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Sample records for semantic error recovery

  1. Subclinical naming errors in mild cognitive impairment: A semantic deficit?

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    Indra F. Willers

    Full Text Available Abstract Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is the transitional stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Impairments in semantic memory have been demonstrated to be a critical factor in early AD. The Boston Naming Test (BNT is a straightforward method of examining semantic or visuo-perceptual processing and therefore represents a potential diagnostic tool. The objective of this study was to examine naming ability and identify error types in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods: Twenty aMCI patients, twenty AD patients and twenty-one normal controls, matched by age, sex and education level were evaluated. As part of a further neuropsychological evaluation, all subjects performed the BNT. A comprehensive classification of error types was devised in order to compare performance and ascertain semantic or perceptual origin of errors. Results: AD patients obtained significantly lower total scores on the BNT than aMCI patients and controls. aMCI patients did not obtain significant differences in total scores, but showed significantly higher semantic errors compared to controls. Conclusion: This study reveals that semantic processing is impaired during confrontation naming in aMCI.

  2. Does semantic impairment explain surface dyslexia? VLSM evidence for a double dissociation between regularization errors in reading and semantic errors in picture naming

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    Sara Pillay

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between semantic deficits and exception word regularization errors ("surface dyslexia" in semantic dementia has been taken as strong evidence for involvement of semantic codes in exception word pronunciation. Rare cases with semantic deficits but no exception word reading deficit have been explained as due to individual differences in reading strategy, but this account is hotly debated. Semantic dementia is a diffuse process that always includes semantic impairment, making lesion localization difficult and independent assessment of semantic deficits and reading errors impossible. We addressed this problem using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping in 38 patients with left hemisphere stroke. Patients were all right-handed, native English speakers and at least 6 months from stroke onset. Patients performed an oral reading task that included 80 exception words (words with inconsistent orthographic-phonologic correspondence, e.g., pint, plaid, glove. Regularization errors were defined as plausible but incorrect pronunciations based on application of spelling-sound correspondence rules (e.g., 'plaid' pronounced as "played". Two additional tests examined explicit semantic knowledge and retrieval. The first measured semantic substitution errors during naming of 80 standard line drawings of objects. This error type is generally presumed to arise at the level of concept selection. The second test (semantic matching required patients to match a printed sample word (e.g., bus with one of two alternative choice words (e.g., car, taxi on the basis of greater similarity of meaning. Lesions were labeled on high-resolution T1 MRI volumes using a semi-automated segmentation method, followed by diffeomorphic registration to a template. VLSM used an ANCOVA approach to remove variance due to age, education, and total lesion volume. Regularization errors during reading were correlated with damage in the posterior half of the middle temporal gyrus and

  3. Semantic error patterns on the Boston Naming Test in normal aging, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer's disease: is there semantic disruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Marcio Luiz Figueredo; Cendes, Fernando; Damasceno, Benito Pereira

    2008-11-01

    Naming difficulty is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the nature of this problem is not well established. The authors investigated the presence of semantic breakdown and the pattern of general and semantic errors in patients with mild AD, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and normal controls by examining their spontaneous answers on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and verifying whether they needed or were benefited by semantic and phonemic cues. The errors in spontaneous answers were classified in four mutually exclusive categories (semantic errors, visual paragnosia, phonological errors, and omission errors), and the semantic errors were further subclassified as coordinate, superordinate, and circumlocutory. Patients with aMCI performed normally on the BNT and needed fewer semantic and phonemic cues than patients with mild AD. After semantic cues, subjects with aMCI and control subjects gave more correct answers than patients with mild AD, but after phonemic cues, there was no difference between the three groups, suggesting that the low performance of patients with AD cannot be completely explained by semantic breakdown. Patterns of spontaneous naming errors and subtypes of semantic errors were similar in the three groups, with decreasing error frequency from coordinate to superordinate to circumlocutory subtypes.

  4. Process Mediation, Execution Monitoring and Recovery for Semantic Web Services

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sycara, K.; Vaculín, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2008), s. 14-18 ISSN N R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD201/05/H014; GA MŠk ME08095 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : process mediation of semantic web services * semantic web services * OWL-S Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  5. Semantically Secure Symmetric Encryption with Error Correction for Distributed Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Partala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A distributed storage system (DSS is a fundamental building block in many distributed applications. It applies linear network coding to achieve an optimal tradeoff between storage and repair bandwidth when node failures occur. Additively homomorphic encryption is compatible with linear network coding. The homomorphic property ensures that a linear combination of ciphertext messages decrypts to the same linear combination of the corresponding plaintext messages. In this paper, we construct a linearly homomorphic symmetric encryption scheme that is designed for a DSS. Our proposal provides simultaneous encryption and error correction by applying linear error correcting codes. We show its IND-CPA security for a limited number of messages based on binary Goppa codes and the following assumption: when dividing a scrambled generator matrix G^ into two parts G1^ and G2^, it is infeasible to distinguish G2^ from random and to find a statistical connection between G1^ and G2^. Our infeasibility assumptions are closely related to those underlying the McEliece public key cryptosystem but are considerably weaker. We believe that the proposed problem has independent cryptographic interest.

  6. Measuring Error Identification and Recovery Skills in Surgical Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternbach, Joel M; Wang, Kevin; El Khoury, Rym; Teitelbaum, Ezra N; Meyerson, Shari L

    2017-02-01

    Although error identification and recovery skills are essential for the safe practice of surgery, they have not traditionally been taught or evaluated in residency training. This study validates a method for assessing error identification and recovery skills in surgical residents using a thoracoscopic lobectomy simulator. We developed a 5-station, simulator-based examination containing the most commonly encountered cognitive and technical errors occurring during division of the superior pulmonary vein for left upper lobectomy. Successful completion of each station requires identification and correction of these errors. Examinations were video recorded and scored in a blinded fashion using an examination-specific rating instrument evaluating task performance as well as error identification and recovery skills. Evidence of validity was collected in the categories of content, response process, internal structure, and relationship to other variables. Fifteen general surgical residents (9 interns and 6 third-year residents) completed the examination. Interrater reliability was high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.78 between 4 trained raters. Station scores ranged from 64% to 84% correct. All stations adequately discriminated between high- and low-performing residents, with discrimination ranging from 0.35 to 0.65. The overall examination score was significantly higher for intermediate residents than for interns (mean, 74 versus 64 of 90 possible; p = 0.03). The described simulator-based examination with embedded errors and its accompanying assessment tool can be used to measure error identification and recovery skills in surgical residents. This examination provides a valid method for comparing teaching strategies designed to improve error recognition and recovery to enhance patient safety. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Progressive retry for software error recovery in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Huang, Yennun; Fuchs, W. K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a method of execution retry for bypassing software errors based on checkpointing, rollback, message reordering and replaying. We demonstrate how rollback techniques, previously developed for transient hardware failure recovery, can also be used to recover from software faults by exploiting message reordering to bypass software errors. Our approach intentionally increases the degree of nondeterminism and the scope of rollback when a previous retry fails. Examples from our experience with telecommunications software systems illustrate the benefits of the scheme.

  8. Blood transfusion sampling and a greater role for error recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Jane

    Patient identification errors in pre-transfusion blood sampling ('wrong blood in tube') are a persistent area of risk. These errors can potentially result in life-threatening complications. Current measures to address root causes of incidents and near misses have not resolved this problem and there is a need to look afresh at this issue. PROJECT PURPOSE: This narrative review of the literature is part of a wider system-improvement project designed to explore and seek a better understanding of the factors that contribute to transfusion sampling error as a prerequisite to examining current and potential approaches to error reduction. A broad search of the literature was undertaken to identify themes relating to this phenomenon. KEY DISCOVERIES: Two key themes emerged from the literature. Firstly, despite multi-faceted causes of error, the consistent element is the ever-present potential for human error. Secondly, current focus on error prevention could potentially be augmented with greater attention to error recovery. Exploring ways in which clinical staff taking samples might learn how to better identify their own errors is proposed to add to current safety initiatives.

  9. Seamless Mobile Multimedia Broadcasting Using Adaptive Error Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Lentisco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia services over mobile networks present several challenges, such as ensuring a reliable delivery of multimedia content, avoiding undesired service disruptions, or reducing service latency. HTTP adaptive streaming addresses these problems for multimedia unicast services, but it is not efficient from the point of view of radio resource consumption. In Long-Term Evolution (LTE networks, multimedia broadcast services are provided over a common radio channel using a combination of forward error correction and unicast error recovery techniques at the application level. This paper discusses how to avoid service disruptions and reduce service latency for LTE multimedia broadcast services by adding dynamic adaptation capabilities to the unicast error recovery process. The proposed solution provides a seamless mobile multimedia broadcasting without compromising the quality of the service perceived by the users.

  10. A posteriori error estimates in voice source recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, A. S.; Sorokin, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    The inverse problem of voice source pulse recovery from a segment of a speech signal is under consideration. A special mathematical model is used for the solution that relates these quantities. A variational method of solving inverse problem of voice source recovery for a new parametric class of sources, that is for piecewise-linear sources (PWL-sources), is proposed. Also, a technique for a posteriori numerical error estimation for obtained solutions is presented. A computer study of the adequacy of adopted speech production model with PWL-sources is performed in solving the inverse problems for various types of voice signals, as well as corresponding study of a posteriori error estimates. Numerical experiments for speech signals show satisfactory properties of proposed a posteriori error estimates, which represent the upper bounds of possible errors in solving the inverse problem. The estimate of the most probable error in determining the source-pulse shapes is about 7-8% for the investigated speech material. It is noted that a posteriori error estimates can be used as a criterion of the quality for obtained voice source pulses in application to speaker recognition.

  11. The Most Common Geometric and Semantic Errors in CityGML Datasets

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    Biljecki, F.; Ledoux, H.; Du, X.; Stoter, J.; Soon, K. H.; Khoo, V. H. S.

    2016-10-01

    To be used as input in most simulation and modelling software, 3D city models should be geometrically and topologically valid, and semantically rich. We investigate in this paper what is the quality of currently available CityGML datasets, i.e. we validate the geometry/topology of the 3D primitives (Solid and MultiSurface), and we validate whether the semantics of the boundary surfaces of buildings is correct or not. We have analysed all the CityGML datasets we could find, both from portals of cities and on different websites, plus a few that were made available to us. We have thus validated 40M surfaces in 16M 3D primitives and 3.6M buildings found in 37 CityGML datasets originating from 9 countries, and produced by several companies with diverse software and acquisition techniques. The results indicate that CityGML datasets without errors are rare, and those that are nearly valid are mostly simple LOD1 models. We report on the most common errors we have found, and analyse them. One main observation is that many of these errors could be automatically fixed or prevented with simple modifications to the modelling software. Our principal aim is to highlight the most common errors so that these are not repeated in the future. We hope that our paper and the open-source software we have developed will help raise awareness for data quality among data providers and 3D GIS software producers.

  12. The functional connectivity of semantic task changes in the recovery from stroke aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Wu, Xia; Yao, Li; Li, Kun-Cheng; Shu, Hua; Dong, Qi

    2007-03-01

    Little is known about the difference of functional connectivity of semantic task between the recovery aphasic patients and normal subject. In this paper, an fMRI experiment was performed in a patient with aphasia following a left-sided ischemic lesion and normal subject. Picture naming was used as semantic activation task in this study. We compared the preliminary functional connectivity results of the recovery aphasic patient with the normal subject. The fMRI data were separated by independent component analysis (ICA) into 90 components. According to our experience and other papers, we chose a region of interest (ROI) of semantic (x=-57, y=15, z=8, r=11mm). From the 90 components, we chose one component as the functional connectivity of the semantic ROI according to one criterion. The criterion is the mean value of the voxels in the ROI. So the component of the highest mean value of the ROI is the functional connectivity of the ROI. The voxel with its value higher than 2.4 was thought as activated (pgyrus and inferior/middle temporal gyrus are larger than the ones of normal. The activated area of the right inferior frontal gyrus is smaller than the ones of normal. The functional connectivity of stroke aphasic patient under semantic condition is different with the normal one. The focus of the stroke aphasic patient can affect the functional connectivity.

  13. Path Network Recovery Using Remote Sensing Data and Geospatial-Temporal Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, William C.,; Brost, Randolph

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing systems produce large volumes of high-resolution images that are difficult to search. The GeoGraphy (pronounced Geo-Graph-y) framework [2, 20] encodes remote sensing imagery into a geospatial-temporal semantic graph representation to enable high level semantic searches to be performed. Typically scene objects such as buildings and trees tend to be shaped like blocks with few holes, but other shapes generated from path networks tend to have a large number of holes and can span a large geographic region due to their connectedness. For example, we have a dataset covering the city of Philadelphia in which there is a single road network node spanning a 6 mile x 8 mile region. Even a simple question such as "find two houses near the same street" might give unexpected results. More generally, nodes arising from networks of paths (roads, sidewalks, trails, etc.) require additional processing to make them useful for searches in GeoGraphy. We have assigned the term Path Network Recovery to this process. Path Network Recovery is a three-step process involving (1) partitioning the network node into segments, (2) repairing broken path segments interrupted by occlusions or sensor noise, and (3) adding path-aware search semantics into GeoQuestions. This report covers the path network recovery process, how it is used, and some example use cases of the current capabilities.

  14. For a new look at 'lexical errors': evidence from semantic approximations with verbs in aphasia.

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    Duvignau, Karine; Tran, Thi Mai; Manchon, Mélanie

    2013-08-01

    The ability to understand the similarity between two phenomena is fundamental for humans. Designated by the term analogy in psychology, this ability plays a role in the categorization of phenomena in the world and in the organisation of the linguistic system. The use of analogy in language often results in non-standard utterances, particularly in speakers with aphasia. These non-standard utterances are almost always studied in a nominal context and considered as errors. We propose a study of the verbal lexicon and present findings that measure, by an action-video naming task, the importance of verb-based non-standard utterances made by 17 speakers with aphasia ("la dame déshabille l'orange"/the lady undresses the orange, "elle casse la tomate"/she breaks the tomato). The first results we have obtained allow us to consider these type of utterances from a new perspective: we propose to eliminate the label of "error", suggesting that they may be viewed as semantic approximations based upon a relationship of inter-domain synonymy and are ingrained in the heart of the lexical system.

  15. Reanalysis and semantic persistence in native and non-native garden-path recovery.

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    Jacob, Gunnar; Felser, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    We report the results from an eye-movement monitoring study investigating how native and non-native speakers of English process temporarily ambiguous sentences such as While the gentleman was eating the burgers were still being reheated in the microwave, in which an initially plausible direct-object analysis is first ruled out by a syntactic disambiguation (were) and also later on by semantic information (being reheated). Both participant groups showed garden-path effects at the syntactic disambiguation, with native speakers showing significantly stronger effects of ambiguity than non-native speakers in later eye-movement measures but equally strong effects in first-pass reading times. Ambiguity effects at the semantic disambiguation and in participants' end-of-trial responses revealed that for both participant groups, the incorrect direct-object analysis was frequently maintained beyond the syntactic disambiguation. The non-native group showed weaker reanalysis effects at the syntactic disambiguation and was more likely to misinterpret the experimental sentences than the native group. Our results suggest that native language (L1) and non-native language (L2) parsing are similar with regard to sensitivity to syntactic and semantic error signals, but different with regard to processes of reanalysis.

  16. Syntactic and semantic errors in radiology reports associated with speech recognition software.

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    Ringler, Michael D; Goss, Brian C; Bartholmai, Brian J

    2017-03-01

    Speech recognition software can increase the frequency of errors in radiology reports, which may affect patient care. We retrieved 213,977 speech recognition software-generated reports from 147 different radiologists and proofread them for errors. Errors were classified as "material" if they were believed to alter interpretation of the report. "Immaterial" errors were subclassified as intrusion/omission or spelling errors. The proportion of errors and error type were compared among individual radiologists, imaging subspecialty, and time periods. In all, 20,759 reports (9.7%) contained errors, of which 3992 (1.9%) were material errors. Among immaterial errors, spelling errors were more common than intrusion/omission errors ( p reports, reports reinterpreting results of outside examinations, and procedural studies (all p < .001). Error rate decreased over time ( p < .001), which suggests that a quality control program with regular feedback may reduce errors.

  17. Automatic Error Recovery in Robot Assembly Operations Using Reverse Execution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Johan Sund; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter

    2015-01-01

    , in particular for small-batch productions. As an alternative, we propose a system for automatically handling certain classes of errors instead of preventing them. Specifically, we show that many operations can be automatically reversed. Errors can be handled through automatic reverse execution of the control...... program to a safe point, from which forward execution can be resumed. This paper describes the principles behind automatic reversal of robotic assembly operations, and experimentally demonstrates the use of a domain-specific language that supports automatic error handling through reverse execution. Our...

  18. Human error recovery failure probability when using soft controls in computerized control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Inseok; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun; Jung, Wondea

    2014-01-01

    Many literatures categorized recovery process into three phases; detection of problem situation, explanation of problem causes or countermeasures against problem, and end of recovery. Although the focus of recovery promotion has been on categorizing recovery phases and modeling recovery process, research related to human recovery failure probabilities has not been perform actively. On the other hand, a few study regarding recovery failure probabilities were implemented empirically. Summarizing, researches that have performed so far have several problems in terms of use in human reliability analysis (HRA). By adopting new human-system interfaces that are based on computer-based technologies, the operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed from conventional MCRs to advanced MCRs. Because of the different interfaces between conventional and advanced MCRs, different recovery failure probabilities should be considered in the HRA for advanced MCRs. Therefore, this study carries out an empirical analysis of human error recovery probabilities under an advanced MCR mockup called compact nuclear simulator (CNS). The aim of this work is not only to compile a recovery failure probability database using the simulator for advanced MCRs but also to collect recovery failure probability according to defined human error modes to compare that which human error mode has highest recovery failure probability. The results show that recovery failure probability regarding wrong screen selection was lowest among human error modes, which means that most of human error related to wrong screen selection can be recovered. On the other hand, recovery failure probabilities of operation selection omission and delayed operation were 1.0. These results imply that once subject omitted one task in the procedure, they have difficulties finding and recovering their errors without supervisor's assistance. Also, wrong screen selection had an effect on delayed operation. That is, wrong screen

  19. Detailed semantic analyses of human error incidents occurring at domestic nuclear power plants to fiscal year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuge, Tadashi; Hirotsu, Yuko; Takano, Kenichi; Ebisu, Mitsuhiro; Tsumura, Joji

    2003-01-01

    Analysing and evaluating observed cases of human error incidents with the emphasis on human factors and behavior involved was essential for preventing recurrence of those. CRIEPI has been conducting detailed and structures analyses of all incidents reported during last 35 year based on J-HPES, from the beginning of the first Tokai nuclear power operation till fiscal year of 2000, in which total 212 human error cases are identified. Results obtained by the analyses have been stored into the J-HPES data-base. This summarized the semantic analyses on all case-studies stored in the above data-base to grasp the practical and concrete contents and trend of more frequently observed human errors (as are called trigger actions here), causal factors and preventive measures. These semantic analyses have been executed by classifying all those items into some categories that could be considered as having almost the same meaning using the KJ method. Followings are obtained typical results by above analyses: (1) Trigger action-Those could be classified into categories of operation or categories of maintenance. Operational timing errors' and 'operational quantitative errors' were major actions in trigger actions of operation, those occupied about 20% among all actions. At trigger actions of maintenance, 'maintenance quantitative error' were major actions, those occupied quarter among all actions; (2) Causal factor- 'Human internal status' were major factors, as in concrete factors, those occupied 'improper persistence' and 'lack of knowledge'; (3) Preventive measure-Most frequent measures got were job management changes in procedural software improvements, which was from 70% to 80%. As for preventive measures of operation, software improvements have been implemented on 'organization and work practices' and 'individual consciousness'. Concerning preventive measures of maintenance, improvements have been implemented on 'organization and work practices'. (author)

  20. Multi-bits error detection and fast recovery in RISC cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Yang Xing; Zhang Weigong; Shen Jiao; Qiu Keni; Zhao Yuanfu

    2015-01-01

    The particles-induced soft errors are a major threat to the reliability of microprocessors. Even worse, multi-bits upsets (MBUs) are ever-increased due to the rapidly shrinking feature size of the IC on a chip. Several architecture-level mechanisms have been proposed to protect microprocessors from soft errors, such as dual and triple modular redundancies (DMR and TMR). However, most of them are inefficient to combat the growing multi-bits errors or cannot well balance the critical paths delay, area and power penalty. This paper proposes a novel architecture, self-recovery dual-pipeline (SRDP), to effectively provide soft error detection and recovery with low cost for general RISC structures. We focus on the following three aspects. First, an advanced DMR pipeline is devised to detect soft error, especially MBU. Second, SEU/MBU errors can be located by enhancing self-checking logic into pipelines stage registers. Third, a recovery scheme is proposed with a recovery cost of 1 or 5 clock cycles. Our evaluation of a prototype implementation exhibits that the SRDP can successfully detect particle-induced soft errors up to 100% and recovery is nearly 95%, the other 5% will inter a specific trap. (paper)

  1. Multi-bits error detection and fast recovery in RISC cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wang; Xing, Yang; Yuanfu, Zhao; Weigong, Zhang; Jiao, Shen; Keni, Qiu

    2015-11-01

    The particles-induced soft errors are a major threat to the reliability of microprocessors. Even worse, multi-bits upsets (MBUs) are ever-increased due to the rapidly shrinking feature size of the IC on a chip. Several architecture-level mechanisms have been proposed to protect microprocessors from soft errors, such as dual and triple modular redundancies (DMR and TMR). However, most of them are inefficient to combat the growing multi-bits errors or cannot well balance the critical paths delay, area and power penalty. This paper proposes a novel architecture, self-recovery dual-pipeline (SRDP), to effectively provide soft error detection and recovery with low cost for general RISC structures. We focus on the following three aspects. First, an advanced DMR pipeline is devised to detect soft error, especially MBU. Second, SEU/MBU errors can be located by enhancing self-checking logic into pipelines stage registers. Third, a recovery scheme is proposed with a recovery cost of 1 or 5 clock cycles. Our evaluation of a prototype implementation exhibits that the SRDP can successfully detect particle-induced soft errors up to 100% and recovery is nearly 95%, the other 5% will inter a specific trap.

  2. Error Recovery in the Time-Triggered Paradigm with FTT-CAN.

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    Marques, Luis; Vasconcelos, Verónica; Pedreiras, Paulo; Almeida, Luís

    2018-01-11

    Data networks are naturally prone to interferences that can corrupt messages, leading to performance degradation or even to critical failure of the corresponding distributed system. To improve resilience of critical systems, time-triggered networks are frequently used, based on communication schedules defined at design-time. These networks offer prompt error detection, but slow error recovery that can only be compensated with bandwidth overprovisioning. On the contrary, the Flexible Time-Triggered (FTT) paradigm uses online traffic scheduling, which enables a compromise between error detection and recovery that can achieve timely recovery with a fraction of the needed bandwidth. This article presents a new method to recover transmission errors in a time-triggered Controller Area Network (CAN) network, based on the Flexible Time-Triggered paradigm, namely FTT-CAN. The method is based on using a server (traffic shaper) to regulate the retransmission of corrupted or omitted messages. We show how to design the server to simultaneously: (1) meet a predefined reliability goal, when considering worst case error recovery scenarios bounded probabilistically by a Poisson process that models the fault arrival rate; and, (2) limit the direct and indirect interference in the message set, preserving overall system schedulability. Extensive simulations with multiple scenarios, based on practical and randomly generated systems, show a reduction of two orders of magnitude in the average bandwidth taken by the proposed error recovery mechanism, when compared with traditional approaches available in the literature based on adding extra pre-defined transmission slots.

  3. The recovery factors analysis of the human errors for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcasiu, M.; Nitoi, M.; Apostol, M.; Turcu, I.; Florescu, Ghe.

    2006-01-01

    The results of many Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies show a very significant contribution of human errors to systems unavailability of the nuclear installations. The treatment of human interactions is considered one of the major limitations in the context of PSA. To identify those human actions that can have an effect on system reliability or availability applying the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is necessary. The recovery factors analysis of the human action is an important step in HRA. This paper presents how can be reduced the human errors probabilities (HEP) using those elements that have the capacity to recovery human error. The recovery factors modeling is marked to identify error likelihood situations or situations that conduct at development of the accident. This analysis is realized by THERP method. The necessary information was obtained from the operating experience of the research reactor TRIGA of the INR Pitesti. The required data were obtained from generic databases. (authors)

  4. Redundancy Optimization for Error Recovery in Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis. The digital microfluidic biochips are based on the manipulation of liquids not as a continuous flow, but as discrete droplets. Research......Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis. The digital microfluidic biochips are based on the manipulation of liquids not as a continuous flow, but as discrete droplets....... Researchers have proposed approaches for the synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips, which, starting from a biochemical application and a given biochip architecture, determine the allocation, resource binding, scheduling, placement and routing of the operations in the application. During the execution...... propose an online recovery strategy, which decides during the execution of the biochemical application the introduction of the redundancy required for fault-tolerance. We consider both time redundancy, i.e., re-executing erroneous operations, and space redundancy, i.e., creating redundant droplets...

  5. A systems perspective of managing error recovery and tactical re-planning of operating teams in safety critical domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogiannis, Tom

    2011-04-01

    Research in human error has provided useful tools for designing procedures, training, and intelligent interfaces that trap errors at an early stage. However, this "error prevention" policy may not be entirely successful because human errors will inevitably occur. This requires that the error management process (e.g., detection, diagnosis and correction) must also be supported. Research has focused almost exclusively on error detection; little is known about error recovery, especially in the context of safety critical systems. The aim of this paper is to develop a research framework that integrates error recovery strategies employed by experienced practitioners in handling their own errors. A control theoretic model of human performance was used to integrate error recovery strategies assembled from reviews of the literature, analyses of near misses from aviation and command & control domains, and observations of abnormal situations training at air traffic control facilities. The method of system dynamics has been used to analyze and compare error recovery strategies in terms of patterns of interaction, system affordances, and types of recovery plans. System dynamics offer a promising basis for studying the nature of error recovery management in the context of team interactions and system characteristics. The proposed taxonomy of error recovery strategies can help human factors and safety experts to develop resilient system designs and training solutions for managing human errors in unforeseen situations; it may also help incident investigators to explore why people's actions and assessments were not corrected at the time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An empirical study on the human error recovery failure probability when using soft controls in NPP advanced MCRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Inseok; Kim, Ar Ryum; Jung, Wondea; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Many researchers have tried to understand human recovery process or step. • Modeling human recovery process is not sufficient to be applied to HRA. • The operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed by adopting new HSIs. • Recovery failure probability in a soft control operation environment is investigated. • Recovery failure probability here would be important evidence for expert judgment. - Abstract: It is well known that probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) today consider not just hardware failures and environmental events that can impact upon risk, but also human error contributions. Consequently, the focus on reliability and performance management has been on the prevention of human errors and failures rather than the recovery of human errors. However, the recovery of human errors is as important as the prevention of human errors and failures for the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). For this reason, many researchers have tried to find a human recovery process or step. However, modeling the human recovery process is not sufficient enough to be applied to human reliability analysis (HRA), which requires human error and recovery probabilities. In this study, therefore, human error recovery failure probabilities based on predefined human error modes were investigated by conducting experiments in the operation mockup of advanced/digital main control rooms (MCRs) in NPPs. To this end, 48 subjects majoring in nuclear engineering participated in the experiments. In the experiments, using the developed accident scenario based on tasks from the standard post trip action (SPTA), the steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), and predominant soft control tasks, which are derived from the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and the excess steam demand event (ESDE), all error detection and recovery data based on human error modes were checked with the performance sheet and the statistical analysis of error recovery/detection was then

  7. Online Synthesis for Error Recovery in Digital Microfluidic Biochips with Operation Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    . The droplet volumes can vary erroneously due to parametric faults, thus impacting negatively the correctness of the application. Researchers have proposed approaches that synthesize offline predetermined recovery subroutines, which are activated online when errors occur. In this paper, we propose an online...

  8. Data Error Detection and Recovery in Embedded Systems: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu Babu Thati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review on data flow error detection and recovery techniques in embedded systems. In recent years, embedded systems are being used more and more in an enormous number of applications from small mobile device to big medical devices. At the same time, it is becoming important for embedded developers to make embedded systems fault-tolerant. To make embedded systems fault-tolerant, error detection and recovery mechanisms are effective techniques to take into consideration. Fault tolerance can be achieved by using both hardware and software techniques. This literature review focuses on software-based techniques since hardware-based techniques need extra hardware and are an extra investment in cost per product. Whereas, software-based techniques needed no or limited hardware. A review on various existing data flow error detection and error recovery techniques is given along with their strengths and weaknesses. Such an information is useful to identify the better techniques among the others.

  9. A Framework for Semantic Recovery Strategies in Case of Process Activity Failures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinderle, S.B.; Bassil, S.; Reichert, M.U.; Manolopoulos, Y.; Filipe, J.; Constantopoulos, P.; Cordeiro, J.

    During automated process execution semantic activity failures may frequently occur, e.g., when a vehicle transporting a container has a breakdown. So far there are no applicable solutions to overcome such exceptional situations. Often the only possibility is to cancel and roll back respective

  10. Neural Indices of Semantic Processing in Early Childhood Distinguish Eventual Stuttering Persistence and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidler, Kathryn; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Usler, Evan; Weber, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Maturation of neural processes for language may lag in some children who stutter (CWS), and event-related potentials (ERPs) distinguish CWS who have recovered from those who have persisted. The current study explores whether ERPs indexing semantic processing may distinguish children who will eventually persist in stuttering…

  11. On-the-fly Packet Error Recovery in a Cooperative Cluster of Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingelmann, Peter; Heide, Janus; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of packet error recovery in a cooperative cluster of mobile devices. We assume that these devices receive data from a broadcast transmission on their primary network interface (e.g. LTE network), and they are using a secondary network interface (e.g. ad hoc....... We also introduce a demo application that implements this technique on Nokia phones. Then we present our testbed and the collected measurement results in order to evaluate the performance of our protocol....

  12. Autobiographic memory: phenomenological aspects, personal semantic knowledge, generic events and characters (one case of pure retrograde memory recovery).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Antérion, C; Mazzola, L; Laurent, B

    2008-06-01

    Tulving et al. [Brain Cogn 8 (1988) 3-20] proposed an operational distinction concerning memory between a semantic component consisting of general information about the individual's past and an episodic component, containing memories of specific events that can be situated in space and time. After a mild head trauma and in the context of professional troubles, patient FF displayed a pure retrograde amnesia concerning both his biographical identity and semantic memories. The patient could no longer access his memories. However, these did not seem completely lost since his answers to tests concerning historical events were better than random, his answers to a television quiz were automatic, he showed temporal transfer phenomena (ecmnesia) and since he retrieved the entirety of his memories within nine months. The patient FF illustrates the loss of retrograde autobiographic memory and the recovery of episodic memories, which requires three elements: a sense of subjective time, an autonoetic awareness (the ability to be aware of subjective time) and a "self" that can travel in subjective time.

  13. QoS-Aware Error Recovery in Wireless Body Sensor Networks Using Adaptive Network Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, Mohammad Abdur; Javadi, Saeideh S.; Coulibaly, Yahaya; Hira, Muta Tah

    2015-01-01

    Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) for healthcare and medical applications are real-time and life-critical infrastructures, which require a strict guarantee of quality of service (QoS), in terms of latency, error rate and reliability. Considering the criticality of healthcare and medical applications, WBSNs need to fulfill users/applications and the corresponding network's QoS requirements. For instance, for a real-time application to support on-time data delivery, a WBSN needs to guarantee a constrained delay at the network level. A network coding-based error recovery mechanism is an emerging mechanism that can be used in these systems to support QoS at very low energy, memory and hardware cost. However, in dynamic network environments and user requirements, the original non-adaptive version of network coding fails to support some of the network and user QoS requirements. This work explores the QoS requirements of WBSNs in both perspectives of QoS. Based on these requirements, this paper proposes an adaptive network coding-based, QoS-aware error recovery mechanism for WBSNs. It utilizes network-level and user-/application-level information to make it adaptive in both contexts. Thus, it provides improved QoS support adaptively in terms of reliability, energy efficiency and delay. Simulation results show the potential of the proposed mechanism in terms of adaptability, reliability, real-time data delivery and network lifetime compared to its counterparts. PMID:25551485

  14. QoS-Aware Error Recovery in Wireless Body Sensor Networks Using Adaptive Network Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdur Razzaque

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs for healthcare and medical applications are real-time and life-critical infrastructures, which require a strict guarantee of quality of service (QoS, in terms of latency, error rate and reliability. Considering the criticality of healthcare and medical applications, WBSNs need to fulfill users/applications and the corresponding network’s QoS requirements. For instance, for a real-time application to support on-time data delivery, a WBSN needs to guarantee a constrained delay at the network level. A network coding-based error recovery mechanism is an emerging mechanism that can be used in these systems to support QoS at very low energy, memory and hardware cost. However, in dynamic network environments and user requirements, the original non-adaptive version of network coding fails to support some of the network and user QoS requirements. This work explores the QoS requirements of WBSNs in both perspectives of QoS. Based on these requirements, this paper proposes an adaptive network coding-based, QoS-aware error recovery mechanism for WBSNs. It utilizes network-level and user-/application-level information to make it adaptive in both contexts. Thus, it provides improved QoS support adaptively in terms of reliability, energy efficiency and delay. Simulation results show the potential of the proposed mechanism in terms of adaptability, reliability, real-time data delivery and network lifetime compared to its counterparts.

  15. QOS-aware error recovery in wireless body sensor networks using adaptive network coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, Mohammad Abdur; Javadi, Saeideh S; Coulibaly, Yahaya; Hira, Muta Tah

    2014-12-29

    Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) for healthcare and medical applications are real-time and life-critical infrastructures, which require a strict guarantee of quality of service (QoS), in terms of latency, error rate and reliability. Considering the criticality of healthcare and medical applications, WBSNs need to fulfill users/applications and the corresponding network's QoS requirements. For instance, for a real-time application to support on-time data delivery, a WBSN needs to guarantee a constrained delay at the network level. A network coding-based error recovery mechanism is an emerging mechanism that can be used in these systems to support QoS at very low energy, memory and hardware cost. However, in dynamic network environments and user requirements, the original non-adaptive version of network coding fails to support some of the network and user QoS requirements. This work explores the QoS requirements of WBSNs in both perspectives of QoS. Based on these requirements, this paper proposes an adaptive network coding-based, QoS-aware error recovery mechanism for WBSNs. It utilizes network-level and user-/application-level information to make it adaptive in both contexts. Thus, it provides improved QoS support adaptively in terms of reliability, energy efficiency and delay. Simulation results show the potential of the proposed mechanism in terms of adaptability, reliability, real-time data delivery and network lifetime compared to its counterparts.

  16. Partitioning,Automation and Error Recovery in the Control and Monitoring System of an LHC Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.Gaspar

    2001-01-01

    The Joint Controls Project(JCOP)is a collaboration between CERN and the four LHC experiments to find and implement common solutions for their control and monitoring systems.As part of this project and Architecture Working Group was set up in order to study the requirements and devise an architectural model that would suit the four experiments.Many issues were studied by this working group:Alarm handling,Access Control,Hierarchical Control,etc.This paper will report on the specific issue of hierarchical control and in particular partitioning,automation and error recovery.

  17. Error detection, handling and recovery at the High Level Trigger of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00223972; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) requires a robust system for error detection and handling during online data-taking; it also requires an offline system for the recovery of events where no trigger decision could be made online. The error detection and handling ensure smooth operation of the trigger system and provide debugging information necessary for offline analysis and diagnosis. In this presentation, we give an overview of the error detection, handling and recovery of problematic events at the HLT of ATLAS.

