WorldWideScience

Sample records for semantic dead ends

  1. Syntactic Reconstruction and Reanalysis, Semantic Dead Ends, and Prefrontal Cortex

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2010-01-01

    have been to Paris than […] to Oslo), using pseudo-elliptical structures (‘dead ends’) as control (More people have been to Paris than I have). (ii) Reanalysis in the face of structural ambiguity in syntactic ‘garden paths’, where the parser initially assigns an incorrect structure and is forced...

  2. Youth in Dead End

    Duygu TANRIKULU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary factor to ensure economic and social development and also to build a healthy society is the education system which plays a significant role in human capital formation and shapes the social structure and its outputs. In this context, there are some risks threatening the youth that is trying to position itself on the education-employment line and some critical areas in need of national policy intervention as well. Hence, by analyzing indicators on education and labor force, this study aims to reveal the amount of youth under risk and to identify these critical areas, while targeting to highlight the urgent need for policy development focusing on youth in dead end. Within the study, it is emphasized that the education system causes youth to face with the problems of access and quality, and that there is a significant amount of youth not in education and employment, while underlining the necessity of bringing especially this inactive youth in economy in addition to equipping with required qualifications for their active participation in social life. Thus, in order to hinder human capital loss additionally, there is policy need in two directions, as focusing on the education system to prevent new hopeless generations on the one hand, and on the inclusion of the disadvantaged youth on the other.

  3. Perturbative search for dead-end CFTs

    Nakayama, Yu

    2015-01-01

    To explore the possibility of self-organized criticality, we look for CFTs without any relevant scalar deformations (a.k.a. dead-end CFTs) within power-counting renormalizable quantum field theories with a weakly coupled Lagrangian description. In three dimensions, the only candidates are pure (Abelian) gauge theories, which may be further deformed by Chern-Simons terms. In four dimensions, we show that there are infinitely many non-trivial candidates based on chiral gauge theories. Using the three-loop beta functions, we compute the gap of scaling dimensions above the marginal value, and it can be as small as O(10"−"5) and robust against the perturbative corrections. These classes of candidates are very weakly coupled and our perturbative conclusion seems difficult to refute. Thus, the hypothesis that non-trivial dead-end CFTs do not exist is likely to be false in four dimensions.

  4. Dynamic optimization of dead-end membrane filtration

    Blankert, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.; Marquardt, Wolfgang; Pantelides, Costas

    2006-01-01

    An operating strategy aimed at minimizing the energy consumption during the filtration phase of dead-end membrane filtration has been formulated. A method allowing fast calculation of trajectories is used to allow incorporation in a hierarchical optimization scheme. The optimal trajectory can be

  5. Dead Time in the LAr Calorimeter Front-End Readout

    Gingrich, D M

    2002-01-01

    We present readout time, latency, buffering, and dead-time calculations for the switched capacitor array controllers of the LAr calorimeter. The dead time is compared with algorithms for the dead-time generation in the level-1 central trigger processor.

  6. Water quality modeling in the dead end sections of drinking water (Supplement)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to...

  7. DEF: an automated dead-end filling approach based on quasi-endosymbiosis.

    Liu, Lili; Zhang, Zijun; Sheng, Taotao; Chen, Ming

    2017-02-01

    Gap filling for the reconstruction of metabolic networks is to restore the connectivity of metabolites via finding high-confidence reactions that could be missed in target organism. Current methods for gap filling either fall into the network topology or have limited capability in finding missing reactions that are indirectly related to dead-end metabolites but of biological importance to the target model. We present an automated dead-end filling (DEF) approach, which is derived from the wisdom of endosymbiosis theory, to fill gaps by finding the most efficient dead-end utilization paths in a constructed quasi-endosymbiosis model. The recalls of reactions and dead ends of DEF reach around 73% and 86%, respectively. This method is capable of finding indirectly dead-end-related reactions with biological importance for the target organism and is applicable to any given metabolic model. In the E. coli iJR904 model, for instance, about 42% of the dead-end metabolites were fixed by our proposed method. DEF is publicly available at http://bis.zju.edu.cn/DEF/. mchen@zju.edu.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. Dead end metabolites--defining the known unknowns of the E. coli metabolic network.

    Amanda Mackie

    Full Text Available The EcoCyc database is an online scientific database which provides an integrated view of the metabolic and regulatory network of the bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 and facilitates computational exploration of this important model organism. We have analysed the occurrence of dead end metabolites within the database--these are metabolites which lack the requisite reactions (either metabolic or transport that would account for their production or consumption within the metabolic network. 127 dead end metabolites were identified from the 995 compounds that are contained within the EcoCyc metabolic network. Their presence reflects either a deficit in our representation of the network or in our knowledge of E. coli metabolism. Extensive literature searches resulted in the addition of 38 transport reactions and 3 metabolic reactions to the database and led to an improved representation of the pathway for Vitamin B12 salvage. 39 dead end metabolites were identified as components of reactions that are not physiologically relevant to E. coli K-12--these reactions are properties of purified enzymes in vitro that would not be expected to occur in vivo. Our analysis led to improvements in the software that underpins the database and to the program that finds dead end metabolites within EcoCyc. The remaining dead end metabolites in the EcoCyc database likely represent deficiencies in our knowledge of E. coli metabolism.

  9. Semantic Complex Event Processing over End-to-End Data Flows

    Zhou, Qunzhi [University of Southern California; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging Complex Event Processing (CEP) applications in cyber physical systems like SmartPower Grids present novel challenges for end-to-end analysis over events, flowing from heterogeneous information sources to persistent knowledge repositories. CEP for these applications must support two distinctive features - easy specification patterns over diverse information streams, and integrated pattern detection over realtime and historical events. Existing work on CEP has been limited to relational query patterns, and engines that match events arriving after the query has been registered. We propose SCEPter, a semantic complex event processing framework which uniformly processes queries over continuous and archived events. SCEPteris built around an existing CEP engine with innovative support for semantic event pattern specification and allows their seamless detection over past, present and future events. Specifically, we describe a unified semantic query model that can operate over data flowing through event streams to event repositories. Compile-time and runtime semantic patterns are distinguished and addressed separately for efficiency. Query rewriting is examined and analyzed in the context of temporal boundaries that exist between event streams and their repository to avoid duplicate or missing results. The design and prototype implementation of SCEPterare analyzed using latency and throughput metrics for scenarios from the Smart Grid domain.

  10. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: non-ideal cake filtration

    Blankert, B.; Kattenbelt, C.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2007-01-01

    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump

  11. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: Blocking filtration laws

    Blankert, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2006-01-01

    An operating model for dead-end membrane filtration is proposed based on the well-known blocking laws. The resulting model contains three parameters representing, the operating strategy, the fouling mechanism and the fouling potential of the feed. The optimal control strategy is determined by

  12. Evaluation of self-water-removal in a dead-ended proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Wan, Zhongmin; Liu, Jing; Luo, Zhiping; Tu, Zhengkai; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Operation characteristics in a dead-ended PEM fuel cell were addressed. ► Modified flow channel was used to realize water removal. ► A novel method by condensing the moisture in the stack end was introduced. - Abstract: In this paper, the operation characteristic of a dead-ended proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) placed with vertical orientation is investigated. The relationship between the channel geometry and the wettability of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) surface is theoretically analyzed. Based on the theoretical analysis, straight flow channels with 2.0 mm width and 1.0 mm depth are used for the experimental investigation and the moisture is condensed at the stack end to improve water removal. The results show that the designed fuel cell can operate for about 1 h at 800 mA cm −2 and the performance of the cell decreases with the increase in the operation temperature. Moreover, the recovered liquid water is corresponded closely to the theoretical values

  13. Water quality modeling in the dead end sections of drinking water distribution networks.

    Abokifa, Ahmed A; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Lo, Cynthia S; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-02-01

    Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to water stagnation leads to rapid reduction of disinfectant residuals allowing the regrowth of microbial pathogens. Water quality models developed so far apply spatial aggregation and temporal averaging techniques for hydraulic parameters by assigning hourly averaged water demands to the main nodes of the network. Although this practice has generally resulted in minimal loss of accuracy for the predicted disinfectant concentrations in main water transmission lines, this is not the case for the peripheries of the distribution network. This study proposes a new approach for simulating disinfectant residuals in dead end pipes while accounting for both spatial and temporal variability in hydraulic and transport parameters. A stochastic demand generator was developed to represent residential water pulses based on a non-homogenous Poisson process. Dispersive solute transport was considered using highly dynamic dispersion rates. A genetic algorithm was used to calibrate the axial hydraulic profile of the dead-end pipe based on the different demand shares of the withdrawal nodes. A parametric sensitivity analysis was done to assess the model performance under variation of different simulation parameters. A group of Monte-Carlo ensembles was carried out to investigate the influence of spatial and temporal variations in flow demands on the simulation accuracy. A set of three correction factors were analytically derived to adjust residence time, dispersion rate and wall demand to overcome simulation error caused by spatial aggregation approximation. The current model results show better agreement with field-measured concentrations of conservative fluoride tracer and free chlorine disinfectant than the simulations of recent advection dispersion reaction models published in the literature. Accuracy of the simulated

  14. Some hallways lead to other hallways and some lead to dead ends

    Tam, Nancy Y.S

    2013-01-01

    Some Hallways Lead To Other Hallways And Some Lead To Dead Ends is a one-hour long synchronized audio tour for ten people. Listening to their assigned tracks played through headphones, the audience is mobilized through the SFU Woodward’s building. The aural content is comprised of choreographic instructions and my personal stories as a third culture kid in finding home. Appendix A is a research paper written for FPA 812, where I examine Henri Lefebvre’s ideas of space and how these ideas are ...

  15. "Parents a dead end life": The main experiences of parents of children with leukemia.

    Jadidi, Rahmatollah; Hekmatpou, Davood; Eghbali, Aziz; Memari, Fereshteh; Anbari, Zohreh

    2014-11-01

    The quantitative studies show that due to the widespread prevalence, high death rate, high treatment expenses, and long hospital stay, leukemia influences the families and their children to a great extent. In this regard, no qualitative study has been conducted in Iran. So, this study was conducted in Arak in 2011 with the aim of expressing the experiences of the parents whose children suffered from leukemia. Using qualitative research approach, by applying content analysis method, 22 participants were interviewed in two educational hospitals during 2 months. The study was started by purposive sampling and continued by theoretical one. The data were analyzed based on the content analysis method. Data analysis showed that insolvency, knapsack problems, cancer secrecy, trust on God, self-sacrifice, adaptation, medical malpractice, and hospital facilities were the level 3 codes of parents' experiences and "parents a dead end life" was the main theme of this study. In this study, the experiences of the parents whose children suffered from cancer were studied deeply by the use of qualitative method, especially by the use of resources syncretism rather than studying quantitatively. Parents a dead end life emerged as the main theme of this study, emphasizing the necessity of paying further attention to the parents. On the other hand, making more use of parents' experiences and encouraging them helps make the treatment more effective. It is suggested that these experiences be shared with parents in the form of pamphlets distributed right at the beginning of the treatment process.

  16. Dead-time free pixel readout architecture for ATLAS front-end IC

    Einsweiler, Kevin F; Kleinfelder, S A; Luo, L; Marchesini, R; Milgrome, O; Pengg, F X

    1999-01-01

    A low power sparse scan readout architecture has been developed for the ATLAS pixel front-end IC. The architecture supports a dual discriminator and extracts the time over threshold (TOT) information along with a 2-D spatial address $9 of the hits associating them with a unique 7-bit beam crossing number. The IC implements level-1 trigger filtering along with event building (grouping together all hits in a beam crossing) in the end of column (EOC) buffer. The $9 events are transmitted over a 40 MHz serial data link with the protocol supporting buffer overflow handling by appending error flags to events. This mixed-mode full custom IC is implemented in 0.8 mu HP process to meet the $9 requirements for the pixel readout in the ATLAS inner detector. The circuits have been tested and the IC provides dead-time-less ambiguity free readout at 40 MHz data rate.

  17. Thermodynamic and fluid mechanic analysis of rapid pressurization in a dead-end tube

    Leslie, Ian H.

    1989-01-01

    Three models have been applied to very rapid compression of oxygen in a dead-ended tube. Pressures as high as 41 MPa (6000 psi) leading to peak temperatures of 1400 K are predicted. These temperatures are well in excess of the autoignition temperature (750 K) of teflon, a frequently used material for lining hoses employed in oxygen service. These findings are in accord with experiments that have resulted in ignition and combustion of the teflon, leading to the combustion of the stainless steel braiding and catastrophic failure. The system analyzed was representative of a capped off-high-pressure oxygen line, which could be part of a larger system. Pressurization of the larger system would lead to compression in the dead-end line, and possible ignition of the teflon liner. The model consists of a large plenum containing oxygen at the desired pressure (500 to 6000 psi). The plenum is connected via a fast acting valve to a stainless steel tube 2 cm inside diameter. Opening times are on the order of 15 ms. Downstream of the valve is an orifice sized to increase filling times to around 100 ms. The total length from the valve to the dead-end is 150 cm. The distance from the valve to the orifice is 95 cm. The models describe the fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the flow, and do not include any combustion phenomena. A purely thermodynamic model assumes filling to be complete upstream of the orifice before any gas passes through the orifice. This simplification is reasonable based on experiment and computer modeling. Results show that peak temperatures as high as 4800 K can result from recompression of the gas after expanding through the orifice. An approximate transient model without an orifice was developed assuming an isentropic compression process. An analytical solution was obtained. Results indicated that fill times can be considerably shorter than valve opening times. The third model was a finite difference, 1-D transient compressible flow model. Results from

  18. Attempts to retreat from a dead-ended long capillary by backward swimming in Paramecium

    Itsuki eKunita

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We have observed how the ciliate Paramecium attempts to retreat from the dead-end of a long capillary that is too narrow for turning. After many trial-and-error episodes of short-term backward swimming (SBS, which is the conventional avoidance behavior exhibited in free swimming when an obstacle is faced, long-term backward swimming (LBS that lasted five to ten times longer was developed. LBS may have a beneficial effect for complete withdrawal from the capillary space, although in our experiment it was impossible for the organism to do so due to the capillary length. In order to identify a physically possible mechanism for LBS, we propose model equations for the membrane potential of Hodgkin-Huxley type, which describe the control of ciliary movement. The physiological implications and physical mechanism of the development of LBS are discussed.

  19. Growth behaviors of bacteria in biofouling cake layer in a dead-end microfiltration system.

    Chao, Yuanqing; Zhang, Tong

    2011-01-01

    The growth behaviors of three bacterial species, i.e. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Aquabaculum hongkongensis, in biofouling cake layer (attached form) were investigated using an unstirred dead-end continuous microfiltration system, and were compared with those in suspended form. Results showed that all the three bacteria had larger average growth rates in suspended form than in attached form under high substrates levels. Under oligotrophic conditions, the average growth rates in the attached form were faster than those in the suspended form, especially for A. hongkongensis. The growth behaviors analysis presented the same results due to all the tested bacteria had higher maximum growth rate and saturation constant in suspended form than attached form, indicating the dominant growth mode would be shifted from attached form to suspended form with substrate concentration increase. Finally, total filtration resistance determined in the experiments increased significantly with the bacterial growth in filtration system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Emulsification kinetics during quasi-miscible flow in dead-end pores

    Broens, M.; Unsal, E.

    2018-03-01

    Microemulsions have found applications as carriers for the transport of solutes through various porous media. They are commonly pre-prepared in bulk form, and then injected into the medium. The preparation is done by actively mixing the surfactant, water and oil, and then allowing the mixture to stagnate until equilibrium is reached. The resulting microemulsion characteristics of the surfactant/oil/water system are studied at equilibrium conditions, and perfect mixing is assumed. But in applications like subsurface remediation and enhanced oil recovery, microemulsion formation may occur in the pore space. Surfactant solutions are injected into the ground to solubilize and/or mobilize the non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) by in-situ emulsification. Flow dynamics and emulsification kinetics are coupled, which also contributes to in-situ mixing. In this study, we investigated the nature of such coupling for a quasi-miscible fluid system in a conductive channel with dead-end extensions. A microfluidic setup was used, where an aqueous solution of an anionic, internal olefin sulfonate 20-24 (IOS) surfactant was injected into n-decane saturated glass micromodel. The oil phase was coloured using a solvatochromatic dye allowing for direct visualization of the aqueous and oil phases as well as their microemulsions under fluorescent light. Presence of both conductive and stagnant dead-end channels in a single pore system made it possible to isolate different transport mechanisms from each other but also allowed to study the transitions from one to the other. In the conductive channel, the surfactant was carried with flow, and emulsification was controlled by the localized flow dynamics. In the stagnant zones, the driving force of the mass transfer was driven by the chemical concentration gradient. Some of the equilibrium phase behaviour characteristics of the surfactant/oil/water system were recognisable during the quasi-miscible displacement. However, the equilibrium tests

  1. End-User Evaluations of Semantic Web Technologies

    McCool, Rob; Cowell, Andrew J.; Thurman, David A.

    2005-11-07

    Stanford University's Knowledge Systems Laboratory (KSL) is working in partnership with Battelle Memorial Institute and IBM Watson Research Center to develop a suite of technologies for information extraction, knowledge representation & reasoning, and human-information interaction, in unison entitled 'Knowledge Associates for Novel Intelligence' (KANI). We have developed an integrated analytic environment composed of a collection of analyst associates, software components that aid the user at different stages of the information analysis process. An important part of our participatory design process has been to ensure our technologies and designs are tightly integrate with the needs and requirements of our end users, To this end, we perform a sequence of evaluations towards the end of the development process that ensure the technologies are both functional and usable. This paper reports on that process.

  2. Phytophthora ramorum is a generalist plant pathogen with differences in virulence between isolates from infectious and dead-end hosts

    D. Huberli; M. Garbelotto

    2011-01-01

    Variation in virulence was examined among isolates of Phytophthora ramorum from epidemiologically important or infectious (non-oak) and transmissive dead-end (oak) hosts from North America. Twelve isolates representative of the genetic, geographic and host range of P. ramorum in the western United States were inoculated on...

  3. Recovery of diverse microbes in high turbidity surface water samples using dead-end ultrafiltration.

    Mull, Bonnie; Hill, Vincent R

    2012-12-01

    Dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) has been reported to be a simple, field-deployable technique for recovering bacteria, viruses, and parasites from large-volume water samples for water quality testing and waterborne disease investigations. While DEUF has been reported for application to water samples having relatively low turbidity, little information is available regarding recovery efficiencies for this technique when applied to sampling turbid water samples such as those commonly found in lakes and rivers. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a DEUF technique for recovering MS2 bacteriophage, enterococci, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in surface water samples having elevated turbidity. Average recovery efficiencies for each study microbe across all turbidity ranges were: MS2 (66%), C. parvum (49%), enterococci (85%), E. coli (81%), and C. perfringens (63%). The recovery efficiencies for MS2 and C. perfringens exhibited an inversely proportional relationship with turbidity, however no significant differences in recovery were observed for C. parvum, enterococci, or E. coli. Although ultrafilter clogging was observed, the DEUF method was able to process 100-L surface water samples at each turbidity level within 60 min. This study supports the use of the DEUF method for recovering a wide array of microbes in large-volume surface water samples having medium to high turbidity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Stabilization of flux during dead-end ultra-low pressure ultrafiltration.

    Peter-Varbanets, Maryna; Hammes, Frederik; Vital, Marius; Pronk, Wouter

    2010-06-01

    Gravity driven ultrafiltration was operated in dead-end mode without any flushing or cleaning. In contrary to general expectations, the flux value stabilized after about one week of operation and remained constant during an extended period of time (several months). Different surface water types and diluted wastewater were used as feed water and, depending on the feed water composition, stable flux values were in the range of 4-10 L h(-1) m(-2). When sodium azide was added to the feed water to diminish the biological activity, no stabilization of flux occurred, indicating that biological processes play an important role in the flux stabilization process. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the presence of a biofouling layer, of which the structure changed over time, leading to relatively heterogeneous structures. It is assumed that the stabilization of flux is related to the development of heterogeneous structures in the fouling layer, due to biological processes in the layer. The phenomenon of flux stabilization opens interesting possibilities for application, for instance in simple and low-cost ultrafiltration systems for decentralized drinking water treatment in developing and transition countries, independent of energy supply, chemicals, or complex process control. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An Experimental Study of Alkali-surfactant-polymer Flooding through Glass Micromodels Including Dead-end Pores

    Mohsen Esmaeili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical flooding, especially alkaline/surfactant/polymer flooding, is of increasing interest due to the world increasing oil demand. This work shows the aspects of using alkaline/surfactant/polymer as an enhanced oil recovery method in the porous media having a high dead-end pore frequency with various dead-end pore parameters (such as opening, depth, aspect ratio, and orientation. Using glass micromodels makes it possible to manipulate and analyze the pore parameters and watch through the porous media precisely. The results show that polyacrylamide almost always enhances oil production recovery factor (up to 14% in comparison with brine injection in this kind of porous media. Except at low concentrations of polyacrylamide and sodium carbonate, sodium dodecyl sulfonate improves oil recovery (even 15% in the case of high polyacrylamide concentration and low sodium carbonate concentration. Increasing alkaline concentration reduces recovery factor except at low concentrations of polyacrylamide and high concentrations of surfactant.

  6. Design and Test of a 65nm CMOS Front-End with Zero Dead Time for Next Generation Pixel Detectors

    Gaioni, L. [INFN, Pavia; Braga, D. [Fermilab; Christian, D. [Fermilab; Deptuch, G. [Fermilab; Fahim. F., Fahim. F. [Fermilab; Nodari, B. [Lyon, IPN; Ratti, L. [INFN, Pavia; Re, V. [INFN, Pavia; Zimmerman, T. [Fermilab

    2017-09-01

    This work is concerned with the experimental characterization of a synchronous analog processor with zero dead time developed in a 65 nm CMOS technology, conceived for pixel detectors at the HL-LHC experiment upgrades. It includes a low noise, fast charge sensitive amplifier with detector leakage compensation circuit, and a compact, single ended comparator able to correctly process hits belonging to two consecutive bunch crossing periods. A 2-bit Flash ADC is exploited for digital conversion immediately after the preamplifier. A description of the circuits integrated in the front-end processor and the initial characterization results are provided

  7. The use of dead-end and cross-flow nanofiltration to purify prebiotic oligosaccharides from reaction mixtures

    Alistair S. Grandison

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanofiltration (NF of model sugar solutions and commercial oligosaccharide mixtures were studied in both dead-end and cross-flow modes. Preliminary trials, with a dead-end filtration cell, demonstrated the feasibility of fractionating monosaccharides from disaccharides and oligosaccharides in mixtures, using loose nanofiltration (NF-CA-50, NF-TFC-50 membranes. During the nanofiltration purification of a commercial oligosaccharide mixture, yields of 19% (w w-1 for the monosaccharides and 88% (w w-1 for di, and oligosaccharides were obtained for the NF-TFC-50 membrane after four filtration steps, indicating that removal of the monosaccharides is possible, with only minor losses of the oligosaccharide content of the mixture. The effects of pressure, feed concentration, and filtration temperature were studied in similar experiments carried out in a cross-flow system, in full recycle mode of operation. The rejection rates of the sugar components increased with increasing pressure, and decreased with both increasing total sugar concentration in the feed and increasing temperature. Continuous diafiltration (CD purification of model sugar solutions and commercial oligosaccharide mixtures using NF-CA-50 (at 25oC and DS-5-DL (at 60oC membranes, gave yield values of 14 to 18% for the monosaccharide, 59 to 89% for the disaccharide and 81 to 98% for the trisaccharide present in the feed. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of cross flow nanofiltration in the purification of oligosaccharide mixtures from the contaminant monosaccharides.

  8. Measurement of the front-end dead-time of the LHCb muon detector and evaluation of its contribution to the muon detection inefficiency

    INSPIRE-00357120; Archilli, F.; Auriemma, G.; Baldini, W.; Bencivenni, G.; Bizzeti, A.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Bochin, B.; Bozzi, C.; Brundu, D.; Cadeddu, S.; Campana, P.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Carletti, M.; Casu, L.; Chubykin, A.; Ciambrone, P.; Dané, E.; De Simone, P.; Falabella, A.; Felici, G.; Fiore, M.; Fontana, M.; Fresch, P.; Furfaro, E.; Graziani, G.; Kashchuk, A.; Kotriakhova, S.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Loi, A.; Maev, O.; Manca, G.; Martellotti, G.; Neustroev, P.; Oldeman, R.G.C.; Palutan, M.; Passaleva, G.; Penso, G.; Pinci, D.; Polycarpo, E.; Saitta, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Saputi, A.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, T.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Siddi, B.G.; Tellarini, G.; Vacca, C.; Vazquez-Gomez, R.; Vecchi, S.; Veltri, M.; Vorobyev, A.

    2016-04-06

    A method is described which allows to deduce the dead-time of the front-end electronics of the LHCb muon detector from a series of measurements performed at different luminosities at a bunch-crossing rate of 20 MHz. The measured values of the dead-time range from 70 ns to 100 ns. These results allow to estimate the performance of the muon detector at the future bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz and at higher luminosity.

  9. Comparative study of the energy potential of cyanide waters using two osmotic membrane modules under dead-end flow

    García-Díaz, Y.; Quiñones-Bolaños, E.; Bustos-Blanco, C.; Vives-Pérez, L.; Bustillo-Lecompte, C.; Saba, M.

    2017-12-01

    The energy potential of the osmotic pressure gradient of cyanide waters is evaluated using two membrane modules, horizontal and vertical, operated under dead-end flow. The membrane was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The membrane is mainly composed of carbon, oxygen, and sulphur. The properties of the membrane were unchanged and had no pore clogging after exposure to the cyanide waters. Potentials of 1.78×10-4 and 6.36×10-5Wm-2 were found for the horizontal and vertical modules, respectively, using the Van’t Hoff equation. Likewise, the permeability coefficient of the membrane was higher in the vertical module. Although the energy potential is low under the studied conditions the vertical configuration has a greater potential due to the action of gravity and the homogenous contact of the fluid with the membrane.

  10. Maternal Dead-end 1 promotes translation of nanos1 by binding the eIF3 complex.

    Aguero, Tristan; Jin, Zhigang; Chorghade, Sandip; Kalsotra, Auinash; King, Mary Lou; Yang, Jing

    2017-10-15

    In the developing embryo, primordial germ cells (PGCs) represent the exclusive progenitors of the gametes, and their loss results in adult infertility. During early development, PGCs are exposed to numerous signals that specify somatic cell fates. To prevent somatic differentiation, PGCs must transiently silence their genome, an early developmental process that requires Nanos activity. However, it is unclear how Nanos translation is regulated in developing embryos. We report here that translation of nanos1 after fertilization requires Dead-end 1 (Dnd1), a vertebrate-specific germline RNA-binding protein. We provide evidence that Dnd1 protein, expression of which is low in oocytes, but increases dramatically after fertilization, directly interacts with, and relieves the inhibitory function of eukaryotic initiation factor 3f, a repressive component in the 43S preinitiation complex. This work uncovers a novel translational regulatory mechanism that is fundamentally important for germline development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Atypical jobs : stepping stones or dead ends? Evidence from the NLSY79.

    Addison, J.T.; Cotti, C.; Surfield, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Atypical work arrangements have long been criticized as offering more precarious and lower paid work than regular open-ended employment. An important British paper by Booth et al. (Economic Journal, Vol. 112 (2002), No. 480, pp. F189–F213) was among the first to recognize such jobs also functioned as a stepping stone to permanent work. This conclusion proved prescient, receiving increased support in Europe. Here, we provide a broadly parallel analysis for the USA, where research has been less...

  12. Application of dead space fraction to titrate optimal positive end-expiratory pressure in an ARDS swine model.

    Bian, Weishuai; Chen, Wei; Chao, Yangong; Wang, Lan; Li, Liming; Guan, Jian; Zang, Xuefeng; Zhen, Jie; Sheng, Bo; Zhu, Xi

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to apply the dead space fraction [ratio of dead space to tidal volume (VD/VT)] to titrate the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in a swine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Twelve swine models of ARDS were constructed. A lung recruitment maneuver was then conducted and the PEEP was set at 20 cm H 2 O. The PEEP was reduced by 2 cm H 2 O every 10 min until 0 cm H 2 O was reached, and VD/VT was measured after each decrement step. VD/VT was measured using single-breath analysis of CO 2 , and calculated from arterial CO 2 partial pressure (PaCO 2 ) and mixed expired CO 2 (PeCO 2 ) using the following formula: VD/VT = (PaCO 2 - PeCO 2 )/PaCO 2 . The optimal PEEP was identified by the lowest VD/VT method. Respiration and hemodynamic parameters were recorded during the periods of pre-injury and injury, and at 4 and 2 cm H 2 O below and above the optimal PEEP (Po). The optimal PEEP in this study was found to be 13.25±1.36 cm H 2 O. During the Po period, VD/VT decreased to a lower value (0.44±0.08) compared with that during the injury period (0.68±0.10) (P<0.05), while the intrapulmonary shunt fraction reached its lowest value. In addition, a significant change of dynamic tidal respiratory compliance and oxygenation index was induced by PEEP titration. These results indicate that minimal VD/VT can be used for PEEP titration in ARDS.

  13. One-shot genitalia are not an evolutionary dead end - Regained male polygamy in a sperm limited spider species

    Michalik Peter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monogynous mating systems with extremely low male mating rates have several independent evolutionary origins and are associated with drastic adaptations involving self-sacrifice, one-shot genitalia, genital damage, and termination of spermatogenesis immediately after maturation. The combination of such extreme traits likely restricts evolutionary potential perhaps up to the point of making low male mating rates irreversible and hence may constitute an evolutionary dead end. Here, we explore the case of a reversion to multiple mating from monogynous ancestry in golden orb-web spiders, Nephila senegalensis. Results Male multiple mating is regained by the loss of genital damage and sexual cannibalism but spermatogenesis is terminated with maturation, restricting males to a single loading of their secondary mating organs and a fixed supply of sperm. However, males re-use their mating organs and by experimentally mating males to many females, we show that the sperm supply is divided between copulations without reloading the pedipalps. Conclusion By portioning their precious sperm supply, males achieve an average mating rate of four females which effectively doubles the maximal mating rate of their ancestors. A heritage of one-shot genitalia does not completely restrict the potential to increase mating rates in Nephila although an upper limit is defined by the available sperm load. Future studies should now investigate how males use this potential in the field and identify selection pressures responsible for a reversal from monogynous to polygynous mating strategies.

  14. The Arctic Ocean as a dead end for floating plastics in the North Atlantic branch of the Thermohaline Circulation

    Cózar, Andrés

    2017-04-20

    The subtropical ocean gyres are recognized as great marine accummulation zones of floating plastic debris; however, the possibility of plastic accumulation at polar latitudes has been overlooked because of the lack of nearby pollution sources. In the present study, the Arctic Ocean was extensively sampled for floating plastic debris from the Tara Oceans circumpolar expedition. Although plastic debris was scarce or absent in most of the Arctic waters, it reached high concentrations (hundreds of thousands of pieces per square kilometer) in the northernmost and easternmost areas of the Greenland and Barents seas. The fragmentation and typology of the plastic suggested an abundant presence of aged debris that originated from distant sources. This hypothesis was corroborated by the relatively high ratios of marine surface plastic to local pollution sources. Surface circulation models and field data showed that the poleward branch of the Thermohaline Circulation transfers floating debris from the North Atlantic to the Greenland and Barents seas, which would be a dead end for this plastic conveyor belt. Given the limited surface transport of the plastic that accumulated here and the mechanisms acting for the downward transport, the seafloor beneath this Arctic sector is hypothesized as an important sink of plastic debris.

  15. Seasonal variations of natural ventilation and radon-222 exhalation in a slightly rising dead-end tunnel.

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick; Gautam, Umesh; Tiwari, Dilli Ram; Shrestha, Prithvi; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2007-01-01

    The concentration activity of radon-222 has been monitored, with some interruptions, from 1997 to 2005 in the end section of a slightly rising, dead-end, 38-m long tunnel located in the Phulchoki hill, near Kathmandu, Nepal. While a high concentration varying from 6 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) to 10 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) is observed from May to September (rainy summer season), the concentration remains at a low level of about 200 Bq m(-3) from October to March (dry winter season). This reduction of radon concentration is associated with natural ventilation of the tunnel, which, contrary to expectations for a rising tunnel, takes place mainly from October to March when the outside air temperature drops below the average tunnel temperature. This interpretation is supported by temperature measurements in the atmosphere of the tunnel, a few meters away from the entrance. The temporal variations of the diurnal amplitude of this temperature indeed follow the ventilation rate deduced from the radon measurements. In the absence of significant ventilation (summer season), the radon exhalation flux at the rock surface into the tunnel atmosphere can be inferred; it exhibits a yearly variation with additional transient reductions associated with heavy rainfall, likely to be due to water infiltration. No effect of atmospheric pressure variations on the radon concentration is observed in this tunnel. This experiment illustrates how small differences in the location and geometry of a tunnel can lead to vastly different behaviours of the radon concentration versus time. This observation has consequences for the estimation of the dose rate and the practicability of radon monitoring for tectonic purposes in underground environments.

  16. Dead End Street Blues

    Frank van Dun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The long stagflation in the nineteen-seventies broke the Keynesian hold on economic policy. Last year we witnessed the spectacular unraveling of neo-liberal policies of manipulating money and credit. While these episodes might be studied to explain the specific weaknesses and errors of each of the two policy paradigms that have dominated in the West after the Second World War, this lecture highlights the ideas and presuppositions that remained in place throughout the whole period. Despite the alliance that once existed between libertarians and classical liberals, on the one hand, and neo-liberals, on the other hand, the latter did not have sufficiently coherent conceptions of freedom and free markets to produce a true alternative for the Keynesian idea of a scientifically managed economy as a utilitarian and pragmatic approach to the utopian goal of the greatest happiness for the greatest number, i.e., complete well-being for all.

  17. Spatial and time variations of radon-222 concentration in the atmosphere of a dead-end horizontal tunnel

    Richon, Patrick; Perrier, Frederic; Sabroux, Jean-Christophe; Trique, Michaeel; Ferry, Cecile; Voisin, Vincent; Pili, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of radon-222 has been monitored since 1995 in the atmosphere of a 2 m transverse dimension, 128 m long, dead-end horizontal tunnel located in the French Alps, at an altitude of 1600 m. Most of the time, the radon concentration is stable, with an average value ranging from 200 Bq m -3 near the entrance to about 1000 Bq m -3 in the most confined section, with an equilibrium factor between radon and its short-lived decay products varying from 0.61 to 0.78. However, radon bursts are repeatedly observed, with amplitudes reaching up to 36 x 10 3 Bq m -3 and durations varying from one to several weeks, with similar spatial variations along the tunnel as the background concentration. These spatial variations are qualitatively interpreted in terms of natural ventilation. Comparing the radon background concentration with the measured radon exhalation flux at the wall yields an estimate of 8 ± 2 x 10 -6 s -1 (0.03 ± 0.007 h -1 ) for the ventilation rate. The hypothesis that the bursts could be due to transient changes in ventilation can be ruled out. Thus, the bursts are the results of transient increased radon exhalation at the walls, that could be due to meteorological effects or possibly combined hydrological and mechanical forcing associated with the water level variations of the nearby Roselend reservoir lake. Such studies are of interest for radiation protection in poorly ventilated underground settings, and, ultimately, for a better understanding of radon exhalation associated with tectonic or volcanic processes

  18. Early 20th-century research at the interfaces of genetics, development, and evolution: reflections on progress and dead ends.

    Deichmann, Ute

    2011-09-01

    Three early 20th-century attempts at unifying separate areas of biology, in particular development, genetics, physiology, and evolution, are compared in regard to their success and fruitfulness for further research: Jacques Loeb's reductionist project of unifying approaches by physico-chemical explanations; Richard Goldschmidt's anti-reductionist attempts to unify by integration; and Sewall Wright's combination of reductionist research and vision of hierarchical genetic systems. Loeb's program, demanding that all aspects of biology, including evolution, be studied by the methods of the experimental sciences, proved highly successful and indispensible for higher level investigations, even though evolutionary change and properties of biological systems up to now cannot be fully explained on the molecular level alone. Goldschmidt has been appraised as pioneer of physiological and developmental genetics and of a new evolutionary synthesis which transcended neo-Darwinism. However, this study concludes that his anti-reductionist attempts to integrate genetics, development and evolution have to be regarded as failures or dead ends. His grand speculations were based on the one hand on concepts and experimental systems that were too vague in order to stimulate further research, and on the other on experiments which in their core parts turned out not to be reproducible. In contrast, Sewall Wright, apart from being one of the architects of the neo-Darwinian synthesis of the 1930s, opened up new paths of testable quantitative developmental genetic investigations. He placed his research within a framework of logical reasoning, which resulted in the farsighted speculation that examinations of biological systems should be related to the regulation of hierarchical genetic subsystems, possibly providing a mechanism for development and evolution. I argue that his suggestion of basing the study of systems on clearly defined properties of the components has proved superior to

  19. Construction of a dead-end type micro- to R.O. membrane test cell and performance test with the laboratory- made and commercial membranes

    Darunee Bhongsuwan

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A dead-end type membrane stirred cell for an RO filtration test has been designed and constructed. Magnetic stirring system is applied to overcome a pressure-induced concentration polarization occurred over a membrane surface in the test cell. A high pressure N2 tank is used as a pressure source.Feed container is designed for 2.5 l feed solution and a stirred cell volume is 0.5 l . The test cell holds a magnetic stirrer freely moved over the membrane surface. All units are made of stainless steel. A porous SS316L disc is used as a membrane support. The dead-end stirred cell is tested to work properly in an operating pressure ranged 0 - 400 psi. It means that the dead-end cell can be used to test a membrane of different filtration modes, from micro- to Reverse Osmosis filtration. Tests performed at 400 psi for 3 hours are safe but tests at a 500 psi increase leakage possibility. The cell is used to test the performance of both commercial and laboratory-made membranes. It shows that the salt rejection efficiency of the nano- and RO membranes, NTR759HR and LES90, determined by using the new test cell, is closely similar to those reported from the manufacture. Result of the tests for our own laboratory-made membrane shows a similar performance to the nanofiltration membrane LES90.

  20. Dead Ends and Detours En Route to Total Syntheses of the 1990s A list of abbreviations can be found at the end of the article.

