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Sample records for sem ruptura prematura

  1. Prevalencia y factores asociados a ruptura prematura de membranas en gestantes del Hospital Vicente Corral Moscoso, Cuenca-Ecuador, noviembre 2011-noviembre 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenca Condoy, Elsa María

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de ruptura prematura de membranas y factores asociados en gestantes del Hospital Vicente Corral Moscoso. Cuenca-Ecuador, durante el periodo enero a julio 2012. -Método y técnicas: Estudio transversal de prevalencia, en 657 gestantes que acudieron al Hospital Vicente Corral Moscoso. - Hipótesis: La Ruptura prematura de membranas es más frecuente cuando se asocian factores como antecedente de infección del tracto urinario, bacteriuria, amenaza de parto pretér...

  2. Pronóstico de recién nacidos pretérmino con ruptura prematura de membranas y manejo expectante activo

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    Gómez Lubo, Liliana Isabel; Muñoz Restrepo, Juliana; Tovar Fajardo, Diana Carolina; Mejía Rodríguez, Margarita Rosa

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO. La ruptura prematura de membranas (RPM) es una patología con alta prevalencia en nuestro medio, presenta importantes tasas de morbi mortalidad perinatal cuando se presenta antes del término, no hay claridad acerca de cuál es la mejor opción terapéutica que represente mayores beneficios tanto para el feto como para la madre. El éxito del manejo elegido depende de la edad gestacional y de las causas asociadas que hagan imperativo o no terminar la gestación. Esto motivó a realizar ésta...

  3. Ruptura prematura das membranas amnióticas no pré-termo: fatores associados à displasia broncopulmonar

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    Gonçalves,Danieli Dias; Silva,Luiz Guilherme Pessoa da; Paula,Glaucio de Moraes; Bonfim,Olga; Moreira,Maria Elizabeth Lopes; Assumpção,Augusta Maria Batista; Figueira,Valéria Seild

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: identificar os fatores obstétricos e neonatais associados ao desfecho de displasia broncopulmonar em pacientes com amniorrexe prematura no pré-termo. MÉTODOS: foram analisados 213 prontuários do Instituto Fernandes Figueira, entre 1998 e 2002, cujas pacientes evoluíram com quadro de amniorrexe prematura

  4. Repercussões maternas e perinatais da ruptura prematura das membranas até a 26ª semana gestacional Maternal and perinatal outcomes of premature rupture of the membranes up to the 26th week of gestation

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    Alessandra Maria Mont'Alverne Pierre

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o prognóstico materno e perinatal em casos com amniorrexe prematura ocorridas até a 26ª semana de gravidez. MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva dos casos de ruptura prematura das membranas ocorridas até a 26ª semana gestacional, sem sinais de trabalho de parto, sem qualquer tratamento para esta condição antes da admissão, acompanhados no período de janeiro de 1994 a dezembro de 1999. Os casos com idade gestacional menor que 22 semanas e peso ao nascimento inferior a 500 gramas foram excluídos. A amniorrexe foi confirmada pelo exame especular. Em caso de dúvida realizaram-se o teste da cristalização e a determinação do pH. Todas as grávidas foram submetidas a exame ultra-sonográfico para determinação da idade gestacional e índice de líquido amniótico. Os dados referentes ao resultado final da gravidez e as conseqüências para mãe, feto e neonato foram tabulados. RESULTADOS: preencheram os critérios de inclusão 29 casos de amniorrexe prematura. A ruptura ocorreu entre a 17ª e a 26ª semana, com média de 23,6 semanas. A duração média do período de latência foi de 21,7 dias. Ocorreram 22 partos vaginais espontâneos e três induzidos, além de quatro cesarianas. Houve sinais de infecção antes do parto em seis casos. Em 37,9% dos casos foram administrados antibióticos e em 6,9%, corticóides. Nenhuma paciente foi submetida a tocólise. Ocorreram três óbitos fetais e 25 neonatais. Apenas um recém-nascido sobreviveu, tendo permanecido na unidade de neonatologia por 19 dias devido a infecção e síndrome do desconforto respiratório. Não ocorreram óbitos maternos. CONCLUSÃO: a amniorrexe prematura até a 26ª semana gestacional tem sido doença com prognóstico extremamente sombrio para fetos e neonatos em nossa instituição.PURPOSE: to evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes of premature rupture of membranes up to the 26th week of gestation. METHODS: retrospective analysis of the cases of

  5. Valores séricos de imunoglobulinas e dos componentes do complemento em gestantes com ruptura prematura de membranas Immunoglobulin serum values and complement components in pregnant women with premature rupture of the membranes

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    Valquíria Roveran

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: a ruptura prematura de membranas (RPM tem sido motivo para muitas indagações, dentre as quais os mecanismos imunes envolvidos. Diante da escassez de estudos relacionados ao tema, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os valores séricos de imunoglobulina A (IgA, imnoglobulina G (IgG, imunoglobulina M (IgM, C3 e C4 em gestantes com RPM. MÉTODOS: neste estudo transversal, foram incluídas 36 mulheres grávidas, com idade gestacional entre 23 e 37 semanas. Deste total, 15 mulheres tiveram diagnóstico laboratorial e clínico de RPM. Foram excluídas as pacientes com início do trabalho de parto, sinais clínicos de infecção ou disfunções clínicas com repercussão sistêmica. Concentrações séricas de IgA, IgM e IgG, C3 e C4 foram avaliadas nas pacientes com (grupo de estudo e sem RPM (grupo controle. A correlação entre as dosagens, o número de partos e o tempo de ruptura foi determinada pelo coeficiente de correlação de Spearman (valor de r. RESULTADOS: os níveis séricos de IgA (média±DP foram significativamente mais altos nas pacientes do grupo controle do que nas pacientes do grupo de estudo (271,0±107,0 versus 202,9±66,1, respectivamente; p=0,024. Não houve diferença estatística quando os níveis de IgM, IgG, C3 e C4 foram comparados entre os grupos. Não foi notada associação significativa entre o número de partos e as dosagens de IgA, IgM, IgG, C3 e C4 (r entre -0,009 e 0,027; p>0,05. O tempo de ruptura médio das pacientes do grupo de estudo foi de 19,1 horas (uma a 72 horas, sem nenhuma associação com as dosagens séricas avaliadas. CONCLUSÕES: mulheres grávidas com RPM apresentam níveis de IgA significativamente mais baixos do que as pacientes grávidas normais. A variável "número de partos" não atua como um fator de confusão na análise comparativa das dosagens obtidas em pacientes com ou sem RPM, assim como também não houve associação entre o tempo de ruptura e as dosagens séricas de

  6. Ruptura prematura das membranas amnióticas no pré-termo: fatores associados à displasia broncopulmonar Preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes: factors associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

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    Danieli Dias Gonçalves; Luiz Guilherme Pessoa da Silva; Glaucio de Moraes Paula; Olga Bonfim; Maria Elizabeth Lopes Moreira; Augusta Maria Batista Assumpção; Valéria Seild Figueira

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: identificar os fatores obstétricos e neonatais associados ao desfecho de displasia broncopulmonar em pacientes com amniorrexe prematura no pré-termo. MÉTODOS: foram analisados 213 prontuários do Instituto Fernandes Figueira, entre 1998 e 2002, cujas pacientes evoluíram com quadro de amniorrexe prematura

  7. Associação da presença de DNA genômico de diferentes bactérias em sangue de recém-nascidos pré-termo e termo com ruptura prematura de membrana

    OpenAIRE

    Appel, Kelly Lopes de Araújo

    2015-01-01

    A associação de ruptura prematura de membranas (RPM) e infecção neonatal precoce tem sido alvo de vários estudos, pois os microrganismos responsáveis pela infecção neonatal relacionada com RPM são aqueles encontrados na microbiota vaginal normal e patogênica das gestantes. Assim, para avaliar a associação da RPM com a presença do DNA genômico de diferentes bactérias em recém-nascidos (RNs) pré-termo e a termo foi realizado um estudo observacional, transversal, com RNs provenientes de mães com...

  8. Ruptura prematura das membranas amnióticas no pré-termo: fatores associados à displasia broncopulmonar Preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes: factors associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

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    Danieli Dias Gonçalves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar os fatores obstétricos e neonatais associados ao desfecho de displasia broncopulmonar em pacientes com amniorrexe prematura no pré-termo. MÉTODOS: foram analisados 213 prontuários do Instituto Fernandes Figueira, entre 1998 e 2002, cujas pacientes evoluíram com quadro de amniorrexe prematura 10 dias (OR: 54,00 [11,55-278,25] p=0,000; idade gestacional 10 dias (p=0,001 e "uso de surfactante" (p=0,040 permaneceram independentemente associadas ao desfecho. CONCLUSÕES: observou-se que os fatores associados à displasia broncopulmonar são de natureza neonatal, sendo que a ventilação mecânica duradoura e o uso de surfactante neonatal influenciaram no desenvolvimento dessa doença.PURPOSE: to analyze obstetric and neonatal factors associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia outcome in patients with preterm premature amniorrhexis. METHODS: we analyzed 213 medical records of patients of Fernandes Figueira Institute who suffered premature amniorrhexis (10 days (p=0.001 and "use of a surfactant" (p=0.040 remained independently associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CONCLUSIONS: the factors associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia are related to neonatal features, asprolonged mechanical ventilation and the use of a surfactant influencethe development of thedisease.