  18. Web service availability-impact of error recovery and traffic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinello, Magnos; Kaa-hat niche, Mohamed; Kanoun, Karama

    2005-01-01

    Internet is often used for transaction based applications such as online banking, stock trading and shopping, where the service interruption or outages are unacceptable. Therefore, it is important for designers of such applications to analyze how hardware, software and performance related failures affect the quality of service delivered to the users. This paper presents analytical models for evaluating the service availability of web cluster architectures. A composite performance and availability modeling approach is defined considering various causes of service unavailability. In particular, web cluster systems are modeled taking into account: two error recovery strategies (client transparent and non-client-transparent) as well as two traffic models (Poisson and modulated Poisson). Sensitivity analysis results are presented to show their impact on the web service availability. The obtained results provide useful guidelines to web designers

  19. Recovery of arrested replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Iraqui

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows repair of DNA and provides support for DNA replication. Homologous recombination is therefore a major pathway that suppresses non-homology-mediated genome instability. Here, we report that recovery of impeded replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone. Using a fork-arrest-based assay in fission yeast, we demonstrate that a single collapsed fork can cause mutations and large-scale genomic changes, including deletions and translocations. Fork-arrest-induced gross chromosomal rearrangements are mediated by inappropriate ectopic recombination events at the site of collapsed forks. Inverted repeats near the site of fork collapse stimulate large-scale genomic changes up to 1,500 times over spontaneous events. We also show that the high accuracy of DNA replication during S-phase is impaired by impediments to fork progression, since fork-arrest-induced mutation is due to erroneous DNA synthesis during recovery of replication forks. The mutations caused are small insertions/duplications between short tandem repeats (micro-homology indicative of replication slippage. Our data establish that collapsed forks, but not stalled forks, recovered by homologous recombination are prone to replication slippage. The inaccuracy of DNA synthesis does not rely on PCNA ubiquitination or trans-lesion-synthesis DNA polymerases, and it is not counteracted by mismatch repair. We propose that deletions/insertions, mediated by micro-homology, leading to copy number variations during replication stress may arise by progression of error-prone replication forks restarted by homologous recombination.

  20. Detailed semantic analyses of human error incidents occurring at nuclear power plants. Extraction of periodical transition of error occurrence patterns by applying multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Yuko; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Takano, Kenichi; Kojima, Mitsuhiro

    2000-01-01

    It is essential for preventing the recurrence of human error incidents to analyze and evaluate them with the emphasis on human factor. Detailed and structured analyses of all incidents at domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs) reported during last 31 years have been conducted based on J-HPES, in which total 193 human error cases are identified. Results obtained by the analyses have been stored into the J-HPES database. In the previous study, by applying multivariate analysis to above case studies, it was suggested that there were several occurrence patterns identified of how errors occur at NPPs. It was also clarified that the causes related to each human error are different depending on age of their occurrence. This paper described the obtained results in respects of periodical transition of human error occurrence patterns. By applying multivariate analysis to the above data, it was suggested there were two types of error occurrence patterns as to each human error type. First type is common occurrence patterns, not depending on the age, and second type is the one influenced by periodical characteristics. (author)

  1. Error identification and recovery by student nurses using human patient simulation: opportunity to improve patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Elizabeth A; Roche, Joan P; Fisher, Donald L; Cunningham, Helene; Reilly, Cheryl A; Nathanson, Brian H; Henneman, Philip L

    2010-02-01

    This study examined types of errors that occurred or were recovered in a simulated environment by student nurses. Errors occurred in all four rule-based error categories, and all students committed at least one error. The most frequent errors occurred in the verification category. Another common error was related to physician interactions. The least common errors were related to coordinating information with the patient and family. Our finding that 100% of student subjects committed rule-based errors is cause for concern. To decrease errors and improve safe clinical practice, nurse educators must identify effective strategies that students can use to improve patient surveillance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Error Recovery Properties and Soft Decoding of Quasi-Arithmetic Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Guillemot

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper first introduces a new set of aggregated state models for soft-input decoding of quasi arithmetic (QA codes with a termination constraint. The decoding complexity with these models is linear with the sequence length. The aggregation parameter controls the tradeoff between decoding performance and complexity. It is shown that close-to-optimal decoding performance can be obtained with low values of the aggregation parameter, that is, with a complexity which is significantly reduced with respect to optimal QA bit/symbol models. The choice of the aggregation parameter depends on the synchronization recovery properties of the QA codes. This paper thus describes a method to estimate the probability mass function (PMF of the gain/loss of symbols following a single bit error (i.e., of the difference between the number of encoded and decoded symbols. The entropy of the gain/loss turns out to be the average amount of information conveyed by a length constraint on both the optimal and aggregated state models. This quantity allows us to choose the value of the aggregation parameter that will lead to close-to-optimal decoding performance. It is shown that the optimum position for the length constraint is not the last time instant of the decoding process. This observation leads to the introduction of a new technique for robust decoding of QA codes with redundancy which turns out to outperform techniques based on the concept of forbidden symbol.

  3. Assessment of errors associated with plot size and lateral movement of nitrogen-15 when studying fertilizer recovery under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, C.A.; Blackmer, A.M.; Horton, R.; Timmons, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The high cost of 15 N-labeled fertilizers encourages the use of field plots having minimum size. If plot size is reduced too much, however, lateral movement of N near the plots by mass flow or diffusion within the soil or by translocation through plant roots can become a significant source of error in determinations of fertilizer N recovery. This study was initiated to assess the importance of lateral movement of labeled fertilizer when unconfined plots are used to determine recovery of fertilizer. Corn grain samples were collected at various positions inside and outside 15 N plots, and the 15 N contents of these samples were determined. The data were fit to mathematical models to estimate the extent to which lateral movement of fertilizer N caused errors in determined values of fertilizer recovery for the first, second, and third crops following fertilization. These models also were used to predict the plot size needed for similar 15 N-tracer studies in the future. The results of these studies indicate that 15 N plots having a size of 2 by 2 m are sufficiently large for determining recovery of fertilizer N for corn crops under most conditions. Where lateral movement of fertilizer N in soils is suspected to be a problem, we recommend collection of a few plant samples outside the 15 N plots as insurance against misleading conclusions concerning fertilizer N recovery

  4. Semantic Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanzadeh, Ben; Ashish, Naveen; Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Zimmerman, John

    2013-01-01

    We present the concept of Semantic Advertising which we see as the future of online advertising. Semantic Advertising is online advertising powered by semantic technology which essentially enables us to represent and reason with concepts and the meaning of things. This paper aims to 1) Define semantic advertising, 2) Place it in the context of broader and more widely used concepts such as the Semantic Web and Semantic Search, 3) Provide a survey of work in related areas such as context matchi...

  5. Reliable channel-adapted error correction: Bacon-Shor code recovery from amplitude damping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Á. Piedrafita (Álvaro); J.M. Renes (Joseph)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe construct two simple error correction schemes adapted to amplitude damping noise for Bacon-Shor codes and investigate their prospects for fault-tolerant implementation. Both consist solely of Clifford gates and require far fewer qubits, relative to the standard method, to achieve

  6. Recovery of Bennu's orientation for the OSIRIS-REx mission: implications for the spin state accuracy and geolocation errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Sabaka, Terence J.; Getzandanner, Kenneth M.; Rubincam, David P.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Moreau, Michael C.

    2017-10-01

    The goal of the OSIRIS-REx mission is to return a sample of asteroid material from near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu. The role of the navigation and flight dynamics team is critical for the spacecraft to execute a precisely planned sampling maneuver over a specifically selected landing site. In particular, the orientation of Bennu needs to be recovered with good accuracy during orbital operations to contribute as small an error as possible to the landing error budget. Although Bennu is well characterized from Earth-based radar observations, its orientation dynamics are not sufficiently known to exclude the presence of a small wobble. To better understand this contingency and evaluate how well the orientation can be recovered in the presence of a large 1° wobble, we conduct a comprehensive simulation with the NASA GSFC GEODYN orbit determination and geodetic parameter estimation software. We describe the dynamic orientation modeling implemented in GEODYN in support of OSIRIS-REx operations and show how both altimetry and imagery data can be used as either undifferenced (landmark, direct altimetry) or differenced (image crossover, altimetry crossover) measurements. We find that these two different types of data contribute differently to the recovery of instrument pointing or planetary orientation. When upweighted, the absolute measurements help reduce the geolocation errors, despite poorer astrometric (inertial) performance. We find that with no wobble present, all the geolocation requirements are met. While the presence of a large wobble is detrimental, the recovery is still reliable thanks to the combined use of altimetry and imagery data.

  7. Ptychographic overlap constraint errors and the limits of their numerical recovery using conjugate gradient descent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ashish; McNulty, Ian; Shpyrko, Oleg G

    2014-01-27

    Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging is a form of scanning microscopy that does not require optics to image a sample. A series of scanned coherent diffraction patterns recorded from multiple overlapping illuminated regions on the sample are inverted numerically to retrieve its image. The technique recovers the phase lost by detecting the diffraction patterns by using experimentally known constraints, in this case the measured diffraction intensities and the assumed scan positions on the sample. The spatial resolution of the recovered image of the sample is limited by the angular extent over which the diffraction patterns are recorded and how well these constraints are known. Here, we explore how reconstruction quality degrades with uncertainties in the scan positions. We show experimentally that large errors in the assumed scan positions on the sample can be numerically determined and corrected using conjugate gradient descent methods. We also explore in simulations the limits, based on the signal to noise of the diffraction patterns and amount of overlap between adjacent scan positions, of just how large these errors can be and still be rendered tractable by this method.

  8. Semantic memory in object use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta

    2009-10-01

    We studied five patients with semantic memory disorders, four with semantic dementia and one with herpes simplex virus encephalitis, to investigate the involvement of semantic conceptual knowledge in object use. Comparisons between patients who had semantic deficits of different severity, as well as the follow-up, showed that the ability to use objects was largely preserved when the deficit was mild but progressively decayed as the deficit became more severe. Naming was generally more impaired than object use. Production tasks (pantomime execution and actual object use) and comprehension tasks (pantomime recognition and action recognition) as well as functional knowledge about objects were impaired when the semantic deficit was severe. Semantic and unrelated errors were produced during object use, but actions were always fluent and patients performed normally on a novel tools task in which the semantic demand was minimal. Patients with severe semantic deficits scored borderline on ideational apraxia tasks. Our data indicate that functional semantic knowledge is crucial for using objects in a conventional way and suggest that non-semantic factors, mainly non-declarative components of memory, might compensate to some extent for semantic disorders and guarantee some residual ability to use very common objects independently of semantic knowledge.

  9. Human error and the associated recovery probabilities for soft control being used in the advanced MCRs of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Inseok; Jung, Wondea; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed by adopting digital HSIs. • Most current HRA databases are not explicitly designed to deal with digital HSI. • Empirical analysis for new HRA DB under an advanced MCR mockup are carried. • It is expected that the results can be used for advanced MCR HRA. - Abstract: Since the Three Mile Island (TMI)-2 accident, human error has been recognized as one of the main causes of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accidents, and numerous studies related to Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) have been carried out. Most of these studies were focused on considering the conventional Main Control Room (MCR) environment. However, the operating environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed with the adoption of new human-system interfaces (HSI) largely based on up-to-date digital technologies. The MCRs that include these digital and computer technologies, such as large display panels, computerized procedures, and soft controls, are called advanced MCRs. Among the many features of advanced MCRs, soft controls are a particularly important because operating actions in advanced MCRs are performed by soft control. Due to the difference in interfaces between soft control and hardwired conventional controls, different HEP should be used in the HRA for advanced MCRs. Unfortunately, most current HRA databases deal with operations in conventional MCRs and are not explicitly designed to deal with digital Human System Interface (HSI). For this reason, empirical human error and the associated error recovery probabilities were collected from the mockup of an advanced MCR equipped with soft controls. To this end, small-scaled experiments are conducted with 48 graduated students in the department of nuclear engineering in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) are participated, and accident scenarios are designed with respect to the typical Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) in NPPs, such as Steam Generator Tube Rupture

  10. Recovery from Proactive Semantic Interference in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Normal Aging: Relationship to Atrophy in Brain Regions Vulnerable to Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, David A; Curiel, Rosie E; Wright, Clinton; Sun, Xiaoyan; Alperin, Noam; Crocco, Elzabeth; Czaja, Sara J; Raffo, Arlene; Penate, Ailyn; Melo, Jose; Capp, Kimberly; Gamez, Monica; Duara, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence that proactive semantic interference (PSI) and failure to recover from PSI may represent early features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the association between PSI, recovery from PSI, and reduced MRI volumes in AD signature regions among cognitively impaired and unimpaired older adults. Performance on the LASSI-L (a novel test of PSI and recovery from PSI) and regional brain volumetric measures were compared between 38 cognitively normal (CN) elders and 29 older participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The relationship between MRI measures and performance on the LASSI-L as well as traditional memory and non-memory cognitive measures was also evaluated in both diagnostic groups. Relative to traditional neuropsychological measures, MCI patients' failure to recover from PSI was associated with reduced volumes in the hippocampus (rs = 0.48), precuneus (rs = 0.50); rostral middle frontal lobules (rs = 0.54); inferior temporal lobules (rs = 0.49), superior parietal lobules (rs = 0.47), temporal pole (rs = 0.44), and increased dilatation of the inferior lateral ventricle (rs = -0.49). For CN elders, only increased inferior lateral ventricular size was associated with vulnerability to PSI (rs = -0.49), the failure to recover from PSI (rs = -0.57), and delayed recall on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (rs = -0.48). LASSI-L indices eliciting failure to recover from PSI were more highly associated with more MRI regional biomarkers of AD than other traditional cognitive measures. These results as well as recent amyloid imaging studies with otherwise cognitively normal subjects, suggest that recovery from PSI may be a sensitive marker of preclinical AD and deserves further investigation.

  11. Semantic Multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Staab; A. Scherp; R. Arndt; R. Troncy (Raphael); M. Grzegorzek; C. Saathoff; S. Schenk; L. Hardman (Lynda)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractMultimedia constitutes an interesting field of application for Semantic Web and Semantic Web reasoning, as the access and management of multimedia content and context depends strongly on the semantic descriptions of both. At the same time, multimedia resources constitute complex objects,

  12. Generative Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret

    The first section of this paper deals with the attempts within the framework of transformational grammar to make semantics a systematic part of linguistic description, and outlines the characteristics of the generative semantics position. The second section takes a critical look at generative semantics in its later manifestations, and makes a case…

  13. Exploiting sparsity and low-rank structure for the recovery of multi-slice breast MRIs with reduced sampling error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, X X; Ng, B W-H; Ramamohanarao, K; Baghai-Wadji, A; Abbott, D

    2012-09-01

    It has been shown that, magnetic resonance images (MRIs) with sparsity representation in a transformed domain, e.g. spatial finite-differences (FD), or discrete cosine transform (DCT), can be restored from undersampled k-space via applying current compressive sampling theory. The paper presents a model-based method for the restoration of MRIs. The reduced-order model, in which a full-system-response is projected onto a subspace of lower dimensionality, has been used to accelerate image reconstruction by reducing the size of the involved linear system. In this paper, the singular value threshold (SVT) technique is applied as a denoising scheme to reduce and select the model order of the inverse Fourier transform image, and to restore multi-slice breast MRIs that have been compressively sampled in k-space. The restored MRIs with SVT for denoising show reduced sampling errors compared to the direct MRI restoration methods via spatial FD, or DCT. Compressive sampling is a technique for finding sparse solutions to underdetermined linear systems. The sparsity that is implicit in MRIs is to explore the solution to MRI reconstruction after transformation from significantly undersampled k-space. The challenge, however, is that, since some incoherent artifacts result from the random undersampling, noise-like interference is added to the image with sparse representation. These recovery algorithms in the literature are not capable of fully removing the artifacts. It is necessary to introduce a denoising procedure to improve the quality of image recovery. This paper applies a singular value threshold algorithm to reduce the model order of image basis functions, which allows further improvement of the quality of image reconstruction with removal of noise artifacts. The principle of the denoising scheme is to reconstruct the sparse MRI matrices optimally with a lower rank via selecting smaller number of dominant singular values. The singular value threshold algorithm is performed

  14. Semantic metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bo; Kalfoglou, Yannis; Dupplaw, David; Alani, Harith; Lewis, Paul; Shadbolt, Nigel

    2006-01-01

    In the context of the Semantic Web, many ontology-related operations, e.g. ontology ranking, segmentation, alignment, articulation, reuse, evaluation, can be boiled down to one fundamental operation: computing the similarity and/or dissimilarity among ontological entities, and in some cases among ontologies themselves. In this paper, we review standard metrics for computing distance measures and we propose a series of semantic metrics. We give a formal account of semantic metrics drawn from a...

  15. Detailed semantic analyses of human error incidents occurring at nuclear power plant in USA (interim report). Characteristics of human error incidents occurring in the period from 1992 to 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Yuko; Tsuge, Tadashi; Sano, Toshiaki; Takano, Kenichi; Gouda, Hidenori

    2001-01-01

    CRIEPI has been conducting detailed analyses of all human error incidents at domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs) collected from Japanese Licensee Event Reports (LERs) using J-HPES (Japanese version of HPES) as an analysis method. Results obtained by the analyses have been stored in J-HPES database. Since 1999, human error incidents have been selected from U.S. LERs, and they are analyzed using J-HPES. In this report, the results, which classified error action, cause, and preventive measure, are summarized for U.S. human error cases occurring in the period from 1992 to 1996. It was suggested as a result of classification that the categories of error action were almost the same as those of Japanese human error cases. Therefore, problems in the process of error action and checkpoints for preventing errors will be extracted by analyzing both U.S. and domestic human error cases. It was also suggested that the interrelations between error actions, causes, and organizational factors could be identified. While taking these suggestions into consideration, we will continue to analyze U.S. human error cases. (author)

  16. A Semantic Analysis Method for Scientific and Engineering Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a procedure to statically analyze aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. The analysis involves adding semantic declarations to a user's code and parsing this semantic knowledge with the original code using multiple expert parsers. These semantic parsers are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. In practice, a user would submit code with semantic declarations of primitive variables to the analysis procedure, and its semantic parsers would automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. A prototype implementation of this analysis procedure is demonstrated. Further, the relationship between the fundamental algebraic manipulations of equations and the parsing of expressions is explained. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  17. Montague semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Montague semantics is a theory of natural language semantics and of its relation with syntax. It was originally developed by the logician Richard Montague (1930-1971) and subsequently modified and extended by linguists, philosophers, and logicians. The most important features of the theory are its

  18. Proactive safety management in health care : towards a broader view of risk analysis, error recovery, and safety culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habraken, M.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Medical errors occur frequently. The harm and additional costs associated with those errors ask for effective safety management. According to the objective of minimal patient harm, safety management in health care should be proactive; that is, risks should be anticipated and reduced before patients

  19. Semantic Desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, Leo; Kiesel, Malte; Schumacher, Kinga; Bernardi, Ansgar

    In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, wie der Arbeitsplatz der Zukunft aussehen könnte und wo das Semantic Web neue Möglichkeiten eröffnet. Dazu werden Ansätze aus dem Bereich Semantic Web, Knowledge Representation, Desktop-Anwendungen und Visualisierung vorgestellt, die es uns ermöglichen, die bestehenden Daten eines Benutzers neu zu interpretieren und zu verwenden. Dabei bringt die Kombination von Semantic Web und Desktop Computern besondere Vorteile - ein Paradigma, das unter dem Titel Semantic Desktop bekannt ist. Die beschriebenen Möglichkeiten der Applikationsintegration sind aber nicht auf den Desktop beschränkt, sondern können genauso in Web-Anwendungen Verwendung finden.

  20. Trust estimation of the semantic web using semantic web clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirgahi, Hossein; Mohsenzadeh, Mehran; Haj Seyyed Javadi, Hamid

    2017-05-01

    Development of semantic web and social network is undeniable in the Internet world these days. Widespread nature of semantic web has been very challenging to assess the trust in this field. In recent years, extensive researches have been done to estimate the trust of semantic web. Since trust of semantic web is a multidimensional problem, in this paper, we used parameters of social network authority, the value of pages links authority and semantic authority to assess the trust. Due to the large space of semantic network, we considered the problem scope to the clusters of semantic subnetworks and obtained the trust of each cluster elements as local and calculated the trust of outside resources according to their local trusts and trust of clusters to each other. According to the experimental result, the proposed method shows more than 79% Fscore that is about 11.9% in average more than Eigen, Tidal and centralised trust methods. Mean of error in this proposed method is 12.936, that is 9.75% in average less than Eigen and Tidal trust methods.

  1. Generative Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  2. Inferentializing Semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2010), s. 255-274 ISSN 0022-3611 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : inference * proof theory * model theory * inferentialism * semantics Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  3. Semantic Blogging : Spreading the Semantic Web Meme

    OpenAIRE

    Cayzer, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This paper is about semantic blogging, an application of the semantic web to blogging. The semantic web promises to make the web more useful by endowing metadata with machine processable semantics. Blogging is a lightweight web publishing paradigm which provides a very low barrier to entry, useful syndication and aggregation behaviour, a simple to understand structure and decentralized construction of a rich information network. Semantic blogging builds upon the success and clear network valu...

  4. Phonological learning in semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Bott, Samantha; Ehsan, Sheeba; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2011-04-01

    Patients with semantic dementia (SD) have anterior temporal lobe (ATL) atrophy that gives rise to a highly selective deterioration of semantic knowledge. Despite pronounced anomia and poor comprehension of words and pictures, SD patients have well-formed, fluent speech and normal digit span. Given the intimate connection between phonological STM and word learning revealed by both neuropsychological and developmental studies, SD patients might be expected to show good acquisition of new phonological forms, even though their ability to map these onto meanings is impaired. In contradiction of these predictions, a limited amount of previous research has found poor learning of new phonological forms in SD. In a series of experiments, we examined whether SD patient, GE, could learn novel phonological sequences and, if so, under which circumstances. GE showed normal benefits of phonological knowledge in STM (i.e., normal phonotactic frequency and phonological similarity effects) but reduced support from semantic memory (i.e., poor immediate serial recall for semantically degraded words, characterised by frequent item errors). Next, we demonstrated normal learning of serial order information for repeated lists of single-digit number words using the Hebb paradigm: these items were well-understood allowing them to be repeated without frequent item errors. In contrast, patient GE showed little learning of nonsense syllable sequences using the same Hebb paradigm. Detailed analysis revealed that both GE and the controls showed a tendency to learn their own errors as opposed to the target items. Finally, we showed normal learning of phonological sequences for GE when he was prevented from repeating his errors. These findings confirm that the ATL atrophy in SD disrupts phonological processing for semantically degraded words but leaves the phonological architecture intact. Consequently, when item errors are minimised, phonological STM can support the acquisition of new phoneme

  5. Jigsaw Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. E. Dekker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the enterprise of formal semantics has been under attack from several philosophical and linguistic perspectives, and it has certainly suffered from its own scattered state, which hosts quite a variety of paradigms which may seem to be incompatible. It will not do to try and answer the arguments of the critics, because the arguments are often well-taken. The negative conclusions, however, I believe are not. The only adequate reply seems to be a constructive one, which puts several pieces of formal semantics, in particular dynamic semantics, together again. In this paper I will try and sketch an overview of tasks, techniques, and results, which serves to at least suggest that it is possible to develop a coherent overall picture of undeniably important and structural phenomena in the interpretation of natural language. The idea is that the concept of meanings as truth conditions after all provides an excellent start for an integrated study of the meaning and use of natural language, and that an extended notion of goal directed pragmatics naturally complements this picture. None of the results reported here are really new, but we think it is important to re-collect them.ReferencesAsher, Nicholas & Lascarides, Alex. 1998. ‘Questions in Dialogue’. Linguistics and Philosophy 23: 237–309.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005364332007Borg, Emma. 2007. ‘Minimalism versus contextualism in semantics’. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds. ‘Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism’, pp. 339–359. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernest. 1997. ‘On an Alleged Connection between Indirect Quotation and Semantic Theory’. Mind and Language 12: pp. 278–296.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernie. 2005. Insensitive Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470755792Dekker, Paul. 2002. ‘Meaning and Use of Indefinite Expressions’. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11: pp. 141–194

  6. Auditing the Assignments of Top-Level Semantic Types in the UMLS Semantic Network to UMLS Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Perl, Yehoshua; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan; Geller, James; Bian, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is an important terminological system. By the policy of its curators, each concept of the UMLS should be assigned the most specific Semantic Types (STs) in the UMLS Semantic Network (SN). Hence, the Semantic Types of most UMLS concepts are assigned at or near the bottom (leaves) of the UMLS Semantic Network. While most ST assignments are correct, some errors do occur. Therefore, Quality Assurance efforts of UMLS curators for ST assignments should concentrate on automatically detected sets of UMLS concepts with higher error rates than random sets. In this paper, we investigate the assignments of top-level semantic types in the UMLS semantic network to concepts, identify potential erroneous assignments, define four categories of errors, and thus provide assistance to curators of the UMLS to avoid these assignments errors. Human experts analyzed samples of concepts assigned 10 of the top-level semantic types and categorized the erroneous ST assignments into these four logical categories. Two thirds of the concepts assigned these 10 top-level semantic types are erroneous. Our results demonstrate that reviewing top-level semantic type assignments to concepts provides an effective way for UMLS quality assurance, comparing to reviewing a random selection of semantic type assignments.

  7. Data Cleaning and Semantic Improvement in Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiletti Daniele

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Public genomic and proteomic databases can be affected by a variety of errors. These errors may involve either the description or the meaning of data (namely, syntactic or semantic errors. We focus our analysis on the detection of semantic errors, in order to verify the accuracy of the stored information. In particular, we address the issue of data constraints and functional dependencies among attributes in a given relational database. Constraints and dependencies show semantics among attributes in a database schema and their knowledge may be exploited to improve data quality and integration in database design, and to perform query optimization and dimensional reduction.

  8. WEATHER FORECAST DATA SEMANTIC ANALYSIS IN F-LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Meštrović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the semantic analysis problem in a spoken dialog system developed for the domain of weather forecasts. The main goal of semantic analysis is to extract the meaning from the spoken utterances and to transform it into a domain database format. In this work a semantic database for the domain of weather forecasts is represented using the F-logic formalism. Semantic knowledge is captured through semantic categories a semantic dictionary using phrases and output templates. Procedures for semantic analysis of Croatian weather data combine parsing techniques for Croatian language and slot filling approach. Semantic analysis is conducted in three phases. In the first phase the main semantic category for the input utterance is determined. The lattices are used for hierarchical semantic relation representation and main category derivation. In the second phase semantic units are analyzed and knowledge slots in the database are filled. Since some slot values of input data are missing in the third phase, incomplete data is updated with missing values. All rules for semantic analysis are defined in the F-logic and implemented using the FLORA-2 system. The results of semantic analysis evaluation in terms of frame and slot error rates are presented.

  9. Preserved musical semantic memory in semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2011-02-01

    To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Case study. Academic medical center. A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music.

  10. Inquisitive semantics and pragmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, J.; Roelofsen, F.; Larrazabal, J.M.; Zubeldia, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper starts with an informal introduction to inquisitive semantics. After that, we present a formal definition of the semantics, and introduce the basic semantic notions of inquisitiveness and informativeness, in terms of wich we define the semantic categories of questions, assertions, and

  11. Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lamandini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013. As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence.

  12. Geospatial semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chuanrong; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers key issues related to Geospatial Semantic Web, including geospatial web services for spatial data interoperability; geospatial ontology for semantic interoperability; ontology creation, sharing, and integration; querying knowledge and information from heterogeneous data source; interfaces for Geospatial Semantic Web, VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) and Geospatial Semantic Web; challenges of Geospatial Semantic Web; and development of Geospatial Semantic Web applications. This book also describes state-of-the-art technologies that attempt to solve these problems such as WFS, WMS, RDF, OWL, and GeoSPARQL, and demonstrates how to use the Geospatial Semantic Web technologies to solve practical real-world problems such as spatial data interoperability.

  13. Effectiveness of Semantic Therapy for Word-Finding Difficulties in Pupils with Persistent Language Impairments: A Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbels, Susan H.; Nicoll, Hilary; Clark, Becky; Eachus, Beth; Gallagher, Aoife L.; Horniman, Karen; Jennings, Mary; McEvoy, Kate; Nimmo, Liz; Turner, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Background: Word-finding difficulties (WFDs) in children have been hypothesized to be caused at least partly by poor semantic knowledge. Therefore, improving semantic knowledge should decrease word-finding errors. Previous studies of semantic therapy for WFDs are inconclusive. Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of semantic therapy for…

  14. Programming the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

  15. “Pre-semantic” cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and "regularisation errors" (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern ...

  16. Snapshots for Semantic Maps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielsen, Curtis W; Ricks, Bob; Goodrich, Michael A; Bruemmer, David; Few, Doug; Walton, Miles

    2004-01-01

    .... Semantic maps are a relatively new approach to information presentation. Semantic maps provide more detail about an environment than typical maps because they are augmented by icons or symbols that provide meaning for places or objects of interest...

  17. Role of grammatical gender and semantics in German word production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigliocco, G.; Vinson, D.P.; Indefrey, P.; Levelt, W.J.M.; Hellwig, F.

    2004-01-01

    Semantic substitution errors (e.g., saying "arm" when "leg" is intended) are among the most common types of errors occurring during spontaneous speech. It has been shown that grammatical gender of German target nouns is preserved in the errors ( E. Marx, 1999). In 3 experiments, the authors explored

  18. Role of Grammatical Gender and Semantics in German Word Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David P.; Indefrey, Peter; Levelt, Willem J. M.; Hellwig, Frauke

    2004-01-01

    Semantic substitution errors (e.g., saying "arm" when "leg" is intended) are among the most common types of errors occurring during spontaneous speech. It has been shown that grammatical gender of German target nouns is preserved in the errors (E. Mane, 1999). In 3 experiments, the authors explored different accounts of the grammatical gender…

  19. Semantics and analysis of business process models in BPMN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, R.M.; Dumas, M.; Ouyang, C.

    2008-01-01

    The Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) is a standard for capturing business processes in the early phases of systems development. The mix of constructs found in BPMN makes it possible to create models with semantic errors. Such errors are especially serious, because errors in the early

  20. Retrieval from semantic memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman-Vonk, Wietske

    1977-01-01

    The present study has been concerned with the retrieval of semantic information. Retrieving semantic information is a fundamental process in almost any kind of cognitive behavior. The introduction presented the main experimental paradigms and results found in the literature on semantic memory as

  1. Towards Universal Semantic Tagging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abzianidze, Lasha; Bos, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes the task of universal semantic tagging---tagging word tokens with language-neutral, semantically informative tags. We argue that the task, with its independent nature, contributes to better semantic analysis for wide-coverage multilingual text. We present the initial version of

  2. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-03-07

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th.

  3. Semantically Interoperable XML Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-09-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups.

  4. Semantically Interoperable XML Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  5. Usage of semantic representations in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Hirano, Tetsuji; Ukita, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Meanings of words facilitate false acceptance as well as correct rejection of lures in recognition memory tests, depending on the experimental context. This suggests that semantic representations are both directly and indirectly (i.e., mediated by perceptual representations) used in remembering. Studies using memory conjunction errors (MCEs) paradigms, in which the lures consist of component parts of studied words, have reported semantic facilitation of rejection of the lures. However, attending to components of the lures could potentially cause this. Therefore, we investigated whether semantic overlap of lures facilitates MCEs using Japanese Kanji words in which a whole-word image is more concerned in reading. Experiments demonstrated semantic facilitation of MCEs in a delayed recognition test (Experiment 1), and in immediate recognition tests in which participants were prevented from using phonological or orthographic representations (Experiment 2), and the salient effect on individuals with high semantic memory capacities (Experiment 3). Additionally, analysis of the receiver operating characteristic suggested that this effect is attributed to familiarity-based memory judgement and phantom recollection. These findings indicate that semantic representations can be directly used in remembering, even when perceptual representations of studied words are available.

  6. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Ashish, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

  7. Meinongian Semantics and Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Rapaport

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes computational semantic networks for a philosophical audience and surveys several approaches to semantic-network semantics. In particular, propositional semantic networks (exemplified by SNePS are discussed; it is argued that only a fully intensional, Meinongian semantics is appropriate for them; and several Meinongian systems are presented.

  8. Semantic dementia without surface dyslexia in Spanish: unimpaired reading with impaired semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maximiliano A; Martínez-Cuitiño, Macarena

    2012-01-01

    Surface dyslexia has been attributed to an overreliance on the sub-lexical route for reading. Typically, surface dyslexic patients commit regularisation errors when reading irregular words. Also, semantic dementia has often been associated with surface dyslexia, leading to some explanations of the reading impairment that stress the role of semantics in irregular word reading. Nevertheless, some patients have been reported with unimpaired ability to read irregular words, even though they show severe comprehension impairment. We present the case of M.B., the first Spanish-speaking semantic dementia patient to be reported who shows unimpaired reading of non-words, regular words, and - most strikingly - irregular loan words. M.B. has severely impaired comprehension of the same words he reads correctly (whether regular or irregular). We argue that M.B.'s pattern of performance shows that irregular words can be correctly read even with impaired semantic knowledge corresponding to those words.

  9. The Semantic Web Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Shadbolt, Nigel; Berners-Lee, Tim; Hall, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    The original Scientific American article on the Semantic Web appeared in 2001. It described the evolution of a Web that consisted largely of documents for humans to read to one that included data and information for computers to manipulate. The Semantic Web is a Web of actionable information--information derived from data through a semantic theory for interpreting the symbols.This simple idea, however, remains largely unrealized. Shopbots and auction bots abound on the Web, but these are esse...

  10. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  11. Semantic web for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you're a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you:Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic WebExplore all the benefits the data Web offers t

  12. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  13. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Subjects engaged in two picture judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content (concrete words in Experiment 1 and 3; nonwords in Experiments 2 and 3). Picture judgments varied in the extent to which they required accessing visual semantic information (i.e., semantic categorization and line orientation judgments). Results showed that, relative to line orientation judgments, engaging in semantic categorization judgments increased the proportion of item ordering errors for concrete lists but did not affect error proportions for nonword lists. Furthermore, although more ordering errors were observed for phonologically similar relative to dissimilar lists, no interactions were observed between the phonological overlap and picture judgment task manipulations. These results thus demonstrate that lexical-semantic representations can affect the serial ordering of items in short-term memory. Furthermore, the dual-task paradigm provides a new method for examining when and how semantic representations affect memory performance. PMID:21058880

  14. Morphological Cues for Lexical Semantics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Light, Marc

    1996-01-01

    Most natural language processing tasks require lexical semantic information such as verbal argument structure and selectional restrictions, corresponding nominal semantic class, verbal aspectual class...

  15. Quality of semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert

    2012-01-01

    Little scientific literature addresses the issue of quality of semantic standards, albeit a problem with high economic and social impact. Our problem survey, including 34 semantic Standard Setting Organizations (SSOs), gives evidence that quality of standards can be improved, but for improvement a

  16. Semantic Business Process Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a process-oriented business modeling framework based on semantic technologies. The framework consists of modeling languages, methods, and tools that allow for semantic modeling of business motivation, business policies and rules, and business processes. Quality of the proposed modeling framework is evaluated based on the modeling content of SAP Solution Composer and several real-world business scenarios.

  17. Semantic Web Primer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Grigoris; Harmelen, Frank van

    2004-01-01

    The development of the Semantic Web, with machine-readable content, has the potential to revolutionize the World Wide Web and its use. A Semantic Web Primer provides an introduction and guide to this still emerging field, describing its key ideas, languages, and technologies. Suitable for use as a

  18. Pragmatics for formal semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal...

  19. A reasonable Semantic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzler, Pascal; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The realization of Semantic Web reasoning is central to substantiating the Semantic Web vision. However, current mainstream research on this topic faces serious challenges, which forces us to question established lines of research and to rethink the underlying approaches. We argue that reasoning for

  20. Semantic Web status model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, AJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web application areas are experiencing intensified interest due to the rapid growth in the use of the Web, together with the innovation and renovation of information content technologies. The Semantic Web is regarded as an integrator across...