    Sierra; de La Torre MC

    2000-05-01

    From the very beginning organic chemistry and total synthesis have been intimately joined. In fact, one of the first things that freshmen in organic chemistry learn is how to join two molecules together to obtain a more complex one. Of course they still have a long way to go to become fully mature synthetic chemists, but they must have the primary instinct to build molecules, as synthesis is the essence of organic chemistry. With the different points of view that actually coexist in the chemical community about the maturity of the science (art, or both) of organic synthesis, it is clear that nowadays we know how to make almost all of the most complex molecules ever isolated. The primary question is how easy is it to accomplish? For the readers of papers describing the total synthesis of either simple or complex molecules, it appears that the routes followed are, most of the time, smooth and free of troubles. The synthetic scheme written on paper is, apparently, done in the laboratory with few, if any, modifications and these, essentially, seem to be based on finding the optimal experimental conditions to effect the desired reaction. Failures in the planned synthetic scheme to achieve the goal, detours imposed by unexpected reactivity, or the absence of reactivity are almost never discussed, since they may diminish the value of the work reported. This review attempts to look at total synthesis from a different side; it will focus on troubles found during the synthetic work that cause detours from the original synthetic plan, or on the dead ends that eventually may force redesign. From there, the evolution from the original route to the final successful one that achieves the synthetic target will be presented. The syntheses discussed in this paper have been selected because they contain explicit information about the failures of the original synthetic plan, together with the evolution of the final route to the target molecule. Therefore, they contain a lot of useful

  1. Investigation of the purging effect on a dead-end anode PEM fuel cell-powered vehicle during segments of a European driving cycle

    Gomez, Alberto; Sasmito, Agus P.; Shamim, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental study of a dead-end anode PEM fuel cell stack during a driving cycle. • Low purging duration is preferred at high current. • High purging frequency can sustain a better performance over time. • Lower cathode stoichiometry is preferred to minimize the parasitic loads. - Abstract: The dynamic performance of the PEM fuel cell is one of the key factors for successful operation of a fuel cell-powered vehicle. Maintaining fast time response while keeping stable and high stack performance is of importance, especially during acceleration and deceleration. In this paper, we evaluate the transient response of a PEM fuel cell stack with a dead-end anode during segments of a legislated European driving cycle together with the effect of purging factors. The PEM fuel cell stack comprises of 24 cells with a 300 cm"2 active catalyst area and operates at a low hydrogen and air pressure. Humidified air is supplied to the cathode side and the dry hydrogen is fed to the anode. The liquid coolant is circulated to the stack and the radiator to maintain the thermal envelope throughout the stack. The stack performance deterioration over time is prevented by utilizing the purging, which removes the accumulated water and impurities. The effect of purging period, purging duration, coolant flow rate and cathode stoichiometry are examined with regard to the fuel cell’s transient performance during the driving cycle. The results show that a low purging duration may avoid the undesired deceleration at a high current, and a high purging period may sustain a better performance over time. Moreover, the coolant flow rate is found to be an important parameter, which affects the stack temperature–time response of the cooling control and the stack performance, especially at high operating currents.

  2. DEAD-box helicase DDX27 regulates 3′ end formation of ribosomal 47S RNA and stably associates with the PeBoW-complex

    Kellner, Markus; Rohrmoser, Michaela [Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany); Forné, Ignasi [Adolf Butenandt Institute, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Schillerstr. 44, Munich 80336 (Germany); Voss, Kirsten; Burger, Kaspar; Mühl, Bastian; Gruber-Eber, Anita [Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany); Kremmer, Elisabeth [Institute of Molecular Immunology, Helmholtz Center Munich, Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany); Imhof, Axel [Adolf Butenandt Institute, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Schillerstr. 44, Munich 80336 (Germany); Eick, Dirk, E-mail: eick@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    PeBoW, a trimeric complex consisting of pescadillo (Pes1), block of proliferation (Bop1), and the WD repeat protein 12 (WDR12), is essential for processing and maturation of mammalian 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNAs. Applying a mass spectrometric analysis, we identified the DEAD-box helicase DDX27 as stably associated factor of the PeBoW-complex. DDX27 interacts with the PeBoW-complex via an evolutionary conserved F×F motif in the N-terminal domain and is recruited to the nucleolus via its basic C-terminal domain. This recruitment is RNA-dependent and occurs independently of the PeBoW-complex. Interestingly, knockdown of DDX27, but not of Pes1, induces the accumulation of an extended form of the primary 47S rRNA. We conclude that DDX27 can interact specifically with the Pes1 and Bop1 but fulfils critical function(s) for proper 3′ end formation of 47S rRNA independently of the PeBoW-complex. - Highlights: • DEAD-box helicase DDX27 is a new constituent of the PeBoW-complex. • The N-terminal F×F motif of DDX27 interacts with the PeBoW components Pes1 and Bop1. • Nucleolar anchoring of DDX27 via its basic C-terminal domain is RNA dependent. • Knockdown of DDX27 induces a specific defect in 3′ end formation of 47S rRNA.

  3. The Living Dead: Bacterial Community Structure of a Cadaver at the Onset and End of the Bloat Stage of Decomposition

    Hyde, Embriette R.; Haarmann, Daniel P.; Lynne, Aaron M.; Bucheli, Sibyl R.; Petrosino, Joseph F.

    2013-01-01

    Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphonomy and readily attributed to microbial physiology, was targeted. Each cadaver was sampled at two time points, at the onset and end of the bloat stage, from various body sites including internal locations. Bacterial samples were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our data show a shift from aerobic bacteria to anaerobic bacteria in all body sites sampled and demonstrate variation in community structure between bodies, between sample sites within a body, and between initial and end points of the bloat stage within a sample site. These data are best not viewed as points of comparison but rather additive data sets. While some species recovered are the same as those observed in culture-based studies, many are novel. Our results are preliminary and add to a larger emerging data set; a more comprehensive study is needed to further dissect the role of bacteria in human decomposition. PMID:24204941

  4. The living dead: bacterial community structure of a cadaver at the onset and end of the bloat stage of decomposition.

    Hyde, Embriette R; Haarmann, Daniel P; Lynne, Aaron M; Bucheli, Sibyl R; Petrosino, Joseph F

    2013-01-01

    Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphonomy and readily attributed to microbial physiology, was targeted. Each cadaver was sampled at two time points, at the onset and end of the bloat stage, from various body sites including internal locations. Bacterial samples were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our data show a shift from aerobic bacteria to anaerobic bacteria in all body sites sampled and demonstrate variation in community structure between bodies, between sample sites within a body, and between initial and end points of the bloat stage within a sample site. These data are best not viewed as points of comparison but rather additive data sets. While some species recovered are the same as those observed in culture-based studies, many are novel. Our results are preliminary and add to a larger emerging data set; a more comprehensive study is needed to further dissect the role of bacteria in human decomposition.

  5. The living dead: bacterial community structure of a cadaver at the onset and end of the bloat stage of decomposition.

    Embriette R Hyde

    Full Text Available Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphonomy and readily attributed to microbial physiology, was targeted. Each cadaver was sampled at two time points, at the onset and end of the bloat stage, from various body sites including internal locations. Bacterial samples were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our data show a shift from aerobic bacteria to anaerobic bacteria in all body sites sampled and demonstrate variation in community structure between bodies, between sample sites within a body, and between initial and end points of the bloat stage within a sample site. These data are best not viewed as points of comparison but rather additive data sets. While some species recovered are the same as those observed in culture-based studies, many are novel. Our results are preliminary and add to a larger emerging data set; a more comprehensive study is needed to further dissect the role of bacteria in human decomposition.

  6. Deadly progress

    Nader, R.; Abbotts, J.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are safe, they help to get through the future bottle-neck in the field of energy, nuclear power plants provide for cheap electrical power and support economic growth - these are the sedative formulae which have been used for years to close the populations eyes towards the real problems. In this book, the American lawyer Ralph Nader and the nuclear chemist John Abbots not only oppose this myth of atomic safety, but they also defeat this theory with numerous technical, economic, and political details. Having realized the fact that the development of atomic energy can no longer be prevented by warnings of independent experts, but only by massive protests by the population - i.e. the protest by informed persons-, they give an understandable introduction to the techniques of atomic energy, construction of nuclear power plants, radioactive radiation, safety, etc. Furthermore, they inform about the social, political, and economic background of the nuclear power forcing. Nader and Abbots show the uncertainty of science, they bring secret documents about failures already occured and point out the catastrophic consequences of possible defects. The result of the thorough study: A 'technologic Vietnam' impends both USA and all other nuclear power countries, if the population won't struggle against this dead-end programme of the governments. (orig./HP) [de

  7. "Multiculturalism" - a dead end in conceptualizing difference, or an open-ended approach to facilitating democratic experiences in the foreign language classroom?

    Ulrika Tornberg

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this text is on the multicultural condition, related to the foreignlanguage classroom as a possible arena for democratic experiences. However,due to the increasing ambiguity, to say the least, of the conceptions of “culture”and “multiculturalism” today, I will argue that, depending on how “multicul-turalism” is conceived, this focus may indeed either lead to a cultural andcommunicative closure, or open up the possibility of multi-vocal dialogue andcommunication. If, on the one hand, “multiculturalism” is understood asdifference, mainly constituted by a variety of categorized cultural groupings,you may end up essentializing culture to something that people “have”, andthat is imposed on them collectively from an outside position. If, on the otherhand, cultural differences are seen as constructed within human practices ofongoing narratives and negotiations between individuals and groups – acrossand beyond all kinds of cultural borders – then the hybrid, pluralistic condi-tion of a society, or even of a foreign language classroom, may offer at least anopportunity for cultural identities to co-construct a social space, where nor-mative conflicts and different viewpoints could be dealt with through multi-vocal deliberative communication.

  8. 2008 annual nuclear technology conference: opting out of the use of nuclear power. German special approach leads into a dead end of energy policy. Conference report

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The President of the Deutsches Atomforum, Dr. Walter Hohlefelder, emphasized in his opening address at the 2008 Annual Nuclear Technology Conference in Hamburg that the German special approach to nuclear power utilization led straight into a dead end of energy policy. ''The outcome is foreseeable: The ambitious German goals of carbon dioxide reduction are missed, the competitiveness of the country is jeopardized, dependency on foreign energy imports rises,'' Dr. Hohlefelder stated. In view of the growing challenges in energy policy Germany had no alternative but to reassess nuclear power. The only outcome of this reappraisal could be extension of the life of nuclear power plants currently in operation. This was necessary also in order to avoid an impending gap in German electricity supply, Dr. Hohlefelder added. He invited all stakeholders to join in an open, unbiased dialog. Dr. Hohlefelder openly criticized the continued ban on research into the development of new reactors. ''A policy of this kind, a policy which bans thinking, is unacceptable in a technology-oriented, industrialized nation such as Germany.'' Nuclear power technology as a high-tech area was a unique achievement which had contributed to the prosperity of the country. The Annual Nuclear Technology Conference, which was held for the 39th time this year, is one of the biggest specialized conferences in the nuclear field with an attendance, this year, of approximately 1300 participants from more than twenty nations. (orig.)

  9. Dead end1 is an essential partner of NANOS2 for selective binding of target RNAs in male germ cell development.

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Niimi, Yuki; Shinmyozu, Kaori; Zhou, Zhi; Kiso, Makoto; Saga, Yumiko

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles for generating various cell types in many developmental processes, including eggs and sperms. Nanos is widely known as an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein implicated in germ cell development. Mouse NANOS2 interacts directly with the CCR4-NOT (CNOT) deadenylase complex, resulting in the suppression of specific RNAs. However, the mechanisms involved in target specificity remain elusive. We show that another RBP, Dead end1 (DND1), directly interacts with NANOS2 to load unique RNAs into the CNOT complex. This interaction is mediated by the zinc finger domain of NANOS2, which is essential for its association with target RNAs. In addition, the conditional deletion of DND1 causes the disruption of male germ cell differentiation similar to that observed in Nanos2-KO mice. Thus, DND1 is an essential partner for NANOS2 that leads to the degradation of specific RNAs. We also present the first evidence that the zinc finger domain of Nanos acts as a protein-interacting domain for another RBP, providing a novel insight into Nanos-mediated germ cell development. © 2015 The Authors.

  10. Tracks, intersections and dead ends

    Siim, Birte; Skjeie, Hege

    The paper discusses multicultural challenges to state feminism in Denmark and Norway focusing on both similarities and differences in the two countries' policy responses to diversity. In spite of important differences, we point towwards similar problems and dilemmaes in the public responses...... multiculturalism and the rights of immigrant groups on the one hand and state feminism and the rights of woman on the other hand. Here we emphasise the participatory dimension of state feminism and the migrant women's right to participation and voice in political ecision making. ...

  11. Tracks, intersections and dead ends

    Siim, Birte; Skjeie, Hege

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses multicultural challenges to state feminism in Denmark and Norway focusing both on similarities and differences in the two countries policy responses.  In spite of important differences, we point towards similar problems and dilemmas in the public responses to multiculturalism...

  12. Wrong turns and dead ends

    Fisher, Len

    2013-12-01

    In his book Brilliant Blunders, Mario Livio offers a detailed and fascinating examination of major errors made by five great scientists - Charles Darwin, Linus Pauling, Lord Kelvin, Fred Hoyle and Albert Einstein - as they sought to understand the evolution of life on Earth, the evolution of the Earth itself and the evolution of the universe as a whole.

  13. Dead Man or Dead Hand?

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    and potential takeover bids. Recent Delaware case-law suggests that the most extreme, ‘dead hand’ version of such clauses might violate directors’ fiduciary duties. This short article develops some initial thoughts on the phenomenon and evaluates how the new poison pills would be handled under European takeover...

  14. Phosphorus-31, 15N, and 13C NMR of glyphosate: Comparison of pH titrations to the herbicidal dead-end complex with 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase

    Castellino, S.; Leo, G.C.; Sammons, R.D.; Sikorski, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The herbicidal dead-end ternary complex (E S3P Glyph ) of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] with 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and the substrate shikimate 3-phosphate (S3P) has been characterized by 31 P, 15 N, and 13 C NMR. The NMR spectra of EPSPS-bound glyphosate show unique chemical shifts (δ) for each of the three nuclei. By 31 P NMR, glyphosate in the dead-end complex is a distinct species 3.5 ppm downfield from free glyphosate. The 13 C signal of glyphosate in the dead-end complex is shifted 4 ppm downfield from that of free glyphosate. The 15 N signal for glyphosate (99%) in the dead-end complex is 5 ppm further downfield than that of any free zwitterionic species and 10 ppm downfield from that of the average free species at pH 10.1. The structures of each ionic state of glyphosate are modeled with force field calculations by using MacroModel. A correlation is made for the 31 P δ and the C-P-O bond angle, and the 13 C and 15 N δ values are postulated to be related to C-C-O and C-N-C bond angles, respectively. The downfield 31 P chemical shift perturbation for S3P in the EPSPS binary complex is consistent with ionization of the 3-phosphate of S3P upon binding. Comparison with the S3P 31 P δ vs pH titration curve specifies predominantly the dianion of the 3-phosphate in the E S3P binary complex, while the E S3P Glyph complex indicates net protonation at the 3-phosphate. Chemical shift perturbations of this latter type may be explained by changes in the O-P-O bond angle

  15. Semantic Advertising

    Zamanzadeh, Ben; Ashish, Naveen; Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Zimmerman, John

    2013-01-01

    We present the concept of Semantic Advertising which we see as the future of online advertising. Semantic Advertising is online advertising powered by semantic technology which essentially enables us to represent and reason with concepts and the meaning of things. This paper aims to 1) Define semantic advertising, 2) Place it in the context of broader and more widely used concepts such as the Semantic Web and Semantic Search, 3) Provide a survey of work in related areas such as context matchi...

  16. The Dead Sea

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  17. Dead souls

    2008-01-01

    Venemaa ei lase end gaasijuhtme Nord Stream kavandamisel häirida Euroopa Parlamendi liikme Andres Tarandi ja ajaloolase Mati Õuna väitel gaasijuhtme piirkonda jäävatest laevavrakkidest ja sõjahaudadest

  18. Love the dead, fear the dead

    Seebach, Sophie Hooge

    2017-01-01

    The dead are everywhere in the landscape in Acholi, northern Uganda. In the homes, the dead are present through their gravesites, situated next to houses and huts, and as spiritual presences in their family’s daily lives. In the bush, the dead are present as a constant potentiality, in the form...

  19. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?

    Woodall, C. W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  20. Semantic Multimedia

    S. Staab; A. Scherp; R. Arndt; R. Troncy (Raphael); M. Grzegorzek; C. Saathoff; S. Schenk; L. Hardman (Lynda)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractMultimedia constitutes an interesting field of application for Semantic Web and Semantic Web reasoning, as the access and management of multimedia content and context depends strongly on the semantic descriptions of both. At the same time, multimedia resources constitute complex objects,

  1. Generative Semantics.

    King, Margaret

    The first section of this paper deals with the attempts within the framework of transformational grammar to make semantics a systematic part of linguistic description, and outlines the characteristics of the generative semantics position. The second section takes a critical look at generative semantics in its later manifestations, and makes a case…

  2. Dead of night.

    Balter, Leon

    2010-07-01

    Dead of Night, the first psychoanalytic horror film, was produced in England in 1945, immediately after the end of World War II--that is, after the English population had suffered systematic Nazi terror from imminent invasion, incessant aerial bombing, and rocket-bombs. This film continued the prewar format of horror films based on themes of the supernatural and the hubris and excesses of science. However, it introduced psychoanalysis as the science in question. The film is structured on two levels: a genteel English country weekend to which witty and urbane guests have been invited; and five horror stories told by the guests. Psychoanalytic insights into this film structure are used here to explain how the film induces horror in the audience.

  3. Semantic metrics

    Hu, Bo; Kalfoglou, Yannis; Dupplaw, David; Alani, Harith; Lewis, Paul; Shadbolt, Nigel

    2006-01-01

    In the context of the Semantic Web, many ontology-related operations, e.g. ontology ranking, segmentation, alignment, articulation, reuse, evaluation, can be boiled down to one fundamental operation: computing the similarity and/or dissimilarity among ontological entities, and in some cases among ontologies themselves. In this paper, we review standard metrics for computing distance measures and we propose a series of semantic metrics. We give a formal account of semantic metrics drawn from a...

  4. Montague semantics

    Janssen, T.M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Montague semantics is a theory of natural language semantics and of its relation with syntax. It was originally developed by the logician Richard Montague (1930-1971) and subsequently modified and extended by linguists, philosophers, and logicians. The most important features of the theory are its

  5. Simulating detectors dead time

    Rustom, Ibrahim Farog Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear detectors are used in all aspects of nuclear measurements. All nuclear detectors are characterized by their dead time i.e. the time needed by a detector to recover from a previous incident. A detector dead time influences measurements taken by a detector and specially when measuring high decay rate (>) where is the detector dead time. Two models are usually used to correct for the dead time effect: the paralayzable and the non-paralayzable models. In the current work we use Monte Carlo simulation techniques to simulate radioactivity and the effect of dead time and the count rate of a detector with a dead time =5x10 - 5s assuming the non-paralayzable model. The simulation indicates that assuming a non -paralayzable model could be used to correct for decay rate measured by a detector. The reliability of the non-paralayzable model to correct the measured decay rate could be gauged using the Monte Carlo simulation. (Author)

  6. Biomechanics of Tetrahymena escaping from dead ends

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Kikuchi, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    Behaviors of swimming microorganisms in complex environments are important in understanding cells' distribution in nature and in industries. Although cell's swimming and spreading in an infinite fluid has been intensively investigated, that in a narrow region bounded by walls is still unclear. Thus, in this study, we used Tetrahymena thermophila as a model microorganism, and experimentally investigated its behavior between flat plates with an angle. The results showed that the cells tended to escape from the narrow region, and the swimming velocity and the radius of curvature of the trajectories decreased as they swam narrower region. We then developed a computational model of swimming Tetrahymena. The results showed that the escaping behavior could be well explained by fluid mechanics. The obtained knowledge is useful in understanding cells' behaviors in complex environments, such as in porous media and in a granular matter. This research was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grants, numbers 25000008 and 17H00853.

  7. Dead-end eco-state

    Schauerhammer, R.

    1990-01-01

    The author comes to the conclusion that, in its present form, the ecology movement is creating a conflict which is alienating man from nature. He investigates the validity of theories about the ozone hole, the greenhouse effect and general pollution. The author also shows that the arguments for environmental conservation favour nuclear technology. The political development of the Green Movement is depicted up to the eco-dictatorship. (DG) [de

  8. Live and Dead Nodes

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; Jackson, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the consequences of a distinction between `live' and `dead' network nodes; `live' nodes are able to acquire new links whereas `dead' nodes are static. We develop an analytically soluble growing network model incorporating this distinction and show that it can provide...

  9. Semantic Desktop

    Sauermann, Leo; Kiesel, Malte; Schumacher, Kinga; Bernardi, Ansgar

    In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, wie der Arbeitsplatz der Zukunft aussehen könnte und wo das Semantic Web neue Möglichkeiten eröffnet. Dazu werden Ansätze aus dem Bereich Semantic Web, Knowledge Representation, Desktop-Anwendungen und Visualisierung vorgestellt, die es uns ermöglichen, die bestehenden Daten eines Benutzers neu zu interpretieren und zu verwenden. Dabei bringt die Kombination von Semantic Web und Desktop Computern besondere Vorteile - ein Paradigma, das unter dem Titel Semantic Desktop bekannt ist. Die beschriebenen Möglichkeiten der Applikationsintegration sind aber nicht auf den Desktop beschränkt, sondern können genauso in Web-Anwendungen Verwendung finden.

  10. Use of 'ideal' alveolar air equations and corrected end-tidal PCO2 to estimate arterial PCO2 and physiological dead space during exercise in patients with heart failure.

    Van Iterson, Erik H; Olson, Thomas P

    2018-01-01

    Arterial CO 2 tension (PaCO 2 ) and physiological dead space (V D ) are not routinely measured during clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Abnormal changes in PaCO 2 accompanied by increased V D directly contribute to impaired exercise ventilatory function in heart failure (HF). Because arterial catheterization is not standard practice during CPET, this study tested the construct validity of PaCO 2 and V D prediction models using 'ideal' alveolar air equations and basic ventilation and gas-exchangegas exchange measurements during CPET in HF. Forty-seven NYHA class II/III HF (LVEF=21±7%; age=55±9years; male=89%; BMI=28±5kg/m 2 ) performed step-wise cycle ergometry CPET to volitional fatigue. Breath-by-breath ventilation and gas exchange were measured continuously. Steady-state PaCO 2 was measured at rest and peak exercise via radial arterial catheterization. Criterion V D was calculated via 'ideal' alveolar equations, whereas PaCO 2 or V D models were based on end-tidal CO 2 tension (P ET CO 2 ), tidal volume (V T ), and/or weight. Criterion measurements of PaCO 2 (38±5 vs. 33±5mmHg, Pgas exchange and ventilatory responses demonstrate acceptable agreement with criterion measurements at peak exercise in HF patients. Routine assessment of PaCO 2 and V D can be used to improve interpretability of exercise ventilatory responses in HF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Generative Semantics

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  12. Inferentializing Semantics

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2010), s. 255-274 ISSN 0022-3611 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : inference * proof theory * model theory * inferentialism * semantics Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  13. Practicing on Newly Dead

    Jewel Abraham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis. This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients. The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family.

  14. Semantic Blogging : Spreading the Semantic Web Meme

    Cayzer, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This paper is about semantic blogging, an application of the semantic web to blogging. The semantic web promises to make the web more useful by endowing metadata with machine processable semantics. Blogging is a lightweight web publishing paradigm which provides a very low barrier to entry, useful syndication and aggregation behaviour, a simple to understand structure and decentralized construction of a rich information network. Semantic blogging builds upon the success and clear network valu...

  15. Dead-ice environments

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders

    2010-01-01

    glacier environment. The scientific challenges are to answer the key questions. What are the conditions for dead-ice formation? From which sources does the sediment cover originate? Which melting and reworking processes act in the ice-cored moraines? What is the rate of de-icing in the ice-cored moraines...

  16. Resurrecting deadly carrots

    Weitzel, Corinna; Rønsted, Nina; Spalik, Krysztof

    2014-01-01

    Thapsia L. circumscribes a small genus of herbaceous perennials in the taxonomically difficult family Apiaceae. Thapsia occurs around the Mediterranean, extending from the Atlantic coasts of Portugal and Morocco to Crete and other Greek Islands in the East. Thapsia is commonly known as deadly...

  17. Jigsaw Semantics

    Paul J. E. Dekker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the enterprise of formal semantics has been under attack from several philosophical and linguistic perspectives, and it has certainly suffered from its own scattered state, which hosts quite a variety of paradigms which may seem to be incompatible. It will not do to try and answer the arguments of the critics, because the arguments are often well-taken. The negative conclusions, however, I believe are not. The only adequate reply seems to be a constructive one, which puts several pieces of formal semantics, in particular dynamic semantics, together again. In this paper I will try and sketch an overview of tasks, techniques, and results, which serves to at least suggest that it is possible to develop a coherent overall picture of undeniably important and structural phenomena in the interpretation of natural language. The idea is that the concept of meanings as truth conditions after all provides an excellent start for an integrated study of the meaning and use of natural language, and that an extended notion of goal directed pragmatics naturally complements this picture. None of the results reported here are really new, but we think it is important to re-collect them.ReferencesAsher, Nicholas & Lascarides, Alex. 1998. ‘Questions in Dialogue’. Linguistics and Philosophy 23: 237–309.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005364332007Borg, Emma. 2007. ‘Minimalism versus contextualism in semantics’. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds. ‘Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism’, pp. 339–359. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernest. 1997. ‘On an Alleged Connection between Indirect Quotation and Semantic Theory’. Mind and Language 12: pp. 278–296.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernie. 2005. Insensitive Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470755792Dekker, Paul. 2002. ‘Meaning and Use of Indefinite Expressions’. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11: pp. 141–194

  18. Preserved musical semantic memory in semantic dementia.

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2011-02-01

    To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Case study. Academic medical center. A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music.

  19. Inquisitive semantics and pragmatics

    Groenendijk, J.; Roelofsen, F.; Larrazabal, J.M.; Zubeldia, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper starts with an informal introduction to inquisitive semantics. After that, we present a formal definition of the semantics, and introduce the basic semantic notions of inquisitiveness and informativeness, in terms of wich we define the semantic categories of questions, assertions, and

  20. Semantic Web

    Anna Lamandini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013. As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence.

  1. Geospatial semantic web

    Zhang, Chuanrong; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers key issues related to Geospatial Semantic Web, including geospatial web services for spatial data interoperability; geospatial ontology for semantic interoperability; ontology creation, sharing, and integration; querying knowledge and information from heterogeneous data source; interfaces for Geospatial Semantic Web, VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) and Geospatial Semantic Web; challenges of Geospatial Semantic Web; and development of Geospatial Semantic Web applications. This book also describes state-of-the-art technologies that attempt to solve these problems such as WFS, WMS, RDF, OWL, and GeoSPARQL, and demonstrates how to use the Geospatial Semantic Web technologies to solve practical real-world problems such as spatial data interoperability.

  2. The Dead Walk

    Bill Phillips

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Monsters have always enjoyed a significant presence in the human imagination, and religion was instrumental in replacing the physical horror they engendered with that of a moral threat. Zombies, however, are amoral – their motivation purely instinctive and arbitrary, yet they are, perhaps, the most loathed of all contemporary monsters. One explanation for this lies in the theory of the uncanny valley, proposed by robotics engineer Masahiro Mori. According to the theory, we reserve our greatest fears for those things which seem most human, yet are not – such as dead bodies. Such a reaction is most likely a survival mechanism to protect us from danger and disease – a mechanism even more essential when the dead rise up and walk. From their beginnings zombies have reflected western societies’ greatest fears – be they of revolutionary Haitians, women, or communists. In recent years the rise in the popularity of the zombie in films, books and television series reflects our fears for the planet, the economy, and of death itself

  3. Dressing the dead body

    Birgitta Nordström

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available My current research focuses on textiles and rites, especially woven textiles for funerals and moments of loss. What active role can a textile such as an infant-wrapping cloth or a funeral pall play in the mourning process? This article will describe the development and current questions that address 1 the infant-wrapping cloth – the textile that is used to dress, clothe, or cover the dead body with particular attention to the question of infant mortality and the material practices of care. 2 The funeral pall that is used at funerals, draped over the coffin or as a body cover at hospital viewing rooms. One example to be presented is Kortedalakrönika (‘The Chronicle of Kortedala’, a collaborative project, woven for a church in Gothenburg. My work is based in artistic practice but opens up several scientific and existential questions.

  4. Semantic transparency affects morphological priming . . . eventually.

    Heyer, Vera; Kornishova, Dana

    2018-05-01

    Semantic transparency has been in the focus of psycholinguistic research for decades, with the controversy about the time course of the application of morpho-semantic information during the processing of morphologically complex words not yet resolved. This study reports two masked priming studies with English - ness and Russian - ost' nominalisations, investigating how semantic transparency modulates native speakers' morphological priming effects at short and long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). In both languages, we found increased morphological priming for nominalisations at the transparent end of the scale (e.g. paleness - pale) in comparison to items at the opaque end of the scale (e.g. business - busy) but only at longer prime durations. The present findings are in line with models that posit an initial phase of morpho-orthographic (semantically blind) decomposition.

  5. Programming the semantic web

    Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

  6. Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics

    O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko; Pafilisa, E.

    2010-01-01

    To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach......: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content...... web technologies....

  7. Vivitron dead section pumping tests

    Heugel, J.; Bayet, J.P.; Brandt, C.; Delhomme, C.; Krieg, C.; Kustner, F.; Meiss, R.; Riehl, R.; Roth, C.; Schlewer, B.; Six, P.; Weber, A.

    1990-10-01

    Pumping tests have been conducted on a simulated accelerator dead section. The behavior of different pump types are compared and analyzed. Vacuum conditions to be expected in the Vivitron are reached and several parameters are verified. Selection of a pump for the Vivitron dead section is confirmed

  8. Snapshots for Semantic Maps

    Nielsen, Curtis W; Ricks, Bob; Goodrich, Michael A; Bruemmer, David; Few, Doug; Walton, Miles

    2004-01-01

    .... Semantic maps are a relatively new approach to information presentation. Semantic maps provide more detail about an environment than typical maps because they are augmented by icons or symbols that provide meaning for places or objects of interest...

  9. Retrieval from semantic memory.

    Noordman-Vonk, Wietske

    1977-01-01

    The present study has been concerned with the retrieval of semantic information. Retrieving semantic information is a fundamental process in almost any kind of cognitive behavior. The introduction presented the main experimental paradigms and results found in the literature on semantic memory as

  10. Towards Universal Semantic Tagging

    Abzianidze, Lasha; Bos, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes the task of universal semantic tagging---tagging word tokens with language-neutral, semantically informative tags. We argue that the task, with its independent nature, contributes to better semantic analysis for wide-coverage multilingual text. We present the initial version of

  11. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-03-07

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th.

  12. Semantically Interoperable XML Data.

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-09-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups.

  13. Semantically Interoperable XML Data

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  14. SPARK: Adapting Keyword Query to Semantic Search

    Zhou, Qi; Wang, Chong; Xiong, Miao; Wang, Haofen; Yu, Yong

    Semantic search promises to provide more accurate result than present-day keyword search. However, progress with semantic search has been delayed due to the complexity of its query languages. In this paper, we explore a novel approach of adapting keywords to querying the semantic web: the approach automatically translates keyword queries into formal logic queries so that end users can use familiar keywords to perform semantic search. A prototype system named 'SPARK' has been implemented in light of this approach. Given a keyword query, SPARK outputs a ranked list of SPARQL queries as the translation result. The translation in SPARK consists of three major steps: term mapping, query graph construction and query ranking. Specifically, a probabilistic query ranking model is proposed to select the most likely SPARQL query. In the experiment, SPARK achieved an encouraging translation result.

  15. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  16. Anthrax, People and Dead Hippos

    2017-11-07

    Epidemiologist, Dr. Melissa Marx, discuses anthrax deaths in people who ate dead hippos.  Created: 11/7/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/7/2017.

  17. "The Working Dead"

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine; Bjerg, Helle

    This paper combines interest in the ghostly in organisation with an empirical analysis of how teachers in the Danish public school have been affected by simultaneous implementation of two major reforms. In 2013 a school reform was put in place, alongside with a reform of teachers’ working hour...... regulations. Prior to the latter reform, the negotiations between the teachers union and the employer side broke down. The result was a lock out of the teachers and the closing of all public schools for almost one month. The government unprecedentedly put an end to the conflict by implementing the working...... hour regulations through Law 409. However, even if the conflict ended, it refuses to go away. As this teacher puts it: "I get really mad, when people tell me that now we have to put things behind us and move on…I can't!" Even today, 4 years later, we see how teachers resigning from their job, do so...

  18. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web

    Ashish, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

  19. Meinongian Semantics and Artificial Intelligence

    William J. Rapaport

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes computational semantic networks for a philosophical audience and surveys several approaches to semantic-network semantics. In particular, propositional semantic networks (exemplified by SNePS are discussed; it is argued that only a fully intensional, Meinongian semantics is appropriate for them; and several Meinongian systems are presented.

  20. Comparison of burning characteristics of live and dead chaparral fuels

    L. Sun; X. Zhou; S. Mahalingam; D.R. Weise

    2006-01-01

    Wildfire spread in living vegetation, such as chaparral in southern California, often causes significant damage to infrastructure and ecosystems. The effects of physical characteristics of fuels and fuel beds on live fuel burning and whether live fuels differ fundamentally from dead woody fuels in their burning characteristics are not well understood. Toward this end,...

  1. The Semantic Web Revisited

    Shadbolt, Nigel; Berners-Lee, Tim; Hall, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    The original Scientific American article on the Semantic Web appeared in 2001. It described the evolution of a Web that consisted largely of documents for humans to read to one that included data and information for computers to manipulate. The Semantic Web is a Web of actionable information--information derived from data through a semantic theory for interpreting the symbols.This simple idea, however, remains largely unrealized. Shopbots and auction bots abound on the Web, but these are esse...

  2. Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases

    Torp, Kristian; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Most real-world databases record time-varying information. In such databases, the notion of ??the current time,?? or NOW, occurs naturally and prominently. For example, when capturing the past states of a relation using begin and end time columns, tuples that are part of the current state have some...... past time as their begin time and NOW as their end time. While the semantics of such variable databases has been described in detail and is well understood, the modification of variable databases remains unexplored. This paper defines the semantics of modifications involving the variable NOW. More...... specifically,  the problems with modifications in the presence of NOW are explored, illustrating that the main problems are with modifications of tuples that reach into the future. The paper defines the semantics of modifications?including insertions, deletions, and updates?of databases without NOW, with NOW...

  3. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  4. Semantic web for dummies

    Pollock, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you're a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you:Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic WebExplore all the benefits the data Web offers t

  5. Semantic Role Labeling

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  6. Morphological Cues for Lexical Semantics

    Light, Marc

    1996-01-01

    Most natural language processing tasks require lexical semantic information such as verbal argument structure and selectional restrictions, corresponding nominal semantic class, verbal aspectual class...

  7. Quality of semantic standards

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert

    2012-01-01

    Little scientific literature addresses the issue of quality of semantic standards, albeit a problem with high economic and social impact. Our problem survey, including 34 semantic Standard Setting Organizations (SSOs), gives evidence that quality of standards can be improved, but for improvement a

  8. Semantic Business Process Modeling

    Markovic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a process-oriented business modeling framework based on semantic technologies. The framework consists of modeling languages, methods, and tools that allow for semantic modeling of business motivation, business policies and rules, and business processes. Quality of the proposed modeling framework is evaluated based on the modeling content of SAP Solution Composer and several real-world business scenarios.

  9. Semantic Web Primer

    Antoniou, Grigoris; Harmelen, Frank van

    2004-01-01

    The development of the Semantic Web, with machine-readable content, has the potential to revolutionize the World Wide Web and its use. A Semantic Web Primer provides an introduction and guide to this still emerging field, describing its key ideas, languages, and technologies. Suitable for use as a

  10. Pragmatics for formal semantics

    Danvy, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal...

  11. A reasonable Semantic Web

    Hitzler, Pascal; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The realization of Semantic Web reasoning is central to substantiating the Semantic Web vision. However, current mainstream research on this topic faces serious challenges, which forces us to question established lines of research and to rethink the underlying approaches. We argue that reasoning for

  12. Semantic Web status model

    Gerber, AJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web application areas are experiencing intensified interest due to the rapid growth in the use of the Web, together with the innovation and renovation of information content technologies. The Semantic Web is regarded as an integrator across...

  13. Love letters to the dead: resurrecting an epistolary art.

    Lander, Dorothy A; Graham-Pole, John R

    This article explores the art of letter-writing, specifically to our beloved dead, as a form of autoethnographic research, pedagogy, and care work. As university teachers and qualitative researchers in palliative and end-of-life care, we review the literature and history of epistolary communications with the deceased, as a prelude to writing our own letters. John writes to his long-dead mother and Dorothy to her recently deceased spouse Patrick, each letter followed by a reflective dialogue between us. Through this dialogue, we highlight the potential application of this art, or handcraft, to formal and informal palliative care, and the implications for practice, pedagogy, policy, and research. We propose that such direct, non-mediated, communications can offer a valuable form of healing for bereaved people. The therapeutic potential of letter writing and the abundance of literary and popular culture exemplars of responses from the dead are also largely unexplored in death education and research.

  14. Once upon a time... Dead wood in french forests

    Bartoli, Michel; Geny, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    For many centuries in France, dead wood was an essential source of energy for households. Harvesting dead wood was both authorised - in particular, through allocation of rights of use - and highly regulated. Restrictions on its employment were established by texts ranging from the 1515 royal decree to an implementation decree of 1853 that is still applicable today - its owner must have formally released the wood. It must be dry and lying on the ground. It can be broken only by hand and no means other than human labour can be used to transport it. Furthermore, it cannot be the outcome of an act that caused a stem to dry while standing. In the 19. century, the huge number of trials, some of which went as far as the supreme court, shows just how important dead wood was socially, and much coveted by the paupers who were confronted with increasingly repressive forest police. These trials provide an excellent reflection of a society that harvested all the proceeds of felling. From the end of the 18. century to the middle of the 20., forestry treatises always dealt with removal of dead trees as a priority. Dead wood was for a long time and up to very recently abhorred but latterly has begun to be considered as an important compartment of biodiversity. History shows that it is no surprise that for the time being there is little of it to be found in our forests. (authors)

  15. [Nudge in prevention… an alternative approach or a dead end?].

    Cambon, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Prevention policies need to be more effective. Practitioners and decision-makers therefore need to innovate in the field of prevention policies and interventions by adapting methods or strategies used in other domains. Nudges, considered to be an attractive technique in view of its efficacy, are one of these innovations.However, the use of nudges in prevention policies raises ethical debates which will be summarized in this article. After recalling the definition of nudging, this article describes the ethical debates concerning three issues and emphasizes the way they can reflect a beneficial, democratic, freedom-based and autonomous society.In conclusion, this article encourages prevention practitioners and decision-makers to adopt a larger view before transferring strategies from other sectors and especially to consider all ethical issues.

  16. Fear, the other, the end. Legal violences, deadly violences

    Patxi Lanceros

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to give an account of the difficulties that western democracies are going through in this globalization’s time, undergoing the stress that causes the double pressure of two factors: a growing fear which causes lie on the confluence of financial capitalism and liberal hegemony (with the output of insecurity they both cause, and the confrontation, that increasingly adopts more worrying forms, with diverse kind and grades or otherness: human masses of displaced persons or expulsed of their residences and hounded by economic, cultural or political motivations, that do not find refuge nowhere and becoming hostility and disdain.