  9. Educação de Enfermagem sem distâncias: uma ruptura espaço/temporal Educación de Enfermería sin distancias: una ruptura espacio/temporal Nursing education with no distance: a space and time rupture

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    Denise Costa Dias

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta concepções pedagógicas e aspectos sobre a legislação da educação a distância, assim como tece considerações sobre tecnologias educacionais e relata a experiência de utilização de ambiente on-line de aprendizagem na graduação de Enfermagem. Foi oferecido um curso via Internet, no ambiente WebCT. O tema do curso foi Terapia Intravenosa (TIV. Inscreveram-se 49 alunos, destes, 25 concluíram 50% das atividades previstas. A utilização da Internet pode motivar o aprendiz e facilitar a inclusão digital do aluno de Enfermagem. Assim, a Internet pode ser vista como uma ferramenta auxiliar útil que possibilita uma ruptura espaço/temporal, em que o tempo e o espaço são estabelecidos de acordo com as necessidades, os interesses e a disponibilidade dos discentes.Este artículo presenta concepciones pedagógicas y aspectos de la legislación de la educación a distancia. Presenta también consideraciones sobre las tecnologías educativas y relata la experiencia de la utilización de la Internet en la educación de enfermería. Fue ofrecido un curso vía Internet, en ambiente WebCT, sobre el tema Terapia Intravenosa. Se inscribieron en el curso 49 estudiantes de los cuales 25 concluyeron el 50% de las actividades previstas. Así, la Internet puede ser vista como una herramienta auxiliar útil que posibilita una ruptura espacio/temporal, donde el tiempo y el espacio son establecidos de acuerdo con las necesidades, las metas y la disposición de los aprendices.This article presents pedagogical assumptions and some distance educational policies. It also presents considerations about educational technologies, and describes the experience of using the Internet in the nursing education undergraduate courses. It was offered a course via Internet, in the WebCT environment. The subject theme was Intravenous Therapy. Initially 49 students enrolled in the course, among these, 25 completed 50% of the course activities. Internet

  10. MORTALIDAD INNECESARIAMENTE PREMATURA Y SANITARIAMENTE EVITABLE EN COSTA RICA

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    Fernando Llorca Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Para desarrollar políticas y estrategias orientadas a mitigarlas es fundamental identificar las desigualdades. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar las variaciones de la Mortalidad Innecesariamente Prematura y Sanitariamente Evitable (MIPSE para cada uno de los 81 cantones de Costa Rica durante el período 2000-2005. Métodos: Se aplicó la clasificación MIPSE propuesta por miembros del Servicio de Información y Estudios de la Dirección General de Recursos Sanitarios de Catalunya. Mediante el empleo de el Indicador de Desarrollo Socioeconómico (IDSE establecido por economistas de la Universidad de Costa Rica, previa estandarización de la población, se ordenaron los cantones en grupos por quintiles (I el más rico, Vel más pobre. Resultados: Se encontraron como causas principales de mortalidad MIPSE la enfermedad isquémica del corazón (19,55% causas MIPSE, accidentes de tránsito con vehículos a motor (11,60%, enfermedades cerebrovasculares (6,95%, perinatal (6,92% y suicidios (5,14%. Conclusión: La mortalidad por HIVy el Sida, el cáncer de mamá en mujeres, cáncer de cuerpo de útero, cáncer de piel y por hepatitis secundaria al consumo de alcohol, afectan más a los cantones con mayores ingresos. La mortalidad por hiperplasia benigna de próstata, la materna asociada al embarazo, parto o puerperio y la hernia abdominal afectan más a los de menor nivel económico. Se identificaron dos grupos de MIPSE con desigualdad equidistribuida: leucemia y enfermedades cardiovasculares congénitas.

  11. A ruptura do pacto social no pensamento de Sade

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    Mônica Guimarães Teixeira do Amaral

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available As obras de Sade procuram retratar as práticas corruptas e libertinas presentes no regime despótico de Luís XV, apontando invariavelmente a "alcova" como lugar privilegiado de transformação do corpo e da mente e, ao mesmo tempo, de produção filosófica. A atualidade do pensamento de Sade revela-se no fato de colocar como tendencia da modernidade, a constituição narcísica da subjetividade que, em sua variante político-social, aparece sob a forma do conformismo político. Este artigo pretende apresentar o pensamento de Sade como urna crítica aos liames sociais, o que conduz à ruptura da idéia de pacto social formulada por Rousseau. A doutrina sem compaixão de Sade torna-se filosofia negativa na medida em que fornece os fundamentos da crítica à razão instrumental. Sendo pessimista quanto aos rumos do existente, a teoria sadiana aponta a "animalidade" humana como possibilidade de transcendencia da artificialidade dos laços sociais.

  12. Inequidad social, lugar de residencia y muerte prematura por cualquier causa en la Argentina

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    Alejandro Macchia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Aunque recientemente se reportó la relación entre la muerte prematura y la condición socioeconómica en laArgentina, no existen análisis sobre el impacto que dicha condición tiene en distintas regiones del país.Objetivo: Describir el impacto que la condición socioeconómica presentó sobre la incidencia de muerte prematura en las distintasprovincias de la Argentina durante el período 2000-2010. Material y métodos: Se utilizó un modelo ecológico, que evaluó las tasas estandarizadas de muerte prematura (≤ 74 añosdurante el período 2000-2010. Asimismo, se examinó la relación entre la condición socioeconómica medida en deciles denecesidades básicas insatisfechas por departamento geográfico y la muerte prematura. La unidad de análisis fueron los 512departamentos de la Argentina y las 15 comunas de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Resultados: La condición socioeconómica estuvo significativamente asociada con la muerte prematura en la Argentina durante el período analizado. En todas las provincias y regiones se observó un gradiente lineal entre la muerte precoz y la condición socioeconómica. Sin embargo, la pendiente de desigualdad entre los componentes de la condición socioeconómica varió significativamente entre los distintos departamentos. Mientras que en toda la Argentina la diferencia absoluta en la tasa estandarizada de muerte prematura entre los componentes extremos de condición socioeconómica fue de 10 muertes (rango:7,81-12,36 por cada 10.000 personas por año, en la ciudad de Buenos Aires esa diferencia fue de 61 muertes (rango: 53-69.Las comunas del sur de la ciudad de Buenos Aires fueron las zonas con mayor desigualdad social y sanitaria de la Argentina. Conclusiones: Aunque la inequidad social tuvo un impacto significativo en la muerte prematura en todo el período en toda la Argentina, la ciudad de Buenos Aires se mostró como la región más desigual.

  13. Mortalidad prematura por enfermedades infecciosas en España, 1908-1995

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    Mirón Canelo José Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Las enfermedades infecciosas han sido tradicionalmente una de las principales causas de muerte en los países desarrollados. Los objetivos del presente trabajo consistieron en cuantificar la importancia de las enfermedades infecciosas como causa de muerte prematura en España entre 1908 y 1995, y conocer la frecuencia y distribución de las enfermedades infecciosas con mayor impacto sobre la mortalidad prematura. Métodos. El estudio se realizó a partir de los datos de mortalidad por causas infecciosas publicados por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística en el Movimiento Natural de la Población para el período en estudio. Se utilizan como indicadores de mortalidad prematura los años de vida potencial perdidos (AVPP, la tasa bruta de AVPP por 1 000 habitantes y el porcentaje y la media de AVPP. Resultados. Entre 1908 y 1995, el número y la tasa de AVPP por causas infecciosas experimentaron una evolución claramente descendente. El descenso fue más acusado a partir de los años 50 y se observó en todos los grupos de edad. La tuberculosis fue la primera causa de muerte prematura desde principios de siglo hasta los años 70. A partir de esta fecha toman el relevo las neumonías y el sida. Conclusiones. El impacto de las enfermedades infecciosas como determinantes de muerte prematura en España ha descendido a lo largo del siglo XX, sobre todo a partir de los años 70.

  14. REPERTORIO EMANCIPADOR HISPANOAMERICANO: RUPTURA Y CONTINUIDAD

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    José Gabriel Brauchy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El discurso de la independencia (Ribeiro,1971; 1992; Roig, 1984, como expresión fundacional de la construcción de una identidad continental, puede ser abordado en tanto figura histórica y filosófica respecto de la ruptura y continuidad que esta empresa guarda con los principios que movilizaron la Conquista y Colonia (Subirats, 1994, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006 develando, por una parte, las promesas de emancipación que subyace en ella y, por otra, elevando la utopía ilustrada europea, sus límites y contradicciones (una razón instrumental como un medio o poder coercitivo, Adorno y Horkheimer, 1969. Hispanoamérica construye así una emancipación no sólo como constelación histórica y filosófica cuyos contenidos responden a una razón cristiana y otra laica, sino asimismo, como un discurso que plasma la constelación continental...(Continúa

  15. DOBRAS ESTRUTURAIS: RUPTURA GENERATIVA EM GRUPOS SOBREPOSTOS

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    David Stark

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Os grupos empresariais enfrentam um desafio duplo: reconhecer e implementar novas ideias. O presente artigo sugere que oempreendedorismo está mais relacionado com a geração de novos conhecimentos, por meio da recombinação de recursos, doque com a importação de ideias. Em contraste com a perspectiva “intermediação mais fechamento”, enfocamos a sobreposiçãode estruturas coesas de grupos. Ao analisar processos de intercoesão de redes, identificamos uma topologia de rede distinta:a dobra estrutural. Os atores de uma dobra estrutural são membros de múltiplos grupos, o que facilita o acesso familiar a diversosrecursos. Nosso conjunto de dados permite observar laços pessoais entre as 1.696 maiores empresas húngaras de 1987a 2001. Primeiro, testamos se dobras estruturais contribuem para o desempenho de grupos. Segundo, como o empreendedorismoé um processo de ruptura generativa, testamos a contribuição das dobras estruturais para a instabilidade do grupo.Terceiro, passamos de métodos dinâmicos à análise histórica de redes, e demonstramos que a coerência é uma propriedadede genealogias entrelaçadas de coesão, construídas por meio de repetidas separações e reunificações.