  1. Topographical gradients of semantics and phonology revealed by temporal lobe stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miozzo, Michele; Williams, Alicia C; McKhann, Guy M; Hamberger, Marla J

    2017-02-01

    Word retrieval is a fundamental component of oral communication, and it is well established that this function is supported by left temporal cortex. Nevertheless, the specific temporal areas mediating word retrieval and the particular linguistic processes these regions support have not been well delineated. Toward this end, we analyzed over 1000 naming errors induced by left temporal cortical stimulation in epilepsy surgery patients. Errors were primarily semantic (lemon → "pear"), phonological (horn → "corn"), non-responses, and delayed responses (correct responses after a delay), and each error type appeared predominantly in a specific region: semantic errors in mid-middle temporal gyrus (TG), phonological errors and delayed responses in middle and posterior superior TG, and non-responses in anterior inferior TG. To the extent that semantic errors, phonological errors and delayed responses reflect disruptions in different processes, our results imply topographical specialization of semantic and phonological processing. Specifically, results revealed an inferior-to-superior gradient, with more superior regions associated with phonological processing. Further, errors were increasingly semantically related to targets toward posterior temporal cortex. We speculate that detailed semantic input is needed to support phonological retrieval, and thus, the specificity of semantic input increases progressively toward posterior temporal regions implicated in phonological processing. Hum Brain Mapp 38:688-703, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Simple Semantics and Static Analysis for Stack Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Banerjee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Java virtual machine and the .NET common language runtime feature an access control mechanism specified operationally in terms of run-time stack inspection. We give a denotational semantics in "eager" form, and show that it is equivalent to the "lazy" semantics using stack inspection. We give a static analysis of safety, i.e., the absence of security errors, that is simpler than previous proposals. We identify several program transformations that can be used to remove run-time checks. We give complete, detailed proofs for safety of the analysis and for the transformations, exploiting compositionality of the eager semantics.

  3. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  4. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  5. Benchmarking semantic web technology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Castro, R

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

  6. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  7. UML 2 Semantics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lano, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    A coherent and integrated account of the leading UML 2 semantics work and the practical applications of UML semantics development With contributions from leading experts in the field, the book begins with an introduction to UML and goes on to offer in-depth and up-to-date coverage of: The role of semantics Considerations and rationale for a UML system model Definition of the UML system model UML descriptive semantics Axiomatic semantics of UML class diagrams The object constraint language Axiomatic semantics of state machines A coalgebraic semantic framework for reasoning about interaction des

  8. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J.; Anjum, Raeesa S.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L.; Spiers, Hugo J.; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the “semantic hub” of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories. PMID:27551087

  9. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-06

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories.

  10. Video Error Correction Using Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, David L.; Mersereau, Russell M.

    2002-12-01

    The transmission of any data is always subject to corruption due to errors, but video transmission, because of its real time nature must deal with these errors without retransmission of the corrupted data. The error can be handled using forward error correction in the encoder or error concealment techniques in the decoder. This MPEG-2 compliant codec uses data hiding to transmit error correction information and several error concealment techniques in the decoder. The decoder resynchronizes more quickly with fewer errors than traditional resynchronization techniques. It also allows for perfect recovery of differentially encoded DCT-DC components and motion vectors. This provides for a much higher quality picture in an error-prone environment while creating an almost imperceptible degradation of the picture in an error-free environment.

  11. Video Error Correction Using Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie David L

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of any data is always subject to corruption due to errors, but video transmission, because of its real time nature must deal with these errors without retransmission of the corrupted data. The error can be handled using forward error correction in the encoder or error concealment techniques in the decoder. This MPEG-2 compliant codec uses data hiding to transmit error correction information and several error concealment techniques in the decoder. The decoder resynchronizes more quickly with fewer errors than traditional resynchronization techniques. It also allows for perfect recovery of differentially encoded DCT-DC components and motion vectors. This provides for a much higher quality picture in an error-prone environment while creating an almost imperceptible degradation of the picture in an error-free environment.

  12. Algebraic Semantics for Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, E.

    1974-01-01

    This paper uses discussion of Edmund Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" to present a theoretical framework for explaining the semantics of narrative discourse. The algebraic theory of finite automata is used. (CK)

  13. Semantic Web Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berners-Lee, Tim; Swick, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    ...) project between 2002 and 2005 provided key steps in the research in the Semantic Web technology, and also played an essential role in delivering the technology to industry and government in the form...

  14. Double peak-induced distance error in short-time-Fourier-transform-Brillouin optical time domain reflectometers event detection and the recovery method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yifei; Luo, Linqing; Li, Bo; Guo, Linfeng; Yan, Jize; Soga, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    The measured distance error caused by double peaks in the BOTDRs (Brillouin optical time domain reflectometers) system is a kind of Brillouin scattering spectrum (BSS) deformation, discussed and simulated for the first time in the paper, to the best of the authors' knowledge. Double peak, as a kind of Brillouin spectrum deformation, is important in the enhancement of spatial resolution, measurement accuracy, and crack detection. Due to the variances of the peak powers of the BSS along the fiber, the measured starting point of a step-shape frequency transition region is shifted and results in distance errors. Zero-padded short-time-Fourier-transform (STFT) can restore the transition-induced double peaks in the asymmetric and deformed BSS, thus offering more accurate and quicker measurements than the conventional Lorentz-fitting method. The recovering method based on the double-peak detection and corresponding BSS deformation can be applied to calculate the real starting point, which can improve the distance accuracy of the STFT-based BOTDR system.

  15. Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Activation and Monitoring of Memory Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammattei, Jeannette; Arndt, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on the lateralization of memory errors suggests that the right hemisphere's tendency to produce more memory errors than the left hemisphere reflects hemispheric differences in semantic activation. However, all prior research that has examined the lateralization of memory errors has used self-paced recognition judgments. Because…

  16. Foundations of semantic web technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hitzler, Pascal; Rudolph, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Quest for Semantics Building Models Calculating with Knowledge Exchanging Information Semanic Web Technologies RESOURCE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (RDF)Simple Ontologies in RDF and RDF SchemaIntroduction to RDF Syntax for RDF Advanced Features Simple Ontologies in RDF Schema Encoding of Special Data Structures An ExampleRDF Formal Semantics Why Semantics? Model-Theoretic Semantics for RDF(S) Syntactic Reasoning with Deduction Rules The Semantic Limits of RDF(S)WEB ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE (OWL) Ontologies in OWL OWL Syntax and Intuitive Semantics OWL Species The Forthcoming OWL 2 StandardOWL Formal Sem

  17. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between failure systems. There exist

  18. Error Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.; Li, Z.

    2001-01-01

    In coding theory the problem of decoding focuses on error vectors. In the simplest situation code words are $(0,1)$-vectors, as are the received messages and the error vectors. Comparison of a received word with the code words yields a set of error vectors. In deciding on the original code word,

  19. A SEMantic and EPisodic Memory Test (SEMEP) Developed within the Embodied Cognition Framework: Application to Normal Aging, Alzheimer's Disease and Semantic Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Guillaume T; Hudon, Carol; Bier, Nathalie; Macoir, Joël; Versace, Rémy; Simard, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Embodiment has highlighted the importance of sensory-motor components in cognition. Perception and memory are thus very tightly bound together, and episodic and semantic memories should rely on the same grounded memory traces. Reduced perception should then directly reduce the ability to encode and retrieve an episodic memory, as in normal aging. Multimodal integration deficits, as in Alzheimer's disease, should lead to more severe episodic memory impairment. The present study introduces a new memory test developed to take into account these assumptions. The SEMEP (SEMantic-Episodic) memory test proposes to assess conjointly semantic and episodic knowledge across multiple tasks: semantic matching, naming, free recall, and recognition. The performance of young adults is compared to healthy elderly adults (HE), patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and patients with semantic dementia (SD). The results show specific patterns of performance between the groups. HE commit memory errors only for presented but not to be remembered items. AD patients present the worst episodic memory performance associated with intrusion errors (recall or recognition of items never presented). They were the only group to not benefit from a visual isolation (addition of a yellow background), a method known to increase the distinctiveness of the memory traces. Finally, SD patients suffer from the most severe semantic impairment. To conclude, confusion errors are common across all the elderly groups, whereas AD was the only group to exhibit regular intrusion errors and SD patients to show severe semantic impairment.

  20. A SEMantic and EPisodic Memory Test (SEMEP Developed within the Embodied Cognition Framework: Application to Normal Aging, Alzheimer's Disease and Semantic Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume T. Vallet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Embodiment has highlighted the importance of sensory-motor components in cognition. Perception and memory are thus very tightly bound together, and episodic and semantic memories should rely on the same grounded memory traces. Reduced perception should then directly reduce the ability to encode and retrieve an episodic memory, as in normal aging. Multimodal integration deficits, as in Alzheimer's disease, should lead to more severe episodic memory impairment. The present study introduces a new memory test developed to take into account these assumptions. The SEMEP (SEMantic-Episodic memory test proposes to assess conjointly semantic and episodic knowledge across multiple tasks: semantic matching, naming, free recall, and recognition. The performance of young adults is compared to healthy elderly adults (HE, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, and patients with semantic dementia (SD. The results show specific patterns of performance between the groups. HE commit memory errors only for presented but not to be remembered items. AD patients present the worst episodic memory performance associated with intrusion errors (recall or recognition of items never presented. They were the only group to not benefit from a visual isolation (addition of a yellow background, a method known to increase the distinctiveness of the memory traces. Finally, SD patients suffer from the most severe semantic impairment. To conclude, confusion errors are common across all the elderly groups, whereas AD was the only group to exhibit regular intrusion errors and SD patients to show severe semantic impairment.

  1. Cultural differences in categorical memory errors persist with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Angela; Boduroglu, Aysecan

    2018-01-02

    This cross-sectional experiment examined the influence of aging on cross-cultural differences in memory errors. Previous research revealed that Americans committed more categorical memory errors than Turks; we tested whether the cognitive constraints associated with aging impacted the pattern of memory errors across cultures. Furthermore, older adults are vulnerable to memory errors for semantically-related information, and we assessed whether this tendency occurs across cultures. Younger and older adults from the US and Turkey studied word pairs, with some pairs sharing a categorical relationship and some unrelated. Participants then completed a cued recall test, generating the word that was paired with the first. These responses were scored for correct responses or different types of errors, including categorical and semantic. The tendency for Americans to commit more categorical memory errors emerged for both younger and older adults. In addition, older adults across cultures committed more memory errors, and these were for semantically-related information (including both categorical and other types of semantic errors). Heightened vulnerability to memory errors with age extends across cultural groups, and Americans' proneness to commit categorical memory errors occurs across ages. The findings indicate some robustness in the ways that age and culture influence memory errors.

  2. Semantic Learning Service Personalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Chen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To provide users with more suitable and personalized service, personalization is widely used in various fields. Current e-Learning systems search for learning resources using information search technology, based on the keywords that selected or inputted by the user. Due to lack of semantic analysis for keywords and exploring the user contexts, the system cannot provide a good learning experiment. In this paper, we defined the concept and characteristic of the personalized learning service, and proposed a semantic learning service personalized framework. Moreover, we made full use of semantic technology, using ontologies to represent the learning contents and user profile, mining and utilizing the friendship and membership of the social relationship to construct the user social relationship profile, and improved the collaboration filtering algorithm to recommend personalized learning resources for users. The results of the empirical evaluation show that the approach is effectiveness in augmenting recommendation.

  3. Semantic Observation Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kuhn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

  4. The Semantics of "Violence"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    This paper presents a semantic analysis of “violence” – a word around which Anglo-internationaldiscourses revolve. Many ethnolinguistic communities around the world are currently adapting thisEnglish lexical concept into their linguistic systems, and, presumably also, the view of the worldembodied...... by the “violence” concept.Based on semantic fieldwork in Port Vila, the creolophone capital of Vanuatu in the SouthPacific, the paper investigates the discursive introduction of “violence” into a community which,until recently, lived by other concepts. I compare and contrast the traditional Bislama concepts...... kilimand faetem with the newly imported English word vaeolens (violence). My study provides newevidence for how cognitive and semantic change co-occur in the context of postcolonial linguisticcommunities, and my paper addresses an important, ongoing controversy related to the notion of“Anglocentric bias...

  5. Semantic Keys and Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev bar-Lev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Keys are elements (word-parts of written language that give an iconic, general representation of the whole word’s meaning. In written Sino-Japanese the “radical” or semantic components play this role. For example, the character meaning ‘woman, female’ is the Semantic Key of the character for Ma ‘Mama’ (alongside the phonetic component Ma, which means ‘horse’ as a separate character. The theory of semantic Keys in both graphic and phonemic aspects is called qTheory or nanosemantics. The most innovative aspect of the present article is the hypothesis that, in languages using alphabetic writing systems, the role of Semantic Key is played by consonants, more specifically the first consonant. Thus, L meaning ‘LIFT’ is the Semantic Key of English Lift, Ladle, Lofty, aLps, eLevator, oLympus; Spanish Leva, Lecantarse, aLto, Lengua; Arabic aLLah, and Hebrew① ªeL-ºaL ‘upto-above’ (the Israeli airline, Polish Lot ‘flight’ (the Polish airline; Hebrew ªeL, ªeLohim ‘God’, and haLLeluyah ‘praise-ye God’ (using Parallels, ‘Lift up God’. Evidence for the universality of the theory is shown by many examples drawn from various languages, including Indo-European Semitic, Chinese and Japanese. The theory reveals hundreds of relationships within and between languages, related and unrelated, that have been “Hiding in Plain Sight”, to mention just one example: the Parallel between Spanish Pan ‘bread’ and Mandarin Fan ‘rice’.

  6. Rapid identification and recovery of ENU-induced mutations with next-generation sequencing and Paired-End Low-Error analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luyuan; Shah, Arish N; Phelps, Ian G; Doherty, Dan; Johnson, Eric A; Moens, Cecilia B

    2015-02-14

    Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) is a reverse genetics approach to directly identify point mutations in specific genes of interest in genomic DNA from a large chemically mutagenized population. Classical TILLING processes, based on enzymatic detection of mutations in heteroduplex PCR amplicons, are slow and labor intensive. Here we describe a new TILLING strategy in zebrafish using direct next generation sequencing (NGS) of 250 bp amplicons followed by Paired-End Low-Error (PELE) sequence analysis. By pooling a genomic DNA library made from over 9,000 N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenized F1 fish into 32 equal pools of 288 fish, each with a unique Illumina barcode, we reduce the complexity of the template to a level at which we can detect mutations that occur in a single heterozygous fish in the entire library. MiSeq sequencing generates 250 base-pair overlapping paired-end reads, and PELE analysis aligns the overlapping sequences to each other and filters out any imperfect matches, thereby eliminating variants introduced during the sequencing process. We find that this filtering step reduces the number of false positive calls 50-fold without loss of true variant calls. After PELE we were able to validate 61.5% of the mutant calls that occurred at a frequency between 1 mutant call:100 wildtype calls and 1 mutant call:1000 wildtype calls in a pool of 288 fish. We then use high-resolution melt analysis to identify the single heterozygous mutation carrier in the 288-fish pool in which the mutation was identified. Using this NGS-TILLING protocol we validated 28 nonsense or splice site mutations in 20 genes, at a two-fold higher efficiency than using traditional Cel1 screening. We conclude that this approach significantly increases screening efficiency and accuracy at reduced cost and can be applied in a wide range of organisms.

  7. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  8. Semantic Versus Syntactic Cutting Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Filmus, Yuval; Hrubeš, Pavel; Lauria, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the strength of the semantic and syntactic version of the cutting planes proof system. First, we show that the lower bound technique of Pudlák applies also to semantic cutting planes: the proof system has feasible interpolation via monotone real circuits, which gives an exponential lower bound on lengths of semantic cutting planes refutations. Second, we show that semantic refutations are stronger than syntactic ones. In particular, we give a formula for whic...

  9. Flow Logics and Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1998-01-01

    Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analys...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....

  10. Evolution of semantic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Küppers, Bernd-Olaf; Artmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems in nature and society make use of information for the development of their internal organization and the control of their functional mechanisms. Alongside technical aspects of storing, transmitting and processing information, the various semantic aspects of information, such as meaning, sense, reference and function, play a decisive part in the analysis of such systems.With the aim of fostering a better understanding of semantic systems from an evolutionary and multidisciplinary perspective, this volume collects contributions by philosophers and natural scientists, linguists, i

  11. Semantic Search of Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  12. Operator errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuefer; Lindauer

    1980-01-01

    Besides that at spectacular events a combination of component failure and human error is often found. Especially the Rasmussen-Report and the German Risk Assessment Study show for pressurised water reactors that human error must not be underestimated. Although operator errors as a form of human error can never be eliminated entirely, they can be minimized and their effects kept within acceptable limits if a thorough training of personnel is combined with an adequate design of the plant against accidents. Contrary to the investigation of engineering errors, the investigation of human errors has so far been carried out with relatively small budgets. Intensified investigations in this field appear to be a worthwhile effort. (orig.)

  13. Loop transfer recovery for general observer architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Søgaard-Andersen, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1991-01-01

    A general and concise formulation is given of the loop transfer recovery (LTR) design problem based on recovery errors. Three types of recovery errors are treated: open loop recovery, sensitivity recovery and input-output recovery errors. The three corresponding versions of the asymptotic recovery...... recovery cases. This general recovery formulation covers all known observer based compensator types as special cases. The conditions given in this setting are effectively the aim of all known LTR design methods. The recovery formulation is interpreted in terms of a modelmatching problem as well, which...... is examined by means of the Q-parametrization. It is shown how the general controller obtained by the Q-parametrization can be written as a Luenberger observer based controller. In all cases, n controller states suffice to achieve recovery. The compensators are characterized for errors both on the input...

  14. Semantator: annotating clinical narratives with semantic web ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dezhao; Chute, Christopher G; Tao, Cui

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate clinical research, clinical data needs to be stored in a machine processable and understandable way. Manual annotating clinical data is time consuming. Automatic approaches (e.g., Natural Language Processing systems) have been adopted to convert such data into structured formats; however, the quality of such automatically extracted data may not always be satisfying. In this paper, we propose Semantator, a semi-automatic tool for document annotation with Semantic Web ontologies. With a loaded free text document and an ontology, Semantator supports the creation/deletion of ontology instances for any document fragment, linking/disconnecting instances with the properties in the ontology, and also enables automatic annotation by connecting to the NCBO annotator and cTAKES. By representing annotations in Semantic Web standards, Semantator supports reasoning based upon the underlying semantics of the owl:disjointWith and owl:equivalentClass predicates. We present discussions based on user experiences of using Semantator.

  15. Odor identification: perceptual and semantic dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, W S; de Wijk, R; Lulejian, C; Schiet, F; See, L C

    1998-06-01

    Five studies explored identification of odors as an aspect of semantic memory. All dealt in one way or another with the accessibility of acquired olfactory information. The first study examined stability and showed that, consistent with personal reports, people can fail to identify an odor one day yet succeed another. Failure turned more commonly to success than vice versa, and once success occurred it tended to recur. Confidence ratings implied that subjects generally knew the quality of their answers. Even incorrect names, though, often carried considerable information which sometimes reflected a semantic and sometimes a perceptual source of errors. The second study showed that profiling odors via the American Society of Testing and Materials list of attributes, an exercise in depth of processing, effected no increment in the identifiability/accessibility beyond an unelaborated second attempt at retrieval. The third study showed that subjects had only a weak ability to predict the relative recognizability of odors they had failed to identify. Whereas the strength of the feeling that they would 'know' an answer if offered choices did not associate significantly with performance for odors, it did for trivia questions. The fourth study demonstrated an association between ability to discriminate among one set of odors and to identify another, but this emerged only after subjects had received feedback about identity, which essentially changed the task to one of recognition and effectively stabilized access. The fifth study illustrated that feedback improves performance dramatically only for odors involved with it, but that mere retrieval leads to some improvement. The studies suggest a research agenda that could include supplemental use of confidence judgments both retrospectively and prospectively in the same subjects to indicate the amount of accessible semantic information; use of second and third guesses to examine subjects' simultaneously held hypotheses about

  16. Semantic Barbs and Biorthogonality

    OpenAIRE

    Rathke, J.; Sassone, V.; Sobocinski, P.

    2007-01-01

    We use the framework of biorthogonality to introduce a novel semantic definition of the concept of barb (basic observable) for process calculi. We develop a uniform basic theory of barbs and demonstrate its robustness by showing that it gives rise to the correct observables in specific process calculi which model synchronous, asynchronous and broadcast communication regimes.

  17. Semantic data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anoreewsky, Evelyne; Nicolas, P.; Grillo, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A system is proposed for determining semantic relations between lexical items. To do this, a descriptor is associated with each lexical item; two types of algorithms are used to calculate the relationships between descriptors ('similarity' or 'predicativity' relations). This system makes it possible to simulate linguistic experiences. Some results have been predicted and verified experimentally. [fr

  18. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  19. Learning semantic query suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Bron, M.; Hollink, L.; Huurnink, B.; de Rijke, M.

    2009-01-01

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide

  20. Spatial-Temporal Junction Extraction and Semantic Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kasper Broegaard; Thorsted Nielsen, Mads; Pilz, Florian

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a novel junction descriptor that encodes junctions’ semantic information in terms incoming lines’ orientations, both in 2D and 3D. A Kalman filter process is used to reduce the effect of local noise on the descriptor's error and to track the features. The improvement gained...

  1. From Data to Semantic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Floridi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

  2. SEMANTIC DERIVATION OF BORROWINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigapova, F.F.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author carried out the contrastive analysis of the word спикер borrowed into Russian from English and the English word speaker. The findings of the analysis include confirm (1 different derivational abilities and functions of the borrowed word and the native word; (2 distinctive features in the definitions, i.e. semantic structures, registered in monolingual non-abridged dictionaries; (3 heterogeneous parameters of frequencies recorded in the National Corpus of the Russian language and the British National Corpus; (4 absence of bilingual equivalent collocations with words спикер and speaker. The collocations with words studied revealed new lexical and connotative senses in the meaning of the word. Relevance of the study conducted is justified by the new facts revealed about the semantic adaptation of the borrowed word in the system of the Russian language and its paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections in the system of the recipient language.

  3. Semantic Activity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Thonnat , Monique

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Extracting automatically the semantics from visual data is a real challenge. We describe in this paper how recent work in cognitive vision leads to significative results in activity recognition for visualsurveillance and video monitoring. In particular we present work performed in the domain of video understanding in our PULSAR team at INRIA in Sophia Antipolis. Our main objective is to analyse in real-time video streams captured by static video cameras and to recogniz...

  4. Semantically Enhanced Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montiel, Manuela; Aldana-Montes, José F.

    Recommender Systems have become a significant area in the context of web personalization, given the large amount of available data. Ontologies can be widely taken advantage of in recommender systems, since they provide a means of classifying and discovering of new information about the items to recommend, about user profiles and even about their context. We have developed a semantically enhanced recommender system based on this kind of ontologies. In this paper we present a description of the proposed system.

  5. Einstein's error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterflood, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    In discussing Einstein's Special Relativity theory it is claimed that it violates the principle of relativity itself and that an anomalous sign in the mathematics is found in the factor which transforms one inertial observer's measurements into those of another inertial observer. The apparent source of this error is discussed. Having corrected the error a new theory, called Observational Kinematics, is introduced to replace Einstein's Special Relativity. (U.K.)

  6. Insensitive Enough Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vallée

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available According to some philosophers, sentences like (1 “It is raining” and (2 “John is ready” are context sensitive sentences even if they do not contain indexicals or demonstratives. That view initiated a context sensitivity frenzy. Cappelen and Lepore (2005 summarize the frenzy by the slogan “Every sentence is context sensitive” (Insensitive Semantics, p. 6, note 5. They suggest a view they call Minimalism according to which the truth conditions of utterances of sentences like (1/(2 are exactly what Convention T gives you. I will distinguish different propositions, and refocus semantics on sentences. As distinct from what the protagonists in the ongoing debate think, I argue that the content or truth conditions of utterances of both context sensitive sentences and sentences like (1/(2 are not interesting from a semantic point of view, and that the problem sentences like (1/(2 raises is not about context sensitivity or context insensitivity of sentences, but relevance of the content of utterances.

  7. Causality in the semantics of Esterel : revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousavi, M.R.; Klin, B.; Sobocinski, P.

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the challenges concerning causality in the semantics of Esterel and show that they pertain to the known issues in the semantics of Structured Operational Semantics with negative premises. We show that the solutions offered for the semantics of SOS also provide answers to the semantic

  8. Subliminal semantic priming in speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Daltrozzo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported subliminal repetition and semantic priming in the visual modality. We transferred this paradigm to the auditory modality. Prime awareness was manipulated by a reduction of sound intensity level. Uncategorized prime words (according to a post-test were followed by semantically related, unrelated, or repeated target words (presented without intensity reduction and participants performed a lexical decision task (LDT. Participants with slower reaction times in the LDT showed semantic priming (faster reaction times for semantically related compared to unrelated targets and negative repetition priming (slower reaction times for repeated compared to semantically related targets. This is the first report of semantic priming in the auditory modality without conscious categorization of the prime.

  9. Hierarchical Semantic Model of Geovideo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Xiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The public security incidents were getting increasingly challenging with regard to their new features, including multi-scale mobility, multistage dynamic evolution, as well as spatiotemporal concurrency and uncertainty in the complex urban environment. However, the existing video models, which were used/designed for independent archive or local analysis of surveillance video, have seriously inhibited emergency response to the urgent requirements.Aiming at the explicit representation of change mechanism in video, the paper proposed a novel hierarchical geovideo semantic model using UML. This model was characterized by the hierarchical representation of both data structure and semantics based on the change-oriented three domains (feature domain, process domain and event domain instead of overall semantic description of video streaming; combining both geographical semantics and video content semantics, in support of global semantic association between multiple geovideo data. The public security incidents by video surveillance are inspected as an example to illustrate the validity of this model.

  10. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  11. Semantic multimedia analysis and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Mylonas, Phivos

    2014-01-01

    Broad in scope, Semantic Multimedia Analysis and Processing provides a complete reference of techniques, algorithms, and solutions for the design and the implementation of contemporary multimedia systems. Offering a balanced, global look at the latest advances in semantic indexing, retrieval, analysis, and processing of multimedia, the book features the contributions of renowned researchers from around the world. Its contents are based on four fundamental thematic pillars: 1) information and content retrieval, 2) semantic knowledge exploitation paradigms, 3) multimedia personalization, and 4)

  12. Semantic Representatives of the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Tsay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

  13. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available System semantics of explanatory dictionaries Some semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hypercycles formalism. The connection between the hypercyle properties of the lexicographical system semantics and Goedel’s incompleteness theorem is discussed.

  14. No one way ticket from orthography to semantics in recognition memory: N400 and P200 effects of associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuellein, Nicole; Radach, Ralph R; Jacobs, Arthur M; Hofmann, Markus J

    2016-05-15

    Computational models of word recognition already successfully used associative spreading from orthographic to semantic levels to account for false memories. But can they also account for semantic effects on event-related potentials in a recognition memory task? To address this question, target words in the present study had either many or few semantic associates in the stimulus set. We found larger P200 amplitudes and smaller N400 amplitudes for old words in comparison to new words. Words with many semantic associates led to larger P200 amplitudes and a smaller N400 in comparison to words with a smaller number of semantic associations. We also obtained inverted response time and accuracy effects for old and new words: faster response times and fewer errors were found for old words that had many semantic associates, whereas new words with a large number of semantic associates produced slower response times and more errors. Both behavioral and electrophysiological results indicate that semantic associations between words can facilitate top-down driven lexical access and semantic integration in recognition memory. Our results support neurophysiologically plausible predictions of the Associative Read-Out Model, which suggests top-down connections from semantic to orthographic layers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality Assurance of UMLS Semantic Type Assignments Using SNOMED CT Hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, H; Chen, Y; He, Z; Halper, M; Chen, L

    2016-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is one of the largest biomedical terminological systems, with over 2.5 million concepts in its Metathesaurus repository. The UMLS's Semantic Network (SN) with its collection of 133 high-level semantic types serves as an abstraction layer on top of the Metathesaurus. In particular, the SN elaborates an aspect of the Metathesaurus's concepts via the assignment of one or more types to each concept. Due to the scope and complexity of the Metathesaurus, errors are all but inevitable in this semantic-type assignment process. To develop a semi-automated methodology to help assure the quality of semantic-type assignments within the UMLS. The methodology uses a cross-validation strategy involving SNOMED CT's hierarchies in combination with UMLS semantic types. Semantically uniform, disjoint concept groups are generated programmatically by partitioning the collection of all concepts in the same SNOMED CT hierarchy according to their respective semantic-type assignments in the UMLS. Domain experts are then called upon to review the concepts in any group having a small number of concepts. It is our hypothesis that a semantic-type assignment combination applicable only to a very small number of concepts in a SNOMED CT hierarchy is an indicator of potential problems. The methodology was applied to the UMLS 2013AA release along with the SNOMED CT from January 2013. An overall error rate of 33% was found for concepts proposed by the quality-assurance methodology. Supporting our hypothesis, that number was four times higher than the error rate found in control samples. The results show that the quality-assurance methodology can aid in effective and efficient identification of UMLS semantic-type assignment errors.

  16. Errors, error detection, error correction and hippocampal-region damage: data and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W

    2013-11-01

    This review and perspective article outlines 15 observational constraints on theories of errors, error detection, and error correction, and their relation to hippocampal-region (HR) damage. The core observations come from 10 studies with H.M., an amnesic with cerebellar and HR damage but virtually no neocortical damage. Three studies examined the detection of errors planted in visual scenes (e.g., a bird flying in a fish bowl in a school classroom) and sentences (e.g., I helped themselves to the birthday cake). In all three experiments, H.M. detected reliably fewer errors than carefully matched memory-normal controls. Other studies examined the detection and correction of self-produced errors, with controls for comprehension of the instructions, impaired visual acuity, temporal factors, motoric slowing, forgetting, excessive memory load, lack of motivation, and deficits in visual scanning or attention. In these studies, H.M. corrected reliably fewer errors than memory-normal and cerebellar controls, and his uncorrected errors in speech, object naming, and reading aloud exhibited two consistent features: omission and anomaly. For example, in sentence production tasks, H.M. omitted one or more words in uncorrected encoding errors that rendered his sentences anomalous (incoherent, incomplete, or ungrammatical) reliably more often than controls. Besides explaining these core findings, the theoretical principles discussed here explain H.M.'s retrograde amnesia for once familiar episodic and semantic information; his anterograde amnesia for novel information; his deficits in visual cognition, sentence comprehension, sentence production, sentence reading, and object naming; and effects of aging on his ability to read isolated low frequency words aloud. These theoretical principles also explain a wide range of other data on error detection and correction and generate new predictions for future test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Semantic content-based recommendations using semantic graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weisen; Kraines, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems (RSs) can be useful for suggesting items that might be of interest to specific users. Most existing content-based recommendation (CBR) systems are designed to recommend items based on text content, and the items in these systems are usually described with keywords. However, similarity evaluations based on keywords suffer from the ambiguity of natural languages. We present a semantic CBR method that uses Semantic Web technologies to recommend items that are more similar semantically with the items that the user prefers. We use semantic graphs to represent the items and we calculate the similarity scores for each pair of semantic graphs using an inverse graph frequency algorithm. The items having higher similarity scores to the items that are known to be preferred by the user are recommended.

  18. Personal semantics: at the crossroads of semantic and episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoult, Louis; Davidson, Patrick S R; Palombo, Daniela J; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian

    2012-11-01

    Declarative memory is usually described as consisting of two systems: semantic and episodic memory. Between these two poles, however, may lie a third entity: personal semantics (PS). PS concerns knowledge of one's past. Although typically assumed to be an aspect of semantic memory, it is essentially absent from existing models of knowledge. Furthermore, like episodic memory (EM), PS is idiosyncratically personal (i.e., not culturally-shared). We show that, depending on how it is operationalized, the neural correlates of PS can look more similar to semantic memory, more similar to EM, or dissimilar to both. We consider three different perspectives to better integrate PS into existing models of declarative memory and suggest experimental strategies for disentangling PS from semantic and episodic memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Connectionism and Compositional Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    can use their hidden layers to learn difficult discriminations. such as panty or the Penzias two clumps/three clumps problem, where the output is...sauce." For novel sentences that are similar to the training sentences (e.g., train on "the girl hit the boy," test on -the boy hit the girl "), the...overridden by semantic considerations. as in this example from Wendy Lehnert (personal communicanon): (5) John saw the girl with the telescope in a red

  20. A Semantics of Synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    suggestion of having very hungry philosophers. One can easily imagine the complexity of the equivalent implementation using semaphores . Synchronization types...Edinburgh, July 1978. [STAR79] Stark, E.W., " Semaphore Primitives and Fair Mutual Exclusion," TM-158, Laboratory for Computer Science, M.I.T., Cambridge...AD-AQ91 015 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE LAB FOR COMPUTE--ETC F/S 9/2 A SEMANTICS OF SYNCHRONIZATION .(U) .C SEP 80 C A SEAQUIST N00015-75

  1. Semantics, Conceptual Role

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Ned

    1997-01-01

    According to Conceptual Role Semantics ("CRS"), the meaning of a representation is the role of that representation in the cognitive life of the agent, e.g. in perception, thought and decision-making. It is an extension of the well known "use" theory of meaning, according to which the meaning of a word is its use in communication and more generally, in social interaction. CRS supplements external use by including the role of a symbol inside a computer or a brain. The uses appealed to are not j...

  2. A Generalization of Inquisitive Semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Vít

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2016), s. 399-428 ISSN 0022-3611 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Intuitionistic logic * Superintuitionistic logics * Inquisitive logic * Topological semantics * Kripke semantics * Disjunction Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  3. The Problem of Naturalizing Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    Investigates conceptual barriers prevalent in the works of both proponents and opponents of semantic naturalism. Searches for a tenable definition of naturalism according to which one can be a realist, a non-reductionist, and a naturalist about semantic content. (Author/VWL)

  4. On the Semantics of Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kess, Joseph F.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the semantics of the notion of focus, insofar as it relates to Filipino languages. The evolution of this notion is reviewed, and an alternative explanation of it is given, stressing the fact that grammar and semantics should be kept separate in a discussion of focus. (CLK)

  5. Semantic Coherence Facilitates Distributional Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Long; Boroditsky, Lera; Frank, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    Computational models have shown that purely statistical knowledge about words' linguistic contexts is sufficient to learn many properties of words, including syntactic and semantic category. For example, models can infer that "postman" and "mailman" are semantically similar because they have quantitatively similar patterns of association with other words (e.g., they both tend to occur with words like "deliver," "truck," "package"). In contrast to these computational results, artificial language learning experiments suggest that distributional statistics alone do not facilitate learning of linguistic categories. However, experiments in this paradigm expose participants to entirely novel words, whereas real language learners encounter input that contains some known words that are semantically organized. In three experiments, we show that (a) the presence of familiar semantic reference points facilitates distributional learning and (b) this effect crucially depends both on the presence of known words and the adherence of these known words to some semantic organization. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Polish Semantic Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grudzinska

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amount of information transferred by computers grows very rapidly thus outgrowing the average man's capability of reception. It implies computer programs increase in the demand for which would be able to perform an introductory classitication or even selection of information directed to a particular receiver. Due to the complexity of the problem, we restricted it to understanding short newspaper notes. Among many conceptions formulated so far, the conceptual dependency worked out by Roger Schank has been chosen. It is a formal language of description of the semantics of pronouncement integrated with a text understanding algorithm. Substantial part of each text transformation system is a semantic parser of the Polish language. It is a module, which as the first and the only one has an access to the text in the Polish language. lt plays the role of an element, which finds relations between words of the Polish language and the formal registration. It translates sentences written in the language used by people into the language theory. The presented structure of knowledge units and the shape of understanding process algorithms are universal by virtue of the theory. On the other hand the defined knowledge units and the rules used in the algorithms ure only examples because they are constructed in order to understand short newspaper notes.