  17. Removal of metal ions using dead-end filtration

    2005-07-03

    Jul 3, 2005 ... The zeta potential of lecithin was determined to be -79 mV whilst the critical micelle ... been widely used in the medical, cosmetic and food industry. ..... lead ion copper ion cadmium ion. Figure 10. Effect of mixtures of Pb and ...

  18. Communication and Third World development: a dead end?

    Sonaike, S A

    1988-01-01

    The debate over the effects of communication on the development of the Third World goes back over 30 years. The mass media was supposed to teach the masses basic productive skills, complement formal education, and promote basic adult literacy. The theory was proposed that if you increase urbanization, literacy, and media participation in underdeveloped areas political and economic improvements would follow. In quantitative measures, much progress has been made in urbanization, literacy, and health care. However, the quality of life of the people in underdeveloped countries has not improved greatly. The mass media has often promoted capitalist ideals and values, and raised hopes beyond what the state could supply. Large transnational corporations advertising in these countries have introduced different ethical values and changed customer demand. This is seen as a threat by those countries to their cultural identity. Modernization has disrupted the traditional values and ways of life in many of these countries and increased the gap between the rich and poor. The dependency theory stated that development and underdevelopment were interrelated processes and effected all aspects of life, including political and economic aspects. In recent times, a new theory on the role of communication in development promotes an integration of traditional and modern methods to enhance the development messages. The culturalists believe the failure of the mass media in the past was the elitism of the modern media. The current theory is based on 2 concepts, 1 of intermediate technology and another appropriate technology. Intermediate technology is production by the masses, using the best knowledge and experience to serve the person, rather than making him the slave of machines. Appropriate technology aims at improving the quality of life of the people. communication must teach and promote the skills that will help people solve their problems in this new model.

  19. Russians refuse cooperation, Lithuanians face dead-end / Milda Seputyte

    Seputyte, Milda

    2005-01-01

    Leedu uurijad ei leidnud endise majandusministri Viktor Uspaskihhi kõrgharidust tõendava diplomi kohta informatsiooni, kuna Venemaal paikneva Plehhanovi Akadeemia töötajad keeldusid nendega koostööd tegemast

  20. Is high automation a dead end? Cutbacks in production overengineering

    Lay, Gunter; Schirrmeister, Elna

    2001-01-01

    For quite some time it seemed the trend towards high automation in the wage-intensive German economy showed no signs of slowing down. However, in practice it turns out that more than a third of companies which have chosen automated solutions have not had their expectations fulfilled. Many of these companies have already made reductions in automation levels for particular subsystems. The most important reason for dissatisfaction is the lack of flexibility in highly automated systems. Flexibili...

  1. Paris: Beyond the Climate Dead End through Pledge and Review?

    Robert O. Keohane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Climate Agreement of December 2015 marks a decisive break from the unsuccessful Kyoto regime. Instead of targets and timetables, it established a Pledge and Review system, under which states will offer Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs to reducing emissions that cause climate change. But this successful negotiation outcome was achieved at the price of vagueness of obligations and substantial discretion for governments. Many governments will be tempted to use the vagueness of the Paris Agreement, and the discretion that it permits, to limit the scope or intensity of their proposed actions. Whether Pledge and Review under the Paris Agreement will lead to effective action against climate change will therefore depend on the inclination both of OECD countries and newly industrializing countries to take costly actions, which for the OECD countries will include financial transfers to their poorer partners. Domestic politics will be crucial in determining the attitudes of both sets of countries to pay such costs. The actual impact of the Paris Agreement will depend on whether it can be used by domestic groups favoring climate action as a point of leverage in domestic politics—that is, in a “two-level game” simultaneously involving both international and domestic politics.

  2. Sexy sons: a dead end for cytoplasmic genes.

    Zeh, Jeanne A

    2004-08-07

    Critics of sexual conflict theory argue that females may gain a net reproductive benefit from mating with manipulative males because the direct costs that they suffer may be offset by the production of sexy, i.e. manipulative, sons. However, this exclusive focus on nuclear gene effects represents an incomplete view of female fitness. Females differ fundamentally from males in transmitting not only nuclear genes but also a wide range of cytoplasmic genetic elements (CGEs) that can have profound effects, from male killing to influencing development of the nervous system and cognitive ability. Maternal transmission of CGEs has two major implications for sexual selection. First, the evolution of male fitness traits, such as sperm competitive ability, may be constrained because response to selection on mitochondrial genomes can occur only through the female line. Second, CGEs bear the direct costs of male manipulation but gain no indirect benefits when females produce sexy sons. This should result in perpetual antagonistic coevolution between nuclear genes involved in male manipulation and CGEs that promote female resistance to male sexually selected traits. Explicit consideration of the consequences of selection acting on CGEs is therefore necessary for a better understanding of the relationship between sexual selection and sexual conflict.

  3. Dead zone characteristics of a gas counter

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Sakae, Takeji; Matoba, Masaru; Koori, Norihiko.

    1990-01-01

    The dead zone was recently defined as the product of dead length and dead time in order to describe the characteristics of the self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode of a gas counter. Investigation of the dead zone characteristics has been extended for the proportional and GM modes, and the measured dead zone has been compared with that of the SQS mode. Accurate values for the dead zone could be determined by means of a newly developed method with a pulse interval time to amplitude converter. Each operation mode indicates distinct dead zone characteristics. Properties of gas counters for high counting rates may be improved on the basis of measurements of the dead zone. (author)

  4. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  5. Basic semantics of product sounds

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  6. Benchmarking semantic web technology

    García-Castro, R

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

  7. Reactive Kripke semantics

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  8. UML 2 Semantics and Applications

    Lano, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    A coherent and integrated account of the leading UML 2 semantics work and the practical applications of UML semantics development With contributions from leading experts in the field, the book begins with an introduction to UML and goes on to offer in-depth and up-to-date coverage of: The role of semantics Considerations and rationale for a UML system model Definition of the UML system model UML descriptive semantics Axiomatic semantics of UML class diagrams The object constraint language Axiomatic semantics of state machines A coalgebraic semantic framework for reasoning about interaction des

  9. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.29 Dead bees. (a) Dead bees imported into or transiting the United States must be...

  10. [Electrophysiological bases of semantic processing of objects].

    Kahlaoui, Karima; Baccino, Thierry; Joanette, Yves; Magnié, Marie-Noële

    2007-02-01

    How pictures and words are stored and processed in the human brain constitute a long-standing question in cognitive psychology. Behavioral studies have yielded a large amount of data addressing this issue. Generally speaking, these data show that there are some interactions between the semantic processing of pictures and words. However, behavioral methods can provide only limited insight into certain findings. Fortunately, Event-Related Potential (ERP) provides on-line cues about the temporal nature of cognitive processes and contributes to the exploration of their neural substrates. ERPs have been used in order to better understand semantic processing of words and pictures. The main objective of this article is to offer an overview of the electrophysiologic bases of semantic processing of words and pictures. Studies presented in this article showed that the processing of words is associated with an N 400 component, whereas pictures elicited both N 300 and N 400 components. Topographical analysis of the N 400 distribution over the scalp is compatible with the idea that both image-mediated concrete words and pictures access an amodal semantic system. However, given the distinctive N 300 patterns, observed only during picture processing, it appears that picture and word processing rely upon distinct neuronal networks, even if they end up activating more or less similar semantic representations.

  11. Categorizing words through semantic memory navigation

    Borge-Holthoefer, J.; Arenas, A.

    2010-03-01

    Semantic memory is the cognitive system devoted to storage and retrieval of conceptual knowledge. Empirical data indicate that semantic memory is organized in a network structure. Everyday experience shows that word search and retrieval processes provide fluent and coherent speech, i.e. are efficient. This implies either that semantic memory encodes, besides thousands of words, different kind of links for different relationships (introducing greater complexity and storage costs), or that the structure evolves facilitating the differentiation between long-lasting semantic relations from incidental, phenomenological ones. Assuming the latter possibility, we explore a mechanism to disentangle the underlying semantic backbone which comprises conceptual structure (extraction of categorical relations between pairs of words), from the rest of information present in the structure. To this end, we first present and characterize an empirical data set modeled as a network, then we simulate a stochastic cognitive navigation on this topology. We schematize this latter process as uncorrelated random walks from node to node, which converge to a feature vectors network. By doing so we both introduce a novel mechanism for information retrieval, and point at the problem of category formation in close connection to linguistic and non-linguistic experience.

  12. Algebraic Semantics for Narrative

    Kahn, E.

    1974-01-01

    This paper uses discussion of Edmund Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" to present a theoretical framework for explaining the semantics of narrative discourse. The algebraic theory of finite automata is used. (CK)

  13. Semantic Web Development

    Berners-Lee, Tim; Swick, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    ...) project between 2002 and 2005 provided key steps in the research in the Semantic Web technology, and also played an essential role in delivering the technology to industry and government in the form...

  14. Electronic fingerprinting of the dead.

    Rutty, G N; Stringer, K; Turk, E E

    2008-01-01

    To date, a number of methods exist for the capture of fingerprints from cadavers that can then be used in isolation as a primary method for the identification of the dead. We report the use of a handheld, mobile wireless unit used in conjunction with a personal digital assistant (PDA) device for the capture of fingerprints from the dead. We also consider a handheld single-digit fingerprint scanner that utilises a USB laptop connection for the electronic capture of cadaveric fingerprints. Both are single-operator units that, if ridge detail is preserved, can collect a 10-set of finger pad prints in approximately 45 and 90 s, respectively. We present our observations on the restrictions as to when such devices can be used with cadavers. We do, however, illustrate that the images are of sufficient quality to allow positive identification from finger pad prints of the dead. With the development of mobile, handheld, biometric, PDA-based units for the police, we hypothesize that, under certain circumstances, devices such as these could be used for the accelerated acquisition of fingerprint identification data with the potential for rapid near-patient identification in the future.

  15. End to End Travel

    US Agency for International Development — E2 Solutions is a web based end-to-end travel management tool that includes paperless travel authorization and voucher document submissions, document approval...

  16. Foundations of semantic web technologies

    Hitzler, Pascal; Rudolph, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Quest for Semantics Building Models Calculating with Knowledge Exchanging Information Semanic Web Technologies RESOURCE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (RDF)Simple Ontologies in RDF and RDF SchemaIntroduction to RDF Syntax for RDF Advanced Features Simple Ontologies in RDF Schema Encoding of Special Data Structures An ExampleRDF Formal Semantics Why Semantics? Model-Theoretic Semantics for RDF(S) Syntactic Reasoning with Deduction Rules The Semantic Limits of RDF(S)WEB ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE (OWL) Ontologies in OWL OWL Syntax and Intuitive Semantics OWL Species The Forthcoming OWL 2 StandardOWL Formal Sem

  17. Are Brain Dead Individuals Dead? Grounds for Reasonable Doubt.

    Brugger, E Christian

    2016-06-01

    According to the biological definition of death, a human body that has not lost the capacity to holistically organize itself is the body of a living human individual. Reasonable doubt against the conclusion that it has lost the capacity exists when the body appears to express it and no evidence to the contrary is sufficient to rule out reasonable doubt against the conclusion that the apparent expression is a true expression (i.e., when the conclusion that what appears to be holistic organization is in fact holistic organization remains a reasonable explanatory hypothesis in light of the best evidence to the contrary). This essay argues that the evidence and arguments against the conclusion that the signs of complex bodily integration exhibited in ventilated brain dead bodies are true expressions of somatic integration are unpersuasive; that is, they are not adequate to exclude reasonable doubt against the conclusion that BD bodies are dead. Since we should not treat as corpses what for all we know might be living human beings, it follows that we have an obligation to treat BD individuals as if they were living human beings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between failure systems. There exist

  19. Dead time of dual detector tools

    Czubek, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A theory of the dead time for the dual detector nuclear tool with the analogue signal transmission is given in the paper. At least two different times exist in such tools: the dead time of detectors (for final computation they assumed identical to each other) and the dead time of the signal transmission set-up. A method of two radioactive sources is proposed to measure these two different dead times. When the times used for measuring every countrate needed in the dead time determination algorithm are taken into account, the statistical accuracy of the dead time determination can be obtained. These estimations are performed by the computer simulation method. Two codes have been designed: DEADT2D (DEAD Time for 2 Detectors) and DEADT2DS (DEAD Time for 2 Detectors with Statistics). The first code calculates the dead time based on the recorded countrates only, the second is doing a 'simulation job' and provides information on the statistical distribution of the observed dead times. The theory and the numerical solutions were checked both by the simulation calculations and by the experiments performed with the ODSN-102 tool (the experiments were performed by T. Zorski). (Author)

  20. A Compositional Semantics for Stochastic Reo Connectors

    Young-Joo Moon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a compositional semantics for the channel-based coordination language Reo which enables the analysis of quality of service (QoS properties of service compositions. For this purpose, we annotate Reo channels with stochastic delay rates and explicitly model data-arrival rates at the boundary of a connector, to capture its interaction with the services that comprise its environment. We propose Stochastic Reo automata as an extension of Reo automata, in order to compositionally derive a QoS-aware semantics for Reo. We further present a translation of Stochastic Reo automata to Continuous-Time Markov Chains (CTMCs. This translation enables us to use third-party CTMC verification tools to do an end-to-end performance analysis of service compositions.

  1. Semantic Learning Service Personalized

    Yibo Chen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To provide users with more suitable and personalized service, personalization is widely used in various fields. Current e-Learning systems search for learning resources using information search technology, based on the keywords that selected or inputted by the user. Due to lack of semantic analysis for keywords and exploring the user contexts, the system cannot provide a good learning experiment. In this paper, we defined the concept and characteristic of the personalized learning service, and proposed a semantic learning service personalized framework. Moreover, we made full use of semantic technology, using ontologies to represent the learning contents and user profile, mining and utilizing the friendship and membership of the social relationship to construct the user social relationship profile, and improved the collaboration filtering algorithm to recommend personalized learning resources for users. The results of the empirical evaluation show that the approach is effectiveness in augmenting recommendation.

  2. Semantic Observation Integration

    Werner Kuhn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

  3. The Semantics of "Violence"

    Levisen, Carsten

    This paper presents a semantic analysis of “violence” – a word around which Anglo-internationaldiscourses revolve. Many ethnolinguistic communities around the world are currently adapting thisEnglish lexical concept into their linguistic systems, and, presumably also, the view of the worldembodied...... by the “violence” concept.Based on semantic fieldwork in Port Vila, the creolophone capital of Vanuatu in the SouthPacific, the paper investigates the discursive introduction of “violence” into a community which,until recently, lived by other concepts. I compare and contrast the traditional Bislama concepts...... kilimand faetem with the newly imported English word vaeolens (violence). My study provides newevidence for how cognitive and semantic change co-occur in the context of postcolonial linguisticcommunities, and my paper addresses an important, ongoing controversy related to the notion of“Anglocentric bias...

  4. Semantic Keys and Reading

    Zev bar-Lev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Keys are elements (word-parts of written language that give an iconic, general representation of the whole word’s meaning. In written Sino-Japanese the “radical” or semantic components play this role. For example, the character meaning ‘woman, female’ is the Semantic Key of the character for Ma ‘Mama’ (alongside the phonetic component Ma, which means ‘horse’ as a separate character. The theory of semantic Keys in both graphic and phonemic aspects is called qTheory or nanosemantics. The most innovative aspect of the present article is the hypothesis that, in languages using alphabetic writing systems, the role of Semantic Key is played by consonants, more specifically the first consonant. Thus, L meaning ‘LIFT’ is the Semantic Key of English Lift, Ladle, Lofty, aLps, eLevator, oLympus; Spanish Leva, Lecantarse, aLto, Lengua; Arabic aLLah, and Hebrew① ªeL-ºaL ‘upto-above’ (the Israeli airline, Polish Lot ‘flight’ (the Polish airline; Hebrew ªeL, ªeLohim ‘God’, and haLLeluyah ‘praise-ye God’ (using Parallels, ‘Lift up God’. Evidence for the universality of the theory is shown by many examples drawn from various languages, including Indo-European Semitic, Chinese and Japanese. The theory reveals hundreds of relationships within and between languages, related and unrelated, that have been “Hiding in Plain Sight”, to mention just one example: the Parallel between Spanish Pan ‘bread’ and Mandarin Fan ‘rice’.

  5. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  6. Semantic Versus Syntactic Cutting Planes

    Filmus, Yuval; Hrubeš, Pavel; Lauria, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the strength of the semantic and syntactic version of the cutting planes proof system. First, we show that the lower bound technique of Pudlák applies also to semantic cutting planes: the proof system has feasible interpolation via monotone real circuits, which gives an exponential lower bound on lengths of semantic cutting planes refutations. Second, we show that semantic refutations are stronger than syntactic ones. In particular, we give a formula for whic...

  7. Flow Logics and Operational Semantics

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1998-01-01

    Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analys...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....

  8. Evolution of semantic systems

    Küppers, Bernd-Olaf; Artmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems in nature and society make use of information for the development of their internal organization and the control of their functional mechanisms. Alongside technical aspects of storing, transmitting and processing information, the various semantic aspects of information, such as meaning, sense, reference and function, play a decisive part in the analysis of such systems.With the aim of fostering a better understanding of semantic systems from an evolutionary and multidisciplinary perspective, this volume collects contributions by philosophers and natural scientists, linguists, i

  9. Semantic Search of Web Services

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  10. Semantic memory in object use.

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta

    2009-10-01

    We studied five patients with semantic memory disorders, four with semantic dementia and one with herpes simplex virus encephalitis, to investigate the involvement of semantic conceptual knowledge in object use. Comparisons between patients who had semantic deficits of different severity, as well as the follow-up, showed that the ability to use objects was largely preserved when the deficit was mild but progressively decayed as the deficit became more severe. Naming was generally more impaired than object use. Production tasks (pantomime execution and actual object use) and comprehension tasks (pantomime recognition and action recognition) as well as functional knowledge about objects were impaired when the semantic deficit was severe. Semantic and unrelated errors were produced during object use, but actions were always fluent and patients performed normally on a novel tools task in which the semantic demand was minimal. Patients with severe semantic deficits scored borderline on ideational apraxia tasks. Our data indicate that functional semantic knowledge is crucial for using objects in a conventional way and suggest that non-semantic factors, mainly non-declarative components of memory, might compensate to some extent for semantic disorders and guarantee some residual ability to use very common objects independently of semantic knowledge.

  11. Semantator: annotating clinical narratives with semantic web ontologies.

    Song, Dezhao; Chute, Christopher G; Tao, Cui

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate clinical research, clinical data needs to be stored in a machine processable and understandable way. Manual annotating clinical data is time consuming. Automatic approaches (e.g., Natural Language Processing systems) have been adopted to convert such data into structured formats; however, the quality of such automatically extracted data may not always be satisfying. In this paper, we propose Semantator, a semi-automatic tool for document annotation with Semantic Web ontologies. With a loaded free text document and an ontology, Semantator supports the creation/deletion of ontology instances for any document fragment, linking/disconnecting instances with the properties in the ontology, and also enables automatic annotation by connecting to the NCBO annotator and cTAKES. By representing annotations in Semantic Web standards, Semantator supports reasoning based upon the underlying semantics of the owl:disjointWith and owl:equivalentClass predicates. We present discussions based on user experiences of using Semantator.

  12. Semantic Barbs and Biorthogonality

    Rathke, J.; Sassone, V.; Sobocinski, P.

    2007-01-01

    We use the framework of biorthogonality to introduce a novel semantic definition of the concept of barb (basic observable) for process calculi. We develop a uniform basic theory of barbs and demonstrate its robustness by showing that it gives rise to the correct observables in specific process calculi which model synchronous, asynchronous and broadcast communication regimes.

  13. Semantic data bank

    Anoreewsky, Evelyne; Nicolas, P.; Grillo, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A system is proposed for determining semantic relations between lexical items. To do this, a descriptor is associated with each lexical item; two types of algorithms are used to calculate the relationships between descriptors ('similarity' or 'predicativity' relations). This system makes it possible to simulate linguistic experiences. Some results have been predicted and verified experimentally. [fr

  14. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  15. Learning semantic query suggestions

    Meij, E.; Bron, M.; Hollink, L.; Huurnink, B.; de Rijke, M.

    2009-01-01

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide

  16. Coincidence-counting corrections for accidental coincidences, set dead time and intrinsic dead time

    Wyllie, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    An equation is derived for calculating the radioactivity of a source from the results of coincidence counting, taking into account dead-time losses and accidental coincidences. The corrections allow for the extension of the set dead time in the p channel by the intrinsic dead time. Experimental verification shows improvement over a previous equation. (author)

  17. Acoustic and semantic interference effects in words and pictures.

    Dhawan, M; Pellegrino, J W

    1977-05-01

    Interference effects for pictures and words were investigated using a probe-recall task. Word stimuli showed acoustic interference effects for items at the end of the list and semantic interference effects for items at the beginning of the list, similar to results of Kintsch and Buschke (1969). Picture stimuli showed large semantic interference effects at all list positions with smaller acoustic interference effects. The results were related to latency data on picture-word processing and interpreted in terms of the differential order, probability, and/or speed of access to acoustic and semantic levels of processing. A levels of processing explanation of picture-word retention differences was related to dual coding theory. Both theoretical positions converge on an explanation of picture-word retention differences as a function of the relative capacity for semantic or associative processing.

  18. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr−1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  19. OMOGENIA: A Semantically Driven Collaborative Environment

    Liapis, Aggelos

    Ontology creation can be thought of as a social procedure. Indeed the concepts involved in general need to be elicited from communities of domain experts and end-users by teams of knowledge engineers. Many problems in ontology creation appear to resemble certain problems in software design, particularly with respect to the setup of collaborative systems. For instance, the resolution of conceptual conflicts between formalized ontologies is a major engineering problem as ontologies move into widespread use on the semantic web. Such conflict resolution often requires human collaboration and cannot be achieved by automated methods with the exception of simple cases. In this chapter we discuss research in the field of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) that focuses on classification and which throws light on ontology building. Furthermore, we present a semantically driven collaborative environment called OMOGENIA as a natural way to display and examine the structure of an evolving ontology in a collaborative setting.

  20. From Data to Semantic Information

    Luciano Floridi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

  1. Principles of Linguistic Composition Below and Beyond the Clause—Elements of a semantic combinatorial system

    Bundgaard, Peer

    2006-01-01

    beyond the scope of the clause. To this end it exposes two major principles of semantic combination that are active through all levels of linguistic composition: viz. frame-schematic structure and narrative structure. These principles are considered as being components of a semantic combinatorial system...

  2. SEMANTIC DERIVATION OF BORROWINGS

    Shigapova, F.F.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author carried out the contrastive analysis of the word спикер borrowed into Russian from English and the English word speaker. The findings of the analysis include confirm (1 different derivational abilities and functions of the borrowed word and the native word; (2 distinctive features in the definitions, i.e. semantic structures, registered in monolingual non-abridged dictionaries; (3 heterogeneous parameters of frequencies recorded in the National Corpus of the Russian language and the British National Corpus; (4 absence of bilingual equivalent collocations with words спикер and speaker. The collocations with words studied revealed new lexical and connotative senses in the meaning of the word. Relevance of the study conducted is justified by the new facts revealed about the semantic adaptation of the borrowed word in the system of the Russian language and its paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections in the system of the recipient language.

  3. Semantic Activity Recognition

    Thonnat , Monique

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Extracting automatically the semantics from visual data is a real challenge. We describe in this paper how recent work in cognitive vision leads to significative results in activity recognition for visualsurveillance and video monitoring. In particular we present work performed in the domain of video understanding in our PULSAR team at INRIA in Sophia Antipolis. Our main objective is to analyse in real-time video streams captured by static video cameras and to recogniz...

  4. Semantically Enhanced Recommender Systems

    Ruiz-Montiel, Manuela; Aldana-Montes, José F.

    Recommender Systems have become a significant area in the context of web personalization, given the large amount of available data. Ontologies can be widely taken advantage of in recommender systems, since they provide a means of classifying and discovering of new information about the items to recommend, about user profiles and even about their context. We have developed a semantically enhanced recommender system based on this kind of ontologies. In this paper we present a description of the proposed system.

  5. Insensitive Enough Semantics

    Richard Vallée

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available According to some philosophers, sentences like (1 “It is raining” and (2 “John is ready” are context sensitive sentences even if they do not contain indexicals or demonstratives. That view initiated a context sensitivity frenzy. Cappelen and Lepore (2005 summarize the frenzy by the slogan “Every sentence is context sensitive” (Insensitive Semantics, p. 6, note 5. They suggest a view they call Minimalism according to which the truth conditions of utterances of sentences like (1/(2 are exactly what Convention T gives you. I will distinguish different propositions, and refocus semantics on sentences. As distinct from what the protagonists in the ongoing debate think, I argue that the content or truth conditions of utterances of both context sensitive sentences and sentences like (1/(2 are not interesting from a semantic point of view, and that the problem sentences like (1/(2 raises is not about context sensitivity or context insensitivity of sentences, but relevance of the content of utterances.

  6. Causality in the semantics of Esterel : revisited

    Mousavi, M.R.; Klin, B.; Sobocinski, P.

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the challenges concerning causality in the semantics of Esterel and show that they pertain to the known issues in the semantics of Structured Operational Semantics with negative premises. We show that the solutions offered for the semantics of SOS also provide answers to the semantic

  7. Subliminal semantic priming in speech.

    Jérôme Daltrozzo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported subliminal repetition and semantic priming in the visual modality. We transferred this paradigm to the auditory modality. Prime awareness was manipulated by a reduction of sound intensity level. Uncategorized prime words (according to a post-test were followed by semantically related, unrelated, or repeated target words (presented without intensity reduction and participants performed a lexical decision task (LDT. Participants with slower reaction times in the LDT showed semantic priming (faster reaction times for semantically related compared to unrelated targets and negative repetition priming (slower reaction times for repeated compared to semantically related targets. This is the first report of semantic priming in the auditory modality without conscious categorization of the prime.

  8. Hierarchical Semantic Model of Geovideo

    XIE Xiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The public security incidents were getting increasingly challenging with regard to their new features, including multi-scale mobility, multistage dynamic evolution, as well as spatiotemporal concurrency and uncertainty in the complex urban environment. However, the existing video models, which were used/designed for independent archive or local analysis of surveillance video, have seriously inhibited emergency response to the urgent requirements.Aiming at the explicit representation of change mechanism in video, the paper proposed a novel hierarchical geovideo semantic model using UML. This model was characterized by the hierarchical representation of both data structure and semantics based on the change-oriented three domains (feature domain, process domain and event domain instead of overall semantic description of video streaming; combining both geographical semantics and video content semantics, in support of global semantic association between multiple geovideo data. The public security incidents by video surveillance are inspected as an example to illustrate the validity of this model.

  9. Determination of detection equipment dead time

    Sacha, J.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described of determining dead time by short-lived source measurement. It is based on measuring the sample count rates in different time intervals when only dead time correction is changed with the changing count of recorded pulses. The dead time may be determined from the measured values by a numerical-graphical method. The method is described. The advantage of the method is the minimization of errors and inaccuracies; the disadvantage is that the half-life of the source used should very accurately be known. (J.P.)

  10. Measurement of the Dead-Time in a Multichannel Analyser

    Mortensen, L.; Olsen, J.

    1973-01-01

    By means of two simple measurements three different dead-times are determined: the normal dead-time, a dead-time coming from the pile-up, and a dead-time due to the finite width of the timing pulses.......By means of two simple measurements three different dead-times are determined: the normal dead-time, a dead-time coming from the pile-up, and a dead-time due to the finite width of the timing pulses....

  11. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  12. Semantic multimedia analysis and processing

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Mylonas, Phivos

    2014-01-01

    Broad in scope, Semantic Multimedia Analysis and Processing provides a complete reference of techniques, algorithms, and solutions for the design and the implementation of contemporary multimedia systems. Offering a balanced, global look at the latest advances in semantic indexing, retrieval, analysis, and processing of multimedia, the book features the contributions of renowned researchers from around the world. Its contents are based on four fundamental thematic pillars: 1) information and content retrieval, 2) semantic knowledge exploitation paradigms, 3) multimedia personalization, and 4)

  13. Semantic Representatives of the Concept

    Elena N. Tsay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

  14. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available System semantics of explanatory dictionaries Some semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hypercycles formalism. The connection between the hypercyle properties of the lexicographical system semantics and Goedel’s incompleteness theorem is discussed.

  15. Automaticity Revisited: When Print Doesn't Activate Semantics

    Elsa Magdalena Labuschagne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the presentation of a printed word automatically triggers processing that ends with full semantic activation. This processing, among other characteristics, is held to occur without intention, and cannot be stopped. The results of the present experiment show that this account is problematic in the context of a variant of the Stroop paradigm. Subjects named the print color of words that were either neutral or semantically related to color. When the letters were all colored, all spatially cued, and the spaces between letters were filled with characters from the top of the keyboard (i.e., 4, #, 5, %, 6, and *, color naming yielded a semantically based Stroop effect and a semantically based negative priming effect. In contrast, the same items yielded neither a semantic Stroop effect nor a negative priming effect when a single target letter was uniquely colored and spatially cued. These findings undermine the widespread view that lexical-semantic activation in word reading is automatic in the sense that it occurs without intention and cannot be derailed.

  16. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  17. Another method of dead time correction

    Sabol, J.

    1988-01-01

    A new method of the correction of counting losses caused by a non-extended dead time of pulse detection systems is presented. The approach is based on the distribution of time intervals between pulses at the output of the system. The method was verified both experimentally and by using the Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the suggested technique is more reliable and accurate than other methods based on a separate measurement of the dead time. (author) 5 refs

  18. Minimally inconsistent reasoning in Semantic Web.

    Zhang, Xiaowang

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning with inconsistencies is an important issue for Semantic Web as imperfect information is unavoidable in real applications. For this, different paraconsistent approaches, due to their capacity to draw as nontrivial conclusions by tolerating inconsistencies, have been proposed to reason with inconsistent description logic knowledge bases. However, existing paraconsistent approaches are often criticized for being too skeptical. To this end, this paper presents a non-monotonic paraconsistent version of description logic reasoning, called minimally inconsistent reasoning, where inconsistencies tolerated in the reasoning are minimized so that more reasonable conclusions can be inferred. Some desirable properties are studied, which shows that the new semantics inherits advantages of both non-monotonic reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning. A complete and sound tableau-based algorithm, called multi-valued tableaux, is developed to capture the minimally inconsistent reasoning. In fact, the tableaux algorithm is designed, as a framework for multi-valued DL, to allow for different underlying paraconsistent semantics, with the mere difference in the clash conditions. Finally, the complexity of minimally inconsistent description logic reasoning is shown on the same level as the (classical) description logic reasoning.

  19. Minimally inconsistent reasoning in Semantic Web.

    Xiaowang Zhang

    Full Text Available Reasoning with inconsistencies is an important issue for Semantic Web as imperfect information is unavoidable in real applications. For this, different paraconsistent approaches, due to their capacity to draw as nontrivial conclusions by tolerating inconsistencies, have been proposed to reason with inconsistent description logic knowledge bases. However, existing paraconsistent approaches are often criticized for being too skeptical. To this end, this paper presents a non-monotonic paraconsistent version of description logic reasoning, called minimally inconsistent reasoning, where inconsistencies tolerated in the reasoning are minimized so that more reasonable conclusions can be inferred. Some desirable properties are studied, which shows that the new semantics inherits advantages of both non-monotonic reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning. A complete and sound tableau-based algorithm, called multi-valued tableaux, is developed to capture the minimally inconsistent reasoning. In fact, the tableaux algorithm is designed, as a framework for multi-valued DL, to allow for different underlying paraconsistent semantics, with the mere difference in the clash conditions. Finally, the complexity of minimally inconsistent description logic reasoning is shown on the same level as the (classical description logic reasoning.

  20. Semantic content-based recommendations using semantic graphs.

    Guo, Weisen; Kraines, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems (RSs) can be useful for suggesting items that might be of interest to specific users. Most existing content-based recommendation (CBR) systems are designed to recommend items based on text content, and the items in these systems are usually described with keywords. However, similarity evaluations based on keywords suffer from the ambiguity of natural languages. We present a semantic CBR method that uses Semantic Web technologies to recommend items that are more similar semantically with the items that the user prefers. We use semantic graphs to represent the items and we calculate the similarity scores for each pair of semantic graphs using an inverse graph frequency algorithm. The items having higher similarity scores to the items that are known to be preferred by the user are recommended.

  1. Personal semantics: at the crossroads of semantic and episodic memory.

    Renoult, Louis; Davidson, Patrick S R; Palombo, Daniela J; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian

    2012-11-01

    Declarative memory is usually described as consisting of two systems: semantic and episodic memory. Between these two poles, however, may lie a third entity: personal semantics (PS). PS concerns knowledge of one's past. Although typically assumed to be an aspect of semantic memory, it is essentially absent from existing models of knowledge. Furthermore, like episodic memory (EM), PS is idiosyncratically personal (i.e., not culturally-shared). We show that, depending on how it is operationalized, the neural correlates of PS can look more similar to semantic memory, more similar to EM, or dissimilar to both. We consider three different perspectives to better integrate PS into existing models of declarative memory and suggest experimental strategies for disentangling PS from semantic and episodic memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Validation of Parafoveal Semantic Information Extraction in Reading Chinese

    Zhou, Wei; Kliegl, Reinhold; Yan, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Parafoveal semantic processing has recently been well documented in reading Chinese sentences, presumably because of language-specific features. However, because of a large variation of fixation landing positions on pretarget words, some preview words actually were located in foveal vision when readers' eyes landed close to the end of the…

  3. Designing a federated multimedia information system on the semantic web

    Vdovják, R.; Barna, P.; Houben, G.J.P.M.; Eder, J.; Missikoff, M.

    2003-01-01

    A federated Web-based multimedia information system on one hand gathers its data from various Web sources, on the other hand offers the end-user a rich semantics describing its content and a user-friendly environment for expressing queries over its data. There are three essential ingredients to

  4. Building a Semantic Framework for eScience

    Movva, S.; Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Li, X.

    2009-12-01

    The e-Science vision focuses on the use of advanced computing technologies to support scientists. Recent research efforts in this area have focused primarily on “enabling” use of infrastructure resources for both data and computational access especially in Geosciences. One of the existing gaps in the existing e-Science efforts has been the failure to incorporate stable semantic technologies within the design process itself. In this presentation, we describe our effort in designing a framework for e-Science built using Service Oriented Architecture. Our framework provides users capabilities to create science workflows and mine distributed data. Our e-Science framework is being designed around a mass market tool to promote reusability across many projects. Semantics is an integral part of this framework and our design goal is to leverage the latest stable semantic technologies. The use of these stable semantic technologies will provide the users of our framework the useful features such as: allow search engines to find their content with RDFa tags; create RDF triple data store for their content; create RDF end points to share with others; and semantically mash their content with other online content available as RDF end point.

  5. Connectionism and Compositional Semantics

    1989-05-01

    can use their hidden layers to learn difficult discriminations. such as panty or the Penzias two clumps/three clumps problem, where the output is...sauce." For novel sentences that are similar to the training sentences (e.g., train on "the girl hit the boy," test on -the boy hit the girl "), the...overridden by semantic considerations. as in this example from Wendy Lehnert (personal communicanon): (5) John saw the girl with the telescope in a red

  6. A Semantics of Synchronization.

    1980-09-01

    suggestion of having very hungry philosophers. One can easily imagine the complexity of the equivalent implementation using semaphores . Synchronization types...Edinburgh, July 1978. [STAR79] Stark, E.W., " Semaphore Primitives and Fair Mutual Exclusion," TM-158, Laboratory for Computer Science, M.I.T., Cambridge...AD-AQ91 015 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE LAB FOR COMPUTE--ETC F/S 9/2 A SEMANTICS OF SYNCHRONIZATION .(U) .C SEP 80 C A SEAQUIST N00015-75

  7. Semantics, Conceptual Role

    Block, Ned

    1997-01-01

    According to Conceptual Role Semantics ("CRS"), the meaning of a representation is the role of that representation in the cognitive life of the agent, e.g. in perception, thought and decision-making. It is an extension of the well known "use" theory of meaning, according to which the meaning of a word is its use in communication and more generally, in social interaction. CRS supplements external use by including the role of a symbol inside a computer or a brain. The uses appealed to are not j...

  8. Neural Substrates of Semantic Prospection – Evidence from the Dementias

    Irish, Muireann; Eyre, Nadine; Dermody, Nadene; O’Callaghan, Claire; Hodges, John R.; Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The ability to envisage personally relevant events at a future time point represents an incredibly sophisticated cognitive endeavor and one that appears to be intimately linked to episodic memory integrity. Far less is known regarding the neurocognitive mechanisms underpinning the capacity to envisage non-personal future occurrences, known as semantic future thinking. Moreover the degree of overlap between the neural substrates supporting episodic and semantic forms of prospection remains unclear. To this end, we sought to investigate the capacity for episodic and semantic future thinking in Alzheimer’s disease (n = 15) and disease-matched behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 15), neurodegenerative disorders characterized by significant medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal pathology. Participants completed an assessment of past and future thinking across personal (episodic) and non-personal (semantic) domains, as part of a larger neuropsychological battery investigating episodic and semantic processing, and their performance was contrasted with 20 age- and education-matched healthy older Controls. Participants underwent whole-brain T1-weighted structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between gray matter integrity and episodic and semantic future thinking. Relative to Controls, both patient groups displayed marked future thinking impairments, extending across episodic and semantic domains. Analyses of covariance revealed that while episodic future thinking deficits could be explained solely in terms of episodic memory proficiency, semantic prospection deficits reflected the interplay between episodic and semantic processing. Distinct neural correlates emerged for each form of future simulation with differential involvement of prefrontal, lateral temporal, and medial temporal regions. Notably, the hippocampus was implicated irrespective of future thinking domain, with the suggestion of

  9. Neural Substrates of Semantic Prospection – Evidence from the Dementias

    Muireann eIrish

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to envisage personally relevant events at a future time point represents an incredibly sophisticated cognitive endeavor and one that appears to be intimately linked to episodic memory integrity. Far less is known regarding the neurocognitive mechanisms underpinning the capacity to envisage non-personal future occurrences, known as semantic future thinking. Moreover the degree of overlap between the neural substrates supporting episodic and semantic forms of prospection remains unclear. To this end, we sought to investigate the capacity for episodic and semantic future thinking in Alzheimer’s disease (n = 15 and disease-matched behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 15, neurodegenerative disorders characterized by significant medial temporal lobe and frontal pathology. Participants completed an assessment of past and future thinking across personal (episodic and non-personal (semantic domains, as part of a larger neuropsychological battery investigating episodic and semantic processing, and their performance was contrasted with 20 age- and education-matched healthy older Controls. Participants underwent whole-brain T1 weighted structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between grey matter integrity and episodic and semantic future thinking. Relative to Controls, both patient groups displayed marked future thinking impairments, extending across episodic and semantic domains. Analyses of covariance revealed that while episodic future thinking deficits could be explained solely in terms of episodic memory proficiency, semantic prospection deficits reflected the interplay between episodic and semantic processing. Distinct neural correlates emerged for each form of future simulation with differential involvement of prefrontal, lateral temporal and medial temporal regions. Notably, the hippocampus was implicated irrespective of future thinking domain, with the suggestion of

  10. A Generalization of Inquisitive Semantics

    Punčochář, Vít

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2016), s. 399-428 ISSN 0022-3611 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Intuitionistic logic * Superintuitionistic logics * Inquisitive logic * Topological semantics * Kripke semantics * Disjunction Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  11. The Problem of Naturalizing Semantics.