  16. SEM Anthology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michelle; Zimar, Heather

    2004-01-01

    The "SEM Anthology" is a compilation of articles by more than 30 enrollment management professionals from a variety of institutions across the country. This collection, which has appeared in SEM Monthly over the past year, chronicles Strategic Enrollment Management efforts at campuses nationwide. The book illustrates the successes and challenges…

  17. Prematuridade entre recém-nascidos de mães com Amniorrexe Prematura Prematuridad entre recién nacidos de nadres com Amniorrexis Prematura Prematurity among new-borns of Mothers with Premature Amniorrexis

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    Fernanda Lima Batista Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo realizado em maternidade pública de Fortaleza-CE, com objetivo de caracterizar a prematuridade entre recém-nascidos (RNs internados na Unidade Neonatal em decorrência da amniorrexe prematura. Analisaram-se 37 recém-nascidos e suas mães. Dos RNs, foram analisados: grau de prematuridade, Apgar e necessidade de reanimação. Das mães: idade gestacional, realização de pré-natal, patologias na gestação e tipo de parto. Verificou-se que 35,1% nasceram prematuros e 29,7% com Apgar entre 0 e 6 no 1º minuto de vida, necessitando de reanimação. Quanto à idade gestacional, 35,1% apresentaram ruptura das membranas antes da 37ª semana, 5,4% não realizaram pré-natal, 67,5% compareceram a 2 a 5 consultas e 27,1% referiram 6 ou mais; 16,2% das mães apresentaram doença hipertensiva específica da gestação (DHEG, e 51,3% tiveram parto normal. Conclui-se que a prematuridade foi elevada, podendo representar importante causa de morbimortalidade neonatal, como também acarretar complicações clínicas e obstétricas para a mãe. A DHEG ainda representa um risco para a gravidez. É preciso que novos estudos sobre a temática sejam realizados para se conhecer a verdadeira magnitude do problema.Estudio descriptivo realizado en maternidad pública de Fortaleza-CE, con el objetivo de caracterizar la prematuridad entre recién nacido (RN internados en la Unidad Neonatal debido al amniorrexis prematuro. Se analisaron 37 recién nacidos y sus madres. De los recién nacidos se analizó: el grado de la prematuridad, apgar y necesidad de reanimación. De las madres: edad gestacional, acompãnamiento pré-natal, tipo del parto y patologías de la gestación. Fué verificado que 31,1% nacieron prematuras, 29,7% con Apgar entre 0 y 6 en el primeiro minuto de vida, necesitando de reanimación. Con respecto a la edad gestational, 35,1% presentaron las rupturas de la membrana antes de la 37ª. Semana, 5,4% sin acompãnamiento pré-natal, 67

  18. Mosaico del cromosoma X en diferentes tejidos de pacientes con falla ovárica prematura

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    M.E. Arteaga Espinosa

    2015-06-01

    Conclusión: La existencia de mosaicismo de bajo grado puede ser la causa de falla ovárica prematura. Este estudio indica que es necesario más de un tipo de tejido para identificar el mosaicismo de bajo grado. Por ello, el estudio de células del urotelio puede incluirse dentro del abordaje diagnóstico de las pacientes con esta enfermedad.

  19. El desbarrancadero del genio. Fracaso y supervivencia en Memorias prematuras de Rafael Gumucio

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    Julia Musitano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En una escritura que conjuga la vida con la ficción, a Rafael Gumucio la genialidad le permite convivir con la muerte y con la idea de que la vida se figura inevitablemente como un proceso de demolición. Gumucio escribe sus memorias prematuras sin la madurez para perdonar, sólo lo guía la percepción del fracaso y de la falta. En el marco de las escrituras del yo (específicamente la autoficción y siguiendo la tensión entre memoria y recuerdo, el trabajo desarrolla la siguiente hipótesis: el desgarramiento temporal que produce el acto de recordar en la escritura de la propia vida, disloca al narrador en primera persona de Memorias prematuras y lo precipita hacia el fracaso. En ese proceso el narrador se figura como fracasado en tanto víctima del paso del tiempo, como un sobreviviente al desbarrancadero de la propia vida.  

  20. Ruptura de tejidos relacionales: huella de una sinergia corporativa

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    Luz María Rivas Montoya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de implementación de estrategias sinérgicas tienen, inevitablemente, efectos no previstos en los actores sociales de la organización. En este artículo, se presenta la ruptura de tejidos relacionales como un claro ejemplo de estos efectos o huellas*, que emergieron al narrar la experiencia individual que los actores sociales tuvieron con la sinergia corporativa en un grupo económico líder del sector de servicios en Colombia. Desde un método cualitativo, una aproximación etnográfica y un enfoque hermenéutico, se exploraron las experiencias y percepciones de diversos actores sociales. La ruptura de tejidos relacionales fue una de las categorías que emergió como huella relevante; esta ruptura se caracteriza por cambios en las relaciones laborales, tensión autonomía/heteronomía y conflictos de poder, situaciones que expresan las consecuencias no previstas de la implementación de la integración de servicios compartidos o sinergia corporativa. Es conveniente advertir que la principal limitación de este estudio exploratorio es que no permite la proposición de modelos ni la construcción de un caso de estudio metodológicamente riguroso. El pensamiento complejo desde la perspectiva de Edgar Morin iluminó el camino de reflexión acerca de la ruptura de tejidos relacionales en cuanto a huella. Estos tejidos son esenciales en cualquier tipo de organización, pero lo son aún más en grupos económicos donde la diversidad de los negocios y culturas exige redes para hacer más productiva y amable la rutina organizacional.

  1. La ruptura alienante: tradición, vanguardias y posmodernismo

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    Roberto PINHEIRO MACHADO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Tradición y autenticidad existen en una relación de interdependencia. A través de la relación con su tradición el individuo se reconoce a sí mismo auténticamente en el mundo. Por ello, el alejamiento de la tradición resulta inevitablemente en la alienación. El ejemplo más claro de esa forma de enajenamiento es la ruptura con el pasado propuesta por los movimientos avant-garde, o las llamadas vanguardias históricas, del siglo XX. Tal ruptura significó mucho más que un deseo de innovación en el arte. El intento iconoclasta de las vanguardias fue, en verdad, el reflejo de un sentimiento antiburgués exacerbado. Ese ensayo analiza los corolarios de tales intentos vanguardistas de ruptura en las prácticas culturales posmodernas y apunta hacia la relación entre estas prácticas y la alienación.ABSTRACT: Tradition and authenticity exist in an interdependent relationship. It is through the relation with tradition that individuals recognize themselves authentically in the world. Consequently, the distancing from tradition inevitably results in alienation. The most evident example of this form of distancing from tradition is in the rupture with the past proposed by the avant-garde movements, or the so-called historical vanguards, of the first half of the twentieth century. Such rupture signified much more than a desire of innovation in the arts. The iconoclastic intent of the vanguards was, in truth, the reflection of an exacerbated anti-bourgeois feeling. This essay examines the corollaries of these vanguardist efforts of rupture in postmodern cultural practices and points to the relation between such practices and alienation.

  2. Ruptura del projecte parental i disposició dels preembrions

    OpenAIRE

    Farnós Amorós, Esther

    2010-01-01

    La tesi doctoral "Ruptura del projecte parental i disposició dels preembrions" analitza els efectes del consentiment a les tècniques de reproducció assistida prestat en el marc d'un projecte parental. La tesi ofereix una resposta als conflictes que enfronten exesposos o exconvivents en relació al destí dels preembrions sobrants d'un cicle de fecundació "in vitro" iniciat durant la relació. Aquests conflictes constitueixen un grup de casos al voltant del qual no hi ha solucions legislatives qu...

  3. Ruptura de tejidos relacionales: huella de una sinergia corporativa

    OpenAIRE

    Luz María Rivas Montoya

    2012-01-01

    Los procesos de implementación de estrategias sinérgicas tienen, inevitablemente, efectos no previstos en los actores sociales de la organización. En este artículo, se presenta la ruptura de tejidos relacionales como un claro ejemplo de estos efectos o huellas*, que emergieron al narrar la experiencia individual que los actores sociales tuvieron con la sinergia corporativa en un grupo económico líder del sector de servicios en Colombia. Desde un método cualitativo, una aproximación etnográfic...