  7. Latent semantic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulos, Nicholas E

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews latent semantic analysis (LSA), a theory of meaning as well as a method for extracting that meaning from passages of text, based on statistical computations over a collection of documents. LSA as a theory of meaning defines a latent semantic space where documents and individual words are represented as vectors. LSA as a computational technique uses linear algebra to extract dimensions that represent that space. This representation enables the computation of similarity among terms and documents, categorization of terms and documents, and summarization of large collections of documents using automated procedures that mimic the way humans perform similar cognitive tasks. We present some technical details, various illustrative examples, and discuss a number of applications from linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, education, information science, and analysis of textual data in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:683-692. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1254 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Louise

    2013-05-01

    The fields of semantics and pragmatics are devoted to the study of conventionalized and context- or use-dependent aspects of natural language meaning, respectively. The complexity of human language as a semiotic system has led to considerable debate about how the semantics/pragmatics distinction should be drawn, if at all. This debate largely reflects contrasting views of meaning as a property of linguistic expressions versus something that speakers do. The fact that both views of meaning are essential to a complete understanding of language has led to a variety of efforts over the last 40 years to develop better integrated and more comprehensive theories of language use and interpretation. The most important advances have included the adaptation of propositional analyses of declarative sentences to interrogative, imperative and exclamative forms; the emergence of dynamic, game theoretic, and multi-dimensional theories of meaning; and the development of various techniques for incorporating context-dependent aspects of content into representations of context-invariant content with the goal of handling phenomena such as vagueness resolution, metaphor, and metonymy. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:285-297. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1227 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Semantic attributes based texture generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Huifang; Gan, Yanhai; Qi, Lin; Dong, Junyu; Madessa, Amanuel Hirpa

    2018-04-01

    Semantic attributes are commonly used for texture description. They can be used to describe the information of a texture, such as patterns, textons, distributions, brightness, and so on. Generally speaking, semantic attributes are more concrete descriptors than perceptual features. Therefore, it is practical to generate texture images from semantic attributes. In this paper, we propose to generate high-quality texture images from semantic attributes. Over the last two decades, several works have been done on texture synthesis and generation. Most of them focusing on example-based texture synthesis and procedural texture generation. Semantic attributes based texture generation still deserves more devotion. Gan et al. proposed a useful joint model for perception driven texture generation. However, perceptual features are nonobjective spatial statistics used by humans to distinguish different textures in pre-attentive situations. To give more describing information about texture appearance, semantic attributes which are more in line with human description habits are desired. In this paper, we use sigmoid cross entropy loss in an auxiliary model to provide enough information for a generator. Consequently, the discriminator is released from the relatively intractable mission of figuring out the joint distribution of condition vectors and samples. To demonstrate the validity of our method, we compare our method to Gan et al.'s method on generating textures by designing experiments on PTD and DTD. All experimental results show that our model can generate textures from semantic attributes.

  10. Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

  11. Adaptive semantics visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Nazemi, Kawa

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

  12. Communication of Semantic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2004-01-01

    The selection of materials and planning for production play a key role for the design of physical products. Product function, appearance and expression are influenced by the chosen materials and how they are shaped. However these properties are not carried by the material itself, but by the speci......The selection of materials and planning for production play a key role for the design of physical products. Product function, appearance and expression are influenced by the chosen materials and how they are shaped. However these properties are not carried by the material itself...... processes. This working paper argues for the need for a commonly accepted terminology used to communicate semantic product properties. Designers and others involved in design processes are dependent of a sharp and clear verbal communication. Search facilities in computer programs for product and material...

  13. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  14. Semantic acquisition games harnessing manpower for creating semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Šimko, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and extensive review of state-of-the-art in semantics acquisition game (SAG) design A set of design patterns for SAG designers A set of case studies (real SAG projects) demonstrating the use of SAG design patterns

  15. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  16. Semantic similarity between old and new items produces false alarms in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefinese, Maria; Zannino, Gian Daniele; Ambrosini, Ettore

    2015-09-01

    In everyday life, human beings can report memories of past events that did not occur or that occurred differently from the way they remember them because memory is an imperfect process of reconstruction and is prone to distortion and errors. In this recognition study using word stimuli, we investigated whether a specific operationalization of semantic similarity among concepts can modulate false memories while controlling for the possible effect of associative strength and word co-occurrence in an old-new recognition task. The semantic similarity value of each new concept was calculated as the mean cosine similarity between pairs of vectors representing that new concept and each old concept belonging to the same semantic category. Results showed that, compared with (new) low-similarity concepts, (new) high-similarity concepts had significantly higher probability of being falsely recognized as old, even after partialling out the effect of confounding variables, including associative relatedness and lexical co-occurrence. This finding supports the feature-based view of semantic memory, suggesting that meaning overlap and sharing of semantic features (which are greater when more similar semantic concepts are being processed) have an influence on recognition performance, resulting in more false alarms for new high-similarity concepts. We propose that the associative strength and word co-occurrence among concepts are not sufficient to explain illusory memories but is important to take into account also the effects of feature-based semantic relations, and, in particular, the semantic similarity among concepts.

  17. Lexical Errors and Accuracy in Foreign Language Writing. Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pilar Agustin Llach, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Lexical errors are a determinant in gaining insight into vocabulary acquisition, vocabulary use and writing quality assessment. Lexical errors are very frequent in the written production of young EFL learners, but they decrease as learners gain proficiency. Misspellings are the most common category, but formal errors give way to semantic-based…

  18. Anatomic, Clinical, and Neuropsychological Correlates of Spelling Errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, HyungSub; Hurley, Robert S.; Rogalski, Emily; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates spelling errors in the three subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): agrammatic (PPA-G), logopenic (PPA-L), and semantic (PPA-S). Forty-one PPA patients and 36 age-matched healthy controls were administered a test of spelling. The total number of errors and types of errors in spelling to dictation of regular words,…

  19. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  20. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  1. NASA and The Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  2. Are Some Semantic Changes Predictable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Steen

    2010-01-01

      Historical linguistics is traditionally concerned with phonology and syntax. With the exception of grammaticalization - the development of auxiliary verbs, the syntactic rather than localistic use of prepositions, etc. - semantic change has usually not been described as a result of regular...... developments, but only as specific meaning changes in individual words. This paper will suggest some regularities in semantic change, regularities which, like sound laws, have predictive power and can be tested against recorded languages....

  3. Efficient computation of argumentation semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Beishui

    2013-01-01

    Efficient Computation of Argumentation Semantics addresses argumentation semantics and systems, introducing readers to cutting-edge decomposition methods that drive increasingly efficient logic computation in AI and intelligent systems. Such complex and distributed systems are increasingly used in the automation and transportation systems field, and particularly autonomous systems, as well as more generic intelligent computation research. The Series in Intelligent Systems publishes titles that cover state-of-the-art knowledge and the latest advances in research and development in intelligen

  4. Medication Errors - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay BC; Nikhitha MK; Patel Sunil B

    2015-01-01

    In this present review article, regarding medication errors its definition, medication error problem, types of medication errors, common causes of medication errors, monitoring medication errors, consequences of medication errors, prevention of medication error and managing medication errors have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand.

  5. Graph-based Operational Semantics of a Lazy Functional Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Kristoffer Høgsbro

    1992-01-01

    Presents Graph Operational Semantics (GOS): a semantic specification formalism based on structural operational semantics and term graph rewriting. Demonstrates the method by specifying the dynamic ...

  6. COTARD SYNDROME IN SEMANTIC DEMENTIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Mario F.; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of meaning of words or concepts. semantic dementia can offer potential insights into the mechanisms of content-specific delusions. Objective The authors present a rare case of semantic dementia with Cotard syndrome, a delusion characterized by nihilism or self-negation. Method The semantic deficits and other features of semantic dementia were evaluated in relation to the patient's Cotard syndrome. Results Mrs. A developed the delusional belief that she was wasting and dying. This occurred after she lost knowledge for her somatic discomforts and sensations and for the organs that were the source of these sensations. Her nihilistic beliefs appeared to emerge from her misunderstanding of her somatic sensations. Conclusion This unique patient suggests that a mechanism for Cotard syndrome is difficulty interpreting the nature and source of internal pains and sensations. We propose that loss of semantic knowledge about one's own body may lead to the delusion of nihilism or death. PMID:22054629

  7. Semantic Data Matching: Principles and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Russell; Doan, Thao; Schweiger, Tom

    Automated and real-time management of customer relationships requires robust and intelligent data matching across widespread and diverse data sources. Simple string matching algorithms, such as dynamic programming, can handle typographical errors in the data, but are less able to match records that require contextual and experiential knowledge. Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) (Berry et al. ; Deerwester et al. is a machine intelligence technique that can match data based upon higher order structure, and is able to handle difficult problems, such as words that have different meanings but the same spelling, are synonymous, or have multiple meanings. Essentially, the technique matches records based upon context, or mathematically quantifying when terms occur in the same record.

  8. The timing of spontaneous detection and repair of naming errors in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchard, Julia; Middleton, Erica L; Schwartz, Myrna F

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the timing of spontaneous self-monitoring in the naming responses of people with aphasia. Twelve people with aphasia completed a 615-item naming test twice, in separate sessions. Naming attempts were scored for accuracy and error type, and verbalizations indicating detection were coded as negation (e.g., "no, not that") or repair attempts (i.e., a changed naming attempt). Focusing on phonological and semantic errors, we measured the timing of the errors and of the utterances that provided evidence of detection. The effects of error type and detection response type on error-to-detection latencies were analyzed using mixed-effects regression modeling. We first asked whether phonological errors and semantic errors differed in the timing of the detection process or repair planning. Results suggested that the two error types primarily differed with respect to repair planning. Specifically, repair attempts for phonological errors were initiated more quickly than repair attempts for semantic errors. We next asked whether this difference between the error types could be attributed to the tendency for phonological errors to have a high degree of phonological similarity with the subsequent repair attempts, thereby speeding the programming of the repairs. Results showed that greater phonological similarity between the error and the repair was associated with faster repair times for both error types, providing evidence of error-to-repair priming in spontaneous self-monitoring. When controlling for phonological overlap, significant effects of error type and repair accuracy on repair times were also found. These effects indicated that correct repairs of phonological errors were initiated particularly quickly, whereas repairs of semantic errors were initiated relatively slowly, regardless of their accuracy. We discuss the implications of these findings for theoretical accounts of self-monitoring and the role of speech error repair in learning. Copyright

  9. Cognitive performance and aphasia recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José; Raposo, Ana; Martins, Isabel Pavão

    2018-03-01

    Objectives This study assessed cognitive performance of subjects with aphasia during the acute stage of stroke and evaluated how such performance relates to recovery at 3 months. Materials & methods Patients with aphasia following a left hemisphere stroke were evaluated during the first (baseline) and the fourth-month post onset. Assessment comprised non-verbal tests of attention/processing speed (Symbol Search, Cancelation Task), executive functioning (Matrix Reasoning, Tower of Hanoi, Clock Drawing, Motor Initiative), semantic (Camel and Cactus Test), episodic and immediate memory (Memory for Faces Test, 5 Objects Memory Test, and Spatial Span. Recovery was measured by the Token Test score at 3 months. The impact of baseline performance on recovery was evaluated by logistic regression adjusting for age, education, severity of aphasia and the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT (ASPECT) score. Results Thirty-nine subjects (with a mean of 66.5 ± 10.6 years of age, 17 men) were included. Average baseline cognitive performance was within normal range in all tests except in memory tests (semantic, episodic and immediate memory) for which scores were ≤-1.5sd. Subjects with poor aphasia recovery (N = 27) were older and had fewer years of formal education but had identical ASPECT score compared to those with favorable recovery. Considering each test individually, the score obtained on the Matrix Reasoning test was the only one to predict aphasia recovery (Exp(B)=24.085 p = 0.038). Conclusions The Matrix Reasoning Test may contribute to predict aphasia recovery. Cognitive performance is a measure of network disruption but may also indicate the availability of recovery strategies.

  10. Error Budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinyard, Natalia Sergeevna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Theodore Sonne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    We calculate opacity from k (hn)=-ln[T(hv)]/pL, where T(hv) is the transmission for photon energy hv, p is sample density, and L is path length through the sample. The density and path length are measured together by Rutherford backscatter. Δk = $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial T$ ΔT + $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial (pL)$. We can re-write this in terms of fractional error as Δk/k = Δ1n(T)/T + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission itself is calculated from T=(U-E)/(V-E)=B/B0, where B is transmitted backlighter (BL) signal and B0 is unattenuated backlighter signal. Then ΔT/T=Δln(T)=ΔB/B+ΔB0/B0, and consequently Δk/k = 1/T (ΔB/B + ΔB$_0$/B$_0$ + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission is measured in the range of 0.2

  11. Process-oriented semantic web search

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, DT

    2011-01-01

    The book is composed of two main parts. The first part is a general study of Semantic Web Search. The second part specifically focuses on the use of semantics throughout the search process, compiling a big picture of Process-oriented Semantic Web Search from different pieces of work that target specific aspects of the process.In particular, this book provides a rigorous account of the concepts and technologies proposed for searching resources and semantic data on the Semantic Web. To collate the various approaches and to better understand what the notion of Semantic Web Search entails, this bo

  12. CASL The Common Algebraic Specification Language Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1998-01-01

    This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998.......This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998....

  13. Psychologizing the Semantics of Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Woods

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychologiser la sémantique de la fictionLes théoriciens sémantistes de la fiction cherchent typiquement à expliquer nos relations sémantiques au fictionnel dans le contexte plus général des théories de la référence, privilégiant une explication de la sémantique sur le psychologique. Dans cet article, nous défendons une dépendance inverse. Par l’éclaircissement de nos relations psychologiques au fictionnel, nous trouverons un guide pour savoir comment développer une sémantique de la fiction. S’ensuivra une esquisse de la sémantique.Semantic theorists of fiction typically look for an account of our semantic relations to the fictional within general-purpose theories of reference, privileging an explanation of the semantic over the psychological. In this paper, we counsel a reverse dependency. In sorting out our psychological relations to the fictional, there is useful guidance about how to proceed with the semantics of fiction. A sketch of the semantics follows.

  14. Semantic graphs and associative memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo

    2004-12-01

    Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets.

  15. ERPs, semantic processing and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, T; Katayama, J; Koyama, T

    1998-06-01

    ERPs (N400, LPC and CNV) were elicited in two sets of subjects grouped according to age (young vs. elderly) using a word-pair category matching paradigm. Each prime consisted of a Japanese noun (constructed from two to four characters of the Hiragana) followed by one Chinese character (Kanji) as the target, this latter representing one of five semantic categories. There were two equally probable target conditions: match or mismatch. Each target was preceded by a prime, either belonging to, or not belonging to, the same semantic category. The subjects were required to respond with a specified button press to the given target according to the condition. We found RTs to be longer in the elderly subjects and under the mismatch condition. N400 amplitude was reduced in the elderly subjects under the mismatch condition and there was no difference between match and mismatch response, which were similar in amplitude to that under match condition for the young subjects. In addition, the CNV amplitudes were larger in the elderly subjects. These results suggested that functional changes in semantic processing through aging (larger semantic networks and diffuse semantic activation) were the cause of this N400 reduction, attributing a subsidiary role to attentional disturbance. We also discuss the importance of taking age-related changes into consideration in clinical studies.

  16. Modulation of alpha oscillations is required for the suppression of semantic interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Natalia; Mapelli, Igor; Özkurt, Tolga Esat

    2017-10-01

    Recent findings on alpha band oscillations suggest their important role in memory consolidation and suppression of external distractors such as environmental noise. However, less attention was given to the phenomenon of internal distracting information being solely inherent to the stimuli content. Human memory may be prone to internal distractions caused by semantic relatedness between the meaning of words (e.g., atom, neutron, nucleus, etc.) to be encoded, i.e., semantic interference. Our study investigates the brain oscillatory dynamics behind the semantic interference phenomenon, whose possible outcome is known as false memories. In this direction, Deese-Roediger-McDermott word lists were appropriated for a modified Sternberg paradigm in auditory modality. Participants received semantically related and unrelated word lists via headphones while EEG data were acquired. Semantic interference triggered the false memory rates to be higher than those of other types of memory errors. Analysis demonstrated that the upper part of alpha band (∼10-12Hz) power decreases on parieto-occipital channels in the retention interval, prior to the probe item for semantically related condition. Our study elucidates the oscillatory mechanisms behind semantic interference by relying on alpha functional inhibition theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. EVALUATION OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY FOR SENTENCES IN NATURAL LANGUAGE BY MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Pismak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper is focused on Wiktionary articles structural organization in the aspect of its usage as the base for semantic network. Wiktionary community references, article templates and articles markup features are analyzed. The problem of numerical estimation for semantic similarity of structural elements in Wiktionary articles is considered. Analysis of existing software for semantic similarity estimation of such elements is carried out; algorithms of their functioning are studied; their advantages and disadvantages are shown. Methods. Mathematical statistics methods were used to analyze Wiktionary articles markup features. The method of semantic similarity computing based on statistics data for compared structural elements was proposed.Main Results. We have concluded that there is no possibility for direct use of Wiktionary articles as the source for semantic network. We have proposed to find hidden similarity between article elements, and for that purpose we have developed the algorithm for calculation of confidence coefficients proving that each pair of sentences is semantically near. The research of quantitative and qualitative characteristics for the developed algorithm has shown its major performance advantage over the other existing solutions in the presence of insignificantly higher error rate. Practical Relevance. The resulting algorithm may be useful in developing tools for automatic Wiktionary articles parsing. The developed method could be used in computing of semantic similarity for short text fragments in natural language in case of algorithm performance requirements are higher than its accuracy specifications.

  18. Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Moe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

    Keywords: SEMANTIC DOMAINS, SEMANTIC FIELDS, SEMANTIC CATEGORIES, LEX-ICAL RELATIONS, SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, DOMAIN TEMPLATES, MENTAL LEXICON, SEMANTIC UNIVERSALS, MINORITY LANGUAGES, LEXICOGRAPHY

    Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die

  19. Ontology Matching with Semantic Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mary, Yves R; Shironoshita, E Patrick; Kabuka, Mansur R

    2009-09-01

    ASMOV (Automated Semantic Matching of Ontologies with Verification) is a novel algorithm that uses lexical and structural characteristics of two ontologies to iteratively calculate a similarity measure between them, derives an alignment, and then verifies it to ensure that it does not contain semantic inconsistencies. In this paper, we describe the ASMOV algorithm, and then present experimental results that measure its accuracy using the OAEI 2008 tests, and that evaluate its use with two different thesauri: WordNet, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These results show the increased accuracy obtained by combining lexical, structural and extensional matchers with semantic verification, and demonstrate the advantage of using a domain-specific thesaurus for the alignment of specialized ontologies.

  20. The surplus value of semantic annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, M.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the costs of semantic annotation of textual documents to its benefits for information processing tasks. Semantic annotation can improve the performance of retrieval tasks and facilitates an improved search experience through faceted search, focused retrieval, better document summaries,

  1. Behavior Modification Through Covert Semantic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Hamid; Vanian, Daniel

    1971-01-01

    Results support the hypothesized relationship between meaning and phobia. Semantic desensitization techniques based on counter conditioning of meaning were significantly effective in altering the semantic value of the word from unpleasantness to neutrality. (Author)

  2. Relaxation as a Factor in Semantic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, James E.; McNamara, J. Regis

    1975-01-01

    Relaxation and semantic desensitization were used to alleviate the fear of phobic females. Results showed that semantic desensitization, alone or in combination with relaxation, failed to modify the evaluative meanings evoked by the feared object. (SE)

  3. A generalized notion of semantic independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Stengel, Bernhard von; Wittmüss, Arne

    1995-01-01

    For programs represented semantically as relations, a concept of semantic independence is defined that is more general than previously stated notions. It allows for shared input variables and irrelevant interference due to nondeterminism.......For programs represented semantically as relations, a concept of semantic independence is defined that is more general than previously stated notions. It allows for shared input variables and irrelevant interference due to nondeterminism....

  4. The semantic structure of gratitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov, Alexander V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the modern social and economic environment of Russia, gratitude might be considered an ambiguous phenomenon. It can have different meaning for a person in different contexts and can manifest itself differently as well (that is, as an expression of sincere feelings or as an element of corruption. In this respect it is topical to investigate the system of meanings and relationships that define the semantic space of gratitude. The goal of the study was the investigation and description of the content and structure of the semantic space of the gratitude phenomenon as well as the determination of male, female, age, and ethnic peculiarities of the expression of gratitude. The objective was achieved by using the semantic differential designed by the authors to investigate attitudes toward gratitude. This investigation was carried out with the participation of 184 respondents (Russians, Tatars, Ukrainians, Jews living in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Israel, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom and identifying themselves as representatives of one of these nationalities. The structural components of gratitude were singled out by means of exploratory factor analysis of the empirical data from the designed semantic differential. Gender, age, and ethnic differences were differentiated by means of Student’s t-test. Gratitude can be represented by material and nonmaterial forms as well as by actions in response to help given. The empirical data allowed us to design the ethnically nonspecified semantic structure of gratitude. During the elaboration of the differential, semantic universals of gratitude, which constitute its psychosemantic content, were distinguished. Peculiarities of attitudes toward gratitude by those in different age and gender groups were revealed. Differences in the degree of manifestation of components of the psychosemantic structure of gratitude related to ethnic characteristics were not discovered

  5. Comparing implicit and explicit semantic access of direct and indirect word pairs in schizophrenia to evaluate models of semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Erica; Rossell, Susan Lee

    2013-02-28

    Semantic memory deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are profound, yet there is no research comparing implicit and explicit semantic processing in the same participant sample. In the current study, both implicit and explicit priming are investigated using direct (LION-TIGER) and indirect (LION-STRIPES; where tiger is not displayed) stimuli comparing SZ to healthy controls. Based on a substantive review (Rossell and Stefanovic, 2007) and meta-analysis (Pomarol-Clotet et al., 2008), it was predicted that SZ would be associated with increased indirect priming implicitly. Further, it was predicted that SZ would be associated with abnormal indirect priming explicitly, replicating earlier work (Assaf et al., 2006). No specific hypotheses were made for implicit direct priming due to the heterogeneity of the literature. It was hypothesised that explicit direct priming would be intact based on the structured nature of this task. The pattern of results suggests (1) intact reaction time (RT) and error performance implicitly in the face of abnormal direct priming and (2) impaired RT and error performance explicitly. This pattern confirms general findings regarding implicit/explicit memory impairments in SZ whilst highlighting the unique pattern of performance specific to semantic priming. Finally, priming performance is discussed in relation to thought disorder and length of illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fast Failure Recovery for Main-Memory DBMSs on Multicores

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yingjun; Guo, Wentian; Chan, Chee-Yong; Tan, Kian-Lee

    2016-01-01

    Main-memory database management systems (DBMS) can achieve excellent performance when processing massive volume of on-line transactions on modern multi-core machines. But existing durability schemes, namely, tuple-level and transaction-level logging-and-recovery mechanisms, either degrade the performance of transaction processing or slow down the process of failure recovery. In this paper, we show that, by exploiting application semantics, it is possible to achieve speedy failure recovery wit...

  7. Semantic Query Processing : Estimating Relational Purity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalo, Jan-Christoph; Lofi, C.; Maseli, René Pascal; Balke, Wolf-Tilo; Leyer, M.

    2017-01-01

    The use of semantic information found in structured knowledge bases has become an integral part of the processing pipeline of modern intelligent in-
    formation systems. However, such semantic information is frequently insuffi-cient to capture the rich semantics demanded by the applications, and

  8. A Model for Semantic IS Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; Oude Luttighuis, Paul; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2011-01-01

    We argue that, in order to suggest improvements of any kind to semantic information system (IS) standards, better understanding of the conceptual structure of semantic IS standard is required. This study develops a model for semantic IS standard, based on literature and expert knowledge. The model

  9. Semantic heterogeneity: comparing new semantic web approaches with those of digital libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    To demonstrate that newer developments in the semantic web community, particularly those based on ontologies (simple knowledge organization system and others) mitigate common arguments from the digital library (DL) community against participation in the Semantic web. The approach is a semantic web discussion focusing on the weak structure of the Web and the lack of consideration given to the semantic content during indexing. The points criticised by the semantic web and ontology approaches ar...

  10. Towards semantic software engineering enviroments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falbo, R.A.; Guizzardi, G.; Natali, A.; Bertollo, G.; Ruy, F.; Mian, P.; Tortora, G.; Chang, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Software tools processing partially common set of data should share an understanding of what these data mean. Since ontologies have been used to express formally a shared understanding of information, we argue that they are a way towards Semantic SEEs. In this paper we discuss an ontology-based

  11. The Semantic Web in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  12. Quest for a Computerised Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Adrian R.

    The objective of this thesis was to colligate the various strands of research in the literature of computational linguistics that have to do with the computational treatment of semantic content so as to encode it into a computerized dictionary. In chapter 1 the course of mechanical translation (1947-1960) and quantitative linguistics is traced to…

  13. Russian nominal semantics and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens

    The principal idea behind this book is that lexis and grammar make up a single coherent structure. It is shown that the grammatical patterns of the different classes of Russian nominals are closely interconnected. They can be described as reflecting a limited set of semantic distinctions which ar...... or weaker, of Russian. Students will see a pattern in what is traditionally described as disparate subsystems, and linguists may be inspired to consider the theoretical points concerning language as a coherent system, determining usage.......The principal idea behind this book is that lexis and grammar make up a single coherent structure. It is shown that the grammatical patterns of the different classes of Russian nominals are closely interconnected. They can be described as reflecting a limited set of semantic distinctions which...... are also rooted in the lexical-semantic classification of Russian nouns. The presentation focuses on semantics, both lexical and grammatical, and not least the connection between these two levels of content. The principal theoretical impact is the insight that grammar and lexis should not be seen...

  14. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrat...

  15. Semantic Enrichment of GPS Trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, V.; van Keulen, Maurice; de By, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Semantic annotation of GPS trajectories helps us to recognize the interests of the creator of the GPS trajectories. Automating this trajectory annotation circumvents the requirement of additional user input. To annotate the GPS traces automatically, two types of automated input are required: 1) a

  16. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  17. Semantic search during divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Richard W

    2017-09-01

    Divergent thinking, as a method of examining creative cognition, has not been adequately analyzed in the context of modern cognitive theories. This article casts divergent thinking responding in the context of theories of memory search. First, it was argued that divergent thinking tasks are similar to semantic fluency tasks, but are more constrained, and less well structured. Next, response time distributions from 54 participants were analyzed for temporal and semantic clustering. Participants responded to two prompts from the alternative uses test: uses for a brick and uses for a bottle, for two minutes each. Participants' cumulative response curves were negatively accelerating, in line with theories of search of associative memory. However, results of analyses of semantic and temporal clustering suggested that clustering is less evident in alternative uses responding compared to semantic fluency tasks. This suggests either that divergent thinking responding does not involve an exhaustive search through a clustered memory trace, but rather that the process is more exploratory, yielding fewer overall responses that tend to drift away from close associates of the divergent thinking prompt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. SEMSIN SEMANTIC AND SYNTACTIC PARSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Boyarsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the principle of operation for SemSin semantic and syntactic parser creating a dependency tree for the Russian language sentences. The parser consists of 4 blocks: a dictionary, morphological analyzer, production rules and lexical analyzer. An important logical part of the parser is pre-syntactical module, which harmonizes and complements morphological analysis results, separates the text paragraphs into individual sentences, and also carries out predisambiguation. Characteristic feature of the presented parser is an open type of control – it is done by means of a set of production rules. A varied set of commands provides the ability to both morphological and semantic-syntactic analysis of the sentence. The paper presents the sequence of rules usage and examples of their work. Specific feature of the rules is the decision making on establishment of syntactic links with simultaneous removal of the morphological and semantic ambiguity. The lexical analyzer provides the execution of commands and rules, and manages the parser in manual or automatic modes of the text analysis. In the first case, the analysis is performed interactively with the possibility of step-by-step execution of the rules and scanning the resulting parse tree. In the second case, analysis results are filed in an xml-file. Active usage of syntactic and semantic dictionary information gives the possibility to reduce significantly the ambiguity of parsing. In addition to marking the text, the parser is also usable as a tool for information extraction from natural language texts.

  19. Clustering semantics for hypermedia presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberink, M.J.; Rutledge, L.W.; Hardman, H.L.; Veenstra, M.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Semantic annotations of media repositories make relationships among the stored media and relevant concepts explicit. However, these relationships and the media they join are not directly presentable as hypermedia. Previous work shows how clustering over the annotations in the repositories can

  20. Bare coordination: the semantic shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Swart, Henriette; Le Bruyn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops an analysis of the syntax-semantics interface of two types of split coordination structures. In the first type, two bare singular count nouns appear as arguments in a coordinated structure, as in bride and groom were happy. We call this the N&N construction. In the second type,

  1. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling coherent errors in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of quantum error correcting codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. Here we examine the accuracy of the Pauli approximation for noise containing coherent errors (characterized by a rotation angle ɛ) under the repetition code. We derive an analytic expression for the logical error channel as a function of arbitrary code distance d and concatenation level n, in the small error limit. We find that coherent physical errors result in logical errors that are partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the logical error is negligible at fewer than {ε }-({dn-1)} error correction cycles when the decoder is optimized for independent Pauli errors, thus providing a regime of validity for the Pauli approximation. Above this number of correction cycles, the persistent coherent logical error will cause logical failure more quickly than the Pauli model would predict, and this may need to be combated with coherent suppression methods at the physical level or larger codes.

  3. 「言い誤り」(speech errors)の傾向に関する考察(IV)

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 克敏; Ito, Katsutoshi

    2007-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series (1988, 1992, 1999) of my research on the tendencies of speech errors committed by adults. Collected speech errors were analyzed on phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic levels. Similarities and differences between adult and child speech errors were discussed. It was pointed out that the typology of speech errors can be established by comparative study of adult speech errors, developing child language, aphasic speech and speech of senile dementia.

  4. A Denotational Semantics for Communicating Unstructured Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Jähnig

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An important property of programming language semantics is that they should be compositional. However, unstructured low-level code contains goto-like commands making it hard to define a semantics that is compositional. In this paper, we follow the ideas of Saabas and Uustalu to structure low-level code. This gives us the possibility to define a compositional denotational semantics based on least fixed points to allow for the use of inductive verification methods. We capture the semantics of communication using finite traces similar to the denotations of CSP. In addition, we examine properties of this semantics and give an example that demonstrates reasoning about communication and jumps. With this semantics, we lay the foundations for a proof calculus that captures both, the semantics of unstructured low-level code and communication.

  5. A Semantics for Distributed Execution of Statemate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Niehaus, Jürgen; Metzner, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    We present a semantics for the statechart variant implemented in the Statemate product of i-Logix. Our semantics enables distributed code generation for Statemate models in the context of rapid prototyping for embedded control applications. We argue that it seems impossible to efficiently generate......, the changes made regarding the interaction of distributed model parts are similar to the interaction between the model and its environment in the original semantics, thus giving designers a familiar execution model. The semantics has been implemented in Grace, a framework for rapid prototyping code generation...... distributed code using the original Statemate semantics. The new, distributed semantics has the advantages that, first, it enables the generation of efficient distributed code, second, it preserves many aspects of the original semantics for those parts of a model that are not distributed, and third...

  6. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  7. Boundary error analysis and categorization in the TRECVID news story segmentation task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlandis, J.; Over, P.; Kraaij, W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, an error analysis based on boundary error popularity (frequency) including semantic boundary categorization is applied in the context of the news story segmentation task from TRECVTD1. Clusters of systems were defined based on the input resources they used including video, audio and

  8. A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Hassanzadeh; MohammadReza Keyvanpour

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changing its contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of the cornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is called Semantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic Annotation, such as ...

  9. Exploiting semantic linkages among multiple sources for semantic information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JianQiang; Yang, Ji-Jiang; Liu, Chunchen; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yuliang

    2014-07-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web is to build a global Web of machine-readable data to be consumed by intelligent applications. As the first step to make this vision come true, the initiative of linked open data has fostered many novel applications aimed at improving data accessibility in the public Web. Comparably, the enterprise environment is so different from the public Web that most potentially usable business information originates in an unstructured form (typically in free text), which poses a challenge for the adoption of semantic technologies in the enterprise environment. Considering that the business information in a company is highly specific and centred around a set of commonly used concepts, this paper describes a pilot study to migrate the concept of linked data into the development of a domain-specific application, i.e. the vehicle repair support system. The set of commonly used concepts, including the part name of a car and the phenomenon term on the car repairing, are employed to build the linkage between data and documents distributed among different sources, leading to the fusion of documents and data across source boundaries. Then, we describe the approaches of semantic information retrieval to consume these linkages for value creation for companies. The experiments on two real-world data sets show that the proposed approaches outperform the best baseline 6.3-10.8% and 6.4-11.1% in terms of top five and top 10 precisions, respectively. We believe that our pilot study can serve as an important reference for the development of similar semantic applications in an enterprise environment.

  10. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora In view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  11. Initialization Errors in Quantum Data Base Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Natu, Kalyani

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between initialization error and recall of a specific memory in the Grover algorithm for quantum database search. It is shown that the correct memory is obtained with high probability even when the initial state is far removed from the correct one. The analysis is done by relating the variance of error in the initial state to the recovery of the correct memory and the surprising result is obtained that the relationship between the two is essentially linear.

  12. A Postcolonial Semantics of Personhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    that provide an answer to the question: “what makes up a person?” The paper aims toarticulate semantic explications and cultural scripts for personhood constructs in Bislama, beingmindful of the anglicizations, contradictions, and reinventions that are characteristic of postcolonialdiscourse......, 2013-2015 (Levisen 2016a, 2016b). I willfocus on the keyword tingting ‘mind, heart’ (from English ‘think-think’), and the related concepts speret(from English ‘spirit’), devil (from English ‘devil’), and pija (from English ‘picture’), as well as morerecent imports from English: maen (mind), sol (soul...... levels. Traditionalterms like devil and pija are being problematized by urban speakers, and are both in decline. Sol,maen, and had have become more common, and speret/spirit has undergone a semanticanglicization. Tingting remains the key construct, around which Bislama personhood semantics isorganized...

  13. Learning from prescribing errors

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, B

    2002-01-01

    

 The importance of learning from medical error has recently received increasing emphasis. This paper focuses on prescribing errors and argues that, while learning from prescribing errors is a laudable goal, there are currently barriers that can prevent this occurring. Learning from errors can take place on an individual level, at a team level, and across an organisation. Barriers to learning from prescribing errors include the non-discovery of many prescribing errors, lack of feedback to th...

  14. Weak negation in inquisitive semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 323-355 ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : inquisitive semantics * negation * possible worlds * Fitch-style natural deduction * denial Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10849-015-9219-2

  15. Semantic Memory in the Clinical Progression of Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchakoute, Christophe T; Sainani, Kristin L; Henderson, Victor W

    2017-09-01

    Semantic memory measures may be useful in tracking and predicting progression of Alzheimer disease. We investigated relationships among semantic memory tasks and their 1-year predictive value in women with Alzheimer disease. We conducted secondary analyses of a randomized clinical trial of raloxifene in 42 women with late-onset mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease. We assessed semantic memory with tests of oral confrontation naming, category fluency, semantic recognition and semantic naming, and semantic density in written narrative discourse. We measured global cognition (Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale, cognitive subscale), dementia severity (Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes), and daily function (Activities of Daily Living Inventory) at baseline and 1 year. At baseline and 1 year, most semantic memory scores correlated highly or moderately with each other and with global cognition, dementia severity, and daily function. Semantic memory task performance at 1 year had worsened one-third to one-half standard deviation. Factor analysis of baseline test scores distinguished processes in semantic and lexical retrieval (semantic recognition, semantic naming, confrontation naming) from processes in lexical search (semantic density, category fluency). The semantic-lexical retrieval factor predicted global cognition at 1 year. Considered separately, baseline confrontation naming and category fluency predicted dementia severity, while semantic recognition and a composite of semantic recognition and semantic naming predicted global cognition. No individual semantic memory test predicted daily function. Semantic-lexical retrieval and lexical search may represent distinct aspects of semantic memory. Semantic memory processes are sensitive to cognitive decline and dementia severity in Alzheimer disease.

  16. Discovery and Selection of Semantic Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xia

    2013-01-01

    For advanced web search engines to be able not only to search for semantically related information dispersed over different web pages, but also for semantic services providing certain functionalities, discovering semantic services is the key issue. Addressing four problems of current solution, this book presents the following contributions. A novel service model independent of semantic service description models is proposed, which clearly defines all elements necessary for service discovery and selection. It takes service selection as its gist and improves efficiency. Corresponding selection algorithms and their implementation as components of the extended Semantically Enabled Service-oriented Architecture in the Web Service Modeling Environment are detailed. Many applications of semantic web services, e.g. discovery, composition and mediation, can benefit from a general approach for building application ontologies. With application ontologies thus built, services are discovered in the same way as with single...