    Sullivan, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    Investigates conceptual barriers prevalent in the works of both proponents and opponents of semantic naturalism. Searches for a tenable definition of naturalism according to which one can be a realist, a non-reductionist, and a naturalist about semantic content. (Author/VWL)

  12. On the Semantics of Focus

    Kess, Joseph F.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the semantics of the notion of focus, insofar as it relates to Filipino languages. The evolution of this notion is reviewed, and an alternative explanation of it is given, stressing the fact that grammar and semantics should be kept separate in a discussion of focus. (CLK)

  13. Formal semantics for propositional attitudes

    Daniel Vanderveken

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psychological modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka, human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. For that purpose I will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and I will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. Next I will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. At the end I will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.

  14. Semantic Coherence Facilitates Distributional Learning.

    Ouyang, Long; Boroditsky, Lera; Frank, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    Computational models have shown that purely statistical knowledge about words' linguistic contexts is sufficient to learn many properties of words, including syntactic and semantic category. For example, models can infer that "postman" and "mailman" are semantically similar because they have quantitatively similar patterns of association with other words (e.g., they both tend to occur with words like "deliver," "truck," "package"). In contrast to these computational results, artificial language learning experiments suggest that distributional statistics alone do not facilitate learning of linguistic categories. However, experiments in this paradigm expose participants to entirely novel words, whereas real language learners encounter input that contains some known words that are semantically organized. In three experiments, we show that (a) the presence of familiar semantic reference points facilitates distributional learning and (b) this effect crucially depends both on the presence of known words and the adherence of these known words to some semantic organization. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and are received with livestock for slaughter at an official establishment, no dead animal or part of the carcass...

  16. Polish Semantic Parser

    Agnieszka Grudzinska

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amount of information transferred by computers grows very rapidly thus outgrowing the average man's capability of reception. It implies computer programs increase in the demand for which would be able to perform an introductory classitication or even selection of information directed to a particular receiver. Due to the complexity of the problem, we restricted it to understanding short newspaper notes. Among many conceptions formulated so far, the conceptual dependency worked out by Roger Schank has been chosen. It is a formal language of description of the semantics of pronouncement integrated with a text understanding algorithm. Substantial part of each text transformation system is a semantic parser of the Polish language. It is a module, which as the first and the only one has an access to the text in the Polish language. lt plays the role of an element, which finds relations between words of the Polish language and the formal registration. It translates sentences written in the language used by people into the language theory. The presented structure of knowledge units and the shape of understanding process algorithms are universal by virtue of the theory. On the other hand the defined knowledge units and the rules used in the algorithms ure only examples because they are constructed in order to understand short newspaper notes.

  17. Latent semantic analysis.

    Evangelopoulos, Nicholas E

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews latent semantic analysis (LSA), a theory of meaning as well as a method for extracting that meaning from passages of text, based on statistical computations over a collection of documents. LSA as a theory of meaning defines a latent semantic space where documents and individual words are represented as vectors. LSA as a computational technique uses linear algebra to extract dimensions that represent that space. This representation enables the computation of similarity among terms and documents, categorization of terms and documents, and summarization of large collections of documents using automated procedures that mimic the way humans perform similar cognitive tasks. We present some technical details, various illustrative examples, and discuss a number of applications from linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, education, information science, and analysis of textual data in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:683-692. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1254 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Semantics and pragmatics.

    McNally, Louise

    2013-05-01

    The fields of semantics and pragmatics are devoted to the study of conventionalized and context- or use-dependent aspects of natural language meaning, respectively. The complexity of human language as a semiotic system has led to considerable debate about how the semantics/pragmatics distinction should be drawn, if at all. This debate largely reflects contrasting views of meaning as a property of linguistic expressions versus something that speakers do. The fact that both views of meaning are essential to a complete understanding of language has led to a variety of efforts over the last 40 years to develop better integrated and more comprehensive theories of language use and interpretation. The most important advances have included the adaptation of propositional analyses of declarative sentences to interrogative, imperative and exclamative forms; the emergence of dynamic, game theoretic, and multi-dimensional theories of meaning; and the development of various techniques for incorporating context-dependent aspects of content into representations of context-invariant content with the goal of handling phenomena such as vagueness resolution, metaphor, and metonymy. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:285-297. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1227 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Trust estimation of the semantic web using semantic web clustering

    Shirgahi, Hossein; Mohsenzadeh, Mehran; Haj Seyyed Javadi, Hamid

    2017-05-01

    Development of semantic web and social network is undeniable in the Internet world these days. Widespread nature of semantic web has been very challenging to assess the trust in this field. In recent years, extensive researches have been done to estimate the trust of semantic web. Since trust of semantic web is a multidimensional problem, in this paper, we used parameters of social network authority, the value of pages links authority and semantic authority to assess the trust. Due to the large space of semantic network, we considered the problem scope to the clusters of semantic subnetworks and obtained the trust of each cluster elements as local and calculated the trust of outside resources according to their local trusts and trust of clusters to each other. According to the experimental result, the proposed method shows more than 79% Fscore that is about 11.9% in average more than Eigen, Tidal and centralised trust methods. Mean of error in this proposed method is 12.936, that is 9.75% in average less than Eigen and Tidal trust methods.

  20. Semantic attributes based texture generation

    Chi, Huifang; Gan, Yanhai; Qi, Lin; Dong, Junyu; Madessa, Amanuel Hirpa

    2018-04-01

    Semantic attributes are commonly used for texture description. They can be used to describe the information of a texture, such as patterns, textons, distributions, brightness, and so on. Generally speaking, semantic attributes are more concrete descriptors than perceptual features. Therefore, it is practical to generate texture images from semantic attributes. In this paper, we propose to generate high-quality texture images from semantic attributes. Over the last two decades, several works have been done on texture synthesis and generation. Most of them focusing on example-based texture synthesis and procedural texture generation. Semantic attributes based texture generation still deserves more devotion. Gan et al. proposed a useful joint model for perception driven texture generation. However, perceptual features are nonobjective spatial statistics used by humans to distinguish different textures in pre-attentive situations. To give more describing information about texture appearance, semantic attributes which are more in line with human description habits are desired. In this paper, we use sigmoid cross entropy loss in an auxiliary model to provide enough information for a generator. Consequently, the discriminator is released from the relatively intractable mission of figuring out the joint distribution of condition vectors and samples. To demonstrate the validity of our method, we compare our method to Gan et al.'s method on generating textures by designing experiments on PTD and DTD. All experimental results show that our model can generate textures from semantic attributes.

  1. Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

  2. Virtually Dead: Digital Public Mortuary Archaeology

    Howard Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, the ethics, politics and public engagements of mortuary archaeology have received sustained scrutiny, including how we handle, write about and display the archaeological dead. Yet the burgeoning use of digital media to engage different audiences in the archaeology of death and burial have so far escaped attention. This article explores categories and strategies by which digital media create virtual communities engaging with mortuary archaeology. Considering digital public mortuary archaeology (DPMA as a distinctive theme linking archaeology, mortality and material culture, we discuss blogs, vlogs and Twitter as case studies to illustrate the variety of strategies by which digital media can promote, educate and engage public audiences with archaeological projects and research relating to death and the dead in the human past. The article then explores a selection of key critical concerns regarding how the digital dead are currently portrayed, identifying the need for further investigation and critical reflection on DPMA’s aims, objectives and aspired outcomes.

  3. Dead sea transform fault system reviews

    Garfunkel, Zvi; Kagan, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    The Dead Sea transform is an active plate boundary connecting the Red Sea seafloor spreading system to the Arabian-Eurasian continental collision zone. Its geology and geophysics provide a natural laboratory for investigation of the surficial, crustal and mantle processes occurring along transtensional and transpressional transform fault domains on a lithospheric scale and related to continental breakup. There have been many detailed and disciplinary studies of the Dead Sea transform fault zone during the last?20 years and this book brings them together.This book is an updated comprehensive coverage of the knowledge, based on recent studies of the tectonics, structure, geophysics, volcanism, active tectonics, sedimentology and paleo and modern climate of the Dead Sea transform fault zone. It puts together all this new information and knowledge in a coherent fashion.

  4. Adaptive semantics visualization

    Nazemi, Kawa

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

  5. Communication of Semantic Properties

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2004-01-01

    The selection of materials and planning for production play a key role for the design of physical products. Product function, appearance and expression are influenced by the chosen materials and how they are shaped. However these properties are not carried by the material itself, but by the speci......The selection of materials and planning for production play a key role for the design of physical products. Product function, appearance and expression are influenced by the chosen materials and how they are shaped. However these properties are not carried by the material itself...... processes. This working paper argues for the need for a commonly accepted terminology used to communicate semantic product properties. Designers and others involved in design processes are dependent of a sharp and clear verbal communication. Search facilities in computer programs for product and material...

  6. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  7. Semantic acquisition games harnessing manpower for creating semantics

    Šimko, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and extensive review of state-of-the-art in semantics acquisition game (SAG) design A set of design patterns for SAG designers A set of case studies (real SAG projects) demonstrating the use of SAG design patterns

  8. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  9. Classification with an edge: Improving semantic image segmentation with boundary detection

    Marmanis, D.; Schindler, K.; Wegner, J. D.; Galliani, S.; Datcu, M.; Stilla, U.

    2018-01-01

    We present an end-to-end trainable deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) for semantic segmentation with built-in awareness of semantically meaningful boundaries. Semantic segmentation is a fundamental remote sensing task, and most state-of-the-art methods rely on DCNNs as their workhorse. A major reason for their success is that deep networks learn to accumulate contextual information over very large receptive fields. However, this success comes at a cost, since the associated loss of effective spatial resolution washes out high-frequency details and leads to blurry object boundaries. Here, we propose to counter this effect by combining semantic segmentation with semantically informed edge detection, thus making class boundaries explicit in the model. First, we construct a comparatively simple, memory-efficient model by adding boundary detection to the SEGNET encoder-decoder architecture. Second, we also include boundary detection in FCN-type models and set up a high-end classifier ensemble. We show that boundary detection significantly improves semantic segmentation with CNNs in an end-to-end training scheme. Our best model achieves >90% overall accuracy on the ISPRS Vaihingen benchmark.

  10. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  11. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  12. NASA and The Semantic Web

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  13. Are Some Semantic Changes Predictable?

    Schousboe, Steen

    2010-01-01

      Historical linguistics is traditionally concerned with phonology and syntax. With the exception of grammaticalization - the development of auxiliary verbs, the syntactic rather than localistic use of prepositions, etc. - semantic change has usually not been described as a result of regular...... developments, but only as specific meaning changes in individual words. This paper will suggest some regularities in semantic change, regularities which, like sound laws, have predictive power and can be tested against recorded languages....

  14. Efficient computation of argumentation semantics

    Liao, Beishui

    2013-01-01

    Efficient Computation of Argumentation Semantics addresses argumentation semantics and systems, introducing readers to cutting-edge decomposition methods that drive increasingly efficient logic computation in AI and intelligent systems. Such complex and distributed systems are increasingly used in the automation and transportation systems field, and particularly autonomous systems, as well as more generic intelligent computation research. The Series in Intelligent Systems publishes titles that cover state-of-the-art knowledge and the latest advances in research and development in intelligen

  15. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force.

    2010-07-01

    ..., is substantially important to national security. (See paragraph (b) of this section.) (iii) Escape of... security or an essential national defense mission. (2) Substantially important to national security based... INVESTIGATIONS USE OF FORCE BY PERSONNEL ENGAGED IN LAW ENFORCEMENT AND SECURITY DUTIES § 632.4 Deadly force. (a...

  16. Bibliography on dead-time effects

    1975-01-01

    A BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures) Working Party has assembled a bibliography of the publications dealing with the measurement of dead times, the evaluation of the corresponding corrections and of other closely related subjects. It contains some 350 references, each of which is given with its full title; an author index is added. The search has been stopped in August 1975

  17. Dinosaurs of India: Dead but Alive

    Table of contents. Dinosaurs of India: Dead but Alive · Fossils · Evolution and O2 PAL · The Science in Dinosaurs · Origin/ Extinction of Dinosaurs · PowerPoint Presentation · India –94my + 50my · Icehouse /Greenhouse through time · Global Mean Annual Temperature Distributions at 100 my · Global Mean Annual ...

  18. Tunnel Diode Discriminator with Fixed Dead Time

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A solid state discriminator for the range 0.4 to 10 V is described. Tunnel diodes are used for the discriminator element and in a special fixed dead time circuit. An analysis of temperature stability is presented. The regulated power supplies are described, including a special negative resistance...

  19. Unethical and Deadly Symbiosis in Higher Education

    Crumbley, D. Larry; Flinn, Ronald; Reichelt, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    As administrators are pressured to increase retention rates in accounting departments, and higher education in general, a deadly symbiosis is occurring. Most students and parents only wish for high grades, so year after year many educators engage in unethical grade inflation and course work deflation. Since administrators use the students to audit…

  20. Graph-based Operational Semantics of a Lazy Functional Languages

    Rose, Kristoffer Høgsbro

    1992-01-01

    Presents Graph Operational Semantics (GOS): a semantic specification formalism based on structural operational semantics and term graph rewriting. Demonstrates the method by specifying the dynamic ...

  1. COTARD SYNDROME IN SEMANTIC DEMENTIA

    Mendez, Mario F.; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of meaning of words or concepts. semantic dementia can offer potential insights into the mechanisms of content-specific delusions. Objective The authors present a rare case of semantic dementia with Cotard syndrome, a delusion characterized by nihilism or self-negation. Method The semantic deficits and other features of semantic dementia were evaluated in relation to the patient's Cotard syndrome. Results Mrs. A developed the delusional belief that she was wasting and dying. This occurred after she lost knowledge for her somatic discomforts and sensations and for the organs that were the source of these sensations. Her nihilistic beliefs appeared to emerge from her misunderstanding of her somatic sensations. Conclusion This unique patient suggests that a mechanism for Cotard syndrome is difficulty interpreting the nature and source of internal pains and sensations. We propose that loss of semantic knowledge about one's own body may lead to the delusion of nihilism or death. PMID:22054629

  2. Semantic Segmentation of Aerial Images with AN Ensemble of Cnns

    Marmanis, D.; Wegner, J. D.; Galliani, S.; Schindler, K.; Datcu, M.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a deep learning approach to semantic segmentation of very high resolution (aerial) images. Deep neural architectures hold the promise of end-to-end learning from raw images, making heuristic feature design obsolete. Over the last decade this idea has seen a revival, and in recent years deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have emerged as the method of choice for a range of image interpretation tasks like visual recognition and object detection. Still, standard CNNs do not lend themselves to per-pixel semantic segmentation, mainly because one of their fundamental principles is to gradually aggregate information over larger and larger image regions, making it hard to disentangle contributions from different pixels. Very recently two extensions of the CNN framework have made it possible to trace the semantic information back to a precise pixel position: deconvolutional network layers undo the spatial downsampling, and Fully Convolution Networks (FCNs) modify the fully connected classification layers of the network in such a way that the location of individual activations remains explicit. We design a FCN which takes as input intensity and range data and, with the help of aggressive deconvolution and recycling of early network layers, converts them into a pixelwise classification at full resolution. We discuss design choices and intricacies of such a network, and demonstrate that an ensemble of several networks achieves excellent results on challenging data such as the ISPRS semantic labeling benchmark, using only the raw data as input.

  3. The Dead Sea: A model of a desiccating terminal salt lake

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The continuing decline in the water level of the Dead Sea and the commensurate increase in salinity and precipitation of evaporates results in an irreversible evolution of the structure of the sea. The Dead Sea has been switching from its holomictic regime to short meromictic phases of up to 4-year duration, following the particular rainy winters of 1980 and 1992. The massive precipitation of halite in recent years, as well as the re-introduction of the end-brines of the potash plant, is changing the ion composition of the Dead Sea waters. This necessitates the adjustment of the equation-of-state of the brine and the solubility curve of halite. One consequence is that the onset of halite precipitation during the summer occurs earlier and earlier in the annual cycle. New isotopic measurement of δ 37 Cl of the brine and evaporate deposits and of δ 18 O in dissolved oxygen in the water column have yielded new information on geochemical processes in the Dead Sea system. A systematic monitoring of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the Dead Sea waters has, unfortunately, not been continued in recent years and should be encouraged for the future. (author)

  4. Insights from child development on the relationship between episodic and semantic memory.

    Robertson, Erin K; Köhler, Stefan

    2007-11-05

    The present study was motivated by a recent controversy in the neuropsychological literature on semantic dementia as to whether episodic encoding requires semantic processing or whether it can proceed solely based on perceptual processing. We addressed this issue by examining the effect of age-related limitations in semantic competency on episodic memory in 4-6-year-old children (n=67). We administered three different forced-choice recognition memory tests for pictures previously encountered in a single study episode. The tests varied in the degree to which access to semantically encoded information was required at retrieval. Semantic competency predicted recognition performance regardless of whether access to semantic information was required. A direct relation between picture naming at encoding and subsequent recognition was also found for all tests. Our findings emphasize the importance of semantic encoding processes even in retrieval situations that purportedly do not require access to semantic information. They also highlight the importance of testing neuropsychological models of memory in different populations, healthy and brain damaged, at both ends of the developmental continuum.

  5. Natural contextual reasoning for end users

    Metaxas, G.; Markopoulos, P.

    2017-01-01

    The realization and deployment of the Internet of Things require providing to non-programmers some level of programmatic control for tailoring system behaviour to their context and needs. We introduce a simple context-range semantics (CRS) and a context-range editor (CoRE) that support end users

  6. The association of personal semantic memory to identity representations: insight into higher-order networks of autobiographical contents.

    Grilli, Matthew D

    2017-11-01

    Identity representations are higher-order knowledge structures that organise autobiographical memories on the basis of personality and role-based themes of one's self-concept. In two experiments, the extent to which different types of personal semantic content are reflected in these higher-order networks of memories was investigated. Healthy, young adult participants generated identity representations that varied in remoteness of formation and verbally reflected on these themes in an open-ended narrative task. The narrative responses were scored for retrieval of episodic, experience-near personal semantic and experience-far (i.e., abstract) personal semantic contents. Results revealed that to reflect on remotely formed identity representations, experience-far personal semantic contents were retrieved more than experience-near personal semantic contents. In contrast, to reflect on recently formed identity representations, experience-near personal semantic contents were retrieved more than experience-far personal semantic contents. Although episodic memory contents were retrieved less than both personal semantic content types to reflect on remotely formed identity representations, this content type was retrieved at a similar frequency as experience-far personal semantic content to reflect on recently formed identity representations. These findings indicate that the association of personal semantic content to identity representations is robust and related to time since acquisition of these knowledge structures.

  7. Process-oriented semantic web search

    Tran, DT

    2011-01-01

    The book is composed of two main parts. The first part is a general study of Semantic Web Search. The second part specifically focuses on the use of semantics throughout the search process, compiling a big picture of Process-oriented Semantic Web Search from different pieces of work that target specific aspects of the process.In particular, this book provides a rigorous account of the concepts and technologies proposed for searching resources and semantic data on the Semantic Web. To collate the various approaches and to better understand what the notion of Semantic Web Search entails, this bo

  8. CASL The Common Algebraic Specification Language Semantics

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1998-01-01

    This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998.......This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998....

  9. Absolute dose calibration of an X-ray system and dead time investigations of photon-counting techniques

    Carpentieri, C; Ludwig, J; Ashfaq, A; Fiederle, M

    2002-01-01

    High precision concerning the dose calibration of X-ray sources is required when counting and integrating methods are compared. The dose calibration for a dental X-ray tube was executed with special dose calibration equipment (dosimeter) as function of exposure time and rate. Results were compared with a benchmark spectrum and agree within +-1.5%. Dead time investigations with the Medipix1 photon-counting chip (PCC) have been performed by rate variations. Two different types of dead time, paralysable and non-paralysable will be discussed. The dead time depends on settings of the front-end electronics and is a function of signal height, which might lead to systematic defects of systems. Dead time losses in excess of 30% have been found for the PCC at 200 kHz absorbed photons per pixel.

  10. Effect of counting system dead time on thyroid uptake measurements

    Simpkin, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Equations are derived and the results of numerical calculations shown that illustrate the effect of counting system dead time on measured thyroid uptake of radioiodine. It is predicted that the observed uptake is higher than the true uptake due to system dead time. This is shown for both paralyzing and nonparalyzing dead time. The effect of increasing the administered activity is shown to increase the measured uptake, in a manner predicted by the paralyzable and nonparalyzable dead time models

  11. The zero inflation of standing dead tree carbon stocks

    Christopher W. Woodall; David W. MacFarlane

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees in numerous forest ecosystem attributes/processes such as carbon (C) stocks, the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees in 1999. Modeled estimates of standing dead tree C stocks are currently used as the official C stock estimates for the...

  12. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly force shall be used only in those circumstances where the security force officer reasonably believes that...

  13. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1047.7 Section 1047.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.7 Use of deadly force. (a) Deadly force means that force which a...

  14. Psychologizing the Semantics of Fiction

    John Woods

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychologiser la sémantique de la fictionLes théoriciens sémantistes de la fiction cherchent typiquement à expliquer nos relations sémantiques au fictionnel dans le contexte plus général des théories de la référence, privilégiant une explication de la sémantique sur le psychologique. Dans cet article, nous défendons une dépendance inverse. Par l’éclaircissement de nos relations psychologiques au fictionnel, nous trouverons un guide pour savoir comment développer une sémantique de la fiction. S’ensuivra une esquisse de la sémantique.Semantic theorists of fiction typically look for an account of our semantic relations to the fictional within general-purpose theories of reference, privileging an explanation of the semantic over the psychological. In this paper, we counsel a reverse dependency. In sorting out our psychological relations to the fictional, there is useful guidance about how to proceed with the semantics of fiction. A sketch of the semantics follows.

  15. Semantic graphs and associative memories

    Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo

    2004-12-01

    Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets.

  16. ERPs, semantic processing and age.

    Miyamoto, T; Katayama, J; Koyama, T

    1998-06-01

    ERPs (N400, LPC and CNV) were elicited in two sets of subjects grouped according to age (young vs. elderly) using a word-pair category matching paradigm. Each prime consisted of a Japanese noun (constructed from two to four characters of the Hiragana) followed by one Chinese character (Kanji) as the target, this latter representing one of five semantic categories. There were two equally probable target conditions: match or mismatch. Each target was preceded by a prime, either belonging to, or not belonging to, the same semantic category. The subjects were required to respond with a specified button press to the given target according to the condition. We found RTs to be longer in the elderly subjects and under the mismatch condition. N400 amplitude was reduced in the elderly subjects under the mismatch condition and there was no difference between match and mismatch response, which were similar in amplitude to that under match condition for the young subjects. In addition, the CNV amplitudes were larger in the elderly subjects. These results suggested that functional changes in semantic processing through aging (larger semantic networks and diffuse semantic activation) were the cause of this N400 reduction, attributing a subsidiary role to attentional disturbance. We also discuss the importance of taking age-related changes into consideration in clinical studies.

  17. Potential Evaporite Biomarkers from the Dead Sea

    Morris, Penny A.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie; Allen, Carlton C.; McKay, David S.

    2001-01-01

    The Dead Sea is located on the northern branch of the African-Levant Rift systems. The rift system, according to one model, was formed by a series of strike slip faults, initially forming approximately two million years ago. The Dead Sea is an evaporite basin that receives freshwater from springs and from the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is different from other evaporite basins, such as the Great Salt Lake, in that it possesses high concentrations of magnesium and has an average pH of 6.1. The dominant cation in the Great Salt Lake is sodium, and the pH is 7.7. Calcium concentrations are also higher in the Dead Sea than in the Great Salt Lake. Both basins are similar in that the dominant anion is chlorine and the salinity levels are approximately 20 %. Other common cations that have been identified from the waters of the Dead Sea and the Great Salt Lake include sodium and potassium. A variety of Archea, Bacteria, and a single genus of a green algal, Dunaliella, has been described from the Dead Sea. Earlier studies concentrated on microbial identification and analysis of their unique physiology that allows them to survive in this type of extreme environment. Potential microbial fossilization processes, microbial fossils, and the metallic ions associated with fossilization have not been studied thoroughly. The present study is restricted to identifying probable microbial morphologies and associated metallic ions. XRD (X Ray Diffraction) analysis indicates the presence of halite, quartz, and orthoclase feldspar. In addition to these minerals, other workers have reported potassium chloride, magnesium bromide, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, and calcium sulfate. Halite, calcium sulfate, and orthoclase were examined in this report for the presence of microbes, microbially induced deposits or microbial alteration. Neither the gypsum nor the orthoclase surfaces possesses any obvious indications of microbial life or fossilization. The sand-sized orthoclase particles are

  18. Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*

    Ronald Moe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

    Keywords: SEMANTIC DOMAINS, SEMANTIC FIELDS, SEMANTIC CATEGORIES, LEX-ICAL RELATIONS, SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, DOMAIN TEMPLATES, MENTAL LEXICON, SEMANTIC UNIVERSALS, MINORITY LANGUAGES, LEXICOGRAPHY

    Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die

  19. Ontology Matching with Semantic Verification.

    Jean-Mary, Yves R; Shironoshita, E Patrick; Kabuka, Mansur R

    2009-09-01

    ASMOV (Automated Semantic Matching of Ontologies with Verification) is a novel algorithm that uses lexical and structural characteristics of two ontologies to iteratively calculate a similarity measure between them, derives an alignment, and then verifies it to ensure that it does not contain semantic inconsistencies. In this paper, we describe the ASMOV algorithm, and then present experimental results that measure its accuracy using the OAEI 2008 tests, and that evaluate its use with two different thesauri: WordNet, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These results show the increased accuracy obtained by combining lexical, structural and extensional matchers with semantic verification, and demonstrate the advantage of using a domain-specific thesaurus for the alignment of specialized ontologies.

  20. The surplus value of semantic annotations

    Marx, M.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the costs of semantic annotation of textual documents to its benefits for information processing tasks. Semantic annotation can improve the performance of retrieval tasks and facilitates an improved search experience through faceted search, focused retrieval, better document summaries,

  1. Behavior Modification Through Covert Semantic Desensitization

    Hekmat, Hamid; Vanian, Daniel

    1971-01-01

    Results support the hypothesized relationship between meaning and phobia. Semantic desensitization techniques based on counter conditioning of meaning were significantly effective in altering the semantic value of the word from unpleasantness to neutrality. (Author)

  2. Relaxation as a Factor in Semantic Desensitization

    Bechtel, James E.; McNamara, J. Regis

    1975-01-01

    Relaxation and semantic desensitization were used to alleviate the fear of phobic females. Results showed that semantic desensitization, alone or in combination with relaxation, failed to modify the evaluative meanings evoked by the feared object. (SE)

  3. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    Gemma, Ryota

    2012-12-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    Gemma, Ryota; Al-Kassab, Talaat; Kirchheim, Reiner; Pundt, Astrid A.

    2012-01-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A generalized notion of semantic independence

    Fränzle, Martin; Stengel, Bernhard von; Wittmüss, Arne

    1995-01-01

    For programs represented semantically as relations, a concept of semantic independence is defined that is more general than previously stated notions. It allows for shared input variables and irrelevant interference due to nondeterminism.......For programs represented semantically as relations, a concept of semantic independence is defined that is more general than previously stated notions. It allows for shared input variables and irrelevant interference due to nondeterminism....

  6. The semantic structure of gratitude

    Smirnov, Alexander V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the modern social and economic environment of Russia, gratitude might be considered an ambiguous phenomenon. It can have different meaning for a person in different contexts and can manifest itself differently as well (that is, as an expression of sincere feelings or as an element of corruption. In this respect it is topical to investigate the system of meanings and relationships that define the semantic space of gratitude. The goal of the study was the investigation and description of the content and structure of the semantic space of the gratitude phenomenon as well as the determination of male, female, age, and ethnic peculiarities of the expression of gratitude. The objective was achieved by using the semantic differential designed by the authors to investigate attitudes toward gratitude. This investigation was carried out with the participation of 184 respondents (Russians, Tatars, Ukrainians, Jews living in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Israel, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom and identifying themselves as representatives of one of these nationalities. The structural components of gratitude were singled out by means of exploratory factor analysis of the empirical data from the designed semantic differential. Gender, age, and ethnic differences were differentiated by means of Student’s t-test. Gratitude can be represented by material and nonmaterial forms as well as by actions in response to help given. The empirical data allowed us to design the ethnically nonspecified semantic structure of gratitude. During the elaboration of the differential, semantic universals of gratitude, which constitute its psychosemantic content, were distinguished. Peculiarities of attitudes toward gratitude by those in different age and gender groups were revealed. Differences in the degree of manifestation of components of the psychosemantic structure of gratitude related to ethnic characteristics were not discovered

  7. Semantic realizations of the suffix -če in the neuter nominal derivatives of the Prizren-Timok dialects

    Žugić Radmila V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the semantic-derivational analysis of the nominal derivatives ending in suffix -če, there are three established semantic realizations of this suffix in the Prizren-Timok dialects. In regard to the state of the contemporary Serbian language, these dialects differ not only in much greater productivity of the suffix -če, but also in one new semantic realization, the so-called diminutive-pejorative meaning of the neuter gender derivatives ending in -če, which all together with diminutive and hypocoristic meaning denote much more developed polysemy of this suffix.

  8. The End

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2016-01-01

    Operaen THE END af den japanske komponist og DJ, Keiichiro Shibuya, skubber radikalt til publikums forventninger om, hvad en opera kan og skal være. THE END byder på 3D animation, surround sound, elektronisk glitch og syntetiske stemmer i en kompromisløs virtuel forestilling med det japanske...

  9. Semantic Query Processing : Estimating Relational Purity

    Kalo, Jan-Christoph; Lofi, C.; Maseli, René Pascal; Balke, Wolf-Tilo; Leyer, M.

    2017-01-01

    The use of semantic information found in structured knowledge bases has become an integral part of the processing pipeline of modern intelligent in-
    formation systems. However, such semantic information is frequently insuffi-cient to capture the rich semantics demanded by the applications, and

  10. A Model for Semantic IS Standards

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; Oude Luttighuis, Paul; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2011-01-01

    We argue that, in order to suggest improvements of any kind to semantic information system (IS) standards, better understanding of the conceptual structure of semantic IS standard is required. This study develops a model for semantic IS standard, based on literature and expert knowledge. The model

  11. Semantic heterogeneity: comparing new semantic web approaches with those of digital libraries

    Krause, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    To demonstrate that newer developments in the semantic web community, particularly those based on ontologies (simple knowledge organization system and others) mitigate common arguments from the digital library (DL) community against participation in the Semantic web. The approach is a semantic web discussion focusing on the weak structure of the Web and the lack of consideration given to the semantic content during indexing. The points criticised by the semantic web and ontology approaches ar...

  12. Towards semantic software engineering enviroments

    Falbo, R.A.; Guizzardi, G.; Natali, A.; Bertollo, G.; Ruy, F.; Mian, P.; Tortora, G.; Chang, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Software tools processing partially common set of data should share an understanding of what these data mean. Since ontologies have been used to express formally a shared understanding of information, we argue that they are a way towards Semantic SEEs. In this paper we discuss an ontology-based

  13. The Semantic Web in Education

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  14. Quest for a Computerised Semantics.

    Leslie, Adrian R.

    The objective of this thesis was to colligate the various strands of research in the literature of computational linguistics that have to do with the computational treatment of semantic content so as to encode it into a computerized dictionary. In chapter 1 the course of mechanical translation (1947-1960) and quantitative linguistics is traced to…

  15. Russian nominal semantics and morphology

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens

    The principal idea behind this book is that lexis and grammar make up a single coherent structure. It is shown that the grammatical patterns of the different classes of Russian nominals are closely interconnected. They can be described as reflecting a limited set of semantic distinctions which ar...... or weaker, of Russian. Students will see a pattern in what is traditionally described as disparate subsystems, and linguists may be inspired to consider the theoretical points concerning language as a coherent system, determining usage.......The principal idea behind this book is that lexis and grammar make up a single coherent structure. It is shown that the grammatical patterns of the different classes of Russian nominals are closely interconnected. They can be described as reflecting a limited set of semantic distinctions which...... are also rooted in the lexical-semantic classification of Russian nouns. The presentation focuses on semantics, both lexical and grammatical, and not least the connection between these two levels of content. The principal theoretical impact is the insight that grammar and lexis should not be seen...

  16. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrat...

  17. Semantic Enrichment of GPS Trajectories

    de Graaff, V.; van Keulen, Maurice; de By, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Semantic annotation of GPS trajectories helps us to recognize the interests of the creator of the GPS trajectories. Automating this trajectory annotation circumvents the requirement of additional user input. To annotate the GPS traces automatically, two types of automated input are required: 1) a

  18. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  19. Semantic search during divergent thinking.

    Hass, Richard W

    2017-09-01

    Divergent thinking, as a method of examining creative cognition, has not been adequately analyzed in the context of modern cognitive theories. This article casts divergent thinking responding in the context of theories of memory search. First, it was argued that divergent thinking tasks are similar to semantic fluency tasks, but are more constrained, and less well structured. Next, response time distributions from 54 participants were analyzed for temporal and semantic clustering. Participants responded to two prompts from the alternative uses test: uses for a brick and uses for a bottle, for two minutes each. Participants' cumulative response curves were negatively accelerating, in line with theories of search of associative memory. However, results of analyses of semantic and temporal clustering suggested that clustering is less evident in alternative uses responding compared to semantic fluency tasks. This suggests either that divergent thinking responding does not involve an exhaustive search through a clustered memory trace, but rather that the process is more exploratory, yielding fewer overall responses that tend to drift away from close associates of the divergent thinking prompt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. SEMSIN SEMANTIC AND SYNTACTIC PARSER

    K. K. Boyarsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the principle of operation for SemSin semantic and syntactic parser creating a dependency tree for the Russian language sentences. The parser consists of 4 blocks: a dictionary, morphological analyzer, production rules and lexical analyzer. An important logical part of the parser is pre-syntactical module, which harmonizes and complements morphological analysis results, separates the text paragraphs into individual sentences, and also carries out predisambiguation. Characteristic feature of the presented parser is an open type of control – it is done by means of a set of production rules. A varied set of commands provides the ability to both morphological and semantic-syntactic analysis of the sentence. The paper presents the sequence of rules usage and examples of their work. Specific feature of the rules is the decision making on establishment of syntactic links with simultaneous removal of the morphological and semantic ambiguity. The lexical analyzer provides the execution of commands and rules, and manages the parser in manual or automatic modes of the text analysis. In the first case, the analysis is performed interactively with the possibility of step-by-step execution of the rules and scanning the resulting parse tree. In the second case, analysis results are filed in an xml-file. Active usage of syntactic and semantic dictionary information gives the possibility to reduce significantly the ambiguity of parsing. In addition to marking the text, the parser is also usable as a tool for information extraction from natural language texts.

  1. Clustering semantics for hypermedia presentation

    Alberink, M.J.; Rutledge, L.W.; Hardman, H.L.; Veenstra, M.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Semantic annotations of media repositories make relationships among the stored media and relevant concepts explicit. However, these relationships and the media they join are not directly presentable as hypermedia. Previous work shows how clustering over the annotations in the repositories can

  2. Bare coordination: the semantic shift

    de Swart, Henriette; Le Bruyn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops an analysis of the syntax-semantics interface of two types of split coordination structures. In the first type, two bare singular count nouns appear as arguments in a coordinated structure, as in bride and groom were happy. We call this the N&N construction. In the second type,

  3. Topographical gradients of semantics and phonology revealed by temporal lobe stimulation.

    Miozzo, Michele; Williams, Alicia C; McKhann, Guy M; Hamberger, Marla J

    2017-02-01

    Word retrieval is a fundamental component of oral communication, and it is well established that this function is supported by left temporal cortex. Nevertheless, the specific temporal areas mediating word retrieval and the particular linguistic processes these regions support have not been well delineated. Toward this end, we analyzed over 1000 naming errors induced by left temporal cortical stimulation in epilepsy surgery patients. Errors were primarily semantic (lemon → "pear"), phonological (horn → "corn"), non-responses, and delayed responses (correct responses after a delay), and each error type appeared predominantly in a specific region: semantic errors in mid-middle temporal gyrus (TG), phonological errors and delayed responses in middle and posterior superior TG, and non-responses in anterior inferior TG. To the extent that semantic errors, phonological errors and delayed responses reflect disruptions in different processes, our results imply topographical specialization of semantic and phonological processing. Specifically, results revealed an inferior-to-superior gradient, with more superior regions associated with phonological processing. Further, errors were increasingly semantically related to targets toward posterior temporal cortex. We speculate that detailed semantic input is needed to support phonological retrieval, and thus, the specificity of semantic input increases progressively toward posterior temporal regions implicated in phonological processing. Hum Brain Mapp 38:688-703, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonlinear dead water resistance at subcritical speed

    Grue, John

    2015-08-01

    The dead water resistance F 1 = /1 2 C d w ρ S U 2 (ρ fluid density, U ship speed, S wetted body surface, Cdw resistance coefficient) on a ship moving at subcritical speed along the upper layer of a two-layer fluid is calculated by a strongly nonlinear method assuming potential flow in each layer. The ship dimensions correspond to those of the Polar ship Fram. The ship draught, b0, is varied in the range 0.25h0-0.9h0 (h0 the upper layer depth). The calculations show that Cdw/(b0/h0)2 depends on the Froude number only, in the range close to critical speed, Fr = U/c0 ˜ 0.875-1.125 (c0 the linear internal long wave speed), irrespective of the ship draught. The function Cdw/(b0/h0)2 attains a maximum at subcritical Froude number depending on the draught. Maximum Cdw/(b0/h0)2 becomes 0.15 for Fr = 0.76, b0/h0 = 0.9, and 0.16 for Fr = 0.74, b0/h0 = 1, where the latter extrapolated value of the dead water resistance coefficient is about 60 times higher than the frictional drag coefficient and relevant for the historical dead water observations. The nonlinear Cdw significantly exceeds linear theory (Fr < 0.85). The ship generated waves have a wave height comparable to the upper layer depth. Calculations of three-dimensional wave patterns at critical speed compare well to available laboratory experiments. Upstream solitary waves are generated in a wave tank of finite width, when the layer depths differ, causing an oscillation of the force. In a wide ocean, a very wide wave system develops at critical speed. The force approaches a constant value for increasing time.