  4. Efecto de la pérdida prematura de molares primarios sobre la relación horizontal incisiva

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    Yérica M García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida prematura de molares primarios predispone a maloclusiones incluyendo apiñamiento, impactación de dientes permanentes y alteración de la relación molar y canina. El objetivo del presente estudio es determinar el efecto de las pérdidas prematuras de molares primarios sobre la relación incisiva horizontal. El estudio es documental, retrospectivo y observacional. Se evaluaron los registros ortodóncicos (historias clínicas, fotografías y radiografías de 209 pacientes con edades entre 4 a 15 años. La relación incisiva horizontal se consideró normal (grupo 1 cuando hubo contacto entre en borde incisal del incisivo inferior con la cara palatina del superior, aumentada (grupo 2 cuando había distancia positiva entre ellos y negativa (grupo 3 cuando los bordes incisales se encontraban a tope o en mordida cruzada. Los datos se analizaron utilizando coeficiente Pearson (p≤0,001. El 22% (45 pacientes presentó pérdidas prematuras. La prevalencia de pérdidas prematuras no tuvo diferencia significativa entre géneros y fue mayor en el grupo de 7 a 9 años. De los pacientes con pérdidas prematuras, 6 (13,3% se clasificó en el grupo 1; 12 (26,7% en el grupo 2 y 27 (60% en el grupo 3. Hubo asociación positiva entre el número de molares perdidos y la presencia de mordida cruzada anterior, siendo la media de molares perdidos mayor (4, 7 en el grupo 3. Se demostró que las pérdidas prematuras de molares primarios tienen una relación estadísticamente significativa con la mordida cruzada anterior, siendo posible que la falta de soporte oclusal posterior favorezca el desplazamiento protrusivo de la mandíbula.

  5. Efeito da perda prematura de molares decíduos na sobressaliência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yérica M García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A perda precoce de molares decíduos predispõe as maloclusões, entre estas o apinhamento dentário, impactação de dentes permanentes e alteração da relação molar e canino. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar o efeito das perdas precoces dos molares decíduos na relação horizontal incisiva. O estudo é do tipo documentado, retrospetivo e observacional. Foram avaliados os registros ortodônticos (histórias clínicas, fotografias e radiografias de 209 pacientes na faixa etária de 4 a 15 anos de idade. A relação incisiva horizontal foi considerada normal para os pacientes do GRUPO 1, com contato entre a face incisal dos incisivos inferiores e a face palatina dos incisivos superiores. No GRUPO 2, a relação incisiva horizontal foi considerada aumentada, com distância positiva entre eles e no GRUPO 3, a relação incisiva horizontal foi considerada negativa quando as faces incisais dos incisivos superiores e inferiores se encontravam a topo ou em mordida cruzada. Os dados foram analisados através do coeficiente Pearson (p ≤ 0,001. Na análise dos dados coletados, o total de quarenta e cinco pacientes (22% apresentaram perdas prematuras. A prevalência destas perdas não apresentou diferença significativa entre sexos e foi maior no grupo de faixa etária de 7 a 9 anos de idade. Dos pacientes com perda prematura seis (13,3% foram clasificados no GRUPO 1; doze (26,7% no GRUPO 2 e vinte e sete (60% no GRUPO 3. A relação entre o número de molares perdidos e a presença de mordida cruzada anterior foi encontrada, e a média de molares perdidos (4,7 foi maior no GRUPO 3. Os resultados mostraram que as perdas precoces dos molares decíduos apresentam uma relação estatisticamente significante com a mordida cruzada anterior, sugerindo que a falta de suporte oclusal pode favorecer o desenvolvimento protrusivo da mandibula.

  6. Insuficiencia ovárica prematura en mujeres infértiles atendidas en el Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rechkemmer Prieto

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia y las manifestaciones clínicas de Insuficiencia Ovárica Prematura en las pacientes infértiles. Material y métodos: En un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, se revisaron las historias clínicas de las pacientes atendidas en el Consultorio de Infertilidad del Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza (HNAL, entre enero de 1989 y marzo de 1995. Resultados: Se encontró 27 pacientes con el citado diagnóstico, de un total de 1,855 pacientes que acudieron a consulta (1.45%. Todas tuvieron valores de FSH elevado y 25pacientes tuvieron niveles bajos de estradiol. Se observó hipotrofia de genitales externos y de vagina en el 11.11%, y de mamas en el 14.8%. Se realizó biopsia ovárica a 7 pacientes, en seis de ellas se observó ausencia de folículos. El diagnóstico más frecuente fue el de Insuficiencia Ovárica Prematura Idiomática. El tratamiento consistió en terapia hormonal de reemplazo con estrógenos/progestágenos secuenciales. En una paciente se indujo ovulación con menotropinas y se obtuvo gestación gemelar. Conclusiones: La insuficiencia ovárica prematura es poco frecuente en mujeres infértiles del HNAL, generalmente se presenta como amenorrea secundaria. La tercera parte presentó síntomas vasomotores. (Rev Med Hered 1995; 6: 115-120.

  7. Utilización de mantenedores de espacio en pacientes con pérdidas prematuras de dientes primarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsibet Rivero García

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida prematura de dientes primarios ocurre cuando estos exfolian o son extraídos antes del momento fisiológico de recambio. Objetivo: determinar la asociación entre el uso de mantenedores de espacio y las pérdidas prematuras de dientes primarios. Materiales y métodos: se realizó el estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, longitudinal y correlacional, de 109 registros diagnósticos de pacientes entre 3-9 años, atendidos en el Postgrado de Odontología Infantil de la UCV, excluyendo aquellos con síndromes o alteraciones sistémicas. Fue evaluado el estrato socioeconómico, dientes perdidos y el uso del mantenedor de espacio Se aplicaron pruebas estadísticas descriptivas, X2 de Pearson, y T de Student (p=0,05. Resultados: la edad de la muestra fue 4,93 ± 1,5 años. La prevalencia de pérdidas prematuras fue 70,90%, la media de dientes extraídos fue 3,75 ± 2,56. La causa más frecuente fue la caries 76,5% y el diente más afectado el 64 con 11,11%. El 72,12% de los pacientes utilizó mantenedor de espacio, siendo el más usado el fijo en 52,27% No hubo asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el estrato socioeconómico con el número de dientes afectados ni con el uso o no de mantenedor de espacio. Conclusión: la prevalencia de pérdidas prematuras para este estudio fue elevada debido a las características inherentes al tipo de servicio especializado en el que se brinda atención a pacientes con requerimientos de tratamiento complejo. En la mayoría de los casos se cumplió satisfactoriamente con el uso de mantenedores de espacio como elemento de prevención de maloclusiones.

  8. Alterações do desenvolvimento de crianças prematuras nascidas de mães com malária no periodo gestacional

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Maria da Conceição Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo : O estudo buscou avaliar as alterações no desenvolvimento de crianças prematuras nascidas de mães com malária no periodo gestacional, em Porto Velho, Rondônia. O objetivo principal é descrever as alterações encontradas nessas crianças aplicando um teste preditivo para alterações no desenvolvimento e compará-las à um grupo controle de crianças prematuras nascidas de mães que não apresentaram malária no periodo gestacional. Métodos : Por ser um estudo do tipo transvers...

  9. Ao leitor sem medo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eisenberg

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O texto resenha Ao leitor sem medo, de Renato Janine Ribeiro (Belo Horizonte, UFMG, 1999.This text is a review of Ao leitor sem medo by Renato Janine Ribeiro (Belo Horizonte, UFMG, 1999

  10. Uruguay 2006: desarrollo equivo o ruptura con la historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo BITTENCOURT

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se argumenta que el muy bajo desempeño económico de Uruguay durante el siglo XX y en particular desde la década de 1960, que lo aleja progresivamente de la dinámica de la economía mundial aumentando la brecha de subdesarrollo, se explica fundamentalmente por la especialización del país en productos de muy escasa dinámica en el mercado mundial así como de muy bajo dinamismo tecnológico. El ensayo de modelo (neoliberal en lo económico y conservador en lo político resultó un fracaso en términos de mejorar la tasa de crecimiento de largo plazo del país, profundizando su especialización basada en productos primarios. Esto implica además un problema en términos de la capacidad de generación de empleos y de la distribución de ingresos. La reactivación reciente así como algunas medidas adoptadas por el nuevo Gobierno Progresista han resultado exitosas en aumentar los salarios, reducir la informalidad y ordenar la macroeconomía luego de la profunda crisis financiera que explotó en el 2002. Pero la ruptura con el pasado, necesaria para elevar significativamente la tasa de crecimiento sostenible de esta economía, requerirá posiblemente de otras acciones en torno a una estrategia de desarrollo de largo plazo, que ponga sus miras en mejorar la capacidad innovadora de la estructura productiva desarrollando nuevas ramas mediante la integración regional.ABSTRACT: This article shows that Uruguay’s very low long term growth performance, which implies an increasing divergence with respect to the world economy, is explained by specialization and productive problems. Uruguay produces and sells goods with very low dynamics in the world markets, and with slow technology changes. The (neoliberal and politically conservative development model applied in the last decades, failed in the objective of improving the long term growth rate, because this model implied a productive structure based in natural resources with

  11. Advanced SEM imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D. C.; Newbury, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) represents the most promising tool for metrology, defect review, and for the analysis of ULSI structures, but both fundamental problems such as electron-solid interactions, and practical considerations such as electron-optical constraints, are now setting a limit to performance. This paper examines the directions in which an advanced SEM might be developed to overcome these constraints. The SEM also offers considerable promise as a tool for the high spatial resolution X-ray microanalysis, especially for those situations where a thin cross-section is not practical and first surface analysis is required. The ways in which this capability can be incorporated in an advanced SEM are examined

  12. Advanced SEM imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.C.; Newbury, D.E.; Newbury, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) represents the most promising tool for metrology, defect review, and for the analysis of ULSI structures, but both fundamental problems such as electron-solid interactions, and practical considerations such as electron-optical constraints, are now setting a limit to performance. This paper examines the directions in which an advanced SEM might be developed to overcome these constraints. The SEM also offers considerable promise as a tool for the high spatial resolution X-ray microanalysis, especially for those situations where a thin cross-section is not practical and first surface analysis is required. The ways in which this capability can be incorporated in an advanced SEM are examined. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  13. Reconstrução de ruptura crônica do tríceps distal sob a configuração de dupla fileira: nota técnica

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    Alexandre Firmino Paniago

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available resumo Rupturas do tríceps distal são incomuns e podem ser de difícil diagnóstico, especialmente as parciais. Métodos de imagem, como USG e RNM, devem ser usados para a confirmação diagnóstica e para definição da extensão da lesão. O tratamento de escolha para as rupturas completas do tríceps é o cirúrgico, diferentemente das parciais, que dependem de fatores como dor, déficit funcional e expectativas do paciente. Descrevemos o caso de um paciente com ruptura parcial do tríceps distal após queda ao solo. Não foi diagnosticado no momento do primeiro atendimento e evoluiu com dor e grande perda funcional. O procedimento cirúr gico foi feito após nove meses do trauma, com a reconstrução do tríceps por meio de reforço com o tendão do semitendíneo ipsilateral e fixação no olécrano sob a configuração de dupla fileira. O paciente permaneceu imobilizado com tipoia por uma semana e iniciou-se, a partir daí, o ganho de amplitude de movimento (ADM passiva. Após três semanas foi liberado para o ganho de ADM ativa. O fortalecimento muscular iniciou-se após 12 semanas. Após seis meses do procedimento cirúrgico o paciente apresenta-se sem dor, ADM completa, força de extensão do cotovelo grau V e hipertrofia do tríceps. A técnica descrita se mostrou útil para o tratamento de rupturas do tendão do tríceps distal.

  14. Antibioticoprofilaxia com ampicilina na rotura prematura das membranas: estudo randomizado e duplo cego Ampicillin prophylaxis in premature rupture of membranes: randomized and double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias Soares da Rocha

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar se o uso profilático da ampicilina pode evitar ou reduzir a morbidade infecciosa materna e perinatal decorrente da ruptura prematura das membranas (RPM e prolongar a gestação em pacientes portadoras dessa complicação. Métodos: estudo prospectivo, randomizado e duplo-cego, avaliando 121 gestantes portadoras de RPM, divididas em dois grupos. O grupo tratado (61 gestantes recebeu ampicilina e o grupo controle (60 gestantes recebeu placebo, nas mesmas condições de horário, tempo de uso, embalagem e cor das cápsulas. Como parâmetros de infecção materna considerou-se a morbidade febril materna (índice térmico, presença de corioamnionite e/ou endometrite. Os parâmetros neonatais avaliados foram o índice de Apgar (1° e 5° minutos, colonização bacteriana do conduto auditivo e hemocultura. Para a análise estatística foram utilizados os testes: exato de Fisher, Wilcoxon e o chi². Resultados: o uso da ampicilina não prolongou a gestação, não reduziu a morbidade febril puerperal e nem as taxas de corioamnionite e/ou endometrite. Quanto à morbidade infecciosa perinatal também não foi possível demonstrar nenhuma redução decorrente do uso da ampicilina nem influência sobre as condições de nascimento. Estes dados foram consistentes em casos de RPM com até 72 horas de evolução, pois o limitado número de casos com tempo maior de evolução não permitiu uma análise estatística isenta de erro tipo II. Conclusões: com base nos resultados desse trabalho foi possível concluir que o uso profilático de ampicilina em gestantes com RPM com até 72 horas de evolução não reduz a morbidade infecciosa materna nem perinatal. No entanto, a presença de Streptococcus agalactiae do grupo B em hemocultura de recém-nascido do grupo controle indicou a necessidade imperiosa de antibioticoterapia para as gestantes colonizadas por esse microrganismo.Purpose: to evaluate whether prophylactic use of ampicillin could

  15. Spin-polarized SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoto, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Development of highly effective evaluation technology of magnetic structures on a nanometric scale is a key to understanding spintronics and related phenomena. A high-resolution spin-polarized scanning electron microscope (spin SEM) developed recently is quite suitable for probing such nanostructures because of the capability of analyzing local magnetization vectors in three dimensions. Utilizing the spin SEM, a layered antiferromagnetic structure with the 1nm-alternation of bilayer-sheet magnetization has been successfully resolved. The real-space imaging with full analysis of the temperature-dependent magnetization vectors will be demonstrated. (author)

  16. SEM microcharacterization of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, D B

    1989-01-01

    Applications of SEM techniques of microcharacterization have proliferated to cover every type of material and virtually every branch of science and technology. This book emphasizes the fundamental physical principles. The first section deals with the foundation of microcharacterization in electron beam instruments and the second deals with the interpretation of the information obtained in the main operating modes of a scanning electron microscope.

  17. Pérdidas laborales ocasionadas por muertes prematuras en España: un análisis para el periodo 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Peña Longobardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: El impacto económico que causan las enfermedades va mucho más allá del gasto sanitario, transmitiéndose a la sociedad a través de diferentes dimensiones. El principal objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la evolución de las pérdidas de productividad laboral causadas por muertes prematuras en España durante el periodo 2005-2009. Métodos: Se emplearon varias fuentes estadísticas (Registro de defunciones según la causa de muerte, Encuesta de Población Activa y Encuesta de Estructura Salarial para desarrollar un modelo de simulación basado en el enfoque de capital humano que permitió estimar las pérdidas laborales ocasionadas por muertes prematuras para el periodo analizado. Adicionalmente, se llevaron a cabo dos escenarios alternativos en los que se analizó la influencia de la evolución epidemiológica en los resultados obtenidos. Resultados: El modelo de simulación mostró una caída de las pérdidas laborales asociadas a muertes prematuras que fue desde 8.935 millones de euros en 2005 a 8.073 millones de euros en 2009. El análisis de las causas reducidas de muerte señaló que nueve causas de enfermedad (accidentes de tráfico, tumor maligno de tráquea, suicidios, infarto agudo de miocardio, SIDA, cirrosis, tumor de mama, enfermedades cerebrovasculares y cáncer de colon supusieron el 35,6% del total de Años Potenciales de Vida Laboral Perdidos y 36,6% del total de pérdida estimada. Las pérdidas estimadas representaron el 0,98%, 0,85% y 0,77% del Producto Interior Bruto de 2005, 2007 y 2009, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Las pérdidas laborales ocasionadas por muertes prematuras en España disminuyeron sustancialmente en el periodo analizado. Esta reducción se debió fundamentalmente a la favorable evolución epidemiológica de la mortalidad prematura.

  18. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  19. Ruptura traumática de la válvula mitral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Romero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos dos pacientes que sufrieron un accidente de tráfico con resultado de traumatismo de la válvula mitral. En el primer caso, al cuarto día del accidente, se diagnosticó insuficiencia mitral masiva por ruptura de la cabeza del músculo papilar anterolateral, con versión completa de los segmentos A1 y P1, procediéndose a reparación quirúrgica al mes del accidente, siendo la válvula mitral estructuralmente normal. En el segundo caso, el diagnóstico se hizo a los 10 días del accidente. Se trataba de una insuficiencia mitral grave por ruptura de cuerdas del velo posterior. La reparación quirúrgica se llevó a cabo a los 2 meses y medio del accidente. En este caso la válvula mitral era, además, degenerativa. En ambos casos la cirugía consistió en reparación valvular mitral. Se revisa la ruptura traumática de la válvula mitral.

  20. O Cinema sem Imagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Andrade

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A obra cinematográfica de Marguerite Duras, praticamente desconhecida pelo grande público, estabeleça intricadas relações com sua obra literária, ao promover a indiscernibilidade entre os dois campo, sem, contudo, instituir qualquer tipo de subordinação de um ao outro. O processo de criação do filme Lê camion, de 1977, aponta para outras possibilidades de se pensar o cinema e a literatura.

  1. Perfil cognitivo aos sete anos de idade de crianças nascidas prematuras e com peso inferior a 1.500 gramas

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Ferreira Campos

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo: Conhecer o desempenho cognitivo, aos sete anos de idade, de crianças nascidas prematuras no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HC/UFMG), com idade gestacional até 34 semanas e peso ao nascimento inferior a 1500 gramas, adequado à idade gestacional. Essas crianças tiveram seguimento longitudinal interdisciplinar no Ambulatório da Criança de Risco (ACRIAR), e apresentavam inteligência e exame neurológico normais aos sete anos. Métodos: Participaram do estud...