  17. A Denotational Semantics for Logic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    A fully abstract denotational semantics for logic programming has not been constructed yet. In this paper we present a denotational semantics that is almost fully abstract. We take the meaning of a logic program to be an element in a Plotkin power domain of substitutions. In this way our result...... shows that standard domain constructions suffice, when giving a semantics for logic programming. Using the well-known fixpoint semantics of logic programming we have to consider two different fixpoints in order to obtain information about both successful and failed computations. In contrast, our...... semantics is uniform in that the (single) meaning of a logic program contains information about both successful, failed and infinite computations. Finally, based on the full abstractness result, we argue that the detail level of substitutions is needed in any denotational semantics for logic programming....

  18. An Algebraic Specification of the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Ksystra, Katerina; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Stefaneas, Petros; Frangos, Panayiotis

    2011-01-01

    We present a formal specification of the Semantic Web, as an extension of the World Wide Web using the well known algebraic specification language CafeOBJ. Our approach allows the description of the key elements of the Semantic Web technologies, in order to give a better understanding of the system, without getting involved with their implementation details that might not yet be standardized. This specification is part of our work in progress concerning the modeling the Social Semantic Web.

  19. Semantic Web Requirements through Web Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Keyvanpour, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Semantic web has become a topic of active research in several fields of computer science and has applied in a wide range of domains such as bioinformatics, life sciences, and knowledge management. The two fast-developing research areas semantic web and web mining can complement each other and their different techniques can be used jointly or separately to solve the issues in both areas. In addition, since shifting from current web to semantic web mainly depends on the enhance...

  20. Semantic interpretation of search engine resultant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-01-01

    In semantic, logical language can be interpreted in various forms, but the certainty of meaning is included in the uncertainty, which directly always influences the role of technology. One results of this uncertainty applies to search engines as user interfaces with information spaces such as the Web. Therefore, the behaviour of search engine results should be interpreted with certainty through semantic formulation as interpretation. Behaviour formulation shows there are various interpretations that can be done semantically either temporary, inclusion, or repeat.

  1. Frontal lobe damage impairs process and content in semantic memory: evidence from category-specific effects in progressive non-fluent aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Jamie; Rodriguez, Amy D; Peelle, Jonathan E; Grossman, Murray

    2011-06-01

    Portions of left inferior frontal cortex have been linked to semantic memory both in terms of the content of conceptual representation (e.g., motor aspects in an embodied semantics framework) and the cognitive processes used to access these representations (e.g., response selection). Progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive atrophy of left inferior frontal cortex. PNFA can, therefore, provide a lesion model for examining the impact of frontal lobe damage on semantic processing and content. In the current study we examined picture naming in a cohort of PNFA patients across a variety of semantic categories. An embodied approach to semantic memory holds that sensorimotor features such as self-initiated action may assume differential importance for the representation of manufactured artifacts (e.g., naming hand tools). Embodiment theories might therefore predict that patients with frontal damage would be differentially impaired on manufactured artifacts relative to natural kinds, and this prediction was borne out. We also examined patterns of naming errors across a wide range of semantic categories and found that naming error distributions were heterogeneous. Although PNFA patients performed worse overall on naming manufactured artifacts, there was no reliable relationship between anomia and manipulability across semantic categories. These results add to a growing body of research arguing against a purely sensorimotor account of semantic memory, suggesting instead a more nuanced balance of process and content in how the brain represents conceptual knowledge. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  2. Gricean Semantics and Vague Speaker-Meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Presentations of Gricean semantics, including Stephen Neale’s in “Silent Reference,” totally ignore vagueness, even though virtually every utterance is vague. I ask how Gricean semantics might be adjusted to accommodate vague speaker-meaning. My answer is that it can’t accommodate it: the Gricean program collapses in the face of vague speaker-meaning. The Gricean might, however, fi nd some solace in knowing that every other extant meta-semantic and semantic program is in the same boat.

  3. Some Novel Techniques in Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    2003-01-01

    Several novel techniques for use in operational semantics are presented. They were developed in connection with a modular vatriant of the conventional Structural Operational Semantics framework, but can also be exploited when modularity is of no great concern. Gives a simple introduction to the m......Several novel techniques for use in operational semantics are presented. They were developed in connection with a modular vatriant of the conventional Structural Operational Semantics framework, but can also be exploited when modularity is of no great concern. Gives a simple introduction...

  4. Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Jeremy R; Kahana, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    The order in which participants choose to recall words from a studied list of randomly selected words provides insights into how memories of the words are represented, organised, and retrieved. One pervasive finding is that when a pair of semantically related words (e.g., "cat" and "dog") is embedded in the studied list, the related words are often recalled successively. This tendency to successively recall semantically related words is termed semantic clustering (Bousfield, 1953; Bousfield & Sedgewick, 1944; Cofer, Bruce, & Reicher, 1966). Measuring semantic clustering effects requires making assumptions about which words participants consider to be similar in meaning. However, it is often difficult to gain insights into individual participants' internal semantic models, and for this reason researchers typically rely on standardised semantic similarity metrics. Here we use simulations to gain insights into the expected magnitudes of semantic clustering effects given systematic differences between participants' internal similarity models and the similarity metric used to quantify the degree of semantic clustering. Our results provide a number of useful insights into the interpretation of semantic clustering effects in free recall.

  5. Language networks associated with computerized semantic indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Jones, David T; Knopman, David S

    2015-01-01

    Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of semantic relatedness between words based on latent semantic analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed semantic clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that semantic clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized semantic indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle

    2013-01-01

    Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

  7. Neural correlates underlying musical semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groussard, M; Viader, F; Landeau, B; Desgranges, B; Eustache, F; Platel, H

    2009-07-01

    Numerous functional imaging studies have examined the neural basis of semantic memory mainly using verbal and visuospatial materials. Musical material also allows an original way to explore semantic memory processes. We used PET imaging to determine the neural substrates that underlie musical semantic memory using different tasks and stimuli. The results of three PET studies revealed a greater involvement of the anterior part of the temporal lobe. Concerning clinical observations and our neuroimaging data, the musical lexicon (and most widely musical semantic memory) appears to be sustained by a temporo-prefrontal cerebral network involving right and left cerebral regions.

  8. Towards a Reactive Semantic Execution Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komazec, Srdjan; Facca, Federico Michele

    Managing complex and distributed software systems built on top of the service-oriented paradigm has never been more challenging. While Semantic Web Service technologies offer a promising set of languages and tools as a foundation to resolve the heterogeneity and scalability issues, they are still failing to provide an autonomic execution environment. In this paper we present an approach based on Semantic Web Services to enable the monitoring and self-management of a Semantic Execution Environment (SEE), a brokerage system for Semantic Web Services. Our approach is founded on the event-triggered reactivity paradigm in order to facilitate environment control, thus contributing to its autonomicity, robustness and flexibility.

  9. Semantics-based Automated Web Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present TAO, a software testing tool performing automated test and oracle generation based on a semantic approach. TAO entangles grammar-based test generation with automated semantics evaluation using a denotational semantics framework. We show how TAO can be incorporated with the Selenium automation tool for automated web testing, and how TAO can be further extended to support automated delta debugging, where a failing web test script can be systematically reduced based on grammar-directed strategies. A real-life parking website is adopted throughout the paper to demonstrate the effectivity of our semantics-based web testing approach.

  10. SEMANTIC WEB MINING: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Karan Singh*, Anil kumar, Arun Kumar Yadav

    2016-01-01

    The combination of the two fast evolving scientific research areas “Semantic Web” and “Web Mining” are well-known as “Semantic Web Mining” in computer science. These two areas cover way for the mining of related and meaningful information from the web, by this means giving growth to the term “Semantic Web Mining”. The “Semantic Web” makes mining easy and “Web Mining” can construct new structure of Web. Web Mining applies Data Mining technique on web content, Structure and Usage. This paper gi...

  11. Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

  12. Pascal Semantics by a Combination of Denotational Semantics and High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the formal semantics of a subset of PASCAL, by means of a semantic model based on a combination of denotational semantics and high-level Petri nets. It is our intention that the paper can be used as part of the written material for an introductory course in computer science....

  13. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  14. Part two: Error propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this chapter include a discussion of exact results as related to nuclear materials management and accounting in nuclear facilities; propagation of error for a single measured value; propagation of error for several measured values; error propagation for materials balances; and an application of error propagation to an example of uranium hexafluoride conversion process

  15. Learning from Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Legaz, Juan Enrique; Soubeyran, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    We present a model of learning in which agents learn from errors. If an action turns out to be an error, the agent rejects not only that action but also neighboring actions. We find that, keeping memory of his errors, under mild assumptions an acceptable solution is asymptotically reached. Moreover, one can take advantage of big errors for a faster learning.

  16. Post-error action control is neurobehaviorally modulated under conditions of constant speeded response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro eSoshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-error slowing is an error recovery strategy that contributes to action control, and occurs after errors in order to prevent future behavioral flaws. Error recovery often malfunctions in clinical populations, but the relationship between behavioral traits and recovery from error is unclear in healthy populations. The present study investigated the relationship between impulsivity and error recovery by simulating a speeded response situation using a Go/No-go paradigm that forced the participants to constantly make accelerated responses prior to stimuli disappearance (stimulus duration: 250 ms. Neural correlates of post-error processing were examined using event-related potentials (ERPs. Impulsivity traits were measured with self-report questionnaires (BIS-11, BIS/BAS. Behavioral results demonstrated that the commission error for No-go trials was 15%, but post-error slowing did not take place immediately. Delayed post-error slowing was negatively correlated with error rates and impulsivity traits, showing that response slowing was associated with reduced error rates and changed with impulsivity. Response-locked error ERPs were clearly observed for the error trials. Contrary to previous studies, error ERPs were not significantly related to post-error slowing. Stimulus-locked N2 was negatively correlated with post-error slowing and positively correlated with impulsivity traits at the second post-error Go trial: larger N2 activity was associated with greater post-error slowing and less impulsivity. In summary, under constant speeded conditions, error monitoring was dissociated from post-error action control, and post-error slowing did not occur quickly. Furthermore, post-error slowing and its neural correlate (N2 were modulated by impulsivity traits. These findings suggest that there may be clinical and practical efficacy of maintaining cognitive control of actions during error recovery under common daily environments that frequently evoke

  17. Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Grabe, Michael

    2010-01-01

    For the first time in 200 years Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus addresses a rigorous, complete and self-consistent revision of the Gaussian error calculus. Since experimentalists realized that measurements in general are burdened by unknown systematic errors, the classical, widespread used evaluation procedures scrutinizing the consequences of random errors alone turned out to be obsolete. As a matter of course, the error calculus to-be, treating random and unknown systematic errors side by side, should ensure the consistency and traceability of physical units, physical constants and physical quantities at large. The generalized Gaussian error calculus considers unknown systematic errors to spawn biased estimators. Beyond, random errors are asked to conform to the idea of what the author calls well-defined measuring conditions. The approach features the properties of a building kit: any overall uncertainty turns out to be the sum of a contribution due to random errors, to be taken from a confidence inter...

  18. A Semantic Analysis of the Language of Advertising | Emodi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Semantic Analysis of the Language of Advertising. ... After a brief introduction to semantics and advertising language, the paper is focused on the linguistic realizations in English advertising from the semantic ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. Medication errors: prescribing faults and prescription errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velo, Giampaolo P; Minuz, Pietro

    2009-06-01

    1. Medication errors are common in general practice and in hospitals. Both errors in the act of writing (prescription errors) and prescribing faults due to erroneous medical decisions can result in harm to patients. 2. Any step in the prescribing process can generate errors. Slips, lapses, or mistakes are sources of errors, as in unintended omissions in the transcription of drugs. Faults in dose selection, omitted transcription, and poor handwriting are common. 3. Inadequate knowledge or competence and incomplete information about clinical characteristics and previous treatment of individual patients can result in prescribing faults, including the use of potentially inappropriate medications. 4. An unsafe working environment, complex or undefined procedures, and inadequate communication among health-care personnel, particularly between doctors and nurses, have been identified as important underlying factors that contribute to prescription errors and prescribing faults. 5. Active interventions aimed at reducing prescription errors and prescribing faults are strongly recommended. These should be focused on the education and training of prescribers and the use of on-line aids. The complexity of the prescribing procedure should be reduced by introducing automated systems or uniform prescribing charts, in order to avoid transcription and omission errors. Feedback control systems and immediate review of prescriptions, which can be performed with the assistance of a hospital pharmacist, are also helpful. Audits should be performed periodically.

  20. Semantic Radicals Contribute More Than Phonetic Radicals to the Recognition of Chinese Phonograms: Behavioral and ERP Evidence in a Factorial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xieshun Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese phonograms consist of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical. The two types of radicals have different functional contributions to their host phonogram. The semantic radical typically signifies the meaning of the phonogram, while the phonetic radical usually contains a phonological clue to the phonogram’s pronunciation. However, it is still unclear how they interplay with each other when we attempt to recognize a phonogram because previous studies rarely manipulated the functionality of the two types of radicals in a single design. Using a full factorial design, the present study aimed to probe this issue by directly manipulating the functional validity of the two types of radicals in a lexical decision task with both behavioral and event-related potential (ERP measurements. The results showed that recognition of phonograms which were related to their semantic radicals in meaning took a shorter reaction time, showed a lower error rate, and elicited a smaller P200 and a larger N400 than did recognition of those which had no semantic relation with their semantic radicals. However, the validity of phonetic radicals did not show any main effect or interaction with that of semantic radicals on either behavioral or ERP measurements. These results indicated that semantic radicals played a dominant role in the recognition of phonograms. Transparent semantic radicals, which provide valid semantic cues to phonograms, can facilitate the recognition of phonograms.

  1. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fus...

  2. Perceptual-Semantic Congruency Facilitates Semantic Discrimination of Thermal Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhen Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to sense temperature is vital to our life. It signals the environmental condition, reflects the physiological conditions of our own body, and generates feelings of pleasantness or unpleasantness. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated implicit associations between physical temperature and social/emotional concepts, suggesting the processing of temperature may even influence cognition. In this work, we examined the effect of physical warmth and coldness on semantic cognition. Participants performed speeded target categorization for thermal descriptors in the form of semantic words or illustrative figures representing the thermal qualities “warm” or “cold” while physical thermal stimulation was presented. We compared the average reaction time (RT for the congruent and incongruent conditions managed by response key assignments. In the congruent condition, the response key for the symbol associated with warmth (coldness was assigned to the hand with warm (cold thermal stimulation, and in the incongruent condition the key assignment was reversed. Our results demonstrate that the average RT in the congruent condition was faster than in the incongruent one for both forms of thermal descriptors, suggesting that the experience of physical temperature facilitates the internal processing of the meaning of thermal quality.

  3. A Semantic Web-based System for Mining Genetic Mutations in Cancer Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Sambhawa; Jiang, Guoqian; Dasari, Surendra; Zimmermann, Michael T; Wang, Chen; Heflin, Jeff; Chute, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    Textual eligibility criteria in clinical trial protocols contain important information about potential clinically relevant pharmacogenomic events. Manual curation for harvesting this evidence is intractable as it is error prone and time consuming. In this paper, we develop and evaluate a Semantic Web-based system that captures and manages mutation evidences and related contextual information from cancer clinical trials. The system has 2 main components: an NLP-based annotator and a Semantic Web ontology-based annotation manager. We evaluated the performance of the annotator in terms of precision and recall. We demonstrated the usefulness of the system by conducting case studies in retrieving relevant clinical trials using a collection of mutations identified from TCGA Leukemia patients and Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology. In conclusion, our system using Semantic Web technologies provides an effective framework for extraction, annotation, standardization and management of genetic mutations in cancer clinical trials.

  4. Effects of perceptual similarity but not semantic association on false recognition in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh Burnside

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated semantic and perceptual influences on false recognition in older and young adults in a variant on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. In two experiments, participants encoded intermixed sets of semantically associated words, and sets of unrelated words. Each set was presented in a shared distinctive font. Older adults were no more likely to falsely recognize semantically associated lure words compared to unrelated lures also presented in studied fonts. However, they showed an increase in false recognition of lures which were related to studied items only by a shared font. This increased false recognition was associated with recollective experience. The data show that older adults do not always rely more on prior knowledge in episodic memory tasks. They converge with other findings suggesting that older adults may also be more prone to perceptually-driven errors.

  5. Gazetteer Brokering through Semantic Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.

    2013-12-01

    A gazetteer is a geographical directory containing some information regarding places. It provides names, location and other attributes for places which may include points of interest (e.g. buildings, oilfields and boreholes), and other features. These features can be published via web services conforming to the Gazetteer Application Profile of the Web Feature Service (WFS) standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Against the backdrop of advances in geophysical surveys, there has been a significant increase in the amount of data referenced to locations. Gazetteers services have played a significant role in facilitating access to such data, including through provision of specialized queries such as text, spatial and fuzzy search. Recent developments in the OGC have led to advances in gazetteers such as support for multilingualism, diacritics, and querying via advanced spatial constraints (e.g. search by radial search and nearest neighbor). A challenge remaining however, is that gazetteers produced by different organizations have typically been modeled differently. Inconsistencies from gazetteers produced by different organizations may include naming the same feature in a different way, naming the attributes differently, locating the feature in a different location, and providing fewer or more attributes than the other services. The Gazetteer application profile of the WFS is a starting point to address such inconsistencies by providing a standardized interface based on rules specified in ISO 19112, the international standard for spatial referencing by geographic identifiers. The profile, however, does not provide rules to deal with semantic inconsistencies. The USGS and NGA commissioned research into the potential for a Single Point of Entry Global Gazetteer (SPEGG). The research was conducted by the Cross Community Interoperability thread of the OGC testbed, referenced OWS-9. The testbed prototyped approaches for brokering gazetteers through use of semantic

  6. Bare coordination: the semantic shift

    OpenAIRE

    de Swart, Henriette; Le Bruyn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops an analysis of the syntax-semantics interface of two types of split coordination structures. In the first type, two bare singular count nouns appear as arguments in a coordinated structure, as in bride and groom were happy. We call this the N&N construction. In the second type, the determiner shows agreement with the first conjunct, while the second conjunct is bare, as in the Spanish example el hornero y hornera cobraban en panes (‘thesg.m bakersg.m and bakersg.f werepl p...

  7. An adaptive semantic matching paradigm for reliable and valid language mapping in individuals with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M; Yen, Melodie; Eriksson, Dana K

    2018-04-17

    Research on neuroplasticity in recovery from aphasia depends on the ability to identify language areas of the brain in individuals with aphasia. However, tasks commonly used to engage language processing in people with aphasia, such as narrative comprehension and picture naming, are limited in terms of reliability (test-retest reproducibility) and validity (identification of language regions, and not other regions). On the other hand, paradigms such as semantic decision that are effective in identifying language regions in people without aphasia can be prohibitively challenging for people with aphasia. This paper describes a new semantic matching paradigm that uses an adaptive staircase procedure to present individuals with stimuli that are challenging yet within their competence, so that language processing can be fully engaged in people with and without language impairments. The feasibility, reliability and validity of the adaptive semantic matching paradigm were investigated in sixteen individuals with chronic post-stroke aphasia and fourteen neurologically normal participants, in comparison to narrative comprehension and picture naming paradigms. All participants succeeded in learning and performing the semantic paradigm. Test-retest reproducibility of the semantic paradigm in people with aphasia was good (Dice coefficient = 0.66), and was superior to the other two paradigms. The semantic paradigm revealed known features of typical language organization (lateralization; frontal and temporal regions) more consistently in neurologically normal individuals than the other two paradigms, constituting evidence for validity. In sum, the adaptive semantic matching paradigm is a feasible, reliable and valid method for mapping language regions in people with aphasia. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Verbal and non-verbal semantic impairment: From fluent primary progressive aphasia to semantic dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Lie Hosogi Senaha

    Full Text Available Abstract Selective disturbances of semantic memory have attracted the interest of many investigators and the question of the existence of single or multiple semantic systems remains a very controversial theme in the literature. Objectives: To discuss the question of multiple semantic systems based on a longitudinal study of a patient who presented semantic dementia from fluent primary progressive aphasia. Methods: A 66 year-old woman with selective impairment of semantic memory was examined on two occasions, undergoing neuropsychological and language evaluations, the results of which were compared to those of three paired control individuals. Results: In the first evaluation, physical examination was normal and the score on the Mini-Mental State Examination was 26. Language evaluation revealed fluent speech, anomia, disturbance in word comprehension, preservation of the syntactic and phonological aspects of the language, besides surface dyslexia and dysgraphia. Autobiographical and episodic memories were relatively preserved. In semantic memory tests, the following dissociation was found: disturbance of verbal semantic memory with preservation of non-verbal semantic memory. Magnetic resonance of the brain revealed marked atrophy of the left anterior temporal lobe. After 14 months, the difficulties in verbal semantic memory had become more severe and the semantic disturbance, limited initially to the linguistic sphere, had worsened to involve non-verbal domains. Conclusions: Given the dissociation found in the first examination, we believe there is sufficient clinical evidence to refute the existence of a unitary semantic system.

  9. Designing equivalent semantic models for process creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.M. America (Pierre); J.W. de Bakker (Jaco)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractOperational and denotational semantic models are designed for languages with process creation, and the relationships between the two semantics are investigated. The presentation is organized in four sections dealing with a uniform and static, a uniform and dynamic, a nonuniform and

  10. The Semantic Web and Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Cleborne D., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Semantic Web" is an idea proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the "World Wide Web." The topic has been generating a great deal of interest and enthusiasm, and there is a rapidly growing body of literature dealing with it. This article attempts to explain how the Semantic Web would work, and explores short-term and long-term…

  11. The Semantic Web in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkawski, Betül Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

  12. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  13. Semantic Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameel, Eef; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert; Van Assche, Fons

    2009-01-01

    Bilinguals' lexical mappings for their two languages have been found to converge toward a common naming pattern. The present paper investigates in more detail how semantic convergence is manifested in bilingual lexical knowledge. We examined how semantic convergence affects the centers and boundaries of lexical categories for common household…

  14. Recall from Semantic and Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillund, Gary; Perlmutter, Marion

    Although research in episodic recall memory, comparing younger and older adults, favors the younger adults, findings in semantic memory research are less consistent. To examine age differences in semantic and episodic memory recall, 72 young adults (mean age, 20.8) and 72 older adults (mean age 71) completed three memory tests under varied…

  15. Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Carl F.

    1980-01-01

    Suggests that creating a second-language semantic network can be conceived as developing a plan for retrieving second-language word forms. Characteristics of linguistic performance which will promote fluency are discussed in light of the distinction between episodic and semantic memory. (AMH)

  16. Semantics and expressiveness of ordered SOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousavi, M.R.; Phillips, I.C.C.; Reniers, M.A.; Ulidowski, I.

    2009-01-01

    Structured Operational Semantics (SOS) is a popular method for defining semantics by means of transition rules. An important feature of SOS rules is negative premises, which are crucial in the definitions of such phenomena as priority mechanisms and time-outs. However, the inclusion of negative

  17. UML Semantics FAQ: Dynamic Behaviour and Concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Demeyer, Serge; Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna; Le Guennec, Alain; Hussman, Heinrich; van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    This paper reports the results of a workshop held at ECOOP'99. The workshop was set up to find answers to questions fundamental to the definition of a semantics for the Unified Modelling Language. Questions examined the meaning of the term semantics in the context of UML; approaches to defining the

  18. Towards Semantic Interpretation of Movement Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baglioni, M.; Macedo, J.; Renso, C.; Trasarti, R.; Wachowicz, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we aim at providing a model for the conceptual representation and deductive reasoning of trajectory patterns obtained from mining raw trajectories. This has been achieved by means of a semantic enrichment process, where raw trajectories are enhanced with semantic information and

  19. Recommendations based on semantically enriched museum collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Stash, N.; Aroyo, L.M.; Gorgels, P.; Rutledge, L.W.; Schreiber, G.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the CHIP demonstrator1 for providing personalized access to digital museum collections. It consists of three main components: Art Recommender, Tour Wizard, and Mobile Tour Guide. Based on the semantically enriched Rijksmuseum Amsterdam2 collection, we show how Semantic Web

  20. Elaborative Retrieval: Do Semantic Mediators Improve Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Melissa; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The elaborative retrieval account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances retention because the retrieval process produces the generation of semantic mediators that link cues to target information. We tested 2 assumptions that form the basis of this account: that semantic mediators are more likely to be generated during…

  1. Learning the Semantics of Structured Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheriyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data, however, they rarely provide a semantic model to describe their contents. Semantic models of data sources capture the intended meaning of data sources by mapping them to the concepts and relationships defined by a…

  2. Orthographic and Semantic Processing in Young Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polse, Lara R.; Reilly, Judy S.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined orthographic and semantic processing during reading acquisition. Children in first to fourth grade were presented with a target word and two response alternatives, and were asked to identify the semantic match. Words were presented in four conditions: an exact match and unrelated foil (STONE-STONE-EARS), an exact match…

  3. Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike

    2012-01-01

    An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

  4. Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    1975-01-01

    Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

  5. Semantics by analogy for illustrative volume visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerl, Moritz; Rautek, Peter; Isenberg, Tobias; Groeller, Eduard

    We present an interactive graphical approach for the explicit specification of semantics for volume visualization. This explicit and graphical specification of semantics for volumetric features allows us to visually assign meaning to both input and output parameters of the visualization mapping.

  6. Quality model for semantic IS standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert

    2011-01-01

    Semantic IS (Information Systems) standards are essential for achieving interoperability between organizations. However a recent survey suggests that not the full benefits of standards are achieved, due to the quality issues. This paper presents a quality model for semantic IS standards, that should

  7. Semantic Tagging with Deep Residual Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjerva, Johannes; Plank, Barbara; Bos, Johan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel semantic tagging task, semtagging, tailored for the purpose of multilingual semantic parsing, and present the first tagger using deep residual networks (ResNets). Our tagger uses both word and character representations and includes a novel residual bypass architecture. We evaluate

  8. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  9. Evolution and Reactivity in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferes, José Júlio; Eckert, Michael; May, Wolfgang

    Evolution and reactivity in the Semantic Web address the vision and concrete need for an active Web, where data sources evolve autonomously and perceive and react to events. In 2004, when the Rewerse project started, regarding work on Evolution and Reactivity in the Semantic Web there wasn’t much more than a vision of such an active Web.

  10. Semantic annotation in biomedicine: the current landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Jelena; Bagheri, Ebrahim

    2017-09-22

    The abundance and unstructured nature of biomedical texts, be it clinical or research content, impose significant challenges for the effective and efficient use of information and knowledge stored in such texts. Annotation of biomedical documents with machine intelligible semantics facilitates advanced, semantics-based text management, curation, indexing, and search. This paper focuses on annotation of biomedical entity mentions with concepts from relevant biomedical knowledge bases such as UMLS. As a result, the meaning of those mentions is unambiguously and explicitly defined, and thus made readily available for automated processing. This process is widely known as semantic annotation, and the tools that perform it are known as semantic annotators.Over the last dozen years, the biomedical research community has invested significant efforts in the development of biomedical semantic annotation technology. Aiming to establish grounds for further developments in this area, we review a selected set of state of the art biomedical semantic annotators, focusing particularly on general purpose annotators, that is, semantic annotation tools that can be customized to work with texts from any area of biomedicine. We also examine potential directions for further improvements of today's annotators which could make them even more capable of meeting the needs of real-world applications. To motivate and encourage further developments in this area, along the suggested and/or related directions, we review existing and potential practical applications and benefits of semantic annotators.

  11. A Semantics for Modular General Logic Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro

    1998-01-01

    Modular programs are built as a combination of separate modules, which may be developed and verified separately. Therefore, in order to reason over such programs, compositionality plays a crucial role: the semantics of the whole program must be obtainable as a simple function from the semantics of

  12. A semantics for modular general logic programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Modular programs are built as a combination of separate modules, which may be developed and verified separately. Therefore, in order to reason over such programs, compositionality plays a crucial role: the semantics of the whole program must be obtainable as a simple function from the semantics of

  13. Semantics vs Pragmatics of a Compound Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena A.; Biktemirova, Ella I.; Davletbaeva, Diana N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of correlation between semantic and pragmatic potential of a compound word, which functions in informal speech, and the mechanisms of secondary nomination, which realizes the potential of semantic-pragmatic features of colloquial compounds. The relevance and the choice of the research question is based on the…

  14. Adding Recursive Constructs to Bialgebraic Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klin, Bartek

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims at fitting a general class of recursive equations into the framework of ‘well-behaved' structural operational semantics, formalized as bialgebraic semantics by Turi and Plotkin. Rather than interpreting recursive constructs by means of operational rules, separate recursive equatio...

  15. Relationship Structures and Semantic Type Assignments of the UMLS Enriched Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Halper, Michael; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Cimino, James J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Enriched Semantic Network (ESN) was introduced as an extension of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Semantic Network (SN). Its multiple subsumption configuration and concomitant multiple inheritance make the ESN's relationship structures and semantic type assignments different from those of the SN. A technique for deriving the relationship structures of the ESN's semantic types and an automated technique for deriving the ESN's semantic type assignments from those of the SN are presented. Design: The technique to derive the ESN's relationship structures finds all newly inherited relationships in the ESN. All such relationships are audited for semantic validity, and the blocking mechanism is used to block invalid relationships. The mapping technique to derive the ESN's semantic type assignments uses current SN semantic type assignments and preserves nonredundant categorizations, while preventing new redundant categorizations. Results: Among the 426 newly inherited relationships, 326 are deemed valid. Seven blockings are applied to avoid inheritance of the 100 invalid relationships. Sixteen semantic types have different relationship structures in the ESN as compared to those in the SN. The mapping of semantic type assignments from the SN to the ESN avoids the generation of 26,950 redundant categorizations. The resulting ESN contains 138 semantic types, 149 IS-A links, 7,303 relationships, and 1,013,876 semantic type assignments. Conclusion: The ESN's multiple inheritance provides more complete relationship structures than in the SN. The ESN's semantic type assignments avoid the existing redundant categorizations appearing in the SN and prevent new ones that might arise due to multiple parents. Compared to the SN, the ESN provides a more accurate unifying semantic abstraction of the UMLS Metathesaurus. PMID:16049233

  16. Detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes, quantum error designs, and quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alber, G.; Mussinger, M.; Beth, Th.; Charnes, Ch.; Delgado, A.; Grassl, M.

    2003-01-01

    The recently introduced detected-jump-correcting quantum codes are capable of stabilizing qubit systems against spontaneous decay processes arising from couplings to statistically independent reservoirs. These embedded quantum codes exploit classical information about which qubit has emitted spontaneously and correspond to an active error-correcting code embedded in a passive error-correcting code. The construction of a family of one-detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes is shown and the optimal redundancy, encoding, and recovery as well as general properties of detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes are discussed. By the use of design theory, multiple-jump-error-correcting quantum codes can be constructed. The performance of one-jump-error-correcting quantum codes under nonideal conditions is studied numerically by simulating a quantum memory and Grover's algorithm

  17. Newly-acquired words are more phonologically robust in verbal short-term memory when they have associated semantic representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savill, Nicola; Ellis, Andrew W; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) is a crucial cognitive function central to language learning, comprehension and reasoning, yet the processes that underlie this capacity are not fully understood. In particular, although STM primarily draws on a phonological code, interactions between long-term phonological and semantic representations might help to stabilise the phonological trace for words ("semantic binding hypothesis"). This idea was first proposed to explain the frequent phoneme recombination errors made by patients with semantic dementia when recalling words that are no longer fully understood. However, converging evidence in support of semantic binding is scant: it is unusual for studies of healthy participants to examine serial recall at the phoneme level and also it is difficult to separate the contribution of phonological-lexical knowledge from effects of word meaning. We used a new method to disentangle these influences in healthy individuals by training new 'words' with or without associated semantic information. We examined phonological coherence in immediate serial recall (ISR), both immediately and the day after training. Trained items were more likely to be recalled than novel nonwords, confirming the importance of phonological-lexical knowledge, and items with semantic associations were also produced more accurately than those with no meaning, at both time points. For semantically-trained items, there were fewer phoneme ordering and identity errors, and consequently more complete target items were produced in both correct and incorrect list positions. These data show that lexical-semantic knowledge improves the robustness of verbal STM at the sub-item level, even when the effect of phonological familiarity is taken into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Topics in Semantics-based Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grobauer, Bernt

    four articles in the field of semantics-based techniques for program manipulation: three articles are about partial evaluation, a method for program specialization; the fourth article treats an approach to automatic cost analysis. Partial evaluation optimizes programs by specializing them with respect...... article in this dissertation describes how the second Futamura projection can be achieved for type-directed partial evaluation (TDPE), a relatively recent approach to partial evaluation: We derive an ML implementation of the second Futamura projection for TDPE. Due to the differences between ‘traditional...... denotational semantics—allows us to relate various possible semantics to each other both conceptually and formally. We thus are able to explain goal-directed evaluation using an intuitive list-based semantics, while using a continuation semantics for semantics-based compilation through partial evaluation...

  19. Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wen-Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

  20. Scandinavian Semantics and the Human Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    , it is demonstrated that Scandinavian and English systems differ significantly in some aspects of the way in which the construe the human body with words. The study ventures an innovative combination of methods, pairing the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach to linguistic and conceptual analysis......This paper presents an ethnolinguistic analysis of how the space between the head and the body is construed in Scandinavian semantic systems vis-a-vis the semantic system of English. With an extensive case study of neck-related meanings in Danish, and with cross-Scandinavian reference...... with empirical evidence from the Evolution of Semantic Systems (EoSS) project. This combination of empirical and interpretative tools helps to integrate evidence from semantics and semiotics, pinning out in great detail the intricacies of the meanings of particular body words. The paper concludes that body words...

  1. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  2. Field error lottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quimby, D.C. (Spectra Technology, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of {plus minus}25{mu}m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  3. The use of source memory to identify one's own episodic confusion errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Tindell, D R; Pierce, B H; Gilliland, T R; Gerkens, D R

    2001-03-01

    In 4 category cued recall experiments, participants falsely recalled nonlist common members, a semantic confusion error. Errors were more likely if critical nonlist words were presented on an incidental task, causing source memory failures called episodic confusion errors. Participants could better identify the source of falsely recalled words if they had deeply processed the words on the incidental task. For deep but not shallow processing, participants could reliably include or exclude incidentally shown category members in recall. The illusion that critical items actually appeared on categorized lists was diminished but not eradicated when participants identified episodic confusion errors post hoc among their own recalled responses; participants often believed that critical items had been on both the incidental task and the study list. Improved source monitoring can potentially mitigate episodic (but not semantic) confusion errors.

  4. The paca that roared: Immediate cumulative semantic interference among newly acquired words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Gary M

    2018-08-01

    With 40,000 words in the average vocabulary, how can speakers find the specific words that they want so quickly and easily? Cumulative semantic interference in language production provides a clue: when naming a large series of pictures, with a few mammals sprinkled about, naming each subsequent mammal becomes slower and more error-prone. Such interference mirrors predictions from an incremental learning algorithm applied to meaning-driven retrieval from an established vocabulary, suggesting retrieval benefits from a constant, implicit, re-optimization process (Oppenheim et al., 2010). But how quickly would a new mammal (e.g. paca) engage in this re-optimization? In this experiment, 18 participants studied 3 novel and 3 familiar exemplars from each of six semantic categories, and immediately performed a timed picture-naming task. Consistent with the learning model's predictions, naming latencies revealed immediate cumulative semantic interference in all directions: from new words to new words, from new words to old words, from old words to new words, and from old words to old words. Repeating the procedure several days later produced similar-magnitude effects, demonstrating that newly acquired words can be immediately semantically integrated, at least to the extent necessary to produce typical cumulative semantic interference. These findings extend the Dark Side model's scope to include novel word production, and are considered in terms of mechanisms for lexical selection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prescription Errors in Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    clinical pharmacists in detecting errors before they have a (sometimes serious) clinical impact should not be underestimated. Research on medication error in mental health care is limited. .... participation in ward rounds and adverse drug.