  6. Phonological learning in semantic dementia.

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Bott, Samantha; Ehsan, Sheeba; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2011-04-01

    Patients with semantic dementia (SD) have anterior temporal lobe (ATL) atrophy that gives rise to a highly selective deterioration of semantic knowledge. Despite pronounced anomia and poor comprehension of words and pictures, SD patients have well-formed, fluent speech and normal digit span. Given the intimate connection between phonological STM and word learning revealed by both neuropsychological and developmental studies, SD patients might be expected to show good acquisition of new phonological forms, even though their ability to map these onto meanings is impaired. In contradiction of these predictions, a limited amount of previous research has found poor learning of new phonological forms in SD. In a series of experiments, we examined whether SD patient, GE, could learn novel phonological sequences and, if so, under which circumstances. GE showed normal benefits of phonological knowledge in STM (i.e., normal phonotactic frequency and phonological similarity effects) but reduced support from semantic memory (i.e., poor immediate serial recall for semantically degraded words, characterised by frequent item errors). Next, we demonstrated normal learning of serial order information for repeated lists of single-digit number words using the Hebb paradigm: these items were well-understood allowing them to be repeated without frequent item errors. In contrast, patient GE showed little learning of nonsense syllable sequences using the same Hebb paradigm. Detailed analysis revealed that both GE and the controls showed a tendency to learn their own errors as opposed to the target items. Finally, we showed normal learning of phonological sequences for GE when he was prevented from repeating his errors. These findings confirm that the ATL atrophy in SD disrupts phonological processing for semantically degraded words but leaves the phonological architecture intact. Consequently, when item errors are minimised, phonological STM can support the acquisition of new phoneme

  7. A Denotational Semantics for Communicating Unstructured Code

    Nils Jähnig

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An important property of programming language semantics is that they should be compositional. However, unstructured low-level code contains goto-like commands making it hard to define a semantics that is compositional. In this paper, we follow the ideas of Saabas and Uustalu to structure low-level code. This gives us the possibility to define a compositional denotational semantics based on least fixed points to allow for the use of inductive verification methods. We capture the semantics of communication using finite traces similar to the denotations of CSP. In addition, we examine properties of this semantics and give an example that demonstrates reasoning about communication and jumps. With this semantics, we lay the foundations for a proof calculus that captures both, the semantics of unstructured low-level code and communication.

  8. A Semantics for Distributed Execution of Statemate

    Fränzle, Martin; Niehaus, Jürgen; Metzner, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    We present a semantics for the statechart variant implemented in the Statemate product of i-Logix. Our semantics enables distributed code generation for Statemate models in the context of rapid prototyping for embedded control applications. We argue that it seems impossible to efficiently generate......, the changes made regarding the interaction of distributed model parts are similar to the interaction between the model and its environment in the original semantics, thus giving designers a familiar execution model. The semantics has been implemented in Grace, a framework for rapid prototyping code generation...... distributed code using the original Statemate semantics. The new, distributed semantics has the advantages that, first, it enables the generation of efficient distributed code, second, it preserves many aspects of the original semantics for those parts of a model that are not distributed, and third...

  9. ADEpedia: a scalable and standardized knowledge base of Adverse Drug Events using semantic web technology.

    Jiang, Guoqian; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2011-01-01

    A source of semantically coded Adverse Drug Event (ADE) data can be useful for identifying common phenotypes related to ADEs. We proposed a comprehensive framework for building a standardized ADE knowledge base (called ADEpedia) through combining ontology-based approach with semantic web technology. The framework comprises four primary modules: 1) an XML2RDF transformation module; 2) a data normalization module based on NCBO Open Biomedical Annotator; 3) a RDF store based persistence module; and 4) a front-end module based on a Semantic Wiki for the review and curation. A prototype is successfully implemented to demonstrate the capability of the system to integrate multiple drug data and ontology resources and open web services for the ADE data standardization. A preliminary evaluation is performed to demonstrate the usefulness of the system, including the performance of the NCBO annotator. In conclusion, the semantic web technology provides a highly scalable framework for ADE data source integration and standard query service.

  10. On the Semantic Prosody of Career Women in Chinese Web Reportage

    Haiyan Men

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to unveil the images of career women depicted on the internet within the framework of corpus linguistics. Based on web corpora, internet reportage of women from the fields of education, politics, business, media, medicine, law, and tourist industry are investigated. Through collocate analysis, it is found that all the above career women demonstrate unfavorable semantic prosody, a unique local semantic prosody on the internet. The unfavorable collocates can be further classified into the semantic sets of erotic events, misfortunes and job scandals. However, through Keyword analysis of reportage of women in China’s mainstream newspapers, there presents a quite positive women image. Finally, the author makes possible interpretations of the causes of the violation of semantic prosody on the web and possible consequences it will bring, with two solutions being suggested at the end.

  11. A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements

    Hamed Hassanzadeh; MohammadReza Keyvanpour

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changing its contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of the cornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is called Semantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic Annotation, such as ...

  12. Asteroid 'Bites the Dust' Around Dead Star

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes upon the dusty remains of shredded asteroids around several dead stars. This artist's concept illustrates one such dead star, or 'white dwarf,' surrounded by the bits and pieces of a disintegrating asteroid. These observations help astronomers better understand what rocky planets are made of around other stars. Asteroids are leftover scraps of planetary material. They form early on in a star's history when planets are forming out of collisions between rocky bodies. When a star like our sun dies, shrinking down to a skeleton of its former self called a white dwarf, its asteroids get jostled about. If one of these asteroids gets too close to the white dwarf, the white dwarf's gravity will chew the asteroid up, leaving a cloud of dust. Spitzer's infrared detectors can see these dusty clouds and their various constituents. So far, the telescope has identified silicate minerals in the clouds polluting eight white dwarfs. Because silicates are common in our Earth's crust, the results suggest that planets similar to ours might be common around other stars.

  13. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  14. Breathing Life Into Dead-Zones

    Gressel Oliver

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial planet formation regions of protoplanetary disks are generally sufficiently cold to be con- sidered non-magnetized and, consequently, dynamically inactive. However, recent investigations of these so-called “Dead-Zones” indicate the possibility that disks with strong mean radial temperature gradients can support instabilities associated with disk-normal gradients of the basic Keplerian shear profile. This process, known as the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke (GSF instability, is the instability of short radial wavelength inertial modes and depends wholly on the presence of vertical gradients of the mean Keplerian (zonal flow. We report here high resolution fully nonlinear axisymmetric numerical studies of this instability and find a number of features including how, in the nonlinear saturated state, unstable discs become globally distorted, with strong vertical oscillations occurring at all radii due to local instability. We find that nonaxisymmetric numerical experiments are accompanied by significant amounts angular momentum transport (α ~ 0001. This instability should be operating in the Dead-Zones of protoplanetary disks at radii greater than 10-15 AU in minimum mass solar nebula models.

  15. CLOUD SECURITY AND COMPLIANCE - A SEMANTIC APPROACH IN END TO END SECURITY

    Kalaiprasath, R.; Elankavi, R.; Udayakumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Cloud services are becoming an essential part of many organizations. Cloud providers have to adhere to security and privacy policies to ensure their users' data remains confidential and secure. Though there are some ongoing efforts on developing cloud security standards, most cloud providers are implementing a mish-mash of security and privacy controls. This has led to confusion among cloud consumers as to what security measures they should expect from the cloud services, and whether thes...

  16. A new G-M counter dead time model

    Lee, S.H.; Gardner, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid G-M counter dead time model was derived by combining the idealized paralyzable and non-paralyzable models. The new model involves two parameters, which are the paralyzable and non-paralyzable dead times. The dead times used in the model are very closely related to the physical dead time of the G-M tube and its resolving time. To check the validity of the model, the decaying source method with 56 Mn was used. The corrected counting rates by the new G-M dead time model were compared with the observed counting rates obtained from the measurement and gave very good agreement within 5% up to 7x10 4 counts/s for a G-M tube with a dead time of about 300 μs

  17. Exploiting semantic linkages among multiple sources for semantic information retrieval

    Li, JianQiang; Yang, Ji-Jiang; Liu, Chunchen; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yuliang

    2014-07-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web is to build a global Web of machine-readable data to be consumed by intelligent applications. As the first step to make this vision come true, the initiative of linked open data has fostered many novel applications aimed at improving data accessibility in the public Web. Comparably, the enterprise environment is so different from the public Web that most potentially usable business information originates in an unstructured form (typically in free text), which poses a challenge for the adoption of semantic technologies in the enterprise environment. Considering that the business information in a company is highly specific and centred around a set of commonly used concepts, this paper describes a pilot study to migrate the concept of linked data into the development of a domain-specific application, i.e. the vehicle repair support system. The set of commonly used concepts, including the part name of a car and the phenomenon term on the car repairing, are employed to build the linkage between data and documents distributed among different sources, leading to the fusion of documents and data across source boundaries. Then, we describe the approaches of semantic information retrieval to consume these linkages for value creation for companies. The experiments on two real-world data sets show that the proposed approaches outperform the best baseline 6.3-10.8% and 6.4-11.1% in terms of top five and top 10 precisions, respectively. We believe that our pilot study can serve as an important reference for the development of similar semantic applications in an enterprise environment.

  18. Semantic HyperMultimedia Adaptation Schemes and Applications

    Bieliková, Mária; Mylonas, Phivos; Tsapatsoulis, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more users are witnessing the impact of Hypermedia/Multimedia as well as the penetration of social applications in their life. Parallel to the evolution of the Internet and Web, several Hypermedia/Multimedia schemes and technologies bring semantic-based intelligent, personalized and adaptive services to the end users. More and more techniques are applied in media systems in order to be user/group-centric, adapting to different content and context features of a single or a community user. In respect to all the above, researchers need to explore and study the plethora of challenges that emergent personalisation and adaptation technologies bring to the new era. This edited volume aims to increase the awareness of researchers in this area. All contributions provide an in-depth investigation on research and deployment issues, regarding already introduced schemes and applications in Semantic Hyper/Multimedia and Social Media Adaptation. Moreover, the authors provide survey-based articles, so as p...

  19. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Violetta Koseska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora In view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  20. Dead time effects in laser Doppler anemometry measurements

    Velte, Clara Marika; Buchhave, Preben; George, William K.

    2014-01-01

    frequency range, starting around the cutoff frequency due to the finite size of the MV. Using computer-generated data mimicking the LDA data, these effects have previously been shown to appear due to the effect of dead time, i.e., the finite time during which the system is not able to acquire new...... measurements. These dead times can be traced back to the fact that the burst-mode LDA cannot measure more than one signal burst at a time. Since the dead time is approximately equal to the residence time for a particle traversing a measurement volume, we are dealing with widely varying dead times, which...

  1. The ecosystem service value of living versus dead biogenic reef

    Sheehan, E. V.; Bridger, D.; Attrill, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Mixed maerl beds (corralline red algae) comprise dead thalli with varying amounts of live maerl fragments, but previously it was not known whether the presence of the live maerl increases the ecosystem service 'habitat provision' of the dead maerl for the associated epibenthos. A 'flying array' towed sled with high definition video was used to film transects of the epibenthos in dead maerl and mixed maerl beds in two locations to the north and south of the English Channel (Falmouth and Jersey). Mixed maerl beds supported greater number of taxa and abundance than dead beds in Falmouth, while in Jersey, mixed and dead beds supported similar number of taxa and dead beds had a greater abundance of epifauna. Scallops tended to be more abundant on mixed beds than dead beds. Tube worms were more abundant on mixed beds in Falmouth and dead beds in Jersey. An increasing percentage occurrence of live maerl thalli correlated with increasing number of taxa in Falmouth but not Jersey. It was concluded that while live thalli can increase the functional role of dead maerl beds for the epibenthos, this is dependent on location and response variable. As a result of this work, maerl habitat in SE Jersey has been protected from towed demersal fishing gear.

  2. A Postcolonial Semantics of Personhood

    Levisen, Carsten

    that provide an answer to the question: “what makes up a person?” The paper aims toarticulate semantic explications and cultural scripts for personhood constructs in Bislama, beingmindful of the anglicizations, contradictions, and reinventions that are characteristic of postcolonialdiscourse......, 2013-2015 (Levisen 2016a, 2016b). I willfocus on the keyword tingting ‘mind, heart’ (from English ‘think-think’), and the related concepts speret(from English ‘spirit’), devil (from English ‘devil’), and pija (from English ‘picture’), as well as morerecent imports from English: maen (mind), sol (soul...... levels. Traditionalterms like devil and pija are being problematized by urban speakers, and are both in decline. Sol,maen, and had have become more common, and speret/spirit has undergone a semanticanglicization. Tingting remains the key construct, around which Bislama personhood semantics isorganized...

  3. Weak negation in inquisitive semantics

    Punčochář, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 323-355 ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : inquisitive semantics * negation * possible worlds * Fitch-style natural deduction * denial Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10849-015-9219-2

  4. Semantic Memory in the Clinical Progression of Alzheimer Disease.

    Tchakoute, Christophe T; Sainani, Kristin L; Henderson, Victor W

    2017-09-01

    Semantic memory measures may be useful in tracking and predicting progression of Alzheimer disease. We investigated relationships among semantic memory tasks and their 1-year predictive value in women with Alzheimer disease. We conducted secondary analyses of a randomized clinical trial of raloxifene in 42 women with late-onset mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease. We assessed semantic memory with tests of oral confrontation naming, category fluency, semantic recognition and semantic naming, and semantic density in written narrative discourse. We measured global cognition (Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale, cognitive subscale), dementia severity (Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes), and daily function (Activities of Daily Living Inventory) at baseline and 1 year. At baseline and 1 year, most semantic memory scores correlated highly or moderately with each other and with global cognition, dementia severity, and daily function. Semantic memory task performance at 1 year had worsened one-third to one-half standard deviation. Factor analysis of baseline test scores distinguished processes in semantic and lexical retrieval (semantic recognition, semantic naming, confrontation naming) from processes in lexical search (semantic density, category fluency). The semantic-lexical retrieval factor predicted global cognition at 1 year. Considered separately, baseline confrontation naming and category fluency predicted dementia severity, while semantic recognition and a composite of semantic recognition and semantic naming predicted global cognition. No individual semantic memory test predicted daily function. Semantic-lexical retrieval and lexical search may represent distinct aspects of semantic memory. Semantic memory processes are sensitive to cognitive decline and dementia severity in Alzheimer disease.

  5. Discovery and Selection of Semantic Web Services

    Wang, Xia

    2013-01-01

    For advanced web search engines to be able not only to search for semantically related information dispersed over different web pages, but also for semantic services providing certain functionalities, discovering semantic services is the key issue. Addressing four problems of current solution, this book presents the following contributions. A novel service model independent of semantic service description models is proposed, which clearly defines all elements necessary for service discovery and selection. It takes service selection as its gist and improves efficiency. Corresponding selection algorithms and their implementation as components of the extended Semantically Enabled Service-oriented Architecture in the Web Service Modeling Environment are detailed. Many applications of semantic web services, e.g. discovery, composition and mediation, can benefit from a general approach for building application ontologies. With application ontologies thus built, services are discovered in the same way as with single...

  6. A Denotational Semantics for Logic Programming

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    A fully abstract denotational semantics for logic programming has not been constructed yet. In this paper we present a denotational semantics that is almost fully abstract. We take the meaning of a logic program to be an element in a Plotkin power domain of substitutions. In this way our result...... shows that standard domain constructions suffice, when giving a semantics for logic programming. Using the well-known fixpoint semantics of logic programming we have to consider two different fixpoints in order to obtain information about both successful and failed computations. In contrast, our...... semantics is uniform in that the (single) meaning of a logic program contains information about both successful, failed and infinite computations. Finally, based on the full abstractness result, we argue that the detail level of substitutions is needed in any denotational semantics for logic programming....

  7. An Algebraic Specification of the Semantic Web

    Ksystra, Katerina; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Stefaneas, Petros; Frangos, Panayiotis

    2011-01-01

    We present a formal specification of the Semantic Web, as an extension of the World Wide Web using the well known algebraic specification language CafeOBJ. Our approach allows the description of the key elements of the Semantic Web technologies, in order to give a better understanding of the system, without getting involved with their implementation details that might not yet be standardized. This specification is part of our work in progress concerning the modeling the Social Semantic Web.

  8. Semantic Web Requirements through Web Mining Techniques

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Keyvanpour, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Semantic web has become a topic of active research in several fields of computer science and has applied in a wide range of domains such as bioinformatics, life sciences, and knowledge management. The two fast-developing research areas semantic web and web mining can complement each other and their different techniques can be used jointly or separately to solve the issues in both areas. In addition, since shifting from current web to semantic web mainly depends on the enhance...

  9. Semantic interpretation of search engine resultant

    Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-01-01

    In semantic, logical language can be interpreted in various forms, but the certainty of meaning is included in the uncertainty, which directly always influences the role of technology. One results of this uncertainty applies to search engines as user interfaces with information spaces such as the Web. Therefore, the behaviour of search engine results should be interpreted with certainty through semantic formulation as interpretation. Behaviour formulation shows there are various interpretations that can be done semantically either temporary, inclusion, or repeat.

  10. Gricean Semantics and Vague Speaker-Meaning

    Schiffer, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Presentations of Gricean semantics, including Stephen Neale’s in “Silent Reference,” totally ignore vagueness, even though virtually every utterance is vague. I ask how Gricean semantics might be adjusted to accommodate vague speaker-meaning. My answer is that it can’t accommodate it: the Gricean program collapses in the face of vague speaker-meaning. The Gricean might, however, fi nd some solace in knowing that every other extant meta-semantic and semantic program is in the same boat.

  11. Some Novel Techniques in Operational Semantics

    Mosses, Peter David

    2003-01-01

    Several novel techniques for use in operational semantics are presented. They were developed in connection with a modular vatriant of the conventional Structural Operational Semantics framework, but can also be exploited when modularity is of no great concern. Gives a simple introduction to the m......Several novel techniques for use in operational semantics are presented. They were developed in connection with a modular vatriant of the conventional Structural Operational Semantics framework, but can also be exploited when modularity is of no great concern. Gives a simple introduction...

  12. Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall.

    Manning, Jeremy R; Kahana, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    The order in which participants choose to recall words from a studied list of randomly selected words provides insights into how memories of the words are represented, organised, and retrieved. One pervasive finding is that when a pair of semantically related words (e.g., "cat" and "dog") is embedded in the studied list, the related words are often recalled successively. This tendency to successively recall semantically related words is termed semantic clustering (Bousfield, 1953; Bousfield & Sedgewick, 1944; Cofer, Bruce, & Reicher, 1966). Measuring semantic clustering effects requires making assumptions about which words participants consider to be similar in meaning. However, it is often difficult to gain insights into individual participants' internal semantic models, and for this reason researchers typically rely on standardised semantic similarity metrics. Here we use simulations to gain insights into the expected magnitudes of semantic clustering effects given systematic differences between participants' internal similarity models and the similarity metric used to quantify the degree of semantic clustering. Our results provide a number of useful insights into the interpretation of semantic clustering effects in free recall.

  13. Language networks associated with computerized semantic indices.

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Jones, David T; Knopman, David S

    2015-01-01

    Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of semantic relatedness between words based on latent semantic analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed semantic clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that semantic clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized semantic indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems

    Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle

    2013-01-01

    Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

  15. Neural correlates underlying musical semantic memory.

    Groussard, M; Viader, F; Landeau, B; Desgranges, B; Eustache, F; Platel, H

    2009-07-01

    Numerous functional imaging studies have examined the neural basis of semantic memory mainly using verbal and visuospatial materials. Musical material also allows an original way to explore semantic memory processes. We used PET imaging to determine the neural substrates that underlie musical semantic memory using different tasks and stimuli. The results of three PET studies revealed a greater involvement of the anterior part of the temporal lobe. Concerning clinical observations and our neuroimaging data, the musical lexicon (and most widely musical semantic memory) appears to be sustained by a temporo-prefrontal cerebral network involving right and left cerebral regions.

  16. Towards a Reactive Semantic Execution Environment

    Komazec, Srdjan; Facca, Federico Michele

    Managing complex and distributed software systems built on top of the service-oriented paradigm has never been more challenging. While Semantic Web Service technologies offer a promising set of languages and tools as a foundation to resolve the heterogeneity and scalability issues, they are still failing to provide an autonomic execution environment. In this paper we present an approach based on Semantic Web Services to enable the monitoring and self-management of a Semantic Execution Environment (SEE), a brokerage system for Semantic Web Services. Our approach is founded on the event-triggered reactivity paradigm in order to facilitate environment control, thus contributing to its autonomicity, robustness and flexibility.

  17. Semantics-based Automated Web Testing

    Hai-Feng Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present TAO, a software testing tool performing automated test and oracle generation based on a semantic approach. TAO entangles grammar-based test generation with automated semantics evaluation using a denotational semantics framework. We show how TAO can be incorporated with the Selenium automation tool for automated web testing, and how TAO can be further extended to support automated delta debugging, where a failing web test script can be systematically reduced based on grammar-directed strategies. A real-life parking website is adopted throughout the paper to demonstrate the effectivity of our semantics-based web testing approach.

  18. SEMANTIC WEB MINING: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    Karan Singh*, Anil kumar, Arun Kumar Yadav

    2016-01-01

    The combination of the two fast evolving scientific research areas “Semantic Web” and “Web Mining” are well-known as “Semantic Web Mining” in computer science. These two areas cover way for the mining of related and meaningful information from the web, by this means giving growth to the term “Semantic Web Mining”. The “Semantic Web” makes mining easy and “Web Mining” can construct new structure of Web. Web Mining applies Data Mining technique on web content, Structure and Usage. This paper gi...

  19. Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support

    Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

  20. Pascal Semantics by a Combination of Denotational Semantics and High-level Petri Nets

    Jensen, Kurt; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the formal semantics of a subset of PASCAL, by means of a semantic model based on a combination of denotational semantics and high-level Petri nets. It is our intention that the paper can be used as part of the written material for an introductory course in computer science....

  1. The prevalence and challenges of abandoned dead neonates in an ...

    parents/caregivers' attitudes toward dead neonates. Hospital-based postbereavement programs should be organized to ... Dead neonates at the Neonatal Intensive Care Units,. Pediatric Emergency Department, Pediatric Surgical .... interventions and newborn survival. Niger J Med 2006; 15:108–114. 3 Kalkofen RW. After a ...

  2. Dead wood inventory and assessment in South Korea

    Jong-Su Yim; Rae Hyun Kim; Sun-Jeong Lee; Yeongmo. Son

    2015-01-01

    Dead wood (DW) plays a critical role not only in maintaining biodiversity but also in stocking carbon under UNFCCC. From the 5th national forest inventory (NFI5; 2006-2010) in South Korea, field data relevant to the DW including standing and downed dead trees by four decay class, etc. were collected. Based on the NFI5 data,...

  3. Quantifying carbon stores and decomposition in dead wood: A review

    Matthew B. Russell; Shawn Fraver; Tuomas Aakala; Jeffrey H. Gove; Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D’Amato; Mark J. Ducey

    2015-01-01

    The amount and dynamics of forest dead wood (both standing and downed) has been quantified by a variety of approaches throughout the forest science and ecology literature. Differences in the sampling and quantification of dead wood can lead to differences in our understanding of forests and their role in the sequestration and emissions of CO2, as...

  4. Dead time corrections using the backward extrapolation method

    Gilad, E., E-mail: gilade@bgu.ac.il [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Dubi, C. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Geslot, B.; Blaise, P. [DEN/CAD/DER/SPEx/LPE, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-les-Durance 13108 (France); Kolin, A. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel)

    2017-05-11

    Dead time losses in neutron detection, caused by both the detector and the electronics dead time, is a highly nonlinear effect, known to create high biasing in physical experiments as the power grows over a certain threshold, up to total saturation of the detector system. Analytic modeling of the dead time losses is a highly complicated task due to the different nature of the dead time in the different components of the monitoring system (e.g., paralyzing vs. non paralyzing), and the stochastic nature of the fission chains. In the present study, a new technique is introduced for dead time corrections on the sampled Count Per Second (CPS), based on backward extrapolation of the losses, created by increasingly growing artificially imposed dead time on the data, back to zero. The method has been implemented on actual neutron noise measurements carried out in the MINERVE zero power reactor, demonstrating high accuracy (of 1–2%) in restoring the corrected count rate. - Highlights: • A new method for dead time corrections is introduced and experimentally validated. • The method does not depend on any prior calibration nor assumes any specific model. • Different dead times are imposed on the signal and the losses are extrapolated to zero. • The method is implemented and validated using neutron measurements from the MINERVE. • Result show very good correspondence to empirical results.

  5. Simulation of Simple Controlled Processes with Dead-Time.

    Watson, Keith R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The determination of closed-loop response of processes containing dead-time is typically not covered in undergraduate process control, possibly because the solution by Laplace transforms requires the use of Pade approximation for dead-time, which makes the procedure lengthy and tedious. A computer-aided method is described which simplifies the…

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TECHNILOGIES OF CHITOSAN PRODUCTION FROM DEAD BEES

    Marina Abramova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of technology of chitosan obtaining from unconventional sources, namely from dead bees. Methods: The article considers three methods of chitosan obtaining from dead bees, namely the technology with the usage of dead bees with low degree of drying; the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying; the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying but without separation of deproteination and deacetylation stages. Results: It is proved that the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying but without separation of deproteination and deacetylation stages does not require high temperatures and long time. Yield of chitosan with the use of this technology is 21-24%. Discussion: The expediency of dead bees usage as raw material for the production of chitosan in Ukraine is shown. The technologies of chitosan obtaining from dead bees are compared, the most efficient one is chosen, which provide the highest yield of the finished product, so it is the most promising for the application in practice.

  7. A Semantic Analysis of the Language of Advertising | Emodi | African ...

    A Semantic Analysis of the Language of Advertising. ... After a brief introduction to semantics and advertising language, the paper is focused on the linguistic realizations in English advertising from the semantic ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Cascades of pile-up and dead time

    Pomme, S.

    2008-01-01

    Count loss through a cascade of pile-up and dead time is studied. Time interval density-distribution functions and throughput factors are presented for counters with a series arrangement of pile-up and extending or non-extending dead time. A counter is considered, where an artificial dead time is imposed on every counted event, in order to control the length and type of dead time. For such a system, it is relatively easy to determine an average count-loss correction factor via a live-time clock gated by the imposed dead-time signal ('live-time mode'), or otherwise to apply a correction factor based on the inversion of the throughput function ('real-time mode'). However, these techniques do not account for additional loss through pulse pile-up. In this work, counting errors associated with neglecting cascade effects are calculated for measurements in live-time and real-time mode

  9. The effects of passive humidifier dead space on respiratory variables in paralyzed and spontaneously breathing patients.

    Campbell, R S; Davis, K; Johannigman, J A; Branson, R D

    2000-03-01

    Passive humidifiers have gained acceptance in the intensive care unit because of their low cost, simple operation, and elimination of condensate from the breathing circuit. However, the additional dead space of these devices may adversely affect respiratory function in certain patients. This study evaluates the effects of passive humidifier dead space on respiratory function. Two groups of patients were studied. The first group consisted of patients recovering from acute lung injury and breathing spontaneously on pressure support ventilation. The second group consisted of patients who were receiving controlled mechanical ventilation and were chemically paralyzed following operative procedures. All patients used 3 humidification devices in random order for one hour each. The devices were a heated humidifier (HH), a hygroscopic heat and moisture exchanger (HHME) with a dead space of 28 mL, and a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) with a dead space of 90 mL. During each measurement period the following were recorded: tidal volume, minute volume, respiratory frequency, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, ratio of dead space volume to tidal volume (VD/VT), and blood gases. In the second group, intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure was also measured. Addition of either of the passive humidifiers was associated with increased VD/VT. In spontaneously breathing patients, VD/VT increased from 59 +/- 13 (HH) to 62 +/- 13 (HHME) to 68 +/- 11% (HME) (p < 0.05). In these patients, constant alveolar ventilation was maintained as a result of increased respiratory frequency, from 22.1 +/- 6.6 breaths/min (HH) to 24.5 +/- 6.9 breaths/min (HHME) to 27.7 +/- 7.4 breaths/min (HME) (p < 0.05), and increased minute volume, from 9.1 +/- 3.5 L/min (HH) to 9.9 +/- 3.6 L/min (HHME) to 11.7 +/- 4.2 L/min (HME) (p < 0.05). There were no changes in blood gases or carbon dioxide production. In the paralyzed patient group, VD/VT increased from 54 +/- 12% (HH) to 56 +/- 10% (HHME

  10. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    Danvy, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fus...

  11. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    2010-01-01

    ... provided in paragraph (b) of this section for dressed carcasses, dead birds and dead poultry, including any... poultry at the destination listed on the permit required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (b) Dressed... quarantined area only if: (1) The dressed carcasses are from birds or poultry that were slaughtered in a...

  12. Perceptual-Semantic Congruency Facilitates Semantic Discrimination of Thermal Qualities

    Yizhen Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to sense temperature is vital to our life. It signals the environmental condition, reflects the physiological conditions of our own body, and generates feelings of pleasantness or unpleasantness. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated implicit associations between physical temperature and social/emotional concepts, suggesting the processing of temperature may even influence cognition. In this work, we examined the effect of physical warmth and coldness on semantic cognition. Participants performed speeded target categorization for thermal descriptors in the form of semantic words or illustrative figures representing the thermal qualities “warm” or “cold” while physical thermal stimulation was presented. We compared the average reaction time (RT for the congruent and incongruent conditions managed by response key assignments. In the congruent condition, the response key for the symbol associated with warmth (coldness was assigned to the hand with warm (cold thermal stimulation, and in the incongruent condition the key assignment was reversed. Our results demonstrate that the average RT in the congruent condition was faster than in the incongruent one for both forms of thermal descriptors, suggesting that the experience of physical temperature facilitates the internal processing of the meaning of thermal quality.

  13. Libraries and the semantic web an introduction to its applications and opportunities for libraries

    DeWeese, Keith P

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the concept of the Semantic Web-what it is, the components that comprise it, including Linked Data, and the various ways that libraries are engaged in contributing to its development in making library resources and services ever more accessible to end-users.

  14. Historical Semantic Chaining and Efficient Communication: The Case of Container Names

    Xu, Yang; Regier, Terry; Malt, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    Semantic categories in the world's languages often reflect a historical process of "chaining": A name for one referent is extended to a conceptually related referent, and from there on to other referents, producing a chain of exemplars that all bear the same name. The beginning and end points of such a chain might in principle be rather…

  15. Gazetteer Brokering through Semantic Mediation

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.

    2013-12-01

    A gazetteer is a geographical directory containing some information regarding places. It provides names, location and other attributes for places which may include points of interest (e.g. buildings, oilfields and boreholes), and other features. These features can be published via web services conforming to the Gazetteer Application Profile of the Web Feature Service (WFS) standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Against the backdrop of advances in geophysical surveys, there has been a significant increase in the amount of data referenced to locations. Gazetteers services have played a significant role in facilitating access to such data, including through provision of specialized queries such as text, spatial and fuzzy search. Recent developments in the OGC have led to advances in gazetteers such as support for multilingualism, diacritics, and querying via advanced spatial constraints (e.g. search by radial search and nearest neighbor). A challenge remaining however, is that gazetteers produced by different organizations have typically been modeled differently. Inconsistencies from gazetteers produced by different organizations may include naming the same feature in a different way, naming the attributes differently, locating the feature in a different location, and providing fewer or more attributes than the other services. The Gazetteer application profile of the WFS is a starting point to address such inconsistencies by providing a standardized interface based on rules specified in ISO 19112, the international standard for spatial referencing by geographic identifiers. The profile, however, does not provide rules to deal with semantic inconsistencies. The USGS and NGA commissioned research into the potential for a Single Point of Entry Global Gazetteer (SPEGG). The research was conducted by the Cross Community Interoperability thread of the OGC testbed, referenced OWS-9. The testbed prototyped approaches for brokering gazetteers through use of semantic

  16. Bare coordination: the semantic shift

    de Swart, Henriette; Le Bruyn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops an analysis of the syntax-semantics interface of two types of split coordination structures. In the first type, two bare singular count nouns appear as arguments in a coordinated structure, as in bride and groom were happy. We call this the N&N construction. In the second type, the determiner shows agreement with the first conjunct, while the second conjunct is bare, as in the Spanish example el hornero y hornera cobraban en panes (‘thesg.m bakersg.m and bakersg.f werepl p...

  17. Verbal and non-verbal semantic impairment: From fluent primary progressive aphasia to semantic dementia

    Mirna Lie Hosogi Senaha

    Full Text Available Abstract Selective disturbances of semantic memory have attracted the interest of many investigators and the question of the existence of single or multiple semantic systems remains a very controversial theme in the literature. Objectives: To discuss the question of multiple semantic systems based on a longitudinal study of a patient who presented semantic dementia from fluent primary progressive aphasia. Methods: A 66 year-old woman with selective impairment of semantic memory was examined on two occasions, undergoing neuropsychological and language evaluations, the results of which were compared to those of three paired control individuals. Results: In the first evaluation, physical examination was normal and the score on the Mini-Mental State Examination was 26. Language evaluation revealed fluent speech, anomia, disturbance in word comprehension, preservation of the syntactic and phonological aspects of the language, besides surface dyslexia and dysgraphia. Autobiographical and episodic memories were relatively preserved. In semantic memory tests, the following dissociation was found: disturbance of verbal semantic memory with preservation of non-verbal semantic memory. Magnetic resonance of the brain revealed marked atrophy of the left anterior temporal lobe. After 14 months, the difficulties in verbal semantic memory had become more severe and the semantic disturbance, limited initially to the linguistic sphere, had worsened to involve non-verbal domains. Conclusions: Given the dissociation found in the first examination, we believe there is sufficient clinical evidence to refute the existence of a unitary semantic system.

  18. SM4AM: A Semantic Metamodel for Analytical Metadata

    Varga, Jovan; Romero, Oscar; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    Next generation BI systems emerge as platforms where traditional BI tools meet semi-structured and unstructured data coming from the Web. In these settings, the user-centric orientation represents a key characteristic for the acceptance and wide usage by numerous and diverse end users in their data....... We present SM4AM, a Semantic Metamodel for Analytical Metadata created as an RDF formalization of the Analytical Metadata artifacts needed for user assistance exploitation purposes in next generation BI systems. We consider the Linked Data initiative and its relevance for user assistance...

  19. Beyond the temporal pole: limbic memory circuit in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia.

    Tan, Rachel H; Wong, Stephanie; Kril, Jillian J; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R; Halliday, Glenda M

    2014-07-01

    von Economo neurons in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. We also show that by end-stage these neurons selectively degenerate in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia with preservation of neurons in the posterior cingulate cortex. Overall, our findings demonstrate for the first time, severe atrophy, although not necessarily neuronal loss, across all relay nodes of Papez circuit with the exception of the mammillary bodies and hippocampal body and tail in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia. Despite the longer disease course in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia compared with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, we suggest here that the neural preservation of crucial memory relays (hippocampal→mammillary bodies and posterior cingulate→hippocampus) likely reflects the conservation of specific episodic memory components observed in most patients with semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Personal Identity and Resurrection from the Dead

    Gasparov Igor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines arguments of the “Christian materialist” Trenton Merricks that he provided in support of the claim that the Christian doctrine of resurrection from the dead is compatible with the materialist understanding of the nature of human beings. In his paper The Resurrection of the Body, Merricks discussed two aspects of the materialist interpretation of the traditional religious doctrine of the bodily resurrection. On the one hand, he analyses and tries to overcome objections against the possibility of the general resurrection in case the materialist understanding of the nature of human personality should be true (mainly the problem of the temporal gap. On the other hand, he provides some reasons why the materialist understanding of human nature is more relevant than its dualist counterpart to the doctrine of the bodily resurrection. The present paper evaluates his arguments and discusses the suggestion that the doctrine of resurrection is not only compatible with materialism, but is also tenable if human beings are identical with their physical bodies. The conclusion of the paper is that Merricks’ apologetic arguments achieve their aims in defending the doctrine of resurrection only partially; the resurrection doctrine appears more tenable if we accept the dualistic conception of human nature.

  1. Autopsies of the real: Resurrecting the dead

    Valis, Noël

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sense of the real, or the material—the dead body—as an inextricable part of the sacred does not disappear in the secular environment of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article analyzes specific humanitarian narratives centered on the practice of autopsy and mummification, in which the traces of Catholicism act as a kind of spectral discourse of the imagination, where the real is configured in forms of the uncanny, the monstrous or the sacred.

    El sentido de lo real, de lo material —el cuerpo sin vida— como una inextricable parte de lo sagrado, no desaparece del ambiente secular de los siglos XIX y XX. En los relatos analizados en este artículo se estudia cómo en determinadas narrativas humanitarias centradas en la práctica de la autopsia y la momificación, las huellas del catolicismo actúan como una suerte de discurso espectral de la imaginación, en que lo real se configura en formas de lo siniestro, lo monstruoso o lo sagrado.

  2. Designing equivalent semantic models for process creation

    P.H.M. America (Pierre); J.W. de Bakker (Jaco)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractOperational and denotational semantic models are designed for languages with process creation, and the relationships between the two semantics are investigated. The presentation is organized in four sections dealing with a uniform and static, a uniform and dynamic, a nonuniform and

  3. The Semantic Web and Educational Technology

    Maddux, Cleborne D., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Semantic Web" is an idea proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the "World Wide Web." The topic has been generating a great deal of interest and enthusiasm, and there is a rapidly growing body of literature dealing with it. This article attempts to explain how the Semantic Web would work, and explores short-term and long-term…

  4. The Semantic Web in Teacher Education

    Czerkawski, Betül Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

  5. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  6. Semantic Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon

    Ameel, Eef; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert; Van Assche, Fons

    2009-01-01

    Bilinguals' lexical mappings for their two languages have been found to converge toward a common naming pattern. The present paper investigates in more detail how semantic convergence is manifested in bilingual lexical knowledge. We examined how semantic convergence affects the centers and boundaries of lexical categories for common household…

  7. Recall from Semantic and Episodic Memory.

    Gillund, Gary; Perlmutter, Marion

    Although research in episodic recall memory, comparing younger and older adults, favors the younger adults, findings in semantic memory research are less consistent. To examine age differences in semantic and episodic memory recall, 72 young adults (mean age, 20.8) and 72 older adults (mean age 71) completed three memory tests under varied…

  8. Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Fluency.

    Schaefer, Carl F.

    1980-01-01

    Suggests that creating a second-language semantic network can be conceived as developing a plan for retrieving second-language word forms. Characteristics of linguistic performance which will promote fluency are discussed in light of the distinction between episodic and semantic memory. (AMH)

  9. Semantics and expressiveness of ordered SOS

    Mousavi, M.R.; Phillips, I.C.C.; Reniers, M.A.; Ulidowski, I.

