperm cryopreservation remains suboptimal in this species. To meet the different needs of the swine industry, several extenders have been developed to preserve semen in liquid form for short--and long-term storage. In the present study, three different commercial extenders devised for short-term (BTS+) or long-term preservation (MR-A and X-Cell), were used to test whether storage of semen from four mature, fertile boars at 17 degrees C for 96 h would affect sperm characteristics relevant for fertility, such as motility, membrane integrity and chromatin stability. Computer-assisted sperm analysis, and stainings with the acylated membrane dye SYBR-14/propidium iodide, and acridine orange in connection with flow cytometry were used to evaluate these variables. Percentages of total motile spermatozoa decreased slightly, but significantly, after 72-96 h. While membrane integrity values varied during the period of study, no significant changes in either membrane integrity or chromatin stability were, however, registered. This suggests a customary 96-day storage at 17 degrees C in these extenders was too short an interval to cause losses of integrity in nuclear DNA in the boar population studied.

  5. Genetic parameters of rabbit semen traits and male fertilising ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, J M; Sanchez, A; Ailloud, E; Saleil, G; Theau-Clément, M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters for rabbit semen production, semen characteristics and fertilising ability following artificial insemination. It involved five successive batches of 30-36 bucks each, 22 weeks of semen collection, and 11 weeks of semen recording per batch. Semen analyses were based on 2312 ejaculates. A total of 2019 inseminations were performed on 674 females with semen from 236 ejaculates from 128 bucks. Heritability estimates of semen traits ranged from 0.05 to 0.18. At approximately 0.05-0.06 for pH, volume and mass motility, they were higher for concentration (0.10) and the total number of sperms per ejaculate (0.12), and even higher for motility traits based on computer-assisted semen analysis. The percentage of motile sperms had the highest heritability (0.18) and appeared to be a good candidate criterion to select for both sperm number and motility. The heritability estimates were close to zero for all three criteria of fertilising ability: fertility (F), prolificacy (live births, LB) and their product (LB per insemination). A permanent environmental effect of the male seemed to be higher for LB (0.04) than for F (0.01). The rabbit does accounted for approximately 10% of the variance of the three criteria. With respect to the female, the male contribution was negligible for fertility and in a ratio of 4-10 for the number of live births. In our experimental conditions, prolificacy would thus be more highly influenced by the buck than fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Zika Virus Shedding in Semen of Symptomatic Infected Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Paul S; Duggal, Nisha K; Hook, Sarah A; Delorey, Mark; Fischer, Marc; Olzenak McGuire, Dana; Becksted, Heidi; Max, Ryan J; Anishchenko, Michael; Schwartz, Amy M; Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Nelson, Christina A; McDonald, Erin M; Brooks, John T; Brault, Aaron C; Hinckley, Alison F

    2018-04-12

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has been linked to adverse birth outcomes. Previous reports have shown that person-to-person transmission can occur by means of sexual contact. We conducted a prospective study involving men with symptomatic ZIKV infection to determine the frequency and duration of ZIKV shedding in semen and urine and to identify risk factors for prolonged shedding in these fluids. Specimens were obtained twice per month for 6 months after illness onset and were tested by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay for ZIKV RNA and by Vero cell culture and plaque assay for infectious ZIKV. A total of 1327 semen samples from 184 men and 1038 urine samples from 183 men were obtained 14 to 304 days after illness onset. ZIKV RNA was detected in the urine of 7 men (4%) and in the semen of 60 (33%), including in semen samples from 22 of 36 men (61%) who were tested within 30 days after illness onset. ZIKV RNA shedding in semen decreased substantially during the 3 months after illness onset but continued for 281 days in 1 man (1%). Factors that were independently associated with prolonged RNA shedding included older age, less frequent ejaculation, and the presence of certain symptoms at the time of initial illness. Infectious ZIKV was isolated from 3 of 78 semen samples with detectable ZIKV RNA, all obtained within 30 days after illness onset and all with at least 7.0 log 10 ZIKV RNA copies per milliliter of semen. ZIKV RNA was commonly present in the semen of men with symptomatic ZIKV infection and persisted in some men for more than 6 months. In contrast, shedding of infectious ZIKV appeared to be much less common and was limited to the first few weeks after illness onset. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

  7. Polymyxin B effects on motility parameters of cryopreserved bull semen

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    Mojtaba Rashedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of adding different values of polymyxin B (PMB to bull semen on various motility parameters of post-thawed semen such as total motility, progressive motility and velocity parameters using kinetic parameters of sperm by Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis.Methods: Gram negative bacteria release lipopolysaccharide, which induces the apoptotic pathway. Antibiotics are added to semen in order to prevent bacterial contaminations in bovine semen. These antibiotics kill the bacteria especially gram negative bacteria. Therefore, their endotoxins are released during bacteriolysis and bind to the head region and midpiece of sperm. PMB is a bactericidal antibiotic against multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria and is able to neutralize the toxic effects of the released endotoxin. This study was performed on 3-year old Taleshi bulls.Results: The results showed both positive and negative significant effects of PMB on semen quality. Total motility and progressive motility were significantly increased (P<0.000 1 by 100 μg per mL of PMB (55.2% and 48.8% respectively against the control groups (43.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Moreover, they were significantly decreased (P<0.000 1 by 1 000 μg per mL of PMB (35.2% and 28.8% respectively against the control groups (43.5% and 37.7% respectively in above-mentioned parameters. In Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer, parameter VAP was significantly decreased (P<0.04 in 1 000 μg (69.6 μm/s against the control group (78.7 μm/s. Finally, using PMB in processing cryopreserved bull semen is advised, but before using it, the rate of endotoxins must be measured.Conclusions: We advise using PMB after measuring endotoxin concentration; In vitro, in vivo and in field fertilization, adding other sperm evaluation factors such as acrosomal integrity, DNA integrity, mitochondrial function to PMB treated semen.

  8. Semen Displacement as a Sperm Competition Strategy in Humans

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    Gordon G. Gallup

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine some of the implications of the possibility that the human penis may have evolved to compete with sperm from other males by displacing rival semen from the cervical end of the vagina prior to ejaculation. The semen displacement hypothesis integrates considerable information about genital morphology and human reproductive behavior, and can be used to generate a number of interesting predictions.

  9. Effect of Seminal Plasma Removal on Cell Membrane, Acrosomal Integrity and Mitochondrial Activity of Cooled Stallion Semen

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    Dhafer M. Aziz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh semen samples were collected from 11 warm blood stallions, each ejaculate was distributed into three equal parts. The first part was diluted in a skim milk-glucose diluent (SMG, the second part was diluted in a skim milk-glucose supplemented with Tyrode's medium (SMG-T, the third part was centrifuged to remove the seminal plasma, then the sperm was resuspended in the second diluent (SMG-T-C. The diluted semen were evaluated immediately after dilution (0 hour and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of storage at 5°C. Flow cytometry was performed to determine sperm viability, mitochondrial activity and acrosomal integrity. Immediately after dilution the tested parameters of sperms that diluted in SMG-T was significantly (P<0.001 higher than those diluted with SMG and SMG-T-C, and with SMG-T-C were higher significantly (P<0.05 than those diluted with SMG. The decreasing rate in tested sperm parameter was greater significantly (P<0.001 in semen samples which were diluted with SMG than those diluted with SMG-T and SMG-T-C. In conclusion, the present study indicated that viability, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial activity of stallion sperms were better preserved in SMG-T in comparison with SMG, also centrifugation and removal of the seminal plasma have an adverse effect on these three sperm parameters.

  10. Effect of intramuscular injection of butafosfan and cobalamin on the quality of Fresh and Cooled Stallion Semen

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    Nicolás Cazales Penino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of butafosfan in combination with cobalamin modulates many cellular metabolic functions in several species. Its use enhances productive and reproductive performance and reduces stress responses in animals. Despite all these attributes, so far there have been no controlled studies to evaluate the effects of butafosfan and cobalamin on the quality of stallion semen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the action of butafosfan in combination with cobalamin on the quality of fresh and cooled stallion semen. Four healthy stallions were kept in the same place and under the same management conditions during the entire experiment. Stallions were randomly assigned to two treatment groups in a 2x2 crossover design. Group A stallions were treated with an intramuscular injection of butafosfan twice a week for 80 days, while group B did not receive any treatment. After that, both groups were not treated for another 80 days allowing a washout period for the treated group. Then, the groups were reversed, and group B was treated with butafosfan and group A acted as the control for another 80 days. Semen was collected twice a week, diluted in skim milk and evaluated for total sperm count, total and progressive sperm motility, membrane integrity (CFDA/PI staining and membrane functionality (HOS test at 0 and 24 hours after preservation at 5ºC. Data were analyzed by comparing the values obtained from the treated stallions between the 60th and 84th days of treatment and the values obtained from the same stallion during the control period. The ejaculates of the washout period and between days 1 and 63 of treatment were not considered. A total of 85 ejaculates were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Means were compared by the Tukey test at the 5% level of significance. No significant differences were observed in fresh and cooled semen regarding the total sperm count, total motility, progressive motility, membrane integrity and membrane functionality in the

  11. Human papillomavirus in semen and the risk for male infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Zhangyan; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Li, Ni; Zhao, Wei; Wei, Luopei; Chen, Yuheng; Yang, Wenjing; Ma, Hongxia; Yao, Bing; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Hang, Dong; Dai, Min

    2017-11-09

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted viruses. Despite the increasing evidence of HPV prevalence in semen, the worldwide distribution of HPV types in semen and risk for male infertility remain inconclusive. Four electronic databases were searched for English language studies conducted between January 1990 and December 2016 that reported HPV DNA prevalence in semen. Based on the PRISMA guidelines, HPV prevalence was estimated among general population and fertility clinic attendees, respectively, and heterogeneity testing was performed using Cochran's Q and I 2 statistics. The association between HPV positivity and male infertility was evaluated by a meta-analysis of case-control studies. A total of 31 eligible studies comprising 5194 males were included. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in semen was 11.4% (95% CI = 7.8-15.0%) in general population (n = 2122) and 20.4% (95% CI = 16.2-24.6%) in fertility clinic attendees (n = 3072). High-risk type prevalence was 10.0% (95% CI = 5.9-14.0%) and 15.5% (95% CI = 11.4-19.7%), respectively. HPV16 was the most common type, with a prevalence of 4.8% (95% CI = 1.7-7.8%) in general population and 6.0% (95% CI = 3.8-8.2%) in fertility clinic attendees. A significantly increased risk of infertility was found for males with HPV positivity in semen (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 2.03-4.24). Seminal HPV infection is common worldwide, which may contribute to the risk of male infertility.

  12. Effects of alpha-lipoic acids on sperm membrane integrity during liquid storage of boar semen

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    Laura Parlapan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies have shown that sperm membrane from swine shows high sensitivity to cryopreservation process, causing a dramatic reduction in sperm quality. This has been attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species, that cause lipid peroxidation in sperm membranes. The aim of the present study was to minimize the oxidative attack by adding different concentration of alpha-lipoic acid into the sperm liquid storage at 17ºC for 7 days. Freshly ejaculated boar semen was diluted with Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS and supplemented with 5 levels of alpha-lipoic  acid (0.015, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 mmol/ml. The membrane integrity was evaluated at days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 of liquid preservation, using flow cytometer FACSCanto II (BD Biociencias systems. The experiment indicate that supplementation of alpha-lipoic  acid to the semen liquid storage extender improve sperm membrane

  13. Environmental factors contributed to circannual rhythm of semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huan; Feng, Lei; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether human semen parameters present circannual rhythm or not, and whether environmental factors exert on semen quality. This retrospective study used data of patients mainly from Reproductive Medicine Center and Urology and Andrology Clinic of a general hospital in China. Sperm concentration and motility were measured by computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Sperm morphology was scored based on the strict criteria (WHO, 2010). The Kruskal-Wallis rank test was used to investigate the relationship between semen parameters and season/month. Partial correlation coefficients were used to analyze the relationship between semen parameters and environmental factors. In this study, we found that sperm concentration and total amount per ejaculate were significantly lower in summer and higher in winter. But, sperm progressive motility and motility were significantly higher in spring and summer (from March to June), lower in autumn and winter (September and October). Unexpectedly, normal sperm morphology and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR) positive rate didn't vary along with season or month. Furthermore, temperature was negatively related to sperm concentration and total amount per ejaculate. Precipitation was positively associated with progressive motility and normal sperm morphology, but negatively related to sperm head defect percentage. The length of sunlight was positively related to progressive motility. The Air Quality Index (AQI) was positively associated with semen volume and sperm total amount per ejaculate. These suggest seasonal and monthly variation underlying some semen parameters.

  14. Cryopreservation of Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, B A; Ansari, M S; Akhter, S; Hussain, I; Blesbois, E

    2016-11-01

    The population of red jungle fowl is declining and needs special attention for its conservation with suitable approaches. For ex situ in vitro conservation of Indian red jungle fowl, establishment of semen cryobank is an appropriate option, for which an extender with adequate retrieval capacity for functional spermatozoa is required. Therefore, studies were designed to evaluate a wide range of extenders for cryopreservation of Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) sperm to achieve maximal post-thawed semen quality and fertility. For this purpose, semen from eight mature cocks were collected, initially evaluated (percent sperm motility, volume and concentration), pooled, assessed for motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability and acrosome integrity, and divided into six aliquots for dilution (1:5; 37°C) in Beltsville poultry, red fowl extender, Lake, EK, Tselutin poultry and chicken semen extenders. Diluted semen was cooled from 37°C to 4°C @ -0.275°C/min. Glycerol (20%) was added to chilled semen, equilibrated for 10min, filled in 0.5mL French straws, kept over LN 2 vapours for 10min and plunged into LN 2 and stored at -196°C. Percentages of motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability and acrosome integrity were higher (Psemen extender. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Human semen quality and the secondary sex ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jisuk; Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Zhen; Eisenberg, Michael L; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between semen quality and the secondary sex ratio (SSR), defined as the ratio of male to female live births. Our study cohort comprised 227 male partners who were enrolled prior to conception in Michigan and Texas between 2005 and 2009, and prospectively followed through delivery of a singleton birth. The male partners provided a baseline and a follow-up semen sample a month apart. Semen analysis was conducted to assess 27 parameters including five general characteristics, six sperm head measures, 14 morphology measures, and two sperm chromatin stability assay measures. Modified Poisson regression models with a robust error variance were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of a male birth for each semen parameter, after adjusting for potential confounders. Of the 27 semen parameters, only the percentage of bicephalic sperm was significantly associated with the SSR (2 nd vs 1 st quartile, RR, 0.65, 95% CI, 0.45-0.95, P = 0.03; 4 th vs 1 st quartile, RR, 0.61, 95% CI, 0.38-1.00, P semen quality is associated with offspring sex determination.

  16. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Robert; Carroll-Garrison, Martina; Donovan, Daniel; Fisher, John; Guemmer, Paul; Harms, Robert; Kelly, Timothy; Love, Mattie; McReynolds, James; Ward, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    .... Government action to preserve strategic access to semiconductor producers is clearly needed to ensure DoD electronic systems can be built without compromising sensitive technology, though every...

  17. Strong adherence to a healthy dietary pattern is associated with better semen quality, especially in men with poor semen quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostingh, Elsje C.; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P.M.; Vries, de Jeanne H.M.; Laven, Joop S.E.; Koster, Maria P.H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study associations between periconceptional dietary patterns and semen quality parameters. Design: Prospective periconception cohort study. Setting: Tertiary hospital. Patient(s): One hundred and twenty-nine male partners of pregnant women who participated in the Rotterdam

  18. Decline of semen quality among Chinese sperm bank donors within 7 years (2008-2014

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    Li Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen from 5210 sperm bank donors was analyzed and trends in semen quality were evaluated at Shandong Human Sperm Bank between 2008 and 2014. After 2-7 days of abstinence, semen samples were collected. Measurements of semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm forward motility, and total sperm count were performed. There were significant declining trends in semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm forward motility, and total sperm count. Our results indicate that the quality of semen in this cohort of sperm donors had decreased during the study period.

  19. Effect of freezing extender composition and male line on semen traits and reproductive performance in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viudes-de-Castro, M P; Lavara, R; Safaa, H M; Marco-Jiménez, F; Mehaisen, G M K; Vicente, J S

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of different freezing extenders on two lines selected for hyperprolificacy and longevity (H and LP, respectively). In extender A, dimethyl sulphoxide (Me2SO) and sucrose were used as cryoprotectants. In extenders B and C, the sucrose was replaced by 20% egg yolk, and in extender C the Me2SO was substituted by acetamide. Semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and cooled at 5°C for 45 min, and then was frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour for 10 min before being plunged into the liquid nitrogen. Thawing was carried out by immersing the straws in a water bath at 50°C for 10 s. Frozen-thawed semen characteristics and reproductive parameters were affected by freezing. Extender C showed significantly lower post-thawing quality traits than any of the three extenders. Acrosome integrity was significantly improved when Me2SO was used as cryoprotectant. Sucrose replacement by 20% egg yolk had no effect on acrosome integrity but provided significantly lower sperm motility and viability. Freezing extender affected fertility rate, total born, number of implantation sites and gestational losses, obtaining better results when extender A was used. The acrosomal integrity after frozen-thawed process showed a significant correlation with fertility at 12th day and also at birth, indicating that an increase in acrosomal integrity leads to an increase in both fertilities (12th day and at birth). A positive correlation between motility of semen and implantation sites was found. The post-thawing quality traits of semen were not affected by the genetic line, although LP line showed higher total born and lower foetal and gestational losses. The findings of this study suggest that freezing extender composition has a significant effect on the success of rabbit sperm for preservation, and when Me2SO was used as permeable cryoprotectant sucrose provided better protection compared with egg yolk and improved reproductive traits, and, on the

  20. Comparative Examination of Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L. Behaviour Responses and Semen Quality to Two Methods of Semen Collection.

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    Ewa Teresa Łukaszewicz

    Full Text Available Artificial insemination (AI is very helpful in solving the reproductive and biodiversity problems observed in small, closed avian populations. The successful production of fertilized eggs using AI is dependent on the collection of good quality semen. Two methods of male sexual stimulation and semen collection from captive kept capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L., one of the most seriously endangered grouse species in Europe, are compared in this study. Ejaculates were obtained either with the use of a dummy female or by the dorso-abdominal massage method. Differences in the individual responses of the males to the two methods of semen collection as well as in their semen quality were noted. Only sperm concentration (432.4 x 10(6 mL(-1 with dummy female and 614.5 x 10(6 mL(-1 for massage method was significantly affected by capercaillie stimulation method. Sperm motility and morphology were not affected (P ≥ 0.05. Thus, for semen collection from captive kept capercaillie both methods can be used successfully. The dummy female can be an alternative to dorso-abdominal massage method, commonly used for semen collection from domesticated bird species.

  1. The combinatorial effect of different Equex STM paste concentrations, cryoprotectants and the straw-freezing methods on the post-thaw boar semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T-W; Cheng, F-P; Chen, I-H; Yang, C-H; Tsai, M-Y; Chang, M-H; Wang, J-H; Wu, J-T

    2013-02-01

    This study was to evaluate the combinatorial effect (14 treatments, A-N) of different Equex STM paste concentrations, cryoprotectants and the straw-freezing method on the post-thaw boar semen quality. Two ejaculates were collected from each of nine boars (three boars from each of three breeds). Semen was diluted in extenders with different concentrations of Equex STM paste and different cryoprotectants [glycerol or dimethylacetamide (DMA)] before cryopreserving via liquid nitrogen or dry ice. Motility, viability, percentage of spermatozoa with intense acrosomal staining and with normal morphology of post-thaw sperm were evaluated. The qualities of thawed semen were best preserved in treatment H (extender with 0.5% Equex STM paste and 5% glycerol and freezing by dry ice) and were worst in treatment B (extender with 0% Equex STM paste and 5% DMA and freezing by dry ice). Significant difference (p 0.05). Moreover, statistical analysis suggests that no significant difference was present in semen quality among breed or individual donors (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that Equex STM paste improved the cryosurvival efficiency of boar sperm, and the favourable straw-freezing method changes between glycerol and DMA. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Evaluation of porcine beta defensins-1 and -2 as antimicrobial peptides for liquid-stored boar semen: Effects on bacterial growth and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Timonet, Adrià; Castillo-Martín, Miriam; Pereira, Barbara A; Pinart, Elisabeth; Bonet, Sergi; Yeste, Marc

    2018-04-15

    The present study evaluated whether two different antimicrobial peptides (AMP): porcine beta defensins-1 (PBD1) and -2 (PBD2) at three concentrations (1.5 μM, 3 μM and 5 μM) could be a suitable alternative to antibiotics in liquid-stored boar semen. Two separate experiments were conducted with liquid-stored boar semen preserved at 17 °C for 9-10 days. In the first one, we evaluated the impact of adding three concentrations of each AMP on the bacterial growth and sperm quality of boar semen stored for 10 days. In the second experiment, the ability of these AMPs to control bacterial growth was determined over a 9-day period, following artificial inoculation with Escherichia coli at 10 7 and 10 8  CFU mL -1 . In both experiments, sperm viability was assessed through flow cytometry, sperm motility was determined with Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) and the inhibitory effect on microbial growth was evaluated by bacteria culture on Luria Bertani agar. PBD1 and PBD2 were found to significantly (P extenders for boar semen at a concentration of 3 μM, but do not completely control all bacterial growth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SEMEN QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBIT BUCKS

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    Martyna Błaszczyk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30. The semen was obtained by means of artificial vagina. All samples were analyzed using CASA Sperm VisionTM system. To assessed spermatozoa morphology (the length and the width of head and tail; presence of abnormal spermatozoa we used QuickPhoto Micro system. Received data were statistically analyzed. Our research showed decrease of semen parameters value after one hour storage in 37°C. Correlation analysis showed negative correlation between presence of spermatozoa with separated flagellum and CASA parameters value e.g. motility, progressive motility, DAP, DCL, DSL, VAP, VCL, VSL, ALH and BCF. From among 3000 analyzed spermatozoa 14.2% posed abnormal forms. We observed negative influence of semen storage on its quality. Also negative correlations between all types of tail defect and motility of spermatozoa were detectedRabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30. The semen was obtained by means of artificial vagina. All samples were analyzed using CASA Sperm VisionTM system. To assessed spermatozoa morphology (the length and the width of head and tail; presence of abnormal spermatozoa we used Quick

  4. The Semen Microbiome and Its Relationship with Local Immunology and Viral Load in HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy M.; Osborne, Brendan J. W.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Huibner, Sanja; Lester, Richard; Dwan, Michael G.; Kovacs, Colin; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L.; Benko, Erika; Aziz, Maliha

    2014-01-01

    Semen is a major vector for HIV transmission, but the semen HIV RNA viral load (VL) only correlates moderately with the blood VL. Viral shedding can be enhanced by genital infections and associated inflammation, but it can also occur in the absence of classical pathogens. Thus, we hypothesized that a dysregulated semen microbiome correlates with local HIV shedding. We analyzed semen samples from 49 men who have sex with men (MSM), including 22 HIV-uninfected and 27 HIV-infected men, at baseline and after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. We studied the relationship of semen bacteria with HIV infection, semen cytokine levels, and semen VL by linear regression, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and goodness-of-fit test. Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus were common semen bacteria, irrespective of HIV status. While Ureaplasma was the more abundant Mollicutes in HIV-uninfected men, Mycoplasma dominated after HIV infection. HIV infection was associated with decreased semen microbiome diversity and richness, which were restored after six months of ART. In HIV-infected men, semen bacterial load correlated with seven pro-inflammatory semen cytokines, including IL-6 (p = 0.024), TNF-α (p = 0.009), and IL-1b (p = 0.002). IL-1b in particular was associated with semen VL (r2 = 0.18, p = 0.02). Semen bacterial load was also directly linked to the semen HIV VL (r2 = 0.15, p = 0.02). HIV infection reshapes the relationship between semen bacteria and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and both are linked to semen VL, which supports a role of the semen microbiome in HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25058515

  5. The semen microbiome and its relationship with local immunology and viral load in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy M Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Semen is a major vector for HIV transmission, but the semen HIV RNA viral load (VL only correlates moderately with the blood VL. Viral shedding can be enhanced by genital infections and associated inflammation, but it can also occur in the absence of classical pathogens. Thus, we hypothesized that a dysregulated semen microbiome correlates with local HIV shedding. We analyzed semen samples from 49 men who have sex with men (MSM, including 22 HIV-uninfected and 27 HIV-infected men, at baseline and after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. We studied the relationship of semen bacteria with HIV infection, semen cytokine levels, and semen VL by linear regression, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and goodness-of-fit test. Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus were common semen bacteria, irrespective of HIV status. While Ureaplasma was the more abundant Mollicutes in HIV-uninfected men, Mycoplasma dominated after HIV infection. HIV infection was associated with decreased semen microbiome diversity and richness, which were restored after six months of ART. In HIV-infected men, semen bacterial load correlated with seven pro-inflammatory semen cytokines, including IL-6 (p = 0.024, TNF-α (p = 0.009, and IL-1b (p = 0.002. IL-1b in particular was associated with semen VL (r(2  = 0.18, p = 0.02. Semen bacterial load was also directly linked to the semen HIV VL (r(2 = 0.15, p = 0.02. HIV infection reshapes the relationship between semen bacteria and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and both are linked to semen VL, which supports a role of the semen microbiome in HIV sexual transmission.

  6. Cryopreservation of Dog Semen in a Tris Extender with 1% or 2% Soya Bean Lecithin as a Replacement of Egg Yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnér, E; Lagerson, E

    2016-04-01

    Egg yolk is usually included in extenders used for preservation of dog semen. Lecithin is an interesting animal-protein free alternative to egg yolk for semen preservation. The aim of our study was to evaluate soya bean lecithin for cryopreservation of dog semen. Five ejaculate replicates were divided in three equal parts, centrifuged and each pellet diluted with one of the three Tris-based extenders containing 20% egg yolk, 1% soya bean lecithin or 2% soya bean lecithin. Extended semen was loaded in 0.5-ml straws, cooled and diluted a second time and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapours. Sperm motility parameters (CASA), acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) and sperm membrane integrity (C-FDA) were evaluated 5 min post-thaw and after 2 and 4 h of incubation. Total motility was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in any of the lecithin-based extender and was better in the 1% lecithin extender than in the 2% lecithin extender. Sperm membrane integrity was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in any of the lecithin-based extenders but did not differ significantly between the 1% and 2% lecithin extenders. Acrosome integrity was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in the 2% lecithin extender but did not differ between the egg yolk extender and the 1% lecithin extender or between the two lecithin extenders. In conclusion, egg yolk was superior to lecithin in our study. The extender with 1% lecithin preserved sperm motility better than the extender with 2% lecithin. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Heritability of semen traits in German Warmblood stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, M; Sieme, H; Martinsson, G; Distl, O

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate genetic parameters for semen quality traits of 241 fertile German Warmblood stallions regularly employed in artificial insemination (AI). Stallions were owned by the National Studs Celle and Warendorf in Germany. Semen traits analyzed were gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility and total number of progressively motile sperm. Semen protocols from a total of 63,972 ejaculates were collected between the years 2001 and 2014 for the present analysis. A multivariate linear animal model was employed for estimation of additive genetic and permanent environmental variances among stallions and breeding values (EBVs) for semen traits. Heritabilities estimated for all German Warmblood stallions were highest for gel-free volume (h(2)=0.28) and lowest for total number of progressively motile sperm (h(2)=0.13). The additive genetic correlation among gel-free volume and sperm concentration was highly negative (rg=-0.76). Average reliabilities of EBVs were at 0.37-0.68 for the 241 stallions with own records. The inter-stallion variance explained between 33 and 61% of the trait variance, underlining the major impact of the individual stallion on semen quality traits analyzed here. Recording of semen traits from stallions employed in AI may be recommended because EBVs achieve sufficient accuracies to improve semen quality in future generations. Due to favorable genetic correlations, sperm concentration, total number of sperm and total number of progressively motile sperm may be increased simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatitis C virus detection in the semen of infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma de Paula Cavalheiro

    Full Text Available Though HCV infection is a serious public health problem, some aspects of its biology are still not well understood, such as its transmission through seminal fluid and sexual transmission. We looked for HCV in the semen of infected patients. Thirteen patients were included. Semen fractions (seminal plasma, leukocytes and spermatozoa were separated with 45% and 90% Percoll gradients. The HCV-RNA in blood and semen fractions was extracted using the same protocol (AMPLICOR Roche and was detected using the qualitative Roche Amplicor test and by agarose gel electrophoresis, with ethidium bromide staining. The mean age of the patients was 40.7 years. Risk factors for the acquisition of HCV included injectable and inhaled drug use in six (42.8%, blood transfusion in four (28.6%, and no risk factors in four (28.6% patients. Genotype 1 was detected in 62% of the patients, followed by genotype 3 in 23% and genotype 2 in 15%. All blood samples were positive, regardless of the technique used for detection. All semen samples identified by Roche Amplicor and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis were negative. Among the 52 semen samples (total and fractions identified by the Roche Amplicor method, 45 (87% were inhibited. A negative result was recorded for one (1.9% total semen sample, one (1.9% leukocyte and four (7.7% seminal plasma fractions. Only one (1.9% sample of the spermatozoon fraction was positive. The results obtained suggested false-negative reactions for the semen samples.

  9. EVALUATION OF CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE AND DNA INTEGRITY IN SPERM: AN INVESTIGATION OF REMOTE SEMEN COLLECTION CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home collection of ejaculated semen would facilitate participation rates and geographic diversity in reproductive epidemiology studies. Our study addressed concerns that home collection and overnight mail return might induce chromosome/DNA damage. We collected semen from 10 hea...

  10. Semen quality in relation to antioxidant intake in a healthy male population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zareba, Piotr; Colaci, Daniela S; Afeiche, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males.......To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males....

  11. Maternal folic acid supplement intake and semen quality in Danish sons: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kristoffer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring.......To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring....

  12. A comparison of semen diluents on the in vitro and in vivo fertility of liquid bull semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Edel M; Murphy, Craig; O'Meara, Ciara; Dunne, Gemma; Eivers, Bernard; Lonergan, Patrick; Fair, Sean

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of semen diluent on calving rate (CR) following artificial insemination with liquid bull semen stored for up to 3 d postcollection. In experiment 1, the effect of storing liquid semen maintained at a constant ambient temperature in 1 of 7 different diluents [Caprogen (homemade), OptiXcell, BioXcell, BullXcell, INRA96, NutriXcell, or AndroMed (all commercially available)] on total and progressive motility was assessed on d 0, 1, 2, and 3 postcollection. In experiment 2, the field fertility of liquid semen diluted in Caprogen, BioXcell, or INRA96 and inseminated on d 1, 2, or 3 postcollection was assessed in comparison to frozen-thawed semen (total of n = 19,126 inseminations). In experiment 3, the effect of storage temperature fluctuations (4 and 18°C) on total and progressive motility following dilution in Caprogen, BioXcell, and INRA96 was assessed on d 0, 1, 2, and 3 postcollection. In experiment 1, semen stored in Caprogen, BioXcell, and INRA96 resulted in the highest total and progressive motility on d 1, 2, and 3 of storage compared with OptiXcell, BullXcell, NutriXcell, and AndroMed. In experiment 2, an effect of diluent on CR was found as semen diluted in BioXcell had a lower CR on d 1, 2, and 3 of storage (46.3, 35.4, and 34.0%, respectively) in comparison with Caprogen (55.8, 52.0, and 51.9%, respectively), INRA96 (55.0, 55.1, and 52.2%, respectively), and frozen-thawed semen (59.7%). Effects were found of parity, cow fertility sub-index, as well as the number of days in milk on CR. In experiment 3, when the storage temperature of diluted semen fluctuated between 4 and 18°C, to mimic what occurs in the field (nighttime vs. daytime), BioXcell had the lowest total and progressive motility in comparison to Caprogen and INRA96. In conclusion, diluent significantly affected sperm motility when stored for up to 3 d. Semen diluted in INRA96 resulted in a similar CR to semen diluted in Caprogen and to frozen

  13. Expected net present value of pure and mixed sexed semen artificial insemination strategies in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynk, N J; Wolf, C A

    2007-05-01

    Sexed semen has been a long-anticipated tool for dairy farmers to obtain more heifer calves, but challenges exist for integrating sexed semen into commercial dairy farm reproduction programs. The decreased conception rates (CR) experienced with sexed semen make virgin heifers better suited for insemination with sexed semen than lactating dairy cows. This research sought to identify when various sexed semen breeding strategies provided higher expected net present value (NPV) than conventional artificial insemination (AI) breeding schemes, indicating which breeding scheme is advisable under various scenarios. Budgets were developed to calculate the expected NPV of various AI breeding strategies incorporating conventional (non-sexed) and sexed semen. In the base budgets, heifer and bull calf values were held constant at $500 and $110, respectively. The percentage of heifers expected to be born after breeding with conventional and sexed semen used was 49.2 and 90%, respectively. Breeding costs per AI were held constant at $15.00 per AI for conventional semen and $45.00 per AI for sexed semen of approximately the same genetic value. Conventional semen CR of 58 and 65% were used, and an AI submission rate was set at 100%. Breeding strategies with sexed semen were assessed for breakeven heifer calf values and sexed semen costs to obtain a NPV equal to that achieved with conventional semen. Breakeven heifer calf values for pure sexed semen strategies with a constant 58 and 65% base CR in which sexed semen achieved 53% of the base CR are $732.11 and $664.26, respectively. Breakeven sexed semen costs per AI of $17.16 and $22.39, compared with $45.00 per AI, were obtained to obtain a NPV equal to that obtained with pure conventional semen for base CR of 58 and 65%, respectively. The strategy employing purely sexed semen, with base CR of both 58 and 65%, yielded a lower NPV than purely conventional semen in all but the best-case scenario in which sexed semen provides 90% of

  14. Semen Basis Sebagai Insulator Terhadap Therma Shock Di Bawah Restorasi Logam

    OpenAIRE

    Kadariani

    2008-01-01

    Restorasi yang terbuat dari bahan logam dapat menghantarkan perubahan suhu yang berasal dari makanan dan minuman ke pulpa sehingga menyebabkan perasaan yang tidak nyaman pada pasien. Untuk menanggulangi hal ini maka diperlukan semen basis yang diletakkan di bawah restorasi logam sebagai semen insulator. Penggunaan semen basis dengan tujuan sebagai insulator terhadap perubahan suhu tergantung pada ketebalan dentin yang tersisa setelah preparasi kavitas. Penggunaan semen basis hanya diindika...

  15. Physically Active Men Show Better Semen Parameters than Their Sedentary Counterparts

    OpenAIRE

    Lalinde-Acevedo, Paula C.; Mayorga-Torres, B. Jose Manuel; Agarwal, Ashok; du Plessis, Stefan S.; Ahmad, Gulfam; Cadavid, Ángela P.; Cardona Maya, Walter D.

    2017-01-01

    Background The quality of semen depends upon several factors such as environment, life style, physical activity, age, and occupation. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the conventional and functional semen parameters in men practicing vigorous physical activity to those of sedentary men. Materials and Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, semen samples of 17 physically active men and 15 sedentary men were collected for analysis. Semen analysis was performe...

  16. ANALISIS PENERAPAN TAX PLANNING ATAS PAJAK PENGHASILAN BADAN PADA PT SEMEN TONASA PANGKEP

    OpenAIRE

    WIJAYA, AKBAR

    2014-01-01

    2014 ABSTRAK ANALISIS PENERAPAN TAX PLANNING ATAS PAJAK PENGHASILAN BADAN PADA PT SEMEN TONASA PANGKEP Implementation Analysis of Tax Planning on Board Incoming Tax of Semen Tonasa Ltd. Pangkep Akbar Wijaya Amiruddin Darmawati Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tax planning yang dilakukan oleh PT Semen Tonasa Pangkep, dan untuk menganalisis penerapan tax planning yang dilakukan oleh PT Semen Tonasa Pangkep dengan undang-undang perpajakan yang berlaku. Data...

  17. Effect of the rooster semen enrichment with oleic acid on the quality of semen during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, M; Ghaniei, A; Mirzaei Rad, H

    2016-06-01

    Liquid storage of avian spermatozoa is currently being employed in programs utilizing the artificial insemination to optimize the management of genetically superior males. It is mandatory to use efficient semen storage techniques in order to prevent the reduction of the fertilizing ability of stored semen. The present study was designated to evaluate the effect of oleic acid on rooster semen quality stored at 4°C for 48 h. Semen was collected from 10 roosters twice a week. Good quality ejaculates were pooled and after dilution, the semen was enriched with 0 (control), 0.125 (O 0.125), 0.25 (O 0.25), 0.5 (O 0.5), and 1 (O1) millimolar oleate. Forward progressive motility and viability of spermatozoa were evaluated at 0, 24, and 48 h. Moreover, malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant activity (AOA) levels were measured in seminal plasma and spermatozoa at the mentioned time points. Motility was 80.33 ± 1.45, 80.00 ± 2.08, and 66.00 ± 2.30% at 24 h and 56.33 ± 1.45, 57.33 ± 2.18, and 41.33 ± 2.02% at 48 h in O 0.125, O 0.25, and control, respectively (P semen enrichment with low doses of oleate would exert beneficial effects on the quality of semen during cooled storage. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Semen analysis under photochemotherapy (PUVA-therapy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, W.B.; Hofmann, C.; Plewig, G.

    1979-01-01

    In 9 male patients with psoriasis vulgaris a semen analysis before and during photochemotherapy with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA (PUVA) was performed to rule out drug-induced toxic damage of spermatogenesis or impairment of fertility due to scrotal hyperthermia. Two hours after oral application of 40-60 mg 8-methoxypsoralen the patients had been irradiated in UVA high intensity treatment units. PUVA-treatments were performed four times weekly until total body clearing was achieved. For complete remission 13-26 (mean 20.5) PUVA-treatments were necessary. Corresponding total UVA-doses were 35.3 - 191.0 (mean 83.2) Joule/cm 2 . The investigated parameters total motility, progressive motility, spermatozoa density, total spermatozoa count, spermatozoa morphology, and seminal plasma fructose remained unchanged. Only the volume of the ejaculate showed a small decrease during 3 months of therapy. From this pilot study there is no evidence, that PUVA-therapy leads to an impairment of fertility in male patients within their reproductive age. (orig.) [de

  19. Association of Vitamin E with Rapid Thawing on Goat Semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penitente-Filho, Jurandy Mauro; Oliveira, Fabrício Albani; Jimenez, Carolina Rodriguez; Dias, Júlio César Oliveira; Oliveira, Gisele Dias; Silveira, Renata Gomes; Silveira, Camila Oliveira; Torres, Ciro Alexandre Alves

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E associated with rapid thawing on cryopreserved goat semen. Two bucks were used and eight ejaculates per animal were collected using artificial vagina. Semen was diluted with the following treatments: BIOXCELL (control), BIOXCELL + Equex (sodium lauryl sulphate) and BIOXCELL + vitamin E 100 μM. Semen was packaged into 0.25 mL straws and cooled at 5°C for 1 hour. Freezing was performed in liquid nitrogen vapor (−155°C) during 15 minutes. Then, the straws were immersed in liquid nitrogen (−196°C). Straws were thawed at 38°C/60 seconds or at 60°C/7 seconds with immediate sperm analysis. Hypoosmotic swelling test was performed adding a 20 μL aliquot of thawed semen to 1 mL of hypoosmotic solution (100 mOsm·Kg−1) followed by incubation during 60 minutes in water bath (38°C). Vitamin E did not affect any studied parameters (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, defrosting rate of 60°C/7 seconds improved sperm membrane functional integrity (P < 0.05). Current knowledge about goat semen cryopreservation is not sufficient to ensure high post-thawing recovery rates; thus, this study brings important data about using antioxidants and different thawing rates on cryopreservation process. PMID:24955428

  20. Adipokines in Semen: Physiopathology and Effects on Spermatozoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaelle Elfassy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines are secreted by adipose tissue and could be the link between obesity and infertility. Different studies investigated the involvement of adipokines in reproductive functions but only a few have looked into the male part. This review assesses adipokine functions on male reproductive parameters. Adiponectin seems to have a positive effect on sperm parameters, whereas other adipokines such as resistin or chemerin would have a rather deleterious effect on spermatogenesis. Semen parameters seem to be impacted when resistin and chemerin are increased: indeed, there is a decrease of sperm motility. Sperm morphology is improved when adiponectin is increased. The most studied adipokine, leptin, has a dual effect with a positive effect on sperm at physiological levels and a negative one for high seminal concentrations. Many semen parameters and fertility itself are disturbed according to semen adipokine levels, even if it is not the only interfering element. Taken together, adipokines are found in human and animal semen and most of them or their receptors are expressed in male genital tract. Although the pathophysiological role of adipokines in semen is not clearly elucidated, the adipokines could influence sperm functionality and could be potential biomarkers of male fertility.

  1. Liquid Storage of Boar Semen Using Commercial Extenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu BOGDAN

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was focused on the modern evaluation of boar semen parameters, using computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA, before and after liquid storage at 15ºC. Semen was collected from 15 sexually mature boars by manual stimulation. Macroscopical and microscopical evaluation of semen was performed, followed by a detailed CASA analysis of all ejaculates. Subsequently, semen was diluted using 4 different extenders (Semtest, Androstar, MIII and Cronos and stored at 15ºC for 24 hours. Next, evaluation of progressive motility, total motility and viability was performed, using the same CASA system. All experiments were performed in triplicates and results were statistically analyzed. The average progressive motility after 24 hours was as follows: 69.56 ± 6.38 for MIII, 65.92% ± 2.63 for Semtest, 67.07% ± 5.58 for Androstar Plus and 68.93% ± 3.40 for Cronos. The viability results after 24 hours were: 86.34% ± 1.38 for Semtest extender, 93.55% ± 3.38% for Androstrar Plus, 89.19% ± 3.42 for MIII and 91.35% ± 2.37 for Cronos. The findings of this study suggest that the use of commercial extenders for short-term storage of swine semen is important in order to increase sperm longevity with minimal sperm function deterioration.

  2. Effects of oxytocin on semen release response in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.T.M.; Jatzkowski, A.; Komen, J.

    2003-01-01

    In silurid fishes, semen collection is practically impossible, even after hormonal stimulation. Instead, males are killed and testes macerated to obtain sperm. To understand the endocrine control of semen release in catfishes, we investigated the role of smooth muscle contractors in semen release

  3. Sensitive detection of Myobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in bovine semen by real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herthnek, D.; Englund, S.; Willemsen, P.T.J.; Bolske, G.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To develop a fast and sensitive protocol for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in bovine semen and to make a critical evaluation of the analytical sensitivity. Methods and Results: Processed semen was spiked with known amounts of MAP. Semen from different bulls as

  4. Effect on post-cryopreserved semen characteristics of Holstein bulls of adding combinations of vitamin C and either catalase or reduced glutathione to Tris extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidan, Sajeda M

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of adding combinations of vitamin C to Tris extender with either catalase or reduced glutathione on post-cryopreserved semen characteristics of Holstein bulls for different preservation periods (cooling at 5°C, 48 h, 1, 2 and 3 months post cryopreservation, PC). Seven Holstein bulls of 2.5-3 years of age were used in this experiment. Semen was collected via artificial vagina in one ejaculate per bull per week for the 7 week experimental period. Pooled semen was equally divided into three treatments using Tris extender. Combinations of vitamin C (2.5mM) were added with either catalase (100 IU/ml, T2) or reduced glutathione (2mM, T3) to Tris extender and comparisons in response were made with the control group (Tris extender, T1). Individual sperm motility (IM), viability (V), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), and acrosome integrity (AI) were assessed during all periods of the study along with Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and freezing ability. The IM was greater (P ≤ 0.01) in the T2 as compared with the T1 group at all periods of the study. Furthermore, the IM were greater (P ≤ 0.01) in the T3 as compared with the T1 group at the 48 h time period and at 3 months PC. The V, PMI and AI were greater (P ≤ 0.01) in T2 and T3 as compared with the T1 group at all the experimental periods. The MDA was greater (P ≤ 0.01) in the T2 as compared with the T1 group at 3 months PC. In conclusion, there was improved semen quality if semen of Holstein bulls was collected and stored in combinations of vitamin C with either catalase (T2) or reduced glutathione (T3) being added to Tris extender. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of pig insemination technique and semen preparation on profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Peña, D; Knox, R V; Pettigrew, J; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2014-01-01

    Artificial insemination technique and semen preparation impact boar utilization efficiency, genetic dissemination, and biosecurity. Intrauterine (IUI) and deep intrauterine (DUI) AI techniques require lower number of spermatozoa per dose compared to conventional (CON) AI. Frozen semen (FRO) has been associated with lower reproductive performance compared to fresh semen (FRE) preparation. The combined effects of 3 AI techniques (CON, IUI, and DUI) and 2 semen preparations (FRE and FRO) on the financial indicators of a pig crossbreeding system were studied. A 3-tier system was simulated in ZPLAN and the genetic improvement in a representative scenario was characterized. The cross of nucleus lines B and A generated 200,000 BA sows at the multiplier level. The BA sows were inseminated (CON, IUI, or DUI) with FRE or FRO from line C boars at the commercial level. Semen preparation and AI technique were represented by distinct sow:boar ratios in the C × BA cross. A range of farrowing rates (60 to 90%) and litter sizes (8 to 14 liveborn pigs) were tested. Genetic improvement per year for number born alive, adjusted 21-d litter weight, days to 113.5 kg, backfat, and ADG were 0.01 pigs per litter, 0.06 kg, -0.09 d, -0.29 mm, and 0.88 g, respectively. On average, the net profit for FRE (FRO) increased (P-value profit between techniques were driven by differences in costs. Differences in fixed costs between IUI and DUI relative to CON were -2.4 (-5.2%) and -3.4% (-7.4%), respectively. The differences in total costs between FRE and FRO were lower than -5%. The difference in variable costs between FRE and FRO ranged from -5.3 (CON) to -24.7% (DUI). Overall, insemination technique and semen preparation had a nonlinear effect on profit. The average relative difference in profit between FRE and FRO was less than 3% for the scenarios studied.

  6. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. In...

  7. The extent of increase in first calving age as a result of implementing various sexed semen breeding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahereh Joezy-Shekalgorabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic simulation was conducted to assess the effects of sexed semen utilization strategies on age at first calving (AFC. Four different strategies were implemented on dairy heifers: continuous use of conventional semen only (CC, continuous use of sexed semen only (SS, utilization of sexed semen for both the first and second services with conventional semen afterwards (S2, and utilization of sexed semen for the first service with conventional semen afterwards (S1. Results indicated that continuous utilization of sexed semen led to the greatest AFC; however at high conception rates, strategies displayed negligible differences on AFC. Increases in estrus detection rate had the greatest effects on decreasing AFC of the SS scenarios. Negative effect of sexed semen on AFC increased when the effect of low estrus detection rate was combined with low conception rate of sexed semen. Results indicated that in the case of access to sexed semen conception rate, prediction of AFC is possible by quadratic polynomial or exponential equations, depending to the applied breeding strategy. Simultaneous utilization of sexed and conventional semen in a herd did not make a substantial change in AFC when a low percentage of sexed semen was employed. Increasing the contribution of different sexed semen strategies led to higher AFC variation, especially for the SS strategy. AFC of strategies that utilize sexed semen is highly dependent on the conception rate, estrus detection rate and the contribution of sex sorted semen in the total number of inseminations of the heifer herd.

  8. The extent of increase in first calving age as a result of implementing various sexed semen breeding strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joezy-Shekalgorabi, S.; Shadparvar, A. A.; Vries, A. de; Gay, K. D.

    2014-06-01

    A deterministic simulation was conducted to assess the effects of sexed semen utilization strategies on age at first calving (AFC). Four different strategies were implemented on dairy heifers: continuous use of conventional semen only (CC), continuous use of sexed semen only (SS), utilization of sexed semen for both the first and second services with conventional semen afterwards (S2), and utilization of sexed semen for the first service with conventional semen afterwards (S1). Results indicated that continuous utilization of sexed semen led to the greatest AFC; however at high conception rates, strategies displayed negligible differences on AFC. Increases in estrus detection rate had the greatest effects on decreasing AFC of the SS scenarios. Negative effect of sexed semen on AFC increased when the effect of low estrus detection rate was combined with low conception rate of sexed semen. Results indicated that in the case of access to sexed semen conception rate, prediction of AFC is possible by quadratic polynomial or exponential equations, depending to the applied breeding strategy. Simultaneous utilization of sexed and conventional semen in a herd did not make a substantial change in AFC when a low percentage of sexed semen was employed. Increasing the contribution of different sexed semen strategies led to higher AFC variation, especially for the SS strategy. AFC of strategies that utilize sexed semen is highly dependent on the conception rate, estrus detection rate and the contribution of sex sorted semen in the total number of inseminations of the heifer herd. (Author)

  9. Effect of diabetes mellitus on the quality and cytokine content of human semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaosheng; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Huina; Zhao, Junzhao

    2017-09-01

    The effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the quality and cytokine levels of human semen remain unknown. Sixty semen samples from 30 normal volunteers and 30 DM patients were assayed. The percentage of sperm progressive motility, sperm vitality, sperm survival rate, the rate of normal sperm morphology, semen volume, and semen pH and density of DM males were significantly lower than those of normal males (psemen interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-18 levels in DM males were significantly higher than those in normal males (psemen decreased semen quality and might lead to male infertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. No increased sperm DNA fragmentation index in semen containing human papillomavirus or herpesvirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Maja Døvling; Bungum, Mona; Fedder, Jens

    2013-01-01

    It remains unknown whether human papillomaviruses (HPVs) or human herpesviruses (HHVs) in semen affect sperm DNA integrity. We investigated whether the presence of these viruses in semen was associated with an elevated sperm DNA fragmentation index. Semen from 76 sperm donors was examined by a PCR......-based hybridization array that identifies all HHVs and 35 of the most common HPVs. Sperm DNA integrity was determined by the sperm chromatin structure assay. HPVs or HHVs, or both, were found in 57% of semen samples; however, sperm DNA fragmentation index was not increased in semen containing these viruses....

  11. Influence of chamber type integrated with computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) system on the results of boar semen evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gączarzewicz, D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of different types of chambers used in computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) on boar sperm concentration and motility parameters. CASA measurements were performed on 45 ejaculates by comparing three commonly used chambers: Leja chamber (LJ), Makler chamber (MK) and microscopic slide-coverslip (SL). Concentration results obtained with CASA were verified by manual counting on a Bürker hemocytometer (BH). No significant differences were found between the concentrations determined with BH vs. LJ and SL, whereas higher (p0.05). The results obtained show that CASA assessment of boar semen should account for the effect of counting chamber on the results of sperm motility and concentration, which confirms the need for further study on standardizing the automatic analysis of boar semen.

  12. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) in boar spermatozoa: purification, biochemical properties and changes in activity during semen storage (16°C) in different extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzołek, Aleksandra; Wysocki, Paweł; Strzeżek, Jerzy; Kordan, Władysław

    2013-03-01

    The antioxidant system in semen is composed of enzymes, low-molecular weight antioxidants and seminal plasma proteins. Loss of enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) during semen preservation may cause insufficient antioxidant defense of boar spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize SOD molecular forms from spermatozoa and to describe changes in SOD activity in boar sperm during preservation at 16°C. Sperm extracts were prepared from fresh or diluted semen and used for SOD purification or activity measurement. Ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration was used to purify SOD molecular forms. BTS, Dilu Cell, M III and Vitasem were used as diluents for 5-day storage of semen at +16°C. The molecular form of SOD released from spermatozoa after cold shock and homogenization had a molecular weight of approximately 67kDa. The activity of the SOD form was the highest at pH 10 within the temperature range between 20 and 45°C. The enzymatic activity of form released after cold shock was inhibited by H2O2 and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC; by 65 and 40%, respectively). The SOD form released by homogenization was inhibited by H2O2 and DDC (40%). The molecular form released after urea treatment was a 30kDa protein with maximum activity at 20°C and pH 10. Enzymatic activity of this form was inhibited by H2O2 by 35%, DDC by 80% and 2-mercaptoethanol by 15%. The antigenic determinants of SOD isolated from boar seminal plasma and spermatozoa were similar to each other. Susceptibility of spermatozoa to cold shock increased during storage, but the differences between extenders were statistically non-significant. Copyright © 2013 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Vitamin E Addition to Chicken Semen on Sperm Quality During in Vitro Storage of Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Tabatabaei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probable effects of the vitamin E addition in different levels to the extender of chicken semen on spermatozoa quality during storage of semen at 4°C for 0, 3, 6, 10 and 24 hours. Eight young Ross broiler breeder strain 308 roosters were used in this experiment. The collected semen from all roosters was mixed together and diluted with modified a Ringer’s solution. The diluted pooled semen was divided into 5 treatments (T. T1 was a control group without any vitamin E addition. For T2 to T5 groups 0.5 %, 1 %, 2 % and 3 % vitamin E (w/v, were added respectively. Treatments were evaluated for sperm motility, sperm viability and probable morphological defects after 0, 3, 6, 10 and 24 hours of incubation at 4°C. The evaluations of spermatozoa immediately after semen collection, were revealed no significant differences among values of treatment groups, whereas after incubating the treatments for different spans of time, the sperm progressive motility and viability rates for groups supplemented with vitamin E were significantly (P < 0.05 higher than that of the control group. In addition, morphological defect rates of chicken spermatozoa in the groups supplemented with different levels of vitamin E were significantly (P < 0.05 lower than that in control group. According to the results of this study we conclude that, the most excellent level of vitamin E for supplementation to the extended semen of chicken in order to improve the sperm motility and viability plus to reduce the morphological defect rates of the spermatozoa up to 24 hours storage time at 4°C is 2 % (w/v.

  14. New methods and media for the centrifugation of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) drone semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Jakob; May, Tanja; Kamp, Günter; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2014-02-01

    Centrifugation of Apis mellifera L. drone semen is a necessary step in the homogenization of semen pools for the enlargement of the effective breeding population, as well as in the collection of semen by the so-called washing technique. It is also of interest for the removal of cryoprotectants after cryopreservation. The adoption of methods involving semen centrifugation has been hampered by their damaging effect to sperm. Here, we tested four new diluents as well as three additives (catalase, hen egg yolk, and a protease inhibitor), using sperm motility and dual fluorescent staining as indicators of semen quality. Three of the new diluents significantly reduced motility losses after centrifugation, as compared with the literature standard. Values of motility and propidium iodide negativity obtained with two of these diluents were not different from those measured with untreated semen. The least damaging diluent, a citrate-HEPES buffer containing trehalose, was then tested in an insemination experiment with centrifuged semen. Most queens receiving this semen produced normal brood, and the number of sperm reaching the storage organ of the queen was not significantly different from that in queens receiving untreated semen. These results could improve the acceptance of techniques involving the centrifugation of drone semen. The diluent used in the insemination experiment could also serve as semen extender for applications not involving centrifugation.

  15. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-06-17

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled.

  16. Thermotemporal dynamics of contaminant bacteria and antimicrobials in extended porcine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, G C; Pierdon, M S; Lu, K G

    2008-11-01

    Bacterial contamination of extended porcine semen has been associated with deleterious effects on both semen quality and sow fertility. Retrospective, prospective and in vitro studies were performed to delineate the prevalence and behavior of certain bacterial contaminants in extended semen, and antimicrobial pharmacodynamics in various semen diluents. Retrospective review of extended semen samples submitted from North American boar studs for microbiological screening at the University of Pennsylvania Reference Andrology Laboratory in 2005 and 2006 yielded bacteriospermia prevalence rates of 17% (144/832) and 26% (256/984), respectively. In a prospective study of regional boar studs, of 91 extended semen samples tested over 1-y, 29% were positive for bacteriospermia. Retrospective and prospective studies both showed that the preponderance of contaminant positive samples occurred during the fall months (Pamoxicillin, gentamicin, tylosin, and lincomycin/spectinomycin (single drug or combination) ranged from 75 to over 360min, and was highly dependent (P<0.05) upon both type of bacteria and semen diluent.

  17. Refining Asian elephant semen technologies: The need for improved quality analysis and preservation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattananit, P.

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate aim of a breeding management programme for captive Asian elephants is to establish a self-sustaining population, while maintaining maximal genetic diversity. In this respect, artificial insemination (AI) is considered a crucial tool for facilitating the exchange of genetic material

  18. INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN BIOACTIVE PREPARATIONS ON THE DURATION OF BOAR SEMEN PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. HAREA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiences were held on the boar sperm. There were studied the bioactive substances with the role of antioxidizer made at the Institute of Genetic of Science Academy of Republic of Moldova. The bioactive substances (GL-2 were used as a structure dilution GHTS what is used for boars sperm dilution with the concentration of 0,1 – 1%. The experimental researches showed that the studied substances were not toxic for sperm used in the structure of GHTS dilution with the concentration of 0,1-1 whit gave the possibility to increase the period of boar sperm stoking till 168 hours, keeping the sperms mobility at the level of standard of artificial insemination.

  19. Cryobiology and a new look at the preservation of stallion semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grout, Brian William Wilson; Lehn-Jensen, Henrik; Petersen, Morten Rønn

    2009-01-01

    staining to indicate cells that have lost osmotic competence.  Further, relatively high viability is retained if direct plunging into liquid nitrogen (LN) replaces the controlled protocol, and the sample can withstand several cycles of repeated freezing. The data suggests that populations of spermatozoa...

  20. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN HOME TAP WATER AND SEMEN QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trihalomethane Levels in Home Tap Water and Semen QualityLaura Fenster, 1 Kirsten Waller, 2 Gayle Windham, 1 Tanya Henneman, 2 Meredith Anderson, 2 Pauline Mendola, 3 James W. Overstreet, 4 Shanna H. Swan51California Department of Health Services, Division of Environm...

  1. Semen analysis and sperm function tests: How much to test?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Vasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen analysis as an integral part of infertility investigations is taken as a surrogate measure for male fecundity in clinical andrology, male fertility, and pregnancy risk assessments. Clearly, laboratory seminology is still very much in its infancy. In as much as the creation of a conventional semen profile will always represent the foundations of male fertility evaluation, the 5th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO manual is a definitive statement on how such assessments should be carried out and how the quality should be controlled. A major advance in this new edition of the WHO manual, resolving the most salient critique of previous editions, is the development of the first well-defined reference ranges for semen analysis based on the analysis of over 1900 recent fathers. The methodology used in the assessment of the usual variables in semen analysis is described, as are many of the less common, but very valuable, sperm function tests. Sperm function testing is used to determine if the sperm have the biologic capacity to perform the tasks necessary to reach and fertilize ova and ultimately result in live births. A variety of tests are available to evaluate different aspects of these functions. To accurately use these functional assays, the clinician must understand what the tests measure, what the indications are for the assays, and how to interpret the results to direct further testing or patient management.

  2. Implementation of an office-based semen preparation method (SEP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of an office-based semen preparation method (SEP-D Kit) for intra-uterine insemination (IUI): A controlled randomised study to compare the IUI pregnancy outcome between a routine (swim-up) and the SEP-D Kit method.

  3. Production measurements affected by x irradiation of chicken semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zartman, D.L.; Urquhart, N.S.; Francis, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    Single Comb White Leghorn (S.C.W.L.) and Dark Cornish semen was x-irradiated with 1000 R and introduced into S.C.W.L. hens to produce S.C.W.L. and crossbred chicks. The irradiation reduced the fertilizing capacity of the semen about 25% and the hatchability of the embryos about 38%. Semen of the two breeds was affected differently since there was much less alteration of embryonic development among purebred, S.C.W.L. chicks than among Cornish-sired crossbreds. As is typical, crossbred chicks gained weight faster than purebred S.C.W.L. irrespective of radiation damage. After irradiation, live weight was 4% less at 16 weeks of age for the crossbreds but no substantial effect on growth was evident for the S.C.W.L., although they were significantly heavier at hatching in the irradiated population. The rate of egg production in the first 30 days declined 15% under pressure from the irradiation damage. The distribution, as well as the frequency, of embryonic mortalities changed after parental semen irradiation. The majority of embryonic deaths occurred during the first 6 days of incubation with a coincidental decrease in the proportion of deaths occurring late during incubation. Posthatching mortalities were not affected for S.C.W.L. but were doubled for Cornish up to 16 weeks old

  4. Semen quality, biochemistry and mineral content of five strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the genetic effect on semen quality, biochemistry and mineral content of three strains of Nigerian indigenous and two exotic cocks. One hundred (100) adult local breeding cocks comprising 20 normal, 20 frizzle and 20 naked necks, 20 dominant black and 20 dominant blue feather were ...

  5. incidence of sexually transmitted diseases amongst potential semen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    need to educate and enlighten our youths on the danger of acquiring these pathogen. Consistent with previous studies this finding strengthens the fact that. Prospective Semen Donors, most of whom are young, single, and are not always in monogamous relationships, represent a high-risk population for STD transmission.

  6. Seasonal variation in semen quality of Dorper rams using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in semen quality of Dorper rams using different collection ... libitum throughout the trial, and all rams being fed a 2.5 kg maintenance diet per day. ... quality collected by the AV versus the EE collection method was recorded.

  7. The Effect of Breed on Cryopreservation of Cock Semen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    sperm motility and viability rates were significantly higher in sperm from indigenous roosters than from. Ross males. At 30 min post-thaw the sperm survival rate was lower in all breeds without significant differences between them. This observation indicates a decreased survival rate with extended storage period of semen ...

  8. Beneficial effects of semen purification with magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current techniques for sperm quality evaluation are mostly informative. They become useful when ejaculates of high index males not meeting quality standard are still discarded. Here we developed a molecular-based magnetic conjugates allowing selective elimination of damaged spermatozoa from semen ej...

  9. Plastic straws for frozen semen. (A field evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, J W; King, G J

    1966-04-01

    A field trial was conducted to compare the routine frozen semen methods presently used at this laboratory with those reported by French workers. When the extender used was sterile milk both methods resulted in fertility equal to the standard. Fertility results obtained with the French method employing Lactiphos extender were significantly lower than the standard.

  10. Fertility chip, a point-of-care semen analyser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segerink, Loes Irene

    2011-01-01

    Before assistive reproductive treatment will be started for a couple that is childless by default, the cause of the fertility disorder needs to be investigated for both the man as well as the woman. For the man this implies that the quality of his semen needs to be known. Currently, at the hospital

  11. Semen-like urethral discharge during the use of mazindol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Puijenbroek, E P; Meyboom, R H

    Two case reports are described of male patients experiencing a semen-like urethral discharge during micturition, suspected to be induced by mazindol. Mazindol has an indirect sympathomimetic action and is known to cause urogenital side effects such as urinary retention and testicular pain. It is

  12. Effect of various levels of catalase antioxidant in semen extenders on lipid peroxidation and semen quality after the freeze-thawing bull semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Asadpour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate effect of different concentrations of catalase in two extenders on motility, viability and lipid peroxidation bull spermatozoa during semen freezing process. Thirty ejaculates collected from ten Holstein bulls were pooled and evaluated at 37 °C. Pool ejaculated was split into two main experimental groups, 1 and 2. In experiment 1, specimen was diluted to a final concentration of 30 × 106 spermatozoa with citrate-egg yolk and in experiment 2; specimen was diluted with tris-egg yolk extender to the same concentration. In both experiments diluted semen was divided into three aliquots, including a control and two test groups. Each aliquot was rediluted with an equal volume of extender either without (control or with one of the antioxidants contained one of the following antioxidants: catalase (CAT; 100 IU mL-1 catalase (CAT; 200 IU mL-1 and control group. No significant differences were observed in sperm viability and motility following addition of catalase enzyme at concentration of 100 IU mL-1 and 200 IU mL-1 to citrate-egg yolk extender. But the highest sperm viability was achieved by addition of 100 IU mL-1 and 200 IU mL-1 catalase to tris-egg yolk semen extender compared with the control group (P < 0.05. Malondialdehyde levels did not change with addition of catalase in both extenders compared with the control group. The obtained results provide a new approach to the cryopreservation of bull semen, and could positively contribute to intensive cattle production.

  13. Sperm banking for fertility preservation: a 20-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matrika D; Cooper, Amber R; Jungheim, Emily S; Lanzendorf, Susan E; Odem, Randall R; Ratts, Valerie S

    2013-09-01

    Sperm banking is an effective method to preserve fertility, but is not universally offered to males facing gonadotoxic treatment in the United States. We compared the disposition and semen parameters of cryopreserved sperm from individuals referred for sperm banking secondary to a cancer diagnosis to those of sperm from men banking for infertility reasons. We performed a retrospective cohort study that reviewed 1118 records from males who presented to bank sperm at Washington University between 1991 and 2010. We collected and analyzed demographics, semen parameters, and disposition of banked sperm. Four hundred and twenty-three men with cancer and 348 banking for infertility reasons attempted sperm cryopreservation in our unit during the specified time period. The most prevalent cancers in our cohort were testicular (32%), lymphoma (25%), and leukemia (11%). Patients with leukemia had the lowest pre-thaw counts and motility. Most cancer patients (57%) who banked elected to use, transfer to another facility, or keep their specimens in storage. The remaining samples were discarded electively (34%) or following death (8%). Overall semen parameters were similar between the cancer and infertility groups, but demographics, ability to bank a sample, azoospermia rates, length of storage, current banking status, and use of banked sperm differed significantly between the two groups. The majority of cancer patients who banked survived their cancer and chose to continue storage of banked samples. Cancer patients were more likely than infertility patients to use or continue storage of banked samples. Our study provides evidence that sperm banking is a utilized modality of fertility preservation in patients with a myriad of cancer diagnoses and should be offered to all men facing gonadotoxic therapies. Further work is needed to determine where disparities in access to sperm banking exist to improve the potential for future fertility in these males. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  14. Effects of Enrofloxacin Administration on Semen Quality of Barbari bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrima Sinha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to study the effect of enrofloxacin administration on semen quality of Barbari buck. Six normal, healthy adult Barbari bucks (25-30 Kg aged between 2 to 2.5 years were used as semen donors. The bucks were administered enrofloxacin at the dose of 5mg/kg body weight intra-muscularly daily for 7 days. From each buck biweekly eighteen semen ejaculates (1st to 18th were collected and one sample (0th from each buck was collected before administration of enrofloxacin, using a non-oestrous doe as dummy and investigated for semen quality parameters. There was no significant difference (P≥0.05 in seminal volume between different ejaculates. Mass motility decreased significantly (P≤0.01 and was lowest in 4th ejaculate as compared to mass motility prior to drug administration. Highest significant (P≤0.01 decrease in progressive motility was seen in 9th ejaculate as compared to progressive motility before drug administration. Sperm concentration decreased significantly (P≤0.01 and was found to be lowest in 4th ejaculate as compared to sperm concentration before enrofloxacin administration. Percent live spermatozoa decreased significantly (P≤0.01 and was found to be minmum in 12th ejaculate as compared to sperm concentration prior to drug administration. Highest significant increase (P≤ 0.01 in per cent head, mid-piece and tail abnormalities of spermatozoa was observed in 4th, 3rd and 6th ejaculate respectively following parentral administration of enrofloxacion as compared to ejaculate before drug administration. Following drug administration, the semen quality decreased progressively and then became slowly normal after 14th ejaculate.

  15. Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infection Pathogens in Semen Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Peeling

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of sexually transmitted infection (STI pathogens from an infected donor to the recipient of a semen donation in assisted conception may result not only in acute infection but also in long-term reproductive complications or adverse outcomes of pregnancy, including infection of the offspring. Screening for bacterial STI pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is strongly recommended because these pathogens can cause serious reproductive complications in the recipients of semen donations and infection in their offspring. Screening for these pathogens should be performed using the most sensitive methods, such as nucleic acid amplified tests. False-negative results due to inhibitory substances in the semen sample should be monitored using amplification controls. Where specimen transport is not a problem and culture facilities are available, N gonorrhoeae can also be detected by culture. Laboratories performing screening should subscribe to proficiency programs and have strict quality controls. Although Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas have been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, the frequent finding of these organisms in healthy individuals brings into question the validity of mandatory inclusion of these organisms in the screening panel. Although viral STI pathogens and Treponema pallidum -- the causative agent of syphilis -- may be detected in semen, their presence may be more sensitively detected through antibody testing of the donor. Screening donors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis by serology is uniformly recommended in all of the guidelines, but the value of screening either donors or semen samples for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses is less clear.

  16. Long term storage of bee semen – A six month assessment of cryopreserved semen quality using motility as an index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee (Apis mellifera Linn.) spermatozoa is known for its ability to remain viable for at the least two years within the spermatheca as attested to by the queens’ continued laying of fertile eggs without remating over two to three (Woyke 1960; Winston 1987). However, the semen collected from the dron...

  17. TEMPORARY STORAGE OF BOVINE SEMEN CRYOPRESERVED IN LIQUID NITROGEN ON DRY ICE AND REFREEZING OF FROZEN-THAWED SEMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdussamad, A M; Gauly, M; Holtz, W

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to investigate whether viability of bovine semen stored in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) will be adversely affected by temporary exposure to dry ice (-79°C). It was convincingly shown that post thaw-motility was not affected, regardless whether semen was thawed immediately or after being returned to liquid nitrogen. Shipping or temporary storage on dry ice, thus, is a viable option. In Experiment 2, refreezing of frozen-thawed semen was attempted. The proportion of motile spermatozoa was reduced by a factor of ten to between 6.0 % and 7.4 %, regardless whether thawing occurred directly after removal from liquid nitrogen or after an interim period on dry ice. When semen was refrozen on dry ice before being returned to liquid nitrogen, motility rates were significantly improved (13.0 % to 17.0 %, P<0.05). In both experiments sperm cells that remained motile displayed vigorous forward movement and normal morphological appearance.

  18. Semen says: assessing the accuracy of adolescents' self-reported sexual abstinence using a semen Y-chromosome biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2017-03-01

    Researchers often assess condom use only among participants who report recent sexual behaviour, excluding participants who report no recent vaginal sex or who did not answer questions about their sexual behaviour, but self-reported sexual behaviour may be inaccurate. This study uses a semen Y-chromosome biomarker to assess semen exposure among participants who reported sexual abstinence or did not report their sexual behaviour. This prospective cohort study uses data from 715 sexually active African-American female adolescents in Atlanta, surveyed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Participants completed a 40 min interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with PCR from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted Y-chromosome test results from self-reported sexual behaviour using within-subject panel regression. Among the participants who reported abstinence from vaginal sex in the past 14 days, 9.4% tested positive for semen Y-chromosome. Among item non-respondents, 6.3% tested positive for semen Y-chromosome. Women who reported abstinence and engaged in item non-response regarding their sexual behaviour had respectively 62% and 78% lower odds of testing positive for Y-chromosome (OR 0.38 (0.21 to 0.67), OR 0.22 (0.12 to 0.40)), controlling for smoking, survey wave and non-coital sexual behaviours reported during abstinence. Adolescents who report sexual abstinence under-report semen exposure. Research should validate self-reported sexual behaviour with biomarkers. Adolescents who engage in item non-response regarding vaginal sex test positive for semen Y-chromosome at similar rates, which supports the practice of grouping non-respondents with adolescents reporting abstinence in statistical analysis. NCT00633906. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Proton-pump inhibitor use does not affect semen quality in subfertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorena Keihani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs are among the most widely used drugs worldwide. PPI use has recently been linked to adverse changes in semen quality in healthy men; however, the effects of PPI use on semen parameters remain largely unknown specifically in cases with male factor infertility. We examined whether PPI use was associated with detrimental effects on semen parameters in a large population of subfertile men. We retrospectively reviewed data from 12 257 subfertile men who had visited our fertility clinic from 2003 to 2013. Patients who reported using any PPIs for >3 months before semen sample collection were included; 7698 subfertile men taking no medication served as controls. Data were gathered on patient age, medication use, and conventional semen parameters; patients taking any known spermatotoxic medication were excluded. Linear mixed-effect regression models were used to test the effect of PPI use on semen parameters adjusting for age. A total of 248 patients (258 samples used PPIs for at least 3 months before semen collection. In regression models, PPI use (either as the only medication or when used in combination with other nonspermatotoxic medications was not associated with statistically significant changes in semen parameters. To our knowledge, this is the largest study to compare PPI use with semen parameters in subfertile men. Using PPIs was not associated with detrimental effects on semen quality in this retrospective study.

  20. Proton-pump inhibitor use does not affect semen quality in subfertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihani, Sorena; Craig, James R; Zhang, Chong; Presson, Angela P; Myers, Jeremy B; Brant, William O; Aston, Kenneth I; Emery, Benjamin R; Jenkins, Timothy G; Carrell, Douglas T; Hotaling, James M

    2018-01-01

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely used drugs worldwide. PPI use has recently been linked to adverse changes in semen quality in healthy men; however, the effects of PPI use on semen parameters remain largely unknown specifically in cases with male factor infertility. We examined whether PPI use was associated with detrimental effects on semen parameters in a large population of subfertile men. We retrospectively reviewed data from 12 257 subfertile men who had visited our fertility clinic from 2003 to 2013. Patients who reported using any PPIs for >3 months before semen sample collection were included; 7698 subfertile men taking no medication served as controls. Data were gathered on patient age, medication use, and conventional semen parameters; patients taking any known spermatotoxic medication were excluded. Linear mixed-effect regression models were used to test the effect of PPI use on semen parameters adjusting for age. A total of 248 patients (258 samples) used PPIs for at least 3 months before semen collection. In regression models, PPI use (either as the only medication or when used in combination with other nonspermatotoxic medications) was not associated with statistically significant changes in semen parameters. To our knowledge, this is the largest study to compare PPI use with semen parameters in subfertile men. Using PPIs was not associated with detrimental effects on semen quality in this retrospective study.

  1. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Yang, Sanming; Han, Xue; Chen, Gangcai; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhai, Chongzhi; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Cai, Min; Li, Yafei; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrous dioxide (NO 2 ) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P  10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. - Highlights: • We investigate the distributions of PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 in urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. • We explore the associations of air pollution and male semen quality. • The concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 are significantly higher in urban areas. • Median values of some semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male. • PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 were negatively associated with semen quality parameters. - Air pollution is higher in the urban area while there is better semen quality in rural males. Polluted air may thus account for worse semen quality in urban males

  2. The combination of kinetic and flow cytometric semen parameters as a tool to predict fertility in cryopreserved bull semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliozzi, T M; Turri, F; Manes, S; Cassinelli, C; Pizzi, F

    2017-11-01

    Within recent years, there has been growing interest in the prediction of bull fertility through in vitro assessment of semen quality. A model for fertility prediction based on early evaluation of semen quality parameters, to exclude sires with potentially low fertility from breeding programs, would therefore be useful. The aim of the present study was to identify the most suitable parameters that would provide reliable prediction of fertility. Frozen semen from 18 Italian Holstein-Friesian proven bulls was analyzed using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) (motility and kinetic parameters) and flow cytometry (FCM) (viability, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial function, lipid peroxidation, plasma membrane stability and DNA integrity). Bulls were divided into two groups (low and high fertility) based on the estimated relative conception rate (ERCR). Significant differences were found between fertility groups for total motility, active cells, straightness, linearity, viability and percentage of DNA fragmented sperm. Correlations were observed between ERCR and some kinetic parameters, and membrane instability and some DNA integrity indicators. In order to define a model with high relation between semen quality parameters and ERCR, backward stepwise multiple regression analysis was applied. Thus, we obtained a prediction model that explained almost half (R 2=0.47, P<0.05) of the variation in the conception rate and included nine variables: five kinetic parameters measured by CASA (total motility, active cells, beat cross frequency, curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement) and four parameters related to DNA integrity evaluated by FCM (degree of chromatin structure abnormality Alpha-T, extent of chromatin structure abnormality (Alpha-T standard deviation), percentage of DNA fragmented sperm and percentage of sperm with high green fluorescence representative of immature cells). A significant relationship (R 2=0.84, P<0.05) was observed between

  3. Functional characterisation of semen in honeybee queen (A.m.ligustica S. spermatheca and efficiency of the diluted semen technique in instrumental insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences over time in the quality of semen present in the honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica queen spermatheca werestudied. An increase in the non-vital spermatozoa was shown to be evident (P>0.05 between the 12th and 24th month.The study of semen viability demonstrated that the passage of the semen to the spermatheca is due to sperm motility.In the queen inseminated with non-viable spermatozoa, no semen was detected in the spermatheca. Queens inseminatedtwice with a Hyes solution/semen mixture (1:1 stored as many spermatozoa in their spermatheca as those inseminatedonce with the classic technique. Queen replacement, oviposition and other functional characteristics were similarto those observed in the classic insemination procedure.

  4. Fertilized eggs obtained from transplantation of frozen ovaries and parthenogenesis in combination with artificial insemination of frozen semen of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Yuji; Takemura, Yoko; Kanda, Toshio; Horie, Yasuhiro

    2003-04-01

    A reliable method is reported for the long-term preservation of ovaries and spermatozoa of the silkworm (Bombyx mori). Three studies are presented. In the first, ovaries were removed from larvae at either 3rd, 4th, or 5th instar, cryopreserved, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Thawed ovaries were transplanted to surgically castrated female larvae at the same or a different developmental stage. The highest percentage of recipient females producing eggs resulted into either 3rd or 4th instar larvae (respectively, 22.1 and 8.7%). Similarly, the highest levels of other measurements of successful cryopreservation and transplanted ovary, and number of eggs laid, occurred with the same combination of donor and recipient developmental stages. Other combinations of ovary/recipient developmental stages yielded lower results. In the second experiment, semen was collected from male moths, cryopreserved, and then thawed semen was diluted with trypsin solution and artificially inseminated into females obtained from the best conditions of first experiment. A small percentage of inseminated moths laid eggs (8-10.3%) compared to that of controls (100%). In addition, the fertility of eggs from experimental moths was lower than that of control females (respectively, 40.3-88% and 97.5%). In the third experiment, eggs were surgically removed from ovarian tubules of moth following transplantation of thawed ovaries and subjected to parthenogenetic activation and artificial hatching. As expected, all resulting moths were female and, following natural mating or artificial insemination with thawed semen, yielded normal offspring at high rates.

  5. Clinical and biochemical correlates of successful semen collection for cryopreservation from 12-18-year-old patients: a single-center study of 86 adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagenäs, Isabella; Jørgensen, Niels; Rechnitzer, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Cryopreservation of semen should be offered to adults before gonadotoxic treatment. However, the experience with semen collection in adolescents is still limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential correlates of successful semen sampling in adolescents....

  6. Breed differences of bull frozen-thawed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntemka, A; Tsousis, G; Brozos, C; Kiossis, E; Boscos, C M; Tsakmakidis, I A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the quality of frozen-thawed semen from different bull breeds. Commercial frozen-thawed bull semen samples (26 per breed, 130 totally) of five breeds (Holstein [Η], Brown Swiss [BS], Limousin [L], Belgian Blue [BB], Blonde d' Aquitaine [BA]) were used. After thawing, each semen sample was subjected to thermal resistance test (TR) for 0.5 and 1 hr at 38°C and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) for 1 hr at 150 mOsm at 37°C. Additionally, all samples were evaluated at times 0 hr (thawing), 0.5 hr (TR), 1 hr (TR) for kinetics by CASA [progressive, immotile, rapid, medium, slow moving spermatozoa, curvilinear velocity (VCL), average path velocity (VAP), straight line velocity (VSL), linearity (LIN), straightness (STR), beat cross-frequency (BCF), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), wobble (WOB)]. Moreover, directly after thawing, all semen samples were evaluated for morphometry, morphology, viability and DNA fragmentation. Statistical analysis was conducted using a mixed model for repeated measures. The results showed (a) higher VCL after thawing in H, L breeds compared to BB and BA, (b) higher VAP after thawing in L compared to BB, BA, (c) higher values of progressive spermatozoa after TR in H, BS compared to BB, BA, (d) higher values of rapid spermatozoa after thawing and 0.5 hr of TR in H, BS, L compared to BB, BA, (e) lower viability in BA after thawing compared to H, BS, BB, (f) lower morphological abnormalities in H compared to L, BB, (g) higher head length in Η compared to BB. No significant differences were observed in the results from HOST and DNA fragmentation between breeds. In conclusion, quality characteristics of frozen-thawed bull semen are dependent on the breed. Frozen semen from BB and BA breeds should be handled more carefully after thawing, as it is more sensitive to stress. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. [Safety evaluation and risk control measures of Cassiae Semen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Meng; Wu, Li; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Li; Gao, Xue-Min; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Chun

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the authors reviewed domestic and foreign literatures, conducted the textual research on origin and development of Cassia Semen, studied records in ancient books and ancient and modern literatures, clinical adverse reactions and relevant experimental studies in recent years, and summarized the clinical features and influencing factors related to the safety of Cassiae Semen. According to the findings,Cassia Semen's safety risks are mainly liver and kidney system damages, with the main clinical features of fatigue, anorexia, disgusting of oil, yellow urine and gray stool; digestive system injury, with the main clinical features of diarrhea, abdominal distension, nausea and loose stool; reproductive system damage, with the main clinical features of vaginal bleeding. Allergic reactions and clinical adverse events, with the main clinical features for numb mouth, itching skin, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, wheezing and lip cyanosis were also reported. The toxicological studies on toxic components of Cassiae Semen obtusifolia were carried out through acute toxicity test, subacute toxicity test, subchronic toxicity test and chronic toxicity test. Risk factors might include patients, compatibility and physicians. Physicians should strictly abide by the medication requirements in the Pharmacopoeia, pay attention to rational compatibility, appropriate dosage,correct usage and appropriate processing, control the dosage below 15 g to avoid excessive intake, strictly control the course of treatment to avoid accumulated poisoning caused by long-term administration. At the same time, clinicians should pay attention to the latest research progress, update the knowledge structure, quickly find the latest and useful materials from clinical practice, scientific research and drug information and other literatures, make evaluation and judgment for the materials, establish a traditional Chinese medicine intelligence information library, and strengthen the control over

  8. Microaspiration for high-pressure freezing: a new method for ultrastructural preservation of fragile and sparse tissues for TEM and electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auer, Manfred; Triffo, W.J.; Palsdottir, H.; McDonald, K.L.; Inman, J.L.; Bissell, M.J.; Raphael, R.M.; Auer, M.; Lee, J.K.

    2008-02-13

    High-pressure freezing is the preferred method to prepare thick biological specimens for ultrastructural studies. However, the advantages obtained by this method often prove unattainable for samples that are difficult to handle during the freezing and substitution protocols. Delicate and sparse samples are difficult to manipulate and maintain intact throughout the sequence of freezing, infiltration, embedding, and final orientation for sectioning and subsequent TEM imaging. An established approach to surmount these difficulties is the use of cellulose microdialysis tubing to transport the sample. With an inner diameter of 200 micrometers, the tubing protects small and fragile samples within the thickness constraints of high-pressure freezing, and the tube ends can be sealed to avoid loss of sample. Importantly, the transparency of the tubing allows optical study of the specimen at different steps in the process. Here, we describe the use of a micromanipulator and microinjection apparatus to handle and position delicate specimens within the tubing. We report two biologically significant examples that benefit from this approach, 3D cultures of mammary epithelial cells and cochlear outer hair cells. We illustrate the potential for correlative light and electron microscopy as well as electron tomography.

  9. Liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can efficiently replace chicken egg yolk in human semen cryopreservation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalik, Srinivas; Salian, Sujith Raj; Avadhani, Kiran; Menon, Jyothsna; Joshi, Haritima; Hegde, Aswathi Raju; Kumar, Pratap; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Cryopreservation of spermatozoa plays a significant role in reproductive medicine and fertility preservation. Chicken egg yolk is used as an extender in cryopreservation of human spermatozoa using glycerol egg yolk citrate (GEYC) buffered medium. Even though 50% survival of spermatozoa is generally achieved with this method, the risk of high levels of endotoxins and transmission pathogens from chicken egg yolk is a matter of concern. In the present study we attempted to establish a chemically defined cryopreservation medium which can replace the chicken egg yolk without affecting sperm survival. Ejaculates from 28 men were cryopreserved with GEYC based freezing medium or liposome encapsulated soy lecithin-cholesterol based freezing medium (LFM). The semen samples were subjected to rapid thawing after 14 days of storage in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw analysis indicated significantly higher post-thaw motility and sperm survival in spermatozoa cryopreserved with LFM compared to conventional GEYC freezing medium. The soy lecithin and cholesterol at the ratio of 80:20 with sucrose showed the highest percentage of post-thaw motility and survival compared to the other compositions. In conclusion, chemically defined cryopreservation medium with liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can effectively replace the chicken egg yolk from human semen cryopreservation medium without compromising post-thaw outcome.

  10. Genetic gain in dairy cattle populations is increased using sexed semen in commercial herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kargo; Andersen, Jakob Voergaard; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl

    2011-01-01

    Using stochastic simulation, the effect of using sexed semen to cow dams (CD) in a dairy cattle breeding scheme, with or without use of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) to bull dams (BD), on annual genetic gain at the population level was examined. Three levels of sexed semen were...... combined with three levels of MOET: no sexed semen, sexed semen to the best CD and sexed semen to all heifers, combined with no MOET, MOET on all BD and MOET randomly on 20% of the BD. In total, nine scenarios were compared. The simulated population was monitored for 30 years and included 450 herds...... with 100 cows each. Each year 50 young bulls (YB), 10 active sires and 215 BD were selected on best linear unbiased prediction estimated breeding values by truncation selection across the simulated population, and the YB were tested within the population. Use of sexed semen alone gave a positive increase...

  11. Semen quality of young men from the general population in Baltic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erenpreiss, Juris; Punab, Margus; Zilaitiene, Birute

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What are the parameters of semen quality in Baltic men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Combined parameters of sperm concentration, motility and morphology revealed that 11-15% of men had low semen quality, 37-50% intermediate and 38-52% high semen quality. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies...... have revealed regional differences in semen parameters, and semen quality of Baltic men has been suggested to be better than that of other European men. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a cross-sectional study of 1165 men aged 16-29 years from Estonia (N = 573), Latvia (N = 278) and Lithuania (N...... = 314) conducted in 2003-2004. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS SETTING METHODS: Men from the general population, median age 19.8 years, provided one semen sample each, had blood samples taken, had testis size determined, and provided information on lifestyle. Based on combined data of sperm concentration, sperm...

  12. Compensated reduction in Leydig cell function is associated with lower semen quality variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N.; Joensen, U. N.; Toppari, J.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the Leydig cell function of young European men associated with semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER: Compensated reduction in Leydig cell function, defined as increased LH concentration combined with adequate testosterone production is associated with lower semen quality. WHAT...... IS ALREADY KNOWN: Semen quality of young European men shows a heterogeneous pattern. Many have sperm counts below and in the lower WHO reference where there nevertheless is a significant risk of subfecundity. Little is known about differences in Leydig cell function between men with semen quality below......, Lithuania, and Spain. The men originated from the general populations, all were young, almost all were unaware of their fecundity and each provided a semen and blood sample. Associations between semen parameters and serum levels of testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH), calculated free testosterone...

  13. Clinical and biochemical correlates of successful semen collection for cryopreservation from 12-18-year-old patients: a single-center study of 86 adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagenäs, Isabella; Jørgensen, Niels; Rechnitzer, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Cryopreservation of semen should be offered to adults before gonadotoxic treatment. However, the experience with semen collection in adolescents is still limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential correlates of successful semen sampling in adolescents.......Cryopreservation of semen should be offered to adults before gonadotoxic treatment. However, the experience with semen collection in adolescents is still limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential correlates of successful semen sampling in adolescents....

  14. MiOXSYS: a novel method of measuring oxidation reduction potential in semen and seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Du Plessis, Stefan; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2016-09-01

    To measure oxidative reduction potential (ORP) in semen and seminal plasma and to establish their reference levels. ORP levels were measured in semen and seminal plasma. Tertiary hospital. Twenty-six controls and 33 infertile men. None. Static ORP (sORP) and capacitance ORP (cORP) were measured in semen and seminal plasma at time 0 and 120 minutes. Correlation of ORP was assessed between [1] semen and seminal plasma and [2] time 0 and 120 minutes. The association with sperm parameters was studied in (a) controls and (b) infertile patients, and a receiver operating characteristic curve was generated to establish the sORP cutoff. Semen sORP and cORP levels were associated with seminal plasma levels at time 0 and time 120 minutes. In controls and infertile patients, an inverse relationship of sORP levels was established with concentration and total sperm count in semen as well as seminal plasma at time 0 and 120 minutes. Classification of subjects based on sperm motility showed that subjects with abnormal motility present with poor concentration, total count, morphology, and elevated levels of semen and seminal plasma sORP at time 120 minutes. The sORP cutoff of 1.48 in semen and 2.09 in seminal plasma based on motility was able to distinguish subjects with normal semen quality from those with abnormal semen quality. The MiOXSYS System can reliably measure ORP levels in semen and seminal plasma. ORP levels are not affected by semen age, making this new technology easy to employ in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Caffeine intake and semen quality in a population of 2,554 young Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna H; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between semen quality and caffeine intake among 2,554 young Danish men recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service in 2001-2005. The men delivered a semen sample and answered a questionnaire including information about...... caffeine intake from various sources, from which total caffeine intake was calculated. Moderate caffeine and cola intakes (101-800 mg/day and semen quality. High cola (>14 0.5-L bottles...

  16. On special training for correct deposition of semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrendahl, I

    1980-11-01

    The semen volume used in AI has been reduced during recent years from 1.0-1.2 ml with fluid semen to 0.5 ml with medium straws and to 0.25 ml with ministraws. According correct deposition has become more important. Low fertility results attained by some technicians is often due to failure of precision in deposition. A special insemination syringe "Romeo" has been constructed in order to observe and correct this factor in the field work. The syringe can be fixed in the cervix after it is placed in the supposedly correct position. An instructor can then check the position, and there can be a dialogue about mistakes between instructor and technician. The instrument can also be used in the same way for training on slaughter animals of technicians who have repeatedly placed the brand mark of the ordinary searing syringe wrongly.

  17. Semen collection and evaluation of captive coatis (Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.R. Paz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Semen samples (n=105 were collected through eletroejaculation from six adult male coatis (Nasua nasua between January 2007 and December 2008 at Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso Zoo, Cuiabá, Brazil. Mean values were: volume (mL; concentration (sperm/mL; total motility (%; progressive sperm motility (scale, 0-5; live spermatozoa (%; acrossome integrity (%; primary defects (%; and secondary defects (%. There was high correlation between total motility and live sperm; total motility and progressive sperm motility; total motility and acrossome integrity; live sperm and progressive motility; live sperm and acrossome integrity and volume and concentration. The method for semen collection was considered safe and efficient. It can be used for the evaluation of breeding potential of coati in captivity and for the establishment of new assisted reproductive technology (ART for threatened neotropical carnivores species.

  18. Role of Semen on Vaginal HIV-1 Transmission and Maraviroc Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council, Olivia D.; Swanson, Michael D.; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann

    2015-01-01

    We used bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice to establish the effect of semen on vaginal HIV infection and on the efficacy of topically applied maraviroc. Our results demonstrate that vaginal transmission of cell-free HIV occurs efficiently in the presence of semen and that topically applied maraviroc efficiently prevents HIV transmission in the presence of semen. We also show that semen has no significant effect on the transmission of transmitted/founder viruses or cell-associated viruses. PMID:26392489

  19. Optimization of Artificial Propagation in Piracanjuba Fish Brycon orbignyanus Using Cryopreserved Semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felizardo, V O; Melo, C C V; Murgas, L D S; Andrade, E S; Navarro, R D; Ftreitas, T F

    BACKGROUND: Cryopreserved semen could facilitate procedures during the artificial reproduction in fish. Factors affecting cryopreservation efficiency are important to define efficient protocols. This study investigated the application of cryoprotectants on the quality of piracanjuba fish semen, the sperm concentration required for oocyte fertilization and spermatic activation. We evaluated two intracellular cryoprotectant solutions (DMSO and methanol) and two extracellular cryoprotectant solutions (egg yolk and lactose) to cryopreserved piracanjuba semen. Sperm motility rate, motility duration and spermatic alterations were assessed. The protocol for piracanjuba semen cryopreservation can use solutions including either DMSO or methanol as intracellular cryoprotectant and egg yolk or lactose as extracellular cryoprotectants.

  20. Prospective, randomized, blinded evaluation of donor semen quality provided by seven commercial sperm banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, Douglas T; Cartmill, Deborah; Jones, Kirtly P; Hatasaka, Harry H; Peterson, C Matthew

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate variability in donor semen quality between seven commercial donor sperm banks, within sperm banks, and between intracervical insemination and intrauterine insemination. Prospective, randomized, blind evaluation of commercially available donor semen samples. An academic andrology laboratory. Seventy-five cryopreserved donor semen samples were evaluated. Samples were coded, then blindly evaluated for semen quality. Standard semen quality parameters, including concentration, motility parameters, World Health Organization criteria morphology, and strict criteria morphology. Significant differences were observed between donor semen banks for most semen quality parameters analyzed in intracervical insemination samples. In general, the greatest variability observed between banks was in percentage progressive sperm motility (range, 8.8 +/- 5.8 to 42.4 +/- 5.5) and normal sperm morphology (strict criteria; range, 10.1 +/- 3.3 to 26.6 +/- 4.7). Coefficients of variation within sperm banks were generally high. These data demonstrate the variability of donor semen quality provided by commercial sperm banks, both between banks and within a given bank. No relationship was observed between the size or type of sperm bank and the degree of variability. The data demonstrate the lack of uniformity in the criteria used to screen potential semen donors and emphasize the need for more stringent screening criteria and strict quality control in processing samples.

  1. Cadmium may impair prostate function as measured by Prostate Specific Antigen in semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreucci, Alessandro; Mocevic, Emina; Jönsson, Bo A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between cadmium in blood and the concentration of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) in semen, including the modifying effects of zinc or the CAG polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR). Blood and semen samples were collected from 504 partners of pregnant women.......0009). Inverse trends between cadmium and PSA were found when semen zinc concentrations were below the median value for men from Ukraine and Greenland. These outcomes suggest that cadmium may impair prostate function, as measured by PSA in semen, while high zinc levels and a low number of CAG repeats protects...

  2. Comparison of semen quality between university-based and private assisted reproductive technology laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S; Khan, Omar; Sønksen, Jens

    2018-01-01

    laboratory, the first at each laboratory was selected for analysis. Comparison of major semen parameters was performed using descriptive statistics and Bland-Altman plots, with differences tested using Wilcoxon-signed rank test. RESULTS: Twenty-eight men aged 33 ± 5 (mean ± SD) years were included......OBJECTIVE: Obtaining a semen analysis (SA) is an essential step in evaluating infertile men. Despite using standardized procedures for analysis semen quality in the same individual often varies on repeated tests. The objective of this study was to investigate inter-laboratory variation in semen...

  3. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, N.; Vierula, M.; Jacobsen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we...... carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998-2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57-80) million/mL, 60 (51-71) and 48 (39...

  4. Environmental mercury exposure, semen quality and reproductive hormones in Greenlandic Inuit and European men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Specht, Ina O; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2013-01-01

    Several animal studies indicate that mercury is a male reproductive toxicant, but human studies are few and contradictory. We examined semen characteristics and serum levels of reproductive hormones in relation to environmental exposure to mercury. Blood and semen samples were collected from 529.......024 to 0.110). The association may be due to beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are contained in seafood and fish. No significant association (P>0.05) was found between blood concentrations of mercury and any of the other measured semen characteristics (semen volume, total...

  5. TINGKAT KEBERHASILAN INSEMINASI BUATAN DENGAN KUALITAS DAN DEPOSISI SEMEN YANG BERBEDA PADA SAPI PERANAKAN ONGOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Susilawati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan kualitas spermatozoa PTM, terutama dari semen beku yang memiliki kualitas di bawah PTM kelas AI dan deposisi semen untuk keberhasilan kebuntingan pada Filial (PO sapi Ongole. Metodologi yang digunakan adalah percobaan menggunakan 80 PO perempuan sebagai sampel yang diambil secara purposive. Penelitian ini menggunakan 8 perlakuan dengan mengulangi proses di 10 sapi. Perlakuan IB ini yang menggunakan 4 level  kualitas PTM dari semen beku (PTM 5-20%, 20-30%, 30-40% dan ³ 40% dan 2 jenis deposisi semen (4 dan 4 +. Hasil  penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kemungkinan kebuntingan  dengan kualitas semen dengan PTM 20-30% dan 30-40% yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kualitas semen   PTM 5-20%, meskipun , secara statistik persentase kebuntingan  tidak berbeda. IB menggunakan deposisi semen 4 + hasil 2.168 kali lebih tinggi dari kebuntingan  dibandingkan dengan deposisi semen IB 4. Secara statistik, persentase kebuntingan  dari perbedaan kualitas spermatozoa PTM dan deposisi semen itu tidak signifikan. Oleh karena itu, hasil penelitian ini akan menjadi keuntungan besar, terutama jika ditinjau dari aspek reproduksi. Semen beku yang mempunyai kualitas PTM di bawah standar SNI (20 – 40% masih dapat menghasilkan kebuntingan pada ternak akseptor IB yaitu berhasil bunting 85% - 95%.  Deposisi semen saat IB pada posisi  4+ menghasilkan kemungkinan kebuntingan lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan IB pada posisi 4.     pregnancy successfulness with different quality AND Semen deposition  in Filial Ongole (PO cattle ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to finding out the influence of the different quality of spermatozoa’s PTM, especially from frozen semen that has under grade PTM quality and AI semen deposition to the pregnancy successfulness in Filial  Ongole (PO cattle. The methodology that is used is experiment using 80 female PO as the sample that is taken

  6. Investigation of the rheological properties of human semen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, P.F. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN); Picologlou, B.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the previously undetermined rheological properties of human semen using a modified, multiple-point capillary viscometer are presented. The design of a viscometer, specifically constructed to give accurate, instantaneous pressure gradient and material flow rate records of biological viscoelastic fluids whose rheological properties are possibly changing with time is given. Using this device, measurements are made on human semen immediately following ejaculation. An analytical scheme for the data reduction, suitable for non-linear viscoelastic fluids of the Maxwell-type, is offered. An expression is developed for a non-linear Maxwell-type viscoelastic fluid flow in a circular tube, relating the material's elastic properties to the distance of recoil and the pressure gradient. In the case of a power-law elastic behavior this relation couples the wall shear stress with the recoil distance through an apparent shear modulus. Previously established procedures for the viscous response analysis are utilized and an approximate non-dimensional parameter is introduced allowing one to ascertain the relative contributions of the elastic and viscous components to the rate of flow. Results show the elastic and viscous properties of human semen to be functions of time following ejaculation and frequency of ejaculation. The elastic component is found to have a linear response over the shear stress range investigated, whereas the viscous component is found to exhibit a power-law behavior. The final equilibrium state is characterized by Newtonian behavior, with mean absolute viscosity of 3.37 centipoise. Finally, similarity among all cases examined is found for each material property through consideration of a non-dimensional time, t*, determined from semen liquefaction time and time post ejaculation.

  7. Regional differences in semen qualities in the Baltic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punab, Margus; Zilaitiene, Birute; Jørgensen, Niels; Horte, Antero; Matulevicius, Valentinas; Peetsalu, Ants; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-08-01

    Recent prospective studies of male reproductive health have shown differences between several European countries. Our objective was to evaluate the current situation in the two Baltic States Estonia and Lithuania. In 1997-99 we investigated semen parameters, levels of reproductive hormones and general health factors of 196 men from the general population in Lithuania; from Estonia, 79 men from the general population and 118 soldiers were investigated. Adjusted for interlaboratory differences and abstinence period, sperm concentration of Lithuanian and Estonian men from the general populations were shown to be 55 and 67 million/mL, respectively. The Estonian soldiers had the highest sperm concentration, 82 million/mL. The frequencies of morphologically normal spermatozoa were 6.2, 7.7 and 9.6%, respectively. In contrast to the semen qualities, highest Inhibin B levels were detected in the Lithuanians (233 pg/mL) followed by Estonian men from the general population (220 pg/mL) and Estonian soldiers (185 pg/mL). The soldiers had also the lowest level of testosterone and oestradiol. The sperm counts of the Estonian and Lithuanian men investigated here are higher than recently shown for Norwegian, Danish, Estonian and Finnish men. Comparisons should be cautiously drawn as the groups are not completely comparable. Still, even within the Baltic region, geographically close and sharing common recent social history, differences in semen quality and levels of reproductive hormones are apparent.

  8. Semen Quality as a Predictor of Subsequent Morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latif, Tabassam; Jensen, Tina Kold; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Semen quality has been suggested to be a biologicalmarker of long-term morbidity and mortality; however, few studies have been conducted on this subject. We identified 5,370 men seen for infertility at Frederiksberg Hospital, Denmark, during 1977-2010, and 4,712 of thesemen were followed in the D......Semen quality has been suggested to be a biologicalmarker of long-term morbidity and mortality; however, few studies have been conducted on this subject. We identified 5,370 men seen for infertility at Frederiksberg Hospital, Denmark, during 1977-2010, and 4,712 of thesemen were followed......million/mL and all-cause hospitalizations (hazard ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 1.6) and cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio = 1.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 1.6), compared with men with a concentration above 40million/ mL. The probabilities for hospitalizations were also higher...... with a low total sperm count and low motility. Men with a sperm concentration of 195-200million/mL were, on average, hospitalized for the first time 7 years later than were men with a sperm concentration of 0-5million/mL. Semen quality was associated with long-term morbidity, and a significantly higher risk...

  9. Effects of work and life stress on semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janevic, Teresa; Kahn, Linda G; Landsbergis, Paul; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Liu, Xinhua; Factor-Litvak, Pam

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate associations between work-related stress, stressful life events, and perceived stress and semen quality. Cross-sectional analysis. Northern California. 193 men from the Child Health and Development Studies evaluated between 2005-2008. None. Measures of stress including job strain, perceived stress, and stressful life events; outcome measures of sperm concentration, percentage of motile sperm, and percentage of morphologically normal sperm. We found an inverse association between perceived stress score and sperm concentration (estimated coefficient b=-0.09×10(3)/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI]=-0.18, -0.01), motility (b=-0.39; 95% CI=-0.79, 0.01), and morphology (b=-0.14; 95% CI, -0.25, -0.04) in covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses. Men who experienced two or more stressful life events in the past year compared with no stressful events had a lower percentage of motile sperm (b=-8.22; 95% CI, -14.31, -2.13) and a lower percentage of morphologically normal sperm (b=-1.66; 95% CI, -3.35, 0.03) but a similar sperm concentration. Job strain was not associated with semen parameters. In this first study to examine all three domains of stress, perceived stress and stressful life events but not work-related stress were associated with semen quality. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Glyph-Based Video Visualization for Semen Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Duffy, Brian

    2015-08-01

    © 2013 IEEE. The existing efforts in computer assisted semen analysis have been focused on high speed imaging and automated image analysis of sperm motility. This results in a large amount of data, and it is extremely challenging for both clinical scientists and researchers to interpret, compare and correlate the multidimensional and time-varying measurements captured from video data. In this work, we use glyphs to encode a collection of numerical measurements taken at a regular interval and to summarize spatio-temporal motion characteristics using static visual representations. The design of the glyphs addresses the needs for (a) encoding some 20 variables using separable visual channels, (b) supporting scientific observation of the interrelationships between different measurements and comparison between different sperm cells and their flagella, and (c) facilitating the learning of the encoding scheme by making use of appropriate visual abstractions and metaphors. As a case study, we focus this work on video visualization for computer-aided semen analysis, which has a broad impact on both biological sciences and medical healthcare. We demonstrate that glyph-based visualization can serve as a means of external memorization of video data as well as an overview of a large set of spatiotemporal measurements. It enables domain scientists to make scientific observation in a cost-effective manner by reducing the burden of viewing videos repeatedly, while providing them with a new visual representation for conveying semen statistics.

  11. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  12. Evaluation of amides and centrifugation temperature in boar semen cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, I; Calderam, K; Maschio, E F; Madeira, E M; da Rosa Ulguim, R; Corcini, C D; Bongalhardo, D C; Corrêa, E K; Lucia, T; Deschamps, J C; Corrêa, M N

    2008-03-15

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of amides as cryoprotectants and two centrifugation temperatures (15 or 24 degrees C) in boar semen cryopreservation protocols. Semen was diluted in BTS, cooled centrifuged, added to cooling extenders, followed by the addition of various cryoprotectants. In experiment 1, mean (+/-S.E.M.) sperm motility for 5% dimethylformamide (DMF; 50.6+/-1.9%) and 5% dimethylacetamide (DMA; 53.8+/-1.7%) were superior (P0.05). In experiment 2, we tested MF, DMF, and DMA at 3, 5, and 7%. Sperm motility and membrane integrity were higher for 5% DMA (53.8+/-1.7 and 50.9+/-1.9%) and 5% DMF (50.6+/-1.9 and 47.9+/-2.1%), in comparison with 7% DMF and all MF concentrations (P0.05). In conclusion, boar semen was successfully cryopreserved by replacement of glycerol with amides (especially 5% DMA) and centrifugation at 15 degrees C, with benefits for post-thaw sperm motility and membrane integrity.

  13. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  14. Effect of seminal plasma removal before cryopreservation of bovine semen obtained by electroejaculation on semen quality and in vitro fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanholi, Suzane Peres; Monteiro, Fabio Morato; Ribeiro Dias, Erika Aline; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; de Paz, Claudia Cristina Paro; Dell'Aqua Junior, José Antonio; Papa, Frederico Ozanam; Dell'Aqua, Camila de Paula Freitas; Vantini, Roberta; Garcia, Joaquim Mansano

    2017-02-01

    Cryopreservation of bull semen is a common biotechnology procedure in cattle breeding. However, when the ejaculate is obtained by electroejaculation, wide variation is observed in the sperm/seminal plasma (SP) ratio that can affect the freezability of semen in this species. The removal of SP may improve the quality of frozen bull semen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of SP removal from the ejaculate on the cryopreservation of semen from 38 Nellore bulls collected by electroejaculation. After collection, the ejaculate was divided into three aliquots: (1) control (N) diluted to a concentration of 60 × 10 6 spermatozoa/mL and frozen with SP; (2) centrifugation (C) at ×600g for 10 minutes and the pellet resuspended and frozen at the same concentration as N; and (3) filtration (F) through SpermFilter and sperm recovered and frozen at the same concentration as N. After thawing, sperm kinetics, plasma and acrosome membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, and in vitro fertility were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS 9.2 package, and differences were considered significant when P semen freezing reduced the rate of in vitro-produced embryos, whereas filtration of prefrozen semen was found to be an efficient alternative in terms of semen freezability and in vitro production of bovine embryos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Strong adherence to a healthy dietary pattern is associated with better semen quality, especially in men with poor semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostingh, Elsje C; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Laven, Joop S E; Koster, Maria P H

    2017-04-01

    To study associations between periconceptional dietary patterns and semen quality parameters. Prospective periconception cohort study. Tertiary hospital. One hundred and twenty-nine male partners of pregnant women who participated in the Rotterdam Periconception Cohort (Predict study). None. Semen quality parameters-ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, progressive motility, immotile sperm, and total motile sperm count (TMSC). Men included in our study were on average 35 (±6 standard deviation) years old and had a body mass index of 26.4 ± 4 kg/m 2 . Two dietary patterns were identified using principle component analysis, which were labeled as "healthy" and "unhealthy." An increase of one factor score (stated as β) represented an increase of 1 standard deviation. Sperm concentration (β = 0.278; 95% CI, 0.112-0.444), total sperm count (β = 1.369; 95% CI, 0.244-2.495), progressive motility (β = 4.305; 95% CI, 0.675-7.936), and TMSC (β = 0.319; 95% CI, 0.113-0.526) were all positively associated with a strong adherence to the healthy dietary pattern. Subgroup analysis showed that these associations were mainly present in men with a TMSC strong adherence to the unhealthy dietary pattern. The positive associations between strong adherence to a healthy dietary pattern and semen parameters in men with poor semen quality support the importance of preconceptional tailored nutritional counseling and coaching of couples who are trying to conceive. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. THE EFFECT OF IN VITRO SEMEN STORAGE TEMPERATURE AND AGE OF MALES ON SPERMATOZOA MOTILITY PARAMETERS OF TURKEYS SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Paluch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro storage temperature and age of males on turkey spermatozoa motility. For this purpose samples were collected from British United Turkeys (BUT Big 6 line and semen quality was assessed by using Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer (CASA system. After 60 minutes of storage spermatozoa motility, progressive motility and amplitude of lateral head displacement decreased significantly both in 4° and 41°C regardless of birds age. However the lowest values of all parameters were noted after storage in thermostat. Spermatozoa motility after 0 and 60 minutes in 4°C was higher in samples collected from turkeys of 35 – 42 weeks of age (60.94% and 53.33% respectively. Whereas the value of that parameter in semen stored in 41°C was lower in that age group. The same tendency was found in progressive motility. The results showed that higher temperature of in vitro storage (even that similar to animal body temperature, in this case 41ºC has more negative effect on spermatozoa motility parameters than lower temperature.

  17. Body mass index in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones among 1,558 Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Andersson, Anne-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2004-01-01

    To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and semen quality among young men from the general population.......To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and semen quality among young men from the general population....

  18. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  19. Effect of Priangan ram seminal plasma on viability of Peranakan Etawah buck spermatozoa preserved at 3–5oC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In processing of buck semen, seminal plasma is a problem because it contains a phospholipase A enzime produced by the Cowper gland. If this enzime interacts with egg yolk, it causes semen coagulation, and consequently death of spermatozoa. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of Priangan ram seminal plasma on viability of Peranakan Etawah (PE buck spermatozoa preserved at 3–5oC. Semen was collected using artificial vagina once a week. Fresh semen was divided into three tubes then centrifuged at 3,000 RPM for 30 min. Supernatant of the first tube was mixed again with Pasteur pipette (treatment A or control. Supernatant of the second tube was removed (treatment B or without seminal plasma. Supernatant of the third tube was removed and changed with Priangan ram seminal plasma in the same volume (treatment C. Semen was diluted with Tris extender containing 20% egg yolk and stored in refrigerator at 3–5oC. Quality of diluted-semen including percentages of motile spermatozoa (MS, live spermatozoa (LS, and intact plasma membrane (IPM was evaluated every day during storage at 3–5oC for three days. Results of this study showed that mean volume, colour, consistency, pH, mass activity, spermatozoa concentration, MS, LS, spermatozoa abnormal, and IPM of PE buck fresh semen, respectively was 0.68 ml, cream, thick, 7, ++/+++, 4,148.57 million cell/ml, 70%, 83.89%, 7.12% and 84%. At day-4 of storage, percentages of MS, LS, and IPM for treatment C (40, 52.2 and 51.6% was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that of: treatment B (31, 44.8 and 45.2% and treatment A (11, 15.6 and 14.8%. In conclusion, seminal plasma of Priangan ram could maintain the quality of PE buck semen preserved at 3–5oC for three days, and it prevent semen from coagulation.

  20. Effect of species, breed, and age on bacterial load in bovine and bubaline semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannat, Chandrahas; Nair, Ajit; Sahu, S. B.; Sahasrabudhe, S. A.; Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Shende, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of species, breed and age on bacterial load in fresh and frozen semen of Cattle and Buffalo bull. Materials and Methods: Present study covered 56 cow and 10 buffalo bulls stationed at Central Semen Station Anjora, Durg (Chhattisgarh). Impact of breeds on bacterial load in semen was assessed using six breeds of cattle viz. Sahiwal, Gir, Red Sindhi, Tharparkar, Jersey and Holstein Friesian (HF) cross. Cow bulls were categorized into four different groups based on their age ( 6 years) to study variation among age groups. Bacterial load was measured in fresh and frozen semen samples from these bulls using the standard plate count (SPC) method and count was expressed as colony forming unit (CFU) per ml of semen. Results: Higher bacterial load was reported in fresh (2.36 × 104 ± 1943 CFU/ml) and frozen (1.00 × 10 ± 90 CFU/ml) semen of cow bulls as compared to buffalo bulls (1.95 × 104 ± 2882 and 7.75 × 102 ± 160 CFU/ml in fresh and frozen semen, respectively). Jersey bull showed significantly higher bacterial count (p semen followed by HF cross, Sahiwal, Gir, Red Sindhi and Tharparkar bull. Bulls aged semen. Although a minor variation was reported between species and among age groups, no significant differences were measured. Conclusion: Bacterial load in semen did not differ significantly between species and age groups; however significant variation was reported among different breeds. Bulls of Jersey breed showed significantly higher bacterial load in semen as compared to the crossbred and indigenous bull. PMID:27047115

  1. Semen Quality of Holstein and Buffalo Bulls after Filtration using Sephadex Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdelKhalek, A E; AboulEla, M B; Soheir, A Fawzy; Dandooush E

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of sephadex column filtration technique on semen quality of five Holstein bulls and five Egyptian buffalo bulls. Semen was collected biweekly from each eight weeks. Immediately after collection, semen was extended (37degree C) and filtered using sephadex column-filtration technique. Semen was evaluated for physical semen characteristics including, percentages of sperm motility, live sperm and sperm abnormality as well as sperm cell concentration pre-and post-filtration. Results show that among all physical semen characteristics, only ejaculate semen volume was significantly (P<0.001) higher in Holstein than buffalo bulls, but motility, livability, abnormality, sperm concentration and sperm with intact acrosome did not differ between both species. As a result of filtration, sperm motility and livability increased (P<0.05) by 16.4 and 11.8% in Holstein and by 16.9 and 10.1% in buffalo semen, respectively. Sperm abnormality and concentration reduced (P<0.05) by 2.6 and 3.3% in Holstein and by 2.4 and 3.5% in buffalo semen, respectively. Improvements of live sperm and the reduction in sperm concentration (proportional to the pre-filtration value) were better (P<0.05) in Holstein than buffalo semen (15.5% and %52.4 vs. 13.2 and -49.3%, respectively). Improvement of motility and abnormality did not differ in Holstein (25.4 and %57.8) and buffalo semen (26.6 and ,(%54.5respectively. The present results indicate that using sephadex column filter technique has beneficial effects on improving quality of spermatozoa in both species. (author)

  2. The Drosera Extract as an Alternative In Vitro Supplement to Animal Semen: Effects on Bovine Spermatozoa Activity and Oxidative Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tvrdá

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In vitro storage and processing of animal semen is considered to be a risk factor to spermatozoa activity, possibly leading to reduced fertility and litter sizes following artificial insemination (AI. A variety of substances isolated from natural resources have the potential to exhibit protective or antioxidant properties on the spermatozoon, thus they may extend the lifespan of stored semen. Drosera (Drosera rotundifolia L. has been shown to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, making the plant extract a potential candidate for preserving liquid animal semen during in vitro storage. This study compared the ability of different concentrations of Drosera extract on the motility, viability and superoxide production of bovine spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, 6, 12 and 24h of in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the SpermVisionTM CASA (Computer aided sperm analysis system. Cell viability was examined using the metabolic activity MTT assay and the nitroblue-tetrazolium (NBT test was applied to quantify the intracellular superoxide formation. The CASA analysis revealed that Drosera extract supplementation was able to prevent a rapid decline of spermatozoa motility, especially in the case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 5 mg/mL (P<0.001 with respect to Times 6h, 12h and 24h. At the same time, concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 mg/mL of the extract led to a significant preservation of the cell viability throughout short-term (P<0.05 in case of Time 6h as well as long-term periods of the experiment (P<0.01 with respect to Time 12h, and P<0.001 in case of Time 24h. 10 and 5 mg/mL of the extract exhibited antioxidant characteristics, translated into a significant reduction of the intracellular superoxide production, particularly notable at Times 12h (P<0.01 and 24h (P<0.001. The results indicate that the Drosera extract is capable of delaying the damage inflicted to the

  3. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  4. Cryopreservation: a cold look at technology for fertility preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosden, Roger

    2011-08-01

    To outline the history of cryopreservation technology and its contributions to reproductive medicine, including fertility preservation. A search of the relevant literature using Medline and other online tools. Research and laboratory protocol development. The biology of preserving cells at low temperatures is complex and still being unraveled. Principles were first established more than half a century ago, with progress being driven empirically and often by trial and error. The protocols vary widely, and practice is still heavily dependent on operator skill, accounting for wide differences in the success rates between centers. No single protocol fits all specimen types, and differential vulnerability to cryoinjury remains a major obstacle. Nevertheless, semen cryopreservation has long been established, embryo banking is now highly effective, and vitrification appears to overcome problems with oocytes. Protocols in the future, although specific to the cell type and tissue, are likely to evolve toward generally acknowledged standards. But heterogeneity between patients and even within samples implies that each cell may have its own peculiar optimum for minimizing cryoinjury; because protocols are therefore compromises, "perfect" preservation may be unattainable. Cryopreservation has become a mainstay in the assisted reproduction laboratory and underpins fertility preservation for patients with cancer and other conditions. The practice is currently evolving from slow freezing methods toward more vitrification, and future technology is likely to reduce dependence on operator skill, which should raise success rates to higher, more uniform levels. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental education on wood preservatives and preservative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and use of wood preservatives in Nigeria should address not only the cost and demand functions but also the potential hazards in environmental equations. Forest products specialists are often asked about the perceived risks and environmental costs of treated wood products. Evidently, the civil society is ...

  6. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved...

  7. Effect of sexed-semen use on Holstein conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most artificial-insemination organizations in the United States now market sex-sorted semen. For 10.8 million US Holstein breedings with conventional semen since January 2006 and 122,705 sexed-semen breedings, data were available from all breedings for conception rate, 12 and 9% of breedings for cal...

  8. Comparison of Holstein service-sire fertility for heifer and cow breedings with conventional and sexed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire conception rate (SCR), a service-sire fertility evaluation implemented in August 2008, is based on up to 7 conventional-semen breedings for parities 1 through 5 (Ccow). The same procedure was used to derive SCR for other types of breedings: sexed semen for cows (Scow) and conventional semen and...

  9. A retrospective study of artificial insemination of 251 mares using chilled and fixed time frozen-thawed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, C A M; Ravenhill, P J; Hepburn, R J; Shepherd, C H

    2008-09-01

    Historically, artificial insemination (AI) using frozen semen has been perceived to have poorer success rates and be more labour intensive than using chilled semen. A retrospective study was therefore conducted to compare the conception rate achieved by AI between chilled and frozen semen, using fixed time insemination protocols over 2 breeding seasons. Artificial insemination using chilled semen produces a higher conception rate than that achieved with frozen semen. Mares (n = 251) were inseminated with either chilled (n = 112) or frozen (n = 139) semen in the 2006 and 2007 northern hemisphere breeding season. Per rectum ultrasonography of the mare's reproductive tract determined the timing of insemination, and deslorelin acetate was used to induce ovulation. Chilled semen insemination was performed using a single preovulatory dose delivered into the uterine body. Frozen semen was administered as 2 doses (pre- and post ovulation) using a deep uterine insemination technique. Pregnancy was detected ultrasonographically at 15 days post insemination. Conception rates were compared using a Chi-squared test. Insemination with frozen semen produced a significantly (P = 0.022) higher seasonal conception rate (82.0%) than that achieved with chilled semen (69.6%). Insemination with frozen semen can achieve conception rates equal to those with chilled semen, enabling the mare owner a greater selection of stallions.

  10. Immature germ cells in semen - correlation with total sperm count and sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Priya S; Humbarwadi, Rajendra S; Patil, Ashalata D; Gune, Anita R

    2013-07-01

    Current data regarding infertility suggests that male factor contributes up to 30% of the total cases of infertility. Semen analysis reveals the presence of spermatozoa as well as a number of non-sperm cells, presently being mentioned in routine semen report as "round cells" without further differentiating them into leucocytes or immature germ cells. The aim of this work was to study a simple, cost-effective, and convenient method for differentiating the round cells in semen into immature germ cells and leucocytes and correlating them with total sperm counts and motility. Semen samples from 120 males, who had come for investigation for infertility, were collected, semen parameters recorded, and stained smears studied for different round cells. Statistical analysis of the data was done to correlate total sperm counts and sperm motility with the occurrence of immature germ cells and leucocytes. The average shedding of immature germ cells in different groups with normal and low sperm counts was compared. The clinical significance of "round cells" in semen and their differentiation into leucocytes and immature germ cells are discussed. Round cells in semen can be differentiated into immature germ cells and leucocytes using simple staining methods. The differential counts mentioned in a semen report give valuable and clinically relevant information. In this study, we observed a negative correlation between total count and immature germ cells, as well as sperm motility and shedding of immature germ cells. The latter was statistically significant with a P value 0.000.

  11. Impact of seasonality and storage of semen on epigenetics in swine placenta and fetal livers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetics includes the study of external factors that can influence the expression of genes by altering accessibility of DNA through methylation and histone modification. To investigate the influence of: season (semen collection and breeding), absolute sperm head-shape change, and semen storage on...

  12. Effect of HIV-1 and Antiretroviral Therapy on Semen Quality | Ntim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that all the critical semen parameters (sperm motility, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm mor-phology, sperm vitality, semen volume and pH) were impaired in the HIV-1 infected groups. How-ever, sperm motility improved with longer duration of HAART treatment than shorter duration.

  13. Effect of sexed semen on conception rate for Holsteins in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of sexed-semen breedings on conception rate was investigated using US Holstein field data from January 2006 through October 2008. Sexed-semen breeding status was determined by a National Association of Animal Breeders’ 500-series marketing code or by individual breeding information in a cow o...

  14. Sexed-semen usage for Holstein AI in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dairy industry has used sexed-semen to reduce the birth of undesirable bull calves for over a decade. While the efficacy of sexed-semen has been determined experimentally, we sought to tabulate statistics on the generalized use of the technology in the US dairy herd and determine its effectivene...

  15. Ebola Virus RNA in Semen from an HIV-Positive Survivor of Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, Lawrence J; Rogers, Emerson; Baller, April; White, Stephen; Soka, Moses; Choi, Mary J; Mahmoud, Nuha; Wasunna, Christine; Massaquoi, Moses; Kollie, Jomah; Dweh, Straker; Bemah, Philip; Ladele, Victor; Kpaka, Jonathan; Jawara, Mary; Mugisha, Margaret; Subah, Onyekachi; Faikai, Mylene; Bailey, Jeff A; Rollin, Pierre; Marston, Barbara; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Gasasira, Alex; Knust, Barbara; Nichol, Stuart; Williams, Desmond

    2017-04-01

    Ebola virus is known to persist in semen of male survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD). However, maximum duration of, or risk factors for, virus persistence are unknown. We report an EVD survivor with preexisting HIV infection, whose semen was positive for Ebola virus RNA 565 days after recovery from EVD.

  16. Physically Active Men Show Better Semen Parameters than Their Sedentary Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalinde-Acevedo, Paula C; Mayorga-Torres, B Jose Manuel; Agarwal, Ashok; du Plessis, Stefan S; Ahmad, Gulfam; Cadavid, Ángela P; Cardona Maya, Walter D

    2017-10-01

    The quality of semen depends upon several factors such as environment, life style, physical activity, age, and occupation. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the conventional and functional semen parameters in men practicing vigorous physical activity to those of sedentary men. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, semen samples of 17 physically active men and 15 sedentary men were collected for analysis. Semen analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, while functional parameters were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results showed that several semen parameters (semen volume, viability, progressive motility, total motility, normal morphology, and moribund cells) were superior in the physically active group in comparison with the sedentary group. Semen parameters such as viability, progressive motility and total motility, as well as the percentage of moribund spermatozoa were significantly different between both groups. However, sperm DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial potential were not significantly different among the groups. Nevertheless, the physical activity shows better semen parameters than sedentary group. Taken together, our results demonstrate that regular physical activity has beneficial impact in sperm fertility parameters and such a life style can enhance the fertility status of men. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolation of Moraxella bovis from frozen bovine semen and determination of microbial load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandhi, Abhishek; Sharma, Mandeep; Dhar, Prasenjit

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, isolation of Moraxella bovis was done from the microbiological examination of frozen semen straws from clinically healthy twelve Jersey and one Jersey-cross bull supplied by a semen laboratory. The organism was identified on the basis of colonial morphology and biochemical c...

  18. CAG repeat length variation in the polymerase gamma (POLG) gene: effect on semen quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, G. H.; Kaaij-Visser, L.; Tanck, M.; van der Veen, F.; Repping, S.

    2008-01-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated the effect of CAG repeat length variation in the POLG gene on male fertility and semen quality. Some described an association between the homozygous not10 CAG-repeat genotype and male subfertility and/or reduced semen quality, whereas others did not.

  19. Ejaculation as a Source of Proteinuria Regardless of the Presence or Absence of Sperm in Semen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman; Soltanghoraee, Halleh; Taheri, Arman; Kashi, Tahereh; Akhondi, Mehdi A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The presence of protein in urine samples without any background leads to subsequent unnecessary tests. The objective of this paper was to assess protein in urine before and after semen sampling in azoospermic and non-azoospermic men to determine the role of semen proteins or spermatozoa

  20. Reproducibility and reliability of repeated semen analyses in male partners of subfertile couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leushuis, Esther; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Steures, Pieternel; Repping, Sjoerd; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; van der Veen, Fulco; Hompes, Peter G. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the precise degree of variability that is represented by the reproducibility and reliability of semen analysis. The general assumption is that semen analyses need to be repeated because of a high degree of within-individual variability. However, the precise degree of

  1. Computer-assisted semen analysis parameters as predictors for fertility of men from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2000-01-01

    The predictive value of sperm motility parameters obtained by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was evaluated for the fertility of men from general population. In a prospective study with couples stopping use of contraception in order to try to conceive, CASA was performed on semen samples...

  2. Y chromosome gr/gr deletions are a risk factor for low semen quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.; Westerveld, G. H.; Korver, C. M.; van Daalen, S. K. M.; Hovingh, S. E.; Rozen, S.; van der Veen, F.; Repping, S.

    2009-01-01

    Subfertility affects one in eight couples. In up to 50% of cases, the male partner has low semen quality. Four Y chromosome deletions, i.e. Azoospermia factor a (AZFa), P5/proximal-P1 (AZFb), P5/distal-P1 and AZFc deletions, are established causes of low semen quality. Whether a recently identified

  3. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds and human semen quality in Arctic and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, G; Jönsson, B A G; Lindh, C H

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been suspected to adversely affect human reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between PFC exposure and male semen quality.......Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been suspected to adversely affect human reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between PFC exposure and male semen quality....

  4. A Review of the Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities of Raphani Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Ting Sham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dried ripe seed of Raphanus sativus L., commonly known as radish seed (or Raphani Semen, is used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM to treat constipation, chronic tracheitis, and hypertension. The major active compounds in Raphani Semen are alkaloids, glucosinolates, brassinosteroids, and flavonoids. Fatty acids are its main nutritional contents. Raphani Semen has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, constipation, and cough. So far, there is no report about the adverse/toxic effects of this herb on humans. However, Raphani Semen processed by roasting was reported to exhibit some adverse effects on mice. Additionally, erucic acid, the main fatty acid in Raphani Semen, was shown to enhance the toxicity of doxorubicin. Thus, Raphani Semen has a potential risk of causing toxicity and drug interaction. In summary, Raphani Semen is a valuable TCM herb with multiple pharmacological effects. More studies on Raphani Semen could help better understand its pharmacological mechanisms so as to provide clear scientific evidence to explain its traditional uses, to identify its therapeutic potential on other diseases, and to understand its possible harmful effects.

  5. Protective effects on vascular endothelial cell in N'-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA)-induced hypertensive rats from the combination of effective components of Uncaria rhynchophylla and Semen Raphani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunlun; Yang, Wenqing; Zhu, Qingjun; Yang, Jinguo; Wang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is closely associated with hypertension. Protection of vascular endothelial cell is the key to prevention and treatment of hypertension. Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids and Semen Raphani soluble alkaloid, isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Uncaria rbyncbopbylla and Semen Raphani respectively, exhibit properties of anti-hypertension and protection of blood vessels. In the present study, we observed the protective effect of the combined use of Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids and Semen Raphani soluble alkaloid to the vascular endothelial cell in N'-nitro-L-arginine-induced hypertensive rats and investigate the preliminary mechanism. Blood pressure was detected by non-invasive rats tail method to observe the anti-hypertension effect of drugs. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the integrity or shedding state of vascular endothelial cell. The amount of circulating endothelial cells and CD54 and CD62P expression on circulating endothelial cells were tested to evaluate the endothelium function. In this study, we found that the Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids and Semen Raphani soluble alkaloid compatibility can effectively lower the blood pressure, improve the structural integrity of vascular endothelium, and significantly reduce the number of circulating endothelial cells. Furthermore, the mean fluorescence intensity of CD54 and CD62P expressed showed decrease after the intervention of Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids and Semen Raphani soluble alkaloid compatibility. In conclusion, the combination of effective components of the Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids and Semen Raphani soluble alkaloid demonstrated good antihypertension effect and vascular endothelium protective effect. The preliminary mechanism of the protective effect may attribute to relieve the overall low-grade inflammation.

  6. Mass preserving image registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...

  7. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  8. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labots, H.; Huis in 't Veld, G.J.P.; Verrips, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of several methods for the preservation of food and the routes of food infections, the following chapters are devoted to the preservation by irradiation. Applications and legal aspects of food irradiation are described. Special reference is made to the international situation. (Auth.)

  9. Mitochondrial Biomarkers Reflect Semen Quality: Results from the MARCHS Study in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowei; Wang, Zhi; Ling, Xi; Zou, Peng; Yang, Huan; Chen, Qing; Zhou, Niya; Sun, Lei; Gao, Jianfang; Zhou, Ziyuan; Cao, Jia; Ao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Unexplained infertility requires that more sensitive and mechanism-based biomarkers should be developed and used independently of or in addition to conventional semen parameters for an infertility diagnosis. In the present study, semen samples were collected from young men participating in the Male Reproductive Health in Chongqing College students (MARCHS) cohort study in the follow-up stage in 2014. Conventional semen parameters were measured in all 656 participants, whereas sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn), mtDNA integrity and apoptotic parameters were measured among 627, 386, 362, and 628 participants, respectively. We found that sperm MMP was significantly positively correlated with all of conventional semen parameters including semen volume (r = 0.090, p = 0.025), sperm concentration (r = 0.301, psemen quality in a general population, and the study provides a baseline for the effects of population characteristics and lifestyles on such mitochondrial markers.

  10. Human semen quality in relation to dietary pesticide exposure and organic diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhler, R. K.; Larsen, S. B.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to corroborate or refute the hypothesis that farmers having a high intake of organic grown commodities have a high semen quality due to their expected lower level of dietary pesticides intake. Food frequency data and semen were collected from 256 farmers (171...... traditional farmers and 85 organic farmers, overall participation rate: 32%) who were selected from central registers. Each farmer delivered one semen sample before the spraying season started. The farmers were divided into three groups where the commodities from organic production contributed no (N, 0....../ml). The group of men without organic food intake had a significant lower proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa, but in relation to 14 other semen parameters no significant differences were found between the groups. Intake of 40 individual pesticides was correlated with four semen parameters...

  11. Optimizing human semen cryopreservation by reducing test vial volume and repetitive test vial sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian F S; Ohl, Dana A; Parker, Walter R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate optimal test vial (TV) volume, utility and reliability of TVs, intermediate temperature exposure (-88°C to -93°C) before cryostorage, cryostorage in nitrogen vapor (VN2) and liquid nitrogen (LN2), and long-term stability of VN2 cryostorage of human semen. DESIGN......: Prospective clinical laboratory study. SETTING: University assisted reproductive technology (ART) laboratory. PATIENT(S): A total of 594 patients undergoing semen analysis and cryopreservation. INTERVENTION(S): Semen analysis, cryopreservation with different intermediate steps and in different volumes (50......-1,000 μL), and long-term storage in LN2 or VN2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Optimal TV volume, prediction of cryosurvival (CS) in ART procedure vials (ARTVs) with pre-freeze semen parameters and TV CS, post-thaw motility after two- or three-step semen cryopreservation and cryostorage in VN2 and LN2. RESULT...

  12. Does last week's alcohol intake affect semen quality or reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M L; Thulstrup, A M; Bonde, J P

    2012-01-01

    The association between last 5 days of alcohol intake, semen quality and reproductive hormones was estimated in this cross-sectional study among 347 men. Conventional semen characteristics, DNA fragmentation index and reproductive hormones (testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin...... (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and inhibin B) were determined. There was a tendency towards lower semen characteristics at higher intake of alcohol past 5 days, albeit with no statistically significant dose-response association. The ratio between free estradiol...... and free testosterone was higher at higher alcohol intake during the 5 days preceding semen sampling. In conclusion, alcohol intake was associated with impairment of most semen characteristics but without a coherent dose-response pattern. The study indicates an association between recent alcohol intake...

  13. Semen cryopreservation and radical reduction capacity of seminal fluid in captive African lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, I; Jakop, U; Lueders, I; Tordiffe, A; Franz, C; Schiller, J; Kotze, A; Müller, K

    2017-02-01

    Optimizing cryopreservation protocols for nondomestic felids contributes to the successful development of assisted reproduction techniques and genetic resource banking. In this study, we describe a simple cryopreservation procedure for African lion (Panthera leo) ejaculates, which was tested with different packaging options and different sperm numbers per dose. By applying urethral catheterization and electroejaculation, 17 ejaculates with greater than 20% motile and greater than 5% progressively motile sperm were collected. A lyophilized extender (a modified egg yolk-Tes-Tris-fructose-glycerol medium) was rehydrated and added in one step at ambient temperature (∼25 °C) to semen, which was prediluted in cell culture medium M199. After slow cooling of insulated samples to 15 °C in a refrigerator (4 °C), the samples were fast frozen over the surface of liquid nitrogen or in a dry shipper. Aliquots of 300 μL containing 20 × 10 6 sperm were frozen in cryovials and in 0.5-mL straws. Differences were observed in the total motility after thawing between vial (31.5 ± 14.1%) and straw freezing (20.1 ± 8.6%). However, the subpopulations of vital (22.7 ± 7.8% for vial and 19.8 ± 8.5% for straw) and progressively motile (10.0 ± 7.9% for vial and 10.0 ± 6.4% for straw) sperm after washing and 1 hour incubation at 38 °C were of similar magnitude, velocity, and linearity for both packaging options. After freezing of five ejaculates with 20, 60, and 100 × 10 6 sperm per dose, best results were achieved at the lowest concentration. In general, post-thaw results were highly variable (2.2% and 56.5% total motility) and not correlated to motility or morphology of the fresh semen. To further characterize semen quality, we assessed the protective potential of seminal fluid against oxidative stress, which might be challenged on freeze thawing. The capacity of seminal fluid to reduce radicals was measured in 10 semen samples by electron spin resonance

  14. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  15. Analysis of semen parameters in male referrals: impact of reference limits, stratification by fertility categories, predictors of change, and comparison of normal semen parameters in subfertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karen; Li, Jianbo; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    To [1] determine the impact of semen reference limits on referrals for male fertility evaluations, [2] analyze the stratification of subjects based on published "normal" thresholds, [3] analyze the odds of changing fertility categories during serial tests and thereby the potential impact of inherent variability of semen parameters on referrals, and [4] determine variable(s) predictive of change. Retrospective chart review. Academic referral center for male fertility. New encounters in a male fertility clinic over a 5-year period that straddles the publication of World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 reference values. None. Demographic and clinical variables, semen values, and fertility categories as follows: BE (below WHO 2010 criteria), BTWN (above WHO 2010 but below WHO 1999 criteria), and N (above WHO 1999 criteria). A total of 82.3% of initial semen tests were categorized as BE, and the predominance of this category was unchanged by publication of the WHO 2010 criteria. Men with initial semen analysis categorized as BTWN or N represented 16.2% and 1.5% of the referral population, respectively. Subjects initially categorized as BTWN were more likely to change fertility categories, and overwhelmingly this migration was downward. Analysis of normal individual semen parameters revealed statistically worse mean concentration and motility when at least one other parameter fell below the WHO 2010 criteria. Men with semen results above reference criteria are underrepresented, indicating that reference limits influence referral patterns for male fertility evaluations. Normal mean concentration and motility were lower in men with at least one other individual semen parameter below the 2010 criteria, suggesting global dysfunction in spermatogenesis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Assessment of semen quality in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Umesh; Gawande, Ajay P.; Sahatpure, Sunil K.; Patil, Manoj S.; Lakde, Chetan K.; Bonde, Sachin W.; Borkar, Pradnyankur L.; Poharkar, Ajay J.; Ramteke, Baldeo R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the seminal attributes of neat, pre-freeze (at equilibration), and post-freeze (24 h after freezing) semen in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls. Materials and Methods: Total 36 ejaculates (3 ejaculates from each bull) were collected from 6 pure Jersey and 6 crossbred Jersey bulls and evaluated for various seminal attributes during neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen. Results: The mean (±standard error [SE]) values of neat semen characteristics in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls were recorded such as volume (ml), color, consistency, mass activity (scale: 0-5), and sperm concentration (millions/ml). The extended semen was further investigated at pre-freeze and post-freeze stages and the mean (±SE) values recorded at neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen were compared between pure and crossbred Jersey bulls; sperm motility (80.55±1.70%, 62.77±1.35%, 46.11±1.43% vs. 80.00±1.80%, 65.00±1.66%, 47.22±1.08%), live sperm count (83.63±1.08%, 71.72±1.09%, 58.67±1.02% vs. 80.00±1.08%, 67.91±1.20%, 51.63±0.97%), total abnormal sperm count (8.38±0.32%, 12.30±0.39%, 16.75±0.42% vs. 9.00±0.45%, 12.19±0.48%, 18.11±0.64%), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) reacted spermatozoa (71.88±0.77%, 62.05±0.80%, 47.27±1.05% vs. 72.77±1.02%, 62.11±0.89%, 45.94±1.33%), acrosome integrity (89.05±0.83%, 81.33±0.71%, 71.94±0.86% vs. 86.55±0.57%, 78.66±0.42%, 69.38±0.53%), and DNA integrity (99.88±0.07%, 100, 99.66±0.11% vs. 99.94±0.05%, 100, 99.44±0.18%,). The volume, color, consistency, sperm concentration, and initial motility in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The mass activity was significantly (p0.05) was observed in abnormal sperm; HOS reacted spermatozoa and DNA integrity percentage among breeds. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the quality of pure Jersey bull semen was comparatively better than the crossbred Jersey bulls. PMID:27047028

  17. Semen Bacterial Concentrations and HIV-1 RNA Shedding Among HIV-1–Seropositive Kenyan Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sujatha; Huang, Dandi; Ko, Daisy L.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Peshu, Norbert M.; Krieger, John N.; Muller, Charles H.; Coombs, Robert W.; Fredricks, David N.; Graham, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: HIV-1 is transmitted through semen from men to their sexual partners. Genital infections can increase HIV-1 RNA shedding in semen, but shedding also occurs in the absence of typical pathogens. We hypothesized that higher bacterial concentrations in semen would be associated with higher HIV-1 RNA levels. Methods: We analyzed semen samples from 42 HIV-1–seropositive Kenyan men using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess bacterial concentrations and real-time PCR to measure HIV-1 RNA levels. Generalized estimation equations were used to evaluate associations between these 2 measures. Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR with pyrosequencing was performed on a subset of 13 samples to assess bacterial community composition. Results: Bacteria were detected in 96.6% of 88 samples by quantitative PCR. Semen bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA levels were correlated 0.30 (P = 0.01). The association between bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA detection was not significant after adjustment for antiretroviral therapy (ART) (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.91). Factors associated with semen bacterial concentration included insertive anal sex (adjusted beta 0.92, 95% CI: 0.12 to 1.73) and ART use (adjusted beta: −0.77, 95% CI: −1.50 to 0.04). Among 13 samples with pyrosequencing data, Corynebacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. were most frequently detected. Conclusion: Most of these HIV-1–infected men had bacteria in their semen. ART use was associated with undetectable semen HIV-1 RNA and lower semen bacterial concentrations, whereas insertive anal sex was associated with higher bacterial concentrations. Additional studies evaluating the relationship between semen bacteria, inflammation, mucosal immunity, and HIV-1 shedding are needed to understand implications for HIV-1 transmission. PMID:27861240

  18. Semen Bacterial Concentrations and HIV-1 RNA Shedding Among HIV-1-Seropositive Kenyan Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Christine J; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Huang, Dandi; Ko, Daisy L; Sanders, Eduard J; Peshu, Norbert M; Krieger, John N; Muller, Charles H; Coombs, Robert W; Fredricks, David N; Graham, Susan M

    2017-03-01

    HIV-1 is transmitted through semen from men to their sexual partners. Genital infections can increase HIV-1 RNA shedding in semen, but shedding also occurs in the absence of typical pathogens. We hypothesized that higher bacterial concentrations in semen would be associated with higher HIV-1 RNA levels. We analyzed semen samples from 42 HIV-1-seropositive Kenyan men using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess bacterial concentrations and real-time PCR to measure HIV-1 RNA levels. Generalized estimation equations were used to evaluate associations between these 2 measures. Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR with pyrosequencing was performed on a subset of 13 samples to assess bacterial community composition. Bacteria were detected in 96.6% of 88 samples by quantitative PCR. Semen bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA levels were correlated 0.30 (P = 0.01). The association between bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA detection was not significant after adjustment for antiretroviral therapy (ART) (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.91). Factors associated with semen bacterial concentration included insertive anal sex (adjusted beta 0.92, 95% CI: 0.12 to 1.73) and ART use (adjusted beta: -0.77, 95% CI: -1.50 to 0.04). Among 13 samples with pyrosequencing data, Corynebacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. were most frequently detected. Most of these HIV-1-infected men had bacteria in their semen. ART use was associated with undetectable semen HIV-1 RNA and lower semen bacterial concentrations, whereas insertive anal sex was associated with higher bacterial concentrations. Additional studies evaluating the relationship between semen bacteria, inflammation, mucosal immunity, and HIV-1 shedding are needed to understand implications for HIV-1 transmission.

  19. Successful artificial insemination in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus using chilled and frozen-thawed semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongkalasin Warut

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination (AI using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI. Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. Results One female (Khod inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population.

  20. The initial fertilizing capacity of longerm-stored liquid boar semen following pre- and postovulatory insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waberski, D; Weitze, K F; Lietmann, C; Lübbert Zur Lage, W; Bortolozzo, F P; Willmen, T; Petzoldt, R

    1994-01-01

    In pigs, high variation is seen in the duration of estrus and in the time of ovulation. This is one of a wide range of factors not related to semen quality, which possibly influences the results of field insemination trials. Experiment 1 (n=81 gilts) was performed to determine the influence of the time of ovulation on the fertilizing capacity of liquid boar semen stored up to 118 h. The objective of Experiment 2 (n=102 gilts) was to study the fertilizing potential of semen stored up to 120 h in 2 different extenders, Androhep and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), by means of postovulatory AI. Inseminations were performed 0 to 4 h after ovulation in order to standardize the trial conditions. Fertilization rates based on Day-2 to Day-4 embryos, and the number of accessory spermatozoa per zona pellucida did not differ between semen stored for 0 to 48 and 48 to 87 h in gilts ovulating within 12 after insemination (Experiment 1). Gilts with an interval of 12 to 24 h between AI and ovulation had lower fertility results using semen stored for more than 48 h. A further decrease was observed when semen storage exceeded 87 h in those gilts ovulating later than 24 h after insemination. The time of ovulation has to be considered as being a major factor of variation in the fertility results of AI trials. In Experiment 2, fertilization rates and numbers of accessory spermatozoa decreased between semen stored for 0 to 24 and 24 to 48 h in BTS, and between semen stored for 0 to 24 and 48 to 72 h in Androhep. Significant differences in fertility between diluents were seen only when using semen stored for more than 96 h, with semen extended with Androhep giving the higher results. The results indicate that the decrease in fertilizing capacity due to in vitro aging of spermatozoa cannot be prevented even during the first days of storage.

  1. Deep-freezing of boar semen in plastic film 'cochettes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, B M; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2000-03-01

    The motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa from nine boars frozen with a programmable freezing machine in plastic bags, 'cochettes', and in 'maxi-straws', in total doses of 5 x 10(9) spermatozoa/5 ml with glycerol (3%) used as cryoprotectant, were assessed after thawing. A computer-based cell motion analyser was used to evaluate sperm motility, while the integrity of the plasmalemma was assessed with fluorescent supravital dyes (C-FDA/PI). The fertilizing capacity of the semen frozen in the two containers was investigated by inseminating (AI) gilts. Pregnancy was monitored by Doppler-ultrasound, and the numbers of corpora lutea and viable embryos counted at slaughter, between days 30 and 38 after AI. The cochettes sustained the overall procedure of freezing/thawing (FT), with 30 min post-thaw (PT) sperm motility being significantly higher than for straws, 46.9 vs. 39.5%. The only significant difference in motility patterns detected when comparing the packages was a higher sperm velocity (VCL) in cochettes at 30 min PT. However, percentages of FT-spermatozoa with intact membranes, detected with the supravital probes, were higher in maxi-straws than in cochettes, 46.8 vs. 43.0% (P straws and those frozen in cochettes. The results indicate that although the deep-freezing of AI-doses of boar semen in large plastic bags is feasible, problems such as their inconvenient size for storage and inconsistent thawing must be solved before this type of container can be used for the commercial cryopreservation of boar semen.

  2. LEONARDO DA VINCI AND THE ORIGIN OF SEMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Denis; DiFrancesco, Dario; Zancani, Diego

    2014-12-20

    It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy.