  6. Naming without knowing and appearance without associations: evidence for constructive processes in semantic memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, K R; Evans, J J; Hodges, J R; McCarthy, R A

    1995-01-01

    This study describes a patient (SE) with temporal lobe injury resulting from Herpes Simplex Encephalitis, who displayed a previously unreported impairment in which his knowledge of associative and functional attributes of animals was disproportionately impaired by comparison with his knowledge of their sensory attributes (including their visual properties and characteristic sounds). His knowledge of man-made objects was preserved. A striking aspect of the present case was that the patient remained able to name many animals from their pictures, despite making gross errors in generating associative information about these same animals. This suggests that a semantic representation incorporating stored sensory knowledge may be sufficient for naming (at least for biological categories) and associative information may be unnecessary. Semantic knowledge may normally incorporate more information than is necessary for identification. SE's errors were found to be confabulatory and reconstructive in nature and it is argued that this aspect of his performance challenges passive conceptions of semantic memory couched in terms of a catalogue of stored representations. It is proposed that the patient's disorder affects a dynamic, constructive, and inferential component of his knowledge base, and that this component is sensitive to semantic category.

  7. Energy Consumption Forecasting Using Semantic-Based Genetic Programming with Local Search Optimizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Castelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption forecasting (ECF is an important policy issue in today’s economies. An accurate ECF has great benefits for electric utilities and both negative and positive errors lead to increased operating costs. The paper proposes a semantic based genetic programming framework to address the ECF problem. In particular, we propose a system that finds (quasi-perfect solutions with high probability and that generates models able to produce near optimal predictions also on unseen data. The framework blends a recently developed version of genetic programming that integrates semantic genetic operators with a local search method. The main idea in combining semantic genetic programming and a local searcher is to couple the exploration ability of the former with the exploitation ability of the latter. Experimental results confirm the suitability of the proposed method in predicting the energy consumption. In particular, the system produces a lower error with respect to the existing state-of-the art techniques used on the same dataset. More importantly, this case study has shown that including a local searcher in the geometric semantic genetic programming system can speed up the search process and can result in fitter models that are able to produce an accurate forecasting also on unseen data.

  8. The semantic category-based grouping in the Multiple Identity Tracking task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liuqing; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Zhen; Liu, Jingyao

    2018-01-01

    In the Multiple Identity Tracking (MIT) task, categorical distinctions between targets and distractors have been found to facilitate tracking (Wei, Zhang, Lyu, & Li in Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 589, 2016). The purpose of this study was to further investigate the reasons for the facilitation effect, through six experiments. The results of Experiments 1-3 excluded the potential explanations of visual distinctiveness, attentional distribution strategy, and a working memory mechanism, respectively. When objects' visual information was preserved and categorical information was removed, the facilitation effect disappeared, suggesting that the visual distinctiveness between targets and distractors was not the main reason for the facilitation effect. Moreover, the facilitation effect was not the result of strategically shifting the attentional distribution, because the targets received more attention than the distractors in all conditions. Additionally, the facilitation effect did not come about because the identities of targets were encoded and stored in visual working memory to assist in the recovery from tracking errors; when working memory was disturbed by the object identities changing during tracking, the facilitation effect still existed. Experiments 4 and 5 showed that observers grouped targets together and segregated them from distractors on the basis of their categorical information. By doing this, observers could largely avoid distractor interference with tracking and improve tracking performance. Finally, Experiment 6 indicated that category-based grouping is not an automatic, but a goal-directed and effortful, strategy. In summary, the present findings show that a semantic category-based target-grouping mechanism exists in the MIT task, which is likely to be the major reason for the tracking facilitation effect.

  9. Errorful and errorless learning: The impact of cue-target constraint in learning from errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Emma K; Mecklinger, Axel

    2014-08-01

    The benefits of testing on learning are well described, and attention has recently turned to what happens when errors are elicited during learning: Is testing nonetheless beneficial, or can errors hinder learning? Whilst recent findings have indicated that tests boost learning even if errors are made on every trial, other reports, emphasizing the benefits of errorless learning, have indicated that errors lead to poorer later memory performance. The possibility that this discrepancy is a function of the materials that must be learned-in particular, the relationship between the cues and targets-was addressed here. Cued recall after either a study-only errorless condition or an errorful learning condition was contrasted across cue-target associations, for which the extent to which the target was constrained by the cue was either high or low. Experiment 1 showed that whereas errorful learning led to greater recall for low-constraint stimuli, it led to a significant decrease in recall for high-constraint stimuli. This interaction is thought to reflect the extent to which retrieval is constrained by the cue-target association, as well as by the presence of preexisting semantic associations. The advantage of errorful retrieval for low-constraint stimuli was replicated in Experiment 2, and the interaction with stimulus type was replicated in Experiment 3, even when guesses were randomly designated as being either correct or incorrect. This pattern provides support for inferences derived from reports in which participants made errors on all learning trials, whilst highlighting the impact of material characteristics on the benefits and disadvantages that accrue from errorful learning in episodic memory.

  10. Machine Translation as a Model for Overcoming Some Common Errors in English-into-Arabic Translation among EFL University Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Banna, Adel I.; Naeem, Marwa A.

    2016-01-01

    This research work aimed at making use of Machine Translation to help students avoid some syntactic, semantic and pragmatic common errors in translation from English into Arabic. Participants were a hundred and five freshmen who studied the "Translation Common Errors Remedial Program" prepared by the researchers. A testing kit that…

  11. Error Analysis for Arithmetic Word Problems--A Case Study of Primary Three Students in One Singapore School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu Pien

    2015-01-01

    In this study, ways in which 9-year old students from one Singapore school solved 1-step and 2-step word problems based on the three semantic structures were examined. The students' work and diagrams provided insights into the range of errors in word problem solving for 1- step and 2-step word problems. In particular, the errors provided some…

  12. Getting connected: Both associative and semantic links structure semantic memory for newly learned persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Holger; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether semantic memory for newly learned people is structured by visual co-occurrence, shared semantics, or both. Participants were trained with pairs of simultaneously presented (i.e., co-occurring) preexperimentally unfamiliar faces, which either did or did not share additionally provided semantic information (occupation, place of living, etc.). Semantic information could also be shared between faces that did not co-occur. A subsequent priming experiment revealed faster responses for both co-occurrence/no shared semantics and no co-occurrence/shared semantics conditions, than for an unrelated condition. Strikingly, priming was strongest in the co-occurrence/shared semantics condition, suggesting additive effects of these factors. Additional analysis of event-related brain potentials yielded priming in the N400 component only for combined effects of visual co-occurrence and shared semantics, with more positive amplitudes in this than in the unrelated condition. Overall, these findings suggest that both semantic relatedness and visual co-occurrence are important when novel information is integrated into person-related semantic memory.

  13. Open quantum systems and error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Barzegar, Alireza

    Quantum effects can be harnessed to manipulate information in a desired way. Quantum systems which are designed for this purpose are suffering from harming interaction with their surrounding environment or inaccuracy in control forces. Engineering different methods to combat errors in quantum devices are highly demanding. In this thesis, I focus on realistic formulations of quantum error correction methods. A realistic formulation is the one that incorporates experimental challenges. This thesis is presented in two sections of open quantum system and quantum error correction. Chapters 2 and 3 cover the material on open quantum system theory. It is essential to first study a noise process then to contemplate methods to cancel its effect. In the second chapter, I present the non-completely positive formulation of quantum maps. Most of these results are published in [Shabani and Lidar, 2009b,a], except a subsection on geometric characterization of positivity domain of a quantum map. The real-time formulation of the dynamics is the topic of the third chapter. After introducing the concept of Markovian regime, A new post-Markovian quantum master equation is derived, published in [Shabani and Lidar, 2005a]. The section of quantum error correction is presented in three chapters of 4, 5, 6 and 7. In chapter 4, we introduce a generalized theory of decoherence-free subspaces and subsystems (DFSs), which do not require accurate initialization (published in [Shabani and Lidar, 2005b]). In Chapter 5, we present a semidefinite program optimization approach to quantum error correction that yields codes and recovery procedures that are robust against significant variations in the noise channel. Our approach allows us to optimize the encoding, recovery, or both, and is amenable to approximations that significantly improve computational cost while retaining fidelity (see [Kosut et al., 2008] for a published version). Chapter 6 is devoted to a theory of quantum error correction (QEC

  14. Errors in otology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartush, J M

    1996-11-01

    Practicing medicine successfully requires that errors in diagnosis and treatment be minimized. Malpractice laws encourage litigators to ascribe all medical errors to incompetence and negligence. There are, however, many other causes of unintended outcomes. This article describes common causes of errors and suggests ways to minimize mistakes in otologic practice. Widespread dissemination of knowledge about common errors and their precursors can reduce the incidence of their occurrence. Consequently, laws should be passed to allow for a system of non-punitive, confidential reporting of errors and "near misses" that can be shared by physicians nationwide.

  15. Examining lateralized semantic access using pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-03-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs. Participants made an on-line semantic relatedness judgment in response to sequentially presented pictures. We found that when pictures are presented to the right hemisphere responses are generally more accurate than the left hemisphere for semantic relatedness judgments for picture pairs. Furthermore, consistent with earlier DVF studies employing words, we conclude that the RH is better at accessing or maintaining access to information that has a weak or more remote semantic relationship. We also found evidence of faster access for pictures presented to the LH in the strongly-related condition. Overall, these results are consistent with earlier DVF word studies that argue that the cerebral hemispheres each play an important and separable role during semantic retrieval. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrocortical N400 Effects of Semantic Satiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ströberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic satiation is characterised by the subjective and temporary loss of meaning after high repetition of a prime word. To study the nature of this effect, previous electroencephalography (EEG research recorded the N400, an ERP component that is sensitive to violations of semantic context. The N400 is characterised by a relative negativity to words that are unrelated vs. related to the semantic context. The semantic satiation hypothesis predicts that the N400 should decrease with high repetition. However, previous findings have been inconsistent. Because of these inconsistent findings and the shortcomings of previous research, we used a modified design that minimises confounding effects from non-semantic processes. We recorded 64-channel EEG and analysed the N400 in a semantic priming task in which the primes were repeated 3 or 30 times. Critically, we separated low and high repetition trials and excluded response trials. Further, we varied the physical features (letter case and format of consecutive primes to minimise confounding effects from perceptual habituation. For centrofrontal electrodes, the N400 was reduced after 30 repetitions (vs. 3 repetitions. Explorative source reconstructions suggested that activity decreased after 30 repetitions in bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, the right posterior section of the superior and middle temporal gyrus, right supramarginal gyrus, bilateral lateral occipital cortex, and bilateral lateral orbitofrontal cortex. These areas overlap broadly with those typically involved in the N400, namely middle temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus. The results support the semantic rather than the perceptual nature of the satiation effect.

  17. Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R; Zola, S M

    1998-01-01

    Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline diencephalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe/diencephalic damage should be proportionately impaired in both episodic and semantic memory. An alternative view is that the capacity for semantic memory is spared, or partially spared, in amnesia relative to episodic memory ability. This article reviews two kinds of relevant data: 1) case studies where amnesia has occurred early in childhood, before much of an individual's semantic knowledge has been acquired, and 2) experimental studies with amnesic patients of fact and event learning, remembering and knowing, and remote memory. The data provide no compelling support for the view that episodic and semantic memory are affected differently in medial temporal lobe/diencephalic amnesia. However, episodic and semantic memory may be dissociable in those amnesic patients who additionally have severe frontal lobe damage.

  18. Recovery Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kurtz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.

  19. Inter-deriving Semantic Artifacts for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    We present a new abstract machine for Abadi and Cardelli's untyped non-imperative calculus of objects.  This abstract machine mechanically corresponds to both the reduction semantics (i.e., small-step operational semantics) and the natural semantics (i.e., big-step operational semantics) specified...

  20. The Semantics of Plurals: A Defense of Singularism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I defend "semantic singularism", which is the view that syntactically plural terms, such as "they" or "Russell and Whitehead", are semantically singular. A semantically singular term is a term that denotes a single entity. Semantic singularism is to be distinguished from "syntactic singularism", according to which…

  1. The Influence of Semantic Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although it is assumed that semantics is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying semantic processing has been in terms of semantic neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that semantic neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…

  2. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  3. Combinatorial algebra syntax and semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Sapir, Mark V

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial Algebra: Syntax and Semantics provides a comprehensive account of many areas of combinatorial algebra. It contains self-contained proofs of  more than 20 fundamental results, both classical and modern. This includes Golod–Shafarevich and Olshanskii's solutions of Burnside problems, Shirshov's solution of Kurosh's problem for PI rings, Belov's solution of Specht's problem for varieties of rings, Grigorchuk's solution of Milnor's problem, Bass–Guivarc'h theorem about the growth of nilpotent groups, Kleiman's solution of Hanna Neumann's problem for varieties of groups, Adian's solution of von Neumann-Day's problem, Trahtman's solution of the road coloring problem of Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss. The book emphasize several ``universal" tools, such as trees, subshifts, uniformly recurrent words, diagrams and automata.   With over 350 exercises at various levels of difficulty and with hints for the more difficult problems, this book can be used as a textbook, and aims to reach a wide and diversified...

  4. The Semantic Analysis of Icon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Piravivanak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available "Eikon" (Greek word or "Imago" (Latin word signifies a kind of similarity or "likeness". In Plato’s philosophy, this term implies "likeness" of appearance to pattern or symbol. In semantic analysis of icon, which is correlated with Idea, we can find factors such as "perception", "imagination", "likeness", "imitation" (Mimesis, "imaginary ideas", that is, it is not possible to reduce icon to a material picture because it is supported by cultural (symbolic, perceptual and conceptual sources. The process in which an icon is established indicates a special relation between icon and imaginary ideas that is supported by symbolic sources. Then, it is not possible to regard icon as a material picture because icon is an icon of a symbol which is able to play its role visibly in relation to a symbol.

  5. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  6. Semantics of color in chromatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Nikolai V.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of >: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for >, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  7. Varieties of semantic 'access' deficit in Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hannah E; Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke's aphasia, associated with poor auditory-verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic 'access' deficit, as opposed to the 'storage' deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of 'access' impairment-related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke's aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke's aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington's paradigmatic assessment of semantic 'access' deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic 'blocking' effects). Patients with Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability-one that mapped onto classical 'syndromes' and one that did not-predicted aspects of the semantic 'access' deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke's aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially 'beneficial' effects of stimulus repetition: cases with

  8. Varieties of semantic ‘access’ deficit in Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke’s aphasia, associated with poor auditory–verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic ‘access’ deficit, as opposed to the ‘storage’ deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of ‘access’ impairment—related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke’s aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington’s paradigmatic assessment of semantic ‘access’ deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic ‘blocking’ effects). Patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability—one that mapped onto classical ‘syndromes’ and one that did not—predicted aspects of the semantic ‘access’ deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke’s aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke’s aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially

  9. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2004-01-01

    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

  10. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Liyang

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years, and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components, and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  11. Change management for semantic web services

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xumin; Bouguettaya, Athman

    2011-01-01

    Change Management for Semantic Web Services provides a thorough analysis of change management in the lifecycle of services for databases and workflows, including changes that occur at the individual service level or at the aggregate composed service level. This book describes taxonomy of changes that are expected in semantic service oriented environments. The process of change management consists of detecting, propagating, and reacting to changes. Change Management for Semantic Web Services is one of the first books that discuss the development of a theoretical foundation for managing changes

  12. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  13. A developer's guide to the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Liyang

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  14. Semantic matchmaking with nonmonotonic description logics

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, S

    2009-01-01

    Semantic web has grown into a mature field of research. Its methods find innovative applications on and off the World Wide Web. Its underlying technologies have significant impact on adjacent fields of research and on industrial applications. This new book series reports on the state-of-the-art in foundations, methods, and applications of semantic web and its underlying technologies. It is a central forum for the communication of recent developments and comprises research monographs, textbooks and edited volumes on all topics related to the semantic web. In this first volume several non-monoto

  15. Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko; Pafilisa, E.

    2010-01-01

    To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach......: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content...... web technologies....

  16. Word-embeddings Italian semantic spaces: A semantic model for psycholinguistic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelli Marco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributional semantics has been for long a source of successful models in psycholinguistics, permitting to obtain semantic estimates for a large number of words in an automatic and fast way. However, resources in this respect remain scarce or limitedly accessible for languages different from English. The present paper describes WEISS (Word-Embeddings Italian Semantic Space, a distributional semantic model based on Italian. WEISS includes models of semantic representations that are trained adopting state-of-the-art word-embeddings methods, applying neural networks to induce distributed representations for lexical meanings. The resource is evaluated against two test sets, demonstrating that WEISS obtains a better performance with respect to a baseline encoding word associations. Moreover, an extensive qualitative analysis of the WEISS output provides examples of the model potentialities in capturing several semantic phenomena. Two variants of WEISS are released and made easily accessible via web through the SNAUT graphic interface.

  17. SemanticOrganizer: A Customizable Semantic Repository for Distributed NASA Project Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.; Berrios, Daniel C.; Carvalho, Robert E.; Hall, David R.; Rich, Stephen J.; Sturken, Ian B.; Swanson, Keith J.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

    2004-01-01

    SemanticOrganizer is a collaborative knowledge management system designed to support distributed NASA projects, including diverse teams of scientists, engineers, and accident investigators. The system provides a customizable, semantically structured information repository that stores work products relevant to multiple projects of differing types. SemanticOrganizer is one of the earliest and largest semantic web applications deployed at NASA to date, and has been used in diverse contexts ranging from the investigation of Space Shuttle Columbia's accident to the search for life on other planets. Although the underlying repository employs a single unified ontology, access control and ontology customization mechanisms make the repository contents appear different for each project team. This paper describes SemanticOrganizer, its customization facilities, and a sampling of its applications. The paper also summarizes some key lessons learned from building and fielding a successful semantic web application across a wide-ranging set of domains with diverse users.

  18. Cross border semantic interoperability for clinical research: the EHR4CR semantic resources and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Christel; Ouagne, David; Sadou, Eric; Forsberg, Kerstin; Gilchrist, Mark Mc; Zapletal, Eric; Paris, Nicolas; Hussain, Sajjad; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; MD, Dipka Kalra

    2016-01-01

    With the development of platforms enabling the use of routinely collected clinical data in the context of international clinical research, scalable solutions for cross border semantic interoperability need to be developed. Within the context of the IMI EHR4CR project, we first defined the requirements and evaluation criteria of the EHR4CR semantic interoperability platform and then developed the semantic resources and supportive services and tooling to assist hospital sites in standardizing their data for allowing the execution of the project use cases. The experience gained from the evaluation of the EHR4CR platform accessing to semantically equivalent data elements across 11 European participating EHR systems from 5 countries demonstrated how far the mediation model and mapping efforts met the expected requirements of the project. Developers of semantic interoperability platforms are beginning to address a core set of requirements in order to reach the goal of developing cross border semantic integration of data. PMID:27570649

  19. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fuse...... its transition function with its driver loop, obtaining the functional implementation of a big-step abstract machine; (2) we adjust this big-step abstract machine so that it is in defunctionalized form, obtaining the functional implementation of a second big-step abstract machine; (3) we...... refunctionalize this adjusted abstract machine, obtaining the functional implementation of a natural semantics in continuation style; and (4) we closure-unconvert this natural semantics, obtaining a compositional continuation-passing evaluation function which we identify as the functional implementation...

  20. Natural language acquisition in large scale neural semantic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealey, Douglas

    This thesis puts forward the view that a purely signal- based approach to natural language processing is both plausible and desirable. By questioning the veracity of symbolic representations of meaning, it argues for a unified, non-symbolic model of knowledge representation that is both biologically plausible and, potentially, highly efficient. Processes to generate a grounded, neural form of this model-dubbed the semantic filter-are discussed. The combined effects of local neural organisation, coincident with perceptual maturation, are used to hypothesise its nature. This theoretical model is then validated in light of a number of fundamental neurological constraints and milestones. The mechanisms of semantic and episodic development that the model predicts are then used to explain linguistic properties, such as propositions and verbs, syntax and scripting. To mimic the growth of locally densely connected structures upon an unbounded neural substrate, a system is developed that can grow arbitrarily large, data- dependant structures composed of individual self- organising neural networks. The maturational nature of the data used results in a structure in which the perception of concepts is refined by the networks, but demarcated by subsequent structure. As a consequence, the overall structure shows significant memory and computational benefits, as predicted by the cognitive and neural models. Furthermore, the localised nature of the neural architecture also avoids the increasing error sensitivity and redundancy of traditional systems as the training domain grows. The semantic and episodic filters have been demonstrated to perform as well, or better, than more specialist networks, whilst using significantly larger vocabularies, more complex sentence forms and more natural corpora.

  1. Putting semantics into the semantic web: how well can it capture biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazic, Toni

    2006-01-01

    Could the Semantic Web work for computations of biological interest in the way it's intended to work for movie reviews and commercial transactions? It would be wonderful if it could, so it's worth looking to see if its infrastructure is adequate to the job. The technologies of the Semantic Web make several crucial assumptions. I examine those assumptions; argue that they create significant problems; and suggest some alternative ways of achieving the Semantic Web's goals for biology.

  2. The contribution of executive control to semantic cognition: Convergent evidence from semantic aphasia and executive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hannah E; Almaghyuli, Azizah; Noonan, Krist A; Barak, Ohr; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2018-01-03

    Semantic cognition, as described by the controlled semantic cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers et al., , Neuropsychologia, 76, 220), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal 'hub' in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task-appropriate behaviour. Executive-semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive regions such as frontal and parietal cortex, are thought to allow the generation of non-dominant aspects of knowledge when these are appropriate for the task or context. Semantic aphasia (SA) patients have executive-semantic deficits, and these are correlated with general executive impairment. If the CSC proposal is correct, patients with executive impairment should not only exhibit impaired semantic cognition, but should also show characteristics that align with those observed in SA. This possibility remains largely untested, as patients selected on the basis that they show executive impairment (i.e., with 'dysexecutive syndrome') have not been extensively tested on tasks tapping semantic control and have not been previously compared with SA cases. We explored conceptual processing in 12 patients showing symptoms consistent with dysexecutive syndrome (DYS) and 24 SA patients, using a range of multimodal semantic assessments which manipulated control demands. Patients with executive impairments, despite not being selected to show semantic impairments, nevertheless showed parallel patterns to SA cases. They showed strong effects of distractor strength, cues and miscues, and probe-target distance, plus minimal effects of word frequency on comprehension (unlike semantic dementia patients with degradation of conceptual knowledge). This supports a component process account of semantic cognition in which retrieval is shaped by control processes, and confirms that deficits in SA patients reflect

  3. The contribution of executive control to semantic cognition: Convergent evidence from semantic aphasia and executive dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Hannah E; Almaghyuli, Azizah; Noonan, Krist A.; Barak, Ohr; Lambon Ralph, Matthew; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Semantic cognition, as described by the Controlled Semantic Cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers, Patterson, Jefferies, & Lambon Ralph, 2015), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal ‘hub’ in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task- appropriate behaviour. Executive-semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive...

  4. The contribution of executive control to semantic cognition: Convergent evidence from semantic aphasia and executive dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Hannah; Almaghyuli, Azizah; Noonan, Krist A.; barak, Ohr; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Semantic cognition, as described by the controlled semantic cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers et al., 2015, Neuropsychologia, 76, 220), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal ‘hub’ in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task-appropriate behaviour. Executive–semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive regions ...

  5. Using semantic analysis to improve speech recognition performance

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan, Hakan; Erdogan, Hakan; Sarıkaya, Ruhi; Sarikaya, Ruhi; Chen, Stanley F.; Gao, Yuqing; Picheny, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Although syntactic structure has been used in recent work in language modeling, there has not been much effort in using semantic analysis for language models. In this study, we propose three new language modeling techniques that use semantic analysis for spoken dialog systems. We call these methods concept sequence modeling, two-level semantic-lexical modeling, and joint semantic-lexical modeling. These models combine lexical information with varying amounts of semantic information, using ann...

  6. Information Interaction as a Mechanism of Semantic Gap Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Y. Tsvetkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies semantic gap as an objective phenomenon, shows that semantic gap occurs both in parallel computing and in other areas. Semantic description of the content is revealed as a set of different descriptions. Causes of semantic gap are described. The content of information exchange is explained in the article. Information interaction in the semantic field is interpreted as a mechanism to lessen the gap

  7. A logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Robert J.; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We present a logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines. This correspondence enables the mechanical and fully-correct construction of an abstract machine from a natural semantics. Our logical correspondence mirrors the Reynolds functional correspondence, but we...... manipulate semantic specifications encoded in a logical framework instead of manipulating functional programs. Natural semantics and abstract machines are instances of substructural operational semantics. As a byproduct, using a substructural logical framework, we bring concurrent and stateful models...

  8. The structure of semantic person memory: evidence from semantic priming in person recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Holger

    2011-11-01

    This paper reviews research on the structure of semantic person memory as examined with semantic priming. In this experimental paradigm, a familiarity decision on a target face or written name is usually faster when it is preceded by a related as compared to an unrelated prime. This effect has been shown to be relatively short lived and susceptible to interfering items. Moreover, semantic priming can cross stimulus domains, such that a written name can prime a target face and vice versa. However, it remains controversial whether representations of people are stored in associative networks based on co-occurrence, or in more abstract semantic categories. In line with prominent cognitive models of face recognition, which explain semantic priming by shared semantic information between prime and target, recent research demonstrated that priming could be obtained from purely categorically related, non-associated prime/target pairs. Although strategic processes, such as expectancy and retrospective matching likely contribute, there is also evidence for a non-strategic contribution to priming, presumably related to spreading activation. Finally, a semantic priming effect has been demonstrated in the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component, which may reflect facilitated access to semantic information. It is concluded that categorical relatedness is one organizing principle of semantic person memory. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. The Semantic Network of Flood Hydrological Data for Kelantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Aziyati; Din, Norashidah Md; Yussof, Salman; Ullah Khan, Samee

    2016-03-01

    Every year, authorities in Malaysia are putting efforts on disaster management mechanisms including the flood incidence that might hit the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This includes the state of Kelantan of which it was reported that flood is just a normal event occurred annually. However, the aftermath was always unmanageable and had left the state to struggle for its own recoveries. Though it was expected that flood occurred every year, among the worst were in 1967, 1974, 1982 and recently in December 2014. This study is proposing a semantic network as an approach to the method of utilising big data analytics in analysing the huge data from the state’s flood reading stations. It is expected that by using current computing edge can also facilitate mitigating this particular disaster.

  10. The error in total error reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witnauer, James E; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R

    2014-02-01

    Most models of human and animal learning assume that learning is proportional to the discrepancy between a delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by all cues present during that trial (i.e., total error across a stimulus compound). This total error reduction (TER) view has been implemented in connectionist and artificial neural network models to describe the conditions under which weights between units change. Electrophysiological work has revealed that the activity of dopamine neurons is correlated with the total error signal in models of reward learning. Similar neural mechanisms presumably support fear conditioning, human contingency learning, and other types of learning. Using a computational modeling approach, we compared several TER models of associative learning to an alternative model that rejects the TER assumption in favor of local error reduction (LER), which assumes that learning about each cue is proportional to the discrepancy between the delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by that specific cue on that trial. The LER model provided a better fit to the reviewed data than the TER models. Given the superiority of the LER model with the present data sets, acceptance of TER should be tempered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The semantic sphere of juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a preliminary empirical study aimed to identify features of the semantic sphere of adolescents who have committed illegal, including aggressive acts. The study included 50 male juveniles aged of 16 - 17 years. The first group consisted of adolescents convicted of aggressive and violent crimes; the second – of property socially dangerous acts (SDA. It is shown that evaluation of such adolescents is generally categorical and polar, the semantic field is subdifferentiable, less hierarchic, and has not enough realistic structure of meanings. Developed structure of motives and meanings is the basis of voluntary regulation of socially significant behavior. Thus, assessing the semantic sphere of juvenile offenders we can highlight its characteristics as risk factors of unlawful behavior, as well as the resource side, that will contribute to addressing issues of prevention and correction of unlawful behavior. Key words: juvenile offenders, semantic field of juvenile offenders, unlawful behavior.

  12. Metamodeling of Semantic Web Enabled Multiagent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardas, G.; Göknil, Arda; Dikenelli, O.; Topaloglu, N.Y.; Weyns, D.; Holvoet, T.

    2006-01-01

    Several agent researchers are currently studying agent modeling and they propose dierent architectural metamodels for developing Multiagent Systems (MAS) according to specic agent development methodologies. When support for Semantic Web technology and its related constructs are considered, agent

  13. SPARK: Adapting Keyword Query to Semantic Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Wang, Chong; Xiong, Miao; Wang, Haofen; Yu, Yong

    Semantic search promises to provide more accurate result than present-day keyword search. However, progress with semantic search has been delayed due to the complexity of its query languages. In this paper, we explore a novel approach of adapting keywords to querying the semantic web: the approach automatically translates keyword queries into formal logic queries so that end users can use familiar keywords to perform semantic search. A prototype system named 'SPARK' has been implemented in light of this approach. Given a keyword query, SPARK outputs a ranked list of SPARQL queries as the translation result. The translation in SPARK consists of three major steps: term mapping, query graph construction and query ranking. Specifically, a probabilistic query ranking model is proposed to select the most likely SPARQL query. In the experiment, SPARK achieved an encouraging translation result.

  14. Priming in Episodic and Semantic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    1979-01-01

    Four experiments examined priming between newly learned paired associates through two procedures, lexical decision and item recognition. Results argue against a functional separation of the semantic and episodic memory systems. (Author/AM)

  15. Propagating semantic information in biochemical network models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To enable automatic searches, alignments, and model combination, the elements of systems biology models need to be compared and matched across models. Elements can be identified by machine-readable biological annotations, but assigning such annotations and matching non-annotated elements is tedious work and calls for automation. Results A new method called "semantic propagation" allows the comparison of model elements based not only on their own annotations, but also on annotations of surrounding elements in the network. One may either propagate feature vectors, describing the annotations of individual elements, or quantitative similarities between elements from different models. Based on semantic propagation, we align partially annotated models and find annotations for non-annotated model elements. Conclusions Semantic propagation and model alignment are included in the open-source library semanticSBML, available on sourceforge. Online services for model alignment and for annotation prediction can be used at http://www.semanticsbml.org.

  16. Preserved semantic priming effect in alexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, M; Goodglass, H; Milberg, W

    1996-09-01

    BH, a left-handed patient with alexia and nonfluent aphasia, was presented with a lexical-decision task in which words and pronounceable pseudowords were preceded by semantically related or unrelated picture primes (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, BH was given an explicit reading task using the word lists from Experiment 1. Performance on Experiment 2 disclosed severe reading deficits in both oral reading and semantic matching of the words to pictures. However, in Experiment 1, BH demonstrated a significant semantic priming effect, responding more accurately and more quickly to words preceded by related primes than by unrelated primes. The present results suggest that even in a patient with severe alexia, implicit access to semantic information can be preserved in the absence of explicit identification. The possibility of categorical gradient in implicit activation (living vs. nonliving) in BH was also discussed, which, however, needs to be clarified in the further investigation.

  17. Semantic Considerations in the Treatment of Echolalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Norman B.; David, Leigh E.

    1975-01-01

    Two mentally retarded preschool children, both of whom echoed all forms of yes-no questions, were subjected to different treatment procedures varied according to the semantic function of the antecedent verbal stimulus. (Author)

  18. Semantic computing and language knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Houfeng; Yu, Shiwen

    2017-09-01

    As the proposition of the next-generation Web - semantic Web, semantic computing has been drawing more and more attention within the circle and the industries. A lot of research has been conducted on the theory and methodology of the subject, and potential applications have also been investigated and proposed in many fields. The progress of semantic computing made so far cannot be detached from its supporting pivot - language resources, for instance, language knowledge bases. This paper proposes three perspectives of semantic computing from a macro view and describes the current status of affairs about the construction of language knowledge bases and the related research and applications that have been carried out on the basis of these resources via a case study in the Institute of Computational Linguistics at Peking University.

  19. Semantic transparency affects morphological priming . . . eventually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Vera; Kornishova, Dana

    2018-05-01

    Semantic transparency has been in the focus of psycholinguistic research for decades, with the controversy about the time course of the application of morpho-semantic information during the processing of morphologically complex words not yet resolved. This study reports two masked priming studies with English - ness and Russian - ost' nominalisations, investigating how semantic transparency modulates native speakers' morphological priming effects at short and long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). In both languages, we found increased morphological priming for nominalisations at the transparent end of the scale (e.g. paleness - pale) in comparison to items at the opaque end of the scale (e.g. business - busy) but only at longer prime durations. The present findings are in line with models that posit an initial phase of morpho-orthographic (semantically blind) decomposition.

  20. Trust Networks on the Semantic Web

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golbeck, Jennifer; Parisa, Bijan; Hendler, James

    2006-01-01

    The so-called "Web of Trust" is one of the ultimate goals of the Semantic Web. Research on the topic of trust in this domain has focused largely on digital signatures, certificates, and authentication...

  1. Methods of Run-Time Error Detection in Distributed Process Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, N.

    of generic run-time error types, design of methods of observing application software behaviorduring execution and design of methods of evaluating run time constraints. In the definition of error types it is attempted to cover all relevant aspects of the application softwaree behavior. Methods of observation......In this thesis, methods of run-time error detection in application software for distributed process control is designed. The error detection is based upon a monitoring approach in which application software is monitored by system software during the entire execution. The thesis includes definition...... and constraint evaluation is designed for the modt interesting error types. These include: a) semantical errors in data communicated between application tasks; b) errors in the execution of application tasks; and c) errors in the timing of distributed events emitted by the application software. The design...

  2. The association between semantic dementia and surface dyslexia in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Takao; Komori, Kenjiro; Ikeda, Manabu; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Patterson, Karalyn

    2009-03-01

    One theory about reading suggests that producing the correct pronunciations of written words, particularly less familiar words with an atypical spelling-sound relationship, relies in part on knowledge of the word's meaning. This hypothesis has been supported by reports of surface dyslexia in large case-series studies of English-speaking/reading patients with semantic dementia (SD), but would have increased credibility if it applied to other languages and writing systems as well. The hypothesis predicts that, of the two systems used to write Japanese, SD patients should be unimpaired at oral reading of kana because of its invariant relationship between orthography and phonology. By contrast, oral reading of kanji should be impaired in a graded fashion depending on the consistency characteristics of the kanji target words, with worst performance on words whose component characters take 'minority' (atypical) pronunciations, especially if the words are of lower frequency. Errors in kanji reading should primarily reflect assignment of more typical readings to the component characters in these atypical words. In the largest-ever-reported case series of Japanese patients with semantic dementia, we tested and confirmed this hypothesis.

  3. Complex dynamics of semantic memory access in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Giosué; Fonseca, André

    2012-02-07

    Understanding a word in context relies on a cascade of perceptual and conceptual processes, starting with modality-specific input decoding, and leading to the unification of the word's meaning into a discourse model. One critical cognitive event, turning a sensory stimulus into a meaningful linguistic sign, is the access of a semantic representation from memory. Little is known about the changes that activating a word's meaning brings about in cortical dynamics. We recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) while participants read sentences that could contain a contextually unexpected word, such as 'cold' in 'In July it is very cold outside'. We reconstructed trajectories in phase space from single-trial EEG time series, and we applied three nonlinear measures of predictability and complexity to each side of the semantic access boundary, estimated as the onset time of the N400 effect evoked by critical words. Relative to controls, unexpected words were associated with larger prediction errors preceding the onset of the N400. Accessing the meaning of such words produced a phase transition to lower entropy states, in which cortical processing becomes more predictable and more regular. Our study sheds new light on the dynamics of information flow through interfaces between sensory and memory systems during language processing.

  4. Errors in Neonatology

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Boldrini; Rosa T. Scaramuzzo; Armando Cuttano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy). Results: In Neonatology the main err...