    2009-01-01

    Structured Operational Semantics (SOS) is a popular method for defining semantics by means of transition rules. An important feature of SOS rules is negative premises, which are crucial in the definitions of such phenomena as priority mechanisms and time-outs. However, the inclusion of negative

  10. UML Semantics FAQ: Dynamic Behaviour and Concurrency

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Demeyer, Serge; Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna; Le Guennec, Alain; Hussman, Heinrich; van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    This paper reports the results of a workshop held at ECOOP'99. The workshop was set up to find answers to questions fundamental to the definition of a semantics for the Unified Modelling Language. Questions examined the meaning of the term semantics in the context of UML; approaches to defining the

  11. Towards Semantic Interpretation of Movement Behavior

    Baglioni, M.; Macedo, J.; Renso, C.; Trasarti, R.; Wachowicz, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we aim at providing a model for the conceptual representation and deductive reasoning of trajectory patterns obtained from mining raw trajectories. This has been achieved by means of a semantic enrichment process, where raw trajectories are enhanced with semantic information and

  12. Recommendations based on semantically enriched museum collections

    Wang, Y.; Stash, N.; Aroyo, L.M.; Gorgels, P.; Rutledge, L.W.; Schreiber, G.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the CHIP demonstrator1 for providing personalized access to digital museum collections. It consists of three main components: Art Recommender, Tour Wizard, and Mobile Tour Guide. Based on the semantically enriched Rijksmuseum Amsterdam2 collection, we show how Semantic Web

  13. Elaborative Retrieval: Do Semantic Mediators Improve Memory?

    Lehman, Melissa; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The elaborative retrieval account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances retention because the retrieval process produces the generation of semantic mediators that link cues to target information. We tested 2 assumptions that form the basis of this account: that semantic mediators are more likely to be generated during…

  14. Learning the Semantics of Structured Data Sources

    Taheriyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data, however, they rarely provide a semantic model to describe their contents. Semantic models of data sources capture the intended meaning of data sources by mapping them to the concepts and relationships defined by a…

  15. Orthographic and Semantic Processing in Young Readers

    Polse, Lara R.; Reilly, Judy S.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined orthographic and semantic processing during reading acquisition. Children in first to fourth grade were presented with a target word and two response alternatives, and were asked to identify the semantic match. Words were presented in four conditions: an exact match and unrelated foil (STONE-STONE-EARS), an exact match…

  16. Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise

    Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike

    2012-01-01

    An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

  17. Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    1975-01-01

    Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

  18. Semantics by analogy for illustrative volume visualization

    Gerl, Moritz; Rautek, Peter; Isenberg, Tobias; Groeller, Eduard

    We present an interactive graphical approach for the explicit specification of semantics for volume visualization. This explicit and graphical specification of semantics for volumetric features allows us to visually assign meaning to both input and output parameters of the visualization mapping.

  19. Quality model for semantic IS standards

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert

    2011-01-01

    Semantic IS (Information Systems) standards are essential for achieving interoperability between organizations. However a recent survey suggests that not the full benefits of standards are achieved, due to the quality issues. This paper presents a quality model for semantic IS standards, that should

  20. Semantic Tagging with Deep Residual Networks

    Bjerva, Johannes; Plank, Barbara; Bos, Johan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel semantic tagging task, semtagging, tailored for the purpose of multilingual semantic parsing, and present the first tagger using deep residual networks (ResNets). Our tagger uses both word and character representations and includes a novel residual bypass architecture. We evaluate

  1. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  2. Evolution and Reactivity in the Semantic Web

    Alferes, José Júlio; Eckert, Michael; May, Wolfgang

    Evolution and reactivity in the Semantic Web address the vision and concrete need for an active Web, where data sources evolve autonomously and perceive and react to events. In 2004, when the Rewerse project started, regarding work on Evolution and Reactivity in the Semantic Web there wasn’t much more than a vision of such an active Web.

  3. Semantic annotation in biomedicine: the current landscape.

    Jovanović, Jelena; Bagheri, Ebrahim

    2017-09-22

    The abundance and unstructured nature of biomedical texts, be it clinical or research content, impose significant challenges for the effective and efficient use of information and knowledge stored in such texts. Annotation of biomedical documents with machine intelligible semantics facilitates advanced, semantics-based text management, curation, indexing, and search. This paper focuses on annotation of biomedical entity mentions with concepts from relevant biomedical knowledge bases such as UMLS. As a result, the meaning of those mentions is unambiguously and explicitly defined, and thus made readily available for automated processing. This process is widely known as semantic annotation, and the tools that perform it are known as semantic annotators.Over the last dozen years, the biomedical research community has invested significant efforts in the development of biomedical semantic annotation technology. Aiming to establish grounds for further developments in this area, we review a selected set of state of the art biomedical semantic annotators, focusing particularly on general purpose annotators, that is, semantic annotation tools that can be customized to work with texts from any area of biomedicine. We also examine potential directions for further improvements of today's annotators which could make them even more capable of meeting the needs of real-world applications. To motivate and encourage further developments in this area, along the suggested and/or related directions, we review existing and potential practical applications and benefits of semantic annotators.

  4. A Semantics for Modular General Logic Programs

    Etalle, Sandro

    1998-01-01

    Modular programs are built as a combination of separate modules, which may be developed and verified separately. Therefore, in order to reason over such programs, compositionality plays a crucial role: the semantics of the whole program must be obtainable as a simple function from the semantics of

  5. A semantics for modular general logic programs

    Etalle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Modular programs are built as a combination of separate modules, which may be developed and verified separately. Therefore, in order to reason over such programs, compositionality plays a crucial role: the semantics of the whole program must be obtainable as a simple function from the semantics of

  6. Semantics vs Pragmatics of a Compound Word

    Smirnova, Elena A.; Biktemirova, Ella I.; Davletbaeva, Diana N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of correlation between semantic and pragmatic potential of a compound word, which functions in informal speech, and the mechanisms of secondary nomination, which realizes the potential of semantic-pragmatic features of colloquial compounds. The relevance and the choice of the research question is based on the…

  7. Adding Recursive Constructs to Bialgebraic Semantics

    Klin, Bartek

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims at fitting a general class of recursive equations into the framework of ‘well-behaved' structural operational semantics, formalized as bialgebraic semantics by Turi and Plotkin. Rather than interpreting recursive constructs by means of operational rules, separate recursive equatio...

  8. Semantic analyzability in children's understanding of idioms.

    Gibbs, R W

    1991-06-01

    This study investigated the role of semantic analyzability in children's understanding of idioms. Kindergartners and first, third, and fourth graders listened to idiomatic expressions either alone or at the end of short story contexts. Their task was to explain verbally the intended meanings of these phrases and then to choose their correct idiomatic interpretations. The idioms presented to the children differed in their degree of analyzability. Some idioms were highly analyzable or decomposable, with the meanings of their parts contributing independently to their overall figurative meanings. Other idioms were nondecomposable because it was difficult to see any relation between a phrase's individual components and the idiom's figurative meaning. The results showed that younger children (kindergartners and first graders) understood decomposable idioms better than they did nondecomposable phrases. Older children (third and fourth graders) understood both kinds of idioms equally well in supporting contexts, but were better at interpreting decomposable idioms than they were at understanding nondecomposable idioms without contextual information. These findings demonstrate that young children better understand idiomatic phrases whose individual parts independently contribute to their overall figurative meanings.

  9. Relationship Structures and Semantic Type Assignments of the UMLS Enriched Semantic Network

    Zhang, Li; Halper, Michael; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Cimino, James J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Enriched Semantic Network (ESN) was introduced as an extension of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Semantic Network (SN). Its multiple subsumption configuration and concomitant multiple inheritance make the ESN's relationship structures and semantic type assignments different from those of the SN. A technique for deriving the relationship structures of the ESN's semantic types and an automated technique for deriving the ESN's semantic type assignments from those of the SN are presented. Design: The technique to derive the ESN's relationship structures finds all newly inherited relationships in the ESN. All such relationships are audited for semantic validity, and the blocking mechanism is used to block invalid relationships. The mapping technique to derive the ESN's semantic type assignments uses current SN semantic type assignments and preserves nonredundant categorizations, while preventing new redundant categorizations. Results: Among the 426 newly inherited relationships, 326 are deemed valid. Seven blockings are applied to avoid inheritance of the 100 invalid relationships. Sixteen semantic types have different relationship structures in the ESN as compared to those in the SN. The mapping of semantic type assignments from the SN to the ESN avoids the generation of 26,950 redundant categorizations. The resulting ESN contains 138 semantic types, 149 IS-A links, 7,303 relationships, and 1,013,876 semantic type assignments. Conclusion: The ESN's multiple inheritance provides more complete relationship structures than in the SN. The ESN's semantic type assignments avoid the existing redundant categorizations appearing in the SN and prevent new ones that might arise due to multiple parents. Compared to the SN, the ESN provides a more accurate unifying semantic abstraction of the UMLS Metathesaurus. PMID:16049233

  10. Topics in Semantics-based Program Manipulation

    Grobauer, Bernt

    four articles in the field of semantics-based techniques for program manipulation: three articles are about partial evaluation, a method for program specialization; the fourth article treats an approach to automatic cost analysis. Partial evaluation optimizes programs by specializing them with respect...... article in this dissertation describes how the second Futamura projection can be achieved for type-directed partial evaluation (TDPE), a relatively recent approach to partial evaluation: We derive an ML implementation of the second Futamura projection for TDPE. Due to the differences between ‘traditional...... denotational semantics—allows us to relate various possible semantics to each other both conceptually and formally. We thus are able to explain goal-directed evaluation using an intuitive list-based semantics, while using a continuation semantics for semantics-based compilation through partial evaluation...

  11. Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion

    Cheng Wen-Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

  12. Scandinavian Semantics and the Human Body

    Levisen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    , it is demonstrated that Scandinavian and English systems differ significantly in some aspects of the way in which the construe the human body with words. The study ventures an innovative combination of methods, pairing the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach to linguistic and conceptual analysis......This paper presents an ethnolinguistic analysis of how the space between the head and the body is construed in Scandinavian semantic systems vis-a-vis the semantic system of English. With an extensive case study of neck-related meanings in Danish, and with cross-Scandinavian reference...... with empirical evidence from the Evolution of Semantic Systems (EoSS) project. This combination of empirical and interpretative tools helps to integrate evidence from semantics and semiotics, pinning out in great detail the intricacies of the meanings of particular body words. The paper concludes that body words...

  13. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  14. Are We the Walking Dead? Burnout as Zombie Apocalypse.

    Doolittle, Benjamin R

    2016-11-01

    The Walking Dead , one of the most popular television shows in recent history, uses the plot of a zombie apocalypse as a lens into exploring the human condition. Amidst a particularly dangerous moment, the show's hero references the human struggle to survive by remarking, " We are the walking dead." This offhand comment sheds light upon physicians' struggles in medicine, in particular the high prevalence of burnout and the challenge to cultivate compassion and meaning. This is an important question for our age and for our profession. Are we the walking dead? © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  15. Dead-Time Generation in Six-Phase Frequency Inverter

    Aurelijus Pitrėnas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper control of multi-phase induction drives is discussed. Structure of six-phase frequency inverter is examined. The article deals with dead-time generation circuits in six-phase frequency inverter for transistor control signals. Computer models of dead-time circuits is created using LTspice software package. Simulation results are compared with experimental results of the tested dead-time circuits. Parameters obtained in simulation results are close to the parameters obtained in experimental results.

  16. Noninvasive measurement of mean alveolar carbon dioxide tension and Bohr's dead space during tidal breathing.

    Koulouris, N G; Latsi, P; Dimitroulis, J; Jordanoglou, B; Gaga, M; Jordanoglou, J

    2001-06-01

    The lack of methodology for measuring the alveolar carbon dioxide tension (PA,CO2) has forced investigators to make several assumptions, such as that PA,CO2 is equal to end-tidal (PET,CO2) and arterial CO2 tension (Pa,CO2). The present study measured the mean PA,CO2 and Bohr's dead space ratio (Bohr's dead space/tidal volume (VD,Bohr/VT)) during tidal breathing. The method used is a new, simple and noninvasive technique, based on the analysis of the expired CO2 volume per breath (VCO2) versus the exhaled VT. This curve was analysed in 21 normal, healthy subjects and 35 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients breathing tidally through a mouthpiece apparatus in the sitting position. It is shown that: 1) PA,CO2 is similar to Pa,CO2 in normal subjects, whilst it is significantly lower than Pa,CO2 in COPD patients; 2) PA,CO2 is significantly higher than PET,CO2 in all subjects, especially in COPD patients; 3) VD,Bohr/VT is increased in COPD patients as compared to normal subjects; and 4) VD,Bohr/VT is lower than the "physiological" dead space ratio (VD,phys/VT) in COPD patients. It is concluded that the expired carbon dioxide versus tidal volume curve is a useful tool for research and clinical work, because it permits the noninvasive and accurate measurement of Bohr's dead space and mean alveolar carbon dioxide tension accurately during spontaneous breathing.

  17. Strategic Branching: Is There a Way out of a Dead End?

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Minakir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses problems of choosing a strategy of Russia’s development. It is shown that the issue is not with choosing a rational way of economic behavior in macrosphere but ways of development in the economy that continues to close, all the mechanisms and relationships of which are oriented at the economy that functions in global production cycle. The article states that Russian economy is in systemic crisis that is a classical Marx’s crisis of overproduction when supporting the ratio and fulfilling balanced obligations (that became state’s obligations after the triumph of state monopoly is only possible in case of preserving the existing ratio of ‘prices’ (rent income of budget, savings, final expenses, corporate profits, ruble rate, interest rate, etc.. The main problem is identified as internal factors: lack of effective arbitration, stasis of political and social formats, conflict between pseudo-market and state-monopolistic sectors of economy; not the external ones, the existence of which is objective. Therefore numerous discussions about a new strategy of development that were supposed to establish a new effective economy are, in fact, raising a question of necessity of changing the meta-goal, that in turn will lead to the necessity of discussing the issue of content and form of social development in general

  18. Filtration characteristics in dead-end ultrafiltration of wwtp-effluent

    Roorda, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    With a growing need for water for many purposes on one side and an increasing degree of wastewater treatment producing water with an improved quality on the other side, the necessity of water reuse will grow, especially in highly industrialised countries with restricted natural water sources.

  19. A Way Forward Beyond Karl Popper's and Donald T. Campbell's Dead-End Evolutionary Epistemologies.

    Wettersten, John

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural thought processes have traditionally served as foundations for philosophies of science. The source of all knowledge is passively received observations; these are combined to produce certain knowledge. After David Hume showed that this was not possible, deductivist alternatives, that is, theories that find a source of knowledge in ideas not derived from observations, from Immanuel Kant to William Whewell in the mid-1 9th century, were introduced. In response, traditional associationist and inductivist views were refurbished; a deductivist alternative was developed by the W6rzburg School. Much later Karl Popper in philosophy and Donald T. Campbell in psychology integrated this view with evolutionary theory. Campbell wanted thereby to find a justificationist view, which would reduce philosophy of science to cognitive psychology; Popper rejected both justificationism and the reduction of philosophy of science to psychology. Campbell thought all rational processes were innate psychological processes; Popper thought psychological processes were used to develop various rational processes. Campbell could not show that all rational thought was reducible to innate psychological processes, nor how some justification of scientific theories was possible. Popper could not show how evolutionary theory contributed to our knowledge of psychological thought processes. Both failed to observe that cognitive processes are social; people have learned how to think by learning how to interact in social groups seeking understanding. When innate thought processes are studied as social characteristics, evolutionary theory can contribute to both cognitive psychology and the theory of rationality, as both Popper and Campbell wanted it to do.

  20. Modeling and optimization of membrane lifetime in dead-end ultra filtration

    Zondervan, E.; Roffel, B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a membrane lifetime model is developed and experimentally validated. The lifetime model is based on the Weibull probability density function. The lifetime model can be used to determine an unambiguous characteristic membrane lifetime. Experimental results showed that membrane lifetime

  1. Dark Energy After GW170817: Dead Ends and the Road Ahead

    Ezquiaga, Jose María; Zumalacárregui, Miguel

    2017-12-01

    Multimessenger gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy has commenced with the detection of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 and its associated electromagnetic counterparts. The almost coincident observation of both signals places an exquisite bound on the GW speed |cg/c -1 |≤5 ×10-16 . We use this result to probe the nature of dark energy (DE), showing that a large class of scalar-tensor theories and DE models are highly disfavored. As an example we consider the covariant Galileon, a cosmologically viable, well motivated gravity theory which predicts a variable GW speed at low redshift. Our results eliminate any late-universe application of these models, as well as their Horndeski and most of their beyond Horndeski generalizations. Three alternatives (and their combinations) emerge as the only possible scalar-tensor DE models: (1) restricting Horndeski's action to its simplest terms, (2) applying a conformal transformation which preserves the causal structure, and (3) compensating the different terms that modify the GW speed (to be robust, the compensation has to be independent on the background on which GWs propagate). Our conclusions extend to any other gravity theory predicting varying cg such as Einstein-Aether, Hořava gravity, Generalized Proca, tensor-vector-scalar gravity (TEVES), and other MOND-like gravities.

  2. Fouling behavior of silica nanoparticle-surfactant mixtures during constant flux dead-end ultrafiltration

    Trzaskus, Krzystof; Lee, Sooi Li; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Nijmeijer, Kitty

    2017-01-01

    The increasing use of engineered nanoparticles in customer products results in their accumulation in water sources. In this experimental study, we investigated the role of surfactant type (cationic, anionic and non-ionic) and concentration on fouling development, nanoparticle rejection and fouling

  3. Pipelines and Dead Ends: Jobs Held by Minorities and Women in Broadcast News.

    Stone, Vernon A.

    Because of the problem of lack of progress by minorities and women in the newsrooms of television and radio stations, a survey investigated the types of positions held by minority and non-minority men and women in broadcast news. Subjects, 730 news directors from non-satellite commercial TV stations and commercial radio stations, answered…

  4. Islam: A Dead End for Integration of Female Immigrants in Denmark?

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2009-01-01

    The chapter intends to find out why faith-based Muslim mobilization does not appear to be a preferred strategy for facilitating integrative ways of belonging among immigrant women in Denmark. The data documents that while immigrant women are doing everything they can to facilitate integrative ways...

  5. THE DEAD-END ELIMINATION THEOREM AND ITS USE IN PROTEIN SIDE-CHAIN POSITIONING

    DESMET, J; DEMAEYER, M; HAZES, B; LASTERS, [No Value

    1992-01-01

    THE prediction of a protein's tertiary structure is still a considerable problem because the huge amount of possible conformational space' makes it computationally difficult. With regard to side-chain modelling, a solution has been attempted by the grouping of side-chain conformations into

  6. Dead-end eco-state. No room for people. Sackgasse Oekostaat. Kein Platz fuer Menschen

    Schauerhammer, R

    1990-01-01

    The author comes to the conclusion that, in its present form, the ecology movement is creating a conflict which is alienating man from nature. He investigates the validity of theories about the ozone hole, the greenhouse effect and general pollution. The author also shows that the arguments for environmental conservation favour nuclear technology. The political development of the Green Movement is depicted up to the eco-dictatorship. (DG).

  7. Energy Performance Contracting - success in Austria and Germany - dead end for Europe?

    Seefeldt, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the European market for Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) is extremely diverse. Without a doubt, Germany and Austria are the pioneers, standing out due to their already high market standards and consistent market growth. The market in Germany is characterised by more than 200 EPC-agreements made since the mid-90s - with high-tech individual buildings like hospitals, as well as building 'pools' of up to 100 separate buildings. In Austria, EPC projects have been implemented in approximately 500 buildings during the last four years - with the public building administrations as the driving forces. While EPC has become a standard instrument in facility management in Germany and Austria, in most other European countries the market is still at its very beginning. First, the basic idea and conception of the instrument will be presented in a short introduction, illustrated by concrete project examples with an emphasis on discussing the perspectives from the demand side, especially the public and tertiary sectors. Next, the question centres on how a deliberate energy (efficiency) policy can accelerate the successful market introduction of EPC (role of public building administration as pioneers, support of building owners during project preparation; energy agencies with specific know-how etc.). A last reflection discusses the consequences for a possible directive on Energy Services. In all this, the authors draw continuous attention to the common traits, but also take a look at barriers and success factors. The analysis is based on both authors' broad practical experience in EPC project development and dissemination of best practices

  8. Dream homes and dead ends in the city: a photo essay experiment.

    Fast, Danya

    2017-09-01

    Research focused on the relationship between place and health demonstrates that it is complex and shifting, as overlapping social, historical, institutional and political and economic processes continually transform the landscapes in which lived experiences are embedded. Understanding this relationship requires knowledge of the situated meanings and local worlds that ethnographic methods are well suited to investigate. However, even conventional ethnographic methods can be inadequate to capture the embodied, lived experience of place - experiences in which the sensory and inner processes of memory and imagination are often privileged. Accessing these experiences and processes can require more experimental methodological approaches. In this article, I present work from a series of photo essays created between 2011 and 2016 by 15 young people who inhabit the social, spatial and economic margins of Vancouver, Canada, and discuss some of the challenges and opportunities presented by this methodology. Created over 5 years, and broadly focused on how they understood, experienced and navigated their 'place' in the city in the midst of poverty, addiction, violence and physical and mental health crises, the photo essays young people produced are embedded with personal biographies and trajectories, as well as shared experiences of geography, precarity and possibility in Vancouver. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  9. EDTA fouling in dead-end ultrafiltration of low level radioactive wastewater

    Niu, Lixia [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (MARC), Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055 (China); Zhang, Xue [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhao, Xuan, E-mail: zhxinet@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Hu, Hongying [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (MARC), Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • EDTA in LLRW caused unrecoverable UF membrane fouling. • The rejection of nuclides by UF was significantly enhanced with EDTA addition. • The nuclide (except Ag) deposition on membrane increased with EDTA addition. • Reducing EDTA in the feed water or alkaline/ultrasonic washing were suggested. - Abstract: EDTA is widely used as a detergent, and finally enters into wastewater. The influence of EDTA on ultrafiltration of low level radioactive wastewater (LLRW) was investigated under different operation conditions. As the main organic pollutant, EDTA led to unrecoverable membrane fouling and the normalized flux decreased from 100% to 85% depending on its concentration. The clogging caused by EDTA increased the surface roughness of the membrane, leading to the flux reduction. Both nuclide rejections and depositions on the membrane surfaces were enhanced with EDTA addition, due to the strong complexation of the nuclides with EDTA. However, Ag deposition on the membrane decreased slightly in the presence of EDTA, which may be caused by the stronger attraction of Ag to the unmodified membrane than that to the EDTA-modified one. Transmembrane pressure (TMP) and molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of membranes had negligible effects on membrane fouling, while the nuclide rejections by membrane and the depositions of nuclides on membrane both decreased significantly when the TMP increased to 0.2 MPa and MWCO increased from 5 kDa to 30 kDa. Based on these results, it clearly showed that EDTA even at a low concentration had strong effects on the performance of UF treating LLRW. Therefore, it is suggested for industrial application that pretreatments to reduce EDTA or alkaline/ultrasonic washing involved in UF process were necessary to reduce the nuclide depositions on the membrane surfaces and irradiation dose of membrane surface.

  10. Contingency recruiting a good route for some companies, dead end for others

    Bishop, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on how to avoid the No. 1 mistake companies make shopping for an environmental manager the way they shop for patio furniture. This tongue-in-cheek assessment of a hazardous waste management recruiter, is intended to emphasize that human factors should be uppermost in the minds of those seeking to hire the best environmental managers, she says: The way to avoid such mistakes is to engage the services of a reputable recruitment agency that specializes in finding the right personnel to fill specific needs, she adds

  11. Biodegradable materials for surgical management of infective endocarditis: new solution or a dead end street?

    2014-01-01

    Background One third of patients with infective endocarditis will require operative intervention. Given the superiority of valve repair over valve replacement in many indications other than endocarditis, there has been increasing interest and an increasing number of reports of excellent results of valve repair in acute infective endocarditis. The theoretically ideal material for valve repair in this setting is non-permanent, “vanishing” material, not at risk of seeding or colonization. The goal of this contribution is to review currently available data on biodegradable materials for valve repair in infective endocarditis. Discussion Rigorous electronic and manual literature searches were conducted to identify reports of biodegradable materials for valve repair in infective endocarditis. Articles were identified in electronic database searches of Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library, using a predetermined search strategy. 49 manuscripts were included in the review. Prosthetic materials needed for valve repair can be summarized into annuloplasty rings to remodel the mitral or tricuspid annulus, and patch materials to replace resected valvar tissue. The commercially available biodegradable annuloplasty ring has shown interesting clinical results in a single-center experience; however further data is required for validation and longer follow-up. Unmodified extra-cellular matrix patches, such as small intestinal submucosa, have had promising initial experimental and clinical results in non-infected valve repair, although in valve repair for endocarditis has been reported in only one patient, and concerns have been raised regarding their mechanical stability in an infected field. Summary These evolving biodegradable devices offer the potential for valve repair with degradable materials replaced with autologous tissue, which could further improve the results of valve repair for infective endocarditis. This is an evolving field with promising experimental or initial clinical results, however long-term outcomes are lacking and further data is necessary to validate this theoretically interesting approach to infective endocarditis. PMID:25087015

  12. Biodegradable materials for surgical management of infective endocarditis: new solution or a dead end street?

    Myers, Patrick O; Cikirikcioglu, Mustafa; Kalangos, Afksendiyos

    2014-08-03

    One third of patients with infective endocarditis will require operative intervention. Given the superiority of valve repair over valve replacement in many indications other than endocarditis, there has been increasing interest and an increasing number of reports of excellent results of valve repair in acute infective endocarditis. The theoretically ideal material for valve repair in this setting is non-permanent, "vanishing" material, not at risk of seeding or colonization. The goal of this contribution is to review currently available data on biodegradable materials for valve repair in infective endocarditis. Rigorous electronic and manual literature searches were conducted to identify reports of biodegradable materials for valve repair in infective endocarditis. Articles were identified in electronic database searches of Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library, using a predetermined search strategy. 49 manuscripts were included in the review. Prosthetic materials needed for valve repair can be summarized into annuloplasty rings to remodel the mitral or tricuspid annulus, and patch materials to replace resected valvar tissue. The commercially available biodegradable annuloplasty ring has shown interesting clinical results in a single-center experience; however further data is required for validation and longer follow-up. Unmodified extra-cellular matrix patches, such as small intestinal submucosa, have had promising initial experimental and clinical results in non-infected valve repair, although in valve repair for endocarditis has been reported in only one patient, and concerns have been raised regarding their mechanical stability in an infected field. These evolving biodegradable devices offer the potential for valve repair with degradable materials replaced with autologous tissue, which could further improve the results of valve repair for infective endocarditis. This is an evolving field with promising experimental or initial clinical results, however long-term outcomes are lacking and further data is necessary to validate this theoretically interesting approach to infective endocarditis.

  13. Brassica napus seed endosperm - metabolism and signaling in a dead end tissue.

    Lorenz, Christin; Rolletschek, Hardy; Sunderhaus, Stephanie; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2014-08-28

    Oilseeds are an important element of human nutrition and of increasing significance for the production of industrial materials. The development of the seeds is based on a coordinated interplay of the embryo and its surrounding tissue, the endosperm. This study aims to give insights into the physiological role of endosperm for seed development in the oilseed crop Brassica napus. Using protein separation by two-dimensional (2D) isoelectric focusing (IEF)/SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and protein identification by mass spectrometry three proteome projects were carried out: (i) establishment of an endosperm proteome reference map, (ii) proteomic characterization of endosperm development and (iii) comparison of endosperm and embryo proteomes. The endosperm proteome reference map comprises 930 distinct proteins, including enzymes involved in genetic information processing, carbohydrate metabolism, environmental information processing, energy metabolism, cellular processes and amino acid metabolism. To investigate dynamic changes in protein abundance during seed development, total soluble proteins were extracted from embryo and endosperm fractions at defined time points. Proteins involved in sugar converting and recycling processes, ascorbate metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis and redox balancing were found to be of special importance for seed development in B. napus. Implications for the seed filling process and the function of the endosperm for seed development are discussed. The endosperm is of key importance for embryo development during seed formation in plants. We present a broad study for characterizing endosperm proteins in the oilseed plant B. napus. Furthermore, a project on the biochemical interplay between the embryo and the endosperm during seed development is presented. We provide evidence that the endosperm includes a complete set of enzymes necessary for plant primary metabolism. Combination of our results with metabolome data will further improve systems-level understanding of the seed filling process and provide rational strategies for plant bioengineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dark Energy After GW170817: Dead Ends and the Road Ahead.

    Ezquiaga, Jose María; Zumalacárregui, Miguel

    2017-12-22

    Multimessenger gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy has commenced with the detection of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 and its associated electromagnetic counterparts. The almost coincident observation of both signals places an exquisite bound on the GW speed |c_{g}/c-1|≤5×10^{-16}. We use this result to probe the nature of dark energy (DE), showing that a large class of scalar-tensor theories and DE models are highly disfavored. As an example we consider the covariant Galileon, a cosmologically viable, well motivated gravity theory which predicts a variable GW speed at low redshift. Our results eliminate any late-universe application of these models, as well as their Horndeski and most of their beyond Horndeski generalizations. Three alternatives (and their combinations) emerge as the only possible scalar-tensor DE models: (1) restricting Horndeski's action to its simplest terms, (2) applying a conformal transformation which preserves the causal structure, and (3) compensating the different terms that modify the GW speed (to be robust, the compensation has to be independent on the background on which GWs propagate). Our conclusions extend to any other gravity theory predicting varying c_{g} such as Einstein-Aether, Hořava gravity, Generalized Proca, tensor-vector-scalar gravity (TEVES), and other MOND-like gravities.

  15. Psychoanalysis--on its way down a dead-end street? A concerned commentary.

    Zepf, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    The author discusses the problems when psychoanalysis not only neglects socio-critical issues, diversifies its concepts and sets about to define their common ground with the help of brain research findings and/or of infant observation, but also ignores the implications of attempts to legitimate its scientific status by verifying the outcome of its treatments via nomological and/or qualitative study designs. It is argued that if we reduce psychoanalysis to a mere psychotherapeutic measure we displace the factors essential to neurotic disorders into the blind spot of our field of vision, thus rendering psychoanalysis to be a pseudoscience based on appearances alone. Conceptual clarity, it is argued, cannot be gained from the findings of infant observation or those of brain research. Neither can psychoanalytic treatments be investigated in these manners as long as our current understanding of technical concepts remains highly contradictory. In the author's view present-day psychoanalysis gambles Freud's inheritance away and with it, probably, its own future.

  16. Human Capital and Rates of Return: Brilliant Ideas or Ideological Dead Ends?

    Klees, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Human capital theory and rate of return methodology have long been a dominant framework in comparative and international education and other fields. While there have been criticisms since its inception, it has been ubiquitous and widely accepted as an important mechanism for educational planning, evaluation, and policy making. In this article, I…

  17. Getting connected: Both associative and semantic links structure semantic memory for newly learned persons.

    Wiese, Holger; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether semantic memory for newly learned people is structured by visual co-occurrence, shared semantics, or both. Participants were trained with pairs of simultaneously presented (i.e., co-occurring) preexperimentally unfamiliar faces, which either did or did not share additionally provided semantic information (occupation, place of living, etc.). Semantic information could also be shared between faces that did not co-occur. A subsequent priming experiment revealed faster responses for both co-occurrence/no shared semantics and no co-occurrence/shared semantics conditions, than for an unrelated condition. Strikingly, priming was strongest in the co-occurrence/shared semantics condition, suggesting additive effects of these factors. Additional analysis of event-related brain potentials yielded priming in the N400 component only for combined effects of visual co-occurrence and shared semantics, with more positive amplitudes in this than in the unrelated condition. Overall, these findings suggest that both semantic relatedness and visual co-occurrence are important when novel information is integrated into person-related semantic memory.

  18. End-of-life-vignettes. A Chaplain's story.

    Bodemann, Christina

    2014-03-01

    Julia, a 31-year-old woman, is brain dead after having suffered a cardiac arrest. This article describes a hospital chaplain's journey with her family through the tragedy of letting her die. It addresses the power of pastoral presence and prayer in a situation of loss and grief and the importance of storytelling for everyone involved in Julia's end-of-life care.

  19. Students Thinking Process in Compiling Mathematical Proof with Semantics Strategy

    Abdussakir Abdussakir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Proses Berpikir Mahasiswa dalam Menyusun Bukti Matematis dengan Strategi Semantik   Abstract: This study is aimed to reveal the thinking process in proof construction performed by students with semantic strategy. This study use descriptive-qualitative approach. The thinking process of students will be analyzed using theoretical framework of David Tall about the three worlds of mathematical thinking. The result are three ways of thinking in semantic strategy, namely (1 started from formal world  then move into the symbolic or embodied-symbolic world with possibility of more than once and ends within or outside of the formal world, (2 started from symbolic world or embodied-symbolic world then move to the formal world with possibility of more than once and ends within or outside of the formal world, and (3 all thinking processes performed outside of formal world that does not obtain formal proof. Key Words: thinking process, mathematical proof, semantic strategy   Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan proses berpikir mahasiswa dalam menyusun bukti matematis dengan strategi semantik. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskiptif-kualitatif. Analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan kerangka kerja David Tall tentang tiga dunia berpikir matematik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat enam kemungkinan jalur dalam strategi semantik ditinjau dari teori tiga dunia berpikir matematis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada tiga jalur berpikir mahasiswa dalam menyusun bukti matematis dengan strategi semantik, yaitu (1 bermula dari dunia berpikir formal berpindah ke dunia berpikir wujud-simbolik atau dunia berpikir simbolik dengan proses perpindahan dimungkinkan lebih dari satu kali dan berakhir di dalam atau di luar dunia berpikir formal, (2 bermula dari dunia berpikir wujud simbolik atau dunia berpikir simbolik (non RSP lalu pindah ke dunia berpikir formal dengan proses perpindahan dimungkinkan lebih dari satu kali dan berakhir di

  20. Death ends a life, not a relationship

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    In the final chapter, “Death Ends a Life, not a Relationship: objects as media on children’s graves”, Dorthe Refslund Christensen and Kjetil Sandvik investigate the relational affordances offered by objects as media in practices of death and commemoration on children’s graves. The authors argue...... that when it comes to bereavement practices as they materialize on children’s graves, it is the accommodation and decoration of the grave itself that function as media with their variety of physical objects as ritual and relational tools for communication. The bereaved perform practices on children’s graves...... – mirrored in online memorial sites – that transform the dead child into a being with whom an altered relationship may be built, maintained and developed so that the bereaved can, eventually, integrate the dead into his or her ongoing life....

  1. Dead zone area at the downstream flow of barrages

    Mohamed F. Sauida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flow separation is a natural phenomenon encountered at some cases downstream of barrages. The main flow is divided into current and dead zone flows. The percentage area of dead zone flow must be taken into consideration downstream of barrages, due to its negative effect on flow characteristics. Experimental studies were conducted in the Hydraulic Research Institute (HRI, on a physical regulator model with five vents. Theoretically the separation zone is described as a part of an ellipse which is practically verified by plotting velocity vectors. The results show that the percentage area of dead zone to the area through length of separation depends mainly on the expansion ratio [channel width to width of opened vents], with maximum value of 81% for operated side gates. A statistical analysis was derived, to predict the percentage area of dead zone flow to the area through length of separation.

  2. Optimal linear filtering of Poisson process with dead time

    Glukhova, E.V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents a derivation of an integral equation defining the impulsed transient of optimum linear filtering for evaluation of the intensity of the fluctuating Poisson process with allowance for dead time of transducers

  3. A Cognitive Account of Tense and Aspect: Resurrecting "Dead" Metaphors

    Kravchenko, Prof. A.V.

    2002-01-01

    A cognitive account of tense and aspect is offered that presents an effective alternative to the traditional semantic account, giving deeper insights into the cognitive nature of grammar and enhancing the process of its acquisition.

  4. Examining lateralized semantic access using pictures.

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-03-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs. Participants made an on-line semantic relatedness judgment in response to sequentially presented pictures. We found that when pictures are presented to the right hemisphere responses are generally more accurate than the left hemisphere for semantic relatedness judgments for picture pairs. Furthermore, consistent with earlier DVF studies employing words, we conclude that the RH is better at accessing or maintaining access to information that has a weak or more remote semantic relationship. We also found evidence of faster access for pictures presented to the LH in the strongly-related condition. Overall, these results are consistent with earlier DVF word studies that argue that the cerebral hemispheres each play an important and separable role during semantic retrieval. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrocortical N400 Effects of Semantic Satiation

    Kim Ströberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic satiation is characterised by the subjective and temporary loss of meaning after high repetition of a prime word. To study the nature of this effect, previous electroencephalography (EEG research recorded the N400, an ERP component that is sensitive to violations of semantic context. The N400 is characterised by a relative negativity to words that are unrelated vs. related to the semantic context. The semantic satiation hypothesis predicts that the N400 should decrease with high repetition. However, previous findings have been inconsistent. Because of these inconsistent findings and the shortcomings of previous research, we used a modified design that minimises confounding effects from non-semantic processes. We recorded 64-channel EEG and analysed the N400 in a semantic priming task in which the primes were repeated 3 or 30 times. Critically, we separated low and high repetition trials and excluded response trials. Further, we varied the physical features (letter case and format of consecutive primes to minimise confounding effects from perceptual habituation. For centrofrontal electrodes, the N400 was reduced after 30 repetitions (vs. 3 repetitions. Explorative source reconstructions suggested that activity decreased after 30 repetitions in bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, the right posterior section of the superior and middle temporal gyrus, right supramarginal gyrus, bilateral lateral occipital cortex, and bilateral lateral orbitofrontal cortex. These areas overlap broadly with those typically involved in the N400, namely middle temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus. The results support the semantic rather than the perceptual nature of the satiation effect.

  6. Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia.

    Squire, L R; Zola, S M

    1998-01-01

    Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline diencephalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe/diencephalic damage should be proportionately impaired in both episodic and semantic memory. An alternative view is that the capacity for semantic memory is spared, or partially spared, in amnesia relative to episodic memory ability. This article reviews two kinds of relevant data: 1) case studies where amnesia has occurred early in childhood, before much of an individual's semantic knowledge has been acquired, and 2) experimental studies with amnesic patients of fact and event learning, remembering and knowing, and remote memory. The data provide no compelling support for the view that episodic and semantic memory are affected differently in medial temporal lobe/diencephalic amnesia. However, episodic and semantic memory may be dissociable in those amnesic patients who additionally have severe frontal lobe damage.

  7. Experimental dead-time distortions of Poisson processes

    Faraci, G.; Pennisi, A.R.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Catania

    1983-01-01

    In order to check the distortions, introduced by a non-extended dead time on the Poisson statistics, accurate experiments have been made in single channel counting. At a given measuring time, the dependence on the choice of the time origin and on the width of the dead time has been verified. An excellent agreement has been found between the theoretical expressions and the experimental curves. (orig.)

  8. Inter-deriving Semantic Artifacts for Object-Oriented Programming

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    We present a new abstract machine for Abadi and Cardelli's untyped non-imperative calculus of objects.  This abstract machine mechanically corresponds to both the reduction semantics (i.e., small-step operational semantics) and the natural semantics (i.e., big-step operational semantics) specified...