  2. Rupturas urgentes em educação Rupturas urgentes en la educación Urgent ruptures in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Demo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Inovar a educação é promessa eterna, porque - segundo se crê - educação é uma das fontes principais de mudança, com o toque ulterior de ser mudança apropriada, aquela mais bem feita. Inspirando-se em Christensen, o texto discute armadilhas da inovação, entre elas: pretender inovar sem inovar-se; buscar controlar o processo de inovação; viver de promessas impossíveis ou de promessas mesquinhas. Os dados sugerem que nosso sistema educacional é inepto: as crianças não aprendem, os professores tendem a ser muito mal formados e mal pagos, a escola está ficando para trás, novas tecnologias não têm chance, e os alunos reclamam cada vez mais. Assim, "reformar" este sistema já não é o caso, porque o sistema já não possui razão suficiente para continuar existindo. Imprescindível seria mudar profundamente, quase começar de novo, em parte para poder estar à altura das necessidades dos alunos em novos tempos, em parte para corresponder aos cuidados pedagógicos da aprendizagem reconhecida crescentemente como desafio continuado. Referência fundamental é o professor, que, afinal, é o agente principal da mudança. Mudar o professor é crucial, porque praticamente todas as mudanças na escola são mudanças docentes. Criticar apenas não basta (nunca basta. É fundamental garantir novas oportunidades.Innovar en el campo de la educación es promesa eterna, porque - según se cree - la educación es una de las fuentes principales de cambio, con el toque ulterior de ser cambio apropiado, el mejor hecho. Inspirándose en Christensen, el texto discute trampas de la innovación, tales como pretender innovar sin innovarse; buscar controlar el proceso de innovación; vivir de promesas imposibles o mezquinas. Los datos sugieren que nuestro sistema educacional es inepto: los niños no aprenden, los maestros o profesores tienden a ser muy mal formados y mal pagados, la escuela está quedándose atrás, nuevas tecnologías no tienen

  3. Opciones de tratamiento en un paciente con pérdida prematura de segundos molares primarios: zapato distal modificado / Treatment Options in a Patient with Primary Second Molar Premature Loss: Modified Distal Shoe Space Maintainer

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, María Lorena; Universidad Nacional del Nordeste. Corrientes, Argentina; Falcón, Diana Emilia; Universidad Nacional del Nordeste. Corrientes, Argentina; Galiana, Andrea Verónica; Universidad Nacional del Nordeste. Corrientes, Argentina

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN. Antecedentes: La pérdida prematura de un molar primario conlleva a malposición de los dientes contiguos y del sucesor permanente. El efecto depende de las fuerzas que actúan sobre el diente, que están condicionadas a su vez por el estado de erupción del primer molar permanente. Propósito: Describir una opción de tratamiento para la pérdida prematura de segundos molares primarios hasta la erupción de los primeros molares permanentes. Descripción del caso: El caso clínico presentado in...

  4. SEM analysis for irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaosong; Yao Liang

    2008-06-01

    A radiation-proof Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) system is introduced. It has been widely used in various areas. For analyzing radioactive samples, normal SEM system needs lots of alterations. Based on KYKY-2800B SEM, the sample room, belt line, operating table and aerator were updated. New radiation-proof SEM system has used to analytic surface contaminated samples and RPV materials samples. An elementary means of SEM analysis for radioactive samples was studied, and this examination supported some available references for further irradiated fuel researches. (authors)

  5. Escleroterapia versus somatostatina na hemorragia digestiva alta por ruptura de varizes esofágicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMIRES Renata Pereira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparação da eficácia da somatostatina e da escleroterapia no sangramento digestivo proveniente da ruptura de varizes do esôfago. Foram avaliados prospectivamente 40 pacientes com hemorragia digestiva. Vinte e um pacientes foram randomizados a receber somatostatina (dose inicial de 250 mig seguida de infusão contínua de 250 µg/h por 48 h com reforços de 250 µg de 6/6 h nas primeiras 24 h e 19 realizaram escleroterapia com oleato de etanolamina a 5%, sendo avaliados em 48 horas e no sétimo dia após o tratamento. Os grupos eram semelhantes quanto a sexo, idade, gravidade do sangramento e grau de falência hepatocelular. Falha terapêutica ocorreu em 48 h e 7 dias, respectivamente, em 26,3% e 35,7% no grupo da escleroterapia e em 23,8% e 21,4% no da somatostatina. A necessidade de transfusão (3,38 U no grupo da escleroterapia e 2,42 U no da somatostatina e a mortalidade (31,6% no grupo da escleroterapia e 28,6% no grupo da somatostatina também foram semelhantes (P >0,05. Conclui-se que a somatostatina é tão efetiva quanto a escleroterapia, devendo ser considerada no tratamento do sangramento agudo decorrente de ruptura de varizes do esôfago.

  6. RUPTURA Y CONTINUIDAD: LA CAÍDA DE «MEL» ZELAYA EN PERSPECTIVA COMPARADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana LLANOS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza y compara la deposición del presidente de Honduras, Manuel Zelaya, con otras crisis presidenciales acontecidas en América Latina durante la tercera ola de democratización. El trabajo indaga sobre los procedimientos, causas y consecuencias en torno de esta caída presidencial con instrumentos de análisis previstos por la teoría de las rupturas presidenciales. La caída de Zelaya fue producto de una escalada de conflictos interinstitucionales, protagonizados por las elites civiles del país. En perspectiva comparada, el caso se distingue por la intervención de los militares como poder moderador a invitación de las instituciones civiles, la falta de movilización popular antes del golpe y la irrupción de una crisis internacional y conflictos callejeros después de que la caída presidencial tuviera lugar. El caso de Honduras contribuye a la teoría de las rupturas presidenciales al poner el acento en el papel de los militares y el estadio de desarrollo en que se encuentra el régimen político democrático al estallar la crisis.

  7. Fases del kirchnerismo: de la ruptura a la afirmación particularista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Cantamutto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza el kirchnerismo como proceso político populista. Utilizando la bibliografía especializada, es posible reconstruir la modificación en las alianzas políticas y sociales del gobierno, marcadas por el conflicto con la fracción agropecuaria del bloque en el poder en 2008. Este conflicto produjo un cambio de énfasis en la estrategia política del gobierno, que modificó su discurso y alianzas. Con base en ello se propone una periodización del proceso en dos etapas, donde se pasa de una fase ligada a la ruptura populista del orden institucional previo a una segunda donde se produce una afirmación particularista de la identidad kirchnerista. El artículo analiza en detalle los nuevos rasgos del orden político a partir de 2008.

  8. Representaciones de lo femenino en la publicidad: estereotipos, rupturas y deslices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Freire Oliveira-Cruz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto se propõe a mapear distintas representações do feminino na publicidade brasileira da atualidade: tanto a reprodução de estereótipos que reiteram desigualdades de gênero quanto a ruptura de modelos cristalizados por meio da valorização da autonomia da mulher. A partir de dados de pesquisas que demonstram o questionamento do público no que diz respeito aos padrões femininos até a repercussão de comerciais que foram considerados machistas pelo público, pretendemos refletir a relação instituída entre publicidade e sociedade bem como apontar para a necessidade de reconfiguração das formas de pensar e representar as questões de gênero na comunicação publicitária.

  9. Das neuroses atuais às neuroses traumáticas: continuidade e ruptura

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso,Marta Rezende

    2011-01-01

    Analisamos as vicissitudes da neurose traumática, partindo das contribuições de Freud. Propomos uma linha de continuidade - considerando também os pontos de ruptura - entre as neuroses traumáticas e as neuroses atuais, a partir de uma releitura da dimensão de "atual" em Freud, articulada com a de compulsão à repetição. Ampliamos a compreensão das neuroses traumáticas por meio da ideia da formação de enclaves no espaço psíquico, exterioridade interna radical que tende a se fazer sempre atual p...

  10. Das neuroses atuais às neuroses traumáticas: continuidade e ruptura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rezende Cardoso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisamos as vicissitudes da neurose traumática, partindo das contribuições de Freud. Propomos uma linha de continuidade - considerando também os pontos de ruptura - entre as neuroses traumáticas e as neuroses atuais, a partir de uma releitura da dimensão de "atual" em Freud, articulada com a de compulsão à repetição. Ampliamos a compreensão das neuroses traumáticas por meio da ideia da formação de enclaves no espaço psíquico, exterioridade interna radical que tende a se fazer sempre atual por sua repetição compulsiva.

  11. O futuro anterior: continuidades e rupturas nos movimentos estudantis do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Bringel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante o ano de 2008, multiplicaram-se, em todo o mundo, as reflexões sobre as lutas estudantis motivadas pelo 40º aniversário do Maio de 1968. No caso brasileiro, a questão mais paradigmática não foi tanto a discussão das lutas da década de 1960, mas sua "atualização" no contexto nacional, tendo como base possíveis rupturas que as lutas recentes dos estudantes universitários brasileiros, com vários protestos e ocupações entre 2007 e 2008, podem provocar no cenário dos movimentos estudantis no Brasil. Uma das hipóteses centrais propostas neste artigo é que esses movimentos se manifestam de acordo com dinâmicas cíclicas, e pela retroalimentação com outros movimentos sociais. Para observar essa dinâmica de continuidade e ruptura propõem-se alguns elementos para uma abordagem teórico-metodológica que interprete os movimentos estudantis como um movimento social sui generis. Realizase também uma análise cíclica das ações coletivas estudantis no Brasil e se avaliam, em perspectiva histórica e comparada com as dinâmicas de outros movimentos sociais, as principais características das lutas dos movimentos estudantis contemporâneos no País.

  12. Clinical assessment of language development in children at age 3 years that were born preterm Avaliação da evolução dos aspectos linguísticos em crianças que nasceram prematuras aos 3 anos de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rizzotto Schirmer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of gestational age and birth weight on language development and neurodevelopmental outcome at age 3 years in children born preterm. METHOD: Cross sectional study including 69 children followed in our developmental outpatient clinic. Patients were consecutively included at the time of the 3 years of age appointment and stratified for birth weight (OBJETIVO: Avaliar influência da idade gestacional (IG e peso ao nascimento na aquisição da linguagem e neurodesenvolvimento em crianças de 3 anos que nasceram prematuras. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal incluindo 69 crianças acompanhadas no Ambulatório de Seguimento Neonatal. Pacientes incluídos tinham 3 anos e foram estratificados por peso ao nascimento (>1500 gramas e entre 1500-2500 gramas. Todos foram avaliados com relação ao neurodesenvolvimento incluindo avaliação neurológica clínica, Denver II, Bayley II e avaliação da linguagem. Para a analise dividimos em dois grupos com e sem alteração na aquisição de linguagem. RESULTADOS: Crianças com DAL apresentam melhores índices nos escores de desenvolvimento no Bayley II (p=1500 gramas tiveram escores menores no Bayley II na idade de 36 m (p=0.002, p=0.007 e p<0.001. Análise multivariada sugere uma associação da IG (p=0,032 e alteração comportamental (p=0,001 com atraso na aquisição da linguagem. Denver II alterado tanto aos 12 m quanto aos 24 m, correlaciona-se com significância estatística a atraso na aquisição de linguagem receptiva e expressiva aos 3 anos de idade (p=<0.01 e p=<0.01. CONCLUSÃO: Crianças nascidas prematuras e com baixo peso ao nascimento, apresentam maior risco de ter um atraso no desenvolvimento da linguagem. Sendo que as crianças que tem atraso no desenvolvimento de linguagem apresentaram um desempenho cognitivo e psicomotor inferior ao das com desenvolvimento normal.

  13. Análisis económico de la ruptura eficiente en vínculos matrimoniales ineficientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Alberto Tito Añamuro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia cuál es la estrategia de incentivos que necesitan dos personas para alcanzar las ventajas de una ruptura eficiente, partiendo de la hipótesis de que el vínculo matrimonial es, desde el mercado del matrimonio, ineficiente y, por tanto, genera en la relación y en el entorno familiar más perjuicios que beneficios.

  14. Ruptura aneurismática intraoperatória junto ao colo: sugestão de manuseio cirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Guilherme Cabral de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A ruptura aneurismática intraoperatória de um aneurisma intracraniano pode comprometer dramaticamente um procedimento neurocirúrgico delicado, diminuindo as chances de uma evolução favorável do paciente. A ruptura ordinariamente se dá junto ao domus do aneurisma, causando icto.Com menor frequência, a ruptura pode se processar junto ao colo, em um ponto entre o vaso principal e o saco aneurismático. Isso causa um grande problema ao neurocirurgião; a colocação de um clipe de aneurisma neste local só irá aumentar a hemorragia. Nossa sugestão técnica resume-se à clipagem do aneurisma sobre um pequeno fragmento de músculo temporal colocado no local da ruptura. É bastante simples mas bastante útil, devendo ser lembrada no momento da ruptura. Não encontramos descrição semelhante nos principais livros e artigos que se referem à ruptura aneurismática durante a cirurgia.

  15. Impacto de la ruptura de los progenitores en el estado de salud física de los hijos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Martinón

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objeto conocer el riesgo de desarrollo en los hijos de problemas en los marcadores de salud física relacionados con (inadaptación en el comportamiento asociado a la exposición a la separación de los progenitores. Se planificó un estudio transversal con un diseño orientado a la predicción del riesgo de problemas en los marcadores de salud física derivado del tipo de familia (familias intactas vs. familias con ruptura de los progenitores. El estudio se llevó a cabo en el área asistencial primaria del Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (España. Participaron en el estudio 467 niños y adolescentes, de los que 300 (64.2% provenían de familias con ruptura de progenitores y 167 (35.8% de familias intactas. Los datos de salud física se recogieron por medio de la entrevista estructurada Historia Estructurada de Desarrollo, del BASC. Se encontró que los hijos de progenitores separados tienen aproximadamente el doble de probabilidades de desarrollo de problemas gastrointestinales, genitourinarios, dermatológicos y neurológicos que los de familias intactas. La ruptura de los progenitores supone un factor de riesgo para la salud física de los hijos, incluyendo problemas genitourinarios, gastrointestinales, dermatológicos y neurológicos.

  16. Secondary emission monitor (SEM) grids.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    A great variety of Secondary Emission Monitors (SEM) are used all over the PS Complex. At other accelerators they are also called wire-grids, harps, etc. They are used to measure beam density profiles (from which beam size and emittance can be derived) in single-pass locations (not on circulating beams). Top left: two individual wire-planes. Top right: a combination of a horizontal and a vertical wire plane. Bottom left: a ribbon grid in its frame, with connecting wires. Bottom right: a SEM-grid with its insertion/retraction mechanism.

  17. Aneurisma de aorta com ruptura para esôfago Aortic aneurysm rupture into the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano da Silveira de Barcellos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente portadora de aneurisma de aorta descendente com ruptura para o esôfago que, após aortoplastia com interposição de tubo de dacron e rafia da laceração esofágica, evoluiu com fístula esôfago pleural no terceiro dia pós-operatório. A paciente necessitou de reintervenção e cuidados intensivos, reabilitando-se adequadamente. A propósito deste caso incomum e do aprendizado adquirido no seu manejo, revisamos a literatura a fim de discutir a melhor alternativa de correção desta rara e, freqüentemente, fatal forma de apresentação das doenças da aorta.We present the case of a patient with a descending aorta aneurysm rupture into the esophagus, which, after aortoplasty with Dacron tube interposition and suture of esophageal laceration, developed a pleural-esophagus fistula on the 3rd postoperative day. She needed re-intervention and intensive care, followed by adequate recovery. Considering this unusual case and the knowledge acquired through its management, we reviewed the literature in order to discuss the best alternative for the correction of this rare and often fatal form of presentation of aortic diseases.

  18. 1814 en Chile: de la desobediencia a Lima a la ruptura con España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa Santa Cruz, Juan Luis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how the Chilean revolutionaries moved from the disobedience to Lima to the break with Spain in 1814. First, it studies the origins of the civil war that hit Chile since 1813. Then it studies the political factionalism within the revolutionary side and the importance of the Treaty of Lircay. Finally, it presents an account of the Americanist approach adopted by the Chilean rebels after signing a political and military alliance with José de San Martín.Este artículo interpreta el paso de la desobediencia a Lima a la ruptura definitiva con España durante el año 1814. Primero estudia los orígenes de la guerra civil en Chile comenzada en 1813. Luego presenta las causas del faccionalismo en el bando revolucionario y enfatiza la importancia del Tratado de Lircay. Finalmente, analiza la causa americanista seguida por los rebeldes chilenos después de firmar una alianza político-militar con José de San Martín.

  19. Revista de la Universidad Nacional o la tradición de la ruptura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cadena Silva

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Las revistas, al igual que el hombre, conjugan estrictamente los verbos nacer, crecer, reproducirse y morir; mejor: la revista reproduce, en un lapso temporal mucho más corto, aquel ciclo tajante y sintético que cumple el hombre irremediablemente. Pero el origen de éstas no se corresponde, sin embargo, con el del hombre habrán de constituirse en testigos fieles de sus épocas, sí, pero sólo cuando el hombre así lo exija y tan sólo , además, cuando el universo que puebla lo permita. Si las revistas logran originar una tradición, ésta no se da en un mundo distinto del regido por las pautas de la modernidad , y la característica inherente a la tradición que fundan no es otra que la que distingue lo moderno, la ruptura: "La modernidad es una tradición polémica y que desaloja a la tradición imperante, cualquiera que ésta sea; pero la desaloja sólo para, un instante después, ceder el sitio a otra tradición que, a su vez, es otra manifestación momentánea de la actualidad. La modernidad nunca es ella misma: siempre es otra [...] La modernidad es una suerte de autodestrucción creadora".

  20. Comportamento de maracujazeiros (Passiflora spp. quanto à morte prematura Behavior of passionfruit (Passiflora spp.in relation to premature death of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Na Universidade Estadual Paulista, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, estudou-se o comportamento de Passifloráceas quanto à morte prematura de plantas, cultivadas em local com histórico da doença. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de diversos "acessos" de populações e espécies de maracujazeiros em relação a esta doença, sendo que as plantas resistentes deverão ser utilizadas como porta-enxertos de formas comerciais de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa e em programas de melhoramento genético. As espécies utilizadas foram P. edulis Sims, P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, P. nitida H.B.K., P. cincinnata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. morifolia, P. foetida e P. capsularis. Em local com histórico da doença, plantaram-se mudas em número variável e em épocas distintas. A condução das plantas e os tratos culturais foram os recomendados para o maracujá-amarelo. A morte prematura das plantas ocorreu entre dois meses e dois anos da cultura no campo. P. giberti e P. nitida mostraram-se resistente à doença, independentemente do local de origem. Entre os demais "acessos", não se encontraram fontes promissoras de resistência. Entretanto, novos "acessos" e novas espécies deverão ser estudadas na busca da resistência.The behavior of passionfruit, cultivated in sites with disease history, as to premature death, was researched at Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus of Jaboticabal, SP. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the behavior of acesses and passionfruit species related to this disease, whereas resistant plants are to be used as yellow passionfruit rootstocks, as well as in breeding programs. The species P. edulis Sims, P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, P. nitida H.B.K., P. cincinnata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. morifolia, P. foetida, P. capsularis were used. In a site with a known record of the disease, the plants were planted in a variable number and at distinct times. Plant

  1. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  2. Rupturas y continuidades de la extensión rural en Argentina (1973-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Gárgano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda continuidades y rupturas en las actividades de extensión rural realizadas entre 1973 y 1983 por el Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA argentino, una de las principales agencias estatales. Dentro de este período, enmarcado por dos transiciones democráticas, se exploran los contenidos y enfoques de sus agendas de extensión rural, en conexión con transformaciones registradas en materia de políticas sectoriales, cambios socioeconómicos del ámbito rural e introducción de mecanismos represivos en el organismo. Se analiza el funcionamiento de la burocracia estatal del INTA durante dos reconfiguraciones institucionales: en 1973, en el marco de la primera transición democrática; y luego, en 1976 con el comienzo de la última dictadura militar. A partir de fuentes documentales y de entrevistas, se reconstruyen directivas institucionales, articulaciones con políticas agropecuarias de alcance nacional y experiencias protagonizadas por extensionistas del INTA, situadas primordialmente en la provincia de Buenos Aires. Se identifica la existencia, durante los años previos al inicio de la última dictadura, de diversas prácticas de contacto con la población rural alternativas al enfoque tradicional dominante, y se señalan sus limitaciones. Finalmente, se analiza la reorientación de las tareas de extensión rural del organismo durante su intervención militar (1976-1983.

  3. Framework for SEM contour analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L.; Farys, V.; Serret, E.; Fenouillet-Beranger, C.

    2017-03-01

    SEM images provide valuable information about patterning capability. Geometrical properties such as Critical Dimension (CD) can be extracted from them and are used to calibrate OPC models, thus making OPC more robust and reliable. However, there is currently a shortage of appropriate metrology tools to inspect complex two-dimensional patterns in the same way as one would work with simple one-dimensional patterns. In this article we present a full framework for the analysis of SEM images. It has been proven to be fast, reliable and robust for every type of structure, and particularly for two-dimensional structures. To achieve this result, several innovative solutions have been developed and will be presented in the following pages. Firstly, we will present a new noise filter which is used to reduce noise on SEM images, followed by an efficient topography identifier, and finally we will describe the use of a topological skeleton as a measurement tool that can extend CD measurements on all kinds of patterns.

  4. SEM-based characterization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope is now a common instrument in materials characterization laboratories. The basic role of the SEM as a topographic imaging system has steadily been expanding to include a variety of SEM-based analytical techniques. These techniques cover the range of basic semiconductor materials characterization to live-time device characterization of operating LSI or VLSI devices. This paper introduces many of the more commonly used techniques, describes the modifications or additions to a conventional SEM required to utilize the techniques, and gives examples of the use of such techniques. First, the types of signals available from a sample being irradiated by an electron beam are reviewed. Then, where applicable, the type of spectroscopy or microscopy which has evolved to utilize the various signal types are described. This is followed by specific examples of the use of such techniques to solve problems related to semiconductor technology. Techniques emphasized include: x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, electron beam induced current (EBIC), stroboscopic voltage analysis, cathodoluminescnece and electron beam IC metrology. Current and future trends of some of the these techniques, as related to the semiconductor industry are discussed

  5. Capítulo 4. Política espacial argentina: rupturas y continuidades (1989-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Blinder, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    4. 1. ¿Seguridad o desarrollo? El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo entender las rupturas y continuidades en la política local e internacional de la Argentina entre la presidencia de Carlos Menem y la de Néstor Kirchner y Cristina Fernández de Kirchner en relación con la política espacial. En definitiva, se trata de comprender por qué la Argentina tiene una política de tecnología espacial. Los argentinos tienen políticas de desarrollo tecnológico y proyectos espaciales debido a que existió...

  6. Relación entre identidad, conducta virtual, bienestar subjetivo y rupturas afectivas en jóvenes universitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Portillo Guerra, Carlos Javier

    2014-01-01

    El auge de las redes sociales ha permitido que se conviertan en lugares importantes de elaboración de la identidad dada la facilidad para la autoapertura y validación social de roles personales, asociándose esto a una percepción de mayor bienestar subjetivo. Aunque hay literatura importante sobre la elaboración de la identidad en redes sociales, existe poca información sobre elaboración de crisis de identidad en el ambiente virtual, particularmente, la generada por una ruptura afectiva. La pr...

  7. International Conference on SEMS 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chuang; Scientific explanation and methodology of science; SEMS 2012

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains the contributed papers of invitees to SEMS 2012 who have also given talks at the conference. The invitees are experts in philosophy of science and technology from Asia (besides China), Australia, Europe, Latin America, North America, as well as from within China. The papers in this volume represent the latest work of each researcher in his or her expertise; and as a result, they give a good representation of the cutting-edge researches in diverse areas in different parts of the world.

  8. Consecuencias personales en la ruptura de la vida laboral. El caso de Telefónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Inmaculada Velasco Juez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde mediados de los años setenta, el mundo del trabajo de los países occidentales comienza a cambiar progresivamente en su estructura y fisonomía. En los últimos años, como consecuencia de la búsqueda de competitividad y la política de fusiones y adquisiciones llevada a cabo en España por algunas grandes empresas, han aumentado de forma significativa las reducciones de plantilla. Considerando que estamos ante un proceso cultural de las sociedades contemporáneas y siendo parte integrante de ese colectivo, cada día más numeroso, de personas desvinculadas del trabajo remunerado a una edad temprana, estudié qué supone este hecho para un grupo de trabajadores de Telefónica. Esta empresa está llevando a cabo la mayor regulación de empleo de nuestro país; terminará 2007, por un plan iniciado en 1993, con una plantilla reducida en un 66 %. Para analizar cómo afecta este hecho a los trabajadores y en qué ámbitos, aspectos y dimensiones de su vida, tuve en cuenta las diferencias de interpretación de sus experiencias en cuanto al tiempo, al espacio y a la sociabilidad. También consideré las diferencias individuales: género, situación familiar, formación, trayectoria laboral, puesto que se ocupaba en la empresa, estrategias de ocupación del tiempo de ocio, etc. A partir de la etnografía se concluye que, siendo la actividad laboral remunerada un factor de identidad personal y social, un factor de integración y estructuración del ser humano, desde una perspectiva antropológico-social, la ruptura de dicha trayectoria, a una edad temprana y de forma brusca y no deseada, conlleva la necesidad de ajuste en todas las actividades del ser humano.

  9. The Effect of Nonnormality on CB-SEM and PLS-SEM Path Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Jannoo; B. W. Yap; N. Auchoybur; M. A. Lazim

    2014-01-01

    The two common approaches to Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) are the Covariance-Based SEM (CB-SEM) and Partial Least Squares SEM (PLS-SEM). There is much debate on the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM for small sample size and when distributions are nonnormal. This study evaluates the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM under normality and nonnormality conditions via a simulation. Monte Carlo Simulation in R programming language was employed to generate data based on the theoretical model w...

  10. Ruptura y continuidad: la caída de «Mel» Zelaya en perspectiva comparada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana LLANOS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza y compara la deposición del presidente de Honduras, Manuel Zelaya, con otras crisis presidenciales acontecidas en América Latina durante la tercera ola de democratización. El trabajo indaga sobre los procedimientos, causas y consecuencias en torno de esta caída presidencial con instrumentos de análisis previstos por la teoría de las rupturas presidenciales. La caída de Zelaya fue producto de una escalada de conflictos interinstitucionales, protagonizados por las elites civiles del país. En perspectiva comparada, el caso se distingue por la intervención de los militares como poder moderador a invitación de las instituciones civiles, la falta de movilización popular antes del golpe y la irrupción de una crisis internacional y conflictos callejeros después de que la caída presidencial tuviera lugar. El caso de Honduras contribuye a la teoría de las rupturas presidenciales al poner el acento en el papel de los militares y el estadio de desarrollo en que se encuentra el régimen político democrático al estallar la crisis.

  11. La ruptura de contrato psicológico y las respuestas del trabajador. ¿Relaciones mediadas por la confianza organizacional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA TOPA CANTISANO

    2004-01-01

    de ruptura de contrato psicológico, confianza organizacional y resultados. El modelo de investigación propone dos predictores (percepción de ruptura de contrato psicológico y confianza y tres importantes resultados psicológicos (compromiso afectivo y normativo, conductas de ciudadanía organizacional. El estudio se ha desarrollado con una muestra de trabajadores de emergencias españoles (N = 151. Más específicamente se ha hipotetizado que la confianza organizacional mediaría las relaciones entre predictores y resultados. Los resultados muestran que las hipótesis se han confirmado.

  12. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis

    2018-01-01

    -mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). METHODS: Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual...

  13. Mediastinite por perfuração e ruptura do esôfago torácico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Roger Normando Jr.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a mortalidade por mediastinite e sepse originadas por perfuração e ruptura do esôfago torácico, de acordo o tempo de evolução da doença. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo de 14 anos (1992 a 2006, com pacientes portadores de ruptura e perfuração do esôfago. Foi avaliado sexo, idade, mecanismo de lesão, evolução ( 24 horas e tratamento. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 44 pacientes, sendo 10 do sexo feminino (22,73% e 34 do sexo masculino (77,27%. A variação da idade