  5. Bibliographic information organization in the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Willer, Mirna

    2013-01-01

    New technologies will underpin the future generation of library catalogues. To facilitate their role providing information, serving users, and fulfilling their mission as cultural heritage and memory institutions, libraries must take a technological leap; their standards and services must be transformed to those of the Semantic Web. Bibliographic Information Organization in the Semantic Web explores the technologies that may power future library catalogues, and argues the necessity of such a leap. The text introduces international bibliographic standards and models, and fundamental concepts in

  6. Learning Semantic Segmentation with Diverse Supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Linwei; Liu, Zhi; Wang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Models based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) have significantly improved the performance of semantic segmentation. However, learning these models requires a large amount of training images with pixel-level labels, which are very costly and time-consuming to collect. In this paper, we propose a method for learning CNN-based semantic segmentation models from images with several types of annotations that are available for various computer vision tasks, including image-level labels fo...

  7. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio eGanis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a probe item by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs between this item and comparison items (irrelevants. Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as memory detection, little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addressed the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study. Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing semantic knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive component (LPC than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. Thus, the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.

  8. Applying semantic web services to enterprise web

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y; Yang, Q P; Sun, X; Wei, P

    2008-01-01

    Enterprise Web provides a convenient, extendable, integrated platform for information sharing and knowledge management. However, it still has many drawbacks due to complexity and increasing information glut, as well as the heterogeneity of the information processed. Research in the field of Semantic Web Services has shown the possibility of adding higher level of semantic functionality onto the top of current Enterprise Web, enhancing usability and usefulness of resource, enabling decision su...

  9. Semantic Identification Attacks on Web Browsing

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Neel

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a Semantic Identification Attack, in which an adversary uses semantic signals about the pages visited in one browsing session to identify other browsing sessions launched by the same user. This attack allows an adver- sary to determine if two browsing sessions originate from the same user regardless of any measures taken by the user to disguise their browser or network. We use the MSNBC Anonymous Browsing data set, which contains a large set of user visits (labeled by category) t...

  10. Semantic Web Without SPARQL.pdf

    OpenAIRE

    Szekely, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Discuss the creation of large Semantic Web applications with billions of triples. Instead of using a traditional SPARQL endpoint, our toolchain is a pure JSON toolchain using JSON-LD and ElasticSearch to support queries. The toolchain is familiar to all developers, does not require knowledge of Semantic Web technologies, and performance is 10X better than using SPARQL endpoints. The presentation illustrates the approach in the context of an application to fight human trafficking, using data f...

  11. Semantics of probabilistic processes an operational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses the semantic foundations of concurrent systems with nondeterministic and probabilistic behaviour. Particular attention is given to clarifying the relationship between testing and simulation semantics and characterising bisimulations from metric, logical, and algorithmic perspectives. Besides presenting recent research outcomes in probabilistic concurrency theory, the book exemplifies the use of many mathematical techniques to solve problems in computer science, which is intended to be accessible to postgraduate students in Computer Science and Mathematics. It can also be us

  12. A Walk in the Semantic Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob; Zerny, Ian

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions.......To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions....

  13. Verbal prefixation, construction grammar, and semantic compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewandowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the interaction between prefixes, verbs, and abstract argument structure constructions, using as a testing ground the locative alternation. It has been assumed that in order to participate in the locative alternation, a verb must specify a manner of motion from which a ...... between resultative prefixes, alternating verbs, and the more abstract change-of-state variant is driven by semantic coherence. Keywords: resultative prefixes, construction grammar, semantic coherence, locative alternation, Polish...

  14. Contextual Semantic Parsing using Crowdsourced Spatial Descriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Dukes, Kais

    2014-01-01

    We describe a contextual parser for the Robot Commands Treebank, a new crowdsourced resource. In contrast to previous semantic parsers that select the most-probable parse, we consider the different problem of parsing using additional situational context to disambiguate between different readings of a sentence. We show that multiple semantic analyses can be searched using dynamic programming via interaction with a spatial planner, to guide the parsing process. We are able to parse sentences in...

  15. Concurrent semantics for structured design methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Also in Jelly, I., Gordon, I., & Groll, P. Software Engineering for Parallel and Distributed Systems. London: Chapman Hall. Design methods can be ambiguous due to di#11;erent interpretations of symbols or concepts. This paper presents a formal semantics for the Ward/Mellor Structured Analysis Method for Real Time systems. These semantics ensures that an unambiguous meaning can be attributed to a particular design. Speci#12;cally, it ensures that concurrent and real-time propert...

  16. Systematic Procedural Error

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byrne, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    .... This problem has received surprisingly little attention from cognitive psychologists. The research summarized here examines such errors in some detail both empirically and through computational cognitive modeling...

  17. Human errors and mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1993-01-01

    Human errors have a major contribution to the risks for industrial accidents. Accidents have provided important lesson making it possible to build safer systems. In avoiding human errors it is necessary to adapt the systems to their operators. The complexity of modern industrial systems is however increasing the danger of system accidents. Models of the human operator have been proposed, but the models are not able to give accurate predictions of human performance. Human errors can never be eliminated, but their frequency can be decreased by systematic efforts. The paper gives a brief summary of research in human error and it concludes with suggestions for further work. (orig.)

  18. Enabling Semantic Queries Against the Spatial Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG, X.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial database based upon the object-relational database management system (ORDBMS has the merits of a clear data model, good operability and high query efficiency. That is why it has been widely used in spatial data organization and management. However, it cannot express the semantic relationships among geospatial objects, making the query results difficult to meet the user's requirement well. Therefore, this paper represents an attempt to combine the Semantic Web technology with the spatial database so as to make up for the traditional database's disadvantages. In this way, on the one hand, users can take advantages of ORDBMS to store and manage spatial data; on the other hand, if the spatial database is released in the form of Semantic Web, the users could describe a query more concisely with the cognitive pattern which is similar to that of daily life. As a consequence, this methodology enables the benefits of both Semantic Web and the object-relational database (ORDB available. The paper discusses systematically the semantic enriched spatial database's architecture, key technologies and implementation. Subsequently, we demonstrate the function of spatial semantic queries via a practical prototype system. The query results indicate that the method used in this study is feasible.

  19. Semantic-based surveillance video retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Xie, Dan; Fu, Zhouyu; Zeng, Wenrong; Maybank, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Visual surveillance produces large amounts of video data. Effective indexing and retrieval from surveillance video databases are very important. Although there are many ways to represent the content of video clips in current video retrieval algorithms, there still exists a semantic gap between users and retrieval systems. Visual surveillance systems supply a platform for investigating semantic-based video retrieval. In this paper, a semantic-based video retrieval framework for visual surveillance is proposed. A cluster-based tracking algorithm is developed to acquire motion trajectories. The trajectories are then clustered hierarchically using the spatial and temporal information, to learn activity models. A hierarchical structure of semantic indexing and retrieval of object activities, where each individual activity automatically inherits all the semantic descriptions of the activity model to which it belongs, is proposed for accessing video clips and individual objects at the semantic level. The proposed retrieval framework supports various queries including queries by keywords, multiple object queries, and queries by sketch. For multiple object queries, succession and simultaneity restrictions, together with depth and breadth first orders, are considered. For sketch-based queries, a method for matching trajectories drawn by users to spatial trajectories is proposed. The effectiveness and efficiency of our framework are tested in a crowded traffic scene.

  20. Semantics by analogy for illustrative volume visualization☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerl, Moritz; Rautek, Peter; Isenberg, Tobias; Gröller, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive graphical approach for the explicit specification of semantics for volume visualization. This explicit and graphical specification of semantics for volumetric features allows us to visually assign meaning to both input and output parameters of the visualization mapping. This is in contrast to the implicit way of specifying semantics using transfer functions. In particular, we demonstrate how to realize a dynamic specification of semantics which allows to flexibly explore a wide range of mappings. Our approach is based on three concepts. First, we use semantic shader augmentation to automatically add rule-based rendering functionality to static visualization mappings in a shader program, while preserving the visual abstraction that the initial shader encodes. With this technique we extend recent developments that define a mapping between data attributes and visual attributes with rules, which are evaluated using fuzzy logic. Second, we let users define the semantics by analogy through brushing on renderings of the data attributes of interest. Third, the rules are specified graphically in an interface that provides visual clues for potential modifications. Together, the presented methods offer a high degree of freedom in the specification and exploration of rule-based mappings and avoid the limitations of a linguistic rule formulation. PMID:23576827

  1. Deriving a probabilistic syntacto-semantic grammar for biomedicine based on domain-specific terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol

    2011-10-01

    Biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) is a useful technique that unlocks valuable information stored in textual data for practice and/or research. Syntactic parsing is a critical component of BioNLP applications that rely on correctly determining the sentence and phrase structure of free text. In addition to dealing with the vast amount of domain-specific terms, a robust biomedical parser needs to model the semantic grammar to obtain viable syntactic structures. With either a rule-based or corpus-based approach, the grammar engineering process requires substantial time and knowledge from experts, and does not always yield a semantically transferable grammar. To reduce the human effort and to promote semantic transferability, we propose an automated method for deriving a probabilistic grammar based on a training corpus consisting of concept strings and semantic classes from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a comprehensive terminology resource widely used by the community. The grammar is designed to specify noun phrases only due to the nominal nature of the majority of biomedical terminological concepts. Evaluated on manually parsed clinical notes, the derived grammar achieved a recall of 0.644, precision of 0.737, and average cross-bracketing of 0.61, which demonstrated better performance than a control grammar with the semantic information removed. Error analysis revealed shortcomings that could be addressed to improve performance. The results indicated the feasibility of an approach which automatically incorporates terminology semantics in the building of an operational grammar. Although the current performance of the unsupervised solution does not adequately replace manual engineering, we believe once the performance issues are addressed, it could serve as an aide in a semi-supervised solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alignment of the UMLS semantic network with BioTop: methodology and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; Beisswanger, Elena; van den Hoek, László; Bodenreider, Olivier; van Mulligen, Erik M

    2009-06-15

    For many years, the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) semantic network (SN) has been used as an upper-level semantic framework for the categorization of terms from terminological resources in biomedicine. BioTop has recently been developed as an upper-level ontology for the biomedical domain. In contrast to the SN, it is founded upon strict ontological principles, using OWL DL as a formal representation language, which has become standard in the semantic Web. In order to make logic-based reasoning available for the resources annotated or categorized with the SN, a mapping ontology was developed aligning the SN with BioTop. The theoretical foundations and the practical realization of the alignment are being described, with a focus on the design decisions taken, the problems encountered and the adaptations of BioTop that became necessary. For evaluation purposes, UMLS concept pairs obtained from MEDLINE abstracts by a named entity recognition system were tested for possible semantic relationships. Furthermore, all semantic-type combinations that occur in the UMLS Metathesaurus were checked for satisfiability. The effort-intensive alignment process required major design changes and enhancements of BioTop and brought up several design errors that could be fixed. A comparison between a human curator and the ontology yielded only a low agreement. Ontology reasoning was also used to successfully identify 133 inconsistent semantic-type combinations. BioTop, the OWL DL representation of the UMLS SN, and the mapping ontology are available at http://www.purl.org/biotop/.

  3. Semantics of Kinship Terms in Tamil from the Semantic Typology Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Александровна Смирнитская

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines the lexical-semantic group “kinship terms” in Tamil, applying the attainments of modern semantic typology and the theory of semantic derivation. The kinship terms describing nuclear and extended family are explored. The “semantic shift” relation between two different meanings is established if such relation is realized by synchronous polysemy in one lexeme, semantic derivation, diachronic semantic change, cognates or some other means. The starting point of the study is the typological data from the DatSemShift catalogue of semantic shifts in languages of the world developed by a group of researchers under the guidance of Anna A. Zalizniak in the Institute of Linguistics, RAS. We verify the presence of semantic shifts described in the Database in Tamil. Also, we propose new semantic shifts specific only for this language. We confirm the presence of semantic relation of the studied type among the meanings with English “labels”: father - parents, girl - daughter, to deliver (a child - parents, - child, old woman - wife, owner - wife and others. The data also allows the assumption that the same relation exists between the meanings: old - grandfather, earth - mother, son - courage, unripe - son and others. The meanings of this field are the sources of semantic movements to abstract notions, lexicon of posession, forms of address and others; in addition many inner semantic relations inside this field are revealed. The meanings covering the nuclear part of the kinship system participate in universal semantic shifts described in the DatSemShift catalogue, while the meanings from collateral branches of this bifurcative kinship system (uncle, aunt turn out to be incomparable with kinship terms from indo-european lineal systems. Their meanings can be included in the DatSemShift catalogue only with an indication of system specifics. The information about semantic shifts can be useful for

  4. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework.

  5. Learning from Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the…

  6. Inter-deriving Semantic Artifacts for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    .e., big-step operational semantics) specified in Abadi and Cardelli's monograph. This abstract machine therefore embodies the soundness of Abadi and Cardelli's reduction semantics and natural semantics relative to each other. To move closer to actual implementations, which use environments rather than......We present a new abstract machine for Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects. What is special about this semantic artifact (i.e., man-made construct) is that is mechanically corresponds to both the reduction semantics (i.e., small-step operational semantics) and the natural semantics (i...... actual substitutions, we then represent object methods as closures and in the same inter-derivational spirit, we present three new semantic artifacts: a reduction semantics for a version of Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects with explicit substitutions, an environment-based abstract machine...

  7. Formal semantics for propositional attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vanderveken

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psychological modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka, human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. For that purpose I will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and I will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. Next I will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. At the end I will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.

  8. Semantic Linkage of Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Control systems are sets of interconnected hardware and software components which regulate the behaviour of processes. The software of modern control systems rises for some years by requirements regarding the flexibility and functionality. Thus the force of innovation grows on enterprises, since ever newer products in ever shorter time intervals must be made available. Associated hereby is the crucial shortening of the product life cycle, whose effects show up in reduced care of the software and the spares inventory. The aim, the concept presented here and developed in a modeling environment, is proved and ensures a minimum functionality of software components. Replacing software components of a control system verified for functionality by a framework at run-time and if necessary the software conditions will become adapted. Quintessential point of this implementation is the usage of an abstract syntax tree. Within its hierarchical structure meta information is attached to nodes and processed by the framework. With the development of the concept for semantic proving of software components the lifetime of software-based products is increased.

  9. Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia and…

  10. Action errors, error management, and learning in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Michael; Keith, Nina

    2015-01-03

    Every organization is confronted with errors. Most errors are corrected easily, but some may lead to negative consequences. Organizations often focus on error prevention as a single strategy for dealing with errors. Our review suggests that error prevention needs to be supplemented by error management--an approach directed at effectively dealing with errors after they have occurred, with the goal of minimizing negative and maximizing positive error consequences (examples of the latter are learning and innovations). After defining errors and related concepts, we review research on error-related processes affected by error management (error detection, damage control). Empirical evidence on positive effects of error management in individuals and organizations is then discussed, along with emotional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioral pathways of these effects. Learning from errors is central, but like other positive consequences, learning occurs under certain circumstances--one being the development of a mind-set of acceptance of human error.

  11. Semantic tagging of and semantic enhancements to systematics papers: ZooKeys working examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penev, L.; Agosti, D.; Georgiev, T.; Catapano, T.; Miller, J.; Blagoderov, V.; Roberts, D.; Smith, V.S.; Brake, I.; Ryrcroft, S.; Scott, B.; Johnson, N.F.; Morris, R.A.; Sautter, G.; Chavan, V.; Robertson, T.; Remsen, D.; Stoev, P.; Parr, C.; Knapp, S.; Kress, W.J.; Thompson, F.C.; Erwin, T.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of semantic tagging and its potential for semantic enhancements to taxonomic papers is outlined and illustrated by four exemplar papers published in the present issue of ZooKeys. The four papers were created in different ways: (i) written in Microsoft Word and submitted as non-tagged

  12. Modeling the Interaction Between Semantic Agents and Semantic Web Services Using MDA Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardas, Geylani; Göknil, Arda; Dikenelli, Oguz; Topaloglu, N. Yasemin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present our metamodeling approach for integrating semantic web services and semantic web enabled agents under Model Driven Architecture (MDA) view which defines a conceptual framework to realize model driven development. We believe that agents must have well designed environment

  13. On the Existence of Semantic Working Memory: Evidence for Direct Semantic Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivde, Geeta; Anderson, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite widespread acknowledgment of the importance of online semantic maintenance, there has been astonishingly little work that clearly establishes this construct. We review the extant work relevant to short-term retention of meaning and show that, although consistent with semantic working memory, most data can be accommodated in other ways.…

  14. Explaining Semantic Short-Term Memory Deficits: Evidence for the Critical Role of Semantic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought…

  15. Considering the role of semantic memory in episodic future thinking: evidence from semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Muireann; Addis, Donna Rose; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Semantic dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative condition characterized by the profound and amodal loss of semantic memory in the context of relatively preserved episodic memory. In contrast, patients with Alzheimer's disease typically display impairments in episodic memory, but with semantic deficits of a much lesser magnitude than in semantic dementia. Our understanding of episodic memory retrieval in these cohorts has greatly increased over the last decade, however, we know relatively little regarding the ability of these patients to imagine and describe possible future events, and whether episodic future thinking is mediated by divergent neural substrates contingent on dementia subtype. Here, we explored episodic future thinking in patients with semantic dementia (n=11) and Alzheimer's disease (n=11), in comparison with healthy control participants (n=10). Participants completed a battery of tests designed to probe episodic and semantic thinking across past and future conditions, as well as standardized tests of episodic and semantic memory. Further, all participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Despite their relatively intact episodic retrieval for recent past events, the semantic dementia cohort showed significant impairments for episodic future thinking. In contrast, the group with Alzheimer's disease showed parallel deficits across past and future episodic conditions. Voxel-based morphometry analyses confirmed that atrophy in the left inferior temporal gyrus and bilateral temporal poles, regions strongly implicated in semantic memory, correlated significantly with deficits in episodic future thinking in semantic dementia. Conversely, episodic future thinking performance in Alzheimer's disease correlated with atrophy in regions associated with episodic memory, namely the posterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus and frontal pole. These distinct neuroanatomical substrates contingent on dementia group were further qualified by correlational

  16. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Damian D G; Schiltz, Gary S; May, Greg D; Avraham, Shulamit; Town, Christopher D; Grant, David; Nelson, Rex T

    2009-09-23

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap") is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid semantic web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure semantic web technologies. There are currently over 2400 resources published in SSWAP. Approximately two dozen are custom-written services for QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) and mapping data for legumes and grasses (grains). The remaining are wrappers to Nucleic Acids Research Database and Web Server entries. As an architecture, SSWAP establishes how clients (users of data, services, and ontologies), providers (suppliers of data, services, and ontologies), and discovery servers (semantic search engines) interact to allow for the description, querying, discovery, invocation, and response of semantic web services. As a protocol, SSWAP provides the vocabulary and semantics to allow clients, providers, and discovery servers to engage in semantic web services. The protocol is based on the W3C-sanctioned first-order description logic language OWL DL. As an open source platform, a discovery server running at http://sswap.info (as in to "swap info") uses the description logic reasoner Pellet to integrate semantic resources. The platform hosts an interactive guide to the protocol at http://sswap.info/protocol.jsp, developer tools at http://sswap.info/developer.jsp, and a portal to third-party ontologies at http://sswapmeet.sswap.info (a "swap meet"). SSWAP addresses the three basic requirements of a semantic web services architecture (i.e., a common syntax, shared semantic, and semantic discovery) while addressing three technology limitations common in distributed service systems: i.e., i) the fatal mutability of traditional interfaces, ii) the rigidity and fragility of static subsumption hierarchies, and iii) the

  17. Expanding the Extent of a UMLS Semantic Type via Group Neighborhood Auditing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; Xu, Junchuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective Each Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concept is assigned one or more semantic types (ST). A dynamic methodology for aiding an auditor in finding concepts that are missing the assignment of a given ST, S is presented. Design The first part of the methodology exploits the previously introduced Refined Semantic Network and accompanying refined semantic types (RST) to help narrow the search space for offending concepts. The auditing is focused in a neighborhood surrounding the extent of an RST, T (of S) called an envelope, consisting of parents and children of concepts in the extent. The audit moves outward as long as missing assignments are discovered. In the second part, concepts not reached previously are processed and reassigned T as needed during the processing of S's other RSTs. The set of such concepts is expanded in a similar way to that in the first part. Measurements The number of errors discovered is reported. To measure the methodology's efficiency, “error hit rates” (i.e., errors found in concepts examined) are computed. Results The methodology was applied to three STs: Experimental Model of Disease (EMD), Environmental Effect of Humans, and Governmental or Regulatory Activity. The EMD experienced the most drastic change. For its RST “EMD ∩ Neoplastic Process” (RST “EMD”) with only 33 (31) original concepts, 915 (134) concepts were found by the first (second) part to be missing the EMD assignment. Changes to the other two STs were smaller. Conclusion The results show that the proposed auditing methodology can help to effectively and efficiently identify concepts lacking the assignment of a particular semantic type. PMID:19567802

  18. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E

    2012-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as "memory detection," little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.

  19. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  20. Inter-deriving Semantic Artifacts for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    We present a new abstract machine for Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects. What is special about this semantic artifact (i.e., man-made construct) is that is mechanically corresponds to both the reduction semantics (i.e., small-step operational semantics) and the natural semantics (i...... actual substitutions, we then represent object methods as closures and in the same inter-derivational spirit, we present three new semantic artifacts: a reduction semantics for a version of Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects with explicit substitutions, an environment-based abstract machine...

  1. CASL - The CoFI Algebraic Specification Language - Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1999-01-01

    This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the second complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop in Amsterdam in March 1999.......This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the second complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop in Amsterdam in March 1999....

  2. Semantic and visual determinants of face recognition in a prosopagnosic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, M J; Bub, D N; Arguin, M

    1998-05-01

    Prosopagnosia is the neuropathological inability to recognize familiar people by their faces. It can occur in isolation or can coincide with recognition deficits for other nonface objects. Often, patients whose prosopagnosia is accompanied by object recognition difficulties have more trouble identifying certain categories of objects relative to others. In previous research, we demonstrated that objects that shared multiple visual features and were semantically close posed severe recognition difficulties for a patient with temporal lobe damage. We now demonstrate that this patient's face recognition is constrained by these same parameters. The prosopagnosic patient ELM had difficulties pairing faces to names when the faces shared visual features and the names were semantically related (e.g., Tonya Harding, Nancy Kerrigan, and Josee Chouinard -three ice skaters). He made tenfold fewer errors when the exact same faces were associated with semantically unrelated people (e.g., singer Celine Dion, actress Betty Grable, and First Lady Hillary Clinton). We conclude that prosopagnosia and co-occurring category-specific recognition problems both stem from difficulties disambiguating the stored representations of objects that share multiple visual features and refer to semantically close identities or concepts.

  3. Uncorrected refractive errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin S; Jaggernath, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC), were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR) Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

  4. Uncorrected refractive errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovin S Naidoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC, were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

  5. Methods of Run-Time Error Detection in Distributed Process Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, N.

    In this thesis, methods of run-time error detection in application software for distributed process control is designed. The error detection is based upon a monitoring approach in which application software is monitored by system software during the entire execution. The thesis includes definition...... and constraint evaluation is designed for the modt interesting error types. These include: a) semantical errors in data communicated between application tasks; b) errors in the execution of application tasks; and c) errors in the timing of distributed events emitted by the application software. The design...... of error detection methods includes a high level software specification. this has the purpose of illustrating that the designed can be used in practice....

  6. Post-error action control is neurobehaviorally modulated under conditions of constant speeded response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soshi, Takahiro; Ando, Kumiko; Noda, Takamasa; Nakazawa, Kanako; Tsumura, Hideki; Okada, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Post-error slowing (PES) is an error recovery strategy that contributes to action control, and occurs after errors in order to prevent future behavioral flaws. Error recovery often malfunctions in clinical populations, but the relationship between behavioral traits and recovery from error is unclear in healthy populations. The present study investigated the relationship between impulsivity and error recovery by simulating a speeded response situation using a Go/No-go paradigm that forced the participants to constantly make accelerated responses prior to stimuli disappearance (stimulus duration: 250 ms). Neural correlates of post-error processing were examined using event-related potentials (ERPs). Impulsivity traits were measured with self-report questionnaires (BIS-11, BIS/BAS). Behavioral results demonstrated that the commission error for No-go trials was 15%, but PES did not take place immediately. Delayed PES was negatively correlated with error rates and impulsivity traits, showing that response slowing was associated with reduced error rates and changed with impulsivity. Response-locked error ERPs were clearly observed for the error trials. Contrary to previous studies, error ERPs were not significantly related to PES. Stimulus-locked N2 was negatively correlated with PES and positively correlated with impulsivity traits at the second post-error Go trial: larger N2 activity was associated with greater PES and less impulsivity. In summary, under constant speeded conditions, error monitoring was dissociated from post-error action control, and PES did not occur quickly. Furthermore, PES and its neural correlate (N2) were modulated by impulsivity traits. These findings suggest that there may be clinical and practical efficacy of maintaining cognitive control of actions during error recovery under common daily environments that frequently evoke impulsive behaviors.

  7. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  8. Errors and violations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reason, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is in three parts. The first part summarizes the human failures responsible for the Chernobyl disaster and argues that, in considering the human contribution to power plant emergencies, it is necessary to distinguish between: errors and violations; and active and latent failures. The second part presents empirical evidence, drawn from driver behavior, which suggest that errors and violations have different psychological origins. The concluding part outlines a resident pathogen view of accident causation, and seeks to identify the various system pathways along which errors and violations may be propagated

  9. [Electrophysiological bases of semantic processing of objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlaoui, Karima; Baccino, Thierry; Joanette, Yves; Magnié, Marie-Noële

    2007-02-01

    How pictures and words are stored and processed in the human brain constitute a long-standing question in cognitive psychology. Behavioral studies have yielded a large amount of data addressing this issue. Generally speaking, these data show that there are some interactions between the semantic processing of pictures and words. However, behavioral methods can provide only limited insight into certain findings. Fortunately, Event-Related Potential (ERP) provides on-line cues about the temporal nature of cognitive processes and contributes to the exploration of their neural substrates. ERPs have been used in order to better understand semantic processing of words and pictures. The main objective of this article is to offer an overview of the electrophysiologic bases of semantic processing of words and pictures. Studies presented in this article showed that the processing of words is associated with an N 400 component, whereas pictures elicited both N 300 and N 400 components. Topographical analysis of the N 400 distribution over the scalp is compatible with the idea that both image-mediated concrete words and pictures access an amodal semantic system. However, given the distinctive N 300 patterns, observed only during picture processing, it appears that picture and word processing rely upon distinct neuronal networks, even if they end up activating more or less similar semantic representations.

  10. Categorizing words through semantic memory navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge-Holthoefer, J.; Arenas, A.

    2010-03-01

    Semantic memory is the cognitive system devoted to storage and retrieval of conceptual knowledge. Empirical data indicate that semantic memory is organized in a network structure. Everyday experience shows that word search and retrieval processes provide fluent and coherent speech, i.e. are efficient. This implies either that semantic memory encodes, besides thousands of words, different kind of links for different relationships (introducing greater complexity and storage costs), or that the structure evolves facilitating the differentiation between long-lasting semantic relations from incidental, phenomenological ones. Assuming the latter possibility, we explore a mechanism to disentangle the underlying semantic backbone which comprises conceptual structure (extraction of categorical relations between pairs of words), from the rest of information present in the structure. To this end, we first present and characterize an empirical data set modeled as a network, then we simulate a stochastic cognitive navigation on this topology. We schematize this latter process as uncorrelated random walks from node to node, which converge to a feature vectors network. By doing so we both introduce a novel mechanism for information retrieval, and point at the problem of category formation in close connection to linguistic and non-linguistic experience.

  11. An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krukow, Karl

    2006-01-01

    In the trust-structure framework for trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for such policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics ensures that for......In the trust-structure framework for trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for such policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics ensures...... that for any collection of policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well......-defined mathematical object, but it is not clear how principals can actually compute it. This becomes even more apparent when one considers the intended application environment: vast numbers of autonomous principals, distributed and possibly mobile. We provide a compositional operational semantics for a language...

  12. Learning from your mistakes: The functional value of spontaneous error monitoring in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. Middleton

    2014-04-01

    Ex. 4.\t(T = umbrella “umbelella, umbrella”: Phonological error; DetCorr We used mixed effects logistic regression to assess whether the log odds of changing from error to correct was predicted by monitoring status of the error (DetCorr vs. NoDet; DetNoCorr vs. NoDet; whether the monitoring benefit interacted with direction of change (forward, backward; and whether effects varied by error type. Figure 1 (top shows that the proportion accuracy change was higher for DetCorr, relative to NoDet, consistent with a monitoring benefit. The difference in log odds was significant for semantic errors in both directions (forward: coeff. = -1.73; z= -7.78; p < .001; backward: coeff = -0.92; z= -3.60; p < .001, and for phonological errors in both directions (forward: coeff. = -0.74; z= -2.73; p=.006; backward : coeff. = -.76; z = -2.73; p = .006. The difference between DetNoCorr and NoDet was not significant in any condition. Figure 1 (bottom shows that for Semantic errors, there was a directional asymmetry favoring the Forward condition (interaction: coeff. = .79; z = 2.32; p = .02. Phonological errors, in contrast, produced comparable effects in Forward and Backward direction. The results demonstrated a benefit for errors that were detected and corrected. This monitoring benefit was present in both the forward and backward direction, supporting the Strength hypothesis. Of greatest interest, the monitoring benefit for Semantic errors was greater in the forward than backward direction, indicating a role for learning.

  13. Help prevent hospital errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000618.htm Help prevent hospital errors To use the sharing features ... in the hospital. If You Are Having Surgery, Help Keep Yourself Safe Go to a hospital you ...

  14. Pedal Application Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This project examined the prevalence of pedal application errors and the driver, vehicle, roadway and/or environmental characteristics associated with pedal misapplication crashes based on a literature review, analysis of news media reports, a panel ...

  15. Rounding errors in weighing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeach, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    When rounding error is large relative to weighing error, it cannot be ignored when estimating scale precision and bias from calibration data. Further, if the data grouping is coarse, rounding error is correlated with weighing error and may also have a mean quite different from zero. These facts are taken into account in a moment estimation method. A copy of the program listing for the MERDA program that provides moment estimates is available from the author. Experience suggests that if the data fall into four or more cells or groups, it is not necessary to apply the moment estimation method. Rather, the estimate given by equation (3) is valid in this instance. 5 tables

  16. Spotting software errors sooner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, D.

    1989-01-01

    Static analysis is helping to identify software errors at an earlier stage and more cheaply than conventional methods of testing. RTP Software's MALPAS system also has the ability to check that a code conforms to its original specification. (author)

  17. Errors in energy bills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kop, L.

    2001-01-01

    On request, the Dutch Association for Energy, Environment and Water (VEMW) checks the energy bills for her customers. It appeared that in the year 2000 many small, but also big errors were discovered in the bills of 42 businesses

  18. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  19. Unification of behavioural, computational and neural accounts of word production errors in post-stroke aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tochadse

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological assessment, brain imaging and computational modelling have augmented our understanding of the multifaceted functional deficits in people with language disorders after stroke. Despite the volume of research using each technique, no studies have attempted to assimilate all three approaches in order to generate a unified behavioural-computational-neural model of post-stroke aphasia.The present study included data from 53 participants with chronic post-stroke aphasia and merged: aphasiological profiles based on a detailed neuropsychological assessment battery which was analysed with principal component and correlational analyses; measures of the impairment taken from Dell's computational model of word production; and the neural correlates of both behavioural and computational accounts analysed by voxel-based correlational methodology.As a result, all three strands coincide with the separation of semantic and phonological stages of aphasic naming, revealing the prominence of these dimensions for the explanation of aphasic performance. Over and above three previously described principal components (phonological ability, semantic ability, executive-demand, we observed auditory working memory as a novel factor. While the phonological Dell parameter was uniquely related to phonological errors/factor, the semantic parameter was less clear-cut, being related to both semantic errors and omissions, and loading heavily with semantic ability and auditory working memory factors. The close relationship between the semantic Dell parameter and omission errors recurred in their high lesion-correlate overlap in the anterior middle temporal gyrus. In addition, the simultaneous overlap of the lesion correlate of omission errors with more dorsal temporal regions, associated with the phonological parameter, highlights the multiple drivers that underpin this error type. The novel auditory working memory factor was located along left superior

  20. The surveillance error grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  1. Design for Error Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1983-01-01

    An important aspect of the optimal design of computer-based operator support systems is the sensitivity of such systems to operator errors. The author discusses how a system might allow for human variability with the use of reversibility and observability.......An important aspect of the optimal design of computer-based operator support systems is the sensitivity of such systems to operator errors. The author discusses how a system might allow for human variability with the use of reversibility and observability....

  2. Apologies and Medical Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    One way in which physicians can respond to a medical error is to apologize. Apologies—statements that acknowledge an error and its consequences, take responsibility, and communicate regret for having caused harm—can decrease blame, decrease anger, increase trust, and improve relationships. Importantly, apologies also have the potential to decrease the risk of a medical malpractice lawsuit and can help settle claims by patients. Patients indicate they want and expect explanations and apologies after medical errors and physicians indicate they want to apologize. However, in practice, physicians tend to provide minimal information to patients after medical errors and infrequently offer complete apologies. Although fears about potential litigation are the most commonly cited barrier to apologizing after medical error, the link between litigation risk and the practice of disclosure and apology is tenuous. Other barriers might include the culture of medicine and the inherent psychological difficulties in facing one’s mistakes and apologizing for them. Despite these barriers, incorporating apology into conversations between physicians and patients can address the needs of both parties and can play a role in the effective resolution of disputes related to medical error. PMID:18972177

  3. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sartori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  4. Semantic SenseLab: Implementing the vision of the Semantic Web in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samwald, Matthias; Chen, Huajun; Ruttenberg, Alan; Lim, Ernest; Marenco, Luis; Miller, Perry; Shepherd, Gordon; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2010-01-01

    Integrative neuroscience research needs a scalable informatics framework that enables semantic integration of diverse types of neuroscience data. This paper describes the use of the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and other Semantic Web technologies for the representation and integration of molecular-level data provided by several of SenseLab suite of neuroscience databases. Based on the original database structure, we semi-automatically translated the databases into OWL ontologies with manual addition of semantic enrichment. The SenseLab ontologies are extensively linked to other biomedical Semantic Web resources, including the Subcellular Anatomy Ontology, Brain Architecture Management System, the Gene Ontology, BIRNLex and UniProt. The SenseLab ontologies have also been mapped to the Basic Formal Ontology and Relation Ontology, which helps ease interoperability with many other existing and future biomedical ontologies for the Semantic Web. In addition, approaches to representing contradictory research statements are described. The SenseLab ontologies are designed for use on the Semantic Web that enables their integration into a growing collection of biomedical information resources. We demonstrate that our approach can yield significant potential benefits and that the Semantic Web is rapidly becoming mature enough to realize its anticipated promises. The ontologies are available online at http://neuroweb.med.yale.edu/senselab/. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web...... provide conceptualization for the links which are a main vehicle to access information on the web. The subject domain ontologies serve as constraints for generating only those links which are relevant for the domain a user is currently interested in. Furthermore, user model ontologies provide additional...... means for deciding which links to show, annotate, hide, generate, and reorder. The semantic web technologies provide means to formalize the domain ontologies and metadata created from them. The formalization enables reasoning for personalization decisions. This chapter describes which components...

  6. Semantic technologies in a decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Bǎdicǎ, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of our work is to design a decision support system based on ontological representation of domain(s) and semantic technologies. Specifically, we consider the case when Grid / Cloud user describes his/her requirements regarding a "resource" as a class expression from an ontology, while the instances of (the same) ontology represent available resources. The goal is to help the user to find the best option with respect to his/her requirements, while remembering that user's knowledge may be "limited." In this context, we discuss multiple approaches based on semantic data processing, which involve different "forms" of user interaction with the system. Specifically, we consider: (a) ontological matchmaking based on SPARQL queries and class expression, (b) graph-based semantic closeness of instances representing user requirements (constructed from the class expression) and available resources, and (c) multicriterial analysis based on the AHP method, which utilizes expert domain knowledge (also ontologically represented).