  9. The Semantics of Plurals: A Defense of Singularism

    Florio, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I defend "semantic singularism", which is the view that syntactically plural terms, such as "they" or "Russell and Whitehead", are semantically singular. A semantically singular term is a term that denotes a single entity. Semantic singularism is to be distinguished from "syntactic singularism", according to which…

  10. The Influence of Semantic Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition

    Yates, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although it is assumed that semantics is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying semantic processing has been in terms of semantic neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that semantic neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…

  11. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  12. Combinatorial algebra syntax and semantics

    Sapir, Mark V

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial Algebra: Syntax and Semantics provides a comprehensive account of many areas of combinatorial algebra. It contains self-contained proofs of  more than 20 fundamental results, both classical and modern. This includes Golod–Shafarevich and Olshanskii's solutions of Burnside problems, Shirshov's solution of Kurosh's problem for PI rings, Belov's solution of Specht's problem for varieties of rings, Grigorchuk's solution of Milnor's problem, Bass–Guivarc'h theorem about the growth of nilpotent groups, Kleiman's solution of Hanna Neumann's problem for varieties of groups, Adian's solution of von Neumann-Day's problem, Trahtman's solution of the road coloring problem of Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss. The book emphasize several ``universal" tools, such as trees, subshifts, uniformly recurrent words, diagrams and automata.   With over 350 exercises at various levels of difficulty and with hints for the more difficult problems, this book can be used as a textbook, and aims to reach a wide and diversified...

  13. The Semantic Analysis of Icon

    m Piravivanak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available "Eikon" (Greek word or "Imago" (Latin word signifies a kind of similarity or "likeness". In Plato’s philosophy, this term implies "likeness" of appearance to pattern or symbol. In semantic analysis of icon, which is correlated with Idea, we can find factors such as "perception", "imagination", "likeness", "imitation" (Mimesis, "imaginary ideas", that is, it is not possible to reduce icon to a material picture because it is supported by cultural (symbolic, perceptual and conceptual sources. The process in which an icon is established indicates a special relation between icon and imaginary ideas that is supported by symbolic sources. Then, it is not possible to regard icon as a material picture because icon is an icon of a symbol which is able to play its role visibly in relation to a symbol.

  14. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  15. Semantics of color in chromatism

    Serov, Nikolai V.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of >: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for >, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  16. Varieties of semantic 'access' deficit in Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia.

    Thompson, Hannah E; Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke's aphasia, associated with poor auditory-verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic 'access' deficit, as opposed to the 'storage' deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of 'access' impairment-related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke's aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke's aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington's paradigmatic assessment of semantic 'access' deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic 'blocking' effects). Patients with Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability-one that mapped onto classical 'syndromes' and one that did not-predicted aspects of the semantic 'access' deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke's aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially 'beneficial' effects of stimulus repetition: cases with

  17. Varieties of semantic ‘access’ deficit in Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia

    Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke’s aphasia, associated with poor auditory–verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic ‘access’ deficit, as opposed to the ‘storage’ deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of ‘access’ impairment—related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke’s aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington’s paradigmatic assessment of semantic ‘access’ deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic ‘blocking’ effects). Patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability—one that mapped onto classical ‘syndromes’ and one that did not—predicted aspects of the semantic ‘access’ deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke’s aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke’s aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially

  18. The dead donor rule, voluntary active euthanasia, and capital punishment.

    Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah

    2011-06-01

    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.

  19. Dead wood for biodiversity - foresters torn between mistrust and commitment

    Deuffic, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Dead wood is a key element in forest biodiversity, which is used as one of the indicators for sustainable development of forests. A survey was conducted among foresters and users in the Landes de Gascogne and ile-de-France areas so as to assess practises and social representations associated with dead wood. From the results of the survey, it appears that there is a diversity of practices and divergences about the implications connected with dead wood. The 64 respondents can be divided into roughly six groups (G1: 'industrial foresters', G2: the 'silvicultural foresters', G3: the 'remote foresters', G4: the 'environmentalist foresters', G5: the 'naturalists' and G6: the 'users'). Among other things, they can be differentiated by their management practises, their degree of knowledge about and concern with ecology, their social networks, their aesthetic judgment, their perception of risks and their economic requirements. While underscoring the scarce popularity on average of the biodiversity-related issues, this sociological survey also highlights: the need for a minimal regulatory framework to achieve integrated retention of dead wood, the serious concern of forest managers in the Landes with plant health risks associated with dead wood, and the need for a functional justification for keeping dead wood in the ecosystem. (authors)

  20. Modeling decay rates of dead wood in a neotropical forest.

    Hérault, Bruno; Beauchêne, Jacques; Muller, Félix; Wagner, Fabien; Baraloto, Christopher; Blanc, Lilian; Martin, Jean-Michel

    2010-09-01

    Variation of dead wood decay rates among tropical trees remains one source of uncertainty in global models of the carbon cycle. Taking advantage of a broad forest plot network surveyed for tree mortality over a 23-year period, we measured the remaining fraction of boles from 367 dead trees from 26 neotropical species widely varying in wood density (0.23-1.24 g cm(-3)) and tree circumference at death time (31.5-272.0 cm). We modeled decay rates within a Bayesian framework assuming a first order differential equation to model the decomposition process and tested for the effects of forest management (selective logging vs. unexploited), of mode of death (standing vs. downed) and of topographical levels (bottomlands vs. hillsides vs. hilltops) on wood decay rates. The general decay model predicts the observed remaining fraction of dead wood (R2 = 60%) with only two biological predictors: tree circumference at death time and wood specific density. Neither selective logging nor local topography had a differential effect on wood decay rates. Including the mode of death into the model revealed that standing dead trees decomposed faster than downed dead trees, but the gain of model accuracy remains rather marginal. Overall, these results suggest that the release of carbon from tropical dead trees to the atmosphere can be simply estimated using tree circumference at death time and wood density.

  1. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    Ashish, Naveen

    2004-01-01

    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

  2. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web

    Yu, Liyang

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years, and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components, and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  3. Change management for semantic web services

    Liu, Xumin; Bouguettaya, Athman

    2011-01-01

    Change Management for Semantic Web Services provides a thorough analysis of change management in the lifecycle of services for databases and workflows, including changes that occur at the individual service level or at the aggregate composed service level. This book describes taxonomy of changes that are expected in semantic service oriented environments. The process of change management consists of detecting, propagating, and reacting to changes. Change Management for Semantic Web Services is one of the first books that discuss the development of a theoretical foundation for managing changes

  4. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  5. A developer's guide to the semantic web

    Yu, Liyang

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  6. Semantic matchmaking with nonmonotonic description logics

    Grimm, S

    2009-01-01

    Semantic web has grown into a mature field of research. Its methods find innovative applications on and off the World Wide Web. Its underlying technologies have significant impact on adjacent fields of research and on industrial applications. This new book series reports on the state-of-the-art in foundations, methods, and applications of semantic web and its underlying technologies. It is a central forum for the communication of recent developments and comprises research monographs, textbooks and edited volumes on all topics related to the semantic web. In this first volume several non-monoto

  7. The Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI Web service Design-Pattern, API and Reference Implementation

    Wilkinson Mark D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complexity and inter-related nature of biological data poses a difficult challenge for data and tool integration. There has been a proliferation of interoperability standards and projects over the past decade, none of which has been widely adopted by the bioinformatics community. Recent attempts have focused on the use of semantics to assist integration, and Semantic Web technologies are being welcomed by this community. Description SADI - Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration - is a lightweight set of fully standards-compliant Semantic Web service design patterns that simplify the publication of services of the type commonly found in bioinformatics and other scientific domains. Using Semantic Web technologies at every level of the Web services "stack", SADI services consume and produce instances of OWL Classes following a small number of very straightforward best-practices. In addition, we provide codebases that support these best-practices, and plug-in tools to popular developer and client software that dramatically simplify deployment of services by providers, and the discovery and utilization of those services by their consumers. Conclusions SADI Services are fully compliant with, and utilize only foundational Web standards; are simple to create and maintain for service providers; and can be discovered and utilized in a very intuitive way by biologist end-users. In addition, the SADI design patterns significantly improve the ability of software to automatically discover appropriate services based on user-needs, and automatically chain these into complex analytical workflows. We show that, when resources are exposed through SADI, data compliant with a given ontological model can be automatically gathered, or generated, from these distributed, non-coordinating resources - a behaviour we have not observed in any other Semantic system. Finally, we show that, using SADI, data dynamically generated from Web services

  8. The Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI) Web service Design-Pattern, API and Reference Implementation

    2011-01-01

    Background The complexity and inter-related nature of biological data poses a difficult challenge for data and tool integration. There has been a proliferation of interoperability standards and projects over the past decade, none of which has been widely adopted by the bioinformatics community. Recent attempts have focused on the use of semantics to assist integration, and Semantic Web technologies are being welcomed by this community. Description SADI - Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration - is a lightweight set of fully standards-compliant Semantic Web service design patterns that simplify the publication of services of the type commonly found in bioinformatics and other scientific domains. Using Semantic Web technologies at every level of the Web services "stack", SADI services consume and produce instances of OWL Classes following a small number of very straightforward best-practices. In addition, we provide codebases that support these best-practices, and plug-in tools to popular developer and client software that dramatically simplify deployment of services by providers, and the discovery and utilization of those services by their consumers. Conclusions SADI Services are fully compliant with, and utilize only foundational Web standards; are simple to create and maintain for service providers; and can be discovered and utilized in a very intuitive way by biologist end-users. In addition, the SADI design patterns significantly improve the ability of software to automatically discover appropriate services based on user-needs, and automatically chain these into complex analytical workflows. We show that, when resources are exposed through SADI, data compliant with a given ontological model can be automatically gathered, or generated, from these distributed, non-coordinating resources - a behaviour we have not observed in any other Semantic system. Finally, we show that, using SADI, data dynamically generated from Web services can be explored in a manner

  9. The Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI) Web service Design-Pattern, API and Reference Implementation.

    Wilkinson, Mark D; Vandervalk, Benjamin; McCarthy, Luke

    2011-10-24

    The complexity and inter-related nature of biological data poses a difficult challenge for data and tool integration. There has been a proliferation of interoperability standards and projects over the past decade, none of which has been widely adopted by the bioinformatics community. Recent attempts have focused on the use of semantics to assist integration, and Semantic Web technologies are being welcomed by this community. SADI - Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration - is a lightweight set of fully standards-compliant Semantic Web service design patterns that simplify the publication of services of the type commonly found in bioinformatics and other scientific domains. Using Semantic Web technologies at every level of the Web services "stack", SADI services consume and produce instances of OWL Classes following a small number of very straightforward best-practices. In addition, we provide codebases that support these best-practices, and plug-in tools to popular developer and client software that dramatically simplify deployment of services by providers, and the discovery and utilization of those services by their consumers. SADI Services are fully compliant with, and utilize only foundational Web standards; are simple to create and maintain for service providers; and can be discovered and utilized in a very intuitive way by biologist end-users. In addition, the SADI design patterns significantly improve the ability of software to automatically discover appropriate services based on user-needs, and automatically chain these into complex analytical workflows. We show that, when resources are exposed through SADI, data compliant with a given ontological model can be automatically gathered, or generated, from these distributed, non-coordinating resources - a behaviour we have not observed in any other Semantic system. Finally, we show that, using SADI, data dynamically generated from Web services can be explored in a manner very similar to data housed in

  10. Word-embeddings Italian semantic spaces: A semantic model for psycholinguistic research

    Marelli Marco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributional semantics has been for long a source of successful models in psycholinguistics, permitting to obtain semantic estimates for a large number of words in an automatic and fast way. However, resources in this respect remain scarce or limitedly accessible for languages different from English. The present paper describes WEISS (Word-Embeddings Italian Semantic Space, a distributional semantic model based on Italian. WEISS includes models of semantic representations that are trained adopting state-of-the-art word-embeddings methods, applying neural networks to induce distributed representations for lexical meanings. The resource is evaluated against two test sets, demonstrating that WEISS obtains a better performance with respect to a baseline encoding word associations. Moreover, an extensive qualitative analysis of the WEISS output provides examples of the model potentialities in capturing several semantic phenomena. Two variants of WEISS are released and made easily accessible via web through the SNAUT graphic interface.

  11. SemanticOrganizer: A Customizable Semantic Repository for Distributed NASA Project Teams

    Keller, Richard M.; Berrios, Daniel C.; Carvalho, Robert E.; Hall, David R.; Rich, Stephen J.; Sturken, Ian B.; Swanson, Keith J.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

    2004-01-01

    SemanticOrganizer is a collaborative knowledge management system designed to support distributed NASA projects, including diverse teams of scientists, engineers, and accident investigators. The system provides a customizable, semantically structured information repository that stores work products relevant to multiple projects of differing types. SemanticOrganizer is one of the earliest and largest semantic web applications deployed at NASA to date, and has been used in diverse contexts ranging from the investigation of Space Shuttle Columbia's accident to the search for life on other planets. Although the underlying repository employs a single unified ontology, access control and ontology customization mechanisms make the repository contents appear different for each project team. This paper describes SemanticOrganizer, its customization facilities, and a sampling of its applications. The paper also summarizes some key lessons learned from building and fielding a successful semantic web application across a wide-ranging set of domains with diverse users.

  12. Cross border semantic interoperability for clinical research: the EHR4CR semantic resources and services

    Daniel, Christel; Ouagne, David; Sadou, Eric; Forsberg, Kerstin; Gilchrist, Mark Mc; Zapletal, Eric; Paris, Nicolas; Hussain, Sajjad; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; MD, Dipka Kalra

    2016-01-01

    With the development of platforms enabling the use of routinely collected clinical data in the context of international clinical research, scalable solutions for cross border semantic interoperability need to be developed. Within the context of the IMI EHR4CR project, we first defined the requirements and evaluation criteria of the EHR4CR semantic interoperability platform and then developed the semantic resources and supportive services and tooling to assist hospital sites in standardizing their data for allowing the execution of the project use cases. The experience gained from the evaluation of the EHR4CR platform accessing to semantically equivalent data elements across 11 European participating EHR systems from 5 countries demonstrated how far the mediation model and mapping efforts met the expected requirements of the project. Developers of semantic interoperability platforms are beginning to address a core set of requirements in order to reach the goal of developing cross border semantic integration of data. PMID:27570649

  13. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fuse...... its transition function with its driver loop, obtaining the functional implementation of a big-step abstract machine; (2) we adjust this big-step abstract machine so that it is in defunctionalized form, obtaining the functional implementation of a second big-step abstract machine; (3) we...... refunctionalize this adjusted abstract machine, obtaining the functional implementation of a natural semantics in continuation style; and (4) we closure-unconvert this natural semantics, obtaining a compositional continuation-passing evaluation function which we identify as the functional implementation...

  14. A Semantic Analysis Method for Scientific and Engineering Code

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a procedure to statically analyze aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. The analysis involves adding semantic declarations to a user's code and parsing this semantic knowledge with the original code using multiple expert parsers. These semantic parsers are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. In practice, a user would submit code with semantic declarations of primitive variables to the analysis procedure, and its semantic parsers would automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. A prototype implementation of this analysis procedure is demonstrated. Further, the relationship between the fundamental algebraic manipulations of equations and the parsing of expressions is explained. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  15. Exercising is like flogging a dead horse

    Molhoek, W.

    2003-01-01

    - FR (NPP Gravelines) was conducted (22-23th of May 2001). The main objectives of the INEX series of exercises were focused on: decision making based on limited information and uncertain plant conditions; the use of real time communications with actual equipment and procedures; public information and interaction with media; the use of real weather for real time forecasts. For real further improvement of (nuclear) emergency management and response, not only national and international exercises such as INEX, CONVEX, JINEX etc. are needed, but the efforts to improve personal performance of key-persons involved is crucial. Structural plans to train and exercise individuals and teams should therefore be developed as well. To move the dead horse and create a racehorse need a lot of personal skills and attention. It is also recognized that often the carrot is better than the whip. (author)

  16. Putting semantics into the semantic web: how well can it capture biology?

    Kazic, Toni

    2006-01-01

    Could the Semantic Web work for computations of biological interest in the way it's intended to work for movie reviews and commercial transactions? It would be wonderful if it could, so it's worth looking to see if its infrastructure is adequate to the job. The technologies of the Semantic Web make several crucial assumptions. I examine those assumptions; argue that they create significant problems; and suggest some alternative ways of achieving the Semantic Web's goals for biology.

  17. The contribution of executive control to semantic cognition: Convergent evidence from semantic aphasia and executive dysfunction.

    Thompson, Hannah E; Almaghyuli, Azizah; Noonan, Krist A; Barak, Ohr; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2018-01-03

    Semantic cognition, as described by the controlled semantic cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers et al., , Neuropsychologia, 76, 220), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal 'hub' in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task-appropriate behaviour. Executive-semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive regions such as frontal and parietal cortex, are thought to allow the generation of non-dominant aspects of knowledge when these are appropriate for the task or context. Semantic aphasia (SA) patients have executive-semantic deficits, and these are correlated with general executive impairment. If the CSC proposal is correct, patients with executive impairment should not only exhibit impaired semantic cognition, but should also show characteristics that align with those observed in SA. This possibility remains largely untested, as patients selected on the basis that they show executive impairment (i.e., with 'dysexecutive syndrome') have not been extensively tested on tasks tapping semantic control and have not been previously compared with SA cases. We explored conceptual processing in 12 patients showing symptoms consistent with dysexecutive syndrome (DYS) and 24 SA patients, using a range of multimodal semantic assessments which manipulated control demands. Patients with executive impairments, despite not being selected to show semantic impairments, nevertheless showed parallel patterns to SA cases. They showed strong effects of distractor strength, cues and miscues, and probe-target distance, plus minimal effects of word frequency on comprehension (unlike semantic dementia patients with degradation of conceptual knowledge). This supports a component process account of semantic cognition in which retrieval is shaped by control processes, and confirms that deficits in SA patients reflect

  18. The contribution of executive control to semantic cognition: Convergent evidence from semantic aphasia and executive dysfunction

    Thompson, Hannah E; Almaghyuli, Azizah; Noonan, Krist A.; Barak, Ohr; Lambon Ralph, Matthew; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Semantic cognition, as described by the Controlled Semantic Cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers, Patterson, Jefferies, & Lambon Ralph, 2015), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal ‘hub’ in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task- appropriate behaviour. Executive-semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive...

  19. The contribution of executive control to semantic cognition: Convergent evidence from semantic aphasia and executive dysfunction

    Thompson, Hannah; Almaghyuli, Azizah; Noonan, Krist A.; barak, Ohr; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Semantic cognition, as described by the controlled semantic cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers et al., 2015, Neuropsychologia, 76, 220), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal ‘hub’ in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task-appropriate behaviour. Executive–semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive regions ...

  20. Using semantic analysis to improve speech recognition performance

    Erdoğan, Hakan; Erdogan, Hakan; Sarıkaya, Ruhi; Sarikaya, Ruhi; Chen, Stanley F.; Gao, Yuqing; Picheny, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Although syntactic structure has been used in recent work in language modeling, there has not been much effort in using semantic analysis for language models. In this study, we propose three new language modeling techniques that use semantic analysis for spoken dialog systems. We call these methods concept sequence modeling, two-level semantic-lexical modeling, and joint semantic-lexical modeling. These models combine lexical information with varying amounts of semantic information, using ann...

  1. Information Interaction as a Mechanism of Semantic Gap Elimination

    Victor Y. Tsvetkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies semantic gap as an objective phenomenon, shows that semantic gap occurs both in parallel computing and in other areas. Semantic description of the content is revealed as a set of different descriptions. Causes of semantic gap are described. The content of information exchange is explained in the article. Information interaction in the semantic field is interpreted as a mechanism to lessen the gap

  2. A logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines

    Simmons, Robert J.; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We present a logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines. This correspondence enables the mechanical and fully-correct construction of an abstract machine from a natural semantics. Our logical correspondence mirrors the Reynolds functional correspondence, but we...... manipulate semantic specifications encoded in a logical framework instead of manipulating functional programs. Natural semantics and abstract machines are instances of substructural operational semantics. As a byproduct, using a substructural logical framework, we bring concurrent and stateful models...

  3. The neural substrates of musical memory revealed by fMRI and two semantic tasks.

    Groussard, M; Rauchs, G; Landeau, B; Viader, F; Desgranges, B; Eustache, F; Platel, H

    2010-12-01

    Recognizing a musical excerpt without necessarily retrieving its title typically reflects the existence of a memory system dedicated to the retrieval of musical knowledge. The functional distinction between musical and verbal semantic memory has seldom been investigated. In this fMRI study, we directly compared the musical and verbal memory of 20 nonmusicians, using a congruence task involving automatic semantic retrieval and a familiarity task requiring more thorough semantic retrieval. In the former, participants had to access their semantic store to retrieve musical or verbal representations of melodies or expressions they heard, in order to decide whether these were then given the right ending or not. In the latter, they had to judge the level of familiarity of musical excerpts and expressions. Both tasks revealed activation of the left inferior frontal and posterior middle temporal cortices, suggesting that executive and selection processes are common to both verbal and musical retrievals. Distinct patterns of activation were observed within the left temporal cortex, with musical material mainly activating the superior temporal gyrus and verbal material the middle and inferior gyri. This cortical organization of musical and verbal semantic representations could explain clinical dissociations featuring selective disturbances for musical or verbal material. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. End-Users, Front Ends and Librarians.

    Bourne, Donna E.

    1989-01-01

    The increase in end-user searching, the advantages and limitations of front ends, and the role of the librarian in end-user searching are discussed. It is argued that librarians need to recognize that front ends can be of benefit to themselves and patrons, and to assume the role of advisors and educators for end-users. (37 references) (CLB)

  5. The structure of semantic person memory: evidence from semantic priming in person recognition.

    Wiese, Holger

    2011-11-01

    This paper reviews research on the structure of semantic person memory as examined with semantic priming. In this experimental paradigm, a familiarity decision on a target face or written name is usually faster when it is preceded by a related as compared to an unrelated prime. This effect has been shown to be relatively short lived and susceptible to interfering items. Moreover, semantic priming can cross stimulus domains, such that a written name can prime a target face and vice versa. However, it remains controversial whether representations of people are stored in associative networks based on co-occurrence, or in more abstract semantic categories. In line with prominent cognitive models of face recognition, which explain semantic priming by shared semantic information between prime and target, recent research demonstrated that priming could be obtained from purely categorically related, non-associated prime/target pairs. Although strategic processes, such as expectancy and retrospective matching likely contribute, there is also evidence for a non-strategic contribution to priming, presumably related to spreading activation. Finally, a semantic priming effect has been demonstrated in the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component, which may reflect facilitated access to semantic information. It is concluded that categorical relatedness is one organizing principle of semantic person memory. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  6. The semantic sphere of juvenile offenders

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a preliminary empirical study aimed to identify features of the semantic sphere of adolescents who have committed illegal, including aggressive acts. The study included 50 male juveniles aged of 16 - 17 years. The first group consisted of adolescents convicted of aggressive and violent crimes; the second – of property socially dangerous acts (SDA. It is shown that evaluation of such adolescents is generally categorical and polar, the semantic field is subdifferentiable, less hierarchic, and has not enough realistic structure of meanings. Developed structure of motives and meanings is the basis of voluntary regulation of socially significant behavior. Thus, assessing the semantic sphere of juvenile offenders we can highlight its characteristics as risk factors of unlawful behavior, as well as the resource side, that will contribute to addressing issues of prevention and correction of unlawful behavior. Key words: juvenile offenders, semantic field of juvenile offenders, unlawful behavior.

  7. Metamodeling of Semantic Web Enabled Multiagent Systems

    Kardas, G.; Göknil, Arda; Dikenelli, O.; Topaloglu, N.Y.; Weyns, D.; Holvoet, T.

    2006-01-01

    Several agent researchers are currently studying agent modeling and they propose dierent architectural metamodels for developing Multiagent Systems (MAS) according to specic agent development methodologies. When support for Semantic Web technology and its related constructs are considered, agent

  8. Priming in Episodic and Semantic Memory.

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    1979-01-01

    Four experiments examined priming between newly learned paired associates through two procedures, lexical decision and item recognition. Results argue against a functional separation of the semantic and episodic memory systems. (Author/AM)

  9. Propagating semantic information in biochemical network models

    Schulz Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To enable automatic searches, alignments, and model combination, the elements of systems biology models need to be compared and matched across models. Elements can be identified by machine-readable biological annotations, but assigning such annotations and matching non-annotated elements is tedious work and calls for automation. Results A new method called "semantic propagation" allows the comparison of model elements based not only on their own annotations, but also on annotations of surrounding elements in the network. One may either propagate feature vectors, describing the annotations of individual elements, or quantitative similarities between elements from different models. Based on semantic propagation, we align partially annotated models and find annotations for non-annotated model elements. Conclusions Semantic propagation and model alignment are included in the open-source library semanticSBML, available on sourceforge. Online services for model alignment and for annotation prediction can be used at http://www.semanticsbml.org.

  10. Preserved semantic priming effect in alexia.

    Mimura, M; Goodglass, H; Milberg, W

    1996-09-01

    BH, a left-handed patient with alexia and nonfluent aphasia, was presented with a lexical-decision task in which words and pronounceable pseudowords were preceded by semantically related or unrelated picture primes (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, BH was given an explicit reading task using the word lists from Experiment 1. Performance on Experiment 2 disclosed severe reading deficits in both oral reading and semantic matching of the words to pictures. However, in Experiment 1, BH demonstrated a significant semantic priming effect, responding more accurately and more quickly to words preceded by related primes than by unrelated primes. The present results suggest that even in a patient with severe alexia, implicit access to semantic information can be preserved in the absence of explicit identification. The possibility of categorical gradient in implicit activation (living vs. nonliving) in BH was also discussed, which, however, needs to be clarified in the further investigation.

  11. Semantic Considerations in the Treatment of Echolalia

    Garber, Norman B.; David, Leigh E.

    1975-01-01

    Two mentally retarded preschool children, both of whom echoed all forms of yes-no questions, were subjected to different treatment procedures varied according to the semantic function of the antecedent verbal stimulus. (Author)

  12. Semantic computing and language knowledge bases

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Houfeng; Yu, Shiwen

    2017-09-01

    As the proposition of the next-generation Web - semantic Web, semantic computing has been drawing more and more attention within the circle and the industries. A lot of research has been conducted on the theory and methodology of the subject, and potential applications have also been investigated and proposed in many fields. The progress of semantic computing made so far cannot be detached from its supporting pivot - language resources, for instance, language knowledge bases. This paper proposes three perspectives of semantic computing from a macro view and describes the current status of affairs about the construction of language knowledge bases and the related research and applications that have been carried out on the basis of these resources via a case study in the Institute of Computational Linguistics at Peking University.

  13. Trust Networks on the Semantic Web

    Golbeck, Jennifer; Parisa, Bijan; Hendler, James

    2006-01-01

    The so-called "Web of Trust" is one of the ultimate goals of the Semantic Web. Research on the topic of trust in this domain has focused largely on digital signatures, certificates, and authentication...

  14. Options for reducing HIV transmission related to the dead space in needles and syringes.

    Zule, William A; Pande, Poonam G; Otiashvili, David; Bobashev, Georgiy V; Friedman, Samuel R; Gyarmathy, V Anna; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2018-01-15

    When shared by people who inject drugs, needles and syringes with different dead space may affect the probability of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission differently. We measured dead space in 56 needle and syringe combinations obtained from needle and syringe programs across 17 countries in Europe and Asia. We also calculated the amounts of blood and HIV that would remain in different combinations following injection and rinsing. Syringe barrel capacities ranged from 0.5 to 20 mL. Needles ranged in length from 8 to 38 mm. The average dead space was 3 μL in low dead space syringes with permanently attached needles, 13 μL in high dead space syringes with low dead space needles, 45 μL in low dead space syringes with high dead space needles, and 99 μL in high dead space syringes with high dead space needles. Among low dead space designs, calculated volumes of blood and HIV viral burden were lowest for low dead space syringes with permanently attached needles and highest for low dead space syringes with high dead space needles. The dead space in different low dead space needle and syringe combinations varied substantially. To reduce HIV transmission related to syringe sharing, needle and syringe programs need to combine this knowledge with the needs of their clients.

  15. A method for the measurement of the intrinsic dead time of a counting system

    Wyllie, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    Equations are derived for (a) the determination of the intrinsic dead time of a counting system in the components preceding the paralysis unit which imposes the set dead time, and (b) a more accurate correction of count rates in a single-channel system, taking into account the extension of the set dead time by the intrinsic dead time. (author)

  16. Bibliographic information organization in the semantic web

    Willer, Mirna

    2013-01-01

    New technologies will underpin the future generation of library catalogues. To facilitate their role providing information, serving users, and fulfilling their mission as cultural heritage and memory institutions, libraries must take a technological leap; their standards and services must be transformed to those of the Semantic Web. Bibliographic Information Organization in the Semantic Web explores the technologies that may power future library catalogues, and argues the necessity of such a leap. The text introduces international bibliographic standards and models, and fundamental concepts in

  17. Learning Semantic Segmentation with Diverse Supervision

    Ye, Linwei; Liu, Zhi; Wang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Models based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) have significantly improved the performance of semantic segmentation. However, learning these models requires a large amount of training images with pixel-level labels, which are very costly and time-consuming to collect. In this paper, we propose a method for learning CNN-based semantic segmentation models from images with several types of annotations that are available for various computer vision tasks, including image-level labels fo...

  18. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    Giorgio eGanis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a probe item by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs between this item and comparison items (irrelevants. Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as memory detection, little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addressed the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study. Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing semantic knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive component (LPC than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. Thus, the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.

  19. Applying semantic web services to enterprise web

    Hu, Y; Yang, Q P; Sun, X; Wei, P

    2008-01-01

    Enterprise Web provides a convenient, extendable, integrated platform for information sharing and knowledge management. However, it still has many drawbacks due to complexity and increasing information glut, as well as the heterogeneity of the information processed. Research in the field of Semantic Web Services has shown the possibility of adding higher level of semantic functionality onto the top of current Enterprise Web, enhancing usability and usefulness of resource, enabling decision su...

  20. Semantic Identification Attacks on Web Browsing

    Guha, Neel

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a Semantic Identification Attack, in which an adversary uses semantic signals about the pages visited in one browsing session to identify other browsing sessions launched by the same user. This attack allows an adver- sary to determine if two browsing sessions originate from the same user regardless of any measures taken by the user to disguise their browser or network. We use the MSNBC Anonymous Browsing data set, which contains a large set of user visits (labeled by category) t...

  1. Semantic Web Without SPARQL.pdf

    Szekely, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Discuss the creation of large Semantic Web applications with billions of triples. Instead of using a traditional SPARQL endpoint, our toolchain is a pure JSON toolchain using JSON-LD and ElasticSearch to support queries. The toolchain is familiar to all developers, does not require knowledge of Semantic Web technologies, and performance is 10X better than using SPARQL endpoints. The presentation illustrates the approach in the context of an application to fight human trafficking, using data f...

  2. Semantics of probabilistic processes an operational approach

    Deng, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses the semantic foundations of concurrent systems with nondeterministic and probabilistic behaviour. Particular attention is given to clarifying the relationship between testing and simulation semantics and characterising bisimulations from metric, logical, and algorithmic perspectives. Besides presenting recent research outcomes in probabilistic concurrency theory, the book exemplifies the use of many mathematical techniques to solve problems in computer science, which is intended to be accessible to postgraduate students in Computer Science and Mathematics. It can also be us

  3. A Walk in the Semantic Park

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob; Zerny, Ian

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions.......To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions....

  4. Verbal prefixation, construction grammar, and semantic compatibility

    Lewandowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the interaction between prefixes, verbs, and abstract argument structure constructions, using as a testing ground the locative alternation. It has been assumed that in order to participate in the locative alternation, a verb must specify a manner of motion from which a ...... between resultative prefixes, alternating verbs, and the more abstract change-of-state variant is driven by semantic coherence. Keywords: resultative prefixes, construction grammar, semantic coherence, locative alternation, Polish...

  5. Contextual Semantic Parsing using Crowdsourced Spatial Descriptions

    Dukes, Kais

    2014-01-01

    We describe a contextual parser for the Robot Commands Treebank, a new crowdsourced resource. In contrast to previous semantic parsers that select the most-probable parse, we consider the different problem of parsing using additional situational context to disambiguate between different readings of a sentence. We show that multiple semantic analyses can be searched using dynamic programming via interaction with a spatial planner, to guide the parsing process. We are able to parse sentences in...

  6. Concurrent semantics for structured design methods

    Nixon, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Also in Jelly, I., Gordon, I., & Groll, P. Software Engineering for Parallel and Distributed Systems. London: Chapman Hall. Design methods can be ambiguous due to di#11;erent interpretations of symbols or concepts. This paper presents a formal semantics for the Ward/Mellor Structured Analysis Method for Real Time systems. These semantics ensures that an unambiguous meaning can be attributed to a particular design. Speci#12;cally, it ensures that concurrent and real-time propert...

  7. Switching Device Dead Time Optimization of Resonant Double-Sided LCC Wireless Charging System for Electric Vehicles

    Xi Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the reduction of the influence of the dead time setting on power level and efficiency of the inverter of double-sided LCC resonant wireless power transfer (WPT system, a dead time soft switching optimization method for metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET is proposed. At first, the mathematic description of double-sided LCC resonant wireless charging system is established, and the operating mode is analyzed as well, deducing the quantitative characteristic that the secondary side compensation capacitor C2 can be adjusted to ensure that the circuit is inductive. A dead time optimization design method is proposed, contributing to achieving zero-voltage switching (ZVS of the inverter, which is closely related to the performance of the WPT system. In the end, a prototype is built. The experimental results verify that dead time calculated by this optimized method can ensure the soft switching of the inverter MOSFET and promote the power and efficiency of the WPT.

  8. Enabling Semantic Queries Against the Spatial Database

    PENG, X.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial database based upon the object-relational database management system (ORDBMS has the merits of a clear data model, good operability and high query efficiency. That is why it has been widely used in spatial data organization and management. However, it cannot express the semantic relationships among geospatial objects, making the query results difficult to meet the user's requirement well. Therefore, this paper represents an attempt to combine the Semantic Web technology with the spatial database so as to make up for the traditional database's disadvantages. In this way, on the one hand, users can take advantages of ORDBMS to store and manage spatial data; on the other hand, if the spatial database is released in the form of Semantic Web, the users could describe a query more concisely with the cognitive pattern which is similar to that of daily life. As a consequence, this methodology enables the benefits of both Semantic Web and the object-relational database (ORDB available. The paper discusses systematically the semantic enriched spatial database's architecture, key technologies and implementation. Subsequently, we demonstrate the function of spatial semantic queries via a practical prototype system. The query results indicate that the method used in this study is feasible.

  9. Semantic-based surveillance video retrieval.

    Hu, Weiming; Xie, Dan; Fu, Zhouyu; Zeng, Wenrong; Maybank, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Visual surveillance produces large amounts of video data. Effective indexing and retrieval from surveillance video databases are very important. Although there are many ways to represent the content of video clips in current video retrieval algorithms, there still exists a semantic gap between users and retrieval systems. Visual surveillance systems supply a platform for investigating semantic-based video retrieval. In this paper, a semantic-based video retrieval framework for visual surveillance is proposed. A cluster-based tracking algorithm is developed to acquire motion trajectories. The trajectories are then clustered hierarchically using the spatial and temporal information, to learn activity models. A hierarchical structure of semantic indexing and retrieval of object activities, where each individual activity automatically inherits all the semantic descriptions of the activity model to which it belongs, is proposed for accessing video clips and individual objects at the semantic level. The proposed retrieval framework supports various queries including queries by keywords, multiple object queries, and queries by sketch. For multiple object queries, succession and simultaneity restrictions, together with depth and breadth first orders, are considered. For sketch-based queries, a method for matching trajectories drawn by users to spatial trajectories is proposed. The effectiveness and efficiency of our framework are tested in a crowded traffic scene.

  10. Semantics by analogy for illustrative volume visualization☆

    Gerl, Moritz; Rautek, Peter; Isenberg, Tobias; Gröller, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive graphical approach for the explicit specification of semantics for volume visualization. This explicit and graphical specification of semantics for volumetric features allows us to visually assign meaning to both input and output parameters of the visualization mapping. This is in contrast to the implicit way of specifying semantics using transfer functions. In particular, we demonstrate how to realize a dynamic specification of semantics which allows to flexibly explore a wide range of mappings. Our approach is based on three concepts. First, we use semantic shader augmentation to automatically add rule-based rendering functionality to static visualization mappings in a shader program, while preserving the visual abstraction that the initial shader encodes. With this technique we extend recent developments that define a mapping between data attributes and visual attributes with rules, which are evaluated using fuzzy logic. Second, we let users define the semantics by analogy through brushing on renderings of the data attributes of interest. Third, the rules are specified graphically in an interface that provides visual clues for potential modifications. Together, the presented methods offer a high degree of freedom in the specification and exploration of rule-based mappings and avoid the limitations of a linguistic rule formulation. PMID:23576827

  11. Usage of semantic representations in recognition memory.

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Hirano, Tetsuji; Ukita, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Meanings of words facilitate false acceptance as well as correct rejection of lures in recognition memory tests, depending on the experimental context. This suggests that semantic representations are both directly and indirectly (i.e., mediated by perceptual representations) used in remembering. Studies using memory conjunction errors (MCEs) paradigms, in which the lures consist of component parts of studied words, have reported semantic facilitation of rejection of the lures. However, attending to components of the lures could potentially cause this. Therefore, we investigated whether semantic overlap of lures facilitates MCEs using Japanese Kanji words in which a whole-word image is more concerned in reading. Experiments demonstrated semantic facilitation of MCEs in a delayed recognition test (Experiment 1), and in immediate recognition tests in which participants were prevented from using phonological or orthographic representations (Experiment 2), and the salient effect on individuals with high semantic memory capacities (Experiment 3). Additionally, analysis of the receiver operating characteristic suggested that this effect is attributed to familiarity-based memory judgement and phantom recollection. These findings indicate that semantic representations can be directly used in remembering, even when perceptual representations of studied words are available.

  12. Semantics of Kinship Terms in Tamil from the Semantic Typology Point of View

    Анна Александровна Смирнитская

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines the lexical-semantic group “kinship terms” in Tamil, applying the attainments of modern semantic typology and the theory of semantic derivation. The kinship terms describing nuclear and extended family are explored. The “semantic shift” relation between two different meanings is established if such relation is realized by synchronous polysemy in one lexeme, semantic derivation, diachronic semantic change, cognates or some other means. The starting point of the study is the typological data from the DatSemShift catalogue of semantic shifts in languages of the world developed by a group of researchers under the guidance of Anna A. Zalizniak in the Institute of Linguistics, RAS. We verify the presence of semantic shifts described in the Database in Tamil. Also, we propose new semantic shifts specific only for this language. We confirm the presence of semantic relation of the studied type among the meanings with English “labels”: father - parents, girl - daughter, to deliver (a child - parents, - child, old woman - wife, owner - wife and others. The data also allows the assumption that the same relation exists between the meanings: old - grandfather, earth - mother, son - courage, unripe - son and others. The meanings of this field are the sources of semantic movements to abstract notions, lexicon of posession, forms of address and others; in addition many inner semantic relations inside this field are revealed. The meanings covering the nuclear part of the kinship system participate in universal semantic shifts described in the DatSemShift catalogue, while the meanings from collateral branches of this bifurcative kinship system (uncle, aunt turn out to be incomparable with kinship terms from indo-european lineal systems. Their meanings can be included in the DatSemShift catalogue only with an indication of system specifics. The information about semantic shifts can be useful for

  13. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework.