  3. Phthalate exposure and semen quality in fertile US men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, S W; Mendiola, J; Bellamy, A R; Levine, H; Wang, C; Sparks, A; Redmon, J B; Drobnis, E Z; Swan, S H

    2016-07-01

    Several experimental and observational studies have demonstrated the antiandrogenicity of several phthalates. However, there is limited evidence of an association between phthalate exposure in adult life and semen quality. The aim of this study was to examine phthalate exposure during adulthood in relation to semen quality in fertile US men. This multi-center cross-sectional study included 420 partners of pregnant women who attended a prenatal clinic in one of five US cities during 1999-2001. Nine phthalate metabolites [mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono (2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP)], as well as mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono (three carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)] were measured in urine collected at the same time as the semen sample. We regressed natural log-transformed (ln) sperm concentration, ln(total sperm count), ln(total motile sperm count), percent motile spermatozoa, and percent spermatozoa with normal morphology on each of the nine natural log-transformed metabolite concentrations and on the molar-weighted sum of DEHP metabolites in separate models. We fit unadjusted models and models that adjusted for confounders determined a priori. In unadjusted models, ln(MiBP) was significantly and positively associated with motility and ln(MBzP) significantly negatively associated with ln(total sperm count). In adjusted linear models, urinary metabolite concentrations of DEHP, DBP, DEP, and DOP were not associated with any semen parameter. We found an inverse association between ln(MBzP) concentrations and sperm motility (β = -1.47, 95% CI: -2.61, -0.33), adjusted for ln(creatinine concentration), geographic location, age, race, smoking status, stress, recent fever, time from sample collection and time to complete analysis. Several sensitivity

  4. Analysis of hygienic critical control points in boar semen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Ammon, C; Rüdiger, K; Jung, M; Grobbel, M

    2015-02-01

    The present study addresses the microbiological results of a quality control audit in artificial insemination (AI) boar studs in Germany and Austria. The raw and processed semen of 344 boars in 24 AI boar studs were analyzed. Bacteria were found in 26% (88 of 344) of the extended ejaculates and 66.7% (18 of 24) of the boar studs. The bacterial species found in the AI dose were not cultured from the respective raw semen in 95.5% (84 of 88) of the positive samples. These data, together with the fact that in most cases all the samples from one stud were contaminated with identical bacteria (species and resistance profile), indicate contamination during processing. Microbiological investigations of the equipment and the laboratory environment during semen processing in 21 AI boar studs revealed nine hygienic critical control points (HCCP), which were addressed after the first audit. On the basis of the analysis of the contamination rates of the ejaculate samples, improvements in the hygiene status were already present in the second audit (P = 0.0343, F-test). Significant differences were observed for heating cabinets (improvement, P = 0.0388) and manual operating elements (improvement, P = 0.0002). The odds ratio of finding contaminated ejaculates in the first and second audit was 1.68 (with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.04 to 2.69). Furthermore, an overall good hygienic status was shown for extenders, the inner face of dilution tank lids, dyes, and ultrapure water treatment plants. Among the nine HCCP considered, the most heavily contaminated samples, as assessed by the median scores throughout all the studs, were found in the sinks and/or drains. High numbers (>10(3) colony-forming units/cm(2)) of bacteria were found in the heating cabinets, ejaculate transfer, manual operating elements, and laboratory surfaces. In conclusion, the present study emphasizes the need for both training of the laboratory staff in monitoring HCCP in routine semen

  5. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL, and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR in Colorado and the University of Maryland's Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS.Chronopolis addresses a critical problem by providing a comprehensive model for the cyberinfrastructure of collection management, in which preserved intellectual capital is easily accessible, and research results, education material, and new knowledge can be incorporated smoothly over the long term. Integrating digital library, data grid, and persistent archive technologies, Chronopolis has created trusted environments that span academic institutions and research projects, with the goal of long-term digital preservation.A key goal of the Chronopolis project is to provide cross-domain collection sharing for long-term preservation. Using existing high-speed educational and research networks and mass-scale storage infrastructure investments, the partnership is leveraging the data storage capabilities at SDSC, NCAR, and UMIACS to provide a preservation data grid that emphasizes heterogeneous and highly redundant data storage systems.In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis, including:a The philosophy and theory behind a nationally federated data grid for preservation. b The core tools and technologies used in Chronopolis. c The metadata schema that is being developed within Chronopolis for all of the data elements. d Lessons learned from the first year of the project.e Next steps in digital preservation using Chronopolis: how we

  6. Urinary trichloroacetic acid levels and semen quality: A hospital-based cross-sectional study in Wuhan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Li, Yu-Feng; Tan, Yin-Feng; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Ai-Lin; Xie, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological studies indicate an association between exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) and impaired male reproductive health in animals. However, epidemiological evidence in humans is still limited. We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study to investigate the effect of exposure to DBPs on semen quality in humans. Between May 2008 and July 2008, we recruited 418 male partners in sub-fertile couples seeking infertility medical instruction or assisted reproduction services from the Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Major semen parameters analyzed included sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. Exposure to DBPs was estimated by their urinary creatinine-adjusted trichloroacetic (TCAA) concentrations that were measured with the gas chromatography/electron capture detection method. We used linear regression to assess the relationship between exposure to DBPs and semen quality. According to the World Health Organization criteria (<20 million/mL for sperm concentration and <50% motile for sperm motility) and threshold value recommended by Guzick (<9% for sperm morphology), there were 265 men with all parameters at or above the reference values, 33 men below the reference sperm concentration, 151 men below the reference sperm motility, and 6 men below the reference sperm morphology. The mean (median) urinary creatinine-adjusted TCAA concentration was 9.2 (5.1) μg/g creatinine. Linear regression analyses indicated no significant association of sperm concentration, sperm count, and sperm morphology with urinary TCAA levels. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA concentrations, subjects in the second and third quartiles had a decrease of 5.1% (95% CI: 0.6%, 9.7%) and 4.7% (95% CI: 0.2%, 9.2%) in percent motility, respectively. However, these associations were not significant after adjustment for age, abstinence time, and smoking status. The present study provides suggestive but inconclusive evidence of the

  7. Urinary trichloroacetic acid levels and semen quality: A hospital-based cross-sectional study in Wuhan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Shao-Hua [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13 Hangkong Road, 430030 Wuhan (China); The Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Li, Yu-Feng [Reproductive Medicine Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Tan, Yin-Feng [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13 Hangkong Road, 430030 Wuhan (China); The Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Zheng, Dan [The Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Liu, Ai-Lin; Xie, Hong [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13 Hangkong Road, 430030 Wuhan (China); The Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); and others

    2011-02-15

    Toxicological studies indicate an association between exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) and impaired male reproductive health in animals. However, epidemiological evidence in humans is still limited. We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study to investigate the effect of exposure to DBPs on semen quality in humans. Between May 2008 and July 2008, we recruited 418 male partners in sub-fertile couples seeking infertility medical instruction or assisted reproduction services from the Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Major semen parameters analyzed included sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. Exposure to DBPs was estimated by their urinary creatinine-adjusted trichloroacetic (TCAA) concentrations that were measured with the gas chromatography/electron capture detection method. We used linear regression to assess the relationship between exposure to DBPs and semen quality. According to the World Health Organization criteria (<20 million/mL for sperm concentration and <50% motile for sperm motility) and threshold value recommended by Guzick (<9% for sperm morphology), there were 265 men with all parameters at or above the reference values, 33 men below the reference sperm concentration, 151 men below the reference sperm motility, and 6 men below the reference sperm morphology. The mean (median) urinary creatinine-adjusted TCAA concentration was 9.2 (5.1) {mu}g/g creatinine. Linear regression analyses indicated no significant association of sperm concentration, sperm count, and sperm morphology with urinary TCAA levels. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA concentrations, subjects in the second and third quartiles had a decrease of 5.1% (95% CI: 0.6%, 9.7%) and 4.7% (95% CI: 0.2%, 9.2%) in percent motility, respectively. However, these associations were not significant after adjustment for age, abstinence time, and smoking status. The present study provides suggestive but inconclusive evidence of the

  8. Optimization of preservation activities and preservation engineering (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Mimaki, Hidehito; Oda, Mitsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    In order to deal with the optimization of preservation activities and 'preservation engineering' which makes it possible, the relation between general society and preservation, the content and the structure of preservation activities, and the viewpoint and the approach of the optimization of the preventive preservation are described. The optimization of the preventive preservation is shown respectively in the four stages of planning, implementation, result evaluation and countermeasure. (K. Kato)

  9. Association between use of phthalate-containing medication and semen quality among men in couples referred for assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broe, Anne; Pottegård, A; Hallas, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    studies. One study has shown associations between medicinal phthalate exposure and poor semen quality, suggesting similar effects in humans. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We included 18,515 males with poor semen quality (cases) and 31,063 males with normal semen quality (controls) registered in the Danish......STUDY QUESTION: Does phthalate exposure from prescription drugs affect semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER: Exposure to phthalate-containing drugs is associated with poor semen quality. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Phthalates and their metabolites have been shown to disrupt the hormone signalling in animal...... to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The association between current use of phthalate-containing medications less than 90 days prior to semen sampling and reduced semen quality was analysed using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS...

  10. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  11. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... architectural value in preservation work as a matter of maintaining the buildings -as keeping them "alive" and allowing this to continue in the future. The predominantly aesthetic preservation approach will stop the buildings' life process, which is the same as - "letting them die". Finnebyen in Aarhus...... is an example of a residential area, where the planning authority currently has presented a preservational district plan, following guidelines from the SAVE method. The purpose is to protect the area's architectural values in the future. The predominantly aesthetic approach is here used coupled to the concept...

  12. Radiation preservation of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasito.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation preservation of maize was carried out. Radiation doses and sources, shielding materials, packaging materials, chemical radiation effects, biological radiation effects, were discussed. Experimental methods, samples and accessories were also presented. (SMN)

  13. Analisis Strategi Bersaing Bumn dalam Persaingan Regional Asia Tenggara (Studi Kasus pada PT. Semen Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Kantor Pusat Veteran, Gresik)

    OpenAIRE

    Widigjaya, Prama Baswara; Arifin, Zainul; Mawardi, M. Kholid

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to understand the performance of PT. Semen Indonesia (Persero) Tbk, knowing the competitive position of the company and the application of competitive strategy PT. Semen Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. The competitive position of PT. Semen Indonesia (Persero) Tbk at the national level is the market leader, while at the regional level, PT. Semen Indonesia (Persero) is still in the stage of market tease (Challenger). Implementation of the strategy at PT. Semen Indonesia (Persero) is th...

  14. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  15. Indiana Pavement Preservation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Ghim Ping (Raymond); Nantung, Tommy E.; Sinha, Kumares C.

    2010-01-01

    State highway agencies are facing immense pressure to maintain roads at acceptable levels amidst the challenging financial and economic situations. In recent years, pavement preservation has been sought as a potential alternative for managing the pavement assets, believing that it would provide a cost-effective solution in maintaining infrastructural conditions and meeting user expectations. This study explores the potential of pavement preservation concepts in managing the agency‘s pavement ...

  16. APLIKASI PEMETAAN ALIRAN NILAI DI INDUSTRI KEMASAN SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Vanany

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of Value Stream Mapping to identify the waste in cement-package industry on PT IHSG. The Value Stream Mapping is used to map the activity towards the company's supply chain with the result that the non-value adding activity could be identified. The result will be an important fundament for identifying the defect and time. The effort for identifying the company's improvement meet the problem priority and it has a significant impact so that the time and cost consuming could be avoided. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Paper ini menggambarkan bagaimana aplikasi pemetaan aliran nilai dapat mengidentifikasi waste pada industri kemasan semen. Pemetaan aliran nilai digunakan untuk memetakan aktivitas pada rantai pasok perusahaan sehingga aktivitas yang tidak bernilai tambah dapat diketahui. Hasil pemetaan akan menjadi landasan penting didalam mengetahui cacat dan waktu tunggu. Upaya untuk mengidentifikasi perbaikan perusahaan sesuai dengan masalah prioritas yang ada dan memiliki dampak yang signifikan sehingga tidak terjadi pemborosan biaya dan waktu program perbaikan. Kata kunci: pemetaan aliran nilai, industri kemasan semen, waste.

  17. Impact of cell phone use on men's semen parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschi, T; Mohamad Al-Ali, B; Shamloul, R; Pummer, K; Trummer, H

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present retrospective study was to report our experience concerning the effects of cell phone usage on semen parameters. We examined 2110 men attending our infertility clinic from 1993 to October 2007. Semen analysis was performed in all patients. Serum free testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) were collected from all patients. The information on cell phone use of the patients was recorded and the subjects were divided into two groups according to their cell phone use: group A: cell phone use (n = 991); group B: no use (n = 1119). Significant difference was observed in sperm morphology between the two groups. In the patients of group A, 68.0% of the spermatozoa featured a pathological morphology compared to only 58.1% in the subjects of group B. Patients with cell phone usage showed significantly higher T and lower LH levels than those who did not use cell phone. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding FSH and PRL values. Our results showed that cell phone use negatively affects sperm quality in men. Further studies with a careful design are needed to determine the effect of cell phone use on male fertility. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. [Longjintonglin Capsules for type IIIA prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction: A clinical observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong-cai; Wan, Chang-chun; Geng, Qiang; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Guo-wei; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Longjintonglin Capsules on type IIIA prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction. We selected 140 patients with type IIIA prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction according to the diagnostic standards of the American Institutes of Health (NIH) and treated them with Longjintonglin Capsules orally 3 capsules once tid for 12 weeks. We obtained the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Indexes (NIH-CPSI), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome scores, leukocyte count in the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS), semen liquefaction time, and the results of semen analysis and compared these indicators before and after the treatment. Of the 140 cases, 132 were included in this study, excluding 8 due to their incomplete case histories. Before and after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of medication, the total NIH-CPSI scores were 24.52 ± 5.43, 21.28 ± 4.85, 18.01 ± 4.28, and 14.49 ± 3.65 (P prostatitis were cured and another 72 well responded, with an overall response rate of 78.0%. Of those with abnormal semen liquefaction, 61 were cured, 39 well responded, and 32 failed to respond, with an overall effectiveness rate of 75.8%. Semen analysis showed significantly increased percentage of progressively motile sperm after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of medication as compared with the baseline (P prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction.

  19. Bacteriospermia and Its Impact on Basic Semen Parameters among Infertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Vilvanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Semen analysis is considered as the surrogate marker for male fecundity while assessing infertile men. There are several reasons for altered semen quality and bacteriospermia could be one among them. Thereby the aim of our work is to study the semen culture and its impact on semen parameters among infertile men. Materials and Methods. Semen samples were collected from men attending infertility clinic. Semen parameters were analysed based on WHO guidelines. Also, samples were subjected to culture using standard bacteriological techniques. Results. A total of 85 samples were collected. A number of 47 (55.30% had normal sperm count, 37 (43.50% had oligozoospermia, and one (1.17% had azoospermia. Teratozoospermia was the most common abnormality observed (81.17% followed by asthenozoospermia (28.23%. The prevalence of bacteriospermia was 35.3%. Enterococcus faecalis (30% was the most common organism isolated followed by Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (23.33%, Staphylococcus aureus (20%, and E. coli (10%. Other less frequently isolated organisms were Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.66%, Proteus sp. (6.66%, and Citrobacter sp. (3.33%. Conclusion. The presence of asymptomatic bacteriospermia did not correlate with abnormal semen parameters.

  20. Validation of the Cepheid GeneXpert for Detecting Ebola Virus in Semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftis, Amy James; Quellie, Saturday; Chason, Kelly; Sumo, Emmanuel; Toukolon, Mason; Otieno, Yonnie; Ellerbrok, Heinzfried; Hobbs, Marcia M; Hoover, David; Dube, Karine; Wohl, David A; Fischer, William A

    2017-02-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) RNA persistence in semen, reported sexual transmission, and sporadic clusters at the end of the 2013-2016 epidemic have prompted recommendations that male survivors refrain from unprotected sex unless their semen is confirmed to be EBOV free. However, there is no fully validated assay for EBOV detection in fluids other than blood. The Cepheid Xpert Ebola assay for EBOV RNA detection was validated for whole semen and blood using samples obtained from uninfected donors and spiked with inactivated EBOV. The validation procedure incorporated standards from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and Good Clinical Laboratory Practices guidelines for evaluating molecular devices for use in infectious disease testing. The assay produced limits of detection of 1000 copies/mL in semen and 275 copies/mL in blood. Limits of detection for both semen and blood increased with longer intervals between collection and testing, with acceptable results obtained up to 72 hours after specimen collection. The Cepheid Xpert Ebola assay is accurate and precise for detecting EBOV in whole semen. A validated assay for EBOV RNA detection in semen informs the care of male survivors of Ebola, as well as recommendations for public health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Impact of collection method on assessment of semen HIV RNA viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J W Osborne

    Full Text Available The blood HIV RNA viral load is the best-defined predictor of HIV transmission, in part due to ease of measurement and the correlation of blood and genital tract (semen or cervico-vaginal viral load, although recent studies found semen HIV RNA concentration to be a stronger predictor of HIV transmission. There is currently no standardized method for semen collection when measuring HIV RNA concentration. Therefore, we compared two collection techniques in order to study of the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the semen viral load.Semen was collected by masturbation from HIV-infected, therapy-naïve men who have sex with men (MSM either undiluted (Visit 1 or directly into transport medium (Visit 2. Seminal plasma was then isolated, and the HIV RNA concentration obtained with each collection technique was measured and corrected for dilution if necessary. Collection of semen directly into transport medium resulted in a median HIV RNA viral load that was 0.4 log10 higher than undiluted samples.The method of semen collection is an important consideration when quantifying the HIV RNA viral load in this compartment.

  2. Determination of Sperm Sex Ratio in Bovine Semen Using Multiplex Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisadee Khamlor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender selection is important in livestock industries; for example, female calves are required in the dairy industry. Sex-sorted semen is commonly used for the production of calves of the desired gender. However, assessment of the sex ratio of the sorted semen is tedious and expensive. In this study, a rapid, cost effective and reliable method for determining the sex ratio was developed using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In this assay, the X and Y chromosome-specific markers, i.e., bovine proteolipid protein (PLP gene and sex-determining region Y (SRY were simultaneously quantified in a single tube. The multiplex real-time PCR assay was shown to have high amplification efficiencies (97% to 99% comparable to the separated-tube simplex real-time PCR assay. The results obtained from both assays were not significantly different (p>0.05. The multiplex assay was validated using reference DNA of known X ratio (10%, 50%, and 90% as templates. The measured %X in semen samples were the same within 95% confidence intervals as the expected values, i.e., >90% in X-sorted semen, <10% in Y-sorted semen and close to 50% in the unsorted semen. The multiplex real-time PCR assay as shown in this study can thus be used to assess purity of sex-sorted semen.

  3. NEW HUMAN SEMEN ANALYSIS SYSTEM (CASA USING MICROSCOPIC IMAGE PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N M Chaudhari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Computer assisted semen analysis (CASA helps the pathologist or fertility specialist to evaluate the human semen. Detail analysis of spermatozoa like morphology and motility is very important in the process of intrauterine insemination (IUI or In-vitro fertilization (IVF in infertile couple. The main objective for this new semen analysis is to provide a low cost solution to the pathologist and gynecologist for the routine raw semen analysis, finding the concentration of the semen with dynamic background removal and classify the spermatozoa type (grade according to the motility and structural abnormality as per the WHO criteria. In this paper a new system , computer assisted semen analysis system is proposed in which hybrid approach is used to identify the moving object, scan line algorithm is applied for confirmation of the objects having tails, so that we can count the actual number of spermatozoa. For removal of background initially the dynamic background generation algorithm is proposed to create a background for background subtraction stage. The standard data set is created with 40× and 100× magnification from the different raw semen s. For testing the efficiency of proposed algorithm, same frames are applied to the existing algorithm. Another module of the system is focused on finding the motility and Type classification of individual spermatozoa.

  4. Semen parameters and level of microsatellite heterozygosity in Noriker draught horse stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurich, Christine; Achmann, Roland; Aurich, Jörg E

    2003-07-01

    It was the aim of the present study to determine physiological values for different semen parameters in an endangered draught horse breed, the Austrian Noriker. Because small population size is often believed to cause a decrease in fertility and/or semen quality through inbreeding and a reduction in genetic variation, the general genomic heterogeneity of the breed was estimated on the basis of microsatellite variation and correlated to semen parameters. Semen could be collected from 104 of 139 stallions with semen collection being more often successful in younger stallions. Mean volume of ejaculates was 90.8+/-55.1 ml, density 243+/-114 x 10(6)ml(-1), total sperm count 21.0+/-23.7 x 10(9), percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa 38+/-18% and total motility 50+/-23%. Total sperm count and semen motility were significantly affected by age. Blood samples of 134 stallions were analysed for 12 microsatellite DNA markers. Genotypes of 110 stallions with at least 11 successfully typed markers were used for calculation of heterozygosity. A total of 82 alleles was identified with a mean of 6.8 alleles per marker. Heterozygosity varied between 35 and 76% for the different markers, mean heterozygosity was calculated to 63%. No correlation between heterozygosity and semen parameters was found.

  5. Detection of Zika virus RNA in semen of asymptomatic blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, D; Richard, V; Teissier, A; Stone, M; Lanteri, M C; Latoni, G; Alsina, J; Reik, R; Busch, M P

    2017-12-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission through semen donation has never been reported but the risk is supported by the detection of ZIKV in semen and the demonstration of ZIKV sexual transmission. The potential impact of ZIKV on assisted reproductive procedures should be evaluated. We tested longitudinally collected semen samples provided by asymptomatic blood donors who tested positive for ZIKV RNA in plasma during ZIKV outbreaks in Puerto Rico and Florida in 2016. Five of the 14 (35.7%) asymptomatic blood donors provided semen samples that tested positive for ZIKV RNA, with ZIKV RNA loads ranging from 8.03 × 10 3 to 2.55 × 10 6 copies/mL. Plasma collected at the same time as the semen tested negative for ZIKV RNA for most ZIKV RNA-positive semen collections; all corresponding plasma samples tested positive or equivocal for anti-ZIKV IgG antibodies and all except one tested positive for ZIKV IgM antibodies. The rate of detection of ZIKV RNA in semen in asymptomatic donors is not significantly different from the rate previously reported for symptomatic patients. Our results that show a high percentage of detection of ZIKV RNA in the semen of asymptomatic men confirm that ZIKV is a new threat for reproductive medicine and should have important implications for assisted reproductive technology. We recommend that semen donations from men at risk for ZIKV infection should be tested for ZIKV RNA, regardless of symptoms of ZIKV infection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Cryopreserving turkey semen in straws and nitrogen vapour using DMSO or DMA: effects of cryoprotectant concentration, freezing rate and thawing rate on post-thaw semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaffaldano, N; Di Iorio, M; Miranda, M; Zaniboni, L; Manchisi, A; Cerolini, S

    2016-04-01

    1. This study was designed to identify a suitable protocol for freezing turkey semen in straws exposed to nitrogen vapour by examining the effects of dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as cryoprotectant (CPA), CPA concentration, freezing rate and thawing rate on in vitro post-thaw semen quality. 2. Pooled semen samples were diluted 1:1 (v:v) with a freezing extender composed of Tselutin diluent containing DMA or DMSO to give final concentrations of 8% or 18% DMA and 4% or 10% DMSO. The semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and frozen at different heights above the liquid nitrogen (LN2) surface (1, 5 and 10 cm) for 10 min. Semen samples were thawed at 4°C for 5 min or at 50°C for 10 s. After thawing, sperm motility, viability and osmotic tolerance were determined. 3. Cryosurvival of turkey sperm was affected by DMSO concentration. Freezing rate affected the motility of sperm cryopreserved using both CPAs, while thawing rates showed an effect on the motility of sperm cryopreserved using DMA and on the viability of sperm cryopreserved using DMSO. Significant interactions between freezing rate × thawing rate on sperm viability in the DMA protocol were found. 4. The most effective freezing protocol was the use of 18% DMA or 10% DMSO with freezing 10 cm above the LN2 surface and a thawing temperature of 50°C. An efficient protocol for turkey semen would improve prospects for sperm cryobanks and the commercial use of frozen turkey semen.

  7. Evidence of Ebola Virus Replication and High Concentration in Semen of a Patient During Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kayla G; Kindrachuk, Jason; Lin, Aaron E; Wohl, Shirlee; Qu, James; Tostenson, Samantha D; Dorman, William R; Busby, Michele; Siddle, Katherine J; Luo, Cynthia Y; Matranga, Christian B; Davey, Richard T; Sabeti, Pardis C; Chertow, Daniel S

    2017-10-15

    In one patient over time, we found that concentration of Ebola virus RNA in semen during recovery is remarkably higher than blood at peak illness. Virus in semen is replication-competent with no change in viral genome over time. Presence of sense RNA suggests replication in cells present in semen. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of young post-pubertal dairy bulls alters the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and spermatozoa but has no effect on semen volume or sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, C J; Fair, S; English, A M; Holden, S A; Dick, J R; Lonergan, P; Kenny, D A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dietary supplementation with rumen protected n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the quantity and quality of semen from young post-pubertal dairy bulls. Pubertal Holstein-Friesian (n = 43) and Jersey (n = 7) bulls with a mean ± s.e.m. age and bodyweight of 420.1 ± 5.86 days and 382 ± 8.94 kg, respectively, were blocked on breed, weight, age and semen quality (based on the outcomes of two pre-trial ejaculates) and randomly assigned to one of three treatments: (i) a non-supplemented control (CTL, n = 15), (ii) rumen-protected safflower (SO, n = 15), (iii) rumen-protected n-3 PUFA-enriched fish oil (FO, n = 20). Bulls were fed their respective diets, ad libitum for 12 weeks; individual intakes were recorded using an electronic feeding system for the initial 6 weeks of the feeding period. Semen was collected via electro-ejaculation at weeks -2, -1, 0, 7, 10, 11 and 12 relative to the beginning of the trial period (week 0). On collection, semen volume, sperm concentration and progressive linear motility (PLM) were assessed. On weeks -2, -1, 0, 10, 11, 12, semen was packaged into 0.25 mL straws and frozen using a programmable freezer. On weeks -1, 7 and 11; a sub-sample of semen was separated into sperm and seminal plasma, by centrifugation and stored at - 20 °C until analysis of lipid composition. Semen from 10 bulls per treatment were used for post-thaw analysis at weeks 10, 11 and 12 (3 straws per ejaculate). Sperm motility was analysed by computer assisted semen analysis (CASA). In addition, membrane fluidity, acrosome reaction and oxidative stress were assessed using flow cytometry. Sperm from bulls fed SO had a 1.2 fold higher total n-6 PUFA content at week 11 compared to week -1 (P semen volume, concentration or PLM of sperm when assessed either immediately following collection or post-thawing. Membrane fluidity and oxidative stress of sperm were also not affected by

  9. Training for Preservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam M. Foot

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 1997 the first of a series of summer schools in Preservation Management was held at the Archivschule in Marburg (Germany. The school was organised by the ECPA, the LIBER Division on Preservation, ICA and the Archivschule itself and was aimed at archivists and librarians in management positions from European institutions. It dealt with managerial, organisational and financial aspects of preservation and required active participation by those attending. Apart from introductory sessions by the teaching staff at the Archivschule, a large part of the course took the form of working groups, discussions, assignments and role play, to which participants were expected to take their own experience and problems. The school was conducted in German. Topics, spread over five days, ranged from preservation in the context of the core activities of libraries and archives; planning of preservation projects; general management issues, such as resource management, budgeting, priority setting, communication and effecting change; to more detailed considerations of day-to-day issues, such as storage, disaster control, microfilming and digitising, mass conservation processes, and moulds and fungi.

  10. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm...... data have become available, and several issues in this field are still controversial and should be addressed by both patients and their treating physicians.In April 2015, physicians with expertise in the field of fertility preservation in cancer patients from several European countries were invited...

  11. Optimization of preservation activities and preservation engineering (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Mimaki, Hidehito; Oda, Mitsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    In order to deal with the optimization of preservation activities and 'preservation engineering' which makes it possible, the viewpoint and the approach of the optimization of the ex post facto preservation and the content to be possessed in 'preservation engineering' are described. The optimization of the ex post facto preservation is shown respectively in the four stages of planning, implementation, result evaluation and countermeasure. (K. Kato)

  12. Advanced Digital Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Giaretta, David

    2011-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to address the fragility of digital information, on which our society heavily depends for smooth operation in all aspects of daily life. This has been discussed in many books and articles on digital preservation, so why is there a need for yet one more? Because, for the most part, those other publications focus on documents, images and webpages -- objects that are normally rendered to be simply displayed by software to a human viewer. Yet there are clearly many more types of digital objects that may need to be preserved, such as databases, scientific da

  13. Semen quality: variations among fathers and effects of moderate alcohol drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor G Cooper

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Semen analysis results from over 750 fathers in the USA demonstrated marked differences in the quality of semen from men at different locations and of different ethnic groups. Another paper failed to demonstrate any effects of moderate alcohol consumption during the week before provision of an ejaculate on semen quality and few on serum hormones, of over 8300 men in Europe and the USA. While these observations are interesting, the reasons for regional and ethnic differences in semen quality of fathers are unclear. Although, there was no attempt to confirm the participant-provided level of alcohol consumption, an increase in serum testosterone in the men at the higher end of alcohol intake is compatible with an alcohol effect on liver metabolism, although whether alcohol intake was the cause of higher testosterone, or men with higher androgen levels consume more alcohol, is not known.

  14. Effect of smoking on reproductive hormones and semen parameters of infertile Saudi Arabians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa A Al-Turki

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This study shows that the effect of smoking is dramatic reduction in the hormonal levels and semen parameters. It is recommended that smoking men undergoing fertility treatment should stop smoking to increase their chances of having offspring.

  15. Effect of Semen on Vaginal Fluid Cytokines and Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Agnew

    2008-01-01

    Methods: 138 pregnant women had vaginal fluid collected for Gram stain, acid phosphatase detection by colorimetric assay, and interleukin 1-Beta, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor measurement by enzyme immunoassay. Results for women with and without acid phosphatase were compared by Mann-Whitney test. Results: of 138 subjects, 28 (20% had acid phosphatase detected; of these, only 19 (68% reported recent intercourse and 3 (11% had sperm seen on Gram stain. There were no significant differences in proinflammatory cytokine concentrations; however, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor concentrations were significantly higher among women with acid phosphatase. Conclusions: proinflammatory cytokine measurement does not appear to be affected by the presence of semen, but secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is significantly higher when semen is present. Detection of semen by acid phosphatase was associated with higher vaginal SLPI concentrations, however, the presence of semen did not appear to influence vaginal proinflammatory cytokine concentrations.

  16. Comparison of semen parameters in samples collected by masturbation at a clinic and at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzanaty, Saad; Malm, Johan

    2008-06-01

    To investigate differences in semen quality between samples collected by masturbation at a clinic and at home. Cross-sectional study. Fertility center. Three hundred seventy-nine men assessed for infertility. None. Semen was analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines. Seminal markers of epididymal (neutral alpha-glucosidase), prostatic (prostate-specific antigen and zinc), and seminal vesicle (fructose) function were measured. Two patient groups were defined according to sample collection location: at a clinic (n = 273) or at home (n = 106). Compared with clinic-collected semen, home-collected samples had statistically significantly higher values for sperm concentration, total sperm count, rapid progressive motility, and total count of progressive motility. Semen volume, proportion of normal sperm morphology, neutral alpha-glucosidase, prostate-specific antigen, zinc, and fructose did not differ significantly between groups. An abnormal sperm concentration (masturbation at home compared with at a clinic. This should be taken into consideration in infertility investigations.

  17. Gold in semen: Level in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.P. Skandhan

    2016-07-01

    Jul 1, 2016 ... Gold level in sediment (spermatozoa) of normal was almost same as observed in its seminal plasma ... showed, gold was not detected in semen by Direct Couple ... Diffraction Analysis, revealed presence of gold throughout.

  18. Serum concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone is not associated with semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L; Olesen, I A; Carlsen, E

    2018-01-01

    Impaired semen quality is frequent in Western countries and is the main reason or contributing reason in up to 50% of cases of couple infertility. Male factor infertility is mainly determined by examination of semen samples according to the World Health Organization's 2010 guidelines. AMH has both...... autocrine and paracrine properties through a direct effect via the AMH type II receptor and is therefore thought to be involved in spermatogenesis. We aimed to study the association between the serum concentration of AMH and semen quality in a cross-sectional study including 970 young Danish men from...... the general population. All participants provided a semen sample, had a blood sample drawn, underwent a physical examination, and answered a questionnaire including information on lifestyle and medical history. Serum concentrations of reproductive hormones [AMH, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle...

  19. Is maternal obesity related to semen quality in the male offspring? A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Thulstrup, A M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a strong predictor of fecundity and maternal obesity may well program semen quality during pregnancy, but to our knowledge, no published studies have evaluated this hypothesis. METHODS: From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-87, 347 out of 5109 sons were selected...... for a follow-up study conducted from February 2005 to January 2006. Semen and blood samples were analyzed for conventional semen characteristics and reproductive hormones and related to information on maternal pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) that was available for 328 men. Of these, 34 were sons...... of underweight, and 25 sons of overweight, mothers. RESULTS: Inhibin B decreased with increasing maternal BMI (P = 0.04) and the point estimates for sperm concentration, semen volume, percent motile sperm, testosterone and FSH suggested an impaired reproductive status among sons of overweight mothers, but none...

  20. Is semen a useful diagnostic tool for rare infections of the central nervous system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Ruqaiyyah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Given that the blood-testis barrier is more permeable than the blood–brain barrier, the use of semen to detect rare parasitic antigens/infections of the CNS in males is hypothesized.

  1. Metabolic activity of boar semen stored in different extenders supplemented with ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Dziekońska Anna; Kinder Marek; Fraser Leyland; Strzeżek Jerzy; Kordan Władysław

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipoprotein fraction isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo) on the metabolic activity of boar spermatozoa following liquid semen storage in different extenders and temperatures.

  2. Metabolic activity of boar semen stored in different extenders supplemented with ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziekońska Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipoprotein fraction isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo on the metabolic activity of boar spermatozoa following liquid semen storage in different extenders and temperatures.

  3. Low semen quality and experiences of masculinity and family building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvest, Randi; Fürbringer, Jeanette Krogh; Pinborg, Anja

    2018-01-01

    analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Three themes were identified: 'Threatened masculinity', 'Being the strong one: impact on the couple' and 'Consideration of family building options: a chapter not willing to start'. The men felt that they could not fulfill their role as a man. Some......INTRODUCTION: Infertility is a concern for men and women.There is limited knowledge on how male factor infertility affects the couple in fertility treatment. The aim of this study was to explore how severe male factor infertility affects men's sense of masculinity, the couple's relationship...... and intentions about family formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interview study at the Fertility Clinic at Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark. Ten men with very poor semen quality initiating fertility treatment were interviewed between November 2014 and May 2015. Data were...

  4. Serum lipid profiles are associated with semen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to explore the associations between different lipid profiles and semen quality in a large-scale general male population. Sperm concentration, total sperm motility, progressive motility, and normal sperm morphology of total 7601 participants were recorded. The association of these semen parameters with the triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein of serum lipid profiles was analyzed. Sperm concentration was statistically positively correlated with triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein (adjusted P = 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively. Total sperm motility and progressive motility were statistically increased with increasing low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels (both adjusted P = 0.008 and P < 0.001, respectively. The similar J-shaped associations (high-low-low-high were noted between individual lipid profile and normal sperm morphology, especially low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol with statistical significance (adjusted P = 0.017 and P = 0.021, respectively. The prevalence of abnormal total sperm motility and progressive motility was decreased in participants with high levels of cholesterol (P = 0.008 and P = 0.019, respectively, and the reverse J-shaped associations (low-high-high-low were noted between high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein, and the prevalence of abnormal normal sperm morphology (P = 0.010, P = 0.037, and P = 0.025, respectively. A high cholesterol level was associated with better sperm motility. Similar J-shaped associations were noted between all lipid profiles and normal sperm morphology; meanwhile, the reverse J-shaped trends were identified between them and abnormal normal sperm morphology prevalence.

  5. Evaluation of ebselen supplementation on cryopreservation medium in human semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari Naeini, Zohreh; Hassani Bafrani, Hassan; Nikzad, Hossein

    2014-04-01

    An effect of cryopreservation on human sperm is sublethal cryodamage, in which cell viability post-thaw is lost more rapidly at later times than in fresh cells. This study examined whether the addition of an antioxidant to cryopreservation medium could improve the post-thaw parameters and evaluation of sperm chromatin quality of cryopreserved human spermatozoa from men with normal semen parameters. Semen samples (n=35) were collected by masturbation and assessed following WHO standards. Individual samples were classified as two portions. One portion (n=10) was for elucidate the concentration of ebselen.Then the samples(n=25) were divided in to 5groups.The first aliquot remained fresh.The second aliquots was mixed with cryopreservation medium.The third aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing solvent of ebselen.The forth and fifth aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing 1.25 and 2.5 µm of ebselen.Samples were frozen and thawed samples were assessed for sperm parameters.Three-way ANOVA Multivariate measures were used to assess. According to this assesment the differences are observed in existent groups in post-thaw count, motility index, vitality staining, and morphology and DNA fragmentation. After freezing the media containing of ebselen, DNA fragmentation is significantly different in comparison with control group. ebselen with 1.25 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.047). Similarly ebselen with 2.5 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.038). But other parameters were not altered. These results suggest that the addition of ebselen to cryopreservation medium doesnot improve post-thaw parameters and DNA fragmentation of sperm.

  6. Semen quality in papaya workers with long term exposure to ethylene dibromide.

    OpenAIRE

    Ratcliffe, J M; Schrader, S M; Steenland, K; Clapp, D E; Turner, T; Hornung, R W

    1987-01-01

    To examine whether long term occupational exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) affects semen quality a cross sectional study of semen quality was conducted among 46 men employed in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii, with an average duration of exposure of five years and a geometric mean breathing zone exposure to airborne EDB of 88 ppb (eight hour time weighted average) and peak exposures of up to 262 ppb. The comparison group consisted of 43 unexposed men from a nearby sugar refinery....

  7. Immature germ cells in semen ? correlation with total sperm count and sperm motility

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Priya S.; Humbarwadi, Rajendra S.; Patil, Ashalata D.; Gune, Anita R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Current data regarding infertility suggests that male factor contributes up to 30% of the total cases of infertility. Semen analysis reveals the presence of spermatozoa as well as a number of non-sperm cells, presently being mentioned in routine semen report as "round cells" without further differentiating them into leucocytes or immature germ cells. Aim: The aim of this work was to study a simple, cost-effective, and convenient method for differentiating the round cells in se...

  8. Immature germ cells in semen - correlation with total sperm count and sperm motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya S Patil

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Round cells in semen can be differentiated into immature germ cells and leucocytes using simple staining methods. The differential counts mentioned in a semen report give valuable and clinically relevant information. In this study, we observed a negative correlation between total count and immature germ cells, as well as sperm motility and shedding of immature germ cells. The latter was statistically significant with a P value 0.000.

  9. Semen evaluation and fertility assessment in a purebred dog breeding facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, Andrea; Darr, Christa; Gonzales, Kris; Power, Heather; Scanlan, Tawny; Thompson, James; Love, Charles; Christensen, Bruce; Meyers, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Semen quality in dogs has not been assessed in a longitudinal study that includes endpoints of female fertility and pregnancy. Although use of artificial insemination with chilled semen is increasingly used in canine reproduction, the resultant level of predictability and odds of fertile matings for dogs is still not fully understood. This research provides, for the first time, comprehensive semen evaluation in a large population of dogs in which fertility has been tracked. Duplicate ejaculates were obtained from 39 Labrador retriever males of the Guide Dogs for the Blind (San Rafael, CA, USA) breeding program. Sperm endpoints were determined in fresh semen and extended chilled semen at 48 hour after collection. Evaluation included total and progressive motility, average path velocity, morphology, membrane lipid peroxidation, presence of sperm reactive oxygen species, sperm chromatin structure, and mitochondrial DNA copy number. Male age ranged from 1 to 10 years and were grouped as young (Y; 1-3 years, n = 21), middle aged (M; 4-6 years, n = 13), and senior (S; 7 years or greater, n = 5) for analysis. The effects of age and sperm state (fresh vs. chilled) on the above sperm endpoints were determined using a linear mixed effects model. Semen endpoint values for all parameters were established for this group of fertile males. Progressive motility was only lower in the senior male chilled samples compared to all other groups, fresh and chilled (P semen quality on fertility or fecundity regardless of age, despite the differences found in semen quality. The use of advanced laboratory tests to evaluate sperm parameters beyond the standard motility, morphology, and concentration will open investigation to more specific and sensitive fertility tests in canine reproduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Association Between Testis Cancer and Semen Abnormalities Before Orchiectomy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaladat, Hooman; Burner, Elizabeth; Parikh, Pooja M; Beroukhim Kay, Dorsa; Hays, Krystal

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common solid organ malignancy in young men. It is a largely curable disease, so the extent to which it affects quality of life-including male fertility-is important. Abnormal semen analysis is highly predictive of male infertility. We conducted a systematic review of published studies that reported pre-orchiectomy semen parameters (as a surrogate for fertility) in TGCT patients to evaluate the association between TGCT and semen abnormalities before orchiectomy. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications reporting semen parameters before orchiectomy in adult patients diagnosed with TGCT. Further, we assessed the association between TGCT and semen abnormalities that may lead to infertility. Results: We applied MeSH search terms to four online databases (PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, Web of Science, and Ovid), resulting in 701 potentially relevant citations. After conducting a three-stage screening process, six articles were included in the systematic review. For each study, the participants' data and the study's quality and risk of bias were assessed and described. All studies showed semen abnormalities-including count, motility, and morphology-in men with TGCT prior to orchiectomy. Conclusions: TGCT is associated with semen abnormalities before orchiectomy. This review shows an increase in abnormal semen parameters among men with TGCT even outside the treatment effects of orchiectomy, radiation, or chemotherapy. To improve long-term quality of life, these findings should be considered when counseling patients on future fertility and sperm banking during discussions about treatment and prognosis for TGCT.

  11. Characteristics of seminal plasma and cryopreservation of anoa (Bubalus sp. semen obtained by electroejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of anoa, which is an endemic fauna to Indonesia, was getting decrease caused by the illegal hunting and deforestation. Anoa is included in endangered species by IUCN, and Appendix I by CITES. The experiment aimed to characterize the seminal plasma contents and to cryopreserve the anoa semen for artificial insemination application in captivity. The experiment was carried out in Taman Safari Indonesia (Bogor. Semen was collected from 2 anesthetized males (4-10 years by electroejaculation. Seminal plasma gained by centrifugation of ejaculate (3000 rpm, 20 minutes, and then was evaluated the biochemical contents. Other ejaculates were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically, and then extended in Tris and Na-citrate media to a total concentration of 100 billion cells mL-1. Extended semen was stored at 4oC, and evaluated the motility and viability every 12 h. Frozen semen was made in Tris medium added with 5% of glycerol. The seminal plasma of anoa contained total lipid, Na, Ca and Mg higher than the buffalo, but its total protein, K and Cl were lower. Electrophoresis of seminal plasma using by SDS-PAGE method showed 10 bands of proteins (17-148 kDa. The motility and viability of chilled-extended semen in Tris and Na-citrate media were not significantly different (P > 0.05 during 72 h of evaluation. Extended semen in both of media may applicable for AI program for 24-48 h. Post thawing motility of frozen semen was still low, 26.00 ± 9.62%. Therefore, it is necessary to improve each stages of semen processing, so the motility will increased and resulted high pregnancy in AI program.

  12. Uncertainty associated with assessing semen volume: are volumetric and gravimetric methods that different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Bryan; Gossen, Nicole; Meadows, Jessica; Tomlinson, Mathew

    2016-12-01

    The World Health Organization laboratory manual for the examination of human semen suggests that an indirect measurement of semen volume by weighing (gravimetric method) is more accurate than a direct measure using a serological pipette. A series of experiments were performed to determine the level of discrepancy between the two methods using pipettes and a balance which had been calibrated to a traceable standard. The median weights of 1.0ml and 5.0ml of semen were 1.03 g (range 1.02-1.05 g) and 5.11 g (range 4.95-5.16 g), respectively, suggesting a density for semen between 1.03g and 1.04 g/ml. When the containers were re-weighed after the removal of 5.0 ml semen using a serological pipette, the mean residual loss was 0.12 ml (120 μl) or 0.12 g (median 100 μl, range 70-300 μl). Direct comparison of the volumetric and gravimetric methods in a total of 40 samples showed a mean difference of 0.25ml (median 0.32 ± 0.67ml) representing an error of 8.5%. Residual semen left in the container by weight was on average 0.11 g (median 0.10 g, range 0.05-0.19 g). Assuming a density of 1 g/ml then the average error between volumetric and gravimetric methods was approximately 8% (p gravimetric measurement of semen volume. Laboratories may therefore prefer to provide in-house quality assurance data in order to be satisfied that 'estimating' semen volume is 'fit for purpose' as opposed to assuming a lower uncertainty associated with the WHO recommended method.

  13. Usefulness of an injectable anaesthetic protocol for semen collection through urethral catheterisation in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, Maria Carmela; Ponzio, Patrizia; Rovella, Chiara; Baravalle, Michela; Veronesi, Maria Cristina

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Although less often requested in comparison with dogs, the collection of semen in cats can be necessary for artificial insemination, for semen evaluation in tom cats used for breeding and for semen storage. Urethral catheterisation after pharmacological induction with medetomidine has proved to be useful for the collection of semen in domestic cats. However, most of the previously used protocols require the administration of high doses of medetomidine that can increase the risk of side effects, especially on the cardiovascular system. In routine clinical practice, one safe and useful injectable anaesthetic protocol for short-term clinical investigations or surgery in cats involves premedication with low intramuscular doses of dexmedetomidine with methadone, followed by intravenous propofol bolus injection. We aimed to assess the usefulness of this injectable anaesthetic protocol for semen collection, via urethral catheterisation, in domestic cats. Methods The study was performed on 38 purebred, adult cats, during the breeding season, and semen was collected via urethral catheterisation using an injectable anaesthesia protocol with methadone (0.2 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (5 µg/kg) premedication, followed by induction with propofol. Results The anaesthetic protocol used in the present study allowed the collection of large-volume semen samples, characterised by good parameters and without side effects. Conclusions and relevance The results from the present study suggest that the injectable anaesthetic protocol using methadone and dexmedetomidine premedication, followed by induction with propofol, could be suitable and safe for the collection of a good-quality semen sample, via urethral catheterisation, in domestic cats. It can therefore be used as an alternative to previous medetomidine-based sedation protocols.

  14. Physical characteristics and fertility of fractionated donkey semen cooled at 5°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different extenders (Skimmed Milk Glucose - SMG or Lactose - Egg Yolk - LEY on physical characteristics and fertility of fractionated donkey semen cooled at 5°C. For this, four Pêga donkeys were used as semen donors. The sperm rich fraction of the ejaculate was diluted preparing insemination doses containing 400 x 106 motile spermatozoa in a volume of 22 mL, cooled to 5°C and stored up to 48 hours in a container proposed by Palhares (1997. Sperm motility and vigor were assessed in fresh semen, after first semen dilution, before insemination, at 24 and 48 hours after storage. For the fertility evaluation, 44 mares were inseminated with semen stored for a period between 12 and 24 hours. The mares were inseminated on fixed days (Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays after the detection of a follicle greater than a 30mm diameter in one of the ovaries through ovulation. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on day 12 post-ovulation, using transrectal ultrasonography. Semen diluted in SMG showed superior sperm motility than LEY, at the Pre-AI evaluation (P<0.05. At 48 hours of storage, all donkeys had motility values between 45 and 53% for semen diluted in SMG, while only one donkey showed motility greater than 30% in the LEY treatment. The pregnancy rate/cycle for mares inseminated with semen diluted in SMG was superior than that obtained using LEY (56.52% vs 4.76%, respectively.

  15. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of atypical porcine pestivirus in semen from commercial boar studs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, I R H; Arruda, P H; Visek, C A; Victoria, J G; Patterson, A R; Krull, A C; Schwartz, K J; de Oliveira, L G; Arruda, B L

    2018-04-01

    Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has recently been identified as a cause of congenital tremor (CT) in pigs and has been detected in semen and preputial swabs from boars that were known to be clinically affected with CT. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to 1) detect the presence of APPV in semen, preputial fluids and preputial swabs from adult boars by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and 2) genetically characterize a subset of positive samples to better understand the ecology of APPV in commercial boar studs and the potential risk of transmission of APPV via semen. A total of 597 samples of semen, preputial fluid and preputial swabs each representing a different boar were obtained from four commercial boar studs located in three different states in the United States. Viral RNA was detected by qRT-PCR in 90 samples (15.08%; 90/597), with the greatest per cent positive from preputial swabs (23.81%; 5/21) followed by preputial fluid (22.81%; 26/114) and semen (12.91%; 59/457). The mean cycle quantification (Cq) between sample types was similar while eleven semen samples had Cq values lower than 27.0 corresponding to approximately 2 × 10 6  copies/ml. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the Npro gene, different viral strains can be on the same farm at the same and different times. This is the first report of detection of APPV in semen from commercial boar studs. Studies investigating the role of semen in the transmission of APPV and production of CT are needed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Integral-preserving integrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D I; Quispel, G R W

    2004-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations having a first integral may be solved numerically using one of several methods, with the integral preserved to machine accuracy. One such method is the discrete gradient method. It is shown here that the order of the method can be bootstrapped repeatedly to higher orders of accuracy. The method is illustrated using the Henon-Heiles system. (letter to the editor)

  18. Foodstuffs preservation by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains all the papers presented at the meeting on foodstuffs preservation by ionization. These papers deal especially with the food ionization process, its development and the view of the food industry on ionization. Refs and figs (F.M.)

  19. Preserving food with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.C

    1978-01-01

    Food irradiation is becoming an increasingly more important method of food preservataion. The irradiation process and its advangages are briefly described, and its use in the preservation of poultry and various kinds of fruits is discussed. Fruit export is hampered by restrictions due to infestation. Radiation disinfestation will therefore be of great advantage and may lead to a growth in export markets

  20. Preserve America News

    Science.gov (United States)

    phone number. Whether or not you're able to let us know ahead of time, however, we hope you can join us Amache Preservation Society in Colorado and the Friends of Mount Hope Cemetery in New York. This brings Places: Breathing New Life into Our Communities." Read about this informative session. National

  1. POLARISATION PRESERVING OPTICAL FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    . This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  2. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  3. Preservation in New Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kitching

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom (as in many other countries increasing attention is being paid to the importance of each library and archive having a written preservation strategy endorsed by its governing body. So increasingly we are asking: where does „preservation“ begin and what are its top priorities? Some would say preservation begins with the definition of collecting policies to ensure that only relevant items are acquired in the first place, and therefore that no unnecessary costs are incurred on the long-term care of unwanted and unconsulted items. Others might argue that the first priority must be the careful appraisal of existing holdings to determine their preservation and conservation requirements and to prioritise their treatment. Or should preservation begin with damage-limitation: restricting the physical handling of books and documents, on the one hand by providing whenever possible surrogate copies in digital formats or microform, and on the other hand by offering at least basic protection through appropriate boxing and packaging? This, surely, goes hand-in-hand with the education of staff and readers about the importance of treating rare or unique materials with proper respect.

  4. Preserving the Seminar Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, David; Evans, Jocelyn; Levy, Meyer

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a new approach to online graduate education. With hopes of recruiting a larger cohort in order to preserve a graduate program struggling with low enrollment, we began offering a limited number of seats to students who would attend class in real time but from remote locations, using a videoconferencing platform. Unlike…

  5. Freezability and semen parameters in candidates of sperm bank donors: 1992-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev, Leah; Paz, Gedalia; Kleiman, Sandra E; Shabtai, Esther; Gamzu, Ronni; Botchan, Amnon; Lehavi, Ofer; Yavetz, Haim; Hauser, Ron

    2012-01-01

    There has been considerable concern worldwide about possible semen quality deterioration over the last 2 decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate freezability and semen quality of healthy young males during the years 1992-2010. A total of 1211 young (20-32 years old) candidates for sperm bank donation were recruited into the study with no exclusion criteria. They were instructed to observe 2 to 3 days of abstinence from sexual activity, and most of them supplied 2 specimens each. Average values of the various semen parameters, including freezing survival, were calculated for each participant. The change in different semen parameters over years, according to yearly and monthly average temperatures, was evaluated by SAS PROC SURVEYREG analysis. During that period, there were significant increases in motility and vitality percentages, as well as in the percentage of thawed sperm motility. The parameters of volume, concentration, normal morphology, total count, and total motile count showed a significant decrease with years (P average yearly temperature (P average monthly temperature contributed significantly to the trend of semen quality parameters (ie, specimen volume, concentration, percentage of normal morphology, and thawed motility). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the occurrence of an improvement in percent thawed motility over the years, and its significance lies in enabling a higher proportion of sperm bank candidates to be suitable for donation. It is suggested that the global warming phenomenon might have only partial contribution to semen variable changes over the years.

  6. Physical activity is not related to semen quality in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Gaskins, Audrey J; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2014-10-01

    To study the relationship of physical activity with semen quality among healthy young men from Spain. Cross-sectional study. University and college campuses of Murcia Region, Spain. Healthy young men with untested fertility (n = 215). A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a questionnaire. Semen quality parameters. Physical activity was not related to semen quality parameters. The adjusted percentage differences (95% confidence interval) in semen parameters comparing men in the top quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (≥9.5 h/wk) with men in the bottom quartile (≤3 h/wk) were 4.3% (-30.2%, 38.9%) for total sperm count, 7.2% (-30.6%, 45.1%) for sperm concentration, -2.42% (-6.53%, 1.69%) for sperm motility, and 12.6% (-12.0%, 37.2%) for sperm morphology. In contrast to previous research among athletes, these data suggest that physical activity is not deleterious to testicular function, as captured by semen quality parameters in this population of healthy young men in Spain. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii transmission by artificial insemination in sheep with experimentally contaminated frozen semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consalter, Angélica; Silva, Andressa F; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; Matos, Luis F; de Oliveira, Francisco C R; Leite, Juliana S; Silva, Franciele B F; Ferreira, Ana M R

    2017-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite considered one of the major causes of reproductive problems in sheep. Furthermore, the presence of the agent in ram semen urges the possibility of sexual transmission in this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate if ram's frozen semen spiked with T. gondii tachyzoites would be able to cause infection in sheep by laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI). Nine ewes tested seronegative to anti-T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) were superovulated and inseminated to collect embryos. Animals were divided into two groups: G1 (n = 5), ewes inseminated with semen containing 4 × 10 7 tachyzoites; and G2 (n = 4), ewes inseminated with tachyzoite-free semen (control group). To confirm infection, ewe's blood samples were collected on days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49 and 57 after AI for analysis by MAT and PCR. Tissue samples of these ewes were also collected for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven days after AI, all ewes of group G1 had specific antibodies to T. gondii, while those of G2 were negative. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the blood of one ewe and parasites were observed in tissues of all five animals inseminated with contaminated semen, indicating that semen freezing protocol does not affect T. gondii transmission by artificial insemination in sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HIV enhancing activity of semen impairs the antiviral efficacy of microbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirafi, Onofrio; Kim, Kyeong-Ae; Roan, Nadia R.; Kluge, Silvia F.; Müller, Janis A.; Jiang, Shibo; Mayer, Benjamin; Greene, Warner C.; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Topically applied microbicides potently inhibit HIV in vitro but have largely failed to exert protective effects in clinical trials. One possible reason for this discrepancy is that the preclinical testing of microbicides does not faithfully reflect the conditions of HIV sexual transmission. Here, we report that candidate microbicides that target HIV components show greatly reduced antiviral efficacy in the presence of semen, the main vector for HIV transmission. This diminished antiviral activity was dependent on the ability of amyloid fibrils in semen to enhance the infectivity of HIV. Thus, the anti-HIV efficacy of microbicides determined in the absence of semen greatly underestimated the drug concentrations needed to block semen-exposed virus. One notable exception was Maraviroc. This HIV entry inhibitor targets the host cell CCR5 coreceptor and was highly active against both untreated and semen-exposed HIV. These data help explain why microbicides have failed to protect against HIV in clinical trials and suggest that antiviral compounds targeting host factors hold promise for further development. These findings also suggest that the in vitro efficacy of candidate microbicides should be determined in the presence of semen to identify the best candidates for the prevention of HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25391483

  9. The effect of Curcuma longa extracted (curcumin) on the quality of cryopreserved boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal concentration of curcumin needed for cryopreservation of boar semen. Semen samples (n = 9) were collected from nine Duroc boars which having proven fertility were used for routine artificial insemination. Semen samples were collected and divided into six groups (groups A-F) according to various concentrations of curcumin in freezing extender (i.e. 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mmol/L, respectively). The semen was frozen by traditional liquid nitrogen vapor method and stored at -196°C in the liquid nitrogen tank. After storage, frozen semen samples were thawed at 50°C for 12 s and evaluated for progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity. The present results indicated that the addition of curcumin at 0.25 (group C) or 0.50 mmol/L curcumin (group D) yielded the higher percentage of progressive motility (33.3 and 36.1%, respectively) (P curcumin during cryopreservation at a concentration of 0.25 or 0.50 mmol/L is the optimal concentration of curcumin for improving the quality (i.e. increased progressive motility and acrosome integrity) of cryopreserved boar semen. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Semen parameters can be predicted from environmental factors and lifestyle using artificial intelligence methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girela, Jose L; Gil, David; Johnsson, Magnus; Gomez-Torres, María José; De Juan, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    Fertility rates have dramatically decreased in the last two decades, especially in men. It has been described that environmental factors as well as life habits may affect semen quality. In this paper we use artificial intelligence techniques in order to predict semen characteristics resulting from environmental factors, life habits, and health status, with these techniques constituting a possible decision support system that can help in the study of male fertility potential. A total of 123 young, healthy volunteers provided a semen sample that was analyzed according to the World Health Organization 2010 criteria. They also were asked to complete a validated questionnaire about life habits and health status. Sperm concentration and percentage of motile sperm were related to sociodemographic data, environmental factors, health status, and life habits in order to determine the predictive accuracy of a multilayer perceptron network, a type of artificial neural network. In conclusion, we have developed an artificial neural network that can predict the results of the semen analysis based on the data collected by the questionnaire. The semen parameter that is best predicted using this methodology is the sperm concentration. Although the accuracy for motility is slightly lower than that for concentration, it is possible to predict it with a significant degree of accuracy. This methodology can be a useful tool in early diagnosis of patients with seminal disorders or in the selection of candidates to become semen donors.

  11. Physical activity is not related to semen quality in young healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Gaskins, Audrey J; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the relation of physical activity with semen quality among healthy young men from Spain. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University and college campuses of Murcia Region, Spain. Patients Healthy young men with untested fertility (n=215). Intervention A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a questionnaire. Main outcomes measure Semen quality parameters. Results Physical activity was not related to semen quality parameters. The adjusted percentage differences (95% confidence interval) in semen parameters comparing men in the top quartile of moderate to vigorous physical activity (≥9.5h/wk) to men in the bottom quartile (≤3h/wk) were 4.3% (−30.2, 38.9) for total sperm count, 7.2% (−30.6, 45.1) for sperm concentration, −2.42% (−6.53, 1.69) for sperm motility, and 12.6% (−12.0, 37.2) for sperm morphology. Conclusion In contrast to previous research among athletes, these data suggest that physical activity is not deleterious to testicular function, as captured by semen quality parameters in this population of healthy young men in Spain. PMID:25064411

  12. Escitalopram treatment for premature ejaculation has a negative effect on semen parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, H; Serefoglu, E C; Yencilek, E; Atalay, H; Akbas, N B; Sarıca, K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of long-term escitalopram treatment on semen parameters of patients with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). Between November 2008 and January 2010, patients admitted to urology outpatient clinic with a self-reported complaint of PE were evaluated. Medical and sexual history of patients were recorded and patients with lifelong PE (a total of 25 patients) who met the International Society of Sexual Medicine definition were asked to record their intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) for 1 month, complete Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) questionnaire and give semen samples. Afterwards, patients received 10 mg escitalopram daily for 12 weeks and were invited for control visits at first and third month of treatment. During control visits, PEDT was administered again whereas IELTs were recorded and semen samples were re-examined. PEDT scores, arithmetic means of IELTs and results of semen analyses, which were recorded at baseline, first and third month were compared. At the third month of treatment, a significant increase in mean IELTs and a significant decrease in PEDT scores were detected. However there was a significant decrease in sperm concentration, motility and morphology when compared with the baseline semen measures. Daily escitalopram treatment effects the semen parameters of patients with lifelong PE. Further investigations with larger series are needed to see whether other serotonin reuptake inhibitors have similar side effects and to expose the exact mechanism underlying it. Different treatment modalities should be suggested to patients who desire fertility.

  13. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Khairiah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN. The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM and electroejaculation (EEJ technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur.

  14. Rapid quantification of semen hepatitis B virus DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei-Ping; Tan, Yue-Qiu; Chen, Ying; Peng, Ying; Li, Zhi; Lu, Guang-Xiu; Lin, Marie C.; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; He, Ming-Ling; Shing, Li-Ka

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the sensitivity and accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the quantification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in semen. METHODS: Hepatitis B viral DNA was isolated from HBV carriers’ semen and sera using phenol extraction method and QIAamp DNA blood mini kit (Qiagen, Germany). HBV DNA was detected by conventional PCR and quantified by TaqMan technology-based real-time PCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)). The detection threshold was 200 copies of HBV DNA for conventional PCR and 10 copies of HBV DNA for real time PCR per reaction. RESULTS: Both methods of phenol extraction and QIAamp DNA blood mini kit were suitable for isolating HBV DNA from semen. The value of the detection thresholds was 500 copies of HBV DNA per mL in the semen. The viral loads were 7.5 × 107 and 1.67 × 107 copies of HBV DNA per mL in two HBV infected patients’ sera, while 2.14 × 105 and 3.02 × 105 copies of HBV DNA per mL in the semen. CONCLUSION: Real-time PCR is a more sensitive and accurate method to detect and quantify HBV DNA in the semen. PMID:16149152

  15. Reducing Inter-Laboratory Differences between Semen Analyses Using Z Score and Regression Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Leushuis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Standardization of the semen analysis may improve reproducibility. We assessed variability between laboratories in semen analyses and evaluated whether a transformation using Z scores and regression statistics was able to reduce this variability. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study. We calculated between-laboratory coefficients of variation (CVB for sperm concentration and for morphology. Subsequently, we standardized the semen analysis results by calculating laboratory specific Z scores, and by using regression. We used analysis of variance for four semen parameters to assess systematic differences between laboratories before and after the transformations, both in the circulation samples and in the samples obtained in the prospective cohort study in the Netherlands between January 2002 and February 2004. Results: The mean CVB was 7% for sperm concentration (range 3 to 13% and 32% for sperm morphology (range 18 to 51%. The differences between the laboratories were statistically significant for all semen parameters (all P<0.001. Standardization using Z scores did not reduce the differences in semen analysis results between the laboratories (all P<0.001. Conclusion: There exists large between-laboratory variability for sperm morphology and small, but statistically significant, between-laboratory variation for sperm concentration. Standardization using Z scores does not eliminate between-laboratory variability.

  16. Urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations and semen quality of male partners of subfertile couples in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Toshima, Hiroki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi; Hatakeyama, Shota; Tokuoka, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been known as a testicular toxicant in experimental rodents. Possible association between iAs exposure and semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, and sperm motility) was explored in male partners of couples (n = 42) who visited a gynecology clinic in Tokyo for infertility consultation. Semen parameters were measured according to WHO guideline at the clinic, and urinary iAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-hydride generation-ICP mass spectrometry. Biological attributes, dietary habits, and exposure levels to other chemicals with known effects on semen parameters were taken into consideration as covariates. Multiple regression analyses and logistic regression analyses did not find iAs exposure as significant contributor to semen parameters. Lower exposure level of subjects (estimated to be 0.5 μg kg(-1) day(-1)) was considered a reason of the absence of adverse effects on semen parameters, which were seen in rodents dosed with 4-7.5 mg kg(-1).

  17. Supplemental effect of varying L-cysteine concentrations on the quality of cryopreserved boar semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeoket, Kampon; Chanapiwat, Panida; Tummaruk, Padet; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2010-01-01

    Cryopreservation is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to lipid peroxidation of the sperm membrane and consequently a reduction in sperm motility and decreased fertility potential. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal concentration of L-cysteine needed for cryopreservation of boar semen. Twelve boars provided semen of proven motility and morphology for this study. The semen was divided into four portions in which the lactose-egg yolk (LEY) extender used to resuspend the centrifuged sperm pellet was supplemented with various concentrations of L-cysteine to reach 0 mmol L−1 (group I, control), 5 mmol L−1 (group II), 10 mmol L−1 (group III) and 15 mmol L−1 (group IV). Semen suspensions were loaded in straws (0.5 mL) and placed in a controlled-rate freezer. After cryopreservation, frozen semen samples were thawed and investigated for progressive motility, viability using SYBR-14/EthD-1 staining and acrosome integrity using FITC-PNA/EthD-1 staining. There was a significantly higher (P extender for improving the quality of frozen–thawed boar semen. PMID:20601963

  18. DNA preservation in silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yawen; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Gong, He; Liu, Meng; Guo, Shaozhe; Li, Gang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L

    2017-06-27

    The structure of DNA is susceptible to alterations at high temperature and on changing pH, irradiation and exposure to DNase. Options to protect and preserve DNA during storage are important for applications in genetic diagnosis, identity authentication, drug development and bioresearch. In the present study, the stability of total DNA purified from human dermal fibroblast cells, as well as that of plasmid DNA, was studied in silk protein materials. The DNA/silk mixtures were stabilized on filter paper (silk/DNA + filter) or filter paper pre-coated with silk and treated with methanol (silk/DNA + PT-filter) as a route to practical utility. After air-drying and water extraction, 50-70% of the DNA and silk could be retrieved and showed a single band on electrophoretic gels. 6% silk/DNA + PT-filter samples provided improved stability in comparison with 3% silk/DNA + filter samples and DNA + filter samples for DNA preservation, with ∼40% of the band intensity remaining at 37 °C after 40 days and ∼10% after exposure to UV light for 10 hours. Quantitative analysis using the PicoGreen assay confirmed the results. The use of Tris/borate/EDTA (TBE) buffer enhanced the preservation and/or extraction of the DNA. The DNA extracted after storage maintained integrity and function based on serving as a functional template for PCR amplification of the gene for zinc finger protein 750 (ZNF750) and for transgene expression of red fluorescence protein (dsRed) in HEK293 cells. The high molecular weight and high content of a crystalline beta-sheet structure formed on the coated surfaces likely accounted for the preservation effects observed for the silk/DNA + PT-filter samples. Although similar preservation effects were also obtained for lyophilized silk/DNA samples, the rapid and simple processing available with the silk-DNA-filter membrane system makes it appealing for future applications.

  19. Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Eliza Facione Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test was done. In 24 ejaculates, it were done thermo-resistance test, and in 21 ejaculates it were determined the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma. The male goats presented difference in the semen physical and morphological aspects, in the hiposmotic test and thermo-resistance test, but they did not presented difference in total soluble proteins concentration in seminal plasma. Results of the slow thermo-resistance test and hiposmotic test were positively correlated (r = 0.60. It was concluded, according to our results, that the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma can not be used as a parameter to predict the seminal quality of Alpine bucks.It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test

  20. Hypoosmotic test to predict viability of equine chilled semen in different extenders Teste hiposmótico para avaliação da viabilidade do sêmen eqüino resfriado com diferentes diluidores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I.V. Melo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypoosmotic test (HO was used to evaluate plasmatic membrane integrity of equine chilled semen and to estimate the correlation between the results of the HO test and those from applied routine exams of semen. The semen of seven stallions was preserved at 5ºC in three different extenders. Each ejaculate was diluted in three extenders, Kenney (K, Baken with 3% of egg yolk (B3 and Baken with 10% of egg yolk (B10, and chilled at 5ºC. The total motility (MT, progressive motility (MP, spermatic vigor (V, normal spermatic morphology (NOR and HO test were used to evaluate semen immediately after collection and at 24 hour-intervals. Spermatic longevity was defined as the time taken to the progressive motility to decline under 10%. Semen diluted in B3 had the best longevity. The results of the HO test suggest that extenders made with egg yolk preserved the membrane plasmatic. Correlation (PUtilizou-se o teste hiposmótico (HO para estudar a capacidade de preservação da membrana plasmática do sêmen eqüino resfriado em diferentes meios. Estimou-se a correlação entre os resultados do teste HO e os exames de rotina aplicados ao sêmen, usando-se sêmen de sete garanhões. Cada ejaculado foi diluído em três meios, Kenney (K, Baken com 3% de gema (B3 e Baken com 10% de gema de ovo (B10, e resfriado a 5ºC. Avaliaram-se a motilidade total (MT, a motilidade progressiva (MP, o vigor espermático (V, a porcentagem de espermatozóides morfologicamente normais (NOR e os resultados do teste HO no sêmen fresco e a cada 24 horas pós-resfriamento. A longevidade espermática foi considerada como o tempo de manutenção da motilidade espermática progressiva superior a 10% do sêmen diluído e resfriado. Maior longevidade espermática foi obtida nas amostras diluídas em meio B3. Os resultados do teste HO sugerem que os diluidores à base de gema de ovo preservaram melhor a membrana plasmática. Foram obtidos valores de correlação (P<0,05 entre o teste

  1. Isolation, culture and characterisation of somatic cells derived from semen and milk of endangered sheep and eland antelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel-Themaat, L; Gómez, M C; Damiani, P; Wirtu, G; Dresser, B L; Bondioli, K R; Lyons, L A; Pope, C E; Godke, R A

    2007-01-01

    Semen and milk are potential sources of somatic cells for genome banks. In the present study, we cultured and characterised cells from: (1) cooled sheep milk; (2) fresh, cooled and frozen-thawed semen from Gulf Coast native (GCN) sheep (Ovis aries); and (3) fresh eland (Taurotragus oryx) semen. Cells attached to the culture surface from fresh (29%), cooled (43%) and slow-frozen (1 degrees C/min; 14%) ram semen, whereas no attachment occurred in the fast-frozen (10 degrees C/min) group. Proliferation occurred in fresh (50%) and cooled (100%) groups, but no cells proliferated after passage 1 (P1). Eland semen yielded cell lines (100%) that were cryopreserved at P1. In samples from GCN and cross-bred milk, cell attachment (83% and 95%, respectively) and proliferation (60% and 37%, respectively) were observed. Immunocytochemical detection of cytokeratin indicated an epithelial origin of semen-derived cells, whereas milk yielded either fibroblasts, epithelial or a mixture of cell types. Deoxyribonucleic acid microsatellite analysis using cattle-derived markers confirmed that eland cells were from the semen donor. Eland epithelial cells were transferred into eland oocytes and 12 (71%), six (35%) and two (12%) embryos cleaved and developed to morulae or blastocyst stages, respectively. In conclusion, we have developed a technique for obtaining somatic cells from semen. We have also demonstrated that semen-derived cells can serve as karyoplast donors for nuclear transfer.

  2. Influences of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on stallion sperm production and on preservation of sperm quality during storage at 5 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, C; Tafuri, S; Ciani, F; Pasolini, M P; Ciotola, F; Albarella, S; Carotenuto, D; Peretti, V; Cocchia, N

    2018-03-01

    Stallion semen is damaged by oxidative stress during cooling and transport. Semen processing and extenders have been tested to improve the fertilizing capacity of semen and to preserve semen during transport. Dietary supplementation with natural antioxidants has been proposed to prevent oxidative damages. In this study, for the first time, the effect of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on the characteristics of fresh and chilled stallion semen was evaluated. Maca is a traditional Andean crop used as a nutraceutical for the fertility-enhancing properties that are linked with antioxidant activity. The diet of five stallions was supplemented with 20 g of Maca powder daily for a total of 60 days. A control group of five stallions received the same diet without Maca. Semen was collected once before the administration of Maca (D0), twice during the administration at 30 and 60 days (D30 and D60), and finally twice at 30 and 60 days after the end of the administration (D90 and D120). Ejaculates were processed for cooled shipping at 5 °C and evaluated in the laboratory for total and progressive motility, acrosome integrity, and lipid peroxidation after collection and after 24, 48, and 72 h of storage. Dietary supplementation with Maca improved sperm concentration (from 213 ± 80.4 to 447 ± 73.1 × 10 6 spz/mL) and total sperm count (from 10,880 ± 4377 to 24,783 ± 4419 × 10 6 spz). The beneficial effects of Maca supplementation on motility and acrosome integrity in the raw semen were detected from the end of treatment with Maca (D60) until the end of the study (D120). Furthermore, during cooling storage, total motility, progressive motility, and acrosome integrity declined more slowly in the Maca-treated group than in the control group. Lipid peroxidation did not change during cooling storage in either group and did not show a significant difference between the two groups. In this study, the dietary supplementation with Maca

  3. Hair mercury (Hg) levels, fish consumption and semen parameters among men attending a fertility center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Arvizu, Mariel; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Ford, Jennifer B; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2018-03-01

    General population exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), the most common organic mercury compound found in the environment, occurs primarily through the consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. Due to limited studies and lack of consideration of effect modification by fish consumption, it remains uncertain if exposure to mercury affects semen parameters. Thus, we investigated whether hair Hg levels, a biomarker of mercury exposure, were associated with semen parameters among men attending an academic fertility center, and whether this relationship was modified by intake of fish. This analysis included 129 men contributing 243 semen samples who were enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study between 2005 and 2013, and had data of hair Hg, intake of fish and semen parameters available. Hair Hg levels were assessed using a direct mercury analyzer. Intake of fish was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Semen parameters were analyzed following WHO 2010 evaluation criteria. Generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts accounting for within-man correlations across semen samples were used to evaluate the association of hair Hg levels and semen parameters adjusting for age, BMI, smoking status, abstinence time and alcohol intake. Effect modification by total fish intake (≤1.68 vs. >1.68 servings/week) was tested. The median hair Hg levels of the men was 0.72ppm and ranged from 0.03 to 8.01ppm; almost 30% of the men had hair Hg levels >1ppm. Hair Hg levels were positively related with sperm concentration, total sperm count, and progressive motility, after adjusting for potential confounders and became attenuated after further adjustment for fish intake. Specifically, men in the highest quartile of hair mercury levels had 50%, 46% and 31% higher sperm concentration, total sperm count and progressive motility, respectively, compared to men in the lowest quartile. These associations were stronger among men whose fish

  4. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztasiran, I.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process for treating food and as such it is comparable to other processing techniques such as heating or freezing foods for preservation. The energy level used in food irradiation is always below that producing radioactivity in the treated food, hence this aspect can be totally excluded in wholesomeness evaluations. Water is readily ionized and may be the primary source of ionization in foods with secondary effects on other molecules, possibly more a result of water ionization than of direct hits. In the presence of oxygen, highly reactive compounds may be produced, such as H, H 3 0+ and H 2 O 2 . Radiation at the energy flux levels used for food (<2 MeV) does not induce radioactivity. Food irradiation applications are already technically and economically feasible and that food so treated is suitable for consumption. Food irradiation techniques can play an important role for an improved preservation, storage and distribution of food products. (author)

  5. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-five years of development work on the preservation of food by irradiation have shown that this technology has the potential to reduce post-harvest losses and to produce safe foods. The technological feasibility has been established but general acceptance of food irradiation by national regulatory bodies and consumers requires attention. The positive aspects of food preservation by irradiation include: the food keeps its freshness and its physical state, agents which cause spoilage (bacteria, etc.) are eliminated, recontamination does not take place, provided packaging materials are impermeable to bacteria and insects. It inhibits sprouting of root crops, kills insects and parasites, inactivates bacteria, spores and moulds, delays ripening of fruit, improves the technological properties of food. It makes foods biologically safe, allows the production of shelf-stable foods and is excellent for quarantine treatment, and generally improves food hygiene. The dose ranges needed for effective treatment are given

  6. Preservation and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiere, R.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the application of gamma radiation to preservation of cultural objects for disinsectization, disinfection and strengthening of materials such as wood or stone by impregnation with a liquid resin and in situ polymerization. As heavy equipment is required two facilities are specialized a 1000 T Bq cobalt 60 source at Grenoble (France) and 100 T Bq one at Rostoky (Czechoslovakia). Examples of treated objects are given [fr

  7. Beneficial bread without preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Zapryana; Denkova, Rositsa

    2014-01-01

    Besides their inherent nutritional value functional foods contain substances that have beneficial impact on the functioning of organs and systems in the human body and reduce the risk of disease. Bread and bakery goods are basic foods in the diet of contemporary people. Preservatives are added to the composition of foods in order to ensure their microbiological safety, but these substances affect directly the balance of microflora in the tract. A great problem is mold and bacterial spoilage (...

  8. Fertility preservation 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Michel; Smitz, Johan; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced long-term survival rates of young women with cancer and advances in reproductive medicine and cryobiology have culminated in an increased interest in fertility preservation methods in girls and young women with cancer. Present data suggest that young patients with cancer should be referred for fertility preservation counselling quickly to help with their coping process. Although the clinical application of novel developments, including oocyte vitrification and oocyte maturation in vitro, has resulted in reasonable success rates in assisted reproduction programmes, experience with these techniques in the setting of fertility preservation is in its infancy. It is hoped that these and other approaches, some of which are still regarded as experimental (eg, ovarian tissue cryopreservation, pharmacological protection against gonadotoxic agents, in-vitro follicle growth, and follicle transplantation) will be optimised and become established within the next decade. Unravelling the complex mechanisms of activation and suppression of follicle growth will not only expand the care of thousands of women diagnosed with cancer, but also inform the care of millions of women confronted with reduced reproductive fitness because of ageing. PMID:25283571

  9. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trisviatski, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed [fr

  10. High resolution melt curve analysis based on methylation status for human semen identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachet, Caitlyn; Quarino, Lawrence; Karnas, K Joy

    2017-03-01

    A high resolution melt curve assay to differentiate semen from blood, saliva, urine, and vaginal fluid based on methylation status at the Dapper Isoform 1 (DACT1) gene was developed. Stains made from blood, saliva, urine, semen, and vaginal fluid were obtained from volunteers and DNA was isolated using either organic extraction (saliva, urine, and vaginal fluid) or Chelex ® 100 extraction (blood and semen). Extracts were then subjected to bisulfite modification in order to convert unmethylated cytosines to uracil, consequently creating sequences whose amplicons have melt curves that vary depending on their initial methylation status. When primers designed to amplify the promoter region of the DACT1 gene were used, DNA from semen samples was distinguishable from other fluids by a having a statistically significant lower melting temperature. The assay was found to be sperm-significant since semen from a vasectomized man produced a melting temperature similar to the non-semen body fluids. Blood and semen stains stored up to 5 months and tested at various intervals showed little variation in melt temperature indicating the methylation status was stable during the course of the study. The assay is a more viable method for forensic science practice than most molecular-based methods for body fluid stain identification since it is time efficient and utilizes instrumentation common to forensic biology laboratories. In addition, the assay is advantageous over traditional presumptive chemical methods for body fluid identification since results are confirmatory and the assay offers the possibility of multiplexing which may test for multiple body fluids simultaneously.

  11. Boar semen bacterial contamination in Italy and antibiotic efficacy in a modified extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bresciani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to identify microbial flora in boar semen under field conditions in northern Italy, to investigate antibiotic resistance and sensitivity of isolated bacteria, and to evaluate elimination of bacteria after storage in two types of extenders added with different antibiotics (amikacin vs gentamicin. A total of 60 boars were collected in 13 pig farms. Bacteriological and mycological investigations were performed immediately on raw semen samples, then at 48 and 120 h of storage on semen diluted randomly in a new short-term modified extender (ME-S or in a commercial one (CRONOSTM. Bacterial contamination was found in 63% of raw semen samples and different bacterial species were isolated: E.coli, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus epidermidis and aureus, Proteus spp., Streptococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. E. coli was the most isolated contaminant (53%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found only in one semen sample. The analysis of variance of factors affecting contamination levels was significant for the farm of origin (P<0.05 and not significant for the breed. Antibiotic resistance of these bacteria was assessed using different antibiotics. Significant differences (P<0.05 between observed and expected frequencies of bacterial isolates resistant or not to the antibiotics contained in the extenders were found. At 48 h of storage a reduction of aerobic contamination was found after ME-S dilution by 85.3% and after CRONOSTM by 63.8%. This paper proved the presence of pathogenic bacteria in semen. We thus believe it is highly advisable to perform periodic microbiological screening of boar semen in the swine industry to avoid the use of low sperm quality.

  12. Cryopreserved semen in ecotoxicological bioassays: sensitivity and reliability of cryopreserved Sparus aurata spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbrocini, Adele; D'Adamo, Raffaele; Del Prete, Francesco; Langellotti, Antonio Luca; Rinna, Francesca; Silvestri, Fausto; Sorrenti, Gerarda; Vitiello, Valentina; Sansone, Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using cryopreserved S. aurata semen in spermiotoxicity tests. Cryopreservation is a biotechnology that can provide viable gametes and embryos on demand, rather than only in the spawning season, thus overcoming a limitation that has hindered the use of some species in ecotoxicological bioassays. Firstly, the sperm motility pattern of cryopreserved semen was evaluated after thawing by means of both visual and computer-assisted analyses. Motility parameters in the cryopreserved semen did not change significantly in the first hour after thawing, meaning that they were maintained for long enough to enable their use in spermiotoxicity tests. In the second phase of the research, bioassays were performed, using cadmium as the reference toxicant, in order to evaluate the sensitivity of cryopreserved S. aurata semen to ecotoxicological contamination. The sensitivity of the sperm motility parameters used as endpoints (motility percentages and velocities) proved to be comparable to what has been recorded for the fresh semen of other aquatic species (LOECs from 0.02 to 0.03 mg L(-1)). The test showed good reliability and was found to be rapid and easy to perform, requiring only a small volume of the sample. Moreover, cryopreserved semen is easy to store and transfer and makes it possible to perform bioassays in different sites or at different times with the same batch of semen. The proposed bioassay is therefore a promising starting point for the development of toxicity tests that are increasingly tailored to the needs of ecotoxicology and environmental quality evaluation strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and semen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jurewicz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Growing evidence supports the reproductive and developmental toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs from prenatal and postnatal exposure, but the results of epidemiological studies regarding harmful effects of PAHs exposure on male reproductive system still remain limited and inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between 1-hydroxypyrene, a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and semen quality. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 277 men attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes and having normal semen concentration of 20-300 mln/ml or slight oligozoospermia (semen concentration: 15-20 mln/ml (WHO 1999. All the men were healthy and under 45 years of age. All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. The interview included questions concerning demographics, socio-economic status, medical history related to past diseases which may have an impact on semen quality, lifestyle factors and occupational information. Concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP in the urine samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results: A positive association was found between the level of 1-OHP in urine and sperm neck abnormalities as well as the percentage of static sperm cells (p = 0.001, p = 0.018, respectively. Additionally, exposure to PAHs measured by 1-OHP in urine decreased semen volume and the percentage of motile sperm cells (p = 0.014, p = 0.0001, respectively. Conclusions: Presented findings indicate that the environmental level of PAHs exposure adversely affects male semen quality. The future large-scale studies should incorporate different biomarkers to generate a more accurate and full assessment of the effects of PAHs exposure on male fertility.

  14. Post-thaw sperm characteristics following long-term storage of boar semen in liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Strzeżek, J; Kordan, W

    2014-06-30

    This study investigated the effect of long-term liquid nitrogen storage of semen from individual boars on post-thaw sperm characteristics. Ejaculates, collected from five Polish large white (PLW) and five Polish landrace (PLR) boars, were frozen using a standard cryopreservation protocol. Post-thaw analysis was performed within a week (Period 1) and 42-48 months (Period 2) of semen storage in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw sperm assessments included total motility, mitochondrial function (JC-1/PI assay), plasma membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI assay), osmotic resistance test (ORT), lipid peroxidation (LPO) status and DNA fragmentation, analysed by the neutral Comet assay. Individual boar variability within breed and cryostorage periods had significant effects on the analysed parameters of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Prolonged semen storage in liquid nitrogen (Period 2) induced a marked reduction in post-thaw sperm motility, mitochondrial function and plasma membrane integrity in most of the boars. Post-thaw semen of eight boars exhibited a marked decrease in osmotic resistance of the sperm acrosomal membrane, whereas a significant increase in the sperm cryo-susceptibility to induced LPO and DNA fragmentation was observed only in three boars after long-term semen storage. Additionally, frozen-thawed spermatozoa of PLR boars exhibited significantly lower osmotic resistance of the acrosomal membrane than PLW boars following prolonged semen storage in liquid nitrogen. The results of this study provide evidence of ageing processes in frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa following prolonged cryostorage. It seems that, even though cryopreservation allows long-term semen storage in liquid nitrogen, spermatozoa from individual boars are more susceptible to cryo-induced damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of varicocelectomy on testis volume and semen parameters in adolescents: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele repair in adolescent remains controversial. Our aim is to identify and combine clinical trials results published thus far to ascertain the efficacy of varicocelectomy in improving testis volume and semen parameters compared with nontreatment control. A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase and Web of Science, which included results obtained from meta-analysis, randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies. The study population was adolescents with clinically palpable varicocele with or without the testicular asymmetry or abnormal semen parameters. Cases were allocated to treatment and observation groups, and testis volume or semen parameters were adopted as outcome measures. As a result, seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs and nonrandomized controlled trials studying bilateral testis volume or semen parameters in both treatment and observation groups were identified. Using a random effect model, mean difference of testis volume between the treatment group and the observation group was 2.9 ml (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6, 5.2; P< 0.05 for the varicocele side and 1.5 ml (95% CI: 0.3, 2.7; P< 0.05 for the healthy side. The random effect model analysis demonstrated that the mean difference of semen concentration, total semen motility, and normal morphology between the two groups was 13.7 × 10 6 ml−1 (95% CI: −1.4, 28.8; P = 0.075, 2.5% (95% CI: −3.6, 8.6; P= 0.424, and 2.9% (95% CI: −3.0, 8.7; P= 0.336 respectively. In conclusion, although varicocelectomy significantly improved bilateral testis volume in adolescents with varicocele compared with observation cases, semen parameters did not have any statistically significant difference between two groups. Well-planned, properly conducted RCTs are needed in order to confirm the above-mentioned conclusion further and to explore whether varicocele repair in adolescents could improve subsequently spontaneous pregnancy rates.

  16. Training development for pavement preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This research project strives to help the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) fully achieve the full benefits of pavement : preservation through training on proper selection, design, and application of pavement preservation treatments. In some ca...

  17. ACHP | Tribal Historic Preservation Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    preservation of significant historic properties. Those functions include identifying and maintaining Working with Section 106 Federal, State, & Tribal Programs Training & Education Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Historic Preservation Programs & Officers arrow THPOs

  18. Contribution of semen trait selection, artificial insemination technique, and semen dose to the profitability of pig production systems: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Knox, Robert V; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L

    2016-01-15

    The economic impact of selection for semen traits on pig production systems and potential interaction with artificial insemination (AI) technique and semen dose remains partially understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the financial indicators (gross return, net profit, cost) in a three-tier pig production system under one of two selection strategies: a traditional strategy including nine paternal and maternal traits (S9) and an advanced strategy that adds four semen traits (S13). Maternal traits included the number of pigs born alive, litter birth weight, adjusted 21-day litter weight, and the number of pigs at 21 days, and paternal traits included days to 113.5 kg, back fat, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and carcass lean percentage. The four semen traits included volume, concentration, progressive motility of spermatozoa, and abnormal spermatozoa. Simultaneously, the impact of two AI techniques and a range of fresh refrigerated semen doses including cervical AI with 3 × 10(9) (CAI3) and 2 × 10(9) (CAI2) sperm cells/dose, and intrauterine AI with 1.5 × 10(9) (IUI1.5), 0.75 × 10(9) (IUI0.75), and 0.5 × 10(9) (IUI0.5) sperm cells/dose were evaluated. These factors were also evaluated using a range of farrowing rates (60%-90%), litter sizes (8-14 live-born pigs), and a selected semen collection frequency. The financial impact of the factors was assessed through simulation of a three-way crossbreeding system (maternal nucleus lines A and B and paternal nucleus line C) using ZPLAN. The highest return on investment (profit/cost) of boars was observed at 2.33 collections/wk (three periods of 24 hours between collections). Under this schedule, a significant (P profit. The highest gross return was obtained under S13 with IUI0.75 and IUI0.5. The net profit of S13 was 34.37% higher than the traditional S9 (P profit favored IUI0.5 with relative differences of 4.13%, 2.41%, 1.72%, and 0.43% compared to CAI3, CAI2, IUI1.5, and IUI0

  19. The fecundity of porcine semen stored for 2 to 6 days in Androhep and X-CELL extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, C E; Althouse, G C

    1999-08-01

    Extending the raw ejaculate prior to artificial insemination (AI) is beneficial, in part, due to the increased number of females that are bred from an ejaculate, along with prolonged shelf life of the semen. The objective of this study was to examine the affects of storage time on the fecundity of porcine semen diluted in 2 semen extenders, Androhep and X-CELL. A completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of treatments was utilized in which 429 high quality, gel-free ejaculates from 48 boars were used in a timed, double insemination of 1,431 first-service gilts. The gilts were divided into groups and inseminated with semen stored in Androhep or X-CELL for 2 to 3 d, 3 to 4 d, 4 to 5 d, or 5 to 6 d prior to use (day of collection = Day 0). Sperm age was identical, and both extenders were used concurrently each day of the trial. Farrowing rate and litter size data were recorded. Farrowing rates did not differ between extenders through Days 4 to 5 of storage. Gilts inseminated with Androhep diluted stored semen showed a decrease (P semen extended in X-CELL stored for 5 to 6 d. Mean litter sizes did not differ between extenders through Days 2 to 3 of storage. Compared with the X-CELL extended semen, gilts inseminated with Androhep extended semen produced smaller litters when semen was stored for 4 to 5 d (P semen was stored for 3 to 4 and 4 to 5 d. No differences were detected in litter size or farrowing rate for gilts bred with semen stored for 2 to 6 d in the X-CELL extender (P > 0.1). The results of this study indicate that extender type influences the fertility potential of fresh porcine semen stored for 2 to 6 d. For optimal fecundity in gilts, semen extended with Androhep extender should be used for AI within 3 d. The X-CELL extended semen can be used for up to 6 d without significant decrease in litter size or farrowing rate. These recommendations are dependent upon using high quality semen that is properly handled from collection through

  20. Effective freezing rate for semen cryopreservation in endangered Mediterranean brown trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma) inhabiting the Biferno river (South Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaffaldano, Nicolaia; Di Iorio, Michele; Manchisi, Angelo; Esposito, Stefano; Gibertoni, Pier Paolo

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to determine: (i) the in vitro effects of different freezing rates on post-thaw semen quality of Mediterranean brown trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma) from the Biferno river; and (ii) the in vivo fertilization and hatching percentage of freezing rate giving rise to the best post-thaw semen quality. Pooled semen samples were diluted 1:3 (v:v) in a freezing extender composed of 300 mM glucose, 10% egg yolk and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The extended semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and frozen at different heights above the liquid nitrogen surface (1, 5 or 10 cm) for 10 min to give three different freezing rates. Semen samples were thawed at 30°C for 10 s. The variables assessed after thawing were sperm motility, duration of motility and viability. Our results clearly indicate a significant effect of freezing rate on post-thaw semen quality. Semen frozen 5 cm above the liquid nitrogen surface showed the best quality after freezing/thawing. Based on these in vitro data, 2 groups of 200 eggs were fertilized with fresh semen or semen frozen 5 cm above the liquid nitrogen surface. Fertilization and hatching rates recorded for eggs fertilized with frozen semen were significantly lower (25.4% and 22.5%, respectively) than the ones obtained using fresh semen (87.8% and 75.5%, respectively). An effective freezing protocol will allow for the creation of a sperm cryobank to recover the original population of Mediterranean brown trout in the Biferno river.