  7. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalil A. Bispo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks, which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS.

  8. Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stokhof

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In formal semantics intuition plays a key role, in two ways. Intuitions about semantic properties of expressions are the primary data, and intuitions of the semanticists are the main access to these data. The paper investigates how this dual role is related to the concept of competence and the role that this concept plays in semantics. And it inquires whether the self-reflexive role of intuitions has consequences for the methodology of semantics as an empirical discipline.ReferencesBaggio, Giosuè, van Lambalgen, Michiel & Hagoort, Peter. 2008. ‘Computing and recomputing discourse models: an ERP study of the semantics of temporal connectives’. Journal of Memory and Language 59, no. 1: 36–53.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2008.02.005Chierchia, Gennaro & McConnell-Ginet, Sally. 2000. Meaning and Grammar. second ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Chomsky, Noam. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Cresswell, Max J. 1978. ‘Semantic competence’. In F. Guenthner & M. Guenther-Reutter (eds. ‘Meaning and Translation’, 9–27. Duckworth, London. de Swart, Henriëtte. 1998. Introduction to Natural Language Semantics. Stanford: CSLI.Dowty, David, Wall, Robert & Peters, Stanley. 1981. Introduction to Montague Semantics. Dordrecht: Reidel.Heim, Irene & Kratzer, Angelika. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.Larson, Richard & Segal, Gabriel. 1995. Knowledge of Meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Lewis, David K. 1975. ‘Languages and Language’. In Keith Gunderson (ed. ‘Language, Mind and Knowledge’, 3–35. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Montague, Richard. 1970. ‘Universal Grammar’. Theoria 36: 373–98.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-2567.1970.tb00434.xPartee, Barbara H. 1979. ‘Semantics – Mathematics or Psychology?’ In Rainer Bäuerle, Urs Egli & Arnim von Stechow (eds. ‘Semantics from Different Points of View’, 1–14. Berlin: Springer.Partee, Barbara H. 1980.

  9. MODEL FOR SEMANTICALLY RICH POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an interoperable model for managing high dimensional point clouds while integrating semantics. Point clouds from sensors are a direct source of information physically describing a 3D state of the recorded environment. As such, they are an exhaustive representation of the real world at every scale: 3D reality-based spatial data. Their generation is increasingly fast but processing routines and data models lack of knowledge to reason from information extraction rather than interpretation. The enhanced smart point cloud developed model allows to bring intelligence to point clouds via 3 connected meta-models while linking available knowledge and classification procedures that permits semantic injection. Interoperability drives the model adaptation to potentially many applications through specialized domain ontologies. A first prototype is implemented in Python and PostgreSQL database and allows to combine semantic and spatial concepts for basic hybrid queries on different point clouds.

  10. Model for Semantically Rich Point Cloud Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, F.; Neuville, R.; Hallot, P.; Billen, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes an interoperable model for managing high dimensional point clouds while integrating semantics. Point clouds from sensors are a direct source of information physically describing a 3D state of the recorded environment. As such, they are an exhaustive representation of the real world at every scale: 3D reality-based spatial data. Their generation is increasingly fast but processing routines and data models lack of knowledge to reason from information extraction rather than interpretation. The enhanced smart point cloud developed model allows to bring intelligence to point clouds via 3 connected meta-models while linking available knowledge and classification procedures that permits semantic injection. Interoperability drives the model adaptation to potentially many applications through specialized domain ontologies. A first prototype is implemented in Python and PostgreSQL database and allows to combine semantic and spatial concepts for basic hybrid queries on different point clouds.

  11. The autonomy of grammar and semantic internalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobler Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In his post-Tractatus work on natural language use, Wittgenstein defended the notion of what he dubbed the autonomy of grammar. According to this thought, grammar - or semantics, in a more recent idiom - is essentially autonomous from metaphysical considerations, and is not answerable to the nature of things. The argument has several related incarnations in Wittgenstein’s post-Tractatus writings, and has given rise to a number of important insights, both critical and constructive. In this paper I will argue for a potential connection between Wittgenstein’s autonomy argument and some more recent internalist arguments for the autonomy of semantics. My main motivation for establishing this connection comes from the fact that the later Wittgenstein’s comments on grammar and meaning stand in opposition to some of the core assumptions of semantic externalism.

  12. Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Most real-world databases record time-varying information. In such databases, the notion of ??the current time,?? or NOW, occurs naturally and prominently. For example, when capturing the past states of a relation using begin and end time columns, tuples that are part of the current state have some...... past time as their begin time and NOW as their end time. While the semantics of such variable databases has been described in detail and is well understood, the modification of variable databases remains unexplored. This paper defines the semantics of modifications involving the variable NOW. More...... specifically,  the problems with modifications in the presence of NOW are explored, illustrating that the main problems are with modifications of tuples that reach into the future. The paper defines the semantics of modifications?including insertions, deletions, and updates?of databases without NOW, with NOW...

  13. An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krukow, Karl Kristian

    2005-01-01

    In the trust-structure model of trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships with other principals in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for trust policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics...... ensures that for any collection of trust policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well......-defined mathematical object, but it is not clear how principals can actually compute it. This becomes even more apparent when one considers the intended application environment: vast numbers of autonomous principals, distributed and possibly mobile. We provide a compositional operational semantics for a language...

  14. Verbal communication of semantic content in products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present research work is to explore how precise verbal communication can capture the semantic content of physical products. The paper presents an overview of the background and work done so far. Furthermore are ideas for future work discussed. The background includes the increa......The purpose of the present research work is to explore how precise verbal communication can capture the semantic content of physical products. The paper presents an overview of the background and work done so far. Furthermore are ideas for future work discussed. The background includes...... a number of the selected terms seem to have several interpretations causing ambiguous information. The work also suggests that more emphasis is needed in design education on training precise verbal communication concerning semantic contents in products....

  15. Semantic Web Technologies to Reconcile Privacy and Context Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gandon, Fabien L; Sadeh, Norman M

    2003-01-01

    ...; they may use different calendar systems, etc. In this article, we describe work on a Semantic e-Wallet aimed at supporting automated identification and access of personal resources, each represented as a Semantic Web Service...

  16. A Semantic Wiki on Cooperation in Public Administration in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard Krabina

    2010-01-01

    Authorities cooperate in various ways. The Web portal www.verwaltungskooperation.eu aims to share knowledge on collaboration projects. A semantic wiki approach was used to facilitate best practice documentation with Semantic Web and Web 2.0 technology.

  17. SCC: Semantic Context Cascade for Efficient Action Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba; Barrios, Wayner; Escorcia, Victor; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    in videos. Existing approaches have mitigated the computational cost, but still, these methods lack rich high-level semantics that helps them to localize the actions quickly. In this paper, we introduce a Semantic Cascade Context (SCC) model that aims

  18. Semantic Approaches for Knowledge Discovery and Retrieval in Biomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkowski, Bartlomiej

    This thesis discusses potential applications of semantics to the recent literaturebased informatics systems to facilitate knowledge discovery, hypothesis generation, and literature retrieval in the domain of biomedicine. The approaches presented herein make use of semantic information extracted...

  19. Contribution of Pretesting to Several Measures of Semantic Desensitization Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Allen C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Snake- or spider-phobic subjects (N=32) were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Subjects receiving semantic desensitization therapy showed less posttest anxiety on the semantic differential than control subjects regardless of testing condition. (Author)

  20. Neural correlates of concreteness in semantic categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pexman, Penny M; Hargreaves, Ian S; Edwards, Jodi D; Henry, Luke C; Goodyear, Bradley G

    2007-08-01

    In some contexts, concrete words (CARROT) are recognized and remembered more readily than abstract words (TRUTH). This concreteness effect has historically been explained by two theories of semantic representation: dual-coding [Paivio, A. Dual coding theory: Retrospect and current status. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 45, 255-287, 1991] and context-availability [Schwanenflugel, P. J. Why are abstract concepts hard to understand? In P. J. Schwanenflugel (Ed.), The psychology of word meanings (pp. 223-250). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1991]. Past efforts to adjudicate between these theories using functional magnetic resonance imaging have produced mixed results. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we reexamined this issue with a semantic categorization task that allowed for uniform semantic judgments of concrete and abstract words. The participants were 20 healthy adults. Functional analyses contrasted activation associated with concrete and abstract meanings of ambiguous and unambiguous words. Results showed that for both ambiguous and unambiguous words, abstract meanings were associated with more widespread cortical activation than concrete meanings in numerous regions associated with semantic processing, including temporal, parietal, and frontal cortices. These results are inconsistent with both dual-coding and context-availability theories, as these theories propose that the representations of abstract concepts are relatively impoverished. Our results suggest, instead, that semantic retrieval of abstract concepts involves a network of association areas. We argue that this finding is compatible with a theory of semantic representation such as Barsalou's [Barsalou, L. W. Perceptual symbol systems. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 22, 577-660, 1999] perceptual symbol systems, whereby concrete and abstract concepts are represented by similar mechanisms but with differences in focal content.

  1. The Semantic Web: From Representation to Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thórisson, Kristinn R.; Spivack, Nova; Wissner, James M.

    A semantically-linked web of electronic information - the Semantic Web - promises numerous benefits including increased precision in automated information sorting, searching, organizing and summarizing. Realizing this requires significantly more reliable meta-information than is readily available today. It also requires a better way to represent information that supports unified management of diverse data and diverse Manipulation methods: from basic keywords to various types of artificial intelligence, to the highest level of intelligent manipulation - the human mind. How this is best done is far from obvious. Relying solely on hand-crafted annotation and ontologies, or solely on artificial intelligence techniques, seems less likely for success than a combination of the two. In this paper describe an integrated, complete solution to these challenges that has already been implemented and tested with hundreds of thousands of users. It is based on an ontological representational level we call SemCards that combines ontological rigour with flexible user interface constructs. SemCards are machine- and human-readable digital entities that allow non-experts to create and use semantic content, while empowering machines to better assist and participate in the process. SemCards enable users to easily create semantically-grounded data that in turn acts as examples for automation processes, creating a positive iterative feedback loop of metadata creation and refinement between user and machine. They provide a holistic solution to the Semantic Web, supporting powerful management of the full lifecycle of data, including its creation, retrieval, classification, sorting and sharing. We have implemented the SemCard technology on the semantic Web site Twine.com, showing that the technology is indeed versatile and scalable. Here we present the key ideas behind SemCards and describe the initial implementation of the technology.

  2. Semantic similarity between ontologies at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingpeng; Haglin, David J.

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, existing and new knowledge and datasets has been encoded in different ontologies for semantic web and biomedical research. The size of ontologies is often very large in terms of number of concepts and relationships, which makes the analysis of ontologies and the represented knowledge graph computational and time consuming. As the ontologies of various semantic web and biomedical applications usually show explicit hierarchical structures, it is interesting to explore the trade-offs between ontological scales and preservation/precision of results when we analyze ontologies. This paper presents the first effort of examining the capability of this idea via studying the relationship between scaling biomedical ontologies at different levels and the semantic similarity values. We evaluate the semantic similarity between three Gene Ontology slims (Plant, Yeast, and Candida, among which the latter two belong to the same kingdom—Fungi) using four popular measures commonly applied to biomedical ontologies (Resnik, Lin, Jiang-Conrath, and SimRel). The results of this study demonstrate that with proper selection of scaling levels and similarity measures, we can significantly reduce the size of ontologies without losing substantial detail. In particular, the performance of Jiang-Conrath and Lin are more reliable and stable than that of the other two in this experiment, as proven by (a) consistently showing that Yeast and Candida are more similar (as compared to Plant) at different scales, and (b) small deviations of the similarity values after excluding a majority of nodes from several lower scales. This study provides a deeper understanding of the application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies, and shed light on how to choose appropriate semantic similarity measures for biomedical engineering.

  3. Building a semantic search engine with games and crowdsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Wieser, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Semantic search engines aim at improving conventional search with semantic information, or meta-data, on the data searched for and/or on the searchers. So far, approaches to semantic search exploit characteristics of the searchers like age, education, or spoken language for selecting and/or ranking search results. Such data allow to build up a semantic search engine as an extension of a conventional search engine. The crawlers of well established search engines like Google, Yahoo! or Bing ...

  4. Semantic Business Intelligence - a New Generation of Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu AIRINEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence Solutions represents applications used by companies to manage process and analyze data to provide substantiated decision. In the context of Semantic Web develop-ment trend is to integrate semantic unstructured data, making business intelligence solutions to be redesigned in such a manner that can analyze, process and synthesize, in addition to traditional data and data integrated with semantic another form and structure. This invariably leads appearance of new BI solution, called Semantic Business Intelligence.

  5. Semantic Web and Contextual Information: Semantic Network Analysis of Online Journalistic Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yon Soo

    This study examines why contextual information is important to actualize the idea of semantic web, based on a case study of a socio-political issue in South Korea. For this study, semantic network analyses were conducted regarding English-language based 62 blog posts and 101 news stories on the web. The results indicated the differences of the meaning structures between blog posts and professional journalism as well as between conservative journalism and progressive journalism. From the results, this study ascertains empirical validity of current concerns about the practical application of the new web technology, and discusses how the semantic web should be developed.

  6. Semantic Web and Model-Driven Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Parreiras, Fernando S

    2012-01-01

    The next enterprise computing era will rely on the synergy between both technologies: semantic web and model-driven software development (MDSD). The semantic web organizes system knowledge in conceptual domains according to its meaning. It addresses various enterprise computing needs by identifying, abstracting and rationalizing commonalities, and checking for inconsistencies across system specifications. On the other side, model-driven software development is closing the gap among business requirements, designs and executables by using domain-specific languages with custom-built syntax and se

  7. Relaxed Operational Semantics of Concurrent Programming Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Petri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel, operational framework to formally describe the semantics of concurrent programs running within the context of a relaxed memory model. Our framework features a "temporary store" where the memory operations issued by the threads are recorded, in program order. A memory model then specifies the conditions under which a pending operation from this sequence is allowed to be globally performed, possibly out of order. The memory model also involves a "write grain," accounting for architectures where a thread may read a write that is not yet globally visible. Our formal model is supported by a software simulator, allowing us to run litmus tests in our semantics.

  8. Mining Significant Semantic Locations from GPS Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  9. Semantic equivalences in Romanian medical terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Lungu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to underline some aspects concerning the presence of synonymy semantic relationship in specialized medical terminology, having as object of study Romanian medical terms. For this study we use a descriptive, conceptual and lexical semantic research method to provide the understanding of different couples, groups or synonymic series where medical terms have several variations: specialized/common terms, syntagms and patronyms of French or different origin. We propose a classification scheme of synonyms of medical lexicon, terms or synonymic syntagms, total and partial, in order to meet the accessibility needs in scientific communication.

  10. Semantic mashups intelligent reuse of web resources

    CERN Document Server

    Endres-Niggemeyer, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mashups are mostly lightweight Web applications that offer new functionalities by combining, aggregating and transforming resources and services available on the Web. Popular examples include a map in their main offer, for instance for real estate, hotel recommendations, or navigation tools.  Mashups may contain and mix client-side and server-side activity. Obviously, understanding the incoming resources (services, statistical figures, text, videos, etc.) is a precondition for optimally combining them, so that there is always some undercover semantics being used.  By using semantic annotations

  11. Two-Level Semantics and Code Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1988-01-01

    A two-level denotational metalanguage that is suitable for defining the semantics of Pascal-like languages is presented. The two levels allow for an explicit distinction between computations taking place at compile-time and computations taking place at run-time. While this distinction is perhaps...... not absolutely necessary for describing the input-output semantics of programming languages, it is necessary when issues such as data flow analysis and code generation are considered. For an example stack-machine, the authors show how to generate code for the run-time computations and still perform the compile...

  12. Semantic Web: Metadata, Linked Data, Open Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Russo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available What's the Semantic Web? What's the use? The inventor of the Web Tim Berners-Lee describes it as a research methodology able to take advantage of the network to its maximum capacity. This metadata system represents the innovative element through web 2.0 to web 3.0. In this context will try to understand what are the theoretical and informatic requirements of the Semantic Web. Finally will explain Linked Data applications to develop new tools for active citizenship.

  13. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  14. Semantic categorization: A comparison between deaf and hearing children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, E.A.; Gijsel, M.A.R.; Hermans, D.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In

  15. An Educational Tool for Browsing the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sujin; Kim, Younghwan; Park, Seongbin

    2013-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web where information is represented in a machine processable way. It is not separate from the current Web and one of the confusions that novice users might have is where the Semantic Web is. In fact, users can easily encounter RDF documents that are components of the Semantic Web while they navigate…

  16. Auditory Distraction in Semantic Memory: A Process-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments demonstrate auditory-semantic distraction in tests of memory for semantic category-exemplars. The effects of irrelevant sound on category-exemplar recall are shown to be functionally distinct from those found in the context of serial short-term memory by showing sensitivity to: The lexical-semantic, rather than acoustic,…

  17. TRECVid Semantic Indexing of Video: A 6-year Retrospective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, G.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Smeaton, A.F.; Quénot, G.

    2016-01-01

    Semantic indexing, or assigning semantic tags to video samples, is a key component for content-based access to video documents and collections. The Semantic Indexing task has been run at TRECVid from 2010 to 2015 with the support of NIST and the Quaero project. As with the previous High-Level

  18. A Semantic Web-based System for Managing Clinical Archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Breis, Jesualdo Tomas; Menarguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Martinez-Costa, Catalina; Fernandez-Breis, Eneko; Herrero-Sempere, Jose; Moner, David; Sanchez, Jesus; Valencia-Garcia, Rafael; Robles, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    Archetypes facilitate the sharing of clinical knowledge and therefore are a basic tool for achieving interoperability between healthcare information systems. In this paper, a Semantic Web System for Managing Archetypes is presented. This system allows for the semantic annotation of archetypes, as well for performing semantic searches. The current system is capable of working with both ISO13606 and OpenEHR archetypes.

  19. Semantic memory impairment in the earliest phases of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Gade, Anders; Stokholm, Jette

    2005-01-01

    The presence and the nature of semantic memory dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been widely debated. This study aimed to determine the frequency of impaired semantic test performances in mild AD and to study whether incipient semantic impairments could be identified in predementia AD...

  20. Semantic Web Technologies as the Foundation for the Information Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosterom, Peter; Zlatanova, S.; Van Harmelen, Frank; Van Oosterom, Peter; Zlatanova, S

    2008-01-01

    The Semantic Web is arising over the pas few years as a realistic option for a world wide Information Infrastructure, with its promises of semantic interoperability and serendipitous reuse. In this paper we will analyse the essential ingredients of semantic technologies, what makes them suitable as

  1. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  2. Approximate semantic matching of music classes on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleksovski, Zharko; Kate, Warner Ten; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of semantic matching, which concerns the search for semantic agreement between heterogeneous concept hierarchies. We propose a new approximation method to discover and assess the "strength" (preciseness) of a semantic match between concepts from two such concept hierarchies.

  3. Semantic Categorization: A Comparison between Deaf and Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, Ellen A.; Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Hermans, Daan; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2010-01-01

    Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In the present study, the quality of the semantic…

  4. A layered semantics for a parallel object-oriented language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.M. America (Pierre); J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a denotational semantics for POOL, a parallel object-oriented programming language. The main contribution of this semantics is an accurate mathematical model of the most important concept in object-oriented programming: the object. This is achieved by structuring the semantics

  5. Mining Genotype-Phenotype Associations from Public Knowledge Sources via Semantic Web Querying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Richard C; Freimuth, Robert R; Chute, Christopher G; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2013-01-01

    Gene Wiki Plus (GeneWiki+) and the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) are publicly available resources for sharing information about disease-gene and gene-SNP associations in humans. While immensely useful to the scientific community, both resources are manually curated, thereby making the data entry and publication process time-consuming, and to some degree, error-prone. To this end, this study investigates Semantic Web technologies to validate existing and potentially discover new genotype-phenotype associations in GWP and OMIM. In particular, we demonstrate the applicability of SPARQL queries for identifying associations not explicitly stated for commonly occurring chronic diseases in GWP and OMIM, and report our preliminary findings for coverage, completeness, and validity of the associations. Our results highlight the benefits of Semantic Web querying technology to validate existing disease-gene associations as well as identify novel associations although further evaluation and analysis is required before such information can be applied and used effectively.

  6. Recognition rights, mental health consumers and reconstructive cultural semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radden Jennifer H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Those in mental health-related consumer movements have made clear their demands for humane treatment and basic civil rights, an end to stigma and discrimination, and a chance to participate in their own recovery. But theorizing about the politics of recognition, 'recognition rights' and epistemic justice, suggests that they also have a stake in the broad cultural meanings associated with conceptions of mental health and illness. Results First person accounts of psychiatric diagnosis and mental health care (shown here to represent 'counter stories' to the powerful 'master narrative' of biomedical psychiatry, offer indications about how experiences of mental disorder might be reframed and redefined as part of efforts to acknowledge and honor recognition rights and epistemic justice. However, the task of cultural semantics is one for the entire culture, not merely consumers. These new meanings must be negotiated. When they are not the result of negotiation, group-wrought definitions risk imposing a revision no less constraining than the mis-recognizing one it aims to replace. Contested realities make this a challenging task when it comes to cultural meanings about mental disorder. Examples from mental illness memoirs about two contested realities related to psychosis are examined here: the meaninglessness of symptoms, and the role of insight into illness. They show the magnitude of the challenge involved - for consumers, practitioners, and the general public - in the reconstruction of these new meanings and realities. Conclusion To honor recognition rights and epistemic justice acknowledgement must be made of the heterogeneity of the effects of, and of responses to, psychiatric diagnosis and care, and the extent of the challenge of the reconstructive cultural semantics involved.

  7. The effect of working memory load on semantic illusions: what the phonological loop and central executive have to contribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Anke Caroline

    2012-01-01

    When asked how many animals of each kind Moses took on the Ark, most people respond with "two" despite the substituted name (Moses for Noah) in the question. Possible explanations for semantic illusions appear to be related to processing limitations such as those of working memory. Indeed, individual working memory capacity has an impact upon how sentences containing substitutions are processed. This experiment examined further the role of working memory in the occurrence of semantic illusions using a dual-task working memory load approach. Participants verified statements while engaging in either articulatory suppression or random number generation. Secondary task type had a significant effect on semantic illusion rate, but only when comparing the control condition to the two dual-task conditions. Furthermore, secondary task performance in the random number generation condition declined, suggesting a tradeoff between tasks. Response time analyses also showed a different pattern of processing across the conditions. The findings suggest that the phonological loop plays a role in representing semantic illusion sentences coherently and in monitoring for details, while the role of the central executive is to assist gist-processing of sentences. This usually efficient strategy leads to error in the case of semantic illusions.

  8. Learning from Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Lendita Kryeziu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Errare humanum est”, a well known and widespread Latin proverb which states that: to err is human, and that people make mistakes all the time. However, what counts is that people must learn from mistakes. On these grounds Steve Jobs stated: “Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly, and get on with improving your other innovations.” Similarly, in learning new language, learners make mistakes, thus it is important to accept them, learn from them, discover the reason why they make them, improve and move on. The significance of studying errors is described by Corder as: “There have always been two justifications proposed for the study of learners' errors: the pedagogical justification, namely that a good understanding of the nature of error is necessary before a systematic means of eradicating them could be found, and the theoretical justification, which claims that a study of learners' errors is part of the systematic study of the learners' language which is itself necessary to an understanding of the process of second language acquisition” (Corder, 1982; 1. Thus the importance and the aim of this paper is analyzing errors in the process of second language acquisition and the way we teachers can benefit from mistakes to help students improve themselves while giving the proper feedback.

  9. Compact disk error measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, D.; Harriman, K.; Tehranchi, B.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this project are as follows: provide hardware and software that will perform simple, real-time, high resolution (single-byte) measurement of the error burst and good data gap statistics seen by a photoCD player read channel when recorded CD write-once discs of variable quality (i.e., condition) are being read; extend the above system to enable measurement of the hard decision (i.e., 1-bit error flags) and soft decision (i.e., 2-bit error flags) decoding information that is produced/used by the Cross Interleaved - Reed - Solomon - Code (CIRC) block decoder employed in the photoCD player read channel; construct a model that uses data obtained via the systems described above to produce meaningful estimates of output error rates (due to both uncorrected ECC words and misdecoded ECC words) when a CD disc having specific (measured) error statistics is read (completion date to be determined); and check the hypothesis that current adaptive CIRC block decoders are optimized for pressed (DAD/ROM) CD discs. If warranted, do a conceptual design of an adaptive CIRC decoder that is optimized for write-once CD discs.

  10. Open semantic analysis: The case of word level semantics in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2017-01-01

    The present research is motivated by the need for accessible and efficient tools for automated semantic analysis in Danish. We are interested in tools that are completely open, so they can be used by a critical public, in public administration, non-governmental organizations and businesses. We...... describe data-driven models for Danish semantic relatedness, word intrusion and sentiment prediction. Open Danish corpora were assembled and unsupervised learning implemented for explicit semantic analysis and with Gensim’s Word2vec model. We evaluate the performance of the two models on three different...... annotated word datasets. We test the semantic representations’ alignment with single word sentiment using supervised learning. We find that logistic regression and large random forests perform well with Word2vec features....

  11. Errors in Neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Boldrini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy. Results: In Neonatology the main error domains are: medication and total parenteral nutrition, resuscitation and respiratory care, invasive procedures, nosocomial infections, patient identification, diagnostics. Risk factors include patients’ size, prematurity, vulnerability and underlying disease conditions but also multidisciplinary teams, working conditions providing fatigue, a large variety of treatment and investigative modalities needed. Discussion and Conclusions: In our opinion, it is hardly possible to change the human beings but it is likely possible to change the conditions under they work. Voluntary errors report systems can help in preventing adverse events. Education and re-training by means of simulation can be an effective strategy too. In Pisa (Italy Nina (ceNtro di FormazIone e SimulazioNe NeonAtale is a simulation center that offers the possibility of a continuous retraining for technical and non-technical skills to optimize neonatological care strategies. Furthermore, we have been working on a novel skill trainer for mechanical ventilation (MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications, MERESSINA. Finally, in our opinion national health policy indirectly influences risk for errors. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  12. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  13. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  14. Libertarismo & Error Categorial

    OpenAIRE

    PATARROYO G, CARLOS G

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibili...

  15. Error Free Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical theory for development of "higher order" software to catch computer mistakes resulted from a Johnson Space Center contract for Apollo spacecraft navigation. Two women who were involved in the project formed Higher Order Software, Inc. to develop and market the system of error analysis and correction. They designed software which is logically error-free, which, in one instance, was found to increase productivity by 600%. USE.IT defines its objectives using AXES -- a user can write in English and the system converts to computer languages. It is employed by several large corporations.

  16. Adventures in semantic publishing: exemplar semantic enhancements of a research article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Shotton

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit "Citations in Context", and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/. The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own

  17. Semantic Similarity between Web Documents Using Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Poonam; Singh Tomer, Manjeet; Kumar, Suresh

    2018-06-01

    The World Wide Web is the source of information available in the structure of interlinked web pages. However, the procedure of extracting significant information with the assistance of search engine is incredibly critical. This is for the reason that web information is written mainly by using natural language, and further available to individual human. Several efforts have been made in semantic similarity computation between documents using words, concepts and concepts relationship but still the outcome available are not as per the user requirements. This paper proposes a novel technique for computation of semantic similarity between documents that not only takes concepts available in documents but also relationships that are available between the concepts. In our approach documents are being processed by making ontology of the documents using base ontology and a dictionary containing concepts records. Each such record is made up of the probable words which represents a given concept. Finally, document ontology's are compared to find their semantic similarity by taking the relationships among concepts. Relevant concepts and relations between the concepts have been explored by capturing author and user intention. The proposed semantic analysis technique provides improved results as compared to the existing techniques.

  18. Introduction to Semantic Web Ontology Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Grigoris; Franconi, Enrico; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to give a general introduction to some of the ontology languages that play a prominent role on the Semantic Web, and to discuss the formal foundations of these languages. Web ontology languages will be the main carriers of the information that we will want to share and

  19. Semantic Similarity between Web Documents Using Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Poonam; Singh Tomer, Manjeet; Kumar, Suresh

    2018-03-01

    The World Wide Web is the source of information available in the structure of interlinked web pages. However, the procedure of extracting significant information with the assistance of search engine is incredibly critical. This is for the reason that web information is written mainly by using natural language, and further available to individual human. Several efforts have been made in semantic similarity computation between documents using words, concepts and concepts relationship but still the outcome available are not as per the user requirements. This paper proposes a novel technique for computation of semantic similarity between documents that not only takes concepts available in documents but also relationships that are available between the concepts. In our approach documents are being processed by making ontology of the documents using base ontology and a dictionary containing concepts records. Each such record is made up of the probable words which represents a given concept. Finally, document ontology's are compared to find their semantic similarity by taking the relationships among concepts. Relevant concepts and relations between the concepts have been explored by capturing author and user intention. The proposed semantic analysis technique provides improved results as compared to the existing techniques.

  20. Students as Designers of Semantic Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Fran; Jordan, Katy

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws upon the experience of an interdisciplinary research group in engaging undergraduate university students in the design and development of semantic web technologies. A flexible approach to participatory design challenged conventional distinctions between "designer" and "user" and allowed students to play a role…

  1. Cases, Simulacra, and Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, P.; Tscholl, M.

    2013-01-01

    "Ensemble" is an interdisciplinary research and development project exploring the potential role of emerging Semantic Web technologies in case-based learning across learning environments in higher education. Empirical findings have challenged the claim that cases "bring reality into the classroom" and that this, in turn, might…

  2. Leveraging the Semantic Web for Adaptive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravcik, Milos; Gasevic, Dragan

    2007-01-01

    In the area of technology-enhanced learning reusability and interoperability issues essentially influence the productivity and efficiency of learning and authoring solutions. There are two basic approaches how to overcome these problems--one attempts to do it via standards and the other by means of the Semantic Web. In practice, these approaches…

  3. A Semantic Constraint on Syntactic Parsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Coker, Pamela L.

    This research examines how semantic information influences syntactic parsing decisions during sentence processing. In the first experiment, subjects were presented lexical strings having syntactically identical surface structures but with two possible underlying structures: "The children taught by the Berlitz method," and "The…

  4. Quantifier Scope in Categorical Compositional Distributional Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In previous work with J. Hedges, we formalised a generalised quantifiers theory of natural language in categorical compositional distributional semantics with the help of bialgebras. In this paper, we show how quantifier scope ambiguity can be represented in that setting and how this representation can be generalised to branching quantifiers.

  5. Indeterminacy, linguistic semantics and fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, V. [Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we discuss the indeterminacy phenomenon which has two distinguished faces, namely uncertainty modeled especially by the probability theory and vagueness, modeled by fuzzy logic. Other important mathematical model of vagueness is provided by the Alternative Set Theory. We focus on some of the basic concepts of these theories in connection with mathematical modeling of the linguistic semantics.

  6. Algorithmic Procedure for Finding Semantically Related Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudovkin, Alexander I.; Garfield, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    Using citations, papers and references as parameters a relatedness factor (RF) is computed for a series of journals. Sorting these journals by the RF produces a list of journals most closely related to a specified starting journal. The method appears to select a set of journals that are semantically most similar to the target journal. The…

  7. Graph Transformation Semantics for a QVT Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Nederpel, Ronald; Bruni, Roberto; Varró, Dániel

    It has been claimed by many in the graph transformation community that model transformation, as understood in the context of Model Driven Architecture, can be seen as an application of graph transformation. In this paper we substantiate this claim by giving a graph transformation-based semantics to

  8. Genre-Specific Semantic Video Indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Worring, M.

    2010-01-01

    In many applications, we find large video collections from different genres where the user is often only interested in one or two specific video genres. So, when users are querying the system with a specific semantic concept, they are likely aiming a genre specific instantiation of this concept.

  9. Semantic Boggle: A Game for Vocabulary Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toma, Irina; Alexandru, Cristina-Elena; Dascalu, Mihai; Dessus, Philippe; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Learning a new language is a difficult endeavor, the main encountered problem being vocabulary acquisition. The learning process can be improved through visual representations of coherent contexts, best represented in serious games. The game described in this paper, Semantic Boggle, is a serious

  10. Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Semantic Field Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This study is an attempt to explore the difference between acquiring new words with different semantic fields to which they belong. In other words, the purpose of this study is to scrutinize the contribution of semantic field theory in learning new vocabulary items in an EFL setting. Thirty-eight students of three different levels of education took part in this research. They were exposed to some new words from four different semantic fields, and then they were tested on their acquisition of the words meaning. This exposure was through reading texts and the aim of reading was just comprehension, therefore the words were acquired incidentally. The outcome showed significant differences between groups with different levels of education regarding retention of words from different semantic fields.

  11. Comparing Syntactic and Semantics Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled configuration structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. The comparison is done by studying a process algebra equipped with

  12. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    1992-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution,which can be used as another notion of action refiment in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  13. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagiya, M.; Goltz, U.; Mitchell, J.C.; Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend

    1994-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  14. Validity Semantics in Educational and Psychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathcoat, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The semantics, or meaning, of validity is a fluid concept in educational and psychological testing. Contemporary controversies surrounding this concept appear to stem from the proper location of validity. Under one view, validity is a property of score-based inferences and entailed uses of test scores. This view is challenged by the…

  15. Program verification using symbolic game semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    , especially on its second-order recursion-free fragment with infinite data types. We revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of this language fragment. By using symbolic values instead of concrete ones, we generalize the standard notions of regular-language and automata representations...

  16. Bridging the semantic gap in sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoxin; Errico, James; Pan, Hao; Sezan, M. Ibrahim

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing current media management systems and the related applications is the so-called "semantic gap" between the rich meaning that a user desires and the shallowness of the content descriptions that are automatically extracted from the media. In this paper, we address the problem of bridging this gap in the sports domain. We propose a general framework for indexing and summarizing sports broadcast programs. The framework is based on a high-level model of sports broadcast video using the concept of an event, defined according to domain-specific knowledge for different types of sports. Within this general framework, we develop automatic event detection algorithms that are based on automatic analysis of the visual and aural signals in the media. We have successfully applied the event detection algorithms to different types of sports including American football, baseball, Japanese sumo wrestling, and soccer. Event modeling and detection contribute to the reduction of the semantic gap by providing rudimentary semantic information obtained through media analysis. We further propose a novel approach, which makes use of independently generated rich textual metadata, to fill the gap completely through synchronization of the information-laden textual data with the basic event segments. An MPEG-7 compliant prototype browsing system has been implemented to demonstrate semantic retrieval and summarization of sports video.

  17. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  18. Efficient genre-specific semantic video indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Worring, M.

    2012-01-01

    Large video collections such as YouTube contain many different video genres, while in many applications the user might be interested in one or two specific video genres only. Thus, when users are querying the system with a specific semantic concept like AnchorPerson, and MovieStars, they are likely

  19. Semantics, pragmatics and the theory of meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, J.A.G.; Stokhof, M.J.B.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper arguments are given for the thesis that an adequate theory of meaning for a natural language has to consist at least of a recursive specification of the truth conditions (semantics) and of a recursive specification of the correctness conditions (pragmatics) of the sentences of that

  20. Auto-Generated Semantic Processing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rodney; Hupf, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Auto-Generated Semantic Processing (AGSP) Services is a suite of software tools for automated generation of other computer programs, denoted cross-platform semantic adapters, that support interoperability of computer-based communication systems that utilize a variety of both new and legacy communication software running in a variety of operating- system/computer-hardware combinations. AGSP has numerous potential uses in military, space-exploration, and other government applications as well as in commercial telecommunications. The cross-platform semantic adapters take advantage of common features of computer- based communication systems to enforce semantics, messaging protocols, and standards of processing of streams of binary data to ensure integrity of data and consistency of meaning among interoperating systems. The auto-generation aspect of AGSP Services reduces development time and effort by emphasizing specification and minimizing implementation: In effect, the design, building, and debugging of software for effecting conversions among complex communication protocols, custom device mappings, and unique data-manipulation algorithms is replaced with metadata specifications that map to an abstract platform-independent communications model. AGSP Services is modular and has been shown to be easily integrable into new and legacy NASA flight and ground communication systems.