  14. Assessment and management of dead-wood habitat

    Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is in the process of revising its resource management plans for six districts in western and southern Oregon as the result of the settlement of a lawsuit brought by the American Forest Resource Council. A range of management alternatives is being considered and evaluated including at least one that will minimize reserves on O&C lands. In order to develop the bases for evaluating management alternatives, the agency needs to derive a reasonable range of objectives for key issues and resources. Dead-wood habitat for wildlife has been identified as a key resource for which decision-making tools and techniques need to be refined and clarified. Under the Northwest Forest Plan, reserves were to play an important role in providing habitat for species associated with dead wood (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, 1994). Thus, the BLM needs to: 1) address the question of how dead wood will be provided if reserves are not included as a management strategy in the revised Resource Management Plan, and 2) be able to evaluate the effects of alternative land management approaches. Dead wood has become an increasingly important conservation issue in managed forests, as awareness of its function in providing wildlife habitat and in basic ecological processes has dramatically increased over the last several decades (Laudenslayer et al., 2002). A major concern of forest managers is providing dead wood habitat for terrestrial wildlife. Wildlife in Pacific Northwest forests have evolved with disturbances that create large amounts of dead wood; so, it is not surprising that many species are closely associated with standing (snags) or down, dead wood. In general, the occurrence or abundance of one-quarter to one-third of forest-dwelling vertebrate wildlife species, is strongly associated with availability of suitable dead-wood habitat (Bunnell et al., 1999; Rose et al., 2001). In

  15. Exploitation of Semantic Building Model in Indoor Navigation Systems

    Anjomshoaa, A.; Shayeganfar, F.; Tjoa, A. Min

    2009-04-01

    There are many types of indoor and outdoor navigation tools and methodologies available. A majority of these solutions are based on Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and instant video and image processing. These approaches are ideal for open world environments where very few information about the target location is available, but for large scale building environments such as hospitals, governmental offices, etc the end-user will need more detailed information about the surrounding context which is especially important in case of people with special needs. This paper presents a smart indoor navigation solution that is based on Semantic Web technologies and Building Information Model (BIM). The proposed solution is also aligned with Google Android's concepts to enlighten the realization of results. Keywords: IAI IFCXML, Building Information Model, Indoor Navigation, Semantic Web, Google Android, People with Special Needs 1 Introduction Built environment is a central factor in our daily life and a big portion of human life is spent inside buildings. Traditionally the buildings are documented using building maps and plans by utilization of IT tools such as computer-aided design (CAD) applications. Documenting the maps in an electronic way is already pervasive but CAD drawings do not suffice the requirements regarding effective building models that can be shared with other building-related applications such as indoor navigation systems. The navigation in built environment is not a new issue, however with the advances in emerging technologies like GPS, mobile and networked environments, and Semantic Web new solutions have been suggested to enrich the traditional building maps and convert them to smart information resources that can be reused in other applications and improve the interpretability with building inhabitants and building visitors. Other important issues that should be addressed in building navigation scenarios are location tagging and end-user communication

  16. Synoptic conditions of fine-particle transport to the last interglacial Red Sea-Dead Sea from Nd-Sr compositions of sediment cores

    Palchan, Daniel; Stein, Mordechai; Goldstein, Steven L.; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Tirosh, Ofir; Erel, Yigal

    2018-01-01

    . At the end of MIS 5e the effect of the regional precipitation diminished and the Dead Sea and Red Sea areas re-entered sever arid conditions with extensive salt deposition at the Dead Sea.

  17. Accuracy in gamma spectrometry: Pileup, dead time, and fast electornics

    Lindstrom, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    An important source of inaccuracy in neutron activation analysis is the nonlinear throughput of the counting system, especially at high counting rates. Losses, due to the finite time needed for events to happen, occur in all parts of the spectrometer system: the germanium detector crystal, preamplifier, amplifier, analog-digital converter (ADC), and MCA or computer. The slowest unbuffered units are the ADC and the amplifier, followed by the crystal. Even with modern fast electronics, losses can be important, although compensating circuits can greatly improve accuracy if they are used correctly. The ADC dead time is less of a problem than it was a decade ago. For example, a modern successive-approximation ADC in the author's laboratory takes 6 μs to digitize a gamma ray in the middle of an 8192-channel spectrum, compared with 60 μs for the Wilkinson device that it replaced. Dead-time circuits in MCAs for many years have compensated very well for this dead time. Pulse pileup is as important as ADC dead time. Random coincidence, the accidental arrival of the signal from two nonrelated gamma rays at the amplifier in a time short compared to the shaping time, results in a composite pulse that distorts the spectrum. For accurate spectrometry, each such random-sum pulse should be excluded from the spectrum (pileup rejection), and the system dead time must be adjusted to compensate for the time the system is busy analyzing this rejected event (pileup live-time correction)

  18. The Dead Sea, The Lake and Its Setting

    Brink, Uri ten

    I cannot think of a subject more befitting the description of interdisciplinary research with societal relevance than the study of the Dead Sea, a terminal lake of the Jordan River in Israel and Jordan. The scientific study of the Dead Sea is intimately connected with politics, religion, archeology, economic development, tourism, and environmental change.The Dead Sea is a relatively closed geologic and limnologic system with drastic physical changes often occurring on human timescales and with a long human history to observe these changes. Research in this unique area covers diverse aspects such as active subsidence and deformation along strike-slip faults; vertical stratification and stability of the water column; physical properties of extremely saline and dense (1234 kg/m3) water; spontaneous precipitation of minerals in an oversaturated environment; origin of the unusual chemical composition of the brine; existence of life in extreme environments; use of lake level fluctuations as a paleoclimatic indicator; and effects on the environment of human intervention versus natural climatic variability. Although the Dead Sea covers a small area on a global scale, it is nevertheless one of the largest natural laboratories for these types of research on Earth. These reasons make the Dead Sea a fascinating topic for the curious mind.

  19. Inter-deriving Semantic Artifacts for Object-Oriented Programming

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    .e., big-step operational semantics) specified in Abadi and Cardelli's monograph. This abstract machine therefore embodies the soundness of Abadi and Cardelli's reduction semantics and natural semantics relative to each other. To move closer to actual implementations, which use environments rather than......We present a new abstract machine for Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects. What is special about this semantic artifact (i.e., man-made construct) is that is mechanically corresponds to both the reduction semantics (i.e., small-step operational semantics) and the natural semantics (i...... actual substitutions, we then represent object methods as closures and in the same inter-derivational spirit, we present three new semantic artifacts: a reduction semantics for a version of Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects with explicit substitutions, an environment-based abstract machine...

  20. End-to-End Adversarial Retinal Image Synthesis.

    Costa, Pedro; Galdran, Adrian; Meyer, Maria Ines; Niemeijer, Meindert; Abramoff, Michael; Mendonca, Ana Maria; Campilho, Aurelio

    2018-03-01

    In medical image analysis applications, the availability of the large amounts of annotated data is becoming increasingly critical. However, annotated medical data is often scarce and costly to obtain. In this paper, we address the problem of synthesizing retinal color images by applying recent techniques based on adversarial learning. In this setting, a generative model is trained to maximize a loss function provided by a second model attempting to classify its output into real or synthetic. In particular, we propose to implement an adversarial autoencoder for the task of retinal vessel network synthesis. We use the generated vessel trees as an intermediate stage for the generation of color retinal images, which is accomplished with a generative adversarial network. Both models require the optimization of almost everywhere differentiable loss functions, which allows us to train them jointly. The resulting model offers an end-to-end retinal image synthesis system capable of generating as many retinal images as the user requires, with their corresponding vessel networks, by sampling from a simple probability distribution that we impose to the associated latent space. We show that the learned latent space contains a well-defined semantic structure, implying that we can perform calculations in the space of retinal images, e.g., smoothly interpolating new data points between two retinal images. Visual and quantitative results demonstrate that the synthesized images are substantially different from those in the training set, while being also anatomically consistent and displaying a reasonable visual quality.

  1. Semantic Linkage of Control Systems

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Control systems are sets of interconnected hardware and software components which regulate the behaviour of processes. The software of modern control systems rises for some years by requirements regarding the flexibility and functionality. Thus the force of innovation grows on enterprises, since ever newer products in ever shorter time intervals must be made available. Associated hereby is the crucial shortening of the product life cycle, whose effects show up in reduced care of the software and the spares inventory. The aim, the concept presented here and developed in a modeling environment, is proved and ensures a minimum functionality of software components. Replacing software components of a control system verified for functionality by a framework at run-time and if necessary the software conditions will become adapted. Quintessential point of this implementation is the usage of an abstract syntax tree. Within its hierarchical structure meta information is attached to nodes and processed by the framework. With the development of the concept for semantic proving of software components the lifetime of software-based products is increased.

  2. Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia

    Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia and…

  3. Semantic tagging of and semantic enhancements to systematics papers: ZooKeys working examples

    Penev, L.; Agosti, D.; Georgiev, T.; Catapano, T.; Miller, J.; Blagoderov, V.; Roberts, D.; Smith, V.S.; Brake, I.; Ryrcroft, S.; Scott, B.; Johnson, N.F.; Morris, R.A.; Sautter, G.; Chavan, V.; Robertson, T.; Remsen, D.; Stoev, P.; Parr, C.; Knapp, S.; Kress, W.J.; Thompson, F.C.; Erwin, T.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of semantic tagging and its potential for semantic enhancements to taxonomic papers is outlined and illustrated by four exemplar papers published in the present issue of ZooKeys. The four papers were created in different ways: (i) written in Microsoft Word and submitted as non-tagged

  4. Modeling the Interaction Between Semantic Agents and Semantic Web Services Using MDA Approach

    Kardas, Geylani; Göknil, Arda; Dikenelli, Oguz; Topaloglu, N. Yasemin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present our metamodeling approach for integrating semantic web services and semantic web enabled agents under Model Driven Architecture (MDA) view which defines a conceptual framework to realize model driven development. We believe that agents must have well designed environment

  5. On the Existence of Semantic Working Memory: Evidence for Direct Semantic Maintenance

    Shivde, Geeta; Anderson, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite widespread acknowledgment of the importance of online semantic maintenance, there has been astonishingly little work that clearly establishes this construct. We review the extant work relevant to short-term retention of meaning and show that, although consistent with semantic working memory, most data can be accommodated in other ways.…

  6. Explaining Semantic Short-Term Memory Deficits: Evidence for the Critical Role of Semantic Control

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought…

  7. Considering the role of semantic memory in episodic future thinking: evidence from semantic dementia.

    Irish, Muireann; Addis, Donna Rose; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Semantic dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative condition characterized by the profound and amodal loss of semantic memory in the context of relatively preserved episodic memory. In contrast, patients with Alzheimer's disease typically display impairments in episodic memory, but with semantic deficits of a much lesser magnitude than in semantic dementia. Our understanding of episodic memory retrieval in these cohorts has greatly increased over the last decade, however, we know relatively little regarding the ability of these patients to imagine and describe possible future events, and whether episodic future thinking is mediated by divergent neural substrates contingent on dementia subtype. Here, we explored episodic future thinking in patients with semantic dementia (n=11) and Alzheimer's disease (n=11), in comparison with healthy control participants (n=10). Participants completed a battery of tests designed to probe episodic and semantic thinking across past and future conditions, as well as standardized tests of episodic and semantic memory. Further, all participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Despite their relatively intact episodic retrieval for recent past events, the semantic dementia cohort showed significant impairments for episodic future thinking. In contrast, the group with Alzheimer's disease showed parallel deficits across past and future episodic conditions. Voxel-based morphometry analyses confirmed that atrophy in the left inferior temporal gyrus and bilateral temporal poles, regions strongly implicated in semantic memory, correlated significantly with deficits in episodic future thinking in semantic dementia. Conversely, episodic future thinking performance in Alzheimer's disease correlated with atrophy in regions associated with episodic memory, namely the posterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus and frontal pole. These distinct neuroanatomical substrates contingent on dementia group were further qualified by correlational

  8. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services.

    Gessler, Damian D G; Schiltz, Gary S; May, Greg D; Avraham, Shulamit; Town, Christopher D; Grant, David; Nelson, Rex T

    2009-09-23

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap") is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid semantic web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure semantic web technologies. There are currently over 2400 resources published in SSWAP. Approximately two dozen are custom-written services for QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) and mapping data for legumes and grasses (grains). The remaining are wrappers to Nucleic Acids Research Database and Web Server entries. As an architecture, SSWAP establishes how clients (users of data, services, and ontologies), providers (suppliers of data, services, and ontologies), and discovery servers (semantic search engines) interact to allow for the description, querying, discovery, invocation, and response of semantic web services. As a protocol, SSWAP provides the vocabulary and semantics to allow clients, providers, and discovery servers to engage in semantic web services. The protocol is based on the W3C-sanctioned first-order description logic language OWL DL. As an open source platform, a discovery server running at http://sswap.info (as in to "swap info") uses the description logic reasoner Pellet to integrate semantic resources. The platform hosts an interactive guide to the protocol at http://sswap.info/protocol.jsp, developer tools at http://sswap.info/developer.jsp, and a portal to third-party ontologies at http://sswapmeet.sswap.info (a "swap meet"). SSWAP addresses the three basic requirements of a semantic web services architecture (i.e., a common syntax, shared semantic, and semantic discovery) while addressing three technology limitations common in distributed service systems: i.e., i) the fatal mutability of traditional interfaces, ii) the rigidity and fragility of static subsumption hierarchies, and iii) the

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine including regenerator dead volume

    Puech, Pascal; Tishkova, Victoria [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CNRS, CEMES, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France)

    2011-02-15

    This paper provides a theoretical investigation on the thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine with linear and sinusoidal variations of the volume. The regenerator in a Stirling engine is an internal heat exchanger allowing to reach high efficiency. We used an isothermal model to analyse the net work and the heat stored in the regenerator during a complete cycle. We show that the engine efficiency with perfect regeneration doesn't depend on the regenerator dead volume but this dead volume strongly amplifies the imperfect regeneration effect. An analytical expression to estimate the improvement due to the regenerator has been proposed including the combined effects of dead volume and imperfect regeneration. This could be used at the very preliminary stage of the engine design process. (author)

  10. Resonant power converter comprising adaptive dead-time control

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates in a first aspect to a resonant power converter comprising: a first power supply rail for receipt of a positive DC supply voltage and a second power supply rail for receipt of a negative DC supply voltage. The resonant power converter comprises a resonant network with an input...... terminal for receipt of a resonant input voltage from a driver circuit. The driver circuit is configured for alternatingly pulling the resonant input voltage towards the positive and negative DC supply voltages via first and second semiconductor switches, respectively, separated by intervening dead......-time periods in accordance with one or more driver control signals. A dead-time controller is configured to adaptively adjusting the dead-time periods based on the resonant input voltage....

  11. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified.

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E

    2012-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as "memory detection," little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.

  12. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  13. Inter-deriving Semantic Artifacts for Object-Oriented Programming

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    We present a new abstract machine for Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects. What is special about this semantic artifact (i.e., man-made construct) is that is mechanically corresponds to both the reduction semantics (i.e., small-step operational semantics) and the natural semantics (i...... actual substitutions, we then represent object methods as closures and in the same inter-derivational spirit, we present three new semantic artifacts: a reduction semantics for a version of Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects with explicit substitutions, an environment-based abstract machine...

  14. CASL - The CoFI Algebraic Specification Language - Semantics

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1999-01-01

    This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the second complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop in Amsterdam in March 1999.......This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the second complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop in Amsterdam in March 1999....

  15. Deadly Choices empowering Indigenous Australians through social networking sites.

    McPhail-Bell, Karen; Appo, Nathan; Haymes, Alana; Bond, Chelsea; Brough, Mark; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2017-04-05

    The potential for health promotion through social networking sites (SNSs) is widely recognized. However, while health promotion prides itself in focusing on the social determinants of health, its partiality for persuading individuals to comply with health behaviours dominates the way health promotion utilizes SNSs. This paper contributes to an understanding of collaborative ways SNSs can work for health promotion agendas of self-determination and empowerment in an Indigenous Australia context. An ethnographic study was undertaken with Deadly Choices, an Indigenous-led health promotion initiative. The study involved participant observation of interactions on Deadly Choices SNSs between Deadly Choices and its online community members. Deadly Choices provides an example of SNSs providing a powerful tool to create a safe, inclusive and positive space for Indigenous people and communities to profile their healthy choices, according to Indigenous notions of health and identity. The study found five principles that underpin Deadly Choices' use of SNSs for health promotion. These are: create a dialogue; build community online and offline; incentivise healthy online engagement; celebrate Indigenous identity and culture; and prioritize partnerships. Deadly Choices SNSs empowers Indigenous people and communities to be health promoters themselves, which represents a power shift from health promotion practitioner to Indigenous people and communities and more broadly, an enactment of Indigenous self-determination on SNSs. Mainstream health promotion can learn from Indigenous health promotion practice regarding the use of SNSs for health promotion agendas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Monitoring the Dead Sea Region by Multi-Parameter Stations

    Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.; Asch, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. Israelis, Palestinians and Jordanians living in the Dead Sea region are exposed to severe earthquake hazard. Repeatedly large earthquakes (e.g. 1927, magnitude 6.0; (Ambraseys, 2009)) shook the whole Dead Sea region proving that earthquake hazard knows no borders and damaging seismic events can strike anytime. Combined with the high vulnerability of cities in the region and with the enormous concentration of historical values this natural hazard results in an extreme earthquake risk. Thus, an integration of earthquake parameters at all scales (size and time) and their combination with data of infrastructure are needed with the specific aim of providing a state-of-the-art seismic hazard assessment for the Dead Sea region as well as a first quantitative estimate of vulnerability and risk. A strong motivation for our research is the lack of reliable multi-parameter ground-based geophysical information on earthquakes in the Dead Sea region. The proposed set up of a number of observatories with on-line data access will enable to derive the present-day seismicity and deformation pattern in the Dead Sea region. The first multi-parameter stations were installed in Jordan, Israel and Palestine for long-time monitoring. All partners will jointly use these locations. All stations will have an open data policy, with the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany) providing the hard and software for real-time data transmission via satellite to Germany, where all partners can access the data via standard data protocols.

  17. Microbe Profile: Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Humanity's deadly microbial foe.

    Gordon, Stephen V; Parish, Tanya

    2018-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an expert and deadly pathogen, causing the disease tuberculosis (TB) in humans. It has several notable features: the ability to enter non-replicating states for long periods and cause latent infection; metabolic remodelling during chronic infection; a thick, waxy cell wall; slow growth rate in culture; and intrinsic drug resistance and antibiotic tolerance. As a pathogen, M. tuberculosis has a complex relationship with its host, is able to replicate inside macrophages, and expresses diverse immunomodulatory molecules. M. tuberculosis currently causes over 1.8 million deaths a year, making it the world's most deadly human pathogen.

  18. Homer and the cult of the dead in Helladic times

    Odysseus Tsagarakis

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Homeric bothros (Odyssey X 517 ff. as a possible source of information for the ritual and function of various bothroi (grave pits which are considered to be an important archaeological source. It seems that the bothroi were, by their nature, best suited to a cult of the dead and served as altars. The paper also discusses the possible reasons for the existence of the cult and argues against the view that fear of the dead motivated the cult in Helladic times.

  19. Tourism development challenges on the Dead Sea shore

    Wendt Jan A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dead Sea along with Jerusalem belongs to one of the most well-known spots visited by tourists in Israel. Because of many factors, such as the water level of the Dead Sea at a depth of 430 m b.s.l. (in 2015, average salinity of 26%, hot springs and many healing salts located there, it is a unique tourist attraction on a global level. Its attractiveness is heightened by its proximity to other sites of interest, such as the Jewish fortress at Masada, Jericho, Qumran, where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found, as well as Petra, Madaba and Al-Karak on the Jordanian side of the Dead Sea. High salinity and a microclimate create perfect conditions for the development of health resorts and medical tourism. Extracting healing salts from its waters for the needs of the chemical industry is important for both the economy and medical tourism. However, as a consequence of the agricultural and urban use of the waters of the River Jordan, which flows into the Dead Sea, a persistent decrease in the lake water level has been observed over the last century. This has created a number of economic and political issues. The problems which still have to be resolved are associated with the Red Sea-Dead Sea Conduit (Canal, the division of Jordan’s water resources, conservation of the unique reservoir of the Dead Sea and the threat of hindering the development of tourism within the region. The presentation of these issues is the main aim of this research paper. The study is based on the analysis of changes in tourism flows, results of research studies and the prognosis of changes in the water level of the Dead Sea. It presents an assessment of the effects of this phenomenon on the tourist economy. At the current level of tourism flows within the region, the tourist capacity of local beaches will be exceeded in areas where the most popular tourist resorts are located. Increased expenditure on development of tourism infrastructure in the coastal zone can also be observed

  20. Preparation of 'dead water' for low background liquid scintillation counting

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Niwa, Takeo; Kawai, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    'Dead water', low level tritiated water is indispensable to measure tritium concentration in environmental waters using a low background liquid scintillation counter. Water produced by combustion of natural gas, or deep sea water etc. are usually used for the above purpose. A new method of reducing tritium concentration in natural water has been introduced for preparation of 'dead water'. This method is to combine hydrogen-oxygen mixture produced by water electrolysis with hopcalite catalyzer at 700 deg C. Deep well water was electrolized up to 2/3 volume, and tritium concentration of recombined water was reduced to be about one third of that of the original one. (author)

  1. ROSSBY WAVE INSTABILITY AT DEAD ZONE BOUNDARIES IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL RESISTIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICAL GLOBAL MODELS OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Lyra, Wladimir; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that the transition between magnetorotationally active and dead zones in protoplanetary disks should be prone to the excitation of vortices via Rossby wave instability (RWI). However, the only numerical evidence for this has come from alpha disk models, where the magnetic field evolution is not followed, and the effect of turbulence is parameterized by Laplacian viscosity. We aim to establish the phenomenology of the flow in the transition in three-dimensional resistive-magnetohydrodynamical models. We model the transition by a sharp jump in resistivity, as expected in the inner dead zone boundary, using the PENCIL CODE to simulate the flow. We find that vortices are readily excited in the dead side of the transition. We measure the mass accretion rate finding similar levels of Reynolds stress at the dead and active zones, at the α ≈ 10 –2 level. The vortex sits in a pressure maximum and does not migrate, surviving until the end of the simulation. A pressure maximum in the active zone also triggers the RWI. The magnetized vortex that results should be disrupted by parasitical magneto-elliptic instabilities, yet it subsists in high resolution. This suggests that either the parasitic modes are still numerically damped or that the RWI supplies vorticity faster than they can destroy it. We conclude that the resistive transition between the active and dead zones in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, if sharp enough, can indeed excite vortices via RWI. Our results lend credence to previous works that relied on the alpha-disk approximation, and caution against the use of overly reduced azimuthal coverage on modeling this transition.

  2. Learning from Weak and Noisy Labels for Semantic Segmentation

    Lu, Zhiwu

    2016-04-08

    A weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) method aims to learn a segmentation model from weak (image-level) as opposed to strong (pixel-level) labels. By avoiding the tedious pixel-level annotation process, it can exploit the unlimited supply of user-tagged images from media-sharing sites such as Flickr for large scale applications. However, these ‘free’ tags/labels are often noisy and few existing works address the problem of learning with both weak and noisy labels. In this work, we cast the WSSS problem into a label noise reduction problem. Specifically, after segmenting each image into a set of superpixels, the weak and potentially noisy image-level labels are propagated to the superpixel level resulting in highly noisy labels; the key to semantic segmentation is thus to identify and correct the superpixel noisy labels. To this end, a novel L1-optimisation based sparse learning model is formulated to directly and explicitly detect noisy labels. To solve the L1-optimisation problem, we further develop an efficient learning algorithm by introducing an intermediate labelling variable. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method yields state-of-the-art results given noise-free labels, whilst significantly outperforming the existing methods when the weak labels are also noisy.

  3. Learning from Weak and Noisy Labels for Semantic Segmentation

    Lu, Zhiwu; Fu, Zhenyong; Xiang, Tao; Han, Peng; Wang, Liwei; Gao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) method aims to learn a segmentation model from weak (image-level) as opposed to strong (pixel-level) labels. By avoiding the tedious pixel-level annotation process, it can exploit the unlimited supply of user-tagged images from media-sharing sites such as Flickr for large scale applications. However, these ‘free’ tags/labels are often noisy and few existing works address the problem of learning with both weak and noisy labels. In this work, we cast the WSSS problem into a label noise reduction problem. Specifically, after segmenting each image into a set of superpixels, the weak and potentially noisy image-level labels are propagated to the superpixel level resulting in highly noisy labels; the key to semantic segmentation is thus to identify and correct the superpixel noisy labels. To this end, a novel L1-optimisation based sparse learning model is formulated to directly and explicitly detect noisy labels. To solve the L1-optimisation problem, we further develop an efficient learning algorithm by introducing an intermediate labelling variable. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method yields state-of-the-art results given noise-free labels, whilst significantly outperforming the existing methods when the weak labels are also noisy.

  4. Beginning from the End: Strategies of Composition in Lyrical Improvisation with End Rhyme

    Venla Sykäri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the basic principles of constructing improvised verses with end rhyme in three contemporary cultures: _mandinadhes_, Mallorcan _gloses_, and Finnish freestyle rap. This study is based on ethnographic interviews, in which improvisers analyze their methods of composition. This knowledge is complemented by a textual analysis of examples of performances in the given traditions. Sykäri shows that competent improvisers master complex cognitive methods when they create their lines that end with the poetic device of end rhyme, and in particular when they structure the discourse so that the strong arguments are situated at the end of the structural unit of composition. This “reversed” method witnesses a tendency to use parallel phonic patterns in a way that is largely the opposite of those employed with semantic (or canonical parallelism.

  5. An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies

    Krukow, Karl

    2006-01-01

    In the trust-structure framework for trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for such policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics ensures that for......In the trust-structure framework for trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for such policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics ensures...... that for any collection of policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well......-defined mathematical object, but it is not clear how principals can actually compute it. This becomes even more apparent when one considers the intended application environment: vast numbers of autonomous principals, distributed and possibly mobile. We provide a compositional operational semantics for a language...

  6. WEATHER FORECAST DATA SEMANTIC ANALYSIS IN F-LOGIC

    Ana Meštrović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the semantic analysis problem in a spoken dialog system developed for the domain of weather forecasts. The main goal of semantic analysis is to extract the meaning from the spoken utterances and to transform it into a domain database format. In this work a semantic database for the domain of weather forecasts is represented using the F-logic formalism. Semantic knowledge is captured through semantic categories a semantic dictionary using phrases and output templates. Procedures for semantic analysis of Croatian weather data combine parsing techniques for Croatian language and slot filling approach. Semantic analysis is conducted in three phases. In the first phase the main semantic category for the input utterance is determined. The lattices are used for hierarchical semantic relation representation and main category derivation. In the second phase semantic units are analyzed and knowledge slots in the database are filled. Since some slot values of input data are missing in the third phase, incomplete data is updated with missing values. All rules for semantic analysis are defined in the F-logic and implemented using the FLORA-2 system. The results of semantic analysis evaluation in terms of frame and slot error rates are presented.

  7. The seven deadly sins of DNA barcoding.

    Collins, R A; Cruickshank, R H

    2013-11-01

    Despite the broad benefits that DNA barcoding can bring to a diverse range of biological disciplines, a number of shortcomings still exist in terms of the experimental design of studies incorporating this approach. One underlying reason for this lies in the confusion that often exists between species discovery and specimen identification, and this is reflected in the way that hypotheses are generated and tested. Although these aims can be associated, they are quite distinct and require different methodological approaches, but their conflation has led to the frequently inappropriate use of commonly used analytical methods such as neighbour-joining trees, bootstrap resampling and fixed distance thresholds. Furthermore, the misidentification of voucher specimens can also have serious implications for end users of reference libraries such as the Barcode of Life Data Systems, and in this regard we advocate increased diligence in the a priori identification of specimens to be used for this purpose. This commentary provides an assessment of seven deficiencies that we identify as common in the DNA barcoding literature, and outline some potential improvements for its adaptation and adoption towards more reliable and accurate outcomes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 'POSM II' finds markets playing dead

    Morris, G.D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Technology has been in service several years coproducing styrene with propylene oxide (PO), or PO with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). But with the recent addition of Arco Chemical's second world-scale PO/styrene plant (POSM II) at Channelview, TX, and the pending completion of Texaco Chemical's mammoth MTBE/PO plant at Port Neches, TX, the three markets are becoming firmly intertwined. At present, all three markets are over-supplied in North America and balanced to soft worldwide. But with the wave of new capacity, the three products are likely to become increasingly unstable, as strong demand in one serves to wash the others in unwanted coproduct. As market watchers see it now, styrene is the weakest sister, with poor prospects until toward the end of the decade. MTBE capacity additions are in a lull but will pick up again as the next Clean Air Act gasoline reformulation deadline nears in 1995. PO demand is still growing worldwide sufficiently to prompt several companies - including Arco - to consider new plants. Traditionally buffeted by the vagaries of the ethylene and benzene markets, styrene has already been hurt once by a knock-on effect from PO. 'Today it isn't so bad because the PO market is down,' says one styrene producer. 'But in the mid-80's styrene was so bad, and PO was very good, and Arco ran for PO. It really burdened styrene

  9. Persian Native Speakers Reading Persian and English Texts: Their Strategic Behavior to Overcome Syntactic and Semantic Problems

    Alimorad, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to discover semantic and syntactic problems Persian native speakers might have while reading English and Persian texts and different strategies they use to overcome those problems. To this end, a convenient sample of 40 intermediate students studying English Literature at Shiraz University was selected. Twenty of them were asked…

  10. The semantics of image quality

    Janssen, T.J.W.M.; Blommaert, F.J.J.

    1996-01-01

    In this contribution we will discuss image quality in the context of the visuo-cognitive system as an information-processing system. To this end, we subdivide the information-processing as performed by the visuo-cognitive system into three distinct processes: (1) the construction of a visual

  11. Semantic SenseLab: Implementing the vision of the Semantic Web in neuroscience.

    Samwald, Matthias; Chen, Huajun; Ruttenberg, Alan; Lim, Ernest; Marenco, Luis; Miller, Perry; Shepherd, Gordon; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2010-01-01

    Integrative neuroscience research needs a scalable informatics framework that enables semantic integration of diverse types of neuroscience data. This paper describes the use of the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and other Semantic Web technologies for the representation and integration of molecular-level data provided by several of SenseLab suite of neuroscience databases. Based on the original database structure, we semi-automatically translated the databases into OWL ontologies with manual addition of semantic enrichment. The SenseLab ontologies are extensively linked to other biomedical Semantic Web resources, including the Subcellular Anatomy Ontology, Brain Architecture Management System, the Gene Ontology, BIRNLex and UniProt. The SenseLab ontologies have also been mapped to the Basic Formal Ontology and Relation Ontology, which helps ease interoperability with many other existing and future biomedical ontologies for the Semantic Web. In addition, approaches to representing contradictory research statements are described. The SenseLab ontologies are designed for use on the Semantic Web that enables their integration into a growing collection of biomedical information resources. We demonstrate that our approach can yield significant potential benefits and that the Semantic Web is rapidly becoming mature enough to realize its anticipated promises. The ontologies are available online at http://neuroweb.med.yale.edu/senselab/. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Requirements for Semantic Educational Recommender Systems in Formal E-Learning Scenarios

    Jesus G. Boticario; Olga C. Santos

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes how recommender systems can be applied to current e-learning systems to guide learners in personalized inclusive e-learning scenarios. Recommendations can be used to overcome current limitations of learning management systems in providing personalization and accessibility features. Recommenders can take advantage of standards-based solutions to provide inclusive support. To this end we have identified the need for developing semantic educational recommender systems, which ...

  13. Improvements to the Ontology-based Metadata Portal for Unified Semantics (OlyMPUS)

    Linsinbigler, M. A.; Gleason, J. L.; Huffer, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Ontology-based Metadata Portal for Unified Semantics (OlyMPUS), funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office Advanced Information Systems Technology program, is an end-to-end system designed to support Earth Science data consumers and data providers, enabling the latter to register data sets and provision them with the semantically rich metadata that drives the Ontology-Driven Interactive Search Environment for Earth Sciences (ODISEES). OlyMPUS complements the ODISEES' data discovery system with an intelligent tool to enable data producers to auto-generate semantically enhanced metadata and upload it to the metadata repository that drives ODISEES. Like ODISEES, the OlyMPUS metadata provisioning tool leverages robust semantics, a NoSQL database and query engine, an automated reasoning engine that performs first- and second-order deductive inferencing, and uses a controlled vocabulary to support data interoperability and automated analytics. The ODISEES data discovery portal leverages this metadata to provide a seamless data discovery and access experience for data consumers who are interested in comparing and contrasting the multiple Earth science data products available across NASA data centers. Olympus will support scientists' services and tools for performing complex analyses and identifying correlations and non-obvious relationships across all types of Earth System phenomena using the full spectrum of NASA Earth Science data available. By providing an intelligent discovery portal that supplies users - both human users and machines - with detailed information about data products, their contents and their structure, ODISEES will reduce the level of effort required to identify and prepare large volumes of data for analysis. This poster will explain how OlyMPUS leverages deductive reasoning and other technologies to create an integrated environment for generating and exploiting semantically rich metadata.

  14. Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web

    Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web...... provide conceptualization for the links which are a main vehicle to access information on the web. The subject domain ontologies serve as constraints for generating only those links which are relevant for the domain a user is currently interested in. Furthermore, user model ontologies provide additional...... means for deciding which links to show, annotate, hide, generate, and reorder. The semantic web technologies provide means to formalize the domain ontologies and metadata created from them. The formalization enables reasoning for personalization decisions. This chapter describes which components...

  15. Semantic technologies in a decision support system

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Bǎdicǎ, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of our work is to design a decision support system based on ontological representation of domain(s) and semantic technologies. Specifically, we consider the case when Grid / Cloud user describes his/her requirements regarding a "resource" as a class expression from an ontology, while the instances of (the same) ontology represent available resources. The goal is to help the user to find the best option with respect to his/her requirements, while remembering that user's knowledge may be "limited." In this context, we discuss multiple approaches based on semantic data processing, which involve different "forms" of user interaction with the system. Specifically, we consider: (a) ontological matchmaking based on SPARQL queries and class expression, (b) graph-based semantic closeness of instances representing user requirements (constructed from the class expression) and available resources, and (c) multicriterial analysis based on the AHP method, which utilizes expert domain knowledge (also ontologically represented).

  16. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Kalil A. Bispo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks, which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS.

  17. Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics

    Martin Stokhof

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In formal semantics intuition plays a key role, in two ways. Intuitions about semantic properties of expressions are the primary data, and intuitions of the semanticists are the main access to these data. The paper investigates how this dual role is related to the concept of competence and the role that this concept plays in semantics. And it inquires whether the self-reflexive role of intuitions has consequences for the methodology of semantics as an empirical discipline.ReferencesBaggio, Giosuè, van Lambalgen, Michiel & Hagoort, Peter. 2008. ‘Computing and recomputing discourse models: an ERP study of the semantics of temporal connectives’. Journal of Memory and Language 59, no. 1: 36–53.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2008.02.005Chierchia, Gennaro & McConnell-Ginet, Sally. 2000. Meaning and Grammar. second ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Chomsky, Noam. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Cresswell, Max J. 1978. ‘Semantic competence’. In F. Guenthner & M. Guenther-Reutter (eds. ‘Meaning and Translation’, 9–27. Duckworth, London. de Swart, Henriëtte. 1998. Introduction to Natural Language Semantics. Stanford: CSLI.Dowty, David, Wall, Robert & Peters, Stanley. 1981. Introduction to Montague Semantics. Dordrecht: Reidel.Heim, Irene & Kratzer, Angelika. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.Larson, Richard & Segal, Gabriel. 1995. Knowledge of Meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Lewis, David K. 1975. ‘Languages and Language’. In Keith Gunderson (ed. ‘Language, Mind and Knowledge’, 3–35. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Montague, Richard. 1970. ‘Universal Grammar’. Theoria 36: 373–98.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-2567.1970.tb00434.xPartee, Barbara H. 1979. ‘Semantics – Mathematics or Psychology?’ In Rainer Bäuerle, Urs Egli & Arnim von Stechow (eds. ‘Semantics from Different Points of View’, 1–14. Berlin: Springer.Partee, Barbara H. 1980.

  18. MODEL FOR SEMANTICALLY RICH POINT CLOUD DATA

    F. Poux

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an interoperable model for managing high dimensional point clouds while integrating semantics. Point clouds from sensors are a direct source of information physically describing a 3D state of the recorded environment. As such, they are an exhaustive representation of the real world at every scale: 3D reality-based spatial data. Their generation is increasingly fast but processing routines and data models lack of knowledge to reason from information extraction rather than interpretation. The enhanced smart point cloud developed model allows to bring intelligence to point clouds via 3 connected meta-models while linking available knowledge and classification procedures that permits semantic injection. Interoperability drives the model adaptation to potentially many applications through specialized domain ontologies. A first prototype is implemented in Python and PostgreSQL database and allows to combine semantic and spatial concepts for basic hybrid queries on different point clouds.

  19. Model for Semantically Rich Point Cloud Data

    Poux, F.; Neuville, R.; Hallot, P.; Billen, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes an interoperable model for managing high dimensional point clouds while integrating semantics. Point clouds from sensors are a direct source of information physically describing a 3D state of the recorded environment. As such, they are an exhaustive representation of the real world at every scale: 3D reality-based spatial data. Their generation is increasingly fast but processing routines and data models lack of knowledge to reason from information extraction rather than interpretation. The enhanced smart point cloud developed model allows to bring intelligence to point clouds via 3 connected meta-models while linking available knowledge and classification procedures that permits semantic injection. Interoperability drives the model adaptation to potentially many applications through specialized domain ontologies. A first prototype is implemented in Python and PostgreSQL database and allows to combine semantic and spatial concepts for basic hybrid queries on different point clouds.

  20. The autonomy of grammar and semantic internalism

    Dobler Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In his post-Tractatus work on natural language use, Wittgenstein defended the notion of what he dubbed the autonomy of grammar. According to this thought, grammar - or semantics, in a more recent idiom - is essentially autonomous from metaphysical considerations, and is not answerable to the nature of things. The argument has several related incarnations in Wittgenstein’s post-Tractatus writings, and has given rise to a number of important insights, both critical and constructive. In this paper I will argue for a potential connection between Wittgenstein’s autonomy argument and some more recent internalist arguments for the autonomy of semantics. My main motivation for establishing this connection comes from the fact that the later Wittgenstein’s comments on grammar and meaning stand in opposition to some of the core assumptions of semantic externalism.