WorldWideScience

Sample records for semantic information alters

  1. Addressing Semantic Geographic Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore F. Pileggi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The progressive consolidation of information technologies on a large scale has been facilitating and progressively increasing the production, collection, and diffusion of geographic data, as well as facilitating the integration of a large amount of external information into geographic information systems (GIS. Traditional GIS is transforming into a consolidated information infrastructure. This consolidated infrastructure is affecting more and more aspects of internet computing and services. Most popular systems (such as social networks, GPS, and decision support systems involve complex GIS and significant amounts of information. As a web service, GIS is affected by exactly the same problems that affect the web as a whole. Therefore, next generation GIS solutions have to address further methodological and data engineering challenges in order to accommodate new applications’ extended requirements (in terms of scale, interoperability, and complexity. The conceptual and semantic modeling of GIS, as well as the integration of semantics into current GIS, provide highly expressive environments that are capable of meeting the needs and requirements of a wide range of applications.

  2. Spatial information semantic query based on SPARQL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhifeng; Huang, Lei; Zhai, Xiaofang

    2009-10-01

    How can the efficiency of spatial information inquiries be enhanced in today's fast-growing information age? We are rich in geospatial data but poor in up-to-date geospatial information and knowledge that are ready to be accessed by public users. This paper adopts an approach for querying spatial semantic by building an Web Ontology language(OWL) format ontology and introducing SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language(SPARQL) to search spatial semantic relations. It is important to establish spatial semantics that support for effective spatial reasoning for performing semantic query. Compared to earlier keyword-based and information retrieval techniques that rely on syntax, we use semantic approaches in our spatial queries system. Semantic approaches need to be developed by ontology, so we use OWL to describe spatial information extracted by the large-scale map of Wuhan. Spatial information expressed by ontology with formal semantics is available to machines for processing and to people for understanding. The approach is illustrated by introducing a case study for using SPARQL to query geo-spatial ontology instances of Wuhan. The paper shows that making use of SPARQL to search OWL ontology instances can ensure the result's accuracy and applicability. The result also indicates constructing a geo-spatial semantic query system has positive efforts on forming spatial query and retrieval.

  3. Bibliographic information organization in the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Willer, Mirna

    2013-01-01

    New technologies will underpin the future generation of library catalogues. To facilitate their role providing information, serving users, and fulfilling their mission as cultural heritage and memory institutions, libraries must take a technological leap; their standards and services must be transformed to those of the Semantic Web. Bibliographic Information Organization in the Semantic Web explores the technologies that may power future library catalogues, and argues the necessity of such a leap. The text introduces international bibliographic standards and models, and fundamental concepts in

  4. Exploiting semantic linkages among multiple sources for semantic information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JianQiang; Yang, Ji-Jiang; Liu, Chunchen; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yuliang

    2014-07-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web is to build a global Web of machine-readable data to be consumed by intelligent applications. As the first step to make this vision come true, the initiative of linked open data has fostered many novel applications aimed at improving data accessibility in the public Web. Comparably, the enterprise environment is so different from the public Web that most potentially usable business information originates in an unstructured form (typically in free text), which poses a challenge for the adoption of semantic technologies in the enterprise environment. Considering that the business information in a company is highly specific and centred around a set of commonly used concepts, this paper describes a pilot study to migrate the concept of linked data into the development of a domain-specific application, i.e. the vehicle repair support system. The set of commonly used concepts, including the part name of a car and the phenomenon term on the car repairing, are employed to build the linkage between data and documents distributed among different sources, leading to the fusion of documents and data across source boundaries. Then, we describe the approaches of semantic information retrieval to consume these linkages for value creation for companies. The experiments on two real-world data sets show that the proposed approaches outperform the best baseline 6.3-10.8% and 6.4-11.1% in terms of top five and top 10 precisions, respectively. We believe that our pilot study can serve as an important reference for the development of similar semantic applications in an enterprise environment.

  5. Semantic knowledge representation for information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gödert, Winfried; Nagelschmidt, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the basics of semantic web technologies and indexing languages, and describes their contribution to improve languages as a tool for subject queries and knowledge exploration. The book is relevant to information scientists, knowledge workers and indexers. It provides a suitable combination of theoretical foundations and practical applications.

  6. Business information query expansion through semantic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiguo; Muyeba, Maybin; Guo, Jingzhi

    2010-02-01

    In this article, we propose a method for business information query expansions. In our approach, hypernym/hyponymy and synonym relations in WordNet are used as the basic expansion rules. Then we use WordNet Lexical Chains and WordNet semantic similarity to assign terms in the same query into different groups with respect to their semantic similarities. For each group, we expand the highest terms in the WordNet hierarchies with hypernym and synonym, the lowest terms with hyponym and synonym and all other terms with only synonym. In this way, the contradictory caused by full expansion can be well controlled. Furthermore, we use collection-related term semantic network to further improve the expansion performance. And our experiment reveals that our solution for query expansion can improve the query performance dramatically.

  7. Latent Semantic Indexing for Patent Information

    OpenAIRE

    Ryley, Dr. James

    2007-01-01

    Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) promises more accurate retrieval of information by incorporating statistical information on term meaning and frequency while retrieving documents as a result of a search. LSI’s precision and accuracy has been proven many times on test corpora, but the world’s patent literature poses a significant challenge in effectively implementing an LSI search engine due the size and heterogeneity of the patent corpus. Some of the factors which must be addressed to realize...

  8. Semantic Web Technologies as the Foundation for the Information Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosterom, Peter; Zlatanova, S.; Van Harmelen, Frank; Van Oosterom, Peter; Zlatanova, S

    2008-01-01

    The Semantic Web is arising over the pas few years as a realistic option for a world wide Information Infrastructure, with its promises of semantic interoperability and serendipitous reuse. In this paper we will analyse the essential ingredients of semantic technologies, what makes them suitable as

  9. Non-Spatial and Geospatial Semantic Query of Health Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, S.; Anton, François; Mioc, Darka

    2012-01-01

    -spatial semantics of health data, using ontologies and rules. Utilizing the spatial component of health data can assist in the understanding of health phenomena. This research proposes a semantic health information query architecture that allows the incorporation of both non-spatial semantics and geospatial...

  10. Semantic Preview Benefit in English: Individual Differences in the Extraction and Use of Parafoveal Semantic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Although there is robust evidence that skilled readers of English extract and use orthographic and phonological information from the parafovea to facilitate word identification, semantic preview benefits have been elusive. We sought to establish whether individual differences in the extraction and/or use of parafoveal semantic information could…

  11. Secure Sensor Semantic Web and Information Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-25

    Matrix Anal. Appl ., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 1812–1834, Mar. 2010. 5 K. Hoffman, D. Zage, and C. Nita-Rotaru, “A survey of attack and defense techniques...published FBI reports. This research significantly expanded semantic analysis of free text by 1) quantifying semantic content and semantic context, 2

  12. Extracting Semantic Information from Visual Data: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional environment maps built by mobile robots include both metric ones and topological ones. These maps are navigation-oriented and not adequate for service robots to interact with or serve human users who normally rely on the conceptual knowledge or semantic contents of the environment. Therefore, the construction of semantic maps becomes necessary for building an effective human-robot interface for service robots. This paper reviews recent research and development in the field of visual-based semantic mapping. The main focus is placed on how to extract semantic information from visual data in terms of feature extraction, object/place recognition and semantic representation methods.

  13. A semantic medical multimedia retrieval approach using ontology information hiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kehua; Zhang, Shigeng

    2013-01-01

    Searching useful information from unstructured medical multimedia data has been a difficult problem in information retrieval. This paper reports an effective semantic medical multimedia retrieval approach which can reflect the users' query intent. Firstly, semantic annotations will be given to the multimedia documents in the medical multimedia database. Secondly, the ontology that represented semantic information will be hidden in the head of the multimedia documents. The main innovations of this approach are cross-type retrieval support and semantic information preservation. Experimental results indicate a good precision and efficiency of our approach for medical multimedia retrieval in comparison with some traditional approaches.

  14. A Semantic Medical Multimedia Retrieval Approach Using Ontology Information Hiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kehua; Zhang, Shigeng

    2013-01-01

    Searching useful information from unstructured medical multimedia data has been a difficult problem in information retrieval. This paper reports an effective semantic medical multimedia retrieval approach which can reflect the users' query intent. Firstly, semantic annotations will be given to the multimedia documents in the medical multimedia database. Secondly, the ontology that represented semantic information will be hidden in the head of the multimedia documents. The main innovations of this approach are cross-type retrieval support and semantic information preservation. Experimental results indicate a good precision and efficiency of our approach for medical multimedia retrieval in comparison with some traditional approaches. PMID:24082915

  15. GIS information organization based on the Semantic Geospatial Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxia; Su, Xuming; Li, Ke

    2008-10-01

    People typically use geographic names instead of coordinates to find geographic information on the web through a search engine. But the current keyword-based web search engines are poorly adapted to help people find information that relates to a particular geographic name, because they don't incorporate the geospatial semantic during the search process. The Semantic Web is a new semantic-based information-retrieval environment. We propose the information organization framework of the GIS semantic data according to the architecture of the Semantic Web, that is, the ontology, the metadata and the data source. Then we deal with the organization of the semantic data based on the three-layered framework respectively. As a focus, we present a novel method to disambiguate geographical name based on the ontology of the place.

  16. Extracting Useful Semantic Information from Large Scale Corpora of Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Ray Padilla, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Extracting and representing semantic information from large scale corpora is at the crux of computer-assisted knowledge generation. Semantic information depends on collocation extraction methods, mathematical models used to represent distributional information, and weighting functions which transform the space. This dissertation provides a…

  17. Developing Visualization Techniques for Semantics-based Information Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.; Hall, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Information systems incorporating complex network structured information spaces with a semantic underpinning - such as hypermedia networks, semantic networks, topic maps, and concept maps - are being deployed to solve some of NASA s critical information management problems. This paper describes some of the human interaction and navigation problems associated with complex semantic information spaces and describes a set of new visual interface approaches to address these problems. A key strategy is to leverage semantic knowledge represented within these information spaces to construct abstractions and views that will be meaningful to the human user. Human-computer interaction methodologies will guide the development and evaluation of these approaches, which will benefit deployed NASA systems and also apply to information systems based on the emerging Semantic Web.

  18. Ontology-Based Information Visualization: Toward Semantic Web Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluit, Christiaan; Sabou, Marta; Harmelen, Frank van

    2006-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an extension of the current World Wide Web, based on the idea of exchanging information with explicit, formal, and machine-accessible descriptions of meaning. Providing information with such semantics will enable the construction of applications that have an increased awareness

  19. Propagating semantic information in biochemical network models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To enable automatic searches, alignments, and model combination, the elements of systems biology models need to be compared and matched across models. Elements can be identified by machine-readable biological annotations, but assigning such annotations and matching non-annotated elements is tedious work and calls for automation. Results A new method called "semantic propagation" allows the comparison of model elements based not only on their own annotations, but also on annotations of surrounding elements in the network. One may either propagate feature vectors, describing the annotations of individual elements, or quantitative similarities between elements from different models. Based on semantic propagation, we align partially annotated models and find annotations for non-annotated model elements. Conclusions Semantic propagation and model alignment are included in the open-source library semanticSBML, available on sourceforge. Online services for model alignment and for annotation prediction can be used at http://www.semanticsbml.org.

  20. Improving life sciences information retrieval using semantic web technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Dennis

    2007-05-01

    The ability to retrieve relevant information is at the heart of every aspect of research and development in the life sciences industry. Information is often distributed across multiple systems and recorded in a way that makes it difficult to piece together the complete picture. Differences in data formats, naming schemes and network protocols amongst information sources, both public and private, must be overcome, and user interfaces not only need to be able to tap into these diverse information sources but must also assist users in filtering out extraneous information and highlighting the key relationships hidden within an aggregated set of information. The Semantic Web community has made great strides in proposing solutions to these problems, and many efforts are underway to apply Semantic Web techniques to the problem of information retrieval in the life sciences space. This article gives an overview of the principles underlying a Semantic Web-enabled information retrieval system: creating a unified abstraction for knowledge using the RDF semantic network model; designing semantic lenses that extract contextually relevant subsets of information; and assembling semantic lenses into powerful information displays. Furthermore, concrete examples of how these principles can be applied to life science problems including a scenario involving a drug discovery dashboard prototype called BioDash are provided.

  1. Deep Aesthetic Quality Assessment With Semantic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yueying; He, Ran; Huang, Kaiqi

    2017-03-01

    Human beings often assess the aesthetic quality of an image coupled with the identification of the image's semantic content. This paper addresses the correlation issue between automatic aesthetic quality assessment and semantic recognition. We cast the assessment problem as the main task among a multi-task deep model, and argue that semantic recognition task offers the key to address this problem. Based on convolutional neural networks, we employ a single and simple multi-task framework to efficiently utilize the supervision of aesthetic and semantic labels. A correlation item between these two tasks is further introduced to the framework by incorporating the inter-task relationship learning. This item not only provides some useful insight about the correlation but also improves assessment accuracy of the aesthetic task. In particular, an effective strategy is developed to keep a balance between the two tasks, which facilitates to optimize the parameters of the framework. Extensive experiments on the challenging Aesthetic Visual Analysis dataset and Photo.net dataset validate the importance of semantic recognition in aesthetic quality assessment, and demonstrate that multitask deep models can discover an effective aesthetic representation to achieve the state-of-the-art results.

  2. Semantics of interdisciplinary data and information integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P.; Raskin, R.; Sinha, A. K.

    2009-05-01

    We have developed an application of semantic web methods and technologies to address the integration of interdisciplinary earth-science datasets. The specific use case addresses seeking and using atmospheric chemistry and volcano geochemistry datasets. We have developed an integration framework based on semantic descriptions (ontologies) of the linking relations between the application domains. In doing this, we have extensively leveraged and existing ontology frameworks such as SWEET, VSTO and GEON as well as included extentions of them when needed. We present the components of this application, including the ontologies, the registration of datasets with ontologies at several levels of granularity, the data sources, and application results from the use case. We will also present the cur rent and near-future capabilities we are developing. This work arises from the Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project, which is an NASA/ESTO/ACCESS-funded project performed in part by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), McGuinness Associates, NASA/JPL and Virginia Polytechnic University.

  3. Semantic representations for collaborative, distributed scientific information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantor, M.; Joslyn, C.; Kantor, M.

    1997-08-01

    It is vital for Los Alamos to respond to the challenge presented by the ongoing revolution in Information Science and Technology. Distributed Information Systems (DIS) are having a profound affect not only in science, but in society in general. In view of their increasing role in the management of scientific information, in national security and intelligence, and certainly as objects of scientific inquiry themselves, these DIS need to be designed and studied from a scientific perspective. The technological developments over the last ten years, the Internet and the World-Wide Web (www) in particular, have been breakthroughs, allowing for the construction of non-linear, hypertextually based, DIS. And yet most of these DIS are still constructed by hand, and have the properties and architectures of the prior paradigm based on books and libraries, with strictly hierarchical categorization designed with many hours of human effort. Our broader vision is based on an organismal model where DIS are adaptable and evolutionary, scalable, highly connected, high dimensional, resilient, and admitting to many complementary views and orderings. The key development necessary to support this view is the representation of semantic information in DIS. We propose a set of software developments and experiments which will both construct novel DIS with explicit semantic representations, and measure the semantic properties of existing DIS. For DIS design, we propose an architecture called Semantic Webs, where a binary multigraph representation relates a number of nodes according to a variety of semantic categories, each partially ordered. The ontological relations among the semantic categories allows a dynamic among them, and thus for the DIS to be self-modifying and adaptive, suggesting new links as a form of inference. These structures will be implemented as Java add-ons in existing browsers. Semantic categories will be represented as hypertext links, with type indicated by anchor color.

  4. TOWARD SEMANTIC WEB INFRASTRUCTURE FOR SPATIAL FEATURES' INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arabsheibani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Web and its capabilities can be employed as a tool for data and information integration if comprehensive datasets and appropriate technologies and standards enable the web with interpretation and easy alignment of data and information. Semantic Web along with the spatial functionalities enable the web to deal with the huge amount of data and information. The present study investigate the advantages and limitations of the Spatial Semantic Web and compare its capabilities with relational models in order to build a spatial data infrastructure. An architecture is proposed and a set of criteria is defined for the efficiency evaluation. The result demonstrate that when using the data with special characteristics such as schema dynamicity, sparse data or available relations between the features, the spatial semantic web and graph databases with spatial operations are preferable.

  5. Semantic reasoning with XML-based biomedical information models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Martin J; Das, Amar

    2010-01-01

    The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is increasingly being used for biomedical data exchange. The parallel growth in the use of ontologies in biomedicine presents opportunities for combining the two technologies to leverage the semantic reasoning services provided by ontology-based tools. There are currently no standardized approaches for taking XML-encoded biomedical information models and representing and reasoning with them using ontologies. To address this shortcoming, we have developed a workflow and a suite of tools for transforming XML-based information models into domain ontologies encoded using OWL. In this study, we applied semantics reasoning methods to these ontologies to automatically generate domain-level inferences. We successfully used these methods to develop semantic reasoning methods for information models in the HIV and radiological image domains.

  6. Ontology-based information visualization : Toward semantic web applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluit, Christiaan; Sabou, Marta; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This chapter has demonstrated an elegant way to visually represent ontological data. We have described how the Cluster Map visualization can use ontologies to create expressive information visualizations, with the attractive property that classes and objects that are semantically related are also

  7. A characteristics framework for Semantic Information Systems Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, B.; Folmer, E.J.A.; Ebner, V.

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Information Systems (IS) Standards play a critical role in the development of the networked economy. While their importance is undoubted by all stakeholders-such as businesses, policy makers, researchers, developers-the current state of research leaves a number of questions unaddressed.

  8. Probabilistic Information Integration and Retrieval in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predoiu, Livia

    The Semantic Web (SW) has been envisioned to enable software tools or Web Services, respectively, to process information provided on the Web automatically. For this purpose, languages for representing the semantics of data by means of ontologies have been proposed such as RDF(S) and OWL. While the semantics of RDF(S) requires a non-standard model-theory that goes beyond first order logics, OWL is intended to model subsets of first order logics. OWL consists of three variants that are layered on each other. The less expressive variants OWL-Light and OWL-DL correspond to the Description Logics {SHIF}(D) and {SHOIN}(D) [1], respectively, and thus to subsets of First Order Logics [2].

  9. Information Extraction Using Distant Supervision and Semantic Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARK, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Information extraction is one of the main research tasks in natural language processing and text mining that extracts useful information from unstructured sentences. Information extraction techniques include named entity recognition, relation extraction, and co-reference resolution. Among them, relation extraction refers to a task that extracts semantic relations between entities such as personal and geographic names in documents. This is an important research area, which is used in knowledge base construction and question and answering systems. This study presents relation extraction using a distant supervision learning technique among semi-supervised learning methods, which have been spotlighted in recent years to reduce human manual work and costs required for supervised learning. That is, this study proposes a method that can improve relation extraction by improving a distant supervision learning technique by applying a clustering method to create a learning corpus and semantic analysis for relation extraction that is difficult to identify using existing distant supervision. Through comparison experiments of various semantic similarity comparison methods, similarity calculation methods that are useful to relation extraction using distant supervision are searched, and a large number of accurate relation triples can be extracted using the proposed structural advantages and semantic similarity comparison.

  10. Semantic Information Modeling for Emerging Applications in Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Natarajan, Sreedhar; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor

    2012-04-16

    Smart Grid modernizes power grid by integrating digital and information technologies. Millions of smart meters, intelligent appliances and communication infrastructures are under deployment allowing advanced IT applications to be developed to secure and manage power grid operations. Demand response (DR) is one such emerging application to optimize electricity demand by curtailing/shifting power load when peak load occurs. Existing DR approaches are mostly based on static plans such as pricing policies and load shedding schedules. However, improvements to power management applications rely on data emanating from existing and new information sources with the growth of Smart Grid information space. In particular, dynamic DR algorithms depend on information from smart meters that report interval-based power consumption measurement, HVAC systems that monitor buildings heat and humidity, and even weather forecast services. In order for emerging Smart Grid applications to take advantage of the diverse data influx, extensible information integration is required. In this paper, we develop an integrated Smart Grid information model using Semantic Web techniques and present case studies of using semantic information for dynamic DR. We show the semantic model facilitates information integration and knowledge representation for developing the next generation Smart Grid applications.

  11. Semantic-Based Information Retrieval of Biomedical Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Yu [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL; Hurson, Ali R. [Pennsylvania State University; Yan, Peng [Pennsylvania State University

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to improve the effectiveness of biomedical information retrieval via a medical thesaurus. We analyzed the deficiencies of the existing medical thesauri and reconstructed a new thesaurus, called MEDTHES, which follows the ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2003 standard. MEDTHES also endows the users with fine-grained control of information retrieval by providing functions to calculate the semantic similarity between words. We demonstrate the usage of MEDTHES through an existing data search engine.

  12. A semantic-based approach to information processing

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Ray

    1994-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis is centred around the development of a semantic based approach to information processing. Traditional word-based pattern matching approaches to information processing suffer from both the richness and ambiguousness of natural language. Although retrieval performances of traditional systems can be satisfactory in many situations, it is commonly held that the traditional approach has reached the peak of its potential and any substantial improvements will be ...

  13. Information Sharing on the Semantic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Harmelen, Frank Van

    2003-01-01

    The large-scale and almost ubiquitous availability of information has become as much of a curse as it is a blessing. The more information is available, the harder it is to locate any particular piece of it. And even when it has been successfully found, it is even harder still to usefully combine it

  14. Semantic association ranking schemes for information retrieval ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... relevance, multimedia, information, video, image, answer, text}. Doc 9. {google, search, engine, personalization, information, text, multimedia}. Figure 8. Term association graph on real data with 50 nodes. Table 6. User search interest value table. Session ID. Software. Algorithms. Healthcare. Sports. Movies. Music. S1.

  15. Life, Information, Entropy, and Time: Vehicles for Semantic Inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofts, Antony R

    2007-01-01

    Attempts to understand how information content can be included in an accounting of the energy flux of the biosphere have led to the conclusion that, in information transmission, one component, the semantic content, or "the meaning of the message," adds no thermodynamic burden over and above costs arising from coding, transmission and translation. In biology, semantic content has two major roles. For all life forms, the message of the genotype encoded in DNA specifies the phenotype, and hence the organism that is tested against the real world through the mechanisms of Darwinian evolution. For human beings, communication through language and similar abstractions provides an additional supra-phenotypic vehicle for semantic inheritance, which supports the cultural heritages around which civilizations revolve. The following three postulates provide the basis for discussion of a number of themes that demonstrate some important consequences. (i) Information transmission through either pathway has thermodynamic components associated with data storage and transmission. (ii) The semantic content adds no additional thermodynamic cost. (iii) For all semantic exchange, meaning is accessible only through translation and interpretation, and has a value only in context. (1) For both pathways of semantic inheritance, translational and copying machineries are imperfect. As a consequence both pathways are subject to mutation and to evolutionary pressure by selection. Recognition of semantic content as a common component allows an understanding of the relationship between genes and memes, and a reformulation of Universal Darwinism. (2) The emergent properties of life are dependent on a processing of semantic content. The translational steps allow amplification in complexity through combinatorial possibilities in space and time. Amplification depends on the increased potential for complexity opened by 3D interaction specificity of proteins, and on the selection of useful variants by

  16. The geographical ontology, LDAP, and the space information semantic grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Li, Deren

    2005-10-01

    The research purpose is to discuss the development trend and theory of the semantic integration and interoperability of Geography Information Systems on the network ages and to point out that the geography ontology is the foregone conclusion of the development of the semantic-based integration and interoperability of Geography Information Systems. After analyzing the effect by using the various new technologies, the paper proposes new idea for the family of the ontology class based on the GIS knowledge built here. They are the basic ontology, the domain ontology and the application ontology and are very useful for the sharing and transferring of the semantic information between the complicated distributed systems and object abstracting. The main contributions of the paper are as follows: 1) For the first time taking the ontology and LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) in creating and optimizing the architecture of Spatial Information Gird and accelerating the fusion of Geography Information System and other domain's information systems. 2) For the first time, introducing a hybrid method to build geography ontology. This hybrid method mixes the excellence of the independent domain expert and data mining. It improves the efficiency of the method of the domain expert and builds ontology semi-automatically. 3) For the first time, implementing the many-to-many relationship of integration ontology system by LDAP's reference and creating ontology-based virtual organization that could provide transparent service to guests.

  17. Bridging the semantics gap between terminologies, ontologies, and information models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; Schober, Daniel; Daniel, Christel; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2010-01-01

    SNOMED CT and other biomedical vocabularies provide semantic identifiers for all kinds of linguistic expressions, many of which cannot be considered terms in a strict sense. We analyzed such "non-terms" in SNOMED CT and concluded that many of them cannot be interpreted as directly referring to objects or processes, but rather to information entities. Discussing two approaches to represent information entities, viz. the OBO Information artifact ontology (IAO) and the HL7 v3 Reference Information Model (RIM), we propose an integrative solution for representing information entities in SNOMED CT, in a way that is still compatible with RIM and the IAO and uses moderately enhanced description logics.

  18. Semantic association ranking schemes for information retrieval ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Most of the Information Retrieval (IR) techniques are based on representing the documents using the traditional vector space and probabilistic language model i.e., bag-of- words model. In this paper, associations among words in the documents are assessed and it is expressed in Term Association Graph model to represent ...

  19. Emergent Semantics Interoperability in Large-Scale Decentralized Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cudré-Mauroux, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Peer-to-peer systems are evolving with new information-system architectures, leading to the idea that the principles of decentralization and self-organization will offer new approaches in informatics, especially for systems that scale with the number of users or for which central authorities do not prevail. This book describes a new way of building global agreements (semantic interoperability) based only on decentralized, self-organizing interactions.

  20. Semantic information can facilitate covert face recognition in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, Davide; Schmalzl, Laura; Coltheart, Max; Palermo, Romina

    2010-11-01

    People with congenital prosopagnosia have never developed the ability to accurately recognize faces. This single case investigation systematically investigates covert and overt face recognition in "C.," a 69 year-old woman with congenital prosopagnosia. Specifically, we: (a) describe the first assessment of covert face recognition in congenital prosopagnosia using multiple tasks; (b) show that semantic information can contribute to covert recognition; and (c) provide a theoretical explanation for the mechanisms underlying covert face recognition.

  1. The semantics of similarity in geographic information retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Janowicz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Similarity measures have a long tradition in fields such as information retrieval, artificial intelligence, and cognitive science. Within the last years, these measures have been extended and reused to measure semantic similarity; i.e., for comparing meanings rather than syntactic differences. Various measures for spatial applications have been developed, but a solid foundation for answering what they measure; how they are best applied in information retrieval; which role contextual information plays; and how similarity values or rankings should be interpreted is still missing. It is therefore difficult to decide which measure should be used for a particular application or to compare results from different similarity theories. Based on a review of existing similarity measures, we introduce a framework to specify the semantics of similarity. We discuss similarity-based information retrieval paradigms as well as their implementation in web-based user interfaces for geographic information retrieval to demonstrate the applicability of the framework. Finally, we formulate open challenges for similarity research.

  2. Tibetan Information Extraction Technology Integrated with Event Feature and Semantic Role Labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Fucheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available we integrate with semantic information which is based on syntactic analysis for extracting the Tibetan information. For Tibetan language information extraction, through experiments analyzed, syntactic analysis model which is integrated with information of semantics, as well as the evaluation of program can be used in Tibetan language information extraction task successfully.

  3. Dretske's Semantic Information Theory and Metatheories in Library and Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnevie, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Presents the semantic information theory, formulated by the philosopher Fred Dretske, as a contribution to the discussion of metatheories and their practical implications in library and information science. Highlights include mathematical communication theory; digitization, perception, cognition, and concept formation; information and knowledge;…

  4. The agent-based spatial information semantic grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Zhu, YaQiong; Zhou, Yong; Li, Deren

    2006-10-01

    Analyzing the characteristic of multi-Agent and geographic Ontology, The concept of the Agent-based Spatial Information Semantic Grid (ASISG) is defined and the architecture of the ASISG is advanced. ASISG is composed with Multi-Agents and geographic Ontology. The Multi-Agent Systems are composed with User Agents, General Ontology Agent, Geo-Agents, Broker Agents, Resource Agents, Spatial Data Analysis Agents, Spatial Data Access Agents, Task Execution Agent and Monitor Agent. The architecture of ASISG have three layers, they are the fabric layer, the grid management layer and the application layer. The fabric layer what is composed with Data Access Agent, Resource Agent and Geo-Agent encapsulates the data of spatial information system so that exhibits a conceptual interface for the Grid management layer. The Grid management layer, which is composed with General Ontology Agent, Task Execution Agent and Monitor Agent and Data Analysis Agent, used a hybrid method to manage all resources that were registered in a General Ontology Agent that is described by a General Ontology System. The hybrid method is assembled by resource dissemination and resource discovery. The resource dissemination push resource from Local Ontology Agent to General Ontology Agent and the resource discovery pull resource from the General Ontology Agent to Local Ontology Agents. The Local Ontology Agent is derived from special domain and describes the semantic information of local GIS. The nature of the Local Ontology Agents can be filtrated to construct a virtual organization what could provides a global scheme. The virtual organization lightens the burdens of guests because they need not search information site by site manually. The application layer what is composed with User Agent, Geo-Agent and Task Execution Agent can apply a corresponding interface to a domain user. The functions that ASISG should provide are: 1) It integrates different spatial information systems on the semantic The Grid

  5. Activation of semantic information at the sublexical level during handwriting production: Evidence from inhibition effects of Chinese semantic radicals in the picture-word interference paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuqian; Liao, Yuanlan; Chen, Xianzhe

    2017-08-01

    Using a non-alphabetic language (e.g., Chinese), the present study tested a novel view that semantic information at the sublexical level should be activated during handwriting production. Over 80% of Chinese characters are phonograms, in which semantic radicals represent category information (e.g., 'chair,' 'peach,' 'orange' are related to plants) while phonetic radicals represent phonetic information (e.g., 'wolf,' 'brightness,' 'male,' are all pronounced /lang/). Under different semantic category conditions at the lexical level (semantically related in Experiment 1; semantically unrelated in Experiment 2), the orthographic relatedness and semantic relatedness of semantic radicals in the picture name and its distractor were manipulated under different SOAs (i.e., stimulus onset asynchrony, the interval between the onset of the picture and the onset of the interference word). Two questions were addressed: (1) Is it possible that semantic information could be activated in the sublexical level conditions? (2) How are semantic and orthographic information dynamically accessed in word production? Results showed that both orthographic and semantic information were activated under the present picture-word interference paradigm, dynamically under different SOAs, which supported our view that discussions on semantic processes in the writing modality should be extended to the sublexical level. The current findings provide possibility for building new orthography-phonology-semantics models in writing. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Semantic and phonological information in sentence recall: converging psycholinguistic and neuropsychological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf; Bormann, Tobias; Martin, Randi C

    2011-12-01

    We present one experiment and a neuropsychological case study to investigate to what extent phonological and semantic representations contribute to short-term sentence recall. We modified Potter and Lombardi's (1990) intrusion paradigm, in which retention of a list interferes with sentence recall such that on the list a semantically related lure is presented, which is expected to intrude into sentence recall. In our version, lure words are either semantically related to target words in the sentence or semantically plus phonologically related. With healthy participants, intrusions are more frequent when lure and target overlap phonologically in addition to semantically than when they solely overlap semantically. When this paradigm is applied to a patient with a phonological short-term memory impairment, both lure types induce the same amount of intrusions. These findings indicate that usually phonological information is retained in sentence recall in addition to semantic information.

  7. EIIS: An Educational Information Intelligent Search Engine Supported by Semantic Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Qin; Duan, Ru-Lin; Tang, Yong; Zhu, Zhi-Ting; Yan, Yong-Jian; Guo, Yu-Qing

    2011-01-01

    The semantic web brings a new opportunity for efficient information organization and search. To meet the special requirements of the educational field, this paper proposes an intelligent search engine enabled by educational semantic support service, where three kinds of searches are integrated into Educational Information Intelligent Search (EIIS)…

  8. Enabling task-based information prioritization via semantic web encodings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, James R.

    2016-05-01

    Modern Soldiers rely upon accurate and actionable information technology to achieve mission objectives. While increasingly rich sensor networks for Areas of Operation (AO) can offer many directions for aiding Soldiers, limitations are imposed by current tactical edge systems on the rate that content can be transmitted. Furthermore, mission tasks will often require very specific sets of information which may easily be drowned out by other content sources. Prior research on Quality and Value of Information (QoI/VoI) has aimed to define ways to prioritize information objects based on their intrinsic attributes (QoI) and perceived value to a consumer (VoI). As part of this effort, established ranking approaches for obtaining Subject Matter Expert (SME) recommendations, such as the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) have been considered. However, limited work has been done to tie Soldier context - such as descriptions of their mission and tasks - back to intrinsic attributes of information objects. As a first step toward addressing the above challenges, this work introduces an ontology-backed approach - rooted in Semantic Web publication practices - for expressing both AHP decision hierarchies and corresponding SME feedback. Following a short discussion on related QoI/VoI research, an ontology-based data structure is introduced for supporting evaluation of Information Objects, using AHP rankings designed to facilitate information object prioritization. Consistent with alternate AHP approaches, prioritization in this approach is based on pairwise comparisons between Information Objects with respect to established criteria, as well as on pairwise comparison of the criteria to assess their relative importance. The paper concludes with a discussion of both ongoing and future work.

  9. Medication information extraction with linguistic pattern matching and semantic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasic, Irena; Sarafraz, Farzaneh; Keane, John A; Nenadic, Goran

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a system developed for the 2009 i2b2 Challenge in Natural Language Processing for Clinical Data, whose aim was to automatically extract certain information about medications used by a patient from his/her medical report. The aim was to extract the following information for each medication: name, dosage, mode/route, frequency, duration and reason. The system implements a rule-based methodology, which exploits typical morphological, lexical, syntactic and semantic features of the targeted information. These features were acquired from the training dataset and public resources such as the UMLS and relevant web pages. Information extracted by pattern matching was combined together using context-sensitive heuristic rules. The system was applied to a set of 547 previously unseen discharge summaries, and the extracted information was evaluated against a manually prepared gold standard consisting of 251 documents. The overall ranking of the participating teams was obtained using the micro-averaged F-measure as the primary evaluation metric. The implemented method achieved the micro-averaged F-measure of 81% (with 86% precision and 77% recall), which ranked this system third in the challenge. The significance tests revealed the system's performance to be not significantly different from that of the second ranked system. Relative to other systems, this system achieved the best F-measure for the extraction of duration (53%) and reason (46%). Based on the F-measure, the performance achieved (81%) was in line with the initial agreement between human annotators (82%), indicating that such a system may greatly facilitate the process of extracting relevant information from medical records by providing a solid basis for a manual review process.

  10. EKB: semantic information system for energy-aware monitoring in distributed infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, H.; van der Veldt, K.; Grosso, P.; Liao, X.; de Laat, C.

    2013-01-01

    Most monitoring and discovery systems deployed in computer infrastructures do not take dynamic energy characteristics into consideration, and do not provide the mechanisms to exchange information across systems and administrative domains. Our energy-aware semantic information system, called Energy

  11. Semantics-informed cartography: the case of Piemonte Geological Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Fabrizio; Lombardo, Vincenzo; Mimmo, Dario; Giardino, Marco; Fubelli, Giandomenico

    2016-04-01

    In modern digital geological maps, namely those supported by a large geo-database and devoted to dynamical, interactive representation on WMS-WebGIS services, there is the need to provide, in an explicit form, the geological assumptions used for the design and compilation of the database of the Map, and to get a definition and/or adoption of semantic representation and taxonomies, in order to achieve a formal and interoperable representation of the geologic knowledge. These approaches are fundamental for the integration and harmonisation of geological information and services across cultural (e.g. different scientific disciplines) and/or physical barriers (e.g. administrative boundaries). Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4.0, 2015, http://www.geosciml.org) and the INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/Data_Specifications/INSPIRE_DataSpecification_GE_v3.0rc3.pdf (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. Grounded on these standard vocabularies, schemas and data models, we provide a shared semantic classification of geological data referring to the study case of the synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap", developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Torino (CNR IGG TO) and hosted as a dynamical interactive map on the geoportal of ARPA Piemonte Environmental Agency. The Piemonte Geological Map is grounded on a regional-scale geo-database consisting of some hundreds of GeologicUnits whose thousands instances (Mapped Features, polygons geometry) widely occur in Piemonte region, and each one is bounded by GeologicStructures (Mapped Features, line geometry). GeologicUnits and GeologicStructures have been spatially

  12. Making Semantic Information Work Effectively for Degraded Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    by hyper graphs (Iordanov, 2010), wherein an atom database row can have n-ary relationships and a tuple can be defined as the combination of...Prefuse Semantic Inferencing Pellet, Jena Reasoner Atom Storage Cassandra Keyword Queries Lucene Table 2 - Technologies for Semantic Services...within degraded environments. REFERENCES Iordanov, Borislav. " HyperGraphDB: A Generalized Graph Database ". 1st International Workshop on Graph

  13. Enhancing multilingual latent semantic analysis with term alignment information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Peter A.; Bader, Brett William

    2008-08-01

    Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is based on the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of a term-by-document matrix for identifying relationships among terms and documents from co-occurrence patterns. Among the multiple ways of computing the SVD of a rectangular matrix X, one approach is to compute the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) of a square 2 x 2 composite matrix consisting of four blocks with X and XT in the off-diagonal blocks and zero matrices in the diagonal blocks. We point out that significant value can be added to LSA by filling in some of the values in the diagonal blocks (corresponding to explicit term-to-term or document-to-document associations) and computing a term-by-concept matrix from the EVD. For the case of multilingual LSA, we incorporate information on cross-language term alignments of the same sort used in Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). Since all elements of the proposed EVD-based approach can rely entirely on lexical statistics, hardly any price is paid for the improved empirical results. In particular, the approach, like LSA or SMT, can still be generalized to virtually any language(s); computation of the EVD takes similar resources to that of the SVD since all the blocks are sparse; and the results of EVD are just as economical as those of SVD.

  14. A Semantics-Rich Information Technology Architecture for Smart Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Bonino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The design of smart homes, buildings and environments currently suffers from a low maturity of available methodologies and tools. Technologies, devices and protocols strongly bias the design process towards vertical integration, and more flexible solutions based on separation of design concerns are seldom applied. As a result, the current landscape of smart environments is mostly populated by defectively designed solutions where application requirements (e.g., end-user functionality are too often mixed and intertwined with technical requirements (e.g., managing the network of devices. A mature and effective design process must, instead, rely on a clear separation between the application layer and the underlying enabling technologies, to enable effective design reuse. The role of smart gateways is to enable this separation of concerns and to provide an abstracted view of available automation technology to higher software layers. This paper presents a blueprint for the information technology (IT architecture of smart buildings that builds on top of established software engineering practices, such as model-driven development and semantic representation, and that avoids many pitfalls inherent in legacy approaches. The paper will also present a representative use case where the approach has been applied and the corresponding modeling and software tools.

  15. Latent morpho-semantic analysis : multilingual information retrieval with character n-grams and mutual information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter A.; Abdelali, Ahmed (New Mexico State University)

    2008-08-01

    We describe an entirely statistics-based, unsupervised, and language-independent approach to multilingual information retrieval, which we call Latent Morpho-Semantic Analysis (LMSA). LMSA overcomes some of the shortcomings of related previous approaches such as Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). LMSA has an important theoretical advantage over LSA: it combines well-known techniques in a novel way to break the terms of LSA down into units which correspond more closely to morphemes. Thus, it has a particular appeal for use with morphologically complex languages such as Arabic. We show through empirical results that the theoretical advantages of LMSA can translate into significant gains in precision in multilingual information retrieval tests. These gains are not matched either when a standard stemmer is used with LSA, or when terms are indiscriminately broken down into n-grams.

  16. Early Stages of Sensory Processing, but Not Semantic Integration, Are Altered in Dyslexic Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia B; Ueki, Karen; Oliveira, Darlene G; Boggio, Paulo S; Macedo, Elizeu C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairments in processing spoken and musical auditory information. The present study sought to investigate and compare the performance of 32 adult participants (14 individuals with dyslexia), in semantic processing tasks in two situations with auditory stimuli: sentences and music, with integrated visual stimuli (pictures). From the analysis of the accuracy, both the sentence and the music blocks showed significant effects on the congruency variable, with both groups having higher scores for the incongruent items than for the congruent ones. Furthermore, there was also a group effect when the priming was music, with the dyslexic group showing an inferior performance to the control group, demonstrating greater impairments in processing when the priming was music. Regarding the reaction time variable, a group effect in music and sentence priming was found, with the dyslexic group being slower than the control group. The N400 and P100 components were analyzed. In items with judgment and music priming, a group effect was observed for the amplitude of the P100, with higher means produced by individuals with dyslexia, corroborating the literature that individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in early information processing. A congruency effect was observed in the items with music priming, with greater P100 amplitudes found in incongruous situations. Analyses of the N400 component showed the congruency effect for amplitude in both types of priming, with the mean amplitude for incongruent

  17. Early stages of sensory processing but not semantic integration is altered in dyslexic adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Botelho Da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairments in processing spoken and musical auditory information. The present study sought to investigate and compare the performance of 32 adult participants (14 individuals with dyslexia, in semantic processing tasks in two situations with auditory stimuli: sentences and music, with integrated visual stimuli (pictures. From the analysis of the accuracy, both the sentence and the music blocks showed significant effects on the congruency variable, with both groups having higher scores for the incongruent items than for the congruent ones. Furthermore, there was also a group effect when the priming was music, with the dyslexic group showing an inferior performance to the control group, demonstrating greater impairments in processing when the priming was music. Regarding the reaction time variable, a group effect in music and sentence priming was found, with the dyslexic group being slower than the control group. The N400 and P100 components were analyzed. In items with judgment and music priming, a group effect was observed for the amplitude of the P100, with higher means produced by individuals with dyslexia, corroborating the literature that individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in early information processing. A congruency effect was observed in the items with music priming, with greater P100 amplitudes found in incongruous situations. Analyses of the N400 component showed the congruency effect for amplitude in both types of priming, with the mean

  18. Lottery semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galliani, P.; Mann, A.L.; Kontinen, J.; Väänänen, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a compositional semantics for a logic of imperfect information and prove its equivalence to equilibrium semantics ([10]), thus extending to mixed (rather than just behavioural) strategies part of the work of ([2], [3]).

  19. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2010-12-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design.

  20. Retrograde amnesia for semantic information in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Kollen, A.; Scheltens, P.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal controls were tested on a retrograde amnesia test with semantic content (Neologism and Vocabulary Test, or NVT), consisting of neologisms to be defined. Patients showed a decrement as compared to normal controls, pointing to retrograde

  1. A Validation of Parafoveal Semantic Information Extraction in Reading Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Kliegl, Reinhold; Yan, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Parafoveal semantic processing has recently been well documented in reading Chinese sentences, presumably because of language-specific features. However, because of a large variation of fixation landing positions on pretarget words, some preview words actually were located in foveal vision when readers' eyes landed close to the end of the…

  2. A novel architecture for information retrieval system based on semantic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, the web has enabled an explosive growth of information sharing (there are currently over 4 billion pages covering most areas of human endeavor) so that the web has faced a new challenge of information overhead. The challenge that is now before us is not only to help people locating relevant information precisely but also to access and aggregate a variety of information from different resources automatically. Current web document are in human-oriented formats and they are suitable for the presentation, but machines cannot understand the meaning of document. To address this issue, Berners-Lee proposed a concept of semantic web. With semantic web technology, web information can be understood and processed by machine. It provides new possibilities for automatic web information processing. A main problem of semantic web information retrieval is that when these is not enough knowledge to such information retrieval system, the system will return to a large of no sense result to uses due to a huge amount of information results. In this paper, we present the architecture of information based on semantic web. In addiction, our systems employ the inference Engine to check whether the query should pose to Keyword-based Search Engine or should pose to the Semantic Search Engine.

  3. Semantic structuring of and information extraction from medical documents using the UMLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denecke, K

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces SeReMeD (Semantic Representation of Medical Documents), a method for automatically generating knowledge representations from natural language documents. The suitability of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) as domain knowledge for this method is analyzed. SeReMeD combines existing language engineering methods and semantic transformation rules for mapping syntactic information to semantic roles. In this way, the relevant content of medical documents is mapped to semantic structures. In order to extract specific data, these semantic structures are searched for concepts and semantic roles. A study is carried out that uses SeReMeD to detect specific data in medical narratives such as documented diagnoses or procedures. The system is tested on chest X-ray reports. In first evaluations of the system's performance, the generation of semantic structures achieves a correctness of 80%, whereas the extraction of documented findings obtains values of 93% precision and 83% recall. The results suggest that the methods described here can be used to accurately extract data from medical narratives, although there is also some potential for improving the results. The proposed methods provide two main benefits. By using existing language engineering methods, the effort required to construct a medical information extraction system is reduced. It is also possible to change the domain knowledge and therefore to create a more (or less) specialized system, capable of handling various medical sub-domains.

  4. Theta and Alpha Alterations in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment in Semantic Go/NoGo Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lydia T; Mudar, Raksha A; Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Schneider, Julie M; Maguire, Mandy J; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that cognitive control processes are impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI); however the nature of these alterations needs further examination. The current study examined differences in electroencephalographic theta and alpha power related to cognitive control processes involving response execution and response inhibition in 22 individuals with aMCI and 22 age-, sex-, and education-matched cognitively normal controls. Two Go/NoGo tasks involving semantic categorization were used. In the basic categorization task, Go/NoGo responses were made based on exemplars of a single car (Go) and a single dog (NoGo). In the superordinate categorization task, responses were made based on multiple exemplars of objects (Go) and animals (NoGo). Behavioral data showed that the aMCI group had more false alarms during the NoGo trials compared to controls. The EEG data revealed between group differences related to response type in theta (4-7 Hz) and low-frequency alpha (8-10 Hz) power. In particular, the aMCI group differed from controls in theta power during the NoGo trials at frontal and parietal electrodes, and in low-frequency alpha power during Go trials at parietal electrodes. These results suggest that alterations in theta power converge with behavioral deterioration in response inhibition, whereas alterations in low-frequency alpha power appear to precede behavioral changes in response execution. Both behavioral and electrophysiological correlates combined provide a more comprehensive characterization of cognitive control deficits in aMCI.

  5. Theta and Alpha Alterations in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment in Semantic Go/NoGo Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia T. Nguyen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that cognitive control processes are impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; however the nature of these alterations needs further examination. The current study examined differences in electroencephalographic theta and alpha power related to cognitive control processes involving response execution and response inhibition in 22 individuals with aMCI and 22 age-, sex-, and education-matched cognitively normal controls. Two Go/NoGo tasks involving semantic categorization were used. In the basic categorization task, Go/NoGo responses were made based on exemplars of a single car (Go and a single dog (NoGo. In the superordinate categorization task, responses were made based on multiple exemplars of objects (Go and animals (NoGo. Behavioral data showed that the aMCI group had more false alarms during the NoGo trials compared to controls. The EEG data revealed between group differences related to response type in theta (4–7 Hz and low-frequency alpha (8–10 Hz power. In particular, the aMCI group differed from controls in theta power during the NoGo trials at frontal and parietal electrodes, and in low-frequency alpha power during Go trials at parietal electrodes. These results suggest that alterations in theta power converge with behavioral deterioration in response inhibition, whereas alterations in low-frequency alpha power appear to precede behavioral changes in response execution. Both behavioral and electrophysiological correlates combined provide a more comprehensive characterization of cognitive control deficits in aMCI.

  6. Operationalizing Semantic Medline for meeting the information needs at point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    Scientific literature is one of the popular resources for providing decision support at point of care. It is highly desirable to bring the most relevant literature to support the evidence-based clinical decision making process. Motivated by the recent advance in semantically enhanced information retrieval, we have developed a system, which aims to bring semantically enriched literature, Semantic Medline, to meet the information needs at point of care. This study reports our work towards operationalizing the system for real time use. We demonstrate that the migration of a relational database implementation to a NoSQL (Not only SQL) implementation significantly improves the performance and makes the use of Semantic Medline at point of care decision support possible.

  7. Hybrid Ontology for Semantic Information Retrieval Model Using Keyword Matching Indexing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Uthayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology.

  8. Hybrid ontology for semantic information retrieval model using keyword matching indexing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthayan, K R; Mala, G S Anandha

    2015-01-01

    Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology.

  9. E-Government Goes Semantic Web: How Administrations Can Transform Their Information Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klischewski, Ralf; Ukena, Stefan

    E-government applications and services are built mainly on access to, retrieval of, integration of, and delivery of relevant information to citizens, businesses, and administrative users. In order to perform such information processing automatically through the Semantic Web,1 machine-readable2 enhancements of web resources are needed, based on the understanding of the content and context of the information in focus. While these enhancements are far from trivial to produce, administrations in their role of information and service providers so far find little guidance on how to migrate their web resources and enable a new quality of information processing; even research is still seeking best practices. Therefore, the underlying research question of this chapter is: what are the appropriate approaches which guide administrations in transforming their information processes toward the Semantic Web? In search for answers, this chapter analyzes the challenges and possible solutions from the perspective of administrations: (a) the reconstruction of the information processing in the e-government in terms of how semantic technologies must be employed to support information provision and consumption through the Semantic Web; (b) the required contribution to the transformation is compared to the capabilities and expectations of administrations; and (c) available experience with the steps of transformation are reviewed and discussed as to what extent they can be expected to successfully drive the e-government to the Semantic Web. This research builds on studying the case of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, where semantic technologies have been used within the frame of the Access-eGov3 project in order to semantically enhance electronic service interfaces with the aim of providing a new way of accessing and combining e-government services.

  10. Encoding Sequential Information in Vector Space Models of Semantics: Comparing Holographic Reduced Representation and Random Permutation

    OpenAIRE

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael; Sahlgren, Magnus; Kanerva, Pentti

    2010-01-01

    Encoding information about the order in which words typically appear has been shown to improve the performance of high-dimensional semantic space models. This requires an encoding operation capable of binding together vectors in an order-sensitive way, and efficient enough to scale to large text corpora. Although both circular convolution and random permutations have been enlisted for this purpose in semantic models, these operations have never been systematically compared. In Experiment 1 we...

  11. Semantics of data and service registration to advance interdisciplinary information and data access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P. P.; McGuinness, D. L.; Raskin, R.; Sinha, A. K.

    2008-12-01

    In developing an application of semantic web methods and technologies to address the integration of heterogeneous and interdisciplinary earth-science datasets, we have developed methodologies for creating rich semantic descriptions (ontologies) of the application domains. We have leveraged and extended where possible existing ontology frameworks such as SWEET. As a result of this semantic approach, we have also utilized ontologic descriptions of key enabling elements of the application, such as the registration of datasets with ontologies at several levels of granularity. This has enabled the location and usage of the data across disciplines. We are also realizing the need to develop similar semantic registration of web service data holdings as well as those provided with community and/or standard markup languages (e.g. GeoSciML). This level of semantic enablement extending beyond domain terms and relations significantly enhances our ability to provide a coherent semantic data framework for data and information systems. Much of this work is on the frontier of technology development and we will present the current and near-future capabilities we are developing. This work arises from the Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project, which is an NASA/ESTO/ACCESS-funded project involving the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), McGuinness Associates Consulting, NASA/JPL and Virginia Polytechnic University.

  12. Co-speech gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Hasson, Uri; Skipper, Jeremy I; Small, Steven L

    2009-11-01

    Everyday communication is accompanied by visual information from several sources, including co-speech gestures, which provide semantic information listeners use to help disambiguate the speaker's message. Using fMRI, we examined how gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information. The BOLD response was recorded while participants listened to stories under three audiovisual conditions and one auditory-only (speech alone) condition. In the first audiovisual condition, the storyteller produced gestures that naturally accompany speech. In the second, the storyteller made semantically unrelated hand movements. In the third, the storyteller kept her hands still. In addition to inferior parietal and posterior superior and middle temporal regions, bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and left anterior inferior frontal gyrus responded more strongly to speech when it was further accompanied by gesture, regardless of the semantic relation to speech. However, the right inferior frontal gyrus was sensitive to the semantic import of the hand movements, demonstrating more activity when hand movements were semantically unrelated to the accompanying speech. These findings show that perceiving hand movements during speech modulates the distributed pattern of neural activation involved in both biological motion perception and discourse comprehension, suggesting listeners attempt to find meaning, not only in the words speakers produce, but also in the hand movements that accompany speech.

  13. A critical analysis of Floridi’s theory of semantic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaans, P.

    2010-01-01

    In various publications over the past years, Floridi has developed a theory of semantic information as well-formed, meaningful, and truthful data. This theory is more or less orthogonal to the standard entropy-based notions of information known from physics, information theory, and computer science

  14. The influence of speech rate and accent on access and use of semantic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajin, Stanislav M; Connine, Cynthia M

    2017-04-01

    Circumstances in which the speech input is presented in sub-optimal conditions generally lead to processing costs affecting spoken word recognition. The current study indicates that some processing demands imposed by listening to difficult speech can be mitigated by feedback from semantic knowledge. A set of lexical decision experiments examined how foreign accented speech and word duration impact access to semantic knowledge in spoken word recognition. Results indicate that when listeners process accented speech, the reliance on semantic information increases. Speech rate was not observed to influence semantic access, except in the setting in which unusually slow accented speech was presented. These findings support interactive activation models of spoken word recognition in which attention is modulated based on speech demands.

  15. Integrating semantic information into multiple kernels for protein-protein interaction extraction from biomedical literatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishuang Li

    Full Text Available Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI extraction is an important task in the biomedical information extraction. Presently, many machine learning methods for PPI extraction have achieved promising results. However, the performance is still not satisfactory. One reason is that the semantic resources were basically ignored. In this paper, we propose a multiple-kernel learning-based approach to extract PPIs, combining the feature-based kernel, tree kernel and semantic kernel. Particularly, we extend the shortest path-enclosed tree kernel (SPT by a dynamic extended strategy to retrieve the richer syntactic information. Our semantic kernel calculates the protein-protein pair similarity and the context similarity based on two semantic resources: WordNet and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH. We evaluate our method with Support Vector Machine (SVM and achieve an F-score of 69.40% and an AUC of 92.00%, which show that our method outperforms most of the state-of-the-art systems by integrating semantic information.

  16. Semantic information retrieval for geoscience resources : results and analysis of an online questionnaire of current web search experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Nkisi-Orji, I.

    2016-01-01

    An online questionnaire “Semantic web searches for geoscience resources” was completed by 35 staff of British Geological Survey (BGS) between 28th July 2015 and 28th August 2015. The questionnaire was designed to better understand current web search habits, preferences, and the reception of semantic search features in order to inform PhD research into the use of domain ontologies for semantic information retrieval. The key findings were that relevance ranking is important in fo...

  17. Encoding Sequential Information in Semantic Space Models: Comparing Holographic Reduced Representation and Random Permutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Recchia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Circular convolution and random permutation have each been proposed as neurally plausible binding operators capable of encoding sequential information in semantic memory. We perform several controlled comparisons of circular convolution and random permutation as means of encoding paired associates as well as encoding sequential information. Random permutations outperformed convolution with respect to the number of paired associates that can be reliably stored in a single memory trace. Performance was equal on semantic tasks when using a small corpus, but random permutations were ultimately capable of achieving superior performance due to their higher scalability to large corpora. Finally, “noisy” permutations in which units are mapped to other units arbitrarily (no one-to-one mapping perform nearly as well as true permutations. These findings increase the neurological plausibility of random permutations and highlight their utility in vector space models of semantics.

  18. Encoding sequential information in semantic space models: comparing holographic reduced representation and random permutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Gabriel; Sahlgren, Magnus; Kanerva, Pentti; Jones, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Circular convolution and random permutation have each been proposed as neurally plausible binding operators capable of encoding sequential information in semantic memory. We perform several controlled comparisons of circular convolution and random permutation as means of encoding paired associates as well as encoding sequential information. Random permutations outperformed convolution with respect to the number of paired associates that can be reliably stored in a single memory trace. Performance was equal on semantic tasks when using a small corpus, but random permutations were ultimately capable of achieving superior performance due to their higher scalability to large corpora. Finally, "noisy" permutations in which units are mapped to other units arbitrarily (no one-to-one mapping) perform nearly as well as true permutations. These findings increase the neurological plausibility of random permutations and highlight their utility in vector space models of semantics.

  19. Semantic Web-Based Services for Supporting Voluntary Collaboration among Researchers Using an Information Dissemination Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanmin Jung

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Information dissemination platforms for supporting voluntary collaboration among researchers should assure that controllable and verified information is being disseminated. However, previous related studies on this field narrowed their research scopes into information type and information specification. This paper focuses on the verification and the tracing of information using an information dissemination platform and other Semantic Web-based services. Services on our platform include information dissemination services to support reliable information exchange among researchers and knowledge service to provide unrevealed information. The latter is also divided into the two: knowledgization using ontology and inference using a Semantic Web-based inference engine. This paper discusses how this platform supports instant knowledge addition and inference. We demonstrate our approach by constructing an ontology for national R&D reference information using 37,656 RDF triples from about 2,300 KISTI (Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information outcomes. Three knowledge services including 'Communities of Practice', 'Researcher Tracing,' and 'Research Map' were implemented on our platform using a Jena framework. Our study shows that information dissemination platforms will make a meaningful contribution to the possibility of realizing a practical Semantic Web-based information dissemination platform.

  20. Contexts for concepts: Information modeling for semantic interoperability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; Stap, R.E.; Quartel, D.

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual information modeling is a well-established practice, aimed at preparing the implementation of information systems, the specification of electronic message formats, and the design of information processes. Today's ever more connected world however poses new challenges for conceptual

  1. What do information reuse and automated processing require in engineering design? Semantic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossi Nykänen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to characterize, analyze, and demonstrate machine-understandable semantic process for validating, integrating, and processing technical design information. This establishes both a vision and tools for information reuse and semi-automatic processing in engineering design projects, including virtual machine laboratory applications with generated components.Design/methodology/approach: The process model has been developed iteratively in terms of action research, constrained by the existing technical design practices and assumptions (design documents, expert feedback, available technologies (pre-studies and experiments with scripting and pipeline tools, benchmarking with other process models and methods (notably the RUP and DITA, and formal requirements (computability and the critical information paths for the generated applications. In practice, the work includes both quantitative and qualitative components.Findings: Technical design processes may be greatly enhanced in terms of semantic process thinking, by enriching design information, and automating information validation and transformation tasks. Contemporary design information, however, is mainly intended for human consumption, and needs to be explicitly enriched with the currently missing data and interfaces. In practice, this may require acknowledging the role of technical information or knowledge engineer, to lead the development of the semantic design information process in a design organization. There is also a trade-off between machine-readability and system complexity that needs to be studied further, both empirically and in theory.Research limitations/implications: The conceptualization of the semantic process is essentially an abstraction based on the idea of progressive design. While this effectively allows implementing semantic processes with, e.g., pipeline technologies, the abstraction is valid only when technical design is organized into

  2. METHODS OF TEXT INFORMATION CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL AND SEMANTIC NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Serebryanaya; V. V. Potaraev

    2016-01-01

    The article covers the use of perseptron, Hopfild artificial neural network and semantic network for classification of text information. Network training algorithms are studied. An algorithm of inverse mistake spreading for perceptron network and convergence algorithm for Hopfild network are implemented. On the basis of the offered models and algorithms automatic text classification software is developed and its operation results are evaluated.

  3. Thesaurus-Based Hierarchical Semantic Grouping of Medical Terms in Information Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassoued, Yassine; Deleris, Léa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe a semantic approach for grouping medical terms into a hierarchy of concepts based on the UMLS meta-thesaurus. The context of this work is Medical Recap, a Web system that automatically extracts risk information from PubMed abstracts, and then aggregates this knowledge into dependence graphs or Bayesian networks.

  4. SWHi system description : A case study in information retrieval, inference, and visualization in the Semantic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahmi, Ismail; Zhang, Junte; Ellermann, Henk; Bouma, Gosse; Franconi, E; Kifer, M; May, W

    2007-01-01

    Search engines have become the most popular tools for finding information on the Internet. A real-world Semantic Web application can benefit from this by combining its features with some features from search engines. In this paper, we describe methods for indexing and searching a populated ontology

  5. Semantic illusion depends on information structure: ERP evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Hagoort, P.; Yang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Next to propositional content, speakers distribute information in their utterances in such a way that listeners can make a distinction between new (focused) and given (non-focused) information. This is referred to as information structure. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the

  6. Similar alterations in brain function for phonological and semantic processing to visual characters in Chinese dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Wenjing; You, Wenping; Li, Yi; Awati, Neha; Zhao, Xu; Booth, James R; Peng, Danling

    2012-07-01

    Dyslexia in alphabetic languages has been extensively investigated and suggests a central deficit in orthography to phonology mapping in the left hemisphere. Compared to dyslexia in alphabetic languages, the central deficit for Chinese dyslexia is still unclear. Because of the logographic nature of Chinese characters, some have suggested that Chinese dyslexia should have larger deficits in the semantic system. To investigate this, Chinese children with reading disability (RD) were compared to typically developing (TD) children using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on a rhyming judgment task and on a semantic association judgment task. RD children showed less activation for both tasks in right visual (BA18, 19) and left occipito-temporal cortex (BA 37), suggesting a deficit in visuo-orthographic processing. RD children also showed less activation for both tasks in left inferior frontal gyrus (BA44), which additionally showed significant correlations with activation of bilateral visuo-orthographic regions in the RD group, suggesting that the abnormalities in frontal cortex and in posterior visuo-orthographic regions may reflect a deficit in the connection between brain regions. Analyses failed to reveal larger differences between groups for the semantic compared to the rhyming task, suggesting that Chinese dyslexia is similarly impaired in the access to phonology and to semantics from the visual orthography. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Semantic Registry Method Using Sensor Metadata Ontology to Manage Heterogeneous Sensor Information in the Geospatial Sensor Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficient information management and precise discovery of heterogeneous sensors in the Geospatial Sensor Web (GSW are a major challenge. Intelligent sensor management requires a registry service to store and process sensor information efficiently. In this paper, we propose a Sensor Metadata Ontology (SMO to achieve a unified semantic description for heterogeneous sensors that is used to express sensor semantics. Through mapping between the sensor registry information model and the SMO, the sensor metadata could be stored with semantic information for the registry. The framework of a Sensor Semantic Registry Service (SSRS has been successfully implemented for the registration and discovery of heterogeneous sensors. The results of GEOSENSOR-SSRS experiments show that the proposed semantic registry method can be used to enable sharing in an open distributed sensor network as well as to promote accuracy and efficiency of discovery.

  8. A novel software architecture for the provision of context-aware semantic transport information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Asier; Perallos, Asier; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Onieva, Enrique; Salaberria, Itziar; Masegosa, Antonio D

    2015-05-26

    The effectiveness of Intelligent Transportation Systems depends largely on the ability to integrate information from diverse sources and the suitability of this information for the specific user. This paper describes a new approach for the management and exchange of this information, related to multimodal transportation. A novel software architecture is presented, with particular emphasis on the design of the data model and the enablement of services for information retrieval, thereby obtaining a semantic model for the representation of transport information. The publication of transport data as semantic information is established through the development of a Multimodal Transport Ontology (MTO) and the design of a distributed architecture allowing dynamic integration of transport data. The advantages afforded by the proposed system due to the use of Linked Open Data and a distributed architecture are stated, comparing it with other existing solutions. The adequacy of the information generated in regard to the specific user's context is also addressed. Finally, a working solution of a semantic trip planner using actual transport data and running on the proposed architecture is presented, as a demonstration and validation of the system.

  9. A Novel Software Architecture for the Provision of Context-Aware Semantic Transport Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Moreno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Intelligent Transportation Systems depends largely on the ability to integrate information from diverse sources and the suitability of this information for the specific user. This paper describes a new approach for the management and exchange of this information, related to multimodal transportation. A novel software architecture is presented, with particular emphasis on the design of the data model and the enablement of services for information retrieval, thereby obtaining a semantic model for the representation of transport information. The publication of transport data as semantic information is established through the development of a Multimodal Transport Ontology (MTO and the design of a distributed architecture allowing dynamic integration of transport data. The advantages afforded by the proposed system due to the use of Linked Open Data and a distributed architecture are stated, comparing it with other existing solutions. The adequacy of the information generated in regard to the specific user’s context is also addressed. Finally, a working solution of a semantic trip planner using actual transport data and running on the proposed architecture is presented, as a demonstration and validation of the system.

  10. A Novel Software Architecture for the Provision of Context-Aware Semantic Transport Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Asier; Perallos, Asier; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Onieva, Enrique; Salaberria, Itziar; Masegosa, Antonio D.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Intelligent Transportation Systems depends largely on the ability to integrate information from diverse sources and the suitability of this information for the specific user. This paper describes a new approach for the management and exchange of this information, related to multimodal transportation. A novel software architecture is presented, with particular emphasis on the design of the data model and the enablement of services for information retrieval, thereby obtaining a semantic model for the representation of transport information. The publication of transport data as semantic information is established through the development of a Multimodal Transport Ontology (MTO) and the design of a distributed architecture allowing dynamic integration of transport data. The advantages afforded by the proposed system due to the use of Linked Open Data and a distributed architecture are stated, comparing it with other existing solutions. The adequacy of the information generated in regard to the specific user’s context is also addressed. Finally, a working solution of a semantic trip planner using actual transport data and running on the proposed architecture is presented, as a demonstration and validation of the system. PMID:26016915

  11. Encoding Sequential Information in Semantic Space Models: Comparing Holographic Reduced Representation and Random Permutation

    OpenAIRE

    Recchia, Gabriel; Sahlgren, Magnus; Kanerva, Pentti; Jones, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    Circular convolution and random permutation have each been proposed as neurally plausible binding operators capable of encoding sequential information in semantic memory. We perform several controlled comparisons of circular convolution and random permutation as means of encoding paired associates as well as encoding sequential information. Random permutations outperformed convolution with respect to the number of paired associates that can be reliably stored in a single memory trace. Perform...

  12. Semantic Integration of Verbal Information Into a Visual Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. These experiments investigate how information supplied after an event influences a witness's memory for that event. Results suggest that information supplied a witness after an event, whether inconsistent or misleading, is…

  13. STRUCTURAL AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF ONLINE INFORMATION RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Georgievich Zubkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Information society is a global economic, political, technological and antroposocial project involving controlled civilizational transition to the world social system in which the dominant role in all spheres of life will play a mass communication system, implemented with the help of computer technology, particularly Internet technology. The question of formation and presentation of information is highly relevant today. The world community has entered a transitional stage from its post-industrial state to the informational. At this stage of the development, society is increasingly dependent on the quality, availability, reliability, timeliness of information, which is created by its own representatives. Especially clearly it is evident in the Internet space, where all information flows merge into a single closed and continuously update system that has its own characteristics, features and qualities.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-4-7

  14. The Construction of Semantic Memory: Grammar-Based Representations Learned from Relational Episodic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Francesco P.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.

    2011-01-01

    After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation), collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside–outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of “sleep replay” of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata. PMID:21887143

  15. The construction of semantic memory: grammar based representations learned from relational episodic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco P Battaglia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation, collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside-outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of ``sleep replay'' of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata.

  16. The construction of semantic memory: grammar-based representations learned from relational episodic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Francesco P; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2011-01-01

    After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation), collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside-outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of "sleep replay" of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata.

  17. Care episode retrieval: distributional semantic models for information retrieval in the clinical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Hans; Ginter, Filip; Marsi, Erwin; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Salakoski, Tapio; Salanterä, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Patients' health related information is stored in electronic health records (EHRs) by health service providers. These records include sequential documentation of care episodes in the form of clinical notes. EHRs are used throughout the health care sector by professionals, administrators and patients, primarily for clinical purposes, but also for secondary purposes such as decision support and research. The vast amounts of information in EHR systems complicate information management and increase the risk of information overload. Therefore, clinicians and researchers need new tools to manage the information stored in the EHRs. A common use case is, given a--possibly unfinished--care episode, to retrieve the most similar care episodes among the records. This paper presents several methods for information retrieval, focusing on care episode retrieval, based on textual similarity, where similarity is measured through domain-specific modelling of the distributional semantics of words. Models include variants of random indexing and the semantic neural network model word2vec. Two novel methods are introduced that utilize the ICD-10 codes attached to care episodes to better induce domain-specificity in the semantic model. We report on experimental evaluation of care episode retrieval that circumvents the lack of human judgements regarding episode relevance. Results suggest that several of the methods proposed outperform a state-of-the art search engine (Lucene) on the retrieval task.

  18. I See What You Mean: Theta Power Increases Are Involved in the Retrieval of Lexical Semantic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaansen, Marcel C. M.; Oostenveld, Robert; Jensen, Ole; Hagoort, Peter

    2008-01-01

    An influential hypothesis regarding the neural basis of the mental lexicon is that semantic representations are neurally implemented as distributed networks carrying sensory, motor and/or more abstract functional information. This work investigates whether the semantic properties of words partly determine the topography of such networks. Subjects…

  19. Bim-Gis Integrated Geospatial Information Model Using Semantic Web and Rdf Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, A.-H.; Jadidi, A.; Sohn, G.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, 3D virtual indoor/outdoor urban modelling becomes a key spatial information framework for many civil and engineering applications such as evacuation planning, emergency and facility management. For accomplishing such sophisticate decision tasks, there is a large demands for building multi-scale and multi-sourced 3D urban models. Currently, Building Information Model (BIM) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are broadly used as the modelling sources. However, data sharing and exchanging information between two modelling domains is still a huge challenge; while the syntactic or semantic approaches do not fully provide exchanging of rich semantic and geometric information of BIM into GIS or vice-versa. This paper proposes a novel approach for integrating BIM and GIS using semantic web technologies and Resources Description Framework (RDF) graphs. The novelty of the proposed solution comes from the benefits of integrating BIM and GIS technologies into one unified model, so-called Integrated Geospatial Information Model (IGIM). The proposed approach consists of three main modules: BIM-RDF and GIS-RDF graphs construction, integrating of two RDF graphs, and query of information through IGIM-RDF graph using SPARQL. The IGIM generates queries from both the BIM and GIS RDF graphs resulting a semantically integrated model with entities representing both BIM classes and GIS feature objects with respect to the target-client application. The linkage between BIM-RDF and GIS-RDF is achieved through SPARQL endpoints and defined by a query using set of datasets and entity classes with complementary properties, relationships and geometries. To validate the proposed approach and its performance, a case study was also tested using IGIM system design.

  20. Correlating Information Contents of Gene Ontology Terms to Infer Semantic Similarity of Gene Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxin Gan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful applications of the gene ontology to the inference of functional relationships between gene products in recent years have raised the need for computational methods to automatically calculate semantic similarity between gene products based on semantic similarity of gene ontology terms. Nevertheless, existing methods, though having been widely used in a variety of applications, may significantly overestimate semantic similarity between genes that are actually not functionally related, thereby yielding misleading results in applications. To overcome this limitation, we propose to represent a gene product as a vector that is composed of information contents of gene ontology terms annotated for the gene product, and we suggest calculating similarity between two gene products as the relatedness of their corresponding vectors using three measures: Pearson’s correlation coefficient, cosine similarity, and the Jaccard index. We focus on the biological process domain of the gene ontology and annotations of yeast proteins to study the effectiveness of the proposed measures. Results show that semantic similarity scores calculated using the proposed measures are more consistent with known biological knowledge than those derived using a list of existing methods, suggesting the effectiveness of our method in characterizing functional relationships between gene products.

  1. Inquisitive semantics and pragmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, J.; Roelofsen, F.; Larrazabal, J.M.; Zubeldia, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper starts with an informal introduction to inquisitive semantics. After that, we present a formal definition of the semantics, and introduce the basic semantic notions of inquisitiveness and informativeness, in terms of wich we define the semantic categories of questions, assertions, and

  2. Item and order information in semantic memory: students' retention of the "CU fight song" lyrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Michael F; Healy, Alice F

    2011-02-01

    University of Colorado (CU) students were tested on memory for the "CU Fight Song" in order to examine serial position effects in semantic memory while controlling for familiarity across positions. In Experiment 1, students reconstructed the order of the nine lines of the song. Students with previous exposure to the song performed better and showed a more bowed serial position function than did students with no knowledge of the song. Experiment 2 added a task assessing memory of item information. One word was removed and replaced with a blank in each line, and an alternative word was offered as an option, along with the correct word. Students selected the word that fit into each blank and then reconstructed the order of the lines. There was a bow-shaped curve for order reconstruction, but not for item selection, which implies that the serial position function in semantic memory stems from order, rather than item, information.

  3. Importance of achieving semantic interoperability for national health information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Johanna Sophia Hovenga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se examina de manera general las relaciones entre los dirigentes gubernamentales de las políticas de salud, de los proveedores de cuidado en salud y la adopción de las informaciones de cuidado en salud, así como de las tecnologías de comunicación y conocimiento. Esas tecnologías incluyen la adopción de estructuras de lenguaje nacional de salud y los patrones de informática en salud. Reflexiones esas que están basadas en las observaciones de los autores y en la participación internacional en el desarrollo de los patrones y en el desarrollo e implantación durante muchos años de las Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación Guvernamentales. Un considerable número de conceptos críticos parece ser mal comprendido por los responsables por la tomada de desiciones claves o, alternativamente, por las agendas políticas y por la necesidad de cuidar de una variedad de intereses propios que continuan dominando. Se concluye que nosotros debemos establecer y promover activamente un sólido ejemplo profesional para la adopción de una estrategia nacional de informática en salud que esté basada en la mejor evidencia científica disponible para apoyar un sistema de salud sustentable.

  4. METHODS OF TEXT INFORMATION CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL AND SEMANTIC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Serebryanaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the use of perseptron, Hopfild artificial neural network and semantic network for classification of text information. Network training algorithms are studied. An algorithm of inverse mistake spreading for perceptron network and convergence algorithm for Hopfild network are implemented. On the basis of the offered models and algorithms automatic text classification software is developed and its operation results are evaluated.

  5. Semantic Technology Application for Collective Knowledge and Information Management: Prospective Consumer Needs Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Pranciulytė-Bagdziunienė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the global flow of information forms qualitatively new complex information processing and filing requirements. The flow of information, data and knowledge manages the various activities of the original search for technological solutions. Very abundant and rapidly growing technology solutions groups are based on semantic technologies. Therefore, this article aims to provide user access needs for producing perspective survey methodology and the empirical study is based on the prospective development of innovative product lines. This article is formed based on the recommendations of the semantics of the applicability of technology development to business end users, public administration, organization of information flows the value of the generation of knowledge—based on environment and development issues. At a practical level, based on empirical evidence substantiates the semantics it is based on technology solutions for organizations in the integration of business processes, which can become the modern aspect of the success factors of the value of domestic and global market and facilitate the diffusion of innovation. The field of qualitative research has revealed the final consumer habits and problems of information search, organization, grouping aspects. Secondly, the study determined the idea of the necessity of technology in business processes, innovation generation and diffusion of knowledge issues aspects. Third, the authors submit proposals based on the semantics of the applicability of technology development opportunities in the business. Finally—users, public administrations and their mutual interaction activities. ST applicability of these segments may occur based on ST integration of IT systems in organizations, the general structure of existing products or used as a service by buying them from outside suppliers. It is important to emphasize that the ST innovative methods to ensure successful use of advanced, modern

  6. How does the provision of semantic information influence the lexicalization of new spoken words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Erin A; Rastle, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The integration of a novel spoken word with existing lexical items can proceed within 24 hours of learning its phonological form. However, previous studies have reported that lexical integration of new spoken words can be delayed if semantic information is provided during learning. One possibility is that this delay in lexical integration reflects reduced phonological processing during learning as a consequence of the need to learn the semantic associations. In the current study, adult participants learnt novel words via a phoneme monitoring task, in which half of the words were associated with a picture referent, and half were phonological forms only. Critically, participants were instructed to learn the forms of the novel words, with no explicit goal to learn the word-picture mappings. Results revealed significant lexical competition effects emerging one week after consolidation, which were equivalent for the picture-present and form-only conditions. Tests of declarative memory and shadowing showed equivalent performance for picture-present and form-only words, despite participants showing good knowledge of the picture associations immediately after learning. These data support the contention that provided phonological information is recruited sufficiently well during learning, the provision of semantic information does not slow the time-course of lexical integration.

  7. Investigating the Application of Semantic Technology to Organize Information in Digital Library Software Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Hajiahmadi

    2017-06-01

    The results indicated that digital libraries with respect to the application of semantic technology were not in good condition; therefore, they need to take all the weaknesses identified in this study into consideration. Software for IT architecture requires layers of meaning beyond their original design. In addition, regarding the languages implemented, semantic technology had very poor performance and none of the tools had this new technology to develop and implement. The majority of the tools employed were also in the initial stage of recognition. In many cases, information sources were kept outside of the databases and they had only text files for full-text search. On the whole, the software systems studied here were at the same level although they sometimes surpassed each other. The present study not only developed a checklist of the application of semantic technologies to organize information software digital library based on relevant literature and the experts, but also can make digital library software developers aware of their strengths and weaknesses, and the criteria and factors existing in this area in addition to the importance of each of them to help them in their own design and production in the future.

  8. Partial sleep deprivation does not alter processes involved in semantic word priming: event-related potential evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Paniz; Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Campbell, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    Sleep deprivation has generally been observed to have a detrimental effect on tasks that require sustained attention for successful performance. It might however be possible to counter these effects by altering cognitive strategies. A recent semantic word priming study indicated that subjects used an effortful predictive-expectancy search of semantic memory following normal sleep, but changed to an automatic, effortless strategy following total sleep deprivation. Partial sleep deprivation occurs much more frequently than total sleep deprivation. The present study therefore employed a similar priming task following either 4h of sleep or following normal sleep. The purpose of the study was to determine whether partial sleep deprivation would also lead to a shift in cognitive strategy to compensate for an inability to sustain attention and effortful processing necessary for using the predicative expectancy strategy. Sixteen subjects were presented with word pairs, a prime and a target that were either strongly semantically associated (cat...dog), weakly associated (cow...barn) or not associated (apple...road). The subject's task was to determine if the target word was semantically associated to the prime. A strong priming effect was observed in both conditions. RTs were slower, accuracy lower, and N400 larger to unassociated targets, independent of the amount of sleep. The overall N400 did not differ as a function of sleep. The scalp distribution of the N400 was also similar following both normal sleep and sleep loss. There was thus little evidence of a difference in the processing of the target stimulus as a function of the amount sleep. Similarly, ERPs in the period between the onset of the prime and the subsequent target also did not differ between the normal sleep and sleep loss conditions. In contrast to total sleep deprivation, subjects therefore appeared to use a common predictive expectancy strategy in both conditions. This strategy does however require an

  9. Supporting Information Linking and Discovery Across Organizations Using the VIVO Semantic Web Software Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayernik, M. S.; Daniels, M. D.; Maull, K. E.; Khan, H.; Krafft, D. B.; Gross, M. B.; Rowan, L. R.

    2016-12-01

    Geosciences research is often conducted using distributed networks of researchers and resources. To better enable the discovery of the research output from the scientists and resources used within these organizations, UCAR, Cornell University, and UNAVCO are collaborating on the EarthCollab (http://earthcube.org/group/earthcollab) project which seeks to leverage semantic technologies to manage and link scientific data. As part of this effort, we have been exploring how to leverage information distributed across multiple research organizations. EarthCollab is using the VIVO semantic software suite to lookup and display Semantic Web information across our project partners.Our presentation will include a demonstration of linking between VIVO instances, discussing how to create linkages between entities in different VIVO instances where both entities describe the same person or resource. This discussion will explore how we designate the equivalence of these entities using "same as" assertions between identifiers representing these entities including URIs and ORCID IDs and how we have extended the base VIVO architecture to support the lookup of which entities in separate VIVO instances may be equivalent and to then display information from external linked entities. We will also discuss how these extensions can support other linked data lookups and sources of information.This VIVO cross-linking mechanism helps bring information from multiple VIVO instances together and helps users in navigating information spread-out between multiple VIVO instances. Challenges and open questions for this approach relate to how to display the information obtained from an external VIVO instance, both in order to preserve the brands of the internal and external systems and to handle discrepancies between ontologies, content, and/or VIVO versions.

  10. Geospatial semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chuanrong; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers key issues related to Geospatial Semantic Web, including geospatial web services for spatial data interoperability; geospatial ontology for semantic interoperability; ontology creation, sharing, and integration; querying knowledge and information from heterogeneous data source; interfaces for Geospatial Semantic Web, VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) and Geospatial Semantic Web; challenges of Geospatial Semantic Web; and development of Geospatial Semantic Web applications. This book also describes state-of-the-art technologies that attempt to solve these problems such as WFS, WMS, RDF, OWL, and GeoSPARQL, and demonstrates how to use the Geospatial Semantic Web technologies to solve practical real-world problems such as spatial data interoperability.

  11. Enhancing ASR by MT using Semantic Information from HindiWordNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tammewar, Aniruddha; Singla, Karan; Bangalore, Srinivas

    In a conventional CAT (Computer Assisted Translation) system a human translator post-edits an automatically generated target language text using the keyboard. In this paper we extend a CAT system with speech input by which the translator speaks the translation, a process refered to as sight...... translation. We report several experiments to improve the performance of an automatic speech recognition system, taking advantage of machine translation output and information fromWordNet. Overall we outperform a baseline system which has no semantic information by an increased 1.6% word accuracy...

  12. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types.......Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  13. Intelligent Information Fusion in the Aviation Domain: A Semantic-Web based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen; Goforth, Andre

    2005-01-01

    Information fusion from multiple sources is a critical requirement for System Wide Information Management in the National Airspace (NAS). NASA and the FAA envision creating an "integrated pool" of information originally coming from different sources, which users, intelligent agents and NAS decision support tools can tap into. In this paper we present the results of our initial investigations into the requirements and prototype development of such an integrated information pool for the NAS. We have attempted to ascertain key requirements for such an integrated pool based on a survey of DSS tools that will benefit from this integrated pool. We then advocate key technologies from computer science research areas such as the semantic web, information integration, and intelligent agents that we believe are well suited to achieving the envisioned system wide information management capabilities.

  14. Context-Based Tourism Information Filtering with a Semantic Rule Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsfus, Carlos; Martin, David; Alzua-Sorzabal, Aurkene; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Torres-Manzanera, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the CONCERT framework, a push/filter information consumption paradigm, based on a rule-based semantic contextual information system for tourism. CONCERT suggests a specific insight of the notion of context from a human mobility perspective. It focuses on the particular characteristics and requirements of travellers and addresses the drawbacks found in other approaches. Additionally, CONCERT suggests the use of digital broadcasting as push communication technology, whereby tourism information is disseminated to mobile devices. This information is then automatically filtered by a network of ontologies and offered to tourists on the screen. The results obtained in the experiments carried out show evidence that the information disseminated through digital broadcasting can be manipulated by the network of ontologies, providing contextualized information that produces user satisfaction. PMID:22778584

  15. Talk this way: the effect of prosodically conveyed semantic information on memory for novel words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintel, Hadas; Anderson, Nathan L; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-08-01

    Speakers modulate their prosody to express not only emotional information but also semantic information (e.g., raising pitch for upward motion). Moreover, this information can help listeners infer meaning. Work investigating the communicative role of prosodically conveyed meaning has focused on reference resolution, and potential mnemonic benefits remain unexplored. We investigated the effect of prosody on memory for the meaning of novel words, even when it conveys superfluous information. Participants heard novel words, produced with congruent or incongruent prosody, and viewed image pairs representing the intended meaning and its antonym (e.g., a small and a large dog). Importantly, an arrow indicated the image representing the intended meaning, resolving the ambiguity. Participants then completed 2 memory tests, either immediately after learning or after a 24-hr delay, on which they chose an image (out of a new image pair) and a definition that best represented the word. On the image test, memory was similar on the immediate test, but incongruent prosody led to greater loss over time. On the definition test, memory was better for congruent prosody at both times. Results suggest that listeners extract semantic information from prosody even when it is redundant and that prosody can enhance memory, beyond its role in comprehension. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Language: A fresh concept to integrate syntactic and semantic information in life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournebize, Rémi; Gaucherel, Cédric

    2017-10-01

    Several fields in biology tend to view the concept of information from one or the other of two extreme positions. Exclusionists base their stance of total rejection on gene-centrism and gene-determinism, typified by the recently-established endo-Darwinist school of life sciences. At the other end of the spectrum, there is total acceptance, as in the newly developed information-centred paradigms that populate biosemiotics. We propose in this paper to split the informational concepts into two irreducible (but linked) poles: the syntactic (concerned with the quantification of the information structure or complexity in a system), and the semantic (concerned with the organization rules and causality weights of interactions in a system). We claim that the past and present uses of the concept could then be classified as various degrees of oscillation between the two poles. The concept of language presents itself as a good tool with which to bridge the syntactic and the semantic poles, combining as it does the form-related and the meaning-related aspects of information, while methodologically supporting formal grammatical models in life sciences. We aim to show, at the same time, that neither of these poles alone can suffice to efficiently and holistically describe, model, and predict natural phenomena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrating Semantic Information in Metadata Descriptions for a Geoscience-wide Resource Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Richard, S. M.; Gupta, A.; Valentine, D.; Whitenack, T.; Ozyurt, I. B.; Grethe, J. S.; Schachne, A.

    2016-12-01

    Integrating semantic information into legacy metadata catalogs is a challenging issue and so far has been mostly done on a limited scale. We present experience of CINERGI (Community Inventory of Earthcube Resources for Geoscience Interoperability), an NSF Earthcube Building Block project, in creating a large cross-disciplinary catalog of geoscience information resources to enable cross-domain discovery. The project developed a pipeline for automatically augmenting resource metadata, in particular generating keywords that describe metadata documents harvested from multiple geoscience information repositories or contributed by geoscientists through various channels including surveys and domain resource inventories. The pipeline examines available metadata descriptions using text parsing, vocabulary management and semantic annotation and graph navigation services of GeoSciGraph. GeoSciGraph, in turn, relies on a large cross-domain ontology of geoscience terms, which bridges several independently developed ontologies or taxonomies including SWEET, ENVO, YAGO, GeoSciML, GCMD, SWO, and CHEBI. The ontology content enables automatic extraction of keywords reflecting science domains, equipment used, geospatial features, measured properties, methods, processes, etc. We specifically focus on issues of cross-domain geoscience ontology creation, resolving several types of semantic conflicts among component ontologies or vocabularies, and constructing and managing facets for improved data discovery and navigation. The ontology and keyword generation rules are iteratively improved as pipeline results are presented to data managers for selective manual curation via a CINERGI Annotator user interface. We present lessons learned from applying CINERGI metadata augmentation pipeline to a number of federal agency and academic data registries, in the context of several use cases that require data discovery and integration across multiple earth science data catalogs of varying quality

  18. An Ontological Approach to Developing Information Operations Applications for Use on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    of the ontology for use on the Semantic Web. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 147 14. SUBJECT TERMS Information Operations (IO), Psychological Operations...a specific IO capability.</rdfs:comment> </owl:Class> <owl:Class rdf:ID="Tactical_PSYOP_Battalion"> <rdfs:label xml:lang="en"> TPB ...rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Concrete instance of a land platform associated with IO. Tactical PSYOP Battalions ( TPB ) provide tactical PSYOP support to corps

  19. Sleep Benefits Memory for Semantic Category Structure While Preserving Exemplar-Specific Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapiro, Anna C; McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Chen, Lang; Norman, Kenneth A; Mednick, Sara C; Rogers, Timothy T

    2017-11-01

    Semantic memory encompasses knowledge about both the properties that typify concepts (e.g. robins, like all birds, have wings) as well as the properties that individuate conceptually related items (e.g. robins, in particular, have red breasts). We investigate the impact of sleep on new semantic learning using a property inference task in which both kinds of information are initially acquired equally well. Participants learned about three categories of novel objects possessing some properties that were shared among category exemplars and others that were unique to an exemplar, with exposure frequency varying across categories. In Experiment 1, memory for shared properties improved and memory for unique properties was preserved across a night of sleep, while memory for both feature types declined over a day awake. In Experiment 2, memory for shared properties improved across a nap, but only for the lower-frequency category, suggesting a prioritization of weakly learned information early in a sleep period. The increase was significantly correlated with amount of REM, but was also observed in participants who did not enter REM, suggesting involvement of both REM and NREM sleep. The results provide the first evidence that sleep improves memory for the shared structure of object categories, while simultaneously preserving object-unique information.

  20. A decision support system for fusion of hard and soft sensor information based on probabilistic latent semantic analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Elangovan, Vinayak; Alkilani, Amjad; Habibi, Mohammad

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents an ongoing effort towards development of an intelligent Decision-Support System (iDSS) for fusion of information from multiple sources consisting of data from hard (physical sensors) and soft (textural sources. Primarily, this paper defines taxonomy of decision support systems for latent semantic data mining from heterogeneous data sources. A Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA) approach is proposed for latent semantic concepts search from heterogeneous data sources. An architectural model for generating semantic annotation of multi-modality sensors in a modified Transducer Markup Language (TML) is described. A method for TML messages fusion is discussed for alignment and integration of spatiotemporally correlated and associated physical sensory observations. Lastly, the experimental results which exploit fusion of soft/hard sensor sources with support of iDSS are discussed.

  1. Mediation, Alignment, and Information Services for Semantic interoperability (MAISSI): A Trade Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barlos, Fotis; Hunter, Dan; Krikeles, Basil; McDonough, James

    2007-01-01

    .... Semantic Interoperability (SI) encompasses a broad range of technologies such as data mediation and schema matching, ontology alignment, and context representation that attempt to enable systems to understand each others semantics...

  2. Clinical information modeling processes for semantic interoperability of electronic health records: systematic review and inductive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Conde, Alberto; Moner, David; Cruz, Wellington Dimas da; Santos, Marcelo R; Maldonado, José Alberto; Robles, Montserrat; Kalra, Dipak

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review aims to identify and compare the existing processes and methodologies that have been published in the literature for defining clinical information models (CIMs) that support the semantic interoperability of electronic health record (EHR) systems. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses systematic review methodology, the authors reviewed published papers between 2000 and 2013 that covered that semantic interoperability of EHRs, found by searching the PubMed, IEEE Xplore, and ScienceDirect databases. Additionally, after selection of a final group of articles, an inductive content analysis was done to summarize the steps and methodologies followed in order to build CIMs described in those articles. Three hundred and seventy-eight articles were screened and thirty six were selected for full review. The articles selected for full review were analyzed to extract relevant information for the analysis and characterized according to the steps the authors had followed for clinical information modeling. Most of the reviewed papers lack a detailed description of the modeling methodologies used to create CIMs. A representative example is the lack of description related to the definition of terminology bindings and the publication of the generated models. However, this systematic review confirms that most clinical information modeling activities follow very similar steps for the definition of CIMs. Having a robust and shared methodology could improve their correctness, reliability, and quality. Independently of implementation technologies and standards, it is possible to find common patterns in methods for developing CIMs, suggesting the viability of defining a unified good practice methodology to be used by any clinical information modeler. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. HTML5 microdata as a semantic container for medical information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Eizen; Kobayashi, Shinji; Ishihara, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Achieving interoperability between clinical electronic medical records (EMR) systems and cloud computing systems is challenging because of the lack of a universal reference method as a standard for information exchange with a secure connection. Here we describe an information exchange scheme using HTML5 microdata, where the standard semantic container is an HTML document. We embed HL7 messages describing laboratory test results in the microdata. We also annotate items in the clinical research report with the microdata. We mapped the laboratory test result data into the clinical research report using an HL7 selector specified in the microdata. This scheme can provide secure cooperation between the cloud-based service and the EMR system.

  4. Semantic Building Information Modeling and high definition surveys for Cultural Heritage sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Garagnani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, digital technology devoted to the building design has experienced significant advancements allowing to reach, by means of the Building Information Modeling, those goals only imagined since the mid-Seventies of the last century. The BIM process, bearer of several advantages for actors and designers who implement it in their workflow, may be employed even in various case studies related to some interventions on the existing architectural Cultural Heritage. The semantics typical of the classical architecture, so pervasive in the European urban landscape, as well as the Modern or Contemporary architecture features, coincide with the self-conscious structure made of “smart objects” proper of BIM, which proves to be an effective system to document component relationships. However, the translation of existing buildings geometric information, acquired using the common techniques of laser scanning and digital photogrammetry, into BIM objects, is still a critical process that this paper aims to investigate, describing possible methods and approaches.

  5. Judgment of emotional information expressed by prosody and semantics in patients with unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlipf, Sarah; Batra, Anil; Walter, Gudrun; Zeep, Christina; Wildgruber, Dirk; Fallgatter, Andreas; Ethofer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to investigate the impact of major depressive disorder (MDD) on judgment of emotions expressed at the verbal (semantic content) and non-verbal (prosody) level and to assess whether evaluation of verbal content correlate with self-ratings of depression-related symptoms as assessed by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We presented positive, neutral, and negative words spoken in happy, neutral, and angry prosody to 23 MDD patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) matched for age, sex, and education. Participants rated the valence of semantic content or prosody on a 9-point scale. MDD patients attributed significantly less intense ratings to positive words and happy prosody than HC. For judgment of words, this difference correlated significantly with BDI scores. No such correlation was found for prosody perception. MDD patients exhibited attenuated processing of positive information which generalized across verbal and non-verbal channels. These findings indicate that MDD is characterized by impairments of positive rather than negative emotional processing, a finding which could influence future psychotherapeutic strategies as well as provide straightforward hypotheses for neuroimaging studies investigating the neurobiological correlates of impaired emotional perception in MDD.

  6. Early and parallel processing of pragmatic and semantic information in speech acts: neurophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Natalia; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2013-01-01

    Although language is a tool for communication, most research in the neuroscience of language has focused on studying words and sentences, while little is known about the brain mechanisms of speech acts, or communicative functions, for which words and sentences are used as tools. Here the neural processing of two types of speech acts, Naming and Requesting, was addressed using the time-resolved event-related potential (ERP) technique. The brain responses for Naming and Request diverged as early as ~120 ms after the onset of the critical words, at the same time as, or even before, the earliest brain manifestations of semantic word properties could be detected. Request-evoked potentials were generally larger in amplitude than those for Naming. The use of identical words in closely matched settings for both speech acts rules out explanation of the difference in terms of phonological, lexical, semantic properties, or word expectancy. The cortical sources underlying the ERP enhancement for Requests were found in the fronto-central cortex, consistent with the activation of action knowledge, as well as in the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), possibly reflecting additional implications of speech acts for social interaction and theory of mind. These results provide the first evidence for surprisingly early access to pragmatic and social interactive knowledge, which possibly occurs in parallel with other types of linguistic processing, and thus supports the near-simultaneous access to different subtypes of psycholinguistic information.

  7. Early and parallel processing of pragmatic and semantic information in speech acts: neurophysiological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eEgorova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although language is a tool for communication, most research in the neuroscience of language has focused on studying words and sentences, while little is known about the brain mechanisms of speech acts, or communicative functions, for which words and sentences are used as tools. Here the neural processing of two types of speech acts, Naming and Requesting, was addressed using the time-resolved event-related potential (ERP technique. The brain responses for Naming and Request diverged as early as ~120 ms after the onset of the critical words, at the same time as, or even before, the earliest brain manifestations of semantic word properties could be detected. Request-evoked potentials were generally larger in amplitude than those for Naming. The use of identical words in closely matched settings for both speech acts rules out explanation of the difference in terms of phonological, lexical, semantic properties or word expectancy. The cortical sources underlying the ERP enhancement for Requests were found in the fronto-central cortex, consistent with the activation of action knowledge, as well as in right temporo-parietal junction, possibly reflecting additional implications of speech acts for social interaction and theory of mind. These results provide the first evidence for surprisingly early access to pragmatic and social interactive knowledge, which possibly occurs in parallel with other types of linguistic processing, and thus supports the near-simultaneous access to different subtypes of psycholinguistic information.

  8. Judgment of emotional information expressed by prosody and semantics in patients with unipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eSchlipf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It was the aim of this study to investigate the impact of major depressive disorder (MDD on judgment of emotions expressed at the verbal (semantic content and non-verbal (prosody level and to assess whether evaluation of verbal content correlate with self-ratings of depression-related symptoms as assessed by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. We presented positive, neutral, and negative words spoken in happy, neutral, and angry prosody to 23 MDD patients and 22 healthy controls (HC matched for age, sex, and education. Participants rated the valence of semantic content or prosody on a 9-point scale. MDD patients attributed significantly less intense ratings to positive words and happy prosody than HC. For judgment of words, this difference correlated significantly with BDI scores. No such correlation was found for prosody perception. MDD patients exhibited attenuated processing of positive information which generalized across verbal and non-verbal channels. These findings indicate that MDD is characterized by impairments of positive rather than negative emotional processing, a finding which could influence future psychotherapeutic strategies as well as provide straightforward hypotheses for neuroimaging studies investigating the neurobiological correlates of impaired emotional perception in MDD.

  9. Memory for Semantically Related and Unrelated Declarative Information: The Benefit of Sleep, the Cost of Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M.; Wamsley, Erin J.; Walker, Matthew P.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Stickgold, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined sleep's influence on a range of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory tasks, from text learning to spatial navigation. In this study, we examined the impact of sleep, wake, and time-of-day influences on the processing of declarative information with strong semantic links (semantically related word pairs) and information requiring the formation of novel associations (unrelated word pairs). Participants encoded a set of related or unrelated word pairs at either 9am or 9pm, and were then tested after an interval of 30 min, 12 hr, or 24 hr. The time of day at which subjects were trained had no effect on training performance or initial memory of either word pair type. At 12 hr retest, memory overall was superior following a night of sleep compared to a day of wakefulness. However, this performance difference was a result of a pronounced deterioration in memory for unrelated word pairs across wake; there was no sleep-wake difference for related word pairs. At 24 hr retest, with all subjects having received both a full night of sleep and a full day of wakefulness, we found that memory was superior when sleep occurred shortly after learning rather than following a full day of wakefulness. Lastly, we present evidence that the rate of deterioration across wakefulness was significantly diminished when a night of sleep preceded the wake period compared to when no sleep preceded wake, suggesting that sleep served to stabilize the memories against the deleterious effects of subsequent wakefulness. Overall, our results demonstrate that 1) the impact of 12 hr of waking interference on memory retention is strongly determined by word-pair type, 2) sleep is most beneficial to memory 24 hr later if it occurs shortly after learning, and 3) sleep does in fact stabilize declarative memories, diminishing the negative impact of subsequent wakefulness. PMID:22457736

  10. Semantic Interoperability of Sensor Data with Volunteered Geographic Information: A Unified Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Jokar Arsanjani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of sensor devices has resulted in important volumes of sensor data, which has raised the issue of making these data fully discoverable and interpretable by applications and end-users. The idea of OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE has addressed this issue by proposing a set of standards to enable accessibility of sensor data over the Web. Similarly, there is a growing interest in volunteered geographic information (VGI. Considering that several researchers have highlighted the potential of this new type of information as a complement to existing, “traditional” data, it becomes important to develop frameworks to support the integration of VGI from several sources and with other types of data. In this paper, we make a first step in this direction by proposing a framework for the semantic interoperability of sensor data and VGI. After having performed an investigation of the types of VGI applications, we have developed a conceptual model of VGI aligned with relevant ISO standards for describing geospatial features. The purpose of this model is to support the generation of common descriptions for VGI applications, which will act as interfaces to higher-level services, such as discovery and reasoning services, in order to be exploited in conjunction with sensor data by client applications. This process is described through architecture for semantic interoperability of sensor data and VGI that we have developed and that we intend to use to set guidelines for future research on integration of VGI in sensor data cyberinfrastructures. We illustrate the possibilities created by the proposed framework with a description of the various services and interfaces required to implement the framework.

  11. Wikipedia information flow analysis reveals the scale-free architecture of the semantic space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Paolo Masucci

    Full Text Available In this paper we extract the topology of the semantic space in its encyclopedic acception, measuring the semantic flow between the different entries of the largest modern encyclopedia, Wikipedia, and thus creating a directed complex network of semantic flows. Notably at the percolation threshold the semantic space is characterised by scale-free behaviour at different levels of complexity and this relates the semantic space to a wide range of biological, social and linguistics phenomena. In particular we find that the cluster size distribution, representing the size of different semantic areas, is scale-free. Moreover the topology of the resulting semantic space is scale-free in the connectivity distribution and displays small-world properties. However its statistical properties do not allow a classical interpretation via a generative model based on a simple multiplicative process. After giving a detailed description and interpretation of the topological properties of the semantic space, we introduce a stochastic model of content-based network, based on a copy and mutation algorithm and on the Heaps' law, that is able to capture the main statistical properties of the analysed semantic space, including the Zipf's law for the word frequency distribution.

  12. Wikipedia information flow analysis reveals the scale-free architecture of the semantic space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, Adolfo Paolo; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Eguíluz, Victor Martínez; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2011-02-28

    In this paper we extract the topology of the semantic space in its encyclopedic acception, measuring the semantic flow between the different entries of the largest modern encyclopedia, Wikipedia, and thus creating a directed complex network of semantic flows. Notably at the percolation threshold the semantic space is characterised by scale-free behaviour at different levels of complexity and this relates the semantic space to a wide range of biological, social and linguistics phenomena. In particular we find that the cluster size distribution, representing the size of different semantic areas, is scale-free. Moreover the topology of the resulting semantic space is scale-free in the connectivity distribution and displays small-world properties. However its statistical properties do not allow a classical interpretation via a generative model based on a simple multiplicative process. After giving a detailed description and interpretation of the topological properties of the semantic space, we introduce a stochastic model of content-based network, based on a copy and mutation algorithm and on the Heaps' law, that is able to capture the main statistical properties of the analysed semantic space, including the Zipf's law for the word frequency distribution.

  13. Processing Coordinated Verb Phrases: The Relevance of Lexical-Semantic, Conceptual, and Contextual Information towards Establishing Verbal Parallelism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutunjian, Damon A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of lexical-semantic representations, conceptual similarity, and contextual fit on the processing of coordinated verb phrases. The study integrates information gleaned from current linguistic theory with current psycholinguistic approaches to examining the processing of coordinated verb phrases. It has…

  14. Missing semantic annotation in databases. The root cause for data integration and migration problems in information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, M

    2014-01-01

    Data integration is a well-known grand challenge in information systems. It is highly relevant in medicine because of the multitude of patient data sources. Semantic annotations of data items regarding concept and value domain, based on comprehensive terminologies can facilitate data integration and migration. Therefore it should be implemented in databases from the very beginning.

  15. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words : temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, Hein T.; Wijers, Albertus A.; Mars, Rogier B.; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Stowe, Laurie A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that

  16. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words: temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, H.T. van; Wijers, A.A.; Mars, R.B.; Benjamins, J.S.; Stowe, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that

  17. An adaptive semantic based mediation system for data interoperability among Health Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wajahat Ali; Khattak, Asad Masood; Hussain, Maqbool; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Afzal, Muhammad; Nugent, Christopher; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-08-01

    Heterogeneity in the management of the complex medical data, obstructs the attainment of data level interoperability among Health Information Systems (HIS). This diversity is dependent on the compliance of HISs with different healthcare standards. Its solution demands a mediation system for the accurate interpretation of data in different heterogeneous formats for achieving data interoperability. We propose an adaptive AdapteR Interoperability ENgine mediation system called ARIEN, that arbitrates between HISs compliant to different healthcare standards for accurate and seamless information exchange to achieve data interoperability. ARIEN stores the semantic mapping information between different standards in the Mediation Bridge Ontology (MBO) using ontology matching techniques. These mappings are provided by our System for Parallel Heterogeneity (SPHeRe) matching system and Personalized-Detailed Clinical Model (P-DCM) approach to guarantee accuracy of mappings. The realization of the effectiveness of the mappings stored in the MBO is evaluation of the accuracy in transformation process among different standard formats. We evaluated our proposed system with the transformation process of medical records between Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and Virtual Medical Record (vMR) standards. The transformation process achieved over 90 % of accuracy level in conversion process between CDA and vMR standards using pattern oriented approach from the MBO. The proposed mediation system improves the overall communication process between HISs. It provides an accurate and seamless medical information exchange to ensure data interoperability and timely healthcare services to patients.

  18. Tailoring online information retrieval to user's needs based on a logical semantic approach to natural language processing and UMLS mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossman, Susan; Jones, Josette; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2007-10-11

    Depression can derail teenagers' lives and cause serious chronic health problems. Acquiring pertinent knowledge and skills supports care management, but retrieving appropriate information can be difficult. This poster presents a strategy to tailor online information to user attributes using a logical semantic approach to natural language processing (NLP) and mapping propositions to UMLS terms. This approach capitalizes on existing NLM resources and presents a potentially sustainable plan for meeting consumers and providers information needs.

  19. Social class and preschool language skill: III. Semantic mastery of position information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J M; Kirk, G E; Volkmar, F

    1975-05-01

    The four-year-old children of Head Start (two-year-classes of 90 for 1970-71 and 67 for 1971-72) performed on a test of perceptual identification of a sample of six positions approximately as well as did four-year-olds of parents with predominantly college backgrounds. On the other hand, only 22% and 16% of those of Head Start as compared with 70% and 67% of those of the nursery school placed blocks in all six positions that they heard the examiner name, and only 12% and 9% of the former as compared with 45.5% and 44.9% of the latter gave appropriate names for all the six positions designated by the examiner. Sex differences and differences between black and white children of Head Start were negligible and not significant. Somewhat more children of both Head Start and the nursery school showed semantic mastery based on both heard and spoken identification for positions based on body-object relations (in, on, and under) than for those based on object-object relations (in fromt of, between, and in back of). The fact that the children of Head Start perform so much less well than those of the nursery school on the test semantic mastery for position information is highly dissonant with the contention that children of poverty are without either cognitive or linguistic deficit, but quite consonant with the contention that they suffer a deficit that may well and probably does result from the rearing conditions in their homes during the preschool years.

  20. Detailed clinical models: representing knowledge, data and semantics in healthcare information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William T F

    2014-07-01

    This paper will present an overview of the developmental effort in harmonizing clinical knowledge modeling using the Detailed Clinical Models (DCMs), and will explain how it can contribute to the preservation of Electronic Health Records (EHR) data. Clinical knowledge modeling is vital for the management and preservation of EHR and data. Such modeling provides common data elements and terminology binding with the intention of capturing and managing clinical information over time and location independent from technology. Any EHR data exchange without an agreed clinical knowledge modeling will potentially result in loss of information. Many attempts exist from the past to model clinical knowledge for the benefits of semantic interoperability using standardized data representation and common terminologies. The objective of each project is similar with respect to consistent representation of clinical data, using standardized terminologies, and an overall logical approach. However, the conceptual, logical, and the technical expressions are quite different in one clinical knowledge modeling approach versus another. There currently are synergies under the Clinical Information Modeling Initiative (CIMI) in order to create a harmonized reference model for clinical knowledge models. The goal for the CIMI is to create a reference model and formalisms based on for instance the DCM (ISO/TS 13972), among other work. A global repository of DCMs may potentially be established in the future.

  1. A Contextual Information Acquisition Approach Based on Semantics and Mashup Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yangfan; Li, Lu; He, Keqing; Chen, Xiuhong

    Pay per use is an essential feature of cloud computing. Users can make use of some parts of a large scale service to satisfy their requirements, merely at the cost of a little payment. A good understanding of the users' requirement is a prerequisite for choosing the service in need precisely. Context implies users' potential requirements, which can be a complement to the requirements delivered explicitly. However, traditional context-aware computing research always demands some specific kinds of sensors to acquire contextual information, which renders a threshold too high for an application to become context-aware. This paper comes up with an approach which combines contextual information obtained directly and indirectly from the cloud services. Semantic relationship between different kinds of contexts lays foundation for the searching of the cloud services. And mashup technology is adopted to compose the heterogonous services. Abundant contextual information may lend strong support to a comprehensive understanding of users' context and a bettered abstraction of contextual requirements.

  2. Altered structure-function relations of semantic processing in youths with high-functioning autism: a combined diffusion and functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Chun; Chou, Tai-Li; Fan, Li-Ying; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2013-12-01

    Deficits in language and communication are among the core symptoms of autism, a common neurodevelopmental disorder with long-term impairment. Despite the striking nature of the autistic language impairment, knowledge about its corresponding alterations in the brain is still evolving. We hypothesized that the dual stream language network is altered in autism, and that this alteration could be revealed by changes in the relationships between microstructural integrity and functional activation. The study recruited 20 right-handed male youths with autism and 20 carefully matched individually, typically developing (TD) youths. Microstructural integrity of the left dorsal and left ventral pathways responsible for language processing and the functional activation of the connected brain regions were investigated by using diffusion spectrum imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging of a semantic task, respectively. Youths with autism had significantly poorer language function, and lower functional activation in left dorsal and left ventral regions of the language network, compared with TD youths. The TD group showed a significant correlation of the functional activation of the left dorsal region with microstructural integrity of the left ventral pathway, whereas the autism group showed a significant correlation of the functional activation of the left ventral region with microstructural integrity of the left dorsal pathway, and moreover verbal comprehension index was correlated with microstructural integrity of the left ventral pathway. These altered structure-function relationships in autism suggest possible involvement of the dual pathways in supporting deficient semantic processing. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Design and development of semantic web-based system for computer science domain-specific information retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Bansal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In semantic web-based system, the concept of ontology is used to search results by contextual meaning of input query instead of keyword matching. From the research literature, there seems to be a need for a tool which can provide an easy interface for complex queries in natural language that can retrieve the domain-specific information from the ontology. This research paper proposes an IRSCSD system (Information retrieval system for computer science domain as a solution. This system offers advanced querying and browsing of structured data with search results automatically aggregated and rendered directly in a consistent user-interface, thus reducing the manual effort of users. So, the main objective of this research is design and development of semantic web-based system for integrating ontology towards domain-specific retrieval support. Methodology followed is a piecemeal research which involves the following stages. First Stage involves the designing of framework for semantic web-based system. Second stage builds the prototype for the framework using Protégé tool. Third Stage deals with the natural language query conversion into SPARQL query language using Python-based QUEPY framework. Fourth Stage involves firing of converted SPARQL queries to the ontology through Apache's Jena API to fetch the results. Lastly, evaluation of the prototype has been done in order to ensure its efficiency and usability. Thus, this research paper throws light on framework development for semantic web-based system that assists in efficient retrieval of domain-specific information, natural language query interpretation into semantic web language, creation of domain-specific ontology and its mapping with related ontology. This research paper also provides approaches and metrics for ontology evaluation on prototype ontology developed to study the performance based on accessibility of required domain-related information.

  4. The chemical information ontology: provenance and disambiguation for chemical data on the biological semantic web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Janna; Chepelev, Leonid; Willighagen, Egon; Adams, Nico; Steinbeck, Christoph; Dumontier, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cheminformatics is the application of informatics techniques to solve chemical problems in silico. There are many areas in biology where cheminformatics plays an important role in computational research, including metabolism, proteomics, and systems biology. One critical aspect in the application of cheminformatics in these fields is the accurate exchange of data, which is increasingly accomplished through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are formal representations of objects and their properties using a logic-based ontology language. Many such ontologies are currently being developed to represent objects across all the domains of science. Ontologies enable the definition, classification, and support for querying objects in a particular domain, enabling intelligent computer applications to be built which support the work of scientists both within the domain of interest and across interrelated neighbouring domains. Modern chemical research relies on computational techniques to filter and organise data to maximise research productivity. The objects which are manipulated in these algorithms and procedures, as well as the algorithms and procedures themselves, enjoy a kind of virtual life within computers. We will call these information entities. Here, we describe our work in developing an ontology of chemical information entities, with a primary focus on data-driven research and the integration of calculated properties (descriptors) of chemical entities within a semantic web context. Our ontology distinguishes algorithmic, or procedural information from declarative, or factual information, and renders of particular importance the annotation of provenance to calculated data. The Chemical Information Ontology is being developed as an open collaborative project. More details, together with a downloadable OWL file, are available at http://code.google.com/p/semanticchemistry/ (license: CC-BY-SA).

  5. The chemical information ontology: provenance and disambiguation for chemical data on the biological semantic web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Hastings

    Full Text Available Cheminformatics is the application of informatics techniques to solve chemical problems in silico. There are many areas in biology where cheminformatics plays an important role in computational research, including metabolism, proteomics, and systems biology. One critical aspect in the application of cheminformatics in these fields is the accurate exchange of data, which is increasingly accomplished through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are formal representations of objects and their properties using a logic-based ontology language. Many such ontologies are currently being developed to represent objects across all the domains of science. Ontologies enable the definition, classification, and support for querying objects in a particular domain, enabling intelligent computer applications to be built which support the work of scientists both within the domain of interest and across interrelated neighbouring domains. Modern chemical research relies on computational techniques to filter and organise data to maximise research productivity. The objects which are manipulated in these algorithms and procedures, as well as the algorithms and procedures themselves, enjoy a kind of virtual life within computers. We will call these information entities. Here, we describe our work in developing an ontology of chemical information entities, with a primary focus on data-driven research and the integration of calculated properties (descriptors of chemical entities within a semantic web context. Our ontology distinguishes algorithmic, or procedural information from declarative, or factual information, and renders of particular importance the annotation of provenance to calculated data. The Chemical Information Ontology is being developed as an open collaborative project. More details, together with a downloadable OWL file, are available at http://code.google.com/p/semanticchemistry/ (license: CC-BY-SA.

  6. Semantic World Modelling and Data Management in a 4d Forest Simulation and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roßmann, J.; Hoppen, M.; Bücken, A.

    2013-08-01

    Various types of 3D simulation applications benefit from realistic forest models. They range from flight simulators for entertainment to harvester simulators for training and tree growth simulations for research and planning. Our 4D forest simulation and information system integrates the necessary methods for data extraction, modelling and management. Using modern methods of semantic world modelling, tree data can efficiently be extracted from remote sensing data. The derived forest models contain position, height, crown volume, type and diameter of each tree. This data is modelled using GML-based data models to assure compatibility and exchangeability. A flexible approach for database synchronization is used to manage the data and provide caching, persistence, a central communication hub for change distribution, and a versioning mechanism. Combining various simulation techniques and data versioning, the 4D forest simulation and information system can provide applications with "both directions" of the fourth dimension. Our paper outlines the current state, new developments, and integration of tree extraction, data modelling, and data management. It also shows several applications realized with the system.

  7. NCI Thesaurus: a semantic model integrating cancer-related clinical and molecular information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioutos, Nicholas; de Coronado, Sherri; Haber, Margaret W; Hartel, Frank W; Shaiu, Wen-Ling; Wright, Lawrence W

    2007-02-01

    Over the last 8 years, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched a major effort to integrate molecular and clinical cancer-related information within a unified biomedical informatics framework, with controlled terminology as its foundational layer. The NCI Thesaurus is the reference terminology underpinning these efforts. It is designed to meet the growing need for accurate, comprehensive, and shared terminology, covering topics including: cancers, findings, drugs, therapies, anatomy, genes, pathways, cellular and subcellular processes, proteins, and experimental organisms. The NCI Thesaurus provides a partial model of how these things relate to each other, responding to actual user needs and implemented in a deductive logic framework that can help maintain the integrity and extend the informational power of what is provided. This paper presents the semantic model for cancer diseases and its uses in integrating clinical and molecular knowledge, more briefly examines the models and uses for drug, biochemical pathway, and mouse terminology, and discusses limits of the current approach and directions for future work.

  8. ELN in the semantic era

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Jeremy G.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of semantics in human-computer and computer-computer communications Capturing the laboratory processes and data in a semantically rich form at source. Implementing semantics - The use of the semantic web & grid The importance of context in the use of ELNs Publication and dissemination - Using the information obtained with ELNs

  9. Flavour processing in semantic dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Piwnica-Worms, Katherine E.; Omar, Rohani; Hailstone, Julia C.; Warren, Jason D.

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive mechanisms for the analysis of flavour information remain poorly understood. Patients with semantic dementia (SD) could potentially provide a window on these mechanisms; however, while abnormal eating behaviour and altered food preferences are common in SD, flavour processing has been little studied in this disorder. Here we undertook a detailed investigation of flavour processing in three patients at different stages of SD. One patient with a clinical syndrome of logopenic apha...

  10. Revealing common disease mechanisms shared by tumors of different tissues of origin through semantic representation of genomic alterations and topic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vicky; Paisley, John; Lu, Xinghua

    2017-03-14

    Cancer is a complex disease driven by somatic genomic alterations (SGAs) that perturb signaling pathways and consequently cellular function. Identifying patterns of pathway perturbations would provide insights into common disease mechanisms shared among tumors, which is important for guiding treatment and predicting outcome. However, identifying perturbed pathways is challenging, because different tumors can have the same perturbed pathways that are perturbed by different SGAs. Here, we designed novel semantic representations that capture the functional similarity of distinct SGAs perturbing a common pathway in different tumors. Combining this representation with topic modeling would allow us to identify patterns in altered signaling pathways. We represented each gene with a vector of words describing its function, and we represented the SGAs of a tumor as a text document by pooling the words representing individual SGAs. We applied the nested hierarchical Dirichlet process (nHDP) model to a collection of tumors of 5 cancer types from TCGA. We identified topics (consisting of co-occurring words) representing the common functional themes of different SGAs. Tumors were clustered based on their topic associations, such that each cluster consists of tumors sharing common functional themes. The resulting clusters contained mixtures of cancer types, which indicates that different cancer types can share disease mechanisms. Survival analysis based on the clusters revealed significant differences in survival among the tumors of the same cancer type that were assigned to different clusters. The results indicate that applying topic modeling to semantic representations of tumors identifies patterns in the combinations of altered functional pathways in cancer.

  11. An Ontological Approach to Developing Information Operations Applications for use on the Semantic Web

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Timothy L

    2008-01-01

    .... By expressing IO capabilities in a formal ontology suitable for use on the Semantic Web, conditions are set such that computational power can more efficiently be leveraged to better define required...

  12. An Ontological Approach to Developing Information Operations Applications for Use on the Semantic Web

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Timothy L

    2008-01-01

    .... By expressing IO capabilities in a formal ontology suitable for use on the Semantic Web, conditions are set such that computational power can more efficiently be leveraged to better define required...

  13. A Semantic Web-based Methodology for Building Conceptual Models of Scientific Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, J. L.; McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P.

    2007-12-01

    We have designed, developed, and deployed a number of applications that leverage ontologies in interdisciplinary scientific applications. As our work has evolved, we have developed a methodology for leveraging semantic technologies as kind of methodology for building and deploying semantically-enhanced science community applications. We will present our semantic web methodology that has been used in science applications covering Solar Terrestrial Physics, Atmospheric Research, Volcanology, and Plate Tectonics applications, among others. The methodology includes use case generation, carefully chosen mixed skill-set teams, use case analysis, development of a conceptual model, semantic tool usage, expert review and iteration, leveraging of technological infrastructure, rapid prototyping, and open world evolution, iteration, redesign, and redeployment. In this presentation, we will show how the methodology has been used in our projects and highlight benefits including quick deployment and rapid community buy-in.

  14. Memory for the perceptual and semantic attributes of information in pure amnesic and severe closed-head injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesimo, Giovanni A; Bonanni, Rita; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2003-05-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that brain damaged patients with memory disorder are poorer at remembering the semantic than the perceptual attributes of information. Eight patients with memory impairment of different etiology and 24 patients with chronic consequences of severe closed-head injury were compared to similarly sized age- and literacy-matched normal control groups on recognition tests for the physical aspect and the semantic identity of words and pictures lists. In order to avoid interpretative problems deriving from different absolute levels of performance, study conditions were manipulated across subjects to obtain comparable accuracy on the perceptual recognition tests in the memory disordered and control groups. The results of the Picture Recognition test were consistent with the hypothesis. Indeed, having more time for the stimulus encoding, the two memory disordered groups performed at the same level as the normal subjects on the perceptual test but significantly lower on the semantic test. Instead, on the Word Recognition test, following study condition manipulation, patients and controls performed similarly on both the perceptual and the semantic tests. These data only partially support the hypothesis of the study; rather they suggest that in memory disordered patients there is a reduction of the advantage, exhibited by normal controls, of retrieving pictures over words (picture superiority effect).

  15. Semantically Interoperable XML Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-09-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups.

  16. Lost thoughts: implicit semantic interference impairs reflective access to currently active information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Julie A; Johnson, Marcia K

    2013-02-01

    Why do we lose, or have trouble accessing, an idea that was in the focus of attention only a moment ago, especially in the absence of any apparent distraction? We tested the hypothesis that accessing a single item that is already active is affected by implicit interference (interference of which we have little or no awareness). We presented masked words that were semantically related or unrelated to a single visible target word that participants were cued to think of (refresh) a half second after its offset. Masked related but not unrelated words increased time to refresh the target but did not influence time required to read a target that was physically present. These findings provide novel evidence that an item in the focus of attention is subject to semantic interference. We suggest that such implicit semantic interference may contribute to the common "lost thought" experience and to cognitive deficits in populations in which refreshing is impaired. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  17. From ontology selection and semantic web to an integrated information system for food-borne diseases and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xianghe; Peng, Yun; Meng, Jianghong; Ruzante, Juliana; Fratamico, Pina M; Huang, Lihan; Juneja, Vijay; Needleman, David S

    2011-01-01

    Several factors have hindered effective use of information and resources related to food safety due to inconsistency among semantically heterogeneous data resources, lack of knowledge on profiling of food-borne pathogens, and knowledge gaps among research communities, government risk assessors/managers, and end-users of the information. This paper discusses technical aspects in the establishment of a comprehensive food safety information system consisting of the following steps: (a) computational collection and compiling publicly available information, including published pathogen genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data; (b) development of ontology libraries on food-borne pathogens and design automatic algorithms with formal inference and fuzzy and probabilistic reasoning to address the consistency and accuracy of distributed information resources (e.g., PulseNet, FoodNet, OutbreakNet, PubMed, NCBI, EMBL, and other online genetic databases and information); (c) integration of collected pathogen profiling data, Foodrisk.org ( http://www.foodrisk.org ), PMP, Combase, and other relevant information into a user-friendly, searchable, "homogeneous" information system available to scientists in academia, the food industry, and government agencies; and (d) development of a computational model in semantic web for greater adaptability and robustness.

  18. On the Design and Exploitation of User's Personal and Public Information for Semantic Personal Digital Photograph Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supheakmungkol Sarin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Automating the process of semantic annotation of digital personal photographs is a crucial step towards efficient and effective management of this increasingly high volume of content. However, this is still a highly challenging task for the research community. This paper proposes a novel solution. Our solution integrates all contextual information available to and from the users, such as their daily emails, schedules, chat archives, web browsing histories, documents, online news, Wikipedia data, and so forth. We then analyze this information and extract important semantic terms, using them as semantic keyword suggestions for their photos. Those keywords are in the form of named entities, such as names of people, organizations, locations, and date/time as well as high frequency terms. Experiments conducted with 10 subjects and a total of 313 photos proved that our proposed approach can significantly help users with the annotation process. We achieved a 33% gain in annotation time as compared to manual annotation. We also obtained very positive results in the accuracy rate of our suggested keywords.

  19. SEMANTIC INFORMATION EXTRACTION FROM MULTISPECTRAL GEOSPATIAL IMAGERY VIA A FLEXIBLE FRAMEWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Ferrell, Regina Kay [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; De, Soumya [Missouri University of Science and Technology

    2010-01-01

    Identification and automatic labeling of facilities in high-resolution satellite images is a challenging task as the current thematic classification schemes and the low-level image features are not good enough to capture complex objects and their spatial relationships. In this paper we present a novel algorithm framework for automated semantic labeling of large image collections. The framework consists of various segmentation, feature extraction, vector quantization, and Latent Dirichlet Allocation modules. Initial experimental results show promise as well as the challenges in semantic classification technology development for nuclear proliferation monitoring.

  20. A Similarity-Ranking Method on Semantic Computing for Providing Information-Services in Station-Concierge System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoki Yokoyama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of smartphones and wireless broadband networks have been progressing as a new Railway infomration environment. According to the spread of such devices and information technology, various types of information can be obtained from databases connected to the Internet. One scenario of obtaining such a wide variety of information resources is in the phase of user’s transportation. This paper proposes an information provision system, named the Station Concierge System that matches the situation and intention of passengers. The purpose of this system is to estimate the needs of passengers like station staff or hotel concierge and to provide information resources that satisfy user’s expectations dynamically. The most important module of the system is constructed based on a new information ranking method for passenger intention prediction and service recommendation. This method has three main features, which are (1 projecting a user to semantic vector space by using her current context, (2 predicting the intention of a user based on selecting a semantic vector subspace, and (3 ranking the services by a descending order of relevant scores to the user’ intention. By comparing the predicted results of our method with those of two straightforward computation methods, the experimental studies show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. Using this system, users can obtain transit information and service map that dynamically matches their context.

  1. Stereotype Priming in Face Recognition: Interactions between Semantic and Visual Information in Face Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Peter J.; Lewis, Michael B.; Honey, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy with which previously unfamiliar faces are recognised is increased by the presentation of a stereotype-congruent occupation label [Klatzky, R. L., Martin, G. L., & Kane, R. A. (1982a). "Semantic interpretation effects on memory for faces." "Memory & Cognition," 10, 195-206; Klatzky, R. L., Martin, G. L., & Kane, R. A. (1982b).…

  2. Semantic Elaboration through Integration: Hints Both Facilitate and Inform the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Varga, Nicole L.; King, Jessica E.; Nolen, Ayla M.; White, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic knowledge can be extended in a variety of ways, including self-generation of new facts through integration of separate yet related episodes. We sought to promote integration and self-generation by providing "hints" to help 6-year-olds (Experiment 1) and 4-year-olds (Experiment 2) see the relevance of separate episodes to one…

  3. Towards Distributed Information Retrieval in the Semantic Web: Query Reformulation Using the oMAP Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Straccia; R. Troncy (Raphael)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces a general methodology for performing distributed search in the Semantic Web. We propose to define this task as a three steps process, namely resource selection, query reformulation/ontology alignment and rank aggregation/data fusion. For the second problem, we have

  4. A Concept Lattice for Semantic Integration of Geo-Ontologies Based on Weight of Inclusion Degree Importance and Information Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xiao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Constructing a merged concept lattice with formal concept analysis (FCA is an important research direction in the field of integrating multi-source geo-ontologies. Extracting essential geographical properties and reducing the concept lattice are two key points of previous research. A formal integration method is proposed to address the challenges in these two areas. We first extract essential properties from multi-source geo-ontologies and use FCA to build a merged formal context. Second, the combined importance weight of each single attribute of the formal context is calculated by introducing the inclusion degree importance from rough set theory and information entropy; then a weighted formal context is built from the merged formal context. Third, a combined weighted concept lattice is established from the weighted formal context with FCA and the importance weight value of every concept is defined as the sum of weight of attributes belonging to the concept’s intent. Finally, semantic granularity of concept is defined by its importance weight; we, then gradually reduce the weighted concept lattice by setting up diminishing threshold of semantic granularity. Additionally, all of those reduced lattices are organized into a regular hierarchy structure based on the threshold of semantic granularity. A workflow is designed to demonstrate this procedure. A case study is conducted to show feasibility and validity of this method and the procedure to integrate multi-source geo-ontologies.

  5. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  6. Semantic web for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you're a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you:Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic WebExplore all the benefits the data Web offers t

  7. Developing A Web-based User Interface for Semantic Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Keller, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    While there are now a number of languages and frameworks that enable computer-based systems to search stored data semantically, the optimal design for effective user interfaces for such systems is still uncle ar. Such interfaces should mask unnecessary query detail from users, yet still allow them to build queries of arbitrary complexity without significant restrictions. We developed a user interface supporting s emantic query generation for Semanticorganizer, a tool used by scient ists and engineers at NASA to construct networks of knowledge and dat a. Through this interface users can select node types, node attribute s and node links to build ad-hoc semantic queries for searching the S emanticOrganizer network.

  8. Semantic Space as a Metapopulation System: Modelling the Wikipedia Information Flow Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, A. Paolo; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Hernández-García, Emilio

    The meaning of a word can be defined as an indefinite set of interpretants, which are other words that circumscribe the semantic content of the word they represent (Derrida 1982). In the same way each interpretant has a set of interpretants representing it and so on. Hence the indefinite chain of meaning assumes a rhizomatic shape that can be represented and analysed via the modern techniques of network theory (Dorogovtsev and Mendes 2013).

  9. Foundations of semantic web technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hitzler, Pascal; Rudolph, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Quest for Semantics Building Models Calculating with Knowledge Exchanging Information Semanic Web Technologies RESOURCE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (RDF)Simple Ontologies in RDF and RDF SchemaIntroduction to RDF Syntax for RDF Advanced Features Simple Ontologies in RDF Schema Encoding of Special Data Structures An ExampleRDF Formal Semantics Why Semantics? Model-Theoretic Semantics for RDF(S) Syntactic Reasoning with Deduction Rules The Semantic Limits of RDF(S)WEB ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE (OWL) Ontologies in OWL OWL Syntax and Intuitive Semantics OWL Species The Forthcoming OWL 2 StandardOWL Formal Sem

  10. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-03-07

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th.

  11. A Semantic Enhanced Model for Effective Spatial Information Retrieval : Un modèle sémantique améliorée for Effective Information Retrieval spatiale

    OpenAIRE

    Akanbi, Adeyinka; Agunbiade, Olusanya,; Dehinbo, Olumuyiwa,; Kuti, Sadiq

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A lot of information on the web is geographically referenced. Discovering and retrieving this geographic information to satisfy various users needs across both open and distributed Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) poses eminent research challenges. However, this is mostly caused by semantic heterogeneity in user's query and lack of semantic referencing of the Geographic Information (GI) metadata. To addressing these challenges, this paper discusses an ontology-based ...

  12. An fMRI-study on semantic priming of panic-related information in depression without comorbid anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Katharina; Kircher, Tilo; Gauggel, Siegfried; Habel, Ute

    2014-04-30

    Depression often involves anxiety symptoms and shows a strong comorbidity with panic disorder. However, the neural basis is unclear. The aim of the current study was to use semantic priming to investigate the neural correlates of panic and anxiety-related information processing in depression. In a lexical decision task, panic/agoraphobia-disorder-related and neutral word-pairs were presented during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants comprised 19 patients with major depression but without comorbid anxiety and 19 demographically matched controls. On a behavioral level, comparable significant priming effects were found for the neutral condition, while only patients showed a significant inhibition effect (slower reaction time for panic-related stimuli) for the panic condition. On a neural level, significant group differences emerged in left fronto-parietal (enhanced activation for patients) and left temporo-occipital regions (reduced activation for patients). The results showed that depressed patients recruit not only areas related to the interaction of emotion and semantic processing but also regions that are related to fear circuitry to process panic-related information. Hence, in the context of depression, there seems to be a pathological processing of panic-related information that could play an important role during the disorder and should be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  14. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Ashish, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

  15. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  16. Biomedical text summarization to support genetic database curation: using Semantic MEDLINE to create a secondary database of genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, T Elizabeth; Fiszman, Marcelo; Hurdle, John F; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines the development and evaluation of an automatic summarization system in the domain of molecular genetics. The system is a potential component of an advanced biomedical information management application called Semantic MEDLINE and could assist librarians in developing secondary databases of genetic information extracted from the primary literature. An existing summarization system was modified for identifying biomedical text relevant to the genetic etiology of disease. The summarization system was evaluated on the task of identifying data describing genes associated with bladder cancer in MEDLINE citations. A gold standard was produced using records from Genetics Home Reference and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Genes in text found by the system were compared to the gold standard. Recall, precision, and F-measure were calculated. The system achieved recall of 46%, and precision of 88% (F-measure=0.61) by taking Gene References into Function (GeneRIFs) into account. The new summarization schema for genetic etiology has potential as a component in Semantic MEDLINE to support the work of data curators.

  17. Jigsaw Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. E. Dekker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the enterprise of formal semantics has been under attack from several philosophical and linguistic perspectives, and it has certainly suffered from its own scattered state, which hosts quite a variety of paradigms which may seem to be incompatible. It will not do to try and answer the arguments of the critics, because the arguments are often well-taken. The negative conclusions, however, I believe are not. The only adequate reply seems to be a constructive one, which puts several pieces of formal semantics, in particular dynamic semantics, together again. In this paper I will try and sketch an overview of tasks, techniques, and results, which serves to at least suggest that it is possible to develop a coherent overall picture of undeniably important and structural phenomena in the interpretation of natural language. The idea is that the concept of meanings as truth conditions after all provides an excellent start for an integrated study of the meaning and use of natural language, and that an extended notion of goal directed pragmatics naturally complements this picture. None of the results reported here are really new, but we think it is important to re-collect them.ReferencesAsher, Nicholas & Lascarides, Alex. 1998. ‘Questions in Dialogue’. Linguistics and Philosophy 23: 237–309.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005364332007Borg, Emma. 2007. ‘Minimalism versus contextualism in semantics’. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds. ‘Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism’, pp. 339–359. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernest. 1997. ‘On an Alleged Connection between Indirect Quotation and Semantic Theory’. Mind and Language 12: pp. 278–296.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernie. 2005. Insensitive Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470755792Dekker, Paul. 2002. ‘Meaning and Use of Indefinite Expressions’. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11: pp. 141–194

  18. Activation of shape and semantic information during ambiguous homophone processing: eye tracking evidence from Hindi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Siddharth

    2014-11-01

    In two visual world eye tracking studies, we examined the activation of subordinate meanings of ambiguous homophones in Hindi and particularly when the sentence context is biased towards the dominant meaning. Participants listened to sentences that were either neutral or biased towards the dominant meaning of the homophone and saw a display containing four pictures. In experiment 1, the display had a shape competitor of the subordinate meaning of the homophone in both neutral and biased conditions along with three unrelated distractors. Experiment 2 had semantic competitors of the subordinate meaning of the homophones along with three distractors. Proportion of fixations to different objects overtime suggested that participants activated the subordinate meanings and oriented their attention to the shape and semantic competitors even when the prior context was biased towards the dominant meaning. Overall, these data from Hindi provide further support to those models of lexical access that assume exhaustive access of both the meanings of an ambiguous homophone. These data suggest even a dominant bias does not eliminate the activation of perceptual and conceptual features of the subordinate meaning.

  19. BioTCM-SE: A Semantic Search Engine for the Information Retrieval of Modern Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the functional mechanisms of the complex biological system as a whole is drawing more and more attention in global health care management. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, essentially different from Western Medicine (WM, is gaining increasing attention due to its emphasis on individual wellness and natural herbal medicine, which satisfies the goal of integrative medicine. However, with the explosive growth of biomedical data on the Web, biomedical researchers are now confronted with the problem of large-scale data analysis and data query. Besides that, biomedical data also has a wide coverage which usually comes from multiple heterogeneous data sources and has different taxonomies, making it hard to integrate and query the big biomedical data. Embedded with domain knowledge from different disciplines all regarding human biological systems, the heterogeneous data repositories are implicitly connected by human expert knowledge. Traditional search engines cannot provide accurate and comprehensive search results for the semantically associated knowledge since they only support keywords-based searches. In this paper, we present BioTCM-SE, a semantic search engine for the information retrieval of modern biology and TCM, which provides biologists with a comprehensive and accurate associated knowledge query platform to greatly facilitate the implicit knowledge discovery between WM and TCM.

  20. BioTCM-SE: a semantic search engine for the information retrieval of modern biology and traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Huajun; Bi, Xuan; Gu, Peiqin; Chen, Jiaoyan; Wu, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the functional mechanisms of the complex biological system as a whole is drawing more and more attention in global health care management. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), essentially different from Western Medicine (WM), is gaining increasing attention due to its emphasis on individual wellness and natural herbal medicine, which satisfies the goal of integrative medicine. However, with the explosive growth of biomedical data on the Web, biomedical researchers are now confronted with the problem of large-scale data analysis and data query. Besides that, biomedical data also has a wide coverage which usually comes from multiple heterogeneous data sources and has different taxonomies, making it hard to integrate and query the big biomedical data. Embedded with domain knowledge from different disciplines all regarding human biological systems, the heterogeneous data repositories are implicitly connected by human expert knowledge. Traditional search engines cannot provide accurate and comprehensive search results for the semantically associated knowledge since they only support keywords-based searches. In this paper, we present BioTCM-SE, a semantic search engine for the information retrieval of modern biology and TCM, which provides biologists with a comprehensive and accurate associated knowledge query platform to greatly facilitate the implicit knowledge discovery between WM and TCM.

  1. An evaluation of concept based latent semantic indexing for clinical information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) of surgical case report text using ICD-9-CM procedure codes and index terms was evaluated. The precision-recall performance of this two-step matrix retrieval process was compared with the SMART Document retrieval system, surface word matching, and humanly assigned procedure codes. Human coding performed best, two-step LSI did less well than surface matching or SMART. This evaluation suggests that concept-based LSI may be compromised by its two-stage nature and its dependence upon a robust term database linked to main concepts. However, the potential elegance of partial- credit concept matching merits the continued evaluation of LSI for clinical case retrieval. PMID:1482949

  2. Social class and preschool language skill: II. semantic mastery of color information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, G E; Hunt, J M; Lieberman, C

    1975-05-01

    The four-year-old children of Head Start (two-year-classes of 90 for 1969-71 and 72 for 1971-72) performed on a test of perceptual identification approximately as well as four-year-old nursery-school children of parents predominantly of college background. On the other hand, only 28.9% and 19.4% of the children of Head Start, as compared with 87.9% and 90.2% of the children of the nursery-school pointed correctly to all six of the blocks when the examiner named the colors. Also, only 25.6% and 23.6% of those of Head Start, as compared with 81.8% and 76.5% of those of the nursery school, named the colors of all six blocks as they were designated by the examiners. Sex differences and race differences, except in the case of brown, among the children of Head Start were negligible and not significant. Somewhat more children showed semantic mastery for the warn colors, orange and red, than for the cool colors, blue and green. The finding of a deficiency in semantic mastery for such an elementary abstraction as color is highly dissonant with the contention of many students of sociological linguistics that children of poverty, and especially black children of poverty, are without cognitive or linguistic deficit, and that they fail in school only because they use a dialect differing from standard English. The finding is quite consonant with the contention that children of poverty do have a cognitive and linguistic deficit which may, and probably does, derive from the rearing conditions in their homes during the preschool years.

  3. Information management on the basis of semantic-web techniques, or a Google for developers; Informationsmanagement auf der Basis von Semantic-Web Techniken oder Ein Google fuer Entwickler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, B. [Schenck Pegasus GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Sevilmis, N.; Stork, A. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Graphische Datenverarbeitung, Darmstadt (Germany); Castro, R. [Centro de Computacao Grafica, Guimaraes (Portugal); Jimenez, I.; Marcos, G.; Posada, J.; Smithers, T. [VICOMTech, San Sebastian (Spain); Mauri, M.; Pianciamore, M.; Selvini, P. [CEFRIEL, Milano (Italy); Zecchino, V. [Italdesign - Giugiaro SpA, Moncalieri, Torino (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Information retrieval often suffers from the lack of suitable search tools or the query complexity. The search of some concrete information on the base of file names or the coincidental occurrence of key words in files is little helpful because the obtainable matches are too much subject to chance. Therefore an effective search must be based on the semantic interpretation of the query and additionally casts of the query into the context of an application domain. Here the development of the search machine prototype WIDE is presented, which builds up the query interpretation on Semantic Web techniques. The search machine can be configured for application domains and is able to map a query to different data sources in parallel. The search machine processes the retrieved results graphically and associates the concepts used in the Query with thematically related concepts. The search machine can be used to retrieve text documents or test bed results of experiments archived in ASAM-ODS data sources. (orig.)

  4. Neuro-Semantics and Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Stewart W.

    1987-01-01

    Draws distinctions between the terms semantics (dealing with such verbal parameters as dictionaries and "laws" of logic and rhetoric), general semantics (semantics, plus the complex, dynamic, organismal properties of human beings and their physical environment), and neurosemantics (names for relations-based input from the neurosensory…

  5. Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lamandini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013. As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence.

  6. How semantics can inform the geological mapping process and support intelligent queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Piana, Fabrizio; Mimmo, Dario

    2017-04-01

    The geologic mapping process requires the organization of data according to the general knowledge about the objects, namely the geologic units, and to the objectives of a graphic representation of such objects in a map, following an established model of geotectonic evolution. Semantics can greatly help such a process in two concerns: the provision of a terminological base to name and classify the objects of the map; on the other, the implementation of a machine-readable encoding of the geologic knowledge base supports the application of reasoning mechanisms and the derivation of novel properties and relations about the objects of the map. The OntoGeonous initiative has built a terminological base of geological knowledge in a machine-readable format, following the Semantic Web tenets and the Linked Data paradigm. The major knowledge sources of the OntoGeonous initiative are GeoScience Markup Language schemata and vocabularies (through its last version, GeoSciML 4, 2015, published by the IUGS CGI Commission) and the INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" directives (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, published by INSPIRE Thematic Working Group Geology of the European Commission). The Linked Data paradigm has been exploited by linking (without replicating, to avoid inconsistencies) the already existing machine-readable encoding for some specific domains, such as the lithology domain (vocabulary Simple Lithology) and the geochronologic time scale (ontology "gts"). Finally, for the upper level knowledge, shared across several geologic domains, we have resorted to NASA SWEET ontology. The OntoGeonous initiative has also produced a wiki that explains how the geologic knowledge has been encoded from shared geoscience vocabularies (https://www.di.unito.it/wikigeo/). In particular, the sections dedicated to axiomatization will support the construction of an appropriate data base schema that can be then filled with the objects of the map. This contribution will discuss

  7. LinkHub: a Semantic Web system that facilitates cross-database queries and information retrieval in proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Kei-Hoi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key abstraction in representing proteomics knowledge is the notion of unique identifiers for individual entities (e.g. proteins and the massive graph of relationships among them. These relationships are sometimes simple (e.g. synonyms but are often more complex (e.g. one-to-many relationships in protein family membership. Results We have built a software system called LinkHub using Semantic Web RDF that manages the graph of identifier relationships and allows exploration with a variety of interfaces. For efficiency, we also provide relational-database access and translation between the relational and RDF versions. LinkHub is practically useful in creating small, local hubs on common topics and then connecting these to major portals in a federated architecture; we have used LinkHub to establish such a relationship between UniProt and the North East Structural Genomics Consortium. LinkHub also facilitates queries and access to information and documents related to identifiers spread across multiple databases, acting as "connecting glue" between different identifier spaces. We demonstrate this with example queries discovering "interologs" of yeast protein interactions in the worm and exploring the relationship between gene essentiality and pseudogene content. We also show how "protein family based" retrieval of documents can be achieved. LinkHub is available at hub.gersteinlab.org and hub.nesg.org with supplement, database models and full-source code. Conclusion LinkHub leverages Semantic Web standards-based integrated data to provide novel information retrieval to identifier-related documents through relational graph queries, simplifies and manages connections to major hubs such as UniProt, and provides useful interactive and query interfaces for exploring the integrated data.

  8. Semantic Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya

  9. Performance Comparison of Relational and Native-XML Databases using the Semantics of the Land Command and Control Information Exchange Data Model (LC2IEDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    MIP’s Land Command and Control Information Exchange Data Model (LC2IEDM), it is feasible to compare the syntactic strength of human-readable XML documents with the semantics of LC2IEDM as used within a relational database.

  10. Semantic Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Motoshi

    Requirements engineering (RE) techniques play a crucial role in information systems development processes. There are many excellent techniques of RE to assist requirements analysts and stakeholders in producing requirements specification of higher quality, and some of them are put into practice in industry. However, one of the issues of these RE techniques is that they do not handle semantic aspects of requirements. If we can deal with the meaning of requirements by using automated techniques, we can get more effective RE techniques to produce requirements specifications of higher quality. In this chapter, we consider an ontology as a semantic domain so as to provide the meaning for requirements, and discuss the potentials of the RE techniques using an ontology as a semantic basis. Especially, we illustrate an extension of goal-oriented requirements analysis where this idea is embedded, i.e. we provide the semantics for goal descriptions written in natural language using a mapping from them to an ontology. The inference mechanisms of the ontology allow us to decompose a goal into sub-goals and to find missing goals. Furthermore, in this chapter we discuss the possibilities of the techniques to support the other activities of RE processes using this ontological technique, e.g. measuring quality metrics and controlling versions of requirements from a semantic view. Due to similarity to Semantic Web techniques, we call a family of these engineering techniques Semantic Requirements Engineering in this chapter.

  11. Information-computational system for storage, search and analytical processing of environmental datasets based on the Semantic Web technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, A.; Gordov, E.; Okladnikov, I.

    2009-04-01

    In this report the results of the work devoted to the development of working model of the software system for storage, semantically-enabled search and retrieval along with processing and visualization of environmental datasets containing results of meteorological and air pollution observations and mathematical climate modeling are presented. Specially designed metadata standard for machine-readable description of datasets related to meteorology, climate and atmospheric pollution transport domains is introduced as one of the key system components. To provide semantic interoperability the Resource Description Framework (RDF, http://www.w3.org/RDF/) technology means have been chosen for metadata description model realization in the form of RDF Schema. The final version of the RDF Schema is implemented on the base of widely used standards, such as Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (http://dublincore.org/), Directory Interchange Format (DIF, http://gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov/User/difguide/difman.html), ISO 19139, etc. At present the system is available as a Web server (http://climate.risks.scert.ru/metadatabase/) based on the web-portal ATMOS engine [1] and is implementing dataset management functionality including SeRQL-based semantic search as well as statistical analysis and visualization of selected data archives [2,3]. The core of the system is Apache web server in conjunction with Tomcat Java Servlet Container (http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/) and Sesame Server (http://www.openrdf.org/) used as a database for RDF and RDF Schema. At present statistical analysis of meteorological and climatic data with subsequent visualization of results is implemented for such datasets as NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, Reanalysis NCEP/DOE AMIP II, JMA/CRIEPI JRA-25, ECMWF ERA-40 and local measurements obtained from meteorological stations on the territory of Russia. This functionality is aimed primarily at finding of main characteristics of regional climate dynamics. The proposed system represents

  12. Improving data management and dissemination in web based information systems by semantic enrichment of descriptive data aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Steffen; Wehrmann, Thilo; Klinger, Verena; Schettler, Ingo; Huth, Juliane; Künzer, Claudia; Dech, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    The German-Vietnamese water-related information system for the Mekong Delta (WISDOM) project supports business processes in Integrated Water Resources Management in Vietnam. Multiple disciplines bring together earth and ground based observation themes, such as environmental monitoring, water management, demographics, economy, information technology, and infrastructural systems. This paper introduces the components of the web-based WISDOM system including data, logic and presentation tier. It focuses on the data models upon which the database management system is built, including techniques for tagging or linking metadata with the stored information. The model also uses ordered groupings of spatial, thematic and temporal reference objects to semantically tag datasets to enable fast data retrieval, such as finding all data in a specific administrative unit belonging to a specific theme. A spatial database extension is employed by the PostgreSQL database. This object-oriented database was chosen over a relational database to tag spatial objects to tabular data, improving the retrieval of census and observational data at regional, provincial, and local areas. While the spatial database hinders processing raster data, a "work-around" was built into WISDOM to permit efficient management of both raster and vector data. The data model also incorporates styling aspects of the spatial datasets through styled layer descriptions (SLD) and web mapping service (WMS) layer specifications, allowing retrieval of rendered maps. Metadata elements of the spatial data are based on the ISO19115 standard. XML structured information of the SLD and metadata are stored in an XML database. The data models and the data management system are robust for managing the large quantity of spatial objects, sensor observations, census and document data. The operational WISDOM information system prototype contains modules for data management, automatic data integration, and web services for data

  13. Semantic Observation Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kuhn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

  14. Semantic multimedia analysis and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Mylonas, Phivos

    2014-01-01

    Broad in scope, Semantic Multimedia Analysis and Processing provides a complete reference of techniques, algorithms, and solutions for the design and the implementation of contemporary multimedia systems. Offering a balanced, global look at the latest advances in semantic indexing, retrieval, analysis, and processing of multimedia, the book features the contributions of renowned researchers from around the world. Its contents are based on four fundamental thematic pillars: 1) information and content retrieval, 2) semantic knowledge exploitation paradigms, 3) multimedia personalization, and 4)

  15. Evolution of semantic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Küppers, Bernd-Olaf; Artmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems in nature and society make use of information for the development of their internal organization and the control of their functional mechanisms. Alongside technical aspects of storing, transmitting and processing information, the various semantic aspects of information, such as meaning, sense, reference and function, play a decisive part in the analysis of such systems.With the aim of fostering a better understanding of semantic systems from an evolutionary and multidisciplinary perspective, this volume collects contributions by philosophers and natural scientists, linguists, i

  16. Item and order information in semantic memory: students’ retention of the “CU fight song” lyrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overstreet, Michael F; Healy, Alice F

    2011-01-01

    University of Colorado (CU) students were tested on memory for the “CU Fight Song” in order to examine serial position effects in semantic memory while controlling for familiarity across positions...

  17. Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans. PMID:1807584

  18. From structure from motion to historical building information modeling: populating a semantic-aware library of architectural elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagati, Cettina; Lo Turco, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed a huge diffusion of building information modeling (BIM) approaches in the field of architectural design, although very little research has been undertaken to explore the value, criticalities, and advantages attributable to the application of these methodologies in the cultural heritage domain. Furthermore, the last developments in digital photogrammetry lead to the easy generation of reliable low-cost three-dimensional textured models that could be used in BIM platforms to create semantic-aware objects that could compose a specific library of historical architectural elements. In this case, the transfer between the point cloud and its corresponding parametric model is not so trivial and the level of geometrical abstraction could not be suitable with the scope of the BIM. The aim of this paper is to explore and retrace the milestone works on this crucial topic in order to identify the unsolved issues and to propose and test a unique and simple workflow practitioner centered and based on the use of the latest available solutions for point cloud managing into commercial BIM platforms.

  19. The Development of the Ability to Semantically Integrate Information in Speech and Iconic Gesture in Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Kazuki; Sowden, Hannah; Kita, Sotaro

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether children's ability to integrate speech and gesture follows the pattern of a broader developmental shift between 3- and 5-year-old children (Ramscar & Gitcho, 2007) regarding the ability to process two pieces of information simultaneously. In Experiment 1, 3-year-olds, 5-year-olds, and adults were presented with either an…

  20. Automatic natural acquisition of a semantic network for information retrieval systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enguehard, Chantal; Malvache, Pierre; Trigano, Philippe

    1992-03-01

    The amount of information is becoming greater and greater, in industries where complex processes are performed it is becoming increasingly difficult to profit from all the documents produced when fresh knowledge becomes available (reports, experiments, findings). This situation causes a considerable and expensive waste of precious time lost searching for documents or, quite simply, results in outright repeating what has been done. One solution is to transform all paper information into computerized information. We might imagine that we are in a science-fiction world and that we have the perfect computer. We tell it everything we know, we make it read all the books, and if we ask it any question, it will find the response if that response exists. But unfortunately, we are in the real world and the last four decades have taught us to minimize our expectations of computers. During the 1960s, the information retrieval systems appeared. Their purpose is to provide access to any desired documents, in response to a question about a subject, even if it is not known to exist. Here we focus on the problem of selecting items to index the documents. In 1966, Salton identified this problem as crucial when he saw that his system, Medlars, did not find a relevant text because of the wrong indexation. Faced with this problem, he imagined a guide to help authors choose the correct indexation, but he anticipated the automation of this operation with the SMART system. It was stated previously that a manual language analysis for information items by subjects experts is likely to prove impractical in the long run. After a brief survey of the existing responses to the index choice problem, we shall present the system automatic natural acquisition (ANA) which chooses items to index texts by using as little knowledge as possible- -just by learning the language. This system does not use any grammar or lexicon, so the selected indexes will be very close to the field concerned in the texts.

  1. Enlisting User Community Perspectives to Inform Development of a Semantic Web Application for Discovery of Cross-Institutional Research Information and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, E. M.; Mayernik, M. S.; Boler, F. M.; Corson-Rikert, J.; Daniels, M. D.; Gross, M. B.; Khan, H.; Maull, K. E.; Rowan, L. R.; Stott, D.; Williams, S.; Krafft, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Researchers seek information and data through a variety of avenues: published literature, search engines, repositories, colleagues, etc. In order to build a web application that leverages linked open data to enable multiple paths for information discovery, the EarthCollab project has surveyed two geoscience user communities to consider how researchers find and share scholarly output. EarthCollab, a cross-institutional, EarthCube funded project partnering UCAR, Cornell University, and UNAVCO, is employing the open-source semantic web software, VIVO, as the underlying technology to connect the people and resources of virtual research communities. This study will present an analysis of survey responses from members of the two case study communities: (1) the Bering Sea Project, an interdisciplinary field program whose data archive is hosted by NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL), and (2) UNAVCO, a geodetic facility and consortium that supports diverse research projects informed by geodesy. The survey results illustrate the types of research products that respondents indicate should be discoverable within a digital platform and the current methods used to find publications, data, personnel, tools, and instrumentation. The responses showed that scientists rely heavily on general purpose search engines, such as Google, to find information, but that data center websites and the published literature were also critical sources for finding collaborators, data, and research tools.The survey participants also identify additional features of interest for an information platform such as search engine indexing, connection to institutional web pages, generation of bibliographies and CVs, and outward linking to social media. Through the survey, the user communities prioritized the type of information that is most important to display and describe their work within a research profile. The analysis of this survey will inform our further development of a platform that will

  2. Semantic-Based Knowledge Management in E-Government: Modeling Attention for Proactive Information Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiotis, Konstantinos; Stojanovic, Nenad

    E-government has become almost synonymous with a consumer-led revolution of government services inspired and made possible by the Internet. With technology being the least of the worries for government organizations nowadays, attention is shifting towards managing complexity as one of the basic antecedents of operational and decision-making inefficiency. Complexity has been traditionally preoccupying public administrations and owes its origins to several sources. Among them we encounter primarily the cross-functional nature and the degree of legal structuring of administrative work. Both of them have strong reliance to the underlying process and information infrastructure of public organizations. Managing public administration work thus implies managing its processes and information. Knowledge management (KM) and business process reengineering (BPR) have been deployed already by private organizations with success for the same purposes and certainly comprise improvement practices that are worthwhile investigating. Our contribution through this paper is on the utilization of KM for the e-government.

  3. Behavioral Modernity and the Cultural Transmission of Structured Information: The Semantic Axelrod Model

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Cultural transmission models are coming to the fore in explaining increases in the Paleolithic toolkit richness and diversity. Analyses suggest that diversity increased due to relaxation of conformism, due to the effects of demographic expansion on cultural diversity, and the effects of extinction and recolonization in metapopulations. During the Paleolithic, however, technologies increase not only in terms of diversity but also in their complexity and interdependence. As Mesoudi and O'Brien (2008) have shown selection broadly favors social learning that is hierarchical and structured, rather than information which is piecemeal and independent. The addition of structured information acquisition potentially explains how the complexity of technology changes along with diversity. Here, we introduce a structured extension of the Axelrod model of cultural differentiation. We examine the conditions under which structured suites of traits develop and differentiate in the model, which can represent the chains of prer...

  4. Semantic Web Technology for Mapping and Applying Clinical Functional Assessment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    rich ontology that integrates standard terminologies such as ICF and SNOMED CT, and which provides the means for making detailed or aggregate queries...this paper, we describe a solution for representing, acquiring and querying assessment data that uses (1) domain ontologies and standard terminologies ...acquisition Web forms, and (3) a data model for the acquired information that links the data to the domain ontologies and standard terminologies . Such

  5. Methods and Systems for Representing, Using and Displaying Time-Varying Information on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently...19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98...Combination with Simple Features," lEE European Workshop on Handwriting Analysis and Recognition, pp. 6/1-6, Brussels, Jul. 1994. Bock, J., et a

  6. Further differentiating item and order information in semantic memory: students' recall of words from the "CU Fight Song", Harry Potter book titles, and Scooby Doo theme song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Michael F; Healy, Alice F; Neath, Ian

    2017-01-01

    University of Colorado (CU) students were tested for both order and item information in their semantic memory for the "CU Fight Song". Following an earlier study by Overstreet and Healy [(2011). Item and order information in semantic memory: Students' retention of the "CU fight song" lyrics. Memory & Cognition, 39, 251-259. doi: 10.3758/s13421-010-0018-3 ], a symmetrical bow-shaped serial position function (with both primacy and recency advantages) was found for reconstructing the order of the nine lines in the song, whereas a function with no primacy advantage was found for recalling a missing word from each line. This difference between order and item information was found even though students filled in missing words without any alternatives provided and missing words came from the beginning, middle, or end of each line. Similar results were found for CU students' recall of the sequence of Harry Potter book titles and the lyrics of the Scooby Doo theme song. These findings strengthen the claim that the pronounced serial position function in semantic memory occurs largely because of the retention of order, rather than item, information.

  7. Using lighting and visual information to alter driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Inappropriate traffic speeds are a major cause of traffic fatalities. Since driving is a task with a substantial contribution : from vision, the use of lighting and visual information such as signage could assist in providing appropriate cues to : en...

  8. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  9. Application of the Semantics Enrichment Concept in the Information Fusion for Command Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    before, in remarking that: O(β) ⊆ P (β). ( P : power set) since a succession of observations is going to concern itself very certainly with the non...defined as a mapping Π : Π : P ( R ) → [0, 1] (P : power set), with Π ( Ø ) = 0 et Π ( R ) = 1, ∀ Ei ∈ P ( Ei ) → Π ( ∪i = 1,…,n Ei ) = Sup i = 1...less « informational strengh » « ...I hear a gun shot... » « ...I detect a battle tank ...» « … I see a battle tank heading for the north… » RTO IST

  10. a Method of Extracting Shoreline Based on Semantic Information Using Dual-Length LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C.; Wu, J.; Yuan, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Shoreline is a spatial varying separation between water and land. By utilizing dual-wavelength LiDAR point data together with semantic information that shoreline often appears beyond water surface profile and is observable on the beach, the paper generates the shoreline and the details are as follows: (1) Gain the water surface profile: first we obtain water surface by roughly selecting water points based on several features of water body, then apply least square fitting method to get the whole water trend surface. Then we get the ground surface connecting the under -water surface by both TIN progressive filtering method and surface interpolation method. After that, we have two fitting surfaces intersected to get water surface profile of the island. (2) Gain the sandy beach: we grid all points and select the water surface profile grids points as seeds, then extract sandy beach points based on eight-neighborhood method and features, then we get all sandy beaches. (3) Get the island shoreline: first we get the sandy beach shoreline based on intensity information, then we get a threshold value to distinguish wet area and dry area, therefore we get the shoreline of several sandy beaches. In some extent, the shoreline has the same height values within a small area, by using all the sandy shoreline points to fit a plane P, and the intersection line of the ground surface and the shoreline plane P can be regarded as the island shoreline. By comparing with the surveying shoreline, the results show that the proposed method can successfully extract shoreline.

  11. Integrating semantic annotation and information visualization for the analysis of multichannel fluorescence micrographs from pancreatic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Julia; Zhou, Luxian; Abouna, Sylvie; Pelengaris, Stella; Epstein, David; Khan, Michael; Nattkemper, Tim W

    2010-09-01

    The challenging problem of computational bioimage analysis receives growing attention from life sciences. Fluorescence microscopy is capable of simultaneously visualizing multiple molecules by staining with different fluorescent dyes. In the analysis of the result multichannel images, segmentation of ROIs resembles only a first step which must be followed by a second step towards the analysis of the ROI's signals in the different channels. In this paper we present a system that combines image segmentation and information visualization principles for an integrated analysis of fluorescence micrographs of tissue samples. The analysis aims at the detection and annotation of cells of the Islets of Langerhans and the whole pancreas, which is of great importance in diabetes studies and in the search for new anti-diabetes treatments. The system operates with two modules. The automatic annotation module applies supervised machine learning for cell detection and segmentation. The second information visualization module can be used for an interactive classification and visualization of cell types following the link-and-brush principle for filtering. We can compare the results obtained with our system with results obtained manually by an expert, who evaluated a set of example images three times to account for his intra-observer variance. The comparison shows that using our system the images can be evaluated with high accuracy which allows a considerable speed up of the time-consuming evaluation process.

  12. TRUSTING CROWDSOURCED GEOSPATIAL SEMANTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goodhue

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature’s intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  13. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerwester, Scott; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

  14. Prioritizing PubMed articles for the Comparative Toxicogenomic Database utilizing semantic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Kim, Won; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John

    2012-01-01

    The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) contains manually curated literature that describes chemical-gene interactions, chemical-disease relationships and gene-disease relationships. Finding articles containing this information is the first and an important step to assist manual curation efficiency. However, the complex nature of named entities and their relationships make it challenging to choose relevant articles. In this article, we introduce a machine learning framework for prioritizing CTD-relevant articles based on our prior system for the protein-protein interaction article classification task in BioCreative III. To address new challenges in the CTD task, we explore a new entity identification method for genes, chemicals and diseases. In addition, latent topics are analyzed and used as a feature type to overcome the small size of the training set. Applied to the BioCreative 2012 Triage dataset, our method achieved 0.8030 mean average precision (MAP) in the official runs, resulting in the top MAP system among participants. Integrated with PubTator, a Web interface for annotating biomedical literature, the proposed system also received a positive review from the CTD curation team.

  15. Organizing sensory information for postural control in altered sensory environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, G; Shupert, C L; Nashner, L M

    1996-06-07

    Healthy human subjects can maintain adequate balance despite distorted somatosensory or visual feedback or vestibular feedback distorted by a peripheral vestibular disorder. Although it is not precisely known how this sensorimotor integration task is achieved, the nervous system coordinates information from multiple sensory systems to produce motor commands differently in different sensory environments. These different ways of coordinating sensory information and motor commands can be thought of as "sensorimotor states". The way the nervous system distributes the monitoring of postural sway among states is analysed in this paper as a logical structure of transitions between states. The form of the transition structure is specified and distinguished from a finite state machine. The hypothesis that the nervous system could use a transition structure to maintain balance is tested by developing transition structures which are consistent with a set of experimental observations of postural control in healthy subjects and three groups of patients with peripheral vestibular disease.

  16. Formal Language Decomposition into Semantic Primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes FÄHNDRICH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for semantic decomposition. For that we surveys languages used to enrich contextual information with semantic descriptions. Such descriptions can be e.g. applied to enable reasoning when collecting vast amounts of information. In particular, we focus on the elements of the languages that make up their semantic. To do so, we compare the expressiveness of the well-known languages OWL, PDDL and MOF with a theory from linguistic called the Natural Semantic Metalanguage. We then analyze how the semantic of the language is build up and describe how semantic decomposition based on the semantic primes can be used for a so called mental lexicon. This mental lexicon can be used to reason upon semantic service description in the research domain of service match making.

  17. Automatic sorting of toxicological information into the IUCLID (International Uniform Chemical Information Database) endpoint-categories making use of the semantic search engine Go3R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G; Wächter, Thomas; Hareng, Lars; Wareing, Britta; Langsch, Angelika; Zschunke, Matthias; Alvers, Michael R; Landsiedel, Robert

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge-based search engine Go3R, www.Go3R.org, has been developed to assist scientists from industry and regulatory authorities in collecting comprehensive toxicological information with a special focus on identifying available alternatives to animal testing. The semantic search paradigm of Go3R makes use of expert knowledge on 3Rs methods and regulatory toxicology, laid down in the ontology, a network of concepts, terms, and synonyms, to recognize the contents of documents. Search results are automatically sorted into a dynamic table of contents presented alongside the list of documents retrieved. This table of contents allows the user to quickly filter the set of documents by topics of interest. Documents containing hazard information are automatically assigned to a user interface following the endpoint-specific IUCLID5 categorization scheme required, e.g. for REACH registration dossiers. For this purpose, complex endpoint-specific search queries were compiled and integrated into the search engine (based upon a gold standard of 310 references that had been assigned manually to the different endpoint categories). Go3R sorts 87% of the references concordantly into the respective IUCLID5 categories. Currently, Go3R searches in the 22 million documents available in the PubMed and TOXNET databases. However, it can be customized to search in other databases including in-house databanks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic…

  19. Use of altered informed consent in pragmatic clinical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Ross E.; Beskow, Laura M.; Ford, Daniel E.; Lantos, John D.; McCall, Jonathan; Patrick-Lake, Bray; Pletcher, Mark J.; Rath, Brian; Schmidt, Hollie; Weinfurt, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    There are situations in which the requirement to obtain conventional written informed consent can impose significant or even insurmountable barriers to conducting pragmatic clinical research, including some comparative effectiveness studies and cluster-randomized trials. Although certain federal regulations governing research in the United States (45 CFR 46) define circumstances in which any of the required elements may be waived, the same standards apply regardless of whether any single element is to be waived or whether consent is to be waived in its entirety. Using the same threshold for a partial or complete waiver limits the options available to IRBs as they seek to optimize a consent process. In this article, we argue that new standards are necessary in order to enable important pragmatic clinical research while at the same time protecting patients’ rights and interests. PMID:26374677

  20. Changes in events alter how people remember recent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Khena M; Barch, Deanna M; Head, Denise; Maley, Corey J; Holder, Derek; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2011-05-01

    Observers spontaneously segment larger activities into smaller events. For example, "washing a car" might be segmented into "scrubbing," "rinsing," and "drying" the car. This process, called event segmentation, separates "what is happening now? from "what just happened." In this study, we show that event segmentation predicts activity in the hippocampus when people access recent information. Participants watched narrative film and occasionally attempted to retrieve from memory objects that recently appeared in the film. The delay between object presentation and test was always 5 sec. Critically, for some of the objects, the event changed during the delay whereas for others the event continued. Using fMRI, we examined whether retrieval-related brain activity differed when the event changed during the delay. Brain regions involved in remembering past experiences over long periods, including the hippocampus, were more active during retrieval when the event changed during the delay. Thus, the way an object encountered just 5 sec ago is retrieved from memory appears to depend in part on what happened in those 5 sec. These data strongly suggest that the segmentation of ongoing activity into events is a control process that regulates when memory for events is updated.

  1. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    Semantic gaps are dangerous Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops...

  2. Are Women More Influenced than Men by Top-Down Semantic Information when Listening to Disrupted Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liederman, Jacqueline; Gilbert, Kristen; Fisher, Janet McGraw; Mathews, Geetha; Frye, Richard E.; Joshi, Pallavi

    2011-01-01

    Perception is a product of the interaction between bottom-up sensory processing and top-down higher order cognitive activity. For example, when the initial phoneme of a word is obliterated and replaced with noise, listeners hear it as intact provided there is semantic context. We modified this phonemic restoration paradigm by masking (not…

  3. Comparing and Combining the Effectiveness of Latent Semantic Indexing and the Ordinary Vector Space Model for Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochbaum, Karen E.; Streeter, Lynn A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes experiments that compared a new method for automatically analyzing semantic structures in text by statistical means with the standard vector space model. Findings indicate that combining both methods improved performance over either alone. The effects of other experimental variables on retrieval performance (term weighting, suffix…

  4. The Semantic SPASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Crichton, D.; Thieman, J.; Ramirez, P.; King, T.; Weiss, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as the basis for interoperability between independent data systems. To develop the Semantic SPASE prototype, the data model was first analyzed to determine the inherit object classes and their attributes. These were entered into Stanford Medical Informatics' Protege ontology tool and annotated using definitions from the SPASE documentation. Further analysis of the data model resulted in the addition of class relationships. Finally attributes and relationships that support broad-scope interoperability were added from research associated with the Object-Oriented Data Technology task. To validate the ontology and produce a knowledge base, example data products were ingested. The capture of the data model as an ontology results in a more formal specification of the model. The Protege software is also a powerful management tool and supports plug-ins that produce several graphical notations as output. The stated purpose of the semantic web is to support machine understanding of web-based information. Protege provides an export capability to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML for this purpose. Several research efforts use RDF/XML knowledge bases to provide semantic search. MIT's Simile/Longwell project provides both facet- and text-based search using a suite of metadata browsers and the text-based search engine Lucene. Using the Protege generated RDF knowledge-base a semantic search application was easily built and deployed to run as a web application. Configuration files specify the object attributes and values to be designated as facets (i.e. search) constraints. Semantic web technologies provide

  5. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  6. Introduction to geospatial semantics and technology workshop handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2012-01-01

    The workshop is a tutorial on introductory geospatial semantics with hands-on exercises using standard Web browsers. The workshop is divided into two sections, general semantics on the Web and specific examples of geospatial semantics using data from The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Open Ontology Repository. The general semantics section includes information and access to publicly available semantic archives. The specific session includes information on geospatial semantics with access to semantically enhanced data for hydrography, transportation, boundaries, and names. The Open Ontology Repository offers open-source ontologies for public use.

  7. Selective Short-Term Memory Deficits Arise from Impaired Domain-General Semantic Control Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Semantic short-term memory (STM) patients have a reduced ability to retain semantic information over brief delays but perform well on other semantic tasks; this pattern suggests damage to a dedicated buffer for semantic information. Alternatively, these difficulties may arise from mild disruption to domain-general semantic processes that have…

  8. NASA and The Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  9. Disclaimer labels on fashion magazine advertisements: Does timing of digital alteration information matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Bury, B.; Tiggemann, M.; Slater, A.

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate whether a message informing readers about digital alteration read before exposure to thin ideal advertisements would enhance the effectiveness of disclaimer labels. Participants were 280 female undergraduate students who viewed eleven thin ideal fashion magazine advertisements. Half viewed the advertisements in their original format, and half viewed the same advertisements with a digital alteration disclaimer label. Prior to viewing the advertisements, participa...

  10. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  11. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for Semantic Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol) is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP is the driving technology behind the Virtual Plant Information Network, an NSF-funded semantic w...

  12. OntoADR a semantic resource describing adverse drug reactions to support searching, coding, and information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvignet, Julien; Declerck, Gunnar; Asfari, Hadyl; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Bousquet, Cédric

    2016-10-01

    Efficient searching and coding in databases that use terminological resources requires that they support efficient data retrieval. The Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) is a reference terminology for several countries and organizations to code adverse drug reactions (ADRs) for pharmacovigilance. Ontologies that are available in the medical domain provide several advantages such as reasoning to improve data retrieval. The field of pharmacovigilance does not yet benefit from a fully operational ontology to formally represent the MedDRA terms. Our objective was to build a semantic resource based on formal description logic to improve MedDRA term retrieval and aid the generation of on-demand custom groupings by appropriately and efficiently selecting terms: OntoADR. The method consists of the following steps: (1) mapping between MedDRA terms and SNOMED-CT, (2) generation of semantic definitions using semi-automatic methods, (3) storage of the resource and (4) manual curation by pharmacovigilance experts. We built a semantic resource for ADRs enabling a new type of semantics-based term search. OntoADR adds new search capabilities relative to previous approaches, overcoming the usual limitations of computation using lightweight description logic, such as the intractability of unions or negation queries, bringing it closer to user needs. Our automated approach for defining MedDRA terms enabled the association of at least one defining relationship with 67% of preferred terms. The curation work performed on our sample showed an error level of 14% for this automated approach. We tested OntoADR in practice, which allowed us to build custom groupings for several medical topics of interest. The methods we describe in this article could be adapted and extended to other terminologies which do not benefit from a formal semantic representation, thus enabling better data retrieval performance. Our custom groupings of MedDRA terms were used while performing signal

  13. Semiotes: a semantics for sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazic, T

    2000-12-01

    Reliable, automated communication of biological information requires methods to declare the information's semantics. In this paper I describe an approach to semantic declaration intended to permit independent, distributed databases, algorithms, and servers to exchange and process requests for information and computations without requiring coordination or agreement among them on universe of discourse, data model, schema, or implementation. This approach uses Glossa, a formal language defining the semantics of biological ideas, information, and algorithms, to executably define the semantics of complex ideas and computations by constructs of semiotes, terms which axiomatically define very simple notions. A database or algorithm wishing to exchange information or computations maintains a set of mappings between its particular notions and semiotes, and a parser to translate between its indigenous ideas and implementation and the semiotes. Requests from other databases or algorithms are issued as semiotic messages, locally interpreted and processed, and the results returned as semiotes to the requesting entity. Thus, semiotes serve as a shared, abstract layer of definitions which can be computably combined by each database or algorithm according to its own needs and ideas. By combining the explicit declaration of semantics with the computation of the semantics of complex ideas, Glossa and its semiotes permit independent computational entities to lightly federate their capabilities as desired while maintaining their unique perspectives on both scientific and technical questions.

  14. MeSH-Informed Enrichment Analysis and MeSH-Guided Semantic Similarity Among Functional Terms and Gene Products in Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gota Morota

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical vocabularies and ontologies aid in recapitulating biological knowledge. The annotation of gene products is mainly accelerated by Gene Ontology (GO, and more recently by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH. Here, we report a suite of MeSH packages for chicken in Bioconductor, and illustrate some features of different MeSH-based analyses, including MeSH-informed enrichment analysis and MeSH-guided semantic similarity among terms and gene products, using two lists of chicken genes available in public repositories. The two published datasets that were employed represent (i differentially expressed genes, and (ii candidate genes under selective sweep or epistatic selection. The comparison of MeSH with GO overrepresentation analyses suggested not only that MeSH supports the findings obtained from GO analysis, but also that MeSH is able to further enrich the representation of biological knowledge and often provide more interpretable results. Based on the hierarchical structures of MeSH and GO, we computed semantic similarities among vocabularies, as well as semantic similarities among selected genes. These yielded the similarity levels between significant functional terms, and the annotation of each gene yielded the measures of gene similarity. Our findings show the benefits of using MeSH as an alternative choice of annotation in order to draw biological inferences from a list of genes of interest. We argue that the use of MeSH in conjunction with GO will be instrumental in facilitating the understanding of the genetic basis of complex traits.

  15. Method and Apparatus Providing Deception and/or Altered Operation in an Information System Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu

    2008-10-14

    A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.

  16. Effects of the common cold on mood, psychomotor performance, the encoding of new information, speed of working memory and semantic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P

    2012-10-01

    Previous research has shown that people with the common cold report a more negative mood and psychomotor slowing. Recent research suggests that memory speed may also be impaired. This was examined in the study reported here. A prospective design was used and all participants (N=200; half male, half female; mean age 21 years, range 18-30 years) carried out a baseline session when healthy. The test battery involved mood rating, simple and choice reaction time, verbal reasoning and semantic processing. Volunteers returned when they developed an upper respiratory tract illness (URTI) and repeated the test battery. If they remained healthy they were recalled as a control. One hundred and eighty-nine participants completed the study and 48 developed URTIs and 141 were in the healthy control group. Symptoms and signs suggested that those who were ill had colds rather than influenza. The results showed that those with colds reported lower alertness, a more negative mood, and psychomotor slowing. They were also slower at encoding new information and slower on the verbal reasoning and semantic processing tasks. The magnitude of the mood changes associated with being ill were correlated with symptom severity. The performance changes were not correlated with symptom severity, sleep duration or mood changes. Further research is now needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the behavioral malaise associated with URTIs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  18. A Denotational Semantics for Logic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    A fully abstract denotational semantics for logic programming has not been constructed yet. In this paper we present a denotational semantics that is almost fully abstract. We take the meaning of a logic program to be an element in a Plotkin power domain of substitutions. In this way our result...... shows that standard domain constructions suffice, when giving a semantics for logic programming. Using the well-known fixpoint semantics of logic programming we have to consider two different fixpoints in order to obtain information about both successful and failed computations. In contrast, our...... semantics is uniform in that the (single) meaning of a logic program contains information about both successful, failed and infinite computations. Finally, based on the full abstractness result, we argue that the detail level of substitutions is needed in any denotational semantics for logic programming....

  19. Living With Semantic Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray; Keady, John

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia is a variant of frontotemporal dementia and is a recently recognized diagnostic condition. There has been some research quantitatively examining care partner stress and burden in frontotemporal dementia. There are, however, few studies exploring the subjective experiences of family members caring for those with frontotemporal dementia. Increased knowledge of such experiences would allow service providers to tailor intervention, support, and information better. We used a case study design, with thematic narrative analysis applied to interview data, to describe the experiences of a wife and son caring for a husband/father with semantic dementia. Using this approach, we identified four themes: (a) living with routines, (b) policing and protecting, (c) making connections, and (d) being adaptive and flexible. Each of these themes were shared and extended, with the importance of routines in everyday life highlighted. The implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:24532121

  20. Semantic Approaches for Knowledge Discovery and Retrieval in Biomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkowski, Bartlomiej

    This thesis discusses potential applications of semantics to the recent literaturebased informatics systems to facilitate knowledge discovery, hypothesis generation, and literature retrieval in the domain of biomedicine. The approaches presented herein make use of semantic information extracted...

  1. Disclaimer labels on fashion magazine advertisements: Does timing of digital alteration information matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2017-04-01

    The study aimed to investigate whether a message informing readers about digital alteration read before exposure to thin ideal advertisements would enhance the effectiveness of disclaimer labels. Participants were 280 female undergraduate students who viewed eleven thin ideal fashion magazine advertisements. Half viewed the advertisements in their original format, and half viewed the same advertisements with a digital alteration disclaimer label. Prior to viewing the advertisements, participants read either a brief message informing them that advertisements are commonly digitally altered, or a control message. Irrespective of experimental condition, exposure to the thin ideal advertisements led to increased body dissatisfaction, with social comparison predicting this increase. Neither the disclaimer label nor the pre-exposure message, nor their combination, led to reductions in perceived realism, social comparison, or body dissatisfaction. However, trait appearance comparison moderated the effect of pre-exposure message on perceived realism, such that women high on trait appearance comparison in the digital alteration pre-exposure message condition rated the models as relatively more realistic than did women low on this trait. It was concluded that more research is needed to identify brief and easy-to-implement universal prevention strategies that can reduce the negative effects of thin ideal media imagery on women's body image. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. What Klein’s semantic gradient does and does not really show: decomposing Stroop interference into task and informational conflict components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia eLevin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study suggests that the idea that Stroop interference originates from multiple components may gain theoretically from integrating two independent frameworks. The first framework is represented by the well-known notion of semantic gradient of interference and the second one is the distinction between two types of conflict – the task and the informational conflict – giving rise to the interference (Goldfarb & Henik, 2007; McLeod & MacDonald, 2000. The proposed integration led to the conclusion that two (i.e., orthographic and lexical components of the four theoretically distinct components represent task conflict, and the other two (i.e., indirect and direct informational conflict components represent informational conflict. The four components were independently estimated in a series of experiments. The results confirmed the contribution of task conflict (estimated by a robust orthographic component and of informational conflict (estimated by a strong direct informational conflict component to Stroop interference. However, the performed critical review of the relevant literature (see General Discussion, as well as the results of the experiments reported, showed that the other two components expressing each type of conflict (i.e., the lexical component of task conflict and the indirect informational conflict were small, and unstable. The present analysis refines our knowledge of the origins of Stroop interference by providing evidence that each type of conflict has its major and minor contributions. The implications for cognitive control of an automatic reading process are also discussed.

  3. Building a biomedical semantic network in Wikipedia with Semantic Wiki Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Benjamin M; Clarke, Erik L; Loguercio, Salvatore; Su, Andrew I

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia is increasingly used as a platform for collaborative data curation, but its current technical implementation has significant limitations that hinder its use in biocuration applications. Specifically, while editors can easily link between two articles in Wikipedia to indicate a relationship, there is no way to indicate the nature of that relationship in a way that is computationally accessible to the system or to external developers. For example, in addition to noting a relationship between a gene and a disease, it would be useful to differentiate the cases where genetic mutation or altered expression causes the disease. Here, we introduce a straightforward method that allows Wikipedia editors to embed computable semantic relations directly in the context of current Wikipedia articles. In addition, we demonstrate two novel applications enabled by the presence of these new relationships. The first is a dynamically generated information box that can be rendered on all semantically enhanced Wikipedia articles. The second is a prototype gene annotation system that draws its content from the gene-centric articles on Wikipedia and exposes the new semantic relationships to enable previously impossible, user-defined queries. DATABASE URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Gene_Wiki.

  4. Preserved musical semantic memory in semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2011-02-01

    To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Case study. Academic medical center. A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music.

  5. Discovery and Selection of Semantic Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xia

    2013-01-01

    For advanced web search engines to be able not only to search for semantically related information dispersed over different web pages, but also for semantic services providing certain functionalities, discovering semantic services is the key issue. Addressing four problems of current solution, this book presents the following contributions. A novel service model independent of semantic service description models is proposed, which clearly defines all elements necessary for service discovery and selection. It takes service selection as its gist and improves efficiency. Corresponding selection algorithms and their implementation as components of the extended Semantically Enabled Service-oriented Architecture in the Web Service Modeling Environment are detailed. Many applications of semantic web services, e.g. discovery, composition and mediation, can benefit from a general approach for building application ontologies. With application ontologies thus built, services are discovered in the same way as with single...

  6. Information Fusion-Based Optimal Attitude Control for an Alterable Thrust Direction Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attitude control is the inner-loop and the most important part of the automatic flight control system of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. The information fusion-based optimal control method is applied in a UAV flight control system in this work. Firstly, a nonlinear model of alterable thrust direction UAV (ATD-UAV is established and linearized for controller design. The longitudinal controller and lateral controller are respectively designed based on information fusion-based optimal control, and then the information fusion flight control system is built up. Finally, the simulation of a nonlinear model described as ATD-UAV is carried out, the results of which show the superiority of the information fusion-based control strategy when compared to the single-loop design method. We also show that the ATD technique improves the anti-disturbance capacity of the UAV.

  7. Semantic data mapping technology to solve semantic data problem on heterogeneity aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yunianta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of applications developed with different programming languages, application/data architectures, database systems and representation of data/information leads to heterogeneity issues. One of the problem challenges in the problem of heterogeneity is about heterogeneity data in term of semantic aspect. The semantic aspect is about data that has the same name with different meaning or data that has a different name with the same meaning. The semantic data mapping process is the best solution in the current days to solve semantic data problem. There are many semantic data mapping technologies that have been used in recent years. This research aims to compare and analyze existing semantic data mapping technology using five criteria’s. After comparative and analytical process, this research provides recommendations of appropriate semantic data mapping technology based on several criteria’s. Furthermore, at the end of this research we apply the recommended semantic data mapping technology to be implemented with the real data in the specific application. The result of this research is the semantic data mapping file that contains all data structures in the application data source. This semantic data mapping file can be used to map, share and integrate with other semantic data mapping from other applications and can also be used to integrate with the ontology language.

  8. Quality model for semantic IS standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic IS (Information Systems) standards are essential for achieving interoperability between organizations. However a recent survey suggests that not the full benefits of standards are achieved, due to the quality issues. This paper presents a quality model for semantic IS standards, that should

  9. Learning the Semantics of Structured Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheriyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data, however, they rarely provide a semantic model to describe their contents. Semantic models of data sources capture the intended meaning of data sources by mapping them to the concepts and relationships defined by a…

  10. Semantics vs Pragmatics of a Compound Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena A.; Biktemirova, Ella I.; Davletbaeva, Diana N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of correlation between semantic and pragmatic potential of a compound word, which functions in informal speech, and the mechanisms of secondary nomination, which realizes the potential of semantic-pragmatic features of colloquial compounds. The relevance and the choice of the research question is based on the…

  11. Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike

    2012-01-01

    An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

  12. On the Privacy Implications of Location Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ağır Berker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile users increasingly make use of location-based online services enabled by localization systems. Not only do they share their locations to obtain contextual services in return (e.g., ‘nearest restaurant’, but they also share, with their friends, information about the venues (e.g., the type, such as a restaurant or a cinema they visit. This introduces an additional dimension to the threat to location privacy: location semantics, combined with location information, can be used to improve location inference by learning and exploiting patterns at the semantic level (e.g., people go to cinemas after going to restaurants. Conversely, the type of the venue a user visits can be inferred, which also threatens her semantic location privacy. In this paper, we formalize this problem and analyze the effect of venue-type information on location privacy. We introduce inference models that consider location semantics and semantic privacy-protection mechanisms and evaluate them by using datasets of semantic check-ins from Foursquare, totaling more than a thousand users in six large cities. Our experimental results show that there is a significant risk for users’ semantic location privacy and that semantic information improves inference of user locations.

  13. An Educational Tool for Browsing the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sujin; Kim, Younghwan; Park, Seongbin

    2013-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web where information is represented in a machine processable way. It is not separate from the current Web and one of the confusions that novice users might have is where the Semantic Web is. In fact, users can easily encounter RDF documents that are components of the Semantic Web while they navigate…

  14. Semantic Web Portals: Design and Development Technologies and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Ansari, Aftab 2012. Semantic Web Portals: Design and Development Technologies and Tools: Bachelor’s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 67. Semantic Web is one important and relevant research area in computer science. A growing research attention to this field can be explained by the opportunities the Semantic Web could provide by representing and reasoning about semantic information. The objective of this thesis is to study the technologies for...

  15. Programming the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

  16. Adaptive semantics visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Nazemi, Kawa

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

  17. A Semantic Approach to Describe Geospatial Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Sidney Roberto

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly using geospatial data from the Web to produce geographic information. One big challenge is to find the relevant data, which often is based on keywords or even file names. However, these approaches lack semantics. Thus, it is necessary to provide mechanisms to prepare data to help retrieval of semantically relevant data. This paper proposes an approach to attack this problem. This approach is based on semantic annotations that use geographic metadata and ontologies to describe heterogeneous geospatial data. Semantic annotations are RDF/XML files that rely on a FGDC metadata schema, filled with appropriate ontology terms, and stored in a XML database. The proposal is illustrated by a case study of semantic annotations of agricultural resources, using domain ontologies.

  18. SASL: A Semantic Annotation System for Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Pingpeng; Wang, Guoyin; Zhang, Qin; Jin, Hai

    Due to ambiguity, search engines for scientific literatures may not return right search results. One efficient solution to the problems is to automatically annotate literatures and attach the semantic information to them. Generally, semantic annotation requires identifying entities before attaching semantic information to them. However, due to abbreviation and other reasons, it is very difficult to identify entities correctly. The paper presents a Semantic Annotation System for Literature (SASL), which utilizes Wikipedia as knowledge base to annotate literatures. SASL mainly attaches semantic to terminology, academic institutions, conferences, and journals etc. Many of them are usually abbreviations, which induces ambiguity. Here, SASL uses regular expressions to extract the mapping between full name of entities and their abbreviation. Since full names of several entities may map to a single abbreviation, SASL introduces Hidden Markov Model to implement name disambiguation. Finally, the paper presents the experimental results, which confirm SASL a good performance.

  19. The Semantic Web in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  20. Towards semantic software engineering enviroments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falbo, R.A.; Guizzardi, G.; Natali, A.; Bertollo, G.; Ruy, F.; Mian, P.; Tortora, G.; Chang, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Software tools processing partially common set of data should share an understanding of what these data mean. Since ontologies have been used to express formally a shared understanding of information, we argue that they are a way towards Semantic SEEs. In this paper we discuss an ontology-based

  1. Polish Semantic Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grudzinska

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amount of information transferred by computers grows very rapidly thus outgrowing the average man's capability of reception. It implies computer programs increase in the demand for which would be able to perform an introductory classitication or even selection of information directed to a particular receiver. Due to the complexity of the problem, we restricted it to understanding short newspaper notes. Among many conceptions formulated so far, the conceptual dependency worked out by Roger Schank has been chosen. It is a formal language of description of the semantics of pronouncement integrated with a text understanding algorithm. Substantial part of each text transformation system is a semantic parser of the Polish language. It is a module, which as the first and the only one has an access to the text in the Polish language. lt plays the role of an element, which finds relations between words of the Polish language and the formal registration. It translates sentences written in the language used by people into the language theory. The presented structure of knowledge units and the shape of understanding process algorithms are universal by virtue of the theory. On the other hand the defined knowledge units and the rules used in the algorithms ure only examples because they are constructed in order to understand short newspaper notes.

  2. Semantics via Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  3. Thalamic semantic paralexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hoffmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexia may be divided into different subtypes, with semantic paralexia being particularly rare. A 57 year old woman with a discreet left thalamic stroke and semantic paralexia is described. Language evalution with the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Battery confirmed the semantic paralexia (deep alexia. Multimodality magnetic resonance imaging brain scanning excluded other cerebral lesions. A good recovery ensued.

  4. Altered visual information processing systems in bipolar disorder: evidence from visual MMN and P3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko eMaekawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visual information processing via visual MMN (vMMN and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli.Methods: Twenty patients with BD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness participated in this study. Subjects were seated in front of a monitor and listened to a story via earphones. Two types of windmill patterns (standard and deviant and white circle (target stimuli were randomly presented on the monitor. All stimuli were presented in random order at 200-ms durations with an 800-ms inter-stimulus interval. Stimuli were presented at 80% (standard, 10% (deviant, and 10% (target probabilities. The participants were instructed to attend to the story and press a button as soon as possible when the target stimuli were presented. Event-related potentials were recorded throughout the experiment using 128-channel EEG equipment. vMMN was obtained by subtracting standard from deviant stimuli responses, and P3 was evoked from the target stimulus.Results: Mean reaction times for target stimuli in the BD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mean vMMN-amplitudes and peak P3-amplitudes were significantly lower in the BD group than in controls.Conclusions: Abnormal vMMN and P3 in patients indicate a deficit of visual information processing in bipolar disorder, which is consistent with their increased reaction time to visual target stimuli.Significance: Both bottom-up and top-down visual information processing are likely altered in BD.

  5. A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine

    OpenAIRE

    G.Sudeepthi; Anuradha, G.; M.Surendra Prasad Babu

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are pla...

  6. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2004-01-01

    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

  7. The Semantic Distance Task: Quantifying Semantic Distance with Semantic Network Path Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenett, Yoed N.; Levi, Effi; Anaki, David; Faust, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Semantic distance is a determining factor in cognitive processes, such as semantic priming, operating upon semantic memory. The main computational approach to compute semantic distance is through latent semantic analysis (LSA). However, objections have been raised against this approach, mainly in its failure at predicting semantic priming. We…

  8. An Analysis of Semantic Aware Crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Nguyen Quang; Hoai, Nguyen Xuan; O'Neill, Michael; McKay, Bob; Galván-López, Edgar

    It is well-known that the crossover operator plays an important role in Genetic Programming (GP). In Standard Crossover (SC), semantics are not used to guide the selection of the crossover points, which are generated randomly. This lack of semantic information is the main cause of destructive effects from SC (e.g., children having lower fitness than their parents). Recently, we proposed a new semantic based crossover known GP called Semantic Aware Crossover (SAC) [25]. We show that SAC outperforms SC in solving a class of real-value symbolic regression problems. We clarify the effect of SAC on GP search in increasing the semantic diversity of the population, thus helping to reduce the destructive effects of crossover in GP.

  9. Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web p...... are crucial to be formalized by the semantic web ontologies for adaptive web. We use examples from an eLearning domain to illustrate the principles which are broadly applicable to any information domain on the web.......Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web...

  10. Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wen-Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

  11. Demonstrating the Qualitative Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia: A Novel Exploration of Nonverbal Semantic Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krist A. Noonan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic dementia (SD implicates the anterior temporal lobes (ATL as a critical substrate for semantic memory. Multi-modal semantic impairment can also be a feature of post-stroke aphasia (referred to here as “semantic aphasia” or SA where patients show impaired regulatory control accompanied by lesions to the frontal and/or temporo-parietal cortices, and thus the two patient groups demonstrate qualitatively different patterns of semantic impairment [1]. Previous comparisons of these two patient groups have tended to focus on verbal receptive tasks. Accordingly, this study investigated nonverbal receptive abilities via a comparison of reality decision judgements in SD and SA. Pictures of objects were presented alongside non-real distracters whose features were altered to make them more/less plausible for the semantic category. The results highlighted a number of critical differences between the two groups. Compared to SD patients, SA patients: (1 were relatively unimpaired on the two alternative forced choice (2AFC decisions despite showing a comparable degree of semantic impairment on other assessments; (2 showed minimal effects of the plausibility manipulation; (3 were strongly influenced by variations in the regulatory requirements of tasks; and (4 exhibited a reversed effect of familiarity–i.e., better performance on less commonly encountered items. These results support a distinction between semantic impairments which arise from impaired regulatory processes (e.g., SA versus those where degraded semantic knowledge is the causal factor (e.g., SD. SA patients performed relatively well because the task structure reduced the requirement for internally generated control. In contrast, SD patients performed poorly because their degraded knowledge did not allow the fine-grained distinctions required to complete the task.

  12. Fgf9 Y162C Mutation Alters Information Processing and Social Memory in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Lillian; Becker, Lore; Rozman, Jan; Puk, Oliver; Stoeger, Tobias; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Bohla, Alexander; Eickelberg, Oliver; Hans, Wolfgang; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Klopstock, Thomas; Rácz, Ildikó; Zimmer, Andreas; Klingenspor, Martin; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Graw, Jochen; Hölter, Sabine M

    2017-07-10

    In neuropsychiatric diseases, such as major depression and anxiety, pathogenic vulnerability is partially dictated by a genetic predisposition. The search continues to define this genetic susceptibility and establish new genetic elements as potential therapeutic targets. The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) could be interesting in this regard. This family of signaling molecules plays important roles in development while also functioning within the adult. This includes effects on aspects of brain function such as neurogenesis and synapse formation. Of this family, Fgf9 is expressed in the adult brain, but its functional role is less well defined. In this study, we examined the role of Fgf9 in different brain functions by analyzing the behavior of Fgf9 Y162C mutant mice, an Fgf9 allele without the confounding systemic effects of other Fgf9 genetic models. Here, we show that this mutation caused altered locomotor and exploratory reactivity to novel, mildly stressful environments. In addition, mutants showed heightened acoustic startle reactivity as well as impaired social discrimination memory. Notably, there was a substantial decrease in the level of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis with no difference in hippocampal neurogenesis. Collectively, our findings indicate a role for the Fgf9 Y162C mutation in information processing and perception of aversive situations as well as in social memory. Thus, genetic alterations in Fgf9 could increase vulnerability to developing neuropsychiatric disease, and we propose the Fgf9 Y162C mutant mice as a valuable tool to study the predictive etiological aspects.

  13. Project Integration Architecture: Formulation of Semantic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    One of several key elements of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is the intention to formulate parameter objects which convey meaningful semantic information. In so doing, it is expected that a level of automation can be achieved in the consumption of information content by PIA-consuming clients outside the programmatic boundary of a presenting PIA-wrapped application. This paper discusses the steps that have been recently taken in formulating such semantically-meaningful parameters.

  14. LORD: a phenotype-genotype semantically integrated biomedical data tool to support rare disease diagnosis coding in health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquet, Remy; Maaroufi, Meriem; Fonjallaz, Yannick; de Carrara, Albane; Vandenbussche, Pierre-Yves; Dhombres, Ferdinand; Landais, Paul

    Characterizing a rare disease diagnosis for a given patient is often made through expert's networks. It is a complex task that could evolve over time depending on the natural history of the disease and the evolution of the scientific knowledge. Most rare diseases have genetic causes and recent improvements of sequencing techniques contribute to the discovery of many new diseases every year. Diagnosis coding in the rare disease field requires data from multiple knowledge bases to be aggregated in order to offer the clinician a global information space from possible diagnosis to clinical signs (phenotypes) and known genetic mutations (genotype). Nowadays, the major barrier to the coding activity is the lack of consolidation of such information scattered in different thesaurus such as Orphanet, OMIM or HPO. The Linking Open data for Rare Diseases (LORD) web portal we developed stands as the first attempt to fill this gap by offering an integrated view of 8,400 rare diseases linked to more than 14,500 signs and 3,270 genes. The application provides a browsing feature to navigate through the relationships between diseases, signs and genes, and some Application Programming Interfaces to help its integration in health information systems in routine.

  15. Flavour processing in semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwnica-Worms, Katherine E; Omar, Rohani; Hailstone, Julia C; Warren, Jason D

    2010-06-01

    The cognitive mechanisms for the analysis of flavour information remain poorly understood. Patients with semantic dementia (SD) could potentially provide a window on these mechanisms; however, while abnormal eating behaviour and altered food preferences are common in SD, flavour processing has been little studied in this disorder. Here we undertook a detailed investigation of flavour processing in three patients at different stages of SD. One patient with a clinical syndrome of logopenic aphasia (LPA) was studied as a disease control, and six healthy control subjects also participated. Olfaction was assessed using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and processing of flavours was assessed using a novel battery to assess flavour perception, flavour identification, and congruence and affective valence of flavour combinations. Patients with SD performed equivalently to healthy controls on the perceptual subtest, while their ability to identify flavours or to determine congruence of flavour combinations was impaired. Classification of flavours according to affective valence was comparable to healthy controls. In contrast, the patient with LPA exhibited a perceptual deficit with relatively preserved identification of flavours, but impaired ability to determine flavour congruence, which did not benefit from affective valence. Olfactory and flavour identification performance was correlated in both patients and controls. We propose that SD produces a true deficit of flavour knowledge (an associative agnosia), while other peri-Sylvian pathologies may lead to deficient flavour perception. Our findings are consistent with emerging evidence from healthy subjects for a cortical hierarchy for processing flavour information, instantiated in a brain network that includes the insula, anterior temporal lobes and orbitofrontal cortex. The findings suggest a potential mechanism for the development of food fads and other abnormal eating behaviours. Copyright (c

  16. Distributed Semantic Overlay Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulkeridis, Christos; Vlachou, Akrivi; Nørvåg, Kjetil; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    Semantic Overlay Networks (SONs) have been recently proposed as a way to organize content in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. The main objective is to discover peers with similar content and then form thematically focused peer groups. Efficient content retrieval can be performed by having queries selectively forwarded only to relevant groups of peers to the query. As a result, less peers need to be contacted, in order to answer a query. In this context, the challenge is to generate SONs in a decentralized and distributed manner, as the centralized assembly of global information is not feasible. Different approaches for exploiting the generated SONs for content retrieval have been proposed in the literature, which are examined in this chapter, with a particular focus on SON interconnections for efficient search. Several applications, such as P2P document and image retrieval, can be deployed over generated SONs, motivating the need for distributed and truly scalable SON creation. Therefore, recently several research papers focus on SONs as stated in our comprehensive overview of related work in the field of semantic overlay networks. A classification of existing algorithms according to a set of qualitative criteria is also provided. In spite of the rich existing work in the field of SONs, several challenges have not been efficiently addressed yet, therefore, future promising research directions are pointed out and discussed at the end of this chapter.

  17. Geoscience Challenges and Semantic Web Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, B.

    2009-12-01

    Nowadays geosciences face a triple of major challenges. These challenges are the study and understanding of complex systems, like e.g. climate change, further the exponential growing of raw and unstructured data, information and knowledge and finally the necessity of an inter-domain group-based collaboration of geoscientists. In addition to this triple of issues, new Web 2.0 techniques, like the mash-up of data content and context or the inclusion of user feedback data and information wait to be used for enhanced geoscientific research. The semantic web approach for the semantic integration of data, information and knowledge seems to be a promising way for geoscientists. It should be used in order to find the right language and common vocabularies for the inter-domain joint study of earth system processes. This approach enables both, first the right semantic preparation of domain specific data and information in a certain context and second -based on this preparation- the interdisciplinary use of world-wide distributed and semantic augmented data, information especially in a different context. This paper shows the impact of a semantic based thinking and the usage of semantic web-based techniques on the example of specific geophysical and geodetic data and information for the improvement of geoscience research in a much broader context.

  18. SEMSIN SEMANTIC AND SYNTACTIC PARSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Boyarsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the principle of operation for SemSin semantic and syntactic parser creating a dependency tree for the Russian language sentences. The parser consists of 4 blocks: a dictionary, morphological analyzer, production rules and lexical analyzer. An important logical part of the parser is pre-syntactical module, which harmonizes and complements morphological analysis results, separates the text paragraphs into individual sentences, and also carries out predisambiguation. Characteristic feature of the presented parser is an open type of control – it is done by means of a set of production rules. A varied set of commands provides the ability to both morphological and semantic-syntactic analysis of the sentence. The paper presents the sequence of rules usage and examples of their work. Specific feature of the rules is the decision making on establishment of syntactic links with simultaneous removal of the morphological and semantic ambiguity. The lexical analyzer provides the execution of commands and rules, and manages the parser in manual or automatic modes of the text analysis. In the first case, the analysis is performed interactively with the possibility of step-by-step execution of the rules and scanning the resulting parse tree. In the second case, analysis results are filed in an xml-file. Active usage of syntactic and semantic dictionary information gives the possibility to reduce significantly the ambiguity of parsing. In addition to marking the text, the parser is also usable as a tool for information extraction from natural language texts.

  19. Semantics Web and Ontology Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Musumbu, Kaninda

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The Semantics Web is a vision for the future of the Web in which informati on is given explicit meaning, making it easier for machines to automatically pro cess and integrate information available on the Web. An ontology defines the terms used to describe and represent an area of knowledg e. Ontologies are used by people, databases, and applications that need to share domain information (a domain is just a specific subject area or area of knowled ge, like medicine, too...

  20. Semantic Web Data Discovery of Earth Science Data at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwara; Strub, Richard F.; Lynnes, Christopher S.; Fang, Hongliang; Teng, William

    2008-01-01

    Mirador is a web interface for searching Earth Science data archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Mirador provides keyword-based search and guided navigation for providing efficient search and access to Earth Science data. Mirador employs the power of Google's universal search technology for fast metadata keyword searches, augmented by additional capabilities such as event searches (e.g., hurricanes), searches based on location gazetteer, and data services like format converters and data sub-setters. The objective of guided data navigation is to present users with multiple guided navigation in Mirador is an ontology based on the Global Change Master directory (GCMD) Directory Interchange Format (DIF). Current implementation includes the project ontology covering various instruments and model data. Additional capabilities in the pipeline include Earth Science parameter and applications ontologies.

  1. Measurement and Historical Information Building: challenges and opportunities in the representation of semantically structured 3D content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Quattrini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of applying the BIM approach is an interesting challenge in the framework of 3D modelling and management/enhancement of historic buildings, especially high cultural and architectural value. A big challenge in reality based modelling is to develop simple methods to get HBIM models for cultural heritage, that guarantee accuracy, precision and quality of representation compliant with the acquired data.The present work, dealing with two cases study, highlights the feasibility of a whole approach and opens the way for the development of centralized HBIM that can be used as complete data set of information on all disciplines, in particular for the heritage restoration and preservation, but also for its dissemination and exploitation. Similar methods facilitate the HBIM diffusion for the management of survey and restoration processes of historic buildings.

  2. LEARNING SEMANTICS-ENHANCED LANGUAGE MODELS APPLIED TO UNSUEPRVISED WSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VERSPOOR, KARIN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LIN, SHOU-DE [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-29

    An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate semantic information, and consequently limits its applicability to semantic problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates semantic information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and semantic information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of semantically annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the semantics-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.

  3. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Liyang

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years, and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components, and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  4. A developer's guide to the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Liyang

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  5. Intelligent Agent Based Semantic Web in Cloud Computing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti; Sharma, Manoj; Joshi, Gajanan; Pagare, Trupti; Palwe, Adarsha

    2013-01-01

    Considering today's web scenario, there is a need of effective and meaningful search over the web which is provided by Semantic Web. Existing search engines are keyword based. They are vulnerable in answering intelligent queries from the user due to the dependence of their results on information available in web pages. While semantic search engines provides efficient and relevant results as the semantic web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well defined meaning....

  6. Visible semantics: an algebraic semantics for automatic verification of algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Palasí Lallana, Vicent Ramon

    1996-01-01

    A new semantics for algebraic specifications, called visible semantics, is defined. Its most notable property is that it is specially suitable for dealing with the problem of program correctness. Some properties of this semantics are proved and some conclusions described.

  7. Synaptic plasticity, neural circuits, and the emerging role of altered short-term information processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Gregg W; Gogos, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity alters the strength of information flow between presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons and thus modifies the likelihood that action potentials in a presynaptic neuron will lead to an action potential in a postsynaptic neuron. As such, synaptic plasticity and pathological changes in synaptic plasticity impact the synaptic computation which controls the information flow through the neural microcircuits responsible for the complex information processing necessary to drive adaptive behaviors. As current theories of neuropsychiatric disease suggest that distinct dysfunctions in neural circuit performance may critically underlie the unique symptoms of these diseases, pathological alterations in synaptic plasticity mechanisms may be fundamental to the disease process. Here we consider mechanisms of both short-term and long-term plasticity of synaptic transmission and their possible roles in information processing by neural microcircuits in both health and disease. As paradigms of neuropsychiatric diseases with strongly implicated risk genes, we discuss the findings in schizophrenia and autism and consider the alterations in synaptic plasticity and network function observed in both human studies and genetic mouse models of these diseases. Together these studies have begun to point toward a likely dominant role of short-term synaptic plasticity alterations in schizophrenia while dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may be due to a combination of both short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity alterations.

  8. Semantic prosody and judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-07-01

    Some words tend to co-occur exclusively with a positive or negative context in natural language use, even though such valence patterns are not dictated by definitions or are part of the words' core meaning. These words contain semantic prosody, a subtle valenced meaning derived from co-occurrence in language. As language and thought are heavily intertwined, we hypothesized that semantic prosody can affect evaluative inferences about related ambiguous concepts. Participants inferred that an ambiguous medical outcome was more negative when it was caused, a verb with negative semantic prosody, than when it was produced, a synonymous verb with no semantic prosody (Studies 1a, 1b). Participants completed sentence fragments in a manner consistent with semantic prosody (Study 2), and semantic prosody affected various other judgments in line with evaluative inferences (estimates of an event's likelihood in Study 3). Finally, semantic prosody elicited both positive and negative evaluations of outcomes across a large set of semantically prosodic verbs (Study 4). Thus, semantic prosody can exert a strong influence on evaluative judgment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  10. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework.

  11. Semantic Framework for Mapping Object-Oriented Model to Semantic Web Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr eJezek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a~Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework.

  12. Prenatal androgen exposure alters girls' responses to information indicating gender-appropriate behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Pasterski, Vickie; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Patalay, Praveetha; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L

    2016-02-19

    Individual variability in human gender-related behaviour is influenced by many factors, including androgen exposure prenatally, as well as self-socialization and socialization by others postnatally. Many studies have looked at these types of influences in isolation, but little is known about how they work together. Here, we report that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally, because they have the genetic condition congenital adrenal hyperplasia, show changes in processes related to self-socialization of gender-related behaviour. Specifically, they are less responsive than other girls to information that particular objects are for girls and they show reduced imitation of female models choosing particular objects. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure may influence subsequent gender-related behaviours, including object (toy) choices, in part by changing processes involved in the self-socialization of gendered behaviour, rather than only by inducing permanent changes in the brain during early development. In addition, the findings suggest that some of the behavioural effects of prenatal androgen exposure might be subject to alteration by postnatal socialization processes. The findings also suggest a previously unknown influence of early androgen exposure on later processes involved in self-socialization of gender-related behaviour, and thus expand understanding of the developmental systems regulating human gender development. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Semantics of Kinship Terms in Tamil from the Semantic Typology Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Александровна Смирнитская

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines the lexical-semantic group “kinship terms” in Tamil, applying the attainments of modern semantic typology and the theory of semantic derivation. The kinship terms describing nuclear and extended family are explored. The “semantic shift” relation between two different meanings is established if such relation is realized by synchronous polysemy in one lexeme, semantic derivation, diachronic semantic change, cognates or some other means. The starting point of the study is the typological data from the DatSemShift catalogue of semantic shifts in languages of the world developed by a group of researchers under the guidance of Anna A. Zalizniak in the Institute of Linguistics, RAS. We verify the presence of semantic shifts described in the Database in Tamil. Also, we propose new semantic shifts specific only for this language. We confirm the presence of semantic relation of the studied type among the meanings with English “labels”: father - parents, girl - daughter, to deliver (a child - parents, - child, old woman - wife, owner - wife and others. The data also allows the assumption that the same relation exists between the meanings: old - grandfather, earth - mother, son - courage, unripe - son and others. The meanings of this field are the sources of semantic movements to abstract notions, lexicon of posession, forms of address and others; in addition many inner semantic relations inside this field are revealed. The meanings covering the nuclear part of the kinship system participate in universal semantic shifts described in the DatSemShift catalogue, while the meanings from collateral branches of this bifurcative kinship system (uncle, aunt turn out to be incomparable with kinship terms from indo-european lineal systems. Their meanings can be included in the DatSemShift catalogue only with an indication of system specifics. The information about semantic shifts can be useful for

  14. {Semantic metadata application for information resources systematization in water spectroscopy} A.Fazliev (1), A.Privezentsev (1), J.Tennyson (2) (1) Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia, (2) University College London, London, UK (faz@iao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazliev, A.

    2009-04-01

    The information and knowledge layers of information-computational system for water spectroscopy are described. Semantic metadata for all the tasks of domain information model that are the basis of the layers have been studied. The principle of semantic metadata determination and mechanisms of the usage during information systematization in molecular spectroscopy has been revealed. The software developed for the work with semantic metadata is described as well. Formation of domain model in the framework of Semantic Web is based on the use of explicit specification of its conceptualization or, in other words, its ontologies. Formation of conceptualization for molecular spectroscopy was described in Refs. 1, 2. In these works two chains of task are selected for zeroth approximation for knowledge domain description. These are direct tasks chain and inverse tasks chain. Solution schemes of these tasks defined approximation of data layer for knowledge domain conceptualization. Spectroscopy tasks solutions properties lead to a step-by-step extension of molecular spectroscopy conceptualization. Information layer of information system corresponds to this extension. An advantage of molecular spectroscopy model designed in a form of tasks chain is actualized in the fact that one can explicitly define data and metadata at each step of solution of these molecular spectroscopy chain tasks. Metadata structure (tasks solutions properties) in knowledge domain also has form of a chain in which input data and metadata of the previous task become metadata of the following tasks. The term metadata is used in its narrow sense: metadata are the properties of spectroscopy tasks solutions. Semantic metadata represented with the help of OWL 3 are formed automatically and they are individuals of classes (A-box). Unification of T-box and A-box is an ontology that can be processed with the help of inference engine. In this work we analyzed the formation of individuals of molecular spectroscopy

  15. Towards the multilingual semantic web principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buitelaar, Paul

    2014-01-01

    To date, the relation between multilingualism and the Semantic Web has not yet received enough attention in the research community. One major challenge for the Semantic Web community is to develop architectures, frameworks and systems that can help in overcoming national and language barriers, facilitating equal access to information produced in different cultures and languages. As such, this volume aims at documenting the state-of-the-art with regard to the vision of a Multilingual Semantic Web, in which semantic information will be accessible in and across multiple languages. The Multiling

  16. Comprehensive Analysis of Semantic Web Reasoners and Tools: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamparia, Aditya; Pandey, Babita

    2017-01-01

    Ontologies are emerging as best representation techniques for knowledge based context domains. The continuing need for interoperation, collaboration and effective information retrieval has lead to the creation of semantic web with the help of tools and reasoners which manages personalized information. The future of semantic web lies in an ontology…

  17. Modeling Semantic and Structural Knowledge in Web Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvina, Ion; van Oostendorp, Herre

    2008-01-01

    Research on cognitive modeling of information search and Web navigation emphasizes the importance of "information scent" (the relevance of semantic cues such as link labels and headings to a reader's goal; Pirolli & Card, 1999). This article shows that not only semantic but also structural knowledge is involved in navigating the Web…

  18. Semantic Web Primer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Grigoris; Harmelen, Frank van

    2004-01-01

    The development of the Semantic Web, with machine-readable content, has the potential to revolutionize the World Wide Web and its use. A Semantic Web Primer provides an introduction and guide to this still emerging field, describing its key ideas, languages, and technologies. Suitable for use as a

  19. Semantics of Statebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasten, Maj Lervad

    2016-01-01

    Book review of: Semantics of Statebuilding: Language, Meanings & Sovereignty / (eds) Nicolas Lemay-Hébert, Nicholas Onuf, Vojin Rakić, Petar Bojanić. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. 200 pp.......Book review of: Semantics of Statebuilding: Language, Meanings & Sovereignty / (eds) Nicolas Lemay-Hébert, Nicholas Onuf, Vojin Rakić, Petar Bojanić. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. 200 pp....

  20. Pragmatics for formal semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal...

  1. Fuzzy knowledge management for the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Zongmin; Yan, Li; Cheng, Jingwei

    2014-01-01

    This book goes to great depth concerning the fast growing topic of technologies and approaches of fuzzy logic in the Semantic Web. The topics of this book include fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontologies, queries of fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontology knowledge bases, extraction of fuzzy description logics and ontologies from fuzzy data models, storage of fuzzy ontology knowledge bases in fuzzy databases, fuzzy Semantic Web ontology mapping, and fuzzy rules and their interchange in the Semantic Web. The book aims to provide a single record of current research in the fuzzy knowledge representation and reasoning for the Semantic Web. The objective of the book is to provide the state of the art information to researchers, practitioners and graduate students of the Web intelligence and at the same time serve the knowledge and data engineering professional faced with non-traditional applications that make the application of conventional approaches difficult or impossible.

  2. A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B

    2007-05-02

    Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

  3. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  4. Avaliação do espectro semântico de instrumentos para organização da informaçãoEvaluation of the semantic spectrum for information organization instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Rocha Souza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O termo "semântica" tem sido amplamente utilizado nos últimos anos em diversas áreas de pesquisa e, em particular, em áreas relacionadas à tecnologia da informação. Um dos motivadores de tal apropriação é a visão da Web Semântica, originada na expansão da web e nas limitações dos instrumentos de busca baseados em sintaxe. Cabe questionar, entretanto, qual é esta "semântica" de que trata a Web Semântica, uma vez que o estudo do assunto é complexo e controverso. O presente artigo se insere nesse contexto, analisando o que é semântica, discutindo-a no âmbito da tecnologia da informação e propondo alternativas interpretativas. Avalia-se criticamente um espectro, o qual propõe a ordenação de instrumentos (modelos, linguagens, estruturas taxonômicas, etc. de acordo com uma escala semântica. Espera-se tornar claro o uso do termo em contextos diversos, bem como propor um novo espectro a partir das considerações do presente artigo.The term “semantics” has been used over the past years in several areas of research and, more specifically, in those related to information technology. One reason for that appropriation is the Semantic Web vision, which originated from the expansion of the web and the inherent limitations of the syntax-based search engines. However, it is reasonable to demand an explanation about which is the semantics addressed in the Semantic Web since the study of the subject is complex and controversial. The present article aims to make a contribution towards this sense, analyzing what semantic is, discussing it within the scope of information technology and proposing explanatory alternatives. We intend to critically evaluate a spectrum that suggests a classification of instruments (models, languages, taxonomic structures, etc in a semantic-based scale of graduated rates. We hope to provide a better understanding about the use of the term in different contexts, as well as offer a new spectrum from the

  5. Mindfulness training alters emotional memory recall compared to active controls: support for an emotional information processing model of mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Doug eRoberts-Wolfe; Matthew eSacchet; Elizabeth eHastings; Harold eRoth; Willoughby eBritton

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e. ...

  6. Mindfulness Training Alters Emotional Memory Recall Compared to Active Controls: Support for an Emotional Information Processing Model of Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts-Wolfe, Douglas; Sacchet, Matthew D.; Hastings, Elizabeth; Roth, Harold; Britton, Willoughby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e., m...

  7. A Reference Model for Semantic Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawlood-Yunis, Abdul-Rahman; Weiss, Michael; Santoro, Nicola

    Today’s information systems are highly networked and need to operate in a global world. With this comes the problem of semantic heterogeneity of information representations. Semantic peer-to- peer networks have been proposed as a solution to this problem. They are based around two components: a peer-to-peer infrastructure for information exchange between information system, and the use of ontologies to define application semantics. However, progress in this area is hampered by a lack of commonality between these approaches, which makes their comparison and translation into practical implementations difficult. In this paper, we describe a reference model for semantic peer-to-peer networks in an effort to remedy this problem. The reference model will (1) enable the establishment of a common terminology for describing semantic peer-to-peer networks, and (2) pave the way for an emerging standardized API that will promote information system interoperability.

  8. Construct Primary Education Semantic Ontology Library Based Mind Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Dong-Hong; Yu Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Researches conducted for Mind mapping application in primary education semantic ontology, while considering unique characteristics of primary education, found there were rare widely used ontology libraries and few connections between ontology libraries for information sharing and reuse. In addition, primary semantic ontology library lack precise definitions of the semantics. This paper proposed a solution based on cluster structure derived from mind mapping by providing logical description of...

  9. Experience of Developing a Meta-Semantic Search Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti; Sharma, Manoj; Joshi, Gajanan; Pagare, Trupti; Palwe, Adarsha

    2013-01-01

    Thinking of todays web search scenario which is mainly keyword based, leads to the need of effective and meaningful search provided by Semantic Web. Existing search engines are vulnerable to provide relevant answers to users query due to their dependency on simple data available in web pages. On other hand, semantic search engines provide efficient and relevant results as the semantic web manages information with well defined meaning using ontology. A Meta-Search engine is a search tool that ...

  10. Semantic Event Correlation Using Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Thomas; Roth, Heinz; Rozsnyai, Szabolcs; Mordinyi, Richard; Biffl, Stefan

    Complex event processing (CEP) is a software architecture paradigm that aims at low latency, high throughput, and quick adaptability of applications for supporting and improving event-driven business processes. Events sensed in real time are the basic information units on which CEP applications operate and react in self-contained decision cycles based on defined processing logic and rules. Event correlation is necessary to relate events gathered from various sources for detecting patterns and situations of interest in the business context. Unfortunately, event correlation has been limited to syntactically identical attribute values instead of addressing semantically equivalent attribute meanings. Semantic equivalence is particularly relevant if events come from organizations that use different terminologies for common concepts.

  11. Network visualization by semantic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneiderman, Ben; Aris, Aleks

    2006-01-01

    Networks have remained a challenge for information visualization designers because of the complex issues of node and link layout coupled with the rich set of tasks that users present. This paper offers a strategy based on two principles: (1) layouts are based on user-defined semantic substrates, which are non-overlapping regions in which node placement is based on node attributes, (2) users interactively adjust sliders to control link visibility to limit clutter and thus ensure comprehensibility of source and destination. Scalability is further facilitated by user control of which nodes are visible. We illustrate our semantic substrates approach as implemented in NVSS 1.0 with legal precedent data for up to 1122 court cases in three regions with 7645 legal citations.

  12. The Role of Simple Semantics in the Process of Artificial Grammar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öttl, Birgit; Jäger, Gerhard; Kaup, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of semantic information on artificial grammar learning (AGL). Recursive grammars of different complexity levels (regular language, mirror language, copy language) were investigated in a series of AGL experiments. In the with-semantics condition, participants acquired semantic information prior to the AGL…

  13. Lost in semantic space: a multi-modal, non-verbal assessment of feature knowledge in semantic dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Garrard, P; Carroll, E

    2006-01-01

    A novel, non-verbal test of semantic feature knowledge is introduced, enabling subordinate knowledge of four important concept attributes--colour, sound, environmental context and motion--to be individually probed. This methodology provides more specific information than existing non-verbal semantic tests about the status of attribute knowledge relating to individual concept representations. Performance on this test of a group of 12 patients with semantic dementia (10 male, mean age: 64.4 yea...

  14. Whither Experimental Semantics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to propose a methodology for the theory of reference in which experiments feature prominently. These experiments should primarily test linguistic usage rather than the folk’s referential intuitions. The proposed methodology urges the use of: (A philosophers’ referential intuitions, both informally and, occasionally, scientifically gathered; (B the corpus, both informally and scientifically gathered; (C elicited production; and, occasionally, (D folk’s referential intuitions. The most novel part of this is (C and that is where most of the experimental work should be. The secondary goal of the paper is to defend my earlier paper “Experimental Semantics” from the criticisms of Machery, Mallon, Nichols, and Stich in “If Folk Intuitions Vary, Then What?” They charge that I have seriously misunderstood their goal in “Semantics, Cross-Cultural Style” and that many of my arguments are “largely irrelevant”. I argue that these charges are baseless.

  15. Founded Semantics and Constraint Semantics of Logic Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yanhong A.; Stoller, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a simple new semantics for logic rules, founded semantics, and its straightforward extension to another simple new semantics, constraint semantics. The new semantics support unrestricted negation, as well as unrestricted existential and universal quantifications. They are uniquely expressive and intuitive by allowing assumptions about the predicates and rules to be specified explicitly. They are completely declarative and easy to understand and relate cleanly to prior sem...

  16. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  17. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  18. Preservation of person-specific semantic knowledge in semantic dementia: does direct personal experience have a specific role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Anne Péron

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic dementia patients seem to have better knowledge of information linked to the self. More specifically, despite having severe semantic impairment, these patients show that they have more general information about the people they know personally by direct experience than they do about other individuals they know indirectly. However, the role of direct personal experience remains debated because of confounding factors such as frequency, recency of exposure, and affective relevance. We performed an exploratory study comparing the performance of 5 semantic dementia patients with that of 10 matched healthy controls on the recognition (familiarity judgment and identification (biographic information recall of personally familiar names versus famous names. As expected, intergroup comparisons indicated a semantic breakdown in semantic dementia patients as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, unlike healthy controls, the semantic dementia patients recognized and identified personally familiar names better than they did famous names. This pattern of results suggests that direct personal experience indeed plays a specific role in the relative preservation of person-specific semantic meaning in semantic dementia. We discuss the role of direct personal experience on the preservation of semantic knowledge and the potential neurophysiological mechanisms underlying these processes.

  19. Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post conference proceedings of the first edition of the Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge, SemWebEval 2014, co-located with the 11th Extended Semantic Web conference, held in Anissaras, Crete, Greece, in May 2014. This book includes the descriptions of all methods and tools that competed at SemWebEval 2014, together with a detailed description of the tasks, evaluation procedures and datasets. The contributions are grouped in three areas: semantic publishing (sempub), concept-level sentiment analysis (ssa), and linked-data enabled recommender systems (recsys).

  20. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  1. Benchmarking semantic web technology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Castro, R

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

  2. UML 2 Semantics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lano, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    A coherent and integrated account of the leading UML 2 semantics work and the practical applications of UML semantics development With contributions from leading experts in the field, the book begins with an introduction to UML and goes on to offer in-depth and up-to-date coverage of: The role of semantics Considerations and rationale for a UML system model Definition of the UML system model UML descriptive semantics Axiomatic semantics of UML class diagrams The object constraint language Axiomatic semantics of state machines A coalgebraic semantic framework for reasoning about interaction des

  3. The Universality of Semantic Prototypes in Spanish Lexical Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Šifrar Kalan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the words with highest index of availability on the basis of semantic fluency tests. The conceptual stability of highly available words in various semantic categories enables them to be classified as semantic prototypes according to the theory of prototype. The aim of this article is to compare the semantic prototypes in nine semantic categories from different lexical availability studies: those carried out in Spanish as a mother tongue and Spanish as a foreign language (with Slovene, Finnish, Turkish, Chinese students and students of various other mother tongues who studied Spanish in Madrid and Salamanca. The informants who come from different countries and cultures and speak different first languages demonstrate that human beings share the same or similar categorization and universality of semantic prototypes.

  4. Foundations of fuzzy logic and semantic web languages

    CERN Document Server

    Straccia, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Managing vagueness/fuzziness is starting to play an important role in Semantic Web research, with a large number of research efforts underway. Foundations of Fuzzy Logic and Semantic Web Languages provides a rigorous and succinct account of the mathematical methods and tools used for representing and reasoning with fuzzy information within Semantic Web languages. The book focuses on the three main streams of Semantic Web languages: Triple languages RDF and RDFS Conceptual languages OWL and OWL 2, and their profiles OWL EL, OWL QL, and OWL RL Rule-based languages, such as SWRL and RIF Written b

  5. Construct Primary Education Semantic Ontology Library Based Mind Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Dong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches conducted for Mind mapping application in primary education semantic ontology, while considering unique characteristics of primary education, found there were rare widely used ontology libraries and few connections between ontology libraries for information sharing and reuse. In addition, primary semantic ontology library lack precise definitions of the semantics. This paper proposed a solution based on cluster structure derived from mind mapping by providing logical description of the ontologies to precisely define semantics; Meanwhile, tags were adapted to associate different ontologies to form ontology library.

  6. Organizational Semantic Web based Portals

    OpenAIRE

    Necula, Sabina-Cristiana

    2011-01-01

    This paper tries to treat organizational semantic web based portals. The first part of the paper focuses on concepts regarding semantic web based portals. After discussing some concepts we treat the basic functionalities that a semantic web based portal must have and we finish by presenting these functionalities by actual examples. We present semantic web based portals after studying the necessary implementations from literature and practice. We develop some examples that use semantic web ...

  7. An Object-oriented Model for Representing Semantic Locality in the UMLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenreider, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Several information models have been developed for the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). While some models are term-oriented, a knowledge-oriented model is needed for representing semantic locality, i.e. the various semantic links among concepts. We propose an object-oriented model in which the semantic features of the UMLS are made available through four major classes for representing Metathesaurus concepts, semantic types, inter-concept relationships and Semantic Network relationships. Additional semantic methods for reducing the complexity of the hierarchical relationships represented in the UMLS are proposed. Implementation details are presented, as well as examples of use. The interest of this approach is discussed. PMID:11604725

  8. Semantic SenseLab: Implementing the vision of the Semantic Web in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samwald, Matthias; Chen, Huajun; Ruttenberg, Alan; Lim, Ernest; Marenco, Luis; Miller, Perry; Shepherd, Gordon; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2010-01-01

    Integrative neuroscience research needs a scalable informatics framework that enables semantic integration of diverse types of neuroscience data. This paper describes the use of the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and other Semantic Web technologies for the representation and integration of molecular-level data provided by several of SenseLab suite of neuroscience databases. Based on the original database structure, we semi-automatically translated the databases into OWL ontologies with manual addition of semantic enrichment. The SenseLab ontologies are extensively linked to other biomedical Semantic Web resources, including the Subcellular Anatomy Ontology, Brain Architecture Management System, the Gene Ontology, BIRNLex and UniProt. The SenseLab ontologies have also been mapped to the Basic Formal Ontology and Relation Ontology, which helps ease interoperability with many other existing and future biomedical ontologies for the Semantic Web. In addition, approaches to representing contradictory research statements are described. The SenseLab ontologies are designed for use on the Semantic Web that enables their integration into a growing collection of biomedical information resources. We demonstrate that our approach can yield significant potential benefits and that the Semantic Web is rapidly becoming mature enough to realize its anticipated promises. The ontologies are available online at http://neuroweb.med.yale.edu/senselab/. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. When the Social Meets the Semantic: Social Semantic Web or Web 2.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore F. Pileggi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The social trend is progressively becoming the key feature of current Web understanding (Web 2.0. This trend appears irrepressible as millions of users, directly or indirectly connected through social networks, are able to share and exchange any kind of content, information, feeling or experience. Social interactions radically changed the user approach. Furthermore, the socialization of content around social objects provides new unexplored commercial marketplaces and business opportunities. On the other hand, the progressive evolution of the web towards the Semantic Web (or Web 3.0 provides a formal representation of knowledge based on the meaning of data. When the social meets semantics, the social intelligence can be formed in the context of a semantic environment in which user and community profiles as well as any kind of interaction is semantically represented (Semantic Social Web. This paper first provides a conceptual analysis of the second and third version of the Web model. That discussion is aimed at the definition of a middle concept (Web 2.5 resulting in the convergence and integration of key features from the current and next generation Web. The Semantic Social Web (Web 2.5 has a clear theoretical meaning, understood as the bridge between the overused Web 2.0 and the not yet mature Semantic Web (Web 3.0.

  10. Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekerle, Marie; Boulenger, Véronique; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1-4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring.

  11. Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eDekerle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1 to 4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target or Semantically Inconsistent (SI voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target. In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3 respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background, more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological, leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring.

  12. Semantic Web Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berners-Lee, Tim; Swick, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    ...) project between 2002 and 2005 provided key steps in the research in the Semantic Web technology, and also played an essential role in delivering the technology to industry and government in the form...

  13. Towards a quality model for semantic IS standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; van Soest, Joris

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on developing a quality model for semantic Information System (IS) standards. A lot of semantic IS standards are available in different industries. Often these standards are developed by a dedicated organization. While these organizations have the goal of increasing

  14. Lexical and Sublexical Semantic Preview Benefits in Chinese Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    Semantic processing from parafoveal words is an elusive phenomenon in alphabetic languages, but it has been demonstrated only for a restricted set of noncompound Chinese characters. Using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm, this experiment examined whether parafoveal lexical and sublexical semantic information was extracted from compound…

  15. Stochastic Automata for Outdoor Semantic Mapping using Optimised Signal Quantisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caponetti, Fabio; Blas, Morten Rufus; Blanke, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous robots require many types of information to obtain intelligent and safe behaviours. For outdoor operations, semantic mapping is essential and this paper proposes a stochastic automaton to localise the robot within the semantic map. For correct modelling and classi¯cation under uncertai...

  16. Adventures in Semantic Publishing: Exemplar Semantic Enhancements of a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotton, David; Portwin, Katie; Klyne, Graham; Miles, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit “Citations in Context”, and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups) with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/). The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own research

  17. Adventures in semantic publishing: exemplar semantic enhancements of a research article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Shotton

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit "Citations in Context", and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/. The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own

  18. MODEL FOR SEMANTICALLY RICH POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an interoperable model for managing high dimensional point clouds while integrating semantics. Point clouds from sensors are a direct source of information physically describing a 3D state of the recorded environment. As such, they are an exhaustive representation of the real world at every scale: 3D reality-based spatial data. Their generation is increasingly fast but processing routines and data models lack of knowledge to reason from information extraction rather than interpretation. The enhanced smart point cloud developed model allows to bring intelligence to point clouds via 3 connected meta-models while linking available knowledge and classification procedures that permits semantic injection. Interoperability drives the model adaptation to potentially many applications through specialized domain ontologies. A first prototype is implemented in Python and PostgreSQL database and allows to combine semantic and spatial concepts for basic hybrid queries on different point clouds.

  19. Model for Semantically Rich Point Cloud Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, F.; Neuville, R.; Hallot, P.; Billen, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes an interoperable model for managing high dimensional point clouds while integrating semantics. Point clouds from sensors are a direct source of information physically describing a 3D state of the recorded environment. As such, they are an exhaustive representation of the real world at every scale: 3D reality-based spatial data. Their generation is increasingly fast but processing routines and data models lack of knowledge to reason from information extraction rather than interpretation. The enhanced smart point cloud developed model allows to bring intelligence to point clouds via 3 connected meta-models while linking available knowledge and classification procedures that permits semantic injection. Interoperability drives the model adaptation to potentially many applications through specialized domain ontologies. A first prototype is implemented in Python and PostgreSQL database and allows to combine semantic and spatial concepts for basic hybrid queries on different point clouds.

  20. Perceptual and linguistic interactions in speeded classification: tests of the semantic coding hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, G; Marks, L E

    1999-01-01

    We tested the semantic coding hypothesis, which states that cross-modal interactions observed in speeded classification tasks arise after perceptual information is recoded into an abstract format common to perceptual and linguistic systems. Using a speeded classification task, we first confirmed the presence of congruence interactions between auditory pitch and visual lightness and observed Garner-type interference with nonlinguistic (perceptual) stimuli (low-frequency and high-frequency tones, black and white squares). Subsequently, we found that modifying the visual stimuli by (a) making them lexical (related words) or (b) reducing their compactness or figural 'goodness' altered congruence effects and Garner interference. The results are consistent with the semantic coding hypothesis, but only in part, and suggest the need for additional assumptions regarding the role of perceptual organization in cross-modal dimensional interactions.

  1. The Semantic Web: From Representation to Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thórisson, Kristinn R.; Spivack, Nova; Wissner, James M.

    A semantically-linked web of electronic information - the Semantic Web - promises numerous benefits including increased precision in automated information sorting, searching, organizing and summarizing. Realizing this requires significantly more reliable meta-information than is readily available today. It also requires a better way to represent information that supports unified management of diverse data and diverse Manipulation methods: from basic keywords to various types of artificial intelligence, to the highest level of intelligent manipulation - the human mind. How this is best done is far from obvious. Relying solely on hand-crafted annotation and ontologies, or solely on artificial intelligence techniques, seems less likely for success than a combination of the two. In this paper describe an integrated, complete solution to these challenges that has already been implemented and tested with hundreds of thousands of users. It is based on an ontological representational level we call SemCards that combines ontological rigour with flexible user interface constructs. SemCards are machine- and human-readable digital entities that allow non-experts to create and use semantic content, while empowering machines to better assist and participate in the process. SemCards enable users to easily create semantically-grounded data that in turn acts as examples for automation processes, creating a positive iterative feedback loop of metadata creation and refinement between user and machine. They provide a holistic solution to the Semantic Web, supporting powerful management of the full lifecycle of data, including its creation, retrieval, classification, sorting and sharing. We have implemented the SemCard technology on the semantic Web site Twine.com, showing that the technology is indeed versatile and scalable. Here we present the key ideas behind SemCards and describe the initial implementation of the technology.

  2. Remote semantic memory is impoverished in hippocampal amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, Nathaniel B; Duff, Melissa C

    2015-12-01

    The necessity of the hippocampus for acquiring new semantic concepts is a topic of considerable debate. However, it is generally accepted that any role the hippocampus plays in semantic memory is time limited and that previously acquired information becomes independent of the hippocampus over time. This view, along with intact naming and word-definition matching performance in amnesia, has led to the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in patients with hippocampal amnesia. Motivated by perspectives of word learning as a protracted process where additional features and senses of a word are added over time, and by recent discoveries about the time course of hippocampal contributions to on-line relational processing, reconsolidation, and the flexible integration of information, we revisit the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in amnesia. Using measures of semantic richness and vocabulary depth from psycholinguistics and first and second language-learning studies, we examined how much information is associated with previously acquired, highly familiar words in a group of patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia. Relative to healthy demographically matched comparison participants and a group of brain-damaged comparison participants, the patients with hippocampal amnesia performed significantly worse on both productive and receptive measures of vocabulary depth and semantic richness. These findings suggest that remote semantic memory is impoverished in patients with hippocampal amnesia and that the hippocampus may play a role in the maintenance and updating of semantic memory beyond its initial acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Arabic web pages clustering and annotation using semantic class features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Alghamdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To effectively manage the great amount of data on Arabic web pages and to enable the classification of relevant information are very important research problems. Studies on sentiment text mining have been very limited in the Arabic language because they need to involve deep semantic processing. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to retrieve machine-understandable data with the help of a Web content mining technique to detect covert knowledge within these data. We propose an approach to achieve clustering with semantic similarities. This approach comprises integrating k-means document clustering with semantic feature extraction and document vectorization to group Arabic web pages according to semantic similarities and then show the semantic annotation. The document vectorization helps to transform text documents into a semantic class probability distribution or semantic class density. To reach semantic similarities, the approach extracts the semantic class features and integrates them into the similarity weighting schema. The quality of the clustering result has evaluated the use of the purity and the mean intra-cluster distance (MICD evaluation measures. We have evaluated the proposed approach on a set of common Arabic news web pages. We have acquired favorable clustering results that are effective in minimizing the MICD, expanding the purity and lowering the runtime.

  4. Semantic-Based Crossmodal Processing During Visual Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin eCox

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the mechanisms underpinning the influence of auditory input on visual awareness, we examine, 1 whether purely semantic-based multisensory integration facilitates the access to visual awareness for familiar visual events, and 2 whether crossmodal semantic priming is the mechanism responsible for the semantic auditory influence on visual awareness. Using continuous flash suppression (CFS, we rendered dynamic and familiar visual events (e.g., a video clip of an approaching train inaccessible to visual awareness. We manipulated the semantic auditory context of the videos by concurrently pairing them with a semantically matching soundtrack (congruent audiovisual condition, a semantically non-matching soundtrack (incongruent audiovisual condition, or with no soundtrack (neutral video-only condition. We found that participants identified the suppressed visual events significantly faster (an earlier breakup of suppression in the congruent audiovisual condition compared to the incongruent audiovisual condition and video-only condition. However, this facilitatory influence of semantic auditory input was only observed when audiovisual stimulation co-occurred. Our results suggest that the enhanced visual processing with a semantically congruent auditory input occurs due to audiovisual crossmodal processing rather than semantic priming, which may occur even when visual information is not available to visual awareness.

  5. Semantic-based crossmodal processing during visual suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dustin; Hong, Sang Wook

    2015-01-01

    To reveal the mechanisms underpinning the influence of auditory input on visual awareness, we examine, (1) whether purely semantic-based multisensory integration facilitates the access to visual awareness for familiar visual events, and (2) whether crossmodal semantic priming is the mechanism responsible for the semantic auditory influence on visual awareness. Using continuous flash suppression, we rendered dynamic and familiar visual events (e.g., a video clip of an approaching train) inaccessible to visual awareness. We manipulated the semantic auditory context of the videos by concurrently pairing them with a semantically matching soundtrack (congruent audiovisual condition), a semantically non-matching soundtrack (incongruent audiovisual condition), or with no soundtrack (neutral video-only condition). We found that participants identified the suppressed visual events significantly faster (an earlier breakup of suppression) in the congruent audiovisual condition compared to the incongruent audiovisual condition and video-only condition. However, this facilitatory influence of semantic auditory input was only observed when audiovisual stimulation co-occurred. Our results suggest that the enhanced visual processing with a semantically congruent auditory input occurs due to audiovisual crossmodal processing rather than semantic priming, which may occur even when visual information is not available to visual awareness.

  6. An explicit semantic relatedness measure based on random walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Sihui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The semantic relatedness calculation of open domain knowledge network is a significant issue.In this paper,pheromone strategy is drawn from the thought of ant colony algorithm and is integrated into the random walk which is taken as the basic framework of calculating the semantic relatedness degree.The pheromone distribution is taken as a criterion of determining the tightness degree of semantic relatedness.A method of calculating semantic relatedness degree based on random walk is proposed and the exploration process of calculating the semantic relatedness degree is presented in a dominant way.The method mainly contains Path Select Model(PSM and Semantic Relatedness Computing Model(SRCM.PSM is used to simulate the path selection of ants and pheromone release.SRCM is used to calculate the semantic relatedness by utilizing the information returned by ants.The result indicates that the method could complete semantic relatedness calculation in linear complexity and extend the feasible strategy of semantic relatedness calculation.

  7. Altered retrieval of melodic information in congenital amusia: insights from dynamic causal modeling of MEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, Philippe; Mattout, Jérémie; Sanchez, Gaëtan; Tillmann, Barbara; Caclin, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder that primarily manifests as a difficulty in the perception and memory of pitch-based materials, including music. Recent findings have shown that the amusic brain exhibits altered functioning of a fronto-temporal network during pitch perception and short-term memory. Within this network, during the encoding of melodies, a decreased right backward frontal-to-temporal connectivity was reported in amusia, along with an abnormal connectivity within and between auditory cortices. The present study investigated whether connectivity patterns between these regions were affected during the short-term memory retrieval of melodies. Amusics and controls had to indicate whether sequences of six tones that were presented in pairs were the same or different. When melodies were different only one tone changed in the second melody. Brain responses to the changed tone in "Different" trials and to its equivalent (original) tone in "Same" trials were compared between groups using Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM). DCM results confirmed that congenital amusia is characterized by an altered effective connectivity within and between the two auditory cortices during sound processing. Furthermore, right temporal-to-frontal message passing was altered in comparison to controls, with notably an increase in "Same" trials. An additional analysis in control participants emphasized that the detection of an unexpected event in the typically functioning brain is supported by right fronto-temporal connections. The results can be interpreted in a predictive coding framework as reflecting an abnormal prediction error sent by temporal auditory regions towards frontal areas in the amusic brain.

  8. Altered retrieval of melodic information in congenital amusia: Insights from Dynamic Causal Modeling of MEG data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eAlbouy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder that primarily manifests as a difficulty in the perception and memory of pitch-based materials, including music. Recent findings have shown that the amusic brain exhibits altered functioning of a fronto-temporal network during pitch perception and memory. Within this network, during the encoding of melodies, a decreased right backward frontal-to-temporal connectivity was reported in amusia, along with an abnormal connectivity within and between auditory cortices. The present study investigated whether connectivity patterns between these regions were affected during the retrieval of melodies. Amusics and controls had to indicate whether sequences of six tones that were presented in pairs were the same or different. When melodies were different only one tone changed in the second melody. Brain responses to the changed tone in Different trials and to its equivalent (original tone in Same trials were compared between groups using Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM. DCM results confirmed that congenital amusia is characterized by an altered effective connectivity within and between the two auditory cortices during sound processing. Furthermore, right temporal-to-frontal message passing was altered in comparison to controls, with an increase in Same trials and a decrease in Different trials. An additional analysis in control participants emphasized that the detection of an unexpected event in the typically functioning brain is supported by right fronto-temporal connections. The results can be interpreted in a predictive coding framework as reflecting an abnormal prediction error sent by temporal auditory regions towards frontal areas in the amusic brain.

  9. Development of a semantically operating risk management information system using the example of the European organization for nuclear research (CERN); Entwicklung eines semantisch operierenden Risikomanagement-Informationssystems am Beispiel der Europaeischen Organisation fuer Kernforschung (CERN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprin, Lars

    2013-07-01

    The term risk analysis summarises the systematic endeavour to identify and evaluate the risks within an organisation associated with projects and actions, and make it possible to regulate risks. Risk analyses are an integral component of risk management, and thus essential to consolidating safety. In that respect, the adequacy and reliability of the findings obtained by way of risk analysis directly depend on the availability and quality of the knowledge resources supplied organisationally. Access to knowledge relevant to making decisions is, however, hampered, in the real world of work through the impact of various informational barriers. Knowledge that is conducive to understanding and avoiding risks is frequently stored in very specialised database systems, the individual syntactic and semantic structures of which make it a very time-consuming and laborious operation to use such knowledge in the context of applications other than the one originally linked to the databases. In addition, a degree of ambiguity that accompanies the semi-structured nature of many documentation and reporting systems makes it difficult to process knowledge efficiently and in an automated way, for example in conjunction with search engines. This dissertation presents a contribution towards overcoming the existing knowledge barriers in risk management. To this end, the method of applying semantic methods of representing knowledge in the domain of risk analysis is proposed. The focus is on the semantic web, which -as an enhancement of the World Wide Web- makes it possible to explicitly grasp the meaning of knowledge contexts and reproduce this information. Should the present risk management be distinguished by document-based organisation and distribution of knowledge, the semantic web presents methods and tools which make it possible to put the knowledge directly to work on the data set level. Building on the latter, the concept of a semantically operating risk management information

  10. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between failure systems. There exist

  11. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between decorated traces systems. There

  12. Semantic Changes of Gerund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofija Babickienė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, semantic models of gerund in the Lithuanian language are being investigated. Their productivity and the reasons of their change in the Lithuanian language are identified. The tendency to use gerund semantic structure in noun constructions is typical not only in Greek or Latin languages but also in English, Russian, etc. Regular polysemy is regarded as semantic derivation, i. e. shifting from main meanings to derivative ones. The object of this investigation is the usage patterns of gerunds which bear both the meaning of a verb and a noun. The examples for the present study have been gathered from the language of different Lithuanian dialects as well as from the Dictionary of the Lithuanian language (different volumes, etc. The research results reveal that semantic changes of object and result are the most productive, whereas mood or time semantic model proved to be not so productive. The productivity of regular models depends on the fact that there are suffix derivatives which have the meaning of a result. The research shows that scientific style and language of different dialects are rich in the use of gerund.

  13. A Survey On Meta Search Engine in Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. M.Surendra Prasad Babu; G.Sudeepthi

    2011-01-01

    The Search engines plays an important role in the success of the Web, Search engines helps any Internet user to rapidly find relevant information. But the unsolved problems of current search engines have led to the development of the Semantic Web. In the environment of Semantic Web, the search engines are more useful and efficient in searching the relevant web information., and our work shows how the fundamental elements of the meta search engine can be used in retriving the information resou...

  14. Retrieval from Semantic Memory by Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Grober, Ellen H.

    1973-01-01

    This study is consistent with a model of semantic memory that assumes that the memory store is organized primarily into noun categories, and that the process of retrieving information from this store consists of entering the appropriate category as a first step. (Authors)

  15. Smart Style on the Semantic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco); L. Hardman (Lynda)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWeb publishing systems have to take into account a plethora of Web-enabled devices, user preferences and abilities. Technologies generating these presentations will need to be explicitly aware of the context in which the information is being presented. Semantic Web technology can be a

  16. Hybrid Filtering in Semantic Query Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hanjo

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents a hybrid filtering method and a case-based reasoning framework for enhancing the effectiveness of Web search. Web search may not reflect user needs, intent, context, and preferences, because today's keyword-based search is lacking semantic information to capture the user's context and intent in posing the search query.…

  17. A Semantic Constraint on Syntactic Parsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Coker, Pamela L.

    This research examines how semantic information influences syntactic parsing decisions during sentence processing. In the first experiment, subjects were presented lexical strings having syntactically identical surface structures but with two possible underlying structures: "The children taught by the Berlitz method," and "The…

  18. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Kalil A.; Rosa, Nelson S.; Cunha, Paulo R. F.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks), which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS. PMID:26528974

  19. SemantEco: a semantically powered modular architecture for integrating distributed environmental and ecological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Evan W.; Seyed, Patrice; Wang, Ping; Fu, Linyun; Dein, F. Joshua; Bristol, R. Sky; McGuinness, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    We aim to inform the development of decision support tools for resource managers who need to examine large complex ecosystems and make recommendations in the face of many tradeoffs and conflicting drivers. We take a semantic technology approach, leveraging background ontologies and the growing body of linked open data. In previous work, we designed and implemented a semantically enabled environmental monitoring framework called SemantEco and used it to build a water quality portal named SemantAqua. Our previous system included foundational ontologies to support environmental regulation violations and relevant human health effects. In this work, we discuss SemantEco’s new architecture that supports modular extensions and makes it easier to support additional domains. Our enhanced framework includes foundational ontologies to support modeling of wildlife observation and wildlife health impacts, thereby enabling deeper and broader support for more holistically examining the effects of environmental pollution on ecosystems. We conclude with a discussion of how, through the application of semantic technologies, modular designs will make it easier for resource managers to bring in new sources of data to support more complex use cases.

  20. Simpler TAG semantics through synchronization

    OpenAIRE

    Shieber, Stuart; Nesson, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    In recent years Laura Kallmeyer, Maribel Romero, and their collaborators have led research on TAG semantics through a series of papers refining a system of TAG semantics computation. Kallmeyer and Romero bring together the lessons of these attempts with a set of desirable properties that such a system should have. First, computation of the semantics of a sentence should rely only on the relationships expressed in the TAG derivation tree. Second, the generated semantics should compactl...

  1. Flow Logics and Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1998-01-01

    Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analysis...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....

  2. Semantic Search of Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  3. Incremental semantics for propositional texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, C.F.M.

    In this paper we are concerned with the special requirements that a semantics of texts should meet. It is argued that a semantics of texts should be incremental and should satisfy the break in principle. We develop a semantics for propositional texts that satisfies these constraints. We will see

  4. A Timed Semantics for SDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Simon; Godskesen, Jens Christian; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1996-01-01

    An alternative formal semantics for describing the temporal aspects for the ITU-T specification language SDL is proposed, based on the interval temporal logic Duration Calculus (DC). It is shown how DC can be used to give an SDL semantics with a precise treatment oftemporal phenomena. The semantics...

  5. The order of information processing alters economic gain-loss framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Youngbin; Huettel, Scott

    2017-11-11

    Adaptive decision making requires analysis of available information during the process of choice. In many decisions that information is presented visually - which means that variations in visual properties (e.g., salience, complexity) can potentially influence the process of choice. In the current study, we demonstrate that variation in the left-right positioning of risky and safe decision options can influence the canonical gain-loss framing effect. Two experiments were conducted using an economic framing task in which participants chose between gambles and certain outcomes. The first experiment demonstrated that the magnitude of the gain-loss framing effect was greater when the certain option signaling the current frame was presented on the left side of the visual display. Eye-tracking data during task performance showed a left-gaze bias for initial fixations, suggesting that the option presented on the left side was processed first. Combination of eye-tracking and choice data revealed that there was a significant effect of direction of first gaze (i.e. left vs. right) as well as an interaction between gaze direction and identity of the first fixated information (i.e. certain vs. gamble) regardless of frame. A second experiment presented the gamble and certain options in a random order, with a temporal delay between their presentations. We found that the magnitude of gain-loss framing was larger when the certain option was presented first, regardless of left and right positioning, only in individuals with lower risk-taking tendencies. The effect of presentation order on framing was not present in high risk-takers. These results suggest that the sequence of visual information processing as well as their left-right positioning can bias choices by changing the impact of the presented information during risky decision making. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Work Out the Semantic Web Search: The Cooperative Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Melo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Cooperative Question Answering System that takes as input natural language queries and is able to return a cooperative answer based on semantic web resources, more specifically DBpedia represented in OWL/RDF as knowledge base and WordNet to build similar questions. Our system resorts to ontologies not only for reasoning but also to find answers and is independent of prior knowledge of the semantic resources by the user. The natural language question is translated into its semantic representation and then answered by consulting the semantics sources of information. The system is able to clarify the problems of ambiguity and helps finding the path to the correct answer. If there are multiple answers to the question posed (or to the similar questions for which DBpedia contains answers, they will be grouped according to their semantic meaning, providing a more cooperative and clarified answer to the user.

  7. c-Mantic: A Cytoscape plugin for Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semantic Web tools can streamline the process of storing, analyzing and sharing biological information. Visualization is important for communicating such complex biological relationships. Here we use the flexibility and speed of the Cytoscape platform to interactively visualize s...

  8. Communication of Semantic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2004-01-01

    processes. This working paper argues for the need for a commonly accepted terminology used to communicate semantic product properties. Designers and others involved in design processes are dependent of a sharp and clear verbal communication. Search facilities in computer programs for product and material...

  9. Formal fault tree semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Schellhorn, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    Formal fault tree semantics / G. Schellhorn, A. Thums, and W. Reif. - In: IDPT : Proceedings of the Sixth World Conference on Integrated Design and Process Technology : June 23 - 27, 2003, Pasadena, California / SDPS, Society for Design & Process Science. - 2002. - 1CD-ROM

  10. MORPHOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION AND SEMANTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MORPHOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION AND SEMANTIC INTERPRETATION. Rudolf P. Botha. Introduction ... The morphological representation assigned to a complex word must provide the formal structure required ..... It has been argued in the literature that "markedness" claims such as. (16)(a) and (b) are unacceptable ...

  11. Lexicology, Semantics and Lexicography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Volume 194 of the series Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, entitled Lexicology,. Semantics and Lexicography ... the theoretical and methodological fundamentals of the Cognitive Linguistics enterprise, more specifically .... database was rather small (100 folk-etymologies taken from Palmer's Dictionary of Folk-etymology).

  12. Semantic Processing Impairment in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda G. Jaimes-Bautista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impairment in episodic memory system is the best-known cognitive deficit in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Recent studies have shown evidence of semantic disorders, but they have been less studied than episodic memory. The semantic dysfunction in TLE has various cognitive manifestations, such as the presence of language disorders characterized by defects in naming, verbal fluency, or remote semantic information retrieval, which affects the ability of patients to interact with their surroundings. This paper is a review of recent research about the consequences of TLE on semantic processing, considering neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging findings, as well as the functional role of the hippocampus in semantic processing. The evidence from these studies shows disturbance of semantic memory in patients with TLE and supports the theory of declarative memory of the hippocampus. Functional neuroimaging studies show an inefficient compensatory functional reorganization of semantic networks and electrophysiological studies show a lack of N400 effect that could indicate that the deficit in semantic processing in patients with TLE could be due to a failure in the mechanisms of automatic access to lexicon.

  13. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    and algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one...... based on denotational semantics and we identify the need for extending the semantic universe with low constructs whose sole purpose is to facilitate the proof. For dealing with partial correctness it suffices to consider approximations that are less defined than the desired fixed points; for dealing...

  14. Lack of semantic priming effects in famous person recognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambati, Simona M; Peters, Frédéric; Belleville, Sylvie; Joubert, Sven

    2012-04-01

    Growing evidence indicates that individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) manifest semantic deficits that are often more severe for items that are characterized by a unique semantic and lexical association, such as famous people and famous buildings, than common concepts, such as objects. However, it is still controversial whether the semantic deficits observed in MCI are determined by a degradation of semantic information or by a deficit in intentional access to semantic knowledge. Here we used a semantic priming task in order to assess the integrity of the semantic system without requiring explicit access to this system. This paradigm may provide new insights in clarifying the nature of the semantic deficits in MCI. We assessed the semantic and repetition priming effect in 13 individuals with MCI and 13 age-matched controls who engaged in a familiarity judgment task of famous names. In the semantic priming condition, the prime was the name of a member of the same occupation category as the target (Tom Cruise-Brad Pitt), while in the repetition priming condition the prime was the same name as the target (Charlie Chaplin-Charlie Chaplin). The results showed a defective priming effect in MCI in the semantic but not in the repetition priming condition. Specifically, when compared to controls, MCI patients did not show a facilitation effect in responding to the same occupation prime-target pairs, but they showed an equivalent facilitation effect when the target was the same name as the prime. The present results provide support to the hypothesis that the semantic impairments observed in MCI cannot be uniquely ascribed to a deficit in intentional access to semantic information. Instead, these findings point to the semantic nature of these deficits and, in particular, to a degraded representation of semantic information concerning famous people. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  15. A Semantic Modelling Framework-Based Method for Building Reconstruction from Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingdong Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, there has been an increasing need for semantic information in automatic city modelling. However, due to the complexity of building structure, the semantic reconstruction of buildings is still a challenging task because it is difficult to extract architectural rules and semantic information from the data. To improve the insufficiencies, we present a semantic modelling framework-based approach for automated building reconstruction using the semantic information extracted from point clouds or images. In this approach, a semantic modelling framework is designed to describe and generate the building model, and a workflow is established for extracting the semantic information of buildings from an unorganized point cloud and converting the semantic information into the semantic modelling framework. The technical feasibility of our method is validated using three airborne laser scanning datasets, and the results are compared with other related works comprehensively, which indicate that our approach can simplify the reconstruction process from a point cloud and generate 3D building models with high accuracy and rich semantic information.

  16. Uniform Representations for Syntax-Semantics Arbitration

    CERN Document Server

    Mahesh, K; Mahesh, Kavi; Eiselt, Kurt P.

    1994-01-01

    Psychological investigations have led to considerable insight into the working of the human language comprehension system. In this article, we look at a set of principles derived from psychological findings to argue for a particular organization of linguistic knowledge along with a particular processing strategy and present a computational model of sentence processing based on those principles. Many studies have shown that human sentence comprehension is an incremental and interactive process in which semantic and other higher-level information interacts with syntactic information to make informed commitments as early as possible at a local ambiguity. Early commitments may be made by using top-down guidance from knowledge of different types, each of which must be applicable independently of others. Further evidence from studies of error recovery and delayed decisions points toward an arbitration mechanism for combining syntactic and semantic information in resolving ambiguities. In order to account for all of...

  17. e-Science and biological pathway semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Joanne S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of e-Science presents a major set of opportunities and challenges for the future progress of biological and life scientific research. Major new tools are required and corresponding demands are placed on the high-throughput data generated and used in these processes. Nowhere is the demand greater than in the semantic integration of these data. Semantic Web tools and technologies afford the chance to achieve this semantic integration. Since pathway knowledge is central to much of the scientific research today it is a good test-bed for semantic integration. Within the context of biological pathways, the BioPAX initiative, part of a broader movement towards the standardization and integration of life science databases, forms a necessary prerequisite for its successful application of e-Science in health care and life science research. This paper examines whether BioPAX, an effort to overcome the barrier of disparate and heterogeneous pathway data sources, addresses the needs of e-Science. Results We demonstrate how BioPAX pathway data can be used to ask and answer some useful biological questions. We find that BioPAX comes close to meeting a broad range of e-Science needs, but certain semantic weaknesses mean that these goals are missed. We make a series of recommendations for re-modeling some aspects of BioPAX to better meet these needs. Conclusion Once these semantic weaknesses are addressed, it will be possible to integrate pathway information in a manner that would be useful in e-Science.

  18. A Novel Semantic Matching Method for Indoor Trajectory Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Guo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of smartphone sensors has provided rich indoor pedestrian trajectory data for indoor location-based applications. To improve the quality of these collected trajectory data, map matching methods are widely used to correct trajectories. However, these existing matching methods usually cannot achieve satisfactory accuracy and efficiency and have difficulty in exploiting the rich information contained in the obtained trajectory data. In this study, we proposed a novel semantic matching method for indoor pedestrian trajectory tracking. Similar to our previous work, pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR and human activity recognition (HAR are used to obtain the raw user trajectory data and the corresponding semantic information involved in the trajectory, respectively. To improve the accuracy and efficiency for user trajectory tracking, a semantic-rich indoor link-node model is then constructed based on the input floor plan, in which navigation-related semantics are extracted and formalized for the following trajectory matching. PDR and HAR are further utilized to segment the trajectory and infer the semantics (e.g., “Turn left”, “Turn right”, and “Go straight”. Finally, the inferred semantic information is matched with the semantic-rich indoor link-node model to derive the correct user trajectory. To accelerate the matching process, the semantics inferred from the trajectory are also assigned weights according to their relative importance. The experiments confirm that the proposed method achieves accurate trajectory tracking results while guaranteeing a high matching efficiency. In addition, the resulting semantic information has great application potential in further indoor location-based services.

  19. Emotional speech processing: disentangling the effects of prosody and semantic cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Marc D; Jaywant, Abhishek; Monetta, Laura; Kotz, Sonja A

    2011-08-01

    To inform how emotions in speech are implicitly processed and registered in memory, we compared how emotional prosody, emotional semantics, and both cues in tandem prime decisions about conjoined emotional faces. Fifty-two participants rendered facial affect decisions (Pell, 2005a), indicating whether a target face represented an emotion (happiness or sadness) or not (a facial grimace), after passively listening to happy, sad, or neutral prime utterances. Emotional information from primes was conveyed by: (1) prosody only; (2) semantic cues only; or (3) combined prosody and semantic cues. Results indicated that prosody, semantics, and combined prosody-semantic cues facilitate emotional decisions about target faces in an emotion-congruent manner. However, the magnitude of priming did not vary across tasks. Our findings highlight that emotional meanings of prosody and semantic cues are systematically registered during speech processing, but with similar effects on associative knowledge about emotions, which is presumably shared by prosody, semantics, and faces.

  20. Nonthermal sensory input and altered human thermoregulation: effects of visual information depicting hot or cold environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    A recent study showed that thermoregulatory-like cardiovascular responses can be invoked simply by exposure to visual information, even though the thermal environments are neutral and unchanged. However, it was not clear how such responses affect actual human body temperature regulation. We investigated whether such visually invoked physiological responses can substantively affect human core body temperature in a thermally challenging cold environment. Participants comprised 13 graduate or undergraduate students viewing different video images containing hot, cold, or no scenery, while room temperature was gradually lowered from 28 to 16 °C over 80 min. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, core to skin temperature gradient, and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiment. Rectal temperature was significantly lower when hot video images were presented compared to when control video images were presented. Oxygen consumption was comparable among all video images, but core to skin temperature gradient was significantly lower when hot video images were presented. This result suggests that visual information, even in the absence of thermal energy, can affect human thermodynamics and core body temperature.

  1. Semantic Search with GoPubMed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doms, Andreas; Schroeder, Michael

    Searching relevant information on the web is a main occupation of researchers nowadays. Classical keyword-based search engines have limits. Inconsistent vocabulary used by authors is not handled. Relevant information spread over multiple documents can not be found. An overview over an entire document collection can not be given by the means of ranked lists. Question answering requiring semantic disambiguation of occurring terminology is not possible. Trends in the literature can not be followed if vocabulary is evolving over time.

  2. Medical document anonymization with a semantic lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, P; Baud, R H; Rassinoux, A M; Bouillon, P; Robert, G

    2000-01-01

    We present an original system for locating and removing personally-identifying information in patient records. In this experiment, anonymization is seen as a particular case of knowledge extraction. We use natural language processing tools provided by the MEDTAG framework: a semantic lexicon specialized in medicine, and a toolkit for word-sense and morpho-syntactic tagging. The system finds 98-99% of all personally-identifying information.

  3. Semantic Properties of Customer Sentiment in Tweets

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Eun Hee; Klabjan, Diego

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of people are using online social networking services (SNSs), and a significant amount of information related to experiences in consumption is shared in this new media form. Text mining is an emerging technique for mining useful information from the web. We aim at discovering in particular tweets semantic patterns in consumers' discussions on social media. Specifically, the purposes of this study are twofold: 1) finding similarity and dissimilarity between two sets of tex...

  4. Can group-based reassuring information alter low back pain behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pernille; Indahl, Aage; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is common in the population and multifactorial in nature, often involving negative consequences. Reassuring information to improve coping is recommended for reducing the negative consequences of LBP. Adding a simple non-threatening explanation for the pain (temporary......-threatening explanation for LBP-the 'functional-disturbance'-model. Data collections took place monthly over a 1-year period using text message tracking (SMS). Primary outcomes were self-reported days of cutting down usual activities and work participation. Secondary outcomes were self-reported back beliefs, work ability......, number of healthcare visits, bothersomeness, restricted activity, use of pain medication, and sadness/depression. RESULTS: There was no between-group difference in the development of LBP during follow-up. Cumulative logistic regression analyses showed no between-group difference on days of cutting down...

  5. Can group-based reassuring information alter low back pain behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pernille; Indahl, Aage; Andersen, Lars L.

    2017-01-01

    -threatening explanation for LBP-the 'functional-disturbance'-model. Data collections took place monthly over a 1-year period using text message tracking (SMS). Primary outcomes were self-reported days of cutting down usual activities and work participation. Secondary outcomes were self-reported back beliefs, work ability...... activities, but increased odds for more days of work participation in the intervention group (OR = 1.83 95% CI: 1.08-3.12). Furthermore, the intervention group was more likely to report: higher work ability, reduced visits to healthcare professionals, lower bothersomeness, lower levels of sadness....../depression, and positive back beliefs. CONCLUSION: Reassuring information involving a simple non-threatening explanation for LBP significantly increased the odds for days of work participation and higher work ability among workers who went on to experience LBP during the 12-month follow-up. Our results confirm...

  6. Centrality-based Selection of Semantic Resources for Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerba, Otakar; Jedlicka, Karel

    2017-04-01

    Semantical questions intervene almost in all disciplines dealing with geographic data and information, because relevant semantics is crucial for any way of communication and interaction among humans as well as among machines. But the existence of such a large number of different semantic resources (such as various thesauri, controlled vocabularies, knowledge bases or ontologies) makes the process of semantics implementation much more difficult and complicates the use of the advantages of semantics. This is because in many cases users are not able to find the most suitable resource for their purposes. The research presented in this paper introduces a methodology consisting of an analysis of identical relations in Linked Data space, which covers a majority of semantic resources, to find a suitable resource of semantic information. Identical links interconnect representations of an object or a concept in various semantic resources. Therefore this type of relations is considered to be crucial from the view of Linked Data, because these links provide new additional information, including various views on one concept based on different cultural or regional aspects (so-called social role of Linked Data). For these reasons it is possible to declare that one reasonable criterion for feasible semantic resources for almost all domains, including geosciences, is their position in a network of interconnected semantic resources and level of linking to other knowledge bases and similar products. The presented methodology is based on searching of mutual connections between various instances of one concept using "follow your nose" approach. The extracted data on interconnections between semantic resources are arranged to directed graphs and processed by various metrics patterned on centrality computing (degree, closeness or betweenness centrality). Semantic resources recommended by the research could be used for providing semantically described keywords for metadata records or as

  7. Methodology to develop and evaluate a semantic representation for NLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jeannie Y; Harkema, Henk; Christensen, Lee M; Schleyer, Titus; Haug, Peter J; Chapman, Wendy W

    2009-11-14

    Natural language processing applications that extract information from text rely on semantic representations. The objective of this paper is to describe a methodology for creating a semantic representation for information that will be automatically extracted from textual clinical records. We illustrate two of the four steps of the methodology in this paper using the case study of encoding information from dictated dental exams: (1) develop an initial representation from a set of training documents and (2) iteratively evaluate and evolve the representation while developing annotation guidelines. Our approach for developing and evaluating a semantic representation is based on standard principles and approaches that are not dependent on any particular domain or type of semantic representation.

  8. Syntactic behaviour and semantic kinship of selected Danish verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braasch, Anna Rosita

    2008-01-01

    that combine morphological, syntactic and semantic descriptions of the lemmas. The development of such a lexical resource is rather demanding, therefore, an enhancement of existing resources with additional information types is a worthwhile task. The computational lexicon for Danish SprogTeknologisk Ordbase...... (STO) comprises a comprehensive syntactic layer which is assumed to be suitable for enhancement with semantic information. The theoretical background for the current approach is the consensus on obvious relationships between a syntactic behaviour and a particular sense of lemmas, as a surface...... complementation structure reflects the underlying semantic argument structure. The idea is to test the feasibility of deriving semantic information systematically from the syntactic structures encoded in syntactic patterns....

  9. Hippocampal activation during retrieval of spatial context from episodic and semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; Nadel, Lynn; Payne, Jessica; Ryan, Lee

    2010-10-15

    The hippocampus, a region implicated in the processing of spatial information and episodic memory, is central to the debate concerning the relationship between episodic and semantic memory. Studies of medial temporal lobe amnesic patients provide evidence that the hippocampus is critical for the retrieval of episodic but not semantic memory. On the other hand, recent neuroimaging studies of intact individuals report hippocampal activation during retrieval of both autobiographical memories and semantic information that includes historical facts, famous faces, and categorical information, suggesting that episodic and semantic memory may engage the hippocampus during memory retrieval in similar ways. Few studies have matched episodic and semantic tasks for the degree to which they include spatial content, even though spatial content may be what drives hippocampal activation during semantic retrieval. To examine this issue, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which retrieval of spatial and nonspatial information was compared during an episodic and semantic recognition task. Results show that the hippocampus (1) participates preferentially in the retrieval of episodic memories; (2) is also engaged by retrieval of semantic memories, particularly those that include spatial information. These data suggest that sharp dissociations between episodic and semantic memory may be overly simplistic and that the hippocampus plays a role in the retrieval of spatial content whether drawn from a memory of one's own life experiences or real-world semantic knowledge. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Integration of auditory and kinesthetic information in motion: alterations in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Magdalena; Llanos, Catalina; Rodríguez, Manuel

    2008-07-01

    The main aim in this work was to study the interaction between auditory and kinesthetic stimuli and its influence on motion control. The study was performed on healthy subjects and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-five right-handed volunteers (young, PD, and age-matched healthy participants, and PD-patients) were studied with three different motor tasks (slow cyclic movements, fast cyclic movements, and slow continuous movements) and under the action of kinesthetic stimuli and sounds at different beat rates. The action of kinesthesia was evaluated by comparing real movements with virtual movements (movements imaged but not executed). The fast cyclic task was accelerated by kinesthetic but not by auditory stimuli. The slow cyclic task changed with the beat rate of sounds but not with kinesthetic stimuli. The slow continuous task showed an integrated response to both sensorial modalities. These data show that the influence of the multisensory integration on motion changes with the motor task and that some motor patterns are modulated by the simultaneous action of auditory and kinesthetic information, a cross-modal integration that was different in PD-patients. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Understanding human activity patterns based on space-time-semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Songnian

    2016-11-01

    Understanding human activity patterns plays a key role in various applications in an urban environment, such as transportation planning and traffic forecasting, urban planning, public health and safety, and emergency response. Most existing studies in modeling human activity patterns mainly focus on spatiotemporal dimensions, which lacks consideration of underlying semantic context. In fact, what people do and discuss at some places, inferring what is happening at the places, cannot be simple neglected because it is the root of human mobility patterns. We believe that the geo-tagged semantic context, representing what individuals do and discuss at a place and a specific time, drives a formation of specific human activity pattern. In this paper, we aim to model human activity patterns not only based on space and time but also with consideration of associated semantics, and attempt to prove a hypothesis that similar mobility patterns may have different motivations. We develop a spatiotemporal-semantic model to quantitatively express human activity patterns based on topic models, leading to an analysis of space, time and semantics. A case study is conducted using Twitter data in Toronto based on our model. Through computing the similarities between users in terms of spatiotemporal pattern, semantic pattern and spatiotemporal-semantic pattern, we find that only a small number of users (2.72%) have very similar activity patterns, while the majority (87.14%) show different activity patterns (i.e., similar spatiotemporal patterns and different semantic patterns, similar semantic patterns and different spatiotemporal patterns, or different in both). The population of users that has very similar activity patterns is decreased by 56.41% after incorporating semantic information in the corresponding spatiotemporal patterns, which can quantitatively prove the hypothesis.

  12. XML databases and the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Thuraisingham, Bhavani

    2002-01-01

    Efficient access to data, sharing data, extracting information from data, and making use of the information have become urgent needs for today''s corporations. With so much data on the Web, managing it with conventional tools is becoming almost impossible. New tools and techniques are necessary to provide interoperability as well as warehousing between multiple data sources and systems, and to extract information from the databases. XML Databases and the Semantic Web focuses on critical and new Web technologies needed for organizations to carry out transactions on the Web, to understand how to use the Web effectively, and to exchange complex documents on the Web.This reference for database administrators, database designers, and Web designers working in tandem with database technologists covers three emerging technologies of significant impact for electronic business: Extensible Markup Language (XML), semi-structured databases, and the semantic Web. The first two parts of the book explore these emerging techn...

  13. Language and culture modulate online semantic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ceri; Kuipers, Jan R; Thierry, Guillaume; Lovett, Victoria; Turnbull, Oliver; Jones, Manon W

    2015-10-01

    Language has been shown to influence non-linguistic cognitive operations such as colour perception, object categorization and motion event perception. Here, we show that language also modulates higher level processing, such as semantic knowledge. Using event-related brain potentials, we show that highly fluent Welsh-English bilinguals require significantly less processing effort when reading sentences in Welsh which contain factually correct information about Wales, than when reading sentences containing the same information presented in English. Crucially, culturally irrelevant information was processed similarly in both Welsh and English. Our findings show that even in highly proficient bilinguals, language interacts with factors associated with personal identity, such as culture, to modulate online semantic processing. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. ADEMA: an algorithm to determine expected metabolite level alterations using mutual information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ercument Cicek

    Full Text Available Metabolomics is a relatively new "omics" platform, which analyzes a discrete set of metabolites detected in bio-fluids or tissue samples of organisms. It has been used in a diverse array of studies to detect biomarkers and to determine activity rates for pathways based on changes due to disease or drugs. Recent improvements in analytical methodology and large sample throughput allow for creation of large datasets of metabolites that reflect changes in metabolic dynamics due to disease or a perturbation in the metabolic network. However, current methods of comprehensive analyses of large metabolic datasets (metabolomics are limited, unlike other "omics" approaches where complex techniques for analyzing coexpression/coregulation of multiple variables are applied. This paper discusses the shortcomings of current metabolomics data analysis techniques, and proposes a new multivariate technique (ADEMA based on mutual information to identify expected metabolite level changes with respect to a specific condition. We show that ADEMA better predicts De Novo Lipogenesis pathway metabolite level changes in samples with Cystic Fibrosis (CF than prediction based on the significance of individual metabolite level changes. We also applied ADEMA's classification scheme on three different cohorts of CF and wildtype mice. ADEMA was able to predict whether an unknown mouse has a CF or a wildtype genotype with 1.0, 0.84, and 0.9 accuracy for each respective dataset. ADEMA results had up to 31% higher accuracy as compared to other classification algorithms. In conclusion, ADEMA advances the state-of-the-art in metabolomics analysis, by providing accurate and interpretable classification results.

  15. Semantic Annotation of Existing Geo-Datasets a Case Study of Disaster Response in Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasheri, A.; van Oosterom, P.; Zlatanova, S.; Bakillah, M.

    2013-05-01

    Use of relevant geo-information is one of the important issues for performing different tasks and processes in disaster response phase. In order to save time and cost, services could be employed for integrating and extracting relevant up-to-date geo-information. For this purpose, semantics of geo-information should be explicitly defined. This paper presents our initial results in applying an approach for semantic annotation of existing geo-datasets. In this research the process of injecting semantic descriptions into geodatasets (information integration) is called semantic annotation. A web system architecture is presented and the process of semantic annotation is presented by using the Meta-Annotation approach. The approach is elaborated by providing an example in disaster response which utilizes geo-datasets in CityGML format and further two languages of semantic web technology: RDF and Notation3.

  16. The Semantics of "Violence"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    counterparts in many (most) languages, and thatPinker’s claims are Anglocentric in nature. My papir studies the intricate details of vaeolens, as a new word that has attracted a number ofother English-based phraseologies such as vaeolens againsem woman ‘violence against women’,and vaeolens againsem pikinini...... ‘violence against children’. Semantic explications of “violence/vaeolens”, kilim and faetem will be provided and based on these explications, two different culturalmodels will be articulated, based on two radically different ways of co-conceptualizing the humanbody, personhood, sociality, and power......This paper presents a semantic analysis of “violence” – a word around which Anglo-internationaldiscourses revolve. Many ethnolinguistic communities around the world are currently adapting thisEnglish lexical concept into their linguistic systems, and, presumably also, the view of the worldembodied...

  17. SEMANTIC DERIVATION OF BORROWINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigapova, F.F.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author carried out the contrastive analysis of the word спикер borrowed into Russian from English and the English word speaker. The findings of the analysis include confirm (1 different derivational abilities and functions of the borrowed word and the native word; (2 distinctive features in the definitions, i.e. semantic structures, registered in monolingual non-abridged dictionaries; (3 heterogeneous parameters of frequencies recorded in the National Corpus of the Russian language and the British National Corpus; (4 absence of bilingual equivalent collocations with words спикер and speaker. The collocations with words studied revealed new lexical and connotative senses in the meaning of the word. Relevance of the study conducted is justified by the new facts revealed about the semantic adaptation of the borrowed word in the system of the Russian language and its paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections in the system of the recipient language.

  18. Chemical Entity Semantic Specification: Knowledge representation for efficient semantic cheminformatics and facile data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past several centuries, chemistry has permeated virtually every facet of human lifestyle, enriching fields as diverse as medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, warfare, and electronics, among numerous others. Unfortunately, application-specific, incompatible chemical information formats and representation strategies have emerged as a result of such diverse adoption of chemistry. Although a number of efforts have been dedicated to unifying the computational representation of chemical information, disparities between the various chemical databases still persist and stand in the way of cross-domain, interdisciplinary investigations. Through a common syntax and formal semantics, Semantic Web technology offers the ability to accurately represent, integrate, reason about and query across diverse chemical information. Results Here we specify and implement the Chemical Entity Semantic Specification (CHESS) for the representation of polyatomic chemical entities, their substructures, bonds, atoms, and reactions using Semantic Web technologies. CHESS provides means to capture aspects of their corresponding chemical descriptors, connectivity, functional composition, and geometric structure while specifying mechanisms for data provenance. We demonstrate that using our readily extensible specification, it is possible to efficiently integrate multiple disparate chemical data sources, while retaining appropriate correspondence of chemical descriptors, with very little additional effort. We demonstrate the impact of some of our representational decisions on the performance of chemically-aware knowledgebase searching and rudimentary reaction candidate selection. Finally, we provide access to the tools necessary to carry out chemical entity encoding in CHESS, along with a sample knowledgebase. Conclusions By harnessing the power of Semantic Web technologies with CHESS, it is possible to provide a means of facile cross-domain chemical knowledge integration with full

  19. Chemical Entity Semantic Specification: Knowledge representation for efficient semantic cheminformatics and facile data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Leonid L; Dumontier, Michel

    2011-05-19

    Over the past several centuries, chemistry has permeated virtually every facet of human lifestyle, enriching fields as diverse as medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, warfare, and electronics, among numerous others. Unfortunately, application-specific, incompatible chemical information formats and representation strategies have emerged as a result of such diverse adoption of chemistry. Although a number of efforts have been dedicated to unifying the computational representation of chemical information, disparities between the various chemical databases still persist and stand in the way of cross-domain, interdisciplinary investigations. Through a common syntax and formal semantics, Semantic Web technology offers the ability to accurately represent, integrate, reason about and query across diverse chemical information. Here we specify and implement the Chemical Entity Semantic Specification (CHESS) for the representation of polyatomic chemical entities, their substructures, bonds, atoms, and reactions using Semantic Web technologies. CHESS provides means to capture aspects of their corresponding chemical descriptors, connectivity, functional composition, and geometric structure while specifying mechanisms for data provenance. We demonstrate that using our readily extensible specification, it is possible to efficiently integrate multiple disparate chemical data sources, while retaining appropriate correspondence of chemical descriptors, with very little additional effort. We demonstrate the impact of some of our representational decisions on the performance of chemically-aware knowledgebase searching and rudimentary reaction candidate selection. Finally, we provide access to the tools necessary to carry out chemical entity encoding in CHESS, along with a sample knowledgebase. By harnessing the power of Semantic Web technologies with CHESS, it is possible to provide a means of facile cross-domain chemical knowledge integration with full preservation of data

  20. Semantic Web Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Datamining Initiative (TAMI [TAMI])), implementing these ideas much more fully. 4.0 Language development 4.1 OWL development DAML and OIL languages...Swick (for DIG),Transparent Accountable Datamining Initiative, 2005. http://dig.csail.mit.edu/TAMI/ to.Ical: Dan Connolly and Tim Berners-Lee...open and unbounded Semantic Web which was delivered as N3 (Notation3). TAMI: (Transparent Accountable Datamining Initiative), technical, legal, and

  1. Semantically-Sensitive Macroprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-15

    mechanism u sed by the language translator: computation over the syntactic domain of the langu age at translation time. We propose, however, that...any syntactic class , i.e. they may comput e (meta)values of any (meta)type in the syntactic domain, and furthermore may accept arguments of any such... class . The term syntactic domain is in- tended to include what is usually referred to as static semantics as well as more patently structural

  2. Syntax, Semantics, and Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    for many applications) or what one really wants the semantic selectional restrictions to test , A major practical difficulty with incorporating...context is tne type ^ at trie ielt -nanu gie nonterrainai nonempty string pe 3 grammars, more restricted u in generative cnaracterized by 1...words the passi tne sp s ence. gra la nary th c imul t o deca msky ntex ules nera siti test he ana si ve t "su true mmar

  3. Considering the Feasibility of Semantic Model Design in the Built-Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Grzybek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Building Information Modeling (BIM is the process of structuring, capturing, creating, and managing a digital representation of physical and/or functional characteristics of a built space [1]. Current BIM has limited ability to represent dynamic semantics, social information, often failing to consider building activity, behavior and context; thus limiting integration with intelligent, built-environment management systems. Research, such as the development of Semantic Exchange Modules, and/or the linking of IFC with semantic web structures, demonstrates the need for building models to better support complex semantic functionality. To implement model semantics effectively, however, it is critical that model designers consider semantic information constructs. This paper discusses semantic models with relation to determining the most suitable information structure. We demonstrate how semantic rigidity can lead to significant long-term problems that can contribute to model failure. A sufficiently detailed feasibility study is advised to maximize the value from the semantic model. In addition we propose a set of questions, to be used during a model’s feasibility study, and guidelines to help assess the most suitable method for managing semantics in a built environment.

  4. Insensitive Enough Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vallée

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available According to some philosophers, sentences like (1 “It is raining” and (2 “John is ready” are context sensitive sentences even if they do not contain indexicals or demonstratives. That view initiated a context sensitivity frenzy. Cappelen and Lepore (2005 summarize the frenzy by the slogan “Every sentence is context sensitive” (Insensitive Semantics, p. 6, note 5. They suggest a view they call Minimalism according to which the truth conditions of utterances of sentences like (1/(2 are exactly what Convention T gives you. I will distinguish different propositions, and refocus semantics on sentences. As distinct from what the protagonists in the ongoing debate think, I argue that the content or truth conditions of utterances of both context sensitive sentences and sentences like (1/(2 are not interesting from a semantic point of view, and that the problem sentences like (1/(2 raises is not about context sensitivity or context insensitivity of sentences, but relevance of the content of utterances.

  5. Towards Semantic e-Science for Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Chunying

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in Web and information technologies with the increasing decentralization of organizational structures have resulted in massive amounts of information resources and domain-specific services in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The massive volume and diversity of information and services available have made it difficult to achieve seamless and interoperable e-Science for knowledge-intensive disciplines like TCM. Therefore, information integration and service coordination are two major challenges in e-Science for TCM. We still lack sophisticated approaches to integrate scientific data and services for TCM e-Science. Results We present a comprehensive approach to build dynamic and extendable e-Science applications for knowledge-intensive disciplines like TCM based on semantic and knowledge-based techniques. The semantic e-Science infrastructure for TCM supports large-scale database integration and service coordination in a virtual organization. We use domain ontologies to integrate TCM database resources and services in a semantic cyberspace and deliver a semantically superior experience including browsing, searching, querying and knowledge discovering to users. We have developed a collection of semantic-based toolkits to facilitate TCM scientists and researchers in information sharing and collaborative research. Conclusion Semantic and knowledge-based techniques are suitable to knowledge-intensive disciplines like TCM. It's possible to build on-demand e-Science system for TCM based on existing semantic and knowledge-based techniques. The presented approach in the paper integrates heterogeneous distributed TCM databases and services, and provides scientists with semantically superior experience to support collaborative research in TCM discipline.

  6. A general schema for generating argumentation semantics from logic programming semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Osorio Galindo, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, by considering the idea that argumentation semantics can be viewed as a special form of logic programming semantics with negation as failure, we show that any logic programming semantics as the stable model semantics, the minimal models, etc., can define candidate argumentation semantics. These new argumentation semantics will overcome some of the problems of the Dung's argumentation semantics that have been discussed in the literature. The new argumentation semantics are based...

  7. Predication-based semantic indexing: permutations as a means to encode predications in semantic space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Trevor; Schvaneveldt, Roger W; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2009-11-14

    Corpus-derived distributional models of semantic distance between terms have proved useful in a number of applications. For both theoretical and practical reasons, it is desirable to extend these models to encode discrete concepts and the ways in which they are related to one another. In this paper, we present a novel vector space model that encodes semantic predications derived from MEDLINE by the SemRep system into a compact spatial representation. The associations captured by this method are of a different and complementary nature to those derived by traditional vector space models, and the encoding of predication types presents new possibilities for knowledge discovery and information retrieval.

  8. Semantic Metrics for Object Oriented Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzkorn, Lethe

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to research a new suite of object-oriented (OO) software metrics, called semantic metrics, that have the potential to help software engineers identify fragile, low quality code sections much earlier in the development cycle than is possible with traditional OO metrics. With earlier and better Fault detection, software maintenance will be less time consuming and expensive, and software reusability will be improved. Because it is less costly to correct faults found earlier than to correct faults found later in the software lifecycle, the overall cost of software development will be reduced. Semantic metrics can be derived from the knowledge base of a program understanding system. A program understanding system is designed to understand a software module. Once understanding is complete, the knowledge-base contains digested information about the software module. Various semantic metrics can be collected on the knowledge base. This new kind of metric measures domain complexity, or the relationship of the software to its application domain, rather than implementation complexity, which is what traditional software metrics measure. A semantic metric will thus map much more closely to qualities humans are interested in, such as cohesion and maintainability, than is possible using traditional metrics, that are calculated using only syntactic aspects of software.

  9. Biotea: semantics for Pubmed Central.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexander; Lopez, Federico; Garcia, Leyla; Giraldo, Olga; Bucheli, Victor; Dumontier, Michel

    2018-01-01

    A significant portion of biomedical literature is represented in a manner that makes it difficult for consumers to find or aggregate content through a computational query. One approach to facilitate reuse of the scientific literature is to structure this information as linked data using standardized web technologies. In this paper we present the second version of Biotea, a semantic, linked data version of the open-access subset of PubMed Central that has been enhanced with specialized annotation pipelines that uses existing infrastructure from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology. We expose our models, services, software and datasets. Our infrastructure enables manual and semi-automatic annotation, resulting data are represented as RDF-based linked data and can be readily queried using the SPARQL query language. We illustrate the utility of our system with several use cases. Our datasets, methods and techniques are available at http://biotea.github.io.

  10. Biotea: semantics for Pubmed Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Garcia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of biomedical literature is represented in a manner that makes it difficult for consumers to find or aggregate content through a computational query. One approach to facilitate reuse of the scientific literature is to structure this information as linked data using standardized web technologies. In this paper we present the second version of Biotea, a semantic, linked data version of the open-access subset of PubMed Central that has been enhanced with specialized annotation pipelines that uses existing infrastructure from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology. We expose our models, services, software and datasets. Our infrastructure enables manual and semi-automatic annotation, resulting data are represented as RDF-based linked data and can be readily queried using the SPARQL query language. We illustrate the utility of our system with several use cases. Our datasets, methods and techniques are available at http://biotea.github.io.

  11. Semantics of color in chromatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Nikolai V.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of >: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for >, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  12. A Collaborative Semantic Web Layer to Enhance Legacy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliozzo, Alfio; Gangemi, Aldo; Presutti, Valentina; Cardillo, Elena; Daga, Enrico; Salvati, Alberto; Troiani, Gianluca

    This paper introduces a framework to add a semantic web layer to legacy organizational information, and describes its application to the use case provided by the Italian National Research Council (CNR) intraweb. Building on a traditional web-based view of information from different legacy databases, we have performed a semantic porting of data into a knowledge base, dependent on an OWL domain ontology. We have enriched the knowledge base by means of text mining techniques, in order to discover on-topic relations. Several reasoning techniques have been applied, in order to infer relevant implicit relationships. Finally, the ontology and the knowledge base have been deployed on a semantic wiki by means of the WikiFactory tool, which allows users to browse the ontology and the knowledge base, to introduce new relations, to revise wrong assertions in a collaborative way, and to perform semantic queries. In our experiments, we have been able to easily implement several functionalities, such as expert finding, by simply formulating ad-hoc queries from either an ontology editor or the semantic wiki interface. The result is an intelligent and collaborative front end, which allow users to add information, fill gaps, or revise existing information on a semantic basis, while keeping the knowledge base automatically updated.

  13. Subliminal semantic priming in speech.

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    Jérôme Daltrozzo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported subliminal repetition and semantic priming in the visual modality. We transferred this paradigm to the auditory modality. Prime awareness was manipulated by a reduction of sound intensity level. Uncategorized prime words (according to a post-test were followed by semantically related, unrelated, or repeated target words (presented without intensity reduction and participants performed a lexical decision task (LDT. Participants with slower reaction times in the LDT showed semantic priming (faster reaction times for semantically related compared to unrelated targets and negative repetition priming (slower reaction times for repeated compared to semantically related targets. This is the first report of semantic priming in the auditory modality without conscious categorization of the prime.

  14. Incorporating Semantic Knowledge into Dynamic Data Processing for Smart Power Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor

    2012-11-15

    Semantic Web allows us to model and query time-invariant or slowly evolving knowledge using ontologies. Emerging applications in Cyber Physical Systems such as Smart Power Grids that require continuous information monitoring and integration present novel opportunities and challenges for Semantic Web technologies. Semantic Web is promising to model diverse Smart Grid domain knowledge for enhanced situation awareness and response by multi-disciplinary participants. However, current technology does pose a performance overhead for dynamic analysis of sensor measurements. In this paper, we combine semantic web and complex event processing for stream based semantic querying. We illustrate its adoption in the USC Campus Micro-Grid for detecting and enacting dynamic response strategies to peak power situations by diverse user roles. We also describe the semantic ontology and event query model that supports this. Further, we introduce and evaluate caching techniques to improve the response time for semantic event queries to meet our application needs and enable sustainable energy management.

  15. Do You Read How I Read? Systematic Individual Differences in Semantic Reliance amongst Normal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollams, Anna M; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Madrid, Gaston; Patterson, Karalyn E

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which meaning is involved in reading aloud has proven an area of longstanding debate, and current computational models differ on this dimension. The connectionist triangle model proposes that normal individuals rely on semantic information for correct reading of words with atypical spelling-sound relationships, but to varying degrees. This proposed individual difference would account for the varying stage of decline at which patients with semantic dementia first show the reading impairment known as surface dyslexia. Recent neuroimaging data has provided validation of this view, showing that individual differences in degree of semantic reliance during exception word reading predict the amount of activation in left anterior temporal regions associated with semantic processing. This study aimed to establish the cognitive correlates of individual differences in semantic reliance during exception word reading. Experiment 1 used a subgrouping approach with 32 participants and found larger imageability and semantic priming effects specifically for exception word reading amongst high relative to low semantic reliance readers. High semantic reliance readers also tended to read nonwords more slowly than low semantic reliance readers. A second experiment used a regression approach with 129 readers and confirmed the relationship of degree of semantic reliance both to imageability effects in exception word reading and speed of nonword reading. Further, while the performance of the higher semantic readers revealed no significant association with semantic processing tasks, there was a negative relationship with rhyme processing tasks. We therefore speculate that differences in phonological abilities may be responsible for varying degrees of semantic reliance in reading aloud. This proposal accords with the results of functional imaging showing that higher semantic reliance during exception word reading corresponds to lower activation in left pre-central gyrus, an

  16. Do you read how I read? Systematic individual differences in semantic reliance amongst normal readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Woollams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which meaning is involved in reading aloud has proven an area of longstanding debate, and current computational models differ on this dimension. The connectionist triangle model proposes that normal individuals rely on semantic information for correct reading of words with atypical spelling-sound relationships, but to varying degrees. This proposed individual difference would account for the varying stage of decline at which patients with semantic dementia first show the reading impairment known as surface dyslexia. Recent neuroimaging data has provided validation of this view, showing individual differences in degree of semantic reliance during exception word reading predicts the amount of activation in left anterior temporal regions associated with semantic processing. This study aimed to establish the cognitive correlates of individual differences in semantic reliance during exception word reading. Experiment 1 used a subgrouping approach with 32 participants and found larger imageability and semantic priming effects specifically for exception word reading amongst high relative to low semantic reliance readers. High semantic reliance readers also tended to read nonwords more slowly than low semantic reliance readers. A second experiment used a regression approach with 129 readers and confirmed the relationship of degree of semantic reliance both to imageability effects in exception word reading and speed of nonword reading. Further, while the performance of the higher semantic readers revealed no significant association with semantic processing tasks, there was a negative relationship with rhyme processing tasks. We therefore speculate that differences in phonological abilities may be responsible for varying degrees of semantic reliance in reading aloud. This proposal accords with the results of functional imaging showing that higher semantic reliance during exception word reading corresponds to lower activation in left

  17. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  18. SEMANTIC LOCATION EXTRACTION FROM CROWDSOURCED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koswatte

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Crowdsourced Data (CSD has recently received increased attention in many application areas including disaster management. Convenience of production and use, data currency and abundancy are some of the key reasons for attracting this high interest. Conversely, quality issues like incompleteness, credibility and relevancy prevent the direct use of such data in important applications like disaster management. Moreover, location information availability of CSD is problematic as it remains very low in many crowd sourced platforms such as Twitter. Also, this recorded location is mostly related to the mobile device or user location and often does not represent the event location. In CSD, event location is discussed descriptively in the comments in addition to the recorded location (which is generated by means of mobile device's GPS or mobile communication network. This study attempts to semantically extract the CSD location information with the help of an ontological Gazetteer and other available resources. 2011 Queensland flood tweets and Ushahidi Crowd Map data were semantically analysed to extract the location information with the support of Queensland Gazetteer which is converted to an ontological gazetteer and a global gazetteer. Some preliminary results show that the use of ontologies and semantics can improve the accuracy of place name identification of CSD and the process of location information extraction.

  19. Mindfulness training alters emotional memory recall compared to active controls: support for an emotional information processing model of mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug eRoberts-Wolfe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e. memory biases in relation to both clinical symptomatology and well-being in comparison to active control conditions.Methods: Fifty-eight university students (28 female, age = 20.1 ± 2.7 years participated in either a 12-week course containing a "meditation laboratory" or an active control course with similar content or experiential practice laboratory format (music. Participants completed an emotional word recall task and self-report questionnaires of well-being and clinical symptoms before and after the 12-week course.Results: Meditators showed greater increases in positive word recall compared to controls F(1, 56 = 6.6, p = .02. The meditation group increased significantly more on measures of well-being [F(1, 56 = 6.6, p = .01], with a marginal decrease in depression and anxiety [(F(1, 56 = 3.0, p = .09] compared to controls. Increased positive word recall was associated with increased psychological well-being [r = 0.31, p = .02] and decreased clinical symptoms [r = -0.29, p = .03].Conclusion: Mindfulness training was associated with greater improvements in processing efficiency for positively valenced stimuli than active control conditions. This change in emotional information processing was associated with improvements in psychological well-being and less depression and anxiety. These data suggest that mindfulness training may improve well-being via changes in emotional information processing.

  20. Semantics, ontologies and eScience for the geosciences

    OpenAIRE

    Reitsma, Femke; Laxton, John; Ballard, Stuart; Kuhn, Werner; Abdelmoty, Alia

    2009-01-01

    Semantics, ontologies and eScience are key areas of research that aim to deal with the growing volume, number of sources and heterogeneity of geoscience data, information and knowledge. Following a workshop held at the eScience Institute in Edinburgh on the 7–9th of March 2008, this paper discusses some of the significant research topics and challenges for enhancing geospatial computing using semantic and grid technologies.

  1. Semantics, ontologies and eScience for the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Femke; Laxton, John; Ballard, Stuart; Kuhn, Werner; Abdelmoty, Alia

    2009-04-01

    Semantics, ontologies and eScience are key areas of research that aim to deal with the growing volume, number of sources and heterogeneity of geoscience data, information and knowledge. Following a workshop held at the eScience Institute in Edinburgh on the 7-9th of March 2008, this paper discusses some of the significant research topics and challenges for enhancing geospatial computing using semantic and grid technologies.

  2. Contemporary Semantic Web Service Frameworks: An Overview and Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Mohebbi, Keyvan; Ibrahim, Suhaimi; Idris, Norbik Bashah

    2012-01-01

    The growing proliferation of distributed information systems, allows organizations to offer their business processes to a worldwide audience through Web services. Semantic Web services have emerged as a means to achieve the vision of automatic discovery, selection, composition, and invocation of Web services by encoding the specifications of these software components in an unambiguous and machine-interpretable form. Several frameworks have been devised as enabling technologies for Semantic We...

  3. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available System semantics of explanatory dictionaries Some semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hypercycles formalism. The connection between the hypercyle properties of the lexicographical system semantics and Goedel’s incompleteness theorem is discussed.

  4. Semantic similarity measure in biomedical domain leverage web search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Huang; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Weng, Yung-Ching; Chang, Wen-Yung; Lai, Feipei

    2010-01-01

    Semantic similarity measure plays an essential role in Information Retrieval and Natural Language Processing. In this paper we propose a page-count-based semantic similarity measure and apply it in biomedical domains. Previous researches in semantic web related applications have deployed various semantic similarity measures. Despite the usefulness of the measurements in those applications, measuring semantic similarity between two terms remains a challenge task. The proposed method exploits page counts returned by the Web Search Engine. We define various similarity scores for two given terms P and Q, using the page counts for querying P, Q and P AND Q. Moreover, we propose a novel approach to compute semantic similarity using lexico-syntactic patterns with page counts. These different similarity scores are integrated adapting support vector machines, to leverage the robustness of semantic similarity measures. Experimental results on two datasets achieve correlation coefficients of 0.798 on the dataset provided by A. Hliaoutakis, 0.705 on the dataset provide by T. Pedersen with physician scores and 0.496 on the dataset provided by T. Pedersen et al. with expert scores.

  5. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Subjects engaged in two picture judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content (concrete words in Experiment 1 and 3; nonwords in Experiments 2 and 3). Picture judgments varied in the extent to which they required accessing visual semantic information (i.e., semantic categorization and line orientation judgments). Results showed that, relative to line orientation judgments, engaging in semantic categorization judgments increased the proportion of item ordering errors for concrete lists but did not affect error proportions for nonword lists. Furthermore, although more ordering errors were observed for phonologically similar relative to dissimilar lists, no interactions were observed between the phonological overlap and picture judgment task manipulations. These results thus demonstrate that lexical-semantic representations can affect the serial ordering of items in short-term memory. Furthermore, the dual-task paradigm provides a new method for examining when and how semantic representations affect memory performance. PMID:21058880

  6. Semantic Interoperability in Heterogeneous IoT Infrastructure for Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Jabbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interoperability remains a significant burden to the developers of Internet of Things’ Systems. This is due to the fact that the IoT devices are highly heterogeneous in terms of underlying communication protocols, data formats, and technologies. Secondly due to lack of worldwide acceptable standards, interoperability tools remain limited. In this paper, we proposed an IoT based Semantic Interoperability Model (IoT-SIM to provide Semantic Interoperability among heterogeneous IoT devices in healthcare domain. Physicians communicate their patients with heterogeneous IoT devices to monitor their current health status. Information between physician and patient is semantically annotated and communicated in a meaningful way. A lightweight model for semantic annotation of data using heterogeneous devices in IoT is proposed to provide annotations for data. Resource Description Framework (RDF is a semantic web framework that is used to relate things using triples to make it semantically meaningful. RDF annotated patients’ data has made it semantically interoperable. SPARQL query is used to extract records from RDF graph. For simulation of system, we used Tableau, Gruff-6.2.0, and Mysql tools.

  7. Rule-based support system for multiple UMLS semantic type assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, James; He, Zhe; Perl, Yehoshua; Morrey, C Paul; Xu, Julia

    2013-02-01

    When new concepts are inserted into the UMLS, they are assigned one or several semantic types from the UMLS Semantic Network by the UMLS editors. However, not every combination of semantic types is permissible. It was observed that many concepts with rare combinations of semantic types have erroneous semantic type assignments or prohibited combinations of semantic types. The correction of such errors is resource-intensive. We design a computational system to inform UMLS editors as to whether a specific combination of two, three, four, or five semantic types is permissible or prohibited or questionable. We identify a set of inclusion and exclusion instructions in the UMLS Semantic Network documentation and derive corresponding rule-categories as well as rule-categories from the UMLS concept content. We then design an algorithm adviseEditor based on these rule-categories. The algorithm specifies rules for an editor how to proceed when considering a tuple (pair, triple, quadruple, quintuple) of semantic types to be assigned to a concept. Eight rule-categories were identified. A Web-based system was developed to implement the adviseEditor algorithm, which returns for an input combination of semantic types whether it is permitted, prohibited or (in a few cases) requires more research. The numbers of semantic type pairs assigned to each rule-category are reported. Interesting examples for each rule-category are illustrated. Cases of semantic type assignments that contradict rules are listed, including recently introduced ones. The adviseEditor system implements explicit and implicit knowledge available in the UMLS in a system that informs UMLS editors about the permissibility of a desired combination of semantic types. Using adviseEditor might help accelerate the work of the UMLS editors and prevent erroneous semantic type assignments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Causality and the Semantics of Provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Cheney

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Provenance, or information about the sources, derivation, custody or history of data, has been studied recently in a number of contexts, including databases, scientific workflows and the Semantic Web. Many provenance mechanisms have been developed, motivated by informal notions such as influence, dependence, explanation and causality. However, there has been little study of whether these mechanisms formally satisfy appropriate policies or even how to formalize relevant motivating concepts such as causality. We contend that mathematical models of these concepts are needed to justify and compare provenance techniques. In this paper we review a theory of causality based on structural models that has been developed in artificial intelligence, and describe work in progress on using causality to give a semantics to provenance graphs.

  9. Biomedical Literature Exploration through Latent Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo ARAÚJO

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fast increasing amount of articles published in the biomedical field is creating difficulties in the way this wealth of information can be efficiently exploited by researchers. As a way of overcoming these limitations and potentiating a more efficient use of the literature, we propose an approach for structuring the results of a literature search based on the latent semantic information extracted from a corpus. Moreover, we show how the results of the Latent Semantic Analysis method can be adapted so as to evidence differences between results of different searches. We also propose different visualization techniques that can be applied to explore these results. Used in combination, these techniques could empower users with tools for literature guided knowledge exploration and discovery.

  10. A unified computational account of cumulative semantic, semantic blocking, and semantic distractor effects in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2018-03-01

    Computational models of lexical selection in spoken word production have been applied to semantic interference effects in picture naming response times obtained with continuous naming, blocked-cyclic naming, and picture-word interference paradigms. However, a unified computational account of the effects in the three paradigms is lacking. Here, I show that the inclusion of conceptual bias in the WEAVER++model (Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999) explains cumulative semantic and semantic blocking effects while preserving the model's account of semantic distractor effects. The key assumptions of the account are (1) lexical selection by competition, and (2) a conceptual origin and lexical locus of the semantic effects. I provide a proof of concept of the account by reporting computer simulation results, addressing behavioral and neuroimaging evidence. The assumptions are sufficient for a unified account of semantic effects in the three paradigms, contrary to pessimistic views of this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A flexible integration framework for a Semantic Geospatial Web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Mei, Kun; Bian, Fuling

    2008-10-01

    With the growth of the World Wide Web technologies, the access to and use of geospatial information changed in the past decade radically. Previously, the data processed by a GIS as well as its methods had resided locally and contained information that was sufficiently unambiguous in the respective information community. Now, both data and methods may be retrieved and combined from anywhere in the world, escaping their local contexts. The last few years have seen a growing interest in the field of semantic geospatial web. With the development of semantic web technologies, we have seen the possibility of solving the heterogeneity/interoperation problem in the GIS community. The semantic geospatial web application can support a wide variety of tasks including data integration, interoperability, knowledge reuse, spatial reasoning and many others. This paper proposes a flexible framework called GeoSWF (short for Geospatial Semantic Web Framework), which supports the semantic integration of the distributed and heterogeneous geospatial information resources and also supports the semantic query and spatial relationship reasoning. We design the architecture of GeoSWF by extending the MVC Pattern. The GeoSWF use the geo-2007.owl proposed by W3C as the reference ontology of the geospatial information and design different application ontologies according to the situation of heterogeneous geospatial information resources. A Geospatial Ontology Creating Algorithm (GOCA) is designed for convert the geospatial information to the ontology instances represented by RDF/OWL. On the top of these ontology instances, the GeoSWF carry out the semantic reasoning by the rule set stored in the knowledge base to generate new system query. The query result will be ranking by ordering the Euclidean distance of each ontology instances. At last, the paper gives the conclusion and future work.

  12. Semantics of the Visual Environment Encoded in Parahippocampal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Michael F; Price, Amy Rose; Peelle, Jonathan E; Grossman, Murray

    2016-03-01

    Semantic representations capture the statistics of experience and store this information in memory. A fundamental component of this memory system is knowledge of the visual environment, including knowledge of objects and their associations. Visual semantic information underlies a range of behaviors, from perceptual categorization to cognitive processes such as language and reasoning. Here we examine the neuroanatomic system that encodes visual semantics. Across three experiments, we found converging evidence indicating that knowledge of verbally mediated visual concepts relies on information encoded in a region of the ventral-medial temporal lobe centered on parahippocampal cortex. In an fMRI study, this region was strongly engaged by the processing of concepts relying on visual knowledge but not by concepts relying on other sensory modalities. In a study of patients with the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (semantic dementia), atrophy that encompassed this region was associated with a specific impairment in verbally mediated visual semantic knowledge. Finally, in a structural study of healthy adults from the fMRI experiment, gray matter density in this region related to individual variability in the processing of visual concepts. The anatomic location of these findings aligns with recent work linking the ventral-medial temporal lobe with high-level visual representation, contextual associations, and reasoning through imagination. Together, this work suggests a critical role for parahippocampal cortex in linking the visual environment with knowledge systems in the human brain.

  13. Semantic Segmentation of Indoor Point Clouds Using Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babacan, K.; Chen, L.; Sohn, G.

    2017-11-01

    As Building Information Modelling (BIM) thrives, geometry becomes no longer sufficient; an ever increasing variety of semantic information is needed to express an indoor model adequately. On the other hand, for the existing buildings, automatically generating semantically enriched BIM from point cloud data is in its infancy. The previous research to enhance the semantic content rely on frameworks in which some specific rules and/or features that are hand coded by specialists. These methods immanently lack generalization and easily break in different circumstances. On this account, a generalized framework is urgently needed to automatically and accurately generate semantic information. Therefore we propose to employ deep learning techniques for the semantic segmentation of point clouds into meaningful parts. More specifically, we build a volumetric data representation in order to efficiently generate the high number of training samples needed to initiate a convolutional neural network architecture. The feedforward propagation is used in such a way to perform the classification in voxel level for achieving semantic segmentation. The method is tested both for a mobile laser scanner point cloud, and a larger scale synthetically generated data. We also demonstrate a case study, in which our method can be effectively used to leverage the extraction of planar surfaces in challenging cluttered indoor environments.

  14. Advancing translational research with the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttenberg, Alan; Clark, Tim; Bug, William; Samwald, Matthias; Bodenreider, Olivier; Chen, Helen; Doherty, Donald; Forsberg, Kerstin; Gao, Yong; Kashyap, Vipul; Kinoshita, June; Luciano, Joanne; Marshall, M Scott; Ogbuji, Chimezie; Rees, Jonathan; Stephens, Susie; Wong, Gwendolyn T; Wu, Elizabeth; Zaccagnini, Davide; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Neumann, Eric; Herman, Ivan; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2007-05-09

    A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. It is based on common formats that support aggregation and integration of data drawn from diverse sources. A variety of technologies have been built on this foundation that, together, support identifying, representing, and reasoning across a wide range of biomedical data. The Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG), set up within the framework of the World Wide Web Consortium, was launched to explore the application of these technologies in a variety of areas. Subgroups focus on making biomedical data available in RDF, working with biomedical ontologies, prototyping clinical decision support systems, working on drug safety and efficacy communication, and supporting disease researchers navigating and annotating the large amount of potentially relevant literature. We present a scenario that shows the value of the information environment the Semantic Web can support for aiding neuroscience researchers. We then report on several projects by members of the HCLSIG, in the process illustrating the range of Semantic Web technologies that have applications in areas of biomedicine. Semantic Web technologies present both promise and challenges. Current tools and standards are already adequate to implement components of the bench-to-bedside vision. On the other hand, these technologies are young. Gaps in standards and implementations still exist and adoption is limited by typical problems with early technology, such as the need for a critical mass of practitioners and installed base

  15. Patterns for Semantic Business Process Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Seitz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Business Process Management has been one of the main topics in commercial information technology for many years and is becoming even more important now. The graphical modeling of business processes and their processing into software products requires so much human labor, that the production cycles can not comply with the fast changing demands of today's global markets. To improve the degree of automatic processing in Business Process Management, techniques from the Semantic Web like ontologie...

  16. Semantic prioritization of novel causative genomic variants

    OpenAIRE

    Imane Boudellioua; Rozaimi B Mahamad Razali; Maxat Kulmanov; Yasmeen Hashish; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Eva Goncalves-Serra; Nadia Schoenmakers; Gkoutos, Georgios V.; Schofield, Paul N.; Robert Hoehndorf

    2017-01-01

    Discriminating the causative disease variant(s) for individuals with inherited or de novo mutations presents one of the main challenges faced by the clinical genetics community today. Computational approaches for variant prioritization include machine learning methods utilizing a large number of features, including molecular information, interaction networks, or phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate the PhenomeNET Variant Predictor (PVP) system that exploits semantic technologies and automated rea...

  17. Action semantics for defining dynamic semantics of modeling languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuurman, Gijs; Ivanov, Ivan

    Most languages in Model Driven Engineering (MDE) are defined by metamodels. Metamodels specify the structural aspects of models but do not capture the computational meaning of the modeling constructs (the dynamic semantics). There are several semantic definition frameworks used for programming

  18. Fully Abstract Game Semantics for Actors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Along the way paved by the recent concurrent game semantics for process algebra CCS and $\\pi$-calculus, based on the basic characteristics of the actor computational model and the very reductive semantics for actors, we establish a fully abstract concurrent game semantics for actors by borrowing the algebraic structure from CCS. This semantics can both be seen as an innocent presheaf semantics, and a concurrent game semantics.

  19. Semantics-based composition of EMBOSS services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Anna-Lena; Naujokat, Stefan; Margaria, Tiziana; Steffen, Bernhard

    2011-03-07

    More than in other domains the heterogeneous services world in bioinformatics demands for a methodology to classify and relate resources in a both human and machine accessible manner. The Semantic Web, which is meant to address exactly this challenge, is currently one of the most ambitious projects in computer science. Collective efforts within the community have already led to a basis of standards for semantic service descriptions and meta-information. In combination with process synthesis and planning methods, such knowledge about types and services can facilitate the automatic composition of workflows for particular research questions. In this study we apply the synthesis methodology that is available in the Bio-jETI workflow management framework for the semantics-based composition of EMBOSS services. EMBOSS (European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite) is a collection of 350 tools (March 2010) for various sequence analysis tasks, and thus a rich source of services and types that imply comprehensive domain models for planning and synthesis approaches. We use and compare two different setups of our EMBOSS synthesis domain: 1) a manually defined domain setup where an intuitive, high-level, semantically meaningful nomenclature is applied to describe the input/output behavior of the single EMBOSS tools and their classifications, and 2) a domain setup where this information has been automatically derived from the EMBOSS Ajax Command Definition (ACD) files and the EMBRACE Data and Methods ontology (EDAM). Our experiments demonstrate that these domain models in combination with our synthesis methodology greatly simplify working with the large, heterogeneous, and hence manually intractable EMBOSS collection. However, they also show that with the information that can be derived from the (current) ACD files and EDAM ontology alone, some essential connections between services can not be recognized. Our results show that adequate domain modeling requires to incorporate

  20. Spatial Relation Predicates in Topographic Feature Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Caro, Holly K.

    2013-01-01

    Topographic data are designed and widely used for base maps of diverse applications, yet the power of these information sources largely relies on the interpretive skills of map readers and relational database expert users once the data are in map or geographic information system (GIS) form. Advances in geospatial semantic technology offer data model alternatives for explicating concepts and articulating complex data queries and statements. To understand and enrich the vocabulary of topographic feature properties for semantic technology, English language spatial relation predicates were analyzed in three standard topographic feature glossaries. The analytical approach drew from disciplinary concepts in geography, linguistics, and information science. Five major classes of spatial relation predicates were identified from the analysis; representations for most of these are not widely available. The classes are: part-whole (which are commonly modeled throughout semantic and linked-data networks), geometric, processes, human intention, and spatial prepositions. These are commonly found in the ‘real world’ and support the environmental science basis for digital topographical mapping. The spatial relation concepts are based on sets of relation terms presented in this chapter, though these lists are not prescriptive or exhaustive. The results of this study make explicit the concepts forming a broad set of spatial relation expressions, which in turn form the basis for expanding the range of possible queries for topographical data analysis and mapping.

  1. The UMLS® Semantic Network and the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Vipul

    2003-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System® (UMLS®) , an extensive source of biomedical knowledge developed and maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) is being currently used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. The Semantic Network, a component of the UMLS is a structured description of core biomedical knowledge consisting of well defined semantic types and relationships between them. We investigate the expressiveness of DAML+OIL, a markup language proposed for ontologies on the Semantic Web, for representing the knowledge contained in the Semantic Network. Requirements specific to the Semantic Network, such as polymorphic relationships and blocking relationship inheritance are discussed and approaches to represent these in DAML+OIL are presented. Finally, conclusions are presented along with a discussion of ongoing and future work. PMID:14728193

  2. A Schema for Generating Update Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Jos´e Luis Carballido Carranza; Claudia Zepeda; Guillermo Flores

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general schema for dening new update semantics. This schema takes as input any basic logic programming semantics, such as the stable semantics, the p-stable semantics or the MMr semantics, and gives as output a new update semantics. The schema proposed is based on a concept called minimal generalized S models, where S is any of the logic programming semantics. Each update semantics is associated to an update operator. We also present some properties of these update...

  3. WYSIWYM - Integrated visualization, exploration and authoring of semantically enriched un-structured content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalili, Ali; Auer, Soren

    2015-01-01

    The Semantic Web and Linked Data gained traction in the last years. However, the majority of information still is contained in unstructured documents. This can also not be expected to change, since text, images and videos are the natural way how humans interact with information. Semantic structuring

  4. SEMANTIC METADATA FOR HETEROGENEOUS SPATIAL PLANNING DOCUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Iwaniak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning documents contain information about the principles and rights of land use in different zones of a local authority. They are the basis for administrative decision making in support of sustainable development. In Poland these documents are published on the Web according to a prescribed non-extendable XML schema, designed for optimum presentation to humans in HTML web pages. There is no document standard, and limited functionality exists for adding references to external resources. The text in these documents is discoverable and searchable by general-purpose web search engines, but the semantics of the content cannot be discovered or queried. The spatial information in these documents is geographically referenced but not machine-readable. Major manual efforts are required to integrate such heterogeneous spatial planning documents from various local authorities for analysis, scenario planning and decision support. This article presents results of an implementation using machine-readable semantic metadata to identify relationships among regulations in the text, spatial objects in the drawings and links to external resources. A spatial planning ontology was used to annotate different sections of spatial planning documents with semantic metadata in the Resource Description Framework in Attributes (RDFa. The semantic interpretation of the content, links between document elements and links to external resources were embedded in XHTML pages. An example and use case from the spatial planning domain in Poland is presented to evaluate its efficiency and applicability. The solution enables the automated integration of spatial planning documents from multiple local authorities to assist decision makers with understanding and interpreting spatial planning information. The approach is equally applicable to legal documents from other countries and domains, such as cultural heritage and environmental management.

  5. Semantic Metadata for Heterogeneous Spatial Planning Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniak, A.; Kaczmarek, I.; Łukowicz, J.; Strzelecki, M.; Coetzee, S.; Paluszyński, W.

    2016-09-01

    Spatial planning documents contain information about the principles and rights of land use in different zones of a local authority. They are the basis for administrative decision making in support of sustainable development. In Poland these documents are published on the Web according to a prescribed non-extendable XML schema, designed for optimum presentation to humans in HTML web pages. There is no document standard, and limited functionality exists for adding references to external resources. The text in these documents is discoverable and searchable by general-purpose web search engines, but the semantics of the content cannot be discovered or queried. The spatial information in these documents is geographically referenced but not machine-readable. Major manual efforts are required to integrate such heterogeneous spatial planning documents from various local authorities for analysis, scenario planning and decision support. This article presents results of an implementation using machine-readable semantic metadata to identify relationships among regulations in the text, spatial objects in the drawings and links to external resources. A spatial planning ontology was used to annotate different sections of spatial planning documents with semantic metadata in the Resource Description Framework in Attributes (RDFa). The semantic interpretation of the content, links between document elements and links to external resources were embedded in XHTML pages. An example and use case from the spatial planning domain in Poland is presented to evaluate its efficiency and applicability. The solution enables the automated integration of spatial planning documents from multiple local authorities to assist decision makers with understanding and interpreting spatial planning information. The approach is equally applicable to legal documents from other countries and domains, such as cultural heritage and environmental management.

  6. The Semantics of Ontology Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    AUG 2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Semantics of Ontology Alignment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 1 The Semantics of Ontology Alignment

  7. Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhodko, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

  8. On the Semantics of Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kess, Joseph F.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the semantics of the notion of focus, insofar as it relates to Filipino languages. The evolution of this notion is reviewed, and an alternative explanation of it is given, stressing the fact that grammar and semantics should be kept separate in a discussion of focus. (CLK)

  9. Comparison of affective and semantic priming in different SOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongqing; Qu, Yuhong; Xiao, Yanli; Wu, Qi; Xia, Likun; Li, Wenhui; Liu, Ying

    2016-11-01

    Researchers have been at odds on whether affective or semantic priming is faster or stronger. The present study selects a series of facial expression photos and words, which have definite emotional meaning or gender meaning, to set up experiment including both affective and semantic priming. The intensity of emotion and gender information in the prime as well as the strength of emotional or semantic (in gender) relationship between the prime and the target is matched. Three groups of participants are employed separately in our experiment varied with stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) as 50, 250 or 500 ms. The results show that the difference between two types of priming effect is revealed when the SOA is at 50 ms, in which the affective priming effect is presented when the prime has negative emotion. It indicates that SOA can affect the comparison between the affective and semantic priming, and the former takes the priority in the automatic processing level.

  10. Reaping the Benefits of Interactive Syntax and Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Mahesh, K

    1994-01-01

    Semantic feedback is an important source of information that a parser could use to deal with local ambiguities in syntax. However, it is difficult to devise a systematic communication mechanism for interactive syntax and semantics. In this article, I propose a variant of left-corner parsing to define the points at which syntax and semantics should interact, an account of grammatical relations and thematic roles to define the content of the communication, and a conflict resolution strategy based on independent preferences from syntax and semantics. The resulting interactive model has been implemented in a program called COMPERE and shown to account for a wide variety of psycholinguistic data on structural and lexical ambiguities.

  11. Image segmentation via foreground and background semantic descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ding; Qiang, Jingjing; Yin, Jihao

    2017-09-01

    In the field of image processing, it has been a challenging task to obtain a complete foreground that is not uniform in color or texture. Unlike other methods, which segment the image by only using low-level features, we present a segmentation framework, in which high-level visual features, such as semantic information, are used. First, the initial semantic labels were obtained by using the nonparametric method. Then, a subset of the training images, with a similar foreground to the input image, was selected. Consequently, the semantic labels could be further refined according to the subset. Finally, the input image was segmented by integrating the object affinity and refined semantic labels. State-of-the-art performance was achieved in experiments with the challenging MSRC 21 dataset.

  12. Semantic web data warehousing for caGrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, James P; Phillips, Joshua A; González Beltrán, Alejandra; Finkelstein, Anthony; Krauthammer, Michael

    2009-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing caGrid as a means for sharing cancer-related data and services. As more data sets become available on caGrid, we need effective ways of accessing and integrating this information. Although the data models exposed on caGrid are semantically well annotated, it is currently up to the caGrid client to infer relationships between the different models and their classes. In this paper, we present a Semantic Web-based data warehouse (Corvus) for creating relationships among caGrid models. This is accomplished through the transformation of semantically-annotated caBIG Unified Modeling Language (UML) information models into Web Ontology Language (OWL) ontologies that preserve those semantics. We demonstrate the validity of the approach by Semantic Extraction, Transformation and Loading (SETL) of data from two caGrid data sources, caTissue and caArray, as well as alignment and query of those sources in Corvus. We argue that semantic integration is necessary for integration of data from distributed web services and that Corvus is a useful way of accomplishing this. Our approach is generalizable and of broad utility to researchers facing similar integration challenges.

  13. Using semantic treemaps to categorize and visualize bookmark files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Borner, Katy

    2002-03-01

    As more and more information is available on the Internet, search engines and bookmark tools become very popular. However, most search tools are based on character-level matching without any semantic analysis, and users have to manually organize their bookmarks or favorite collections without any convenient tool to help them identify the subjects of the Web pages. In this paper, we introduce an interactive tool that automatically analyzes, categorizes, and visualizes the semantic relationships of web pages in personal bookmark or favorites collections based on their semantic similarity. Sophisticated data analysis methods are applied to retrieve and analyze the full text of the Web pages. The Web pages are clustered hierarchically based on their semantic similarities. A utility measure is recursively applied to determine the best partitions that are visualized by what we call the Semantic Treemap. Various interaction methods such as scrolling, zooming, expanding, selecting, searching, filtering etc. are provided to facilitate viewing and querying for information. Furthermore, the hierarchical organization as well as the semantic similarities among Web pages can be exported and visualized in a collaborative 3D environment, allowing a group of people to compare and share each other's bookmarks.

  14. Semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Louise

    2013-05-01

    The fields of semantics and pragmatics are devoted to the study of conventionalized and context- or use-dependent aspects of natural language meaning, respectively. The complexity of human language as a semiotic system has led to considerable debate about how the semantics/pragmatics distinction should be drawn, if at all. This debate largely reflects contrasting views of meaning as a property of linguistic expressions versus something that speakers do. The fact that both views of meaning are essential to a complete understanding of language has led to a variety of efforts over the last 40 years to develop better integrated and more comprehensive theories of language use and interpretation. The most important advances have included the adaptation of propositional analyses of declarative sentences to interrogative, imperative and exclamative forms; the emergence of dynamic, game theoretic, and multi-dimensional theories of meaning; and the development of various techniques for incorporating context-dependent aspects of content into representations of context-invariant content with the goal of handling phenomena such as vagueness resolution, metaphor, and metonymy. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:285-297. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1227 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Microbial profiling, neural network and semantic web: an integrated information system for human pathogen risk management, prevention and surveillance in food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is estimated that food-borne pathogens cause approximately 76 million cases of gastrointestinal illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths in the United States annually. Genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic studies, particularly, genome sequencing projects are providing valuable inform...

  16. The Development of Strategies for the Assignment of Semantic Information to Unknown Lexemes in Text. Lenguas para Objetivos Especificas (Languages for Special Purposes), No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Charles; Alvarez, Guadalupe

    An English for Special Purposes (ESP) course being developed aims to give the students a series of techniques to help them handle vocabulary in a text, and teach them strategies for identifying meaning in context. Traditional strategies, such as the study of morphology, use of grammatical information, and exercises in dictionary usage, are…

  17. Mindfulness training alters emotional memory recall compared to active controls: support for an emotional information processing model of mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Wolfe, Douglas; Sacchet, Matthew D; Hastings, Elizabeth; Roth, Harold; Britton, Willoughby

    2012-01-01

    While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e., memory) biases in relation to both clinical symptomatology and well-being in comparison to active control conditions. Fifty-eight university students (28 female, age = 20.1 ± 2.7 years) participated in either a 12-week course containing a "meditation laboratory" or an active control course with similar content or experiential practice laboratory format (music). Participants completed an emotional word recall task and self-report questionnaires of well-being and clinical symptoms before and after the 12-week course. Meditators showed greater increases in positive word recall compared to controls [F(1, 56) = 6.6, p = 0.02]. The meditation group increased significantly more on measures of well-being [F(1, 56) = 6.6, p = 0.01], with a marginal decrease in depression and anxiety [F(1, 56) = 3.0, p = 0.09] compared to controls. Increased positive word recall was associated with increased psychological well-being (r = 0.31, p = 0.02) and decreased clinical symptoms (r = -0.29, p = 0.03). Mindfulness training was associated with greater improvements in processing efficiency for positively valenced stimuli than active control conditions. This change in emotional information processing was associated with improvements in psychological well-being and less depression and anxiety. These data suggest that mindfulness training may improve well-being via changes in emotional information processing. Future research with a fully randomized design will be

  18. Towards comprehensive syntactic and semantic annotations of the clinical narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Daniel; Lanfranchi, Arrick; Fredriksen, Anwen; Styler, William F; Warner, Colin; Hwang, Jena D; Choi, Jinho D; Dligach, Dmitriy; Nielsen, Rodney D; Martin, James; Ward, Wayne; Palmer, Martha; Savova, Guergana K

    2013-01-01

    Objective To create annotated clinical narratives with layers of syntactic and semantic labels to facilitate advances in clinical natural language processing (NLP). To develop NLP algorithms and open source components. Methods Manual annotation of a clinical narrative corpus of 127 606 tokens following the Treebank schema for syntactic information, PropBank schema for predicate-argument structures, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) schema for semantic information. NLP components were developed. Results The final corpus consists of 13 091 sentences containing 1772 distinct predicate lemmas. Of the 766 newly created PropBank frames, 74 are verbs. There are 28 539 named entity (NE) annotations spread over 15 UMLS semantic groups, one UMLS semantic type, and the Person semantic category. The most frequent annotations belong to the UMLS semantic groups of Procedures (15.71%), Disorders (14.74%), Concepts and Ideas (15.10%), Anatomy (12.80%), Chemicals and Drugs (7.49%), and the UMLS semantic type of Sign or Symptom (12.46%). Inter-annotator agreement results: Treebank (0.926), PropBank (0.891–0.931), NE (0.697–0.750). The part-of-speech tagger, constituency parser, dependency parser, and semantic role labeler are built from the corpus and released open source. A significant limitation uncovered by this project is the need for the NLP community to develop a widely agreed-upon schema for the annotation of clinical concepts and their relations. Conclusions This project takes a foundational step towards bringing the field of clinical NLP up to par with NLP in the general domain. The corpus creation and NLP components provide a resource for research and application development that would have been previously impossible. PMID:23355458

  19. Towards comprehensive syntactic and semantic annotations of the clinical narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Daniel; Lanfranchi, Arrick; Fredriksen, Anwen; Styler, William F; Warner, Colin; Hwang, Jena D; Choi, Jinho D; Dligach, Dmitriy; Nielsen, Rodney D; Martin, James; Ward, Wayne; Palmer, Martha; Savova, Guergana K

    2013-01-01

    To create annotated clinical narratives with layers of syntactic and semantic labels to facilitate advances in clinical natural language processing (NLP). To develop NLP algorithms and open source components. Manual annotation of a clinical narrative corpus of 127 606 tokens following the Treebank schema for syntactic information, PropBank schema for predicate-argument structures, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) schema for semantic information. NLP components were developed. The final corpus consists of 13 091 sentences containing 1772 distinct predicate lemmas. Of the 766 newly created PropBank frames, 74 are verbs. There are 28 539 named entity (NE) annotations spread over 15 UMLS semantic groups, one UMLS semantic type, and the Person semantic category. The most frequent annotations belong to the UMLS semantic groups of Procedures (15.71%), Disorders (14.74%), Concepts and Ideas (15.10%), Anatomy (12.80%), Chemicals and Drugs (7.49%), and the UMLS semantic type of Sign or Symptom (12.46%). Inter-annotator agreement results: Treebank (0.926), PropBank (0.891-0.931), NE (0.697-0.750). The part-of-speech tagger, constituency parser, dependency parser, and semantic role labeler are built from the corpus and released open source. A significant limitation uncovered by this project is the need for the NLP community to develop a widely agreed-upon schema for the annotation of clinical concepts and their relations. This project takes a foundational step towards bringing the field of clinical NLP up to par with NLP in the general domain. The corpus creation and NLP components provide a resource for research and application development that would have been previously impossible.

  20. A computational modeling of semantic knowledge in reading comprehension: Integrating the landscape model with latent semantic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeari, Menahem; van den Broek, Paul

    2016-09-01

    It is a well-accepted view that the prior semantic (general) knowledge that readers possess plays a central role in reading comprehension. Nevertheless, computational models of reading comprehension have not integrated the simulation of semantic knowledge and online comprehension processes under a unified mathematical algorithm. The present article introduces a computational model that integrates the landscape model of comprehension processes with latent semantic analysis representation of semantic knowledge. In three sets of simulations of previous behavioral findings, the integrated model successfully simulated the activation and attenuation of predictive and bridging inferences during reading, as well as centrality estimations and recall of textual information after reading. Analyses of the computational results revealed new theoretical insights regarding the underlying mechanisms of the various comprehension phenomena.

  1. GOOSE: semantic search on internet connected sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Klamer; Bomhof, Freek; Burghouts, Gertjan; van Diggelen, Jurriaan; Hiemstra, Peter; van't Hof, Jaap; Kraaij, Wessel; Pasman, Huib; Smith, Arthur; Versloot, Corne; de Wit, Joost

    2013-05-01

    More and more sensors are getting Internet connected. Examples are cameras on cell phones, CCTV cameras for traffic control as well as dedicated security and defense sensor systems. Due to the steadily increasing data volume, human exploitation of all this sensor data is impossible for effective mission execution. Smart access to all sensor data acts as enabler for questions such as "Is there a person behind this building" or "Alert me when a vehicle approaches". The GOOSE concept has the ambition to provide the capability to search semantically for any relevant information within "all" (including imaging) sensor streams in the entire Internet of sensors. This is similar to the capability provided by presently available Internet search engines which enable the retrieval of information on "all" web pages on the Internet. In line with current Internet search engines any indexing services shall be utilized cross-domain. The two main challenge for GOOSE is the Semantic Gap and Scalability. The GOOSE architecture consists of five elements: (1) an online extraction of primitives on each sensor stream; (2) an indexing and search mechanism for these primitives; (3) a ontology based semantic matching module; (4) a top-down hypothesis verification mechanism and (5) a controlling man-machine interface. This paper reports on the initial GOOSE demonstrator, which consists of the MES multimedia analysis platform and the CORTEX action recognition module. It also provides an outlook into future GOOSE development.

  2. Semantic web for the working ontologist effective modeling in RDFS and OWL

    CERN Document Server

    Allemang, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Semantic Web models and technologies provide information in machine-readable languages that enable computers to access the Web more intelligently and perform tasks automatically without the direction of users. These technologies are relatively recent and advancing rapidly, creating a set of unique challenges for those developing applications. Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist is the essential, comprehensive resource on semantic modeling, for practitioners in health care, artificial intelligence, finance, engineering, military intelligence, enterprise architecture, and more. Focused on

  3. Semantic Advertising for Web 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Edward; Pan, Jeff Z.; Taylor, Stuart; Ren, Yuan; Jekjantuk, Nophadol; Zhao, Yuting

    Advertising on the World Wide Web is based around automatically matching web pages with appropriate advertisements, in the form of banner ads, interactive adverts, or text links. Traditionally this has been done by manual classification of pages, or more recently using information retrieval techniques to find the most important keywords from the page, and match these to keywords being used by adverts. In this paper, we propose a new model for online advertising, based around lightweight embedded semantics. This will improve the relevancy of adverts on the World Wide Web and help to kick-start the use of RDFa as a mechanism for adding lightweight semantic attributes to the Web. Furthermore, we propose a system architecture for the proposed new model, based on our scalable ontology reasoning infrastructure TrOWL.

  4. Topics in Semantics-based Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grobauer, Bernt

    Programming is at least as much about manipulating existing code as it is about writing new code. Existing code is modified, for example to make inefficient code run faster, or to accommodate for new features when reusing code; existing code is analyzed, for example to verify certain program...... properties, or to use the analysis information for code modifications. Semanticsbased program manipulation addresses methods for program modifications and program analyses that are formally defined and therefore can be verified with respect to the programming-language semantics. This dissertation comprises...... four articles in the field of semantics-based techniques for program manipulation: three articles are about partial evaluation, a method for program specialization; the fourth article treats an approach to automatic cost analysis. Partial evaluation optimizes programs by specializing them with respect...

  5. Bayesian natural language semantics and pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Zeevat, Henk

    2015-01-01

    The contributions in this volume focus on the Bayesian interpretation of natural languages, which is widely used in areas of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and computational linguistics. This is the first volume to take up topics in Bayesian Natural Language Interpretation and make proposals based on information theory, probability theory, and related fields. The methodologies offered here extend to the target semantic and pragmatic analyses of computational natural language interpretation. Bayesian approaches to natural language semantics and pragmatics are based on methods from signal processing and the causal Bayesian models pioneered by especially Pearl. In signal processing, the Bayesian method finds the most probable interpretation by finding the one that maximizes the product of the prior probability and the likelihood of the interpretation. It thus stresses the importance of a production model for interpretation as in Grice's contributions to pragmatics or in interpretation by abduction.

  6. Biological data integration using Semantic Web technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, C

    2008-04-01

    Current research in biology heavily depends on the availability and efficient use of information. In order to build new knowledge, various sources of biological data must often be combined. Semantic Web technologies, which provide a common framework allowing data to be shared and reused between applications, can be applied to the management of disseminated biological data. However, due to some specificities of biological data, the application of these technologies to life science constitutes a real challenge. Through a use case of biological data integration, we show in this paper that current Semantic Web technologies start to become mature and can be applied for the development of large applications. However, in order to get the best from these technologies, improvements are needed both at the level of tool performance and knowledge modeling.

  7. Identifying bilingual semantic neural representations across languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their brain activation in the other language. The study shows reliable (p languages. It also shows that the stable voxels used to classify the brain activation were located in areas associated with encoding information about semantic dimensions of the words in the study. The identification of the semantic trace of individual nouns from the pattern of cortical activity demonstrates the existence of a multi-voxel pattern of activation across the cortex for a single noun common to both languages in bilinguals. PMID:21978845

  8. "Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

  9. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert.

  10. Semantic role labeling for protein transport predicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin James H

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic semantic role labeling (SRL is a natural language processing (NLP technique that maps sentences to semantic representations. This technique has been widely studied in the recent years, but mostly with data in newswire domains. Here, we report on a SRL model for identifying the semantic roles of biomedical predicates describing protein transport in GeneRIFs – manually curated sentences focusing on gene functions. To avoid the computational cost of syntactic parsing, and because the boundaries of our protein transport roles often did not match up with syntactic phrase boundaries, we approached this problem with a word-chunking paradigm and trained support vector machine classifiers to classify words as being at the beginning, inside or outside of a protein transport role. Results We collected a set of 837 GeneRIFs describing movements of proteins between cellular components, whose predicates were annotated for the semantic roles AGENT, PATIENT, ORIGIN and DESTINATION. We trained these models with the features of previous word-chunking models, features adapted from phrase-chunking models, and features derived from an analysis of our data. Our models were able to label protein transport semantic roles with 87.6% precision and 79.0% recall when using manually annotated protein boundaries, and 87.0% precision and 74.5% recall when using automatically identified ones. Conclusion We successfully adapted the word-chunking classification paradigm to semantic role labeling, applying it to a new domain with predicates completely absent from any previous studies. By combining the traditional word and phrasal role labeling features with biomedical features like protein boundaries and MEDPOST part of speech tags, we were able to address the challenges posed by the new domain data and subsequently build robust models that achieved F-measures as high as 83.1. This system for extracting protein transport information from Gene

  11. Neural Semantic Encoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Yu, Hong

    2017-04-01

    We present a memory augmented neural network for natural language understanding: Neural Semantic Encoders. NSE is equipped with a novel memory update rule and has a variable sized encoding memory that evolves over time and maintains the understanding of input sequences through read, compose and write operations. NSE can also access multiple and shared memories. In this paper, we demonstrated the effectiveness and the flexibility of NSE on five different natural language tasks: natural language inference, question answering, sentence classification, document sentiment analysis and machine translation where NSE achieved state-of-the-art performance when evaluated on publically available benchmarks. For example, our shared-memory model showed an encouraging result on neural machine translation, improving an attention-based baseline by approximately 1.0 BLEU.

  12. A model-driven approach for representing clinical archetypes for Semantic Web environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás; Maldonado, José Alberto

    2009-02-01

    The life-long clinical information of any person supported by electronic means configures his Electronic Health Record (EHR). This information is usually distributed among several independent and heterogeneous systems that may be syntactically or semantically incompatible. There are currently different standards for representing and exchanging EHR information among different systems. In advanced EHR approaches, clinical information is represented by means of archetypes. Most of these approaches use the Archetype Definition Language (ADL) to specify archetypes. However, ADL has some drawbacks when attempting to perform semantic activities in Semantic Web environments. In this work, Semantic Web technologies are used to specify clinical archetypes for advanced EHR architectures. The advantages of using the Ontology Web Language (OWL) instead of ADL are described and discussed in this work. Moreover, a solution combining Semantic Web and Model-driven Engineering technologies is proposed to transform ADL into OWL for the CEN EN13606 EHR architecture.

  13. Sequence Semantics for Dynamic Predicate Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, C.F.M.

    In this paper a semantics for dynamic predicate logic is developed that uses sequence valued assignments. This semantics is compared with the usual relational semantics for dynamic predicate logic: it is shown that the most important intuitions of the usual semantics are preserved. Then it is shown

  14. Requirements Level Semantics for UML Statecharts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, S.F.; Eshuis, H.; Talcott, C.L.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    We propose a formal real-time semantics for UML statecharts aimed at the requirements level. A requirements-level model assumes perfect technology and has a considerably simpler semantics than an implementation level model. Our semantics is an adaptation of the Statemate statechart semantics, with

  15. A Joint Investigation of Semantic Facilitation and Semantic Interference in Continuous Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaltritti, Michele; Peressotti, Francesca; Navarrete, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    When speakers name multiple semantically related items, opposing effects can be found. Semantic facilitation is found when naming 2 semantically related items in a row. In contrast, semantic interference is found when speakers name semantically related items separated by 1 or more intervening unrelated items. This latter form of interference is…

  16. Technique for information retrieval using enhanced latent semantic analysis generating rank approximation matrix by factorizing the weighted morpheme-by-document matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Peter A; Bader, Brett W

    2012-10-16

    A technique for information retrieval includes parsing a corpus to identify a number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus. A weighted morpheme-by-document matrix is generated based at least in part on the number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus and based at least in part on a weighting function. The weighted morpheme-by-document matrix separately enumerates instances of stems and affixes. Additionally or alternatively, a term-by-term alignment matrix may be generated based at least in part on the number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus. At least one lower rank approximation matrix is generated by factorizing the weighted morpheme-by-document matrix and/or the term-by-term alignment matrix.

  17. Crossmodal Semantic Constraints on Visual Perception of Binocular Rivalry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chuan Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Environments typically convey contextual information via several different sensory modalities. Here, we report a study designed to investigate the crossmodal semantic modulation of visual perception using the binocular rivalry paradigm. The participants viewed a dichoptic figure consisting of a bird and a car presented to each eye, while also listening to either a bird singing or car engine revving. Participants' dominant percepts were modulated by the presentation of a soundtrack associated with either bird or car, as compared to the presentation of a soundtrack irrelevant to both visual figures (tableware clattering together in a restaurant. No such crossmodal semantic effect was observed when the participants maintained an abstract semantic cue in memory. We then further demonstrate that crossmodal semantic modulation can be dissociated from the effects of high-level attentional control over the dichoptic figures and of low-level luminance contrast of the figures. In sum, we demonstrate a novel crossmodal effect in terms of crossmodal semantic congruency on binocular rivalry. This effect can be considered a perceptual grouping or contextual constraint on human visual awareness through mid-level crossmodal excitatory connections embedded in the multisensory semantic network.

  18. Ontology Alignment Architecture for Semantic Sensor Web Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Alarcos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are a concept that has become very popular in data acquisition and processing for multiple applications in different fields such as industrial, medicine, home automation, environmental detection, etc. Today, with the proliferation of small communication devices with sensors that collect environmental data, semantic Web technologies are becoming closely related with sensor networks. The linking of elements from Semantic Web technologies with sensor networks has been called Semantic Sensor Web and has among its main features the use of ontologies. One of the key challenges of using ontologies in sensor networks is to provide mechanisms to integrate and exchange knowledge from heterogeneous sources (that is, dealing with semantic heterogeneity. Ontology alignment is the process of bringing ontologies into mutual agreement by the automatic discovery of mappings between related concepts. This paper presents a system for ontology alignment in the Semantic Sensor Web which uses fuzzy logic techniques to combine similarity measures between entities of different ontologies. The proposed approach focuses on two key elements: the terminological similarity, which takes into account the linguistic and semantic information of the context of the entity’s names, and the structural similarity, based on both the internal and relational structure of the concepts. This work has been validated using sensor network ontologies and the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI tests. The results show that the proposed techniques outperform previous approaches in terms of precision and recall.

  19. Ontology alignment architecture for semantic sensor Web integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Susel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; Velasco, Juan R; Alarcos, Bernardo

    2013-09-18

    Sensor networks are a concept that has become very popular in data acquisition and processing for multiple applications in different fields such as industrial, medicine, home automation, environmental detection, etc. Today, with the proliferation of small communication devices with sensors that collect environmental data, semantic Web technologies are becoming closely related with sensor networks. The linking of elements from Semantic Web technologies with sensor networks has been called Semantic Sensor Web and has among its main features the use of ontologies. One of the key challenges of using ontologies in sensor networks is to provide mechanisms to integrate and exchange knowledge from heterogeneous sources (that is, dealing with semantic heterogeneity). Ontology alignment is the process of bringing ontologies into mutual agreement by the automatic discovery of mappings between related concepts. This paper presents a system for ontology alignment in the Semantic Sensor Web which uses fuzzy logic techniques to combine similarity measures between entities of different ontologies. The proposed approach focuses on two key elements: the terminological similarity, which takes into account the linguistic and semantic information of the context of the entity's names, and the structural similarity, based on both the internal and relational structure of the concepts. This work has been validated using sensor network ontologies and the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) tests. The results show that the proposed techniques outperform previous approaches in terms of precision and recall.

  20. COEUS: "semantic web in a box" for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Pedro; Oliveira, José Luís

    2012-12-17

    As the "omics" revolution unfolds, the growth in data quantity and diversity is bringing about the need for pioneering bioinformatics software, capable of significantly improving the research workflow. To cope with these computer science demands, biomedical software engineers are adopting emerging semantic web technologies that better suit the life sciences domain. The latter's complex relationships are easily mapped into semantic web graphs, enabling a superior understanding of collected knowledge. Despite increased awareness of semantic web technologies in bioinformatics, their use is still limited. COEUS is a new semantic web framework, aiming at a streamlined application development cycle and following a "semantic web in a box" approach. The framework provides a single package including advanced data integration and triplification tools, base ontologies, a web-oriented engine and a flexible exploration API. Resources can be integrated from heterogeneous sources, including CSV and XML files or SQL and SPARQL query results, and mapped directly to one or more ontologies. Advanced interoperability features include REST services, a SPARQL endpoint and LinkedData publication. These enable the creation of multiple applications for web, desktop or mobile environments, and empower a new knowledge federation layer. The platform, targeted at biomedical application developers, provides a complete skeleton ready for rapid application deployment, enhancing the creation of new semantic information systems. COEUS is available as open source at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/coeus/.

  1. Semantic Web technologies for the big data in life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongyan; Yamaguchi, Atsuko

    2014-08-01

    The life sciences field is entering an era of big data with the breakthroughs of science and technology. More and more big data-related projects and activities are being performed in the world. Life sciences data generated by new technologies are continuing to grow in not only size but also variety and complexity, with great speed. To ensure that big data has a major influence in the life sciences, comprehensive data analysis across multiple data sources and even across disciplines is indispensable. The increasing volume of data and the heterogeneous, complex varieties of data are two principal issues mainly discussed in life science informatics. The ever-evolving next-generation Web, characterized as the Semantic Web, is an extension of the current Web, aiming to provide information for not only humans but also computers to semantically process large-scale data. The paper presents a survey of big data in life sciences, big data related projects and Semantic Web technologies. The paper introduces the main Semantic Web technologies and their current situation, and provides a detailed analysis of how Semantic Web technologies address the heterogeneous variety of life sciences big data. The paper helps to understand the role of Semantic Web technologies in the big data era and how they provide a promising solution for the big data in life sciences.

  2. Semantic sparse recoding of visual content for image applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiwu; Han, Peng; Wang, Liwei; Wen, Ji-Rong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new semantic sparse recoding method to generate more descriptive and robust representation of visual content for image applications. Although the visual bag-of-words (BOW) representation has been reported to achieve promising results in different image applications, its visual codebook is completely learnt from low-level visual features using quantization techniques and thus the so-called semantic gap remains unbridgeable. To handle such challenging issue, we utilize the annotations (predicted by algorithms or shared by users) of all the images to improve the original visual BOW representation. This is further formulated as a sparse coding problem so that the noise issue induced by the inaccurate quantization of visual features can also be handled to some extent. By developing an efficient sparse coding algorithm, we successfully generate a new visual BOW representation for image applications. Since such sparse coding has actually incorporated the high-level semantic information into the original visual codebook, we thus consider it as semantic sparse recoding of the visual content. Finally, we apply our semantic sparse recoding method to automatic image annotation and social image classification. The experimental results on several benchmark datasets show the promising performance of our semantic sparse recoding method in these two image applications.

  3. Impact of Semantic Relatedness on Associative Memory: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Desaunay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Encoding and retrieval processes in memory for pairs of pictures are thought to be influenced by inter-item similarity and by features of individual items. Using Event-Related Potentials (ERP, we aimed to identify how these processes impact on both the early mid-frontal FN400 and the Late Positive Component (LPC potentials during associative retrieval of pictures. Twenty young adults undertook a sham task, using an incidental encoding of semantically related and unrelated pairs of drawings. At test, we conducted a recognition task in which participants were asked to identify target identical pairs of pictures, which could be semantically related or unrelated, among new and rearranged pairs. We observed semantic (related and unrelated pairs and condition effects (old, rearranged and new pairs on the early mid-frontal potential. First, a lower amplitude was shown for identical and rearranged semantically related pairs, which might reflect a retrieval process driven by semantic cues. Second, among semantically unrelated pairs, we found a larger negativity for identical pairs, compared to rearranged and new ones, suggesting additional retrieval processing that focuses on associative information. We also observed an LPC old/new effect with a mid-parietal and a right occipito-parietal topography for semantically related and unrelated old pairs, demonstrating a recollection phenomenon irrespective of the degree of association. These findings suggest that associative recognition using visual stimuli begins at early stages of retrieval, and differs according to the degree of semantic relatedness among items. However, either strategy may ultimately lead to recollection processes.

  4. Impact of Semantic Relatedness on Associative Memory: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaunay, Pierre; Clochon, Patrice; Doidy, Franck; Lambrechts, Anna; Bowler, Dermot M.; Gérardin, Priscille; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Eustache, Francis; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère

    2017-01-01

    Encoding and retrieval processes in memory for pairs of pictures are thought to be influenced by inter-item similarity and by features of individual items. Using Event-Related Potentials (ERP), we aimed to identify how these processes impact on both the early mid-frontal FN400 and the Late Positive Component (LPC) potentials during associative retrieval of pictures. Twenty young adults undertook a sham task, using an incidental encoding of semantically related and unrelated pairs of drawings. At test, we conducted a recognition task in which participants were asked to identify target identical pairs of pictures, which could be semantically related or unrelated, among new and rearranged pairs. We observed semantic (related and unrelated pairs) and condition effects (old, rearranged and new pairs) on the early mid-frontal potential. First, a lower amplitude was shown for identical and rearranged semantically related pairs, which might reflect a retrieval process driven by semantic cues. Second, among semantically unrelated pairs, we found a larger negativity for identical pairs, compared to rearranged and new ones, suggesting additional retrieval processing that focuses on associative information. We also observed an LPC old/new effect with a mid-parietal and a right occipito-parietal topography for semantically related and unrelated old pairs, demonstrating a recollection phenomenon irrespective of the degree of association. These findings suggest that associative recognition using visual stimuli begins at early stages of retrieval, and differs according to the degree of semantic relatedness among items. However, either strategy may ultimately lead to recollection processes. PMID:28706479

  5. Semantic acquisition games harnessing manpower for creating semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Šimko, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and extensive review of state-of-the-art in semantics acquisition game (SAG) design A set of design patterns for SAG designers A set of case studies (real SAG projects) demonstrating the use of SAG design patterns

  6. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  7. Formal Component-Based Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Madlener

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. This formalization constitutes a contribution towards modular meta theoretic formalizations in theorem provers. As a small example, a modular proof of determinism of a mini-language is developed.

  8. Semantic priming effect during REM-sleep inertia in patients with narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Michela; Campi, Claudio; Mattarozzi, Katia; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Tuozzi, Giovanni; Vandi, Stefano; Vignatelli, Luca; Cipolli, Carlo

    2006-12-11

    Patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC) present excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy and an altered architecture of nocturnal sleep, with frequent episodes of REM-sleep at sleep onset (SOREM-sleep). This altered organization of nocturnal sleep may be accompanied by some differences in the functioning of the cognitive processes involved in the access, organization and consolidation of information during sleep. This study attempts to ascertain whether the activation of semantic memory during REM-sleep, as measured using a technique of semantic priming (namely, the facilitation of the activation of strongly-related rather than weakly-related and, overall, unrelated pairs of prime-target words) is different in NC patients compared to normal subjects. A lexical decision task (LDT) was carried out twice in wakefulness (at 10a.m. and after a 24h interval) and twice in the period of sleep inertia following awakening from SOREM and 4th-cycle REM-sleep on 12 NC patients and from 1st- and 4th-cycle REM-sleep on 12 matched controls. Reaction time (RT) to target words, taken as a measure of the semantic priming effect, proved to be longer (a) in NC patients than in control subjects; (b) in the period of REM-sleep inertia than in wakefulness; (c) in the first rather than the second session; and (d) for unrelated compared to weakly-related and, overall, strongly-related prime-target pairs. RT in post-REM-sleep sessions was less impaired, compared to waking sessions, and less dependent on the associative strength of prime-target pairs in NC patients than in normal subjects. Finally, RT of NC patients, although longer than that of normal subjects in waking sessions, significantly improved in the second session, as a consequence of either the amount of exercise or the consolidation advantage provided by REM-sleep for the procedural components of the task. The whole picture suggests a greater effectiveness of the activation of semantic memory during (SO)REM-sleep in NC

  9. Semantic Elaboration: ERPs Reveal Rapid Transition from Novel to Known

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Jackson, Felicia L.

    2015-01-01

    Like language, semantic memory is productive: It extends itself through self-derivation of new information through logical processes such as analogy, deduction, and induction, for example. Though it is clear these productive processes occur, little is known about the time course over which newly self-derived information becomes incorporated into…

  10. Neural Substrates of Semantic Prospection – Evidence from the Dementias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muireann eIrish

    2016-05-01

    lateralization effects depending on the type of information being simulated. Whereas episodic future thinking related to right hippocampal integrity, semantic future thinking was found to relate to left hippocampal integrity. Our findings support previous observations of significant medial temporal lobe involvement for semantic forms of prospection and point to distinct neurocognitive mechanisms which must be functional to support future-oriented forms of thought across personal and non-personal contexts.

  11. OBO and OWL: Leveraging Semantic Web Technologies for the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbreich, Christine; Horridge, Matthew; Horrocks, Ian; Motik, Boris; Shearer, Rob

    OBO is an ontology language that has often been used for modeling ontologies in the life sciences. Its definition is relatively informal, so, in this paper, we provide a clear specification for OBO syntax and semantics via a mapping to OWL. This mapping also allows us to apply existing Semantic Web tools and techniques to OBO. We show that Semantic Web reasoners can be used to efficiently reason with OBO ontologies. Furthermore, we show that grounding the OBO language in formal semantics is useful for the ontology development process: using an OWL reasoner, we detected a likely modeling error in one OBO ontology.

  12. Minimally inconsistent reasoning in Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowang

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning with inconsistencies is an important issue for Semantic Web as imperfect information is unavoidable in real applications. For this, different paraconsistent approaches, due to their capacity to draw as nontrivial conclusions by tolerating inconsistencies, have been proposed to reason with inconsistent description logic knowledge bases. However, existing paraconsistent approaches are often criticized for being too skeptical. To this end, this paper presents a non-monotonic paraconsistent version of description logic reasoning, called minimally inconsistent reasoning, where inconsistencies tolerated in the reasoning are minimized so that more reasonable conclusions can be inferred. Some desirable properties are studied, which shows that the new semantics inherits advantages of both non-monotonic reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning. A complete and sound tableau-based algorithm, called multi-valued tableaux, is developed to capture the minimally inconsistent reasoning. In fact, the tableaux algorithm is designed, as a framework for multi-valued DL, to allow for different underlying paraconsistent semantics, with the mere difference in the clash conditions. Finally, the complexity of minimally inconsistent description logic reasoning is shown on the same level as the (classical) description logic reasoning.

  13. Conscious and unconscious detection of semantic anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    When asked What superhero is associated with bats, Robin, the Penguin, Metropolis, Catwoman, the Riddler, the Joker, and Mr. Freeze? people frequently fail to notice the anomalous word Metropolis. The goals of this study were to determine whether detection of semantic anomalies, like Metropolis, is conscious or unconscious and whether this detection is immediate or delayed. To achieve these goals, participants answered anomalous and nonanomalous questions as their reading times for words were recorded. Comparisons between detected versus undetected anomalies revealed slower reading times for detected anomalies-a finding that suggests that people immediately and consciously detected anomalies. Further, comparisons between first and second words following undetected anomalies versus nonanomalous controls revealed some slower reading times for first and second words-a finding that suggests that people may have unconsciously detected anomalies but this detection was delayed. Taken together, these findings support the idea that when we are immediately aware of a semantic anomaly (i.e., immediate conscious detection) our language processes make immediate adjustments in order to reconcile contradictory information of anomalies with surrounding text; however, even when we are not consciously aware of semantic anomalies, our language processes still make these adjustments, although these adjustments are delayed (i.e., delayed unconscious detection).

  14. The Semantics of Heart: Translation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortensia Pârlog

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Words hardly ever occur on their own, because they can hardly mean anything on their own, when asked about the meaning of an isolated word, in order to figure it out, what one does is try to place it in a context or use it in a collocation. The verbal contexts in which words appear influence or at least clarify their semantic value, it is because of contextual factors that a word may have more than one meaning. Therefore, the analysis above word level is extremely important. An analysis of translational decisions may also prove to be a valuable source of information in establishing the semantics of a lexical item. The above statements are illustrated by discussing the semantics of heart. The word occurs in a great number of structures in both English and Romanian, of which eight will be analysed: heart + verb, verb + heart, heart + of phrase, adjective + heart, heart + head noun, head noun +of heart, adjective + preposition + heart, heart in sayings or fixed expressions.

  15. Minimally inconsistent reasoning in Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowang

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning with inconsistencies is an important issue for Semantic Web as imperfect information is unavoidable in real applications. For this, different paraconsistent approaches, due to their capacity to draw as nontrivial conclusions by tolerating inconsistencies, have been proposed to reason with inconsistent description logic knowledge bases. However, existing paraconsistent approaches are often criticized for being too skeptical. To this end, this paper presents a non-monotonic paraconsistent version of description logic reasoning, called minimally inconsistent reasoning, where inconsistencies tolerated in the reasoning are minimized so that more reasonable conclusions can be inferred. Some desirable properties are studied, which shows that the new semantics inherits advantages of both non-monotonic reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning. A complete and sound tableau-based algorithm, called multi-valued tableaux, is developed to capture the minimally inconsistent reasoning. In fact, the tableaux algorithm is designed, as a framework for multi-valued DL, to allow for different underlying paraconsistent semantics, with the mere difference in the clash conditions. Finally, the complexity of minimally inconsistent description logic reasoning is shown on the same level as the (classical) description logic reasoning. PMID:28750030

  16. Does semantic redundancy gain result from multiple semantic priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Hannes; Bratzke, Daniel; Fiedler, Anja; Birngruber, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Fiedler, Schröter, and Ulrich (2013) reported faster responses to a single written word when the semantic content of this word (e.g., "elephant") matched both targets (e.g., "animal", "gray") as compared to a single target (e.g., "animal", "brown"). This semantic redundancy gain was explained by statistical facilitation due to a race of independent memory retrieval processes. The present experiment addresses one alternative explanation, namely that semantic redundancy gain results from multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. In different blocks of trials, participants performed a redundant-targets task and a lexical decision task. The targets of the redundant-targets task served as primes in the lexical decision task. Replicating the findings of Fiedler et al., a semantic redundancy gain was observed in the redundant-targets task. Crucially, however, there was no evidence of a multiple semantic priming effect in the lexical decision task. This result suggests that semantic redundancy gain cannot be explained by multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a semantic-enabled cybersecurity threat intelligence sharing model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtsweni, Jabu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available intelligence solutions lack the semantic knowledge essential for automated sharing of timely and context-aware information within a specific operating domain. Moreover, existing cybersecurity information sharing solutions lack the visualization and intelligence...

  18. Flink: Semantic Web technology for the extraction and analysis of social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mika, P.

    2005-01-01

    We present the Flink system for the extraction, aggregation and visualization of online social networks. Flink employs semantic technology for reasoning with personal information extracted from a number of electronic information sources including web pages, emails, publication archives and FOAF

  19. Operational semantics for signal handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Strygin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be well suited to modelling signal handling. We integrate exception handling with our big-step semantics of signal handling, by adopting the exception convention as defined in the Definition of Standard ML. The semantics needs to capture the complex interactions between signal handling and exception handling.

  20. Semantic priming from crowded words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Su-Ling; He, Sheng; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Vision in a cluttered scene is extremely inefficient. This damaging effect of clutter, known as crowding, affects many aspects of visual processing (e.g., reading speed). We examined observers' processing of crowded targets in a lexical decision task, using single-character Chinese words that are compact but carry semantic meaning. Despite being unrecognizable and indistinguishable from matched nonwords, crowded prime words still generated robust semantic-priming effects on lexical decisions for test words presented in isolation. Indeed, the semantic-priming effect of crowded primes was similar to that of uncrowded primes. These findings show that the meanings of words survive crowding even when the identities of the words do not, suggesting that crowding does not prevent semantic activation, a process that may have evolved in the context of a cluttered visual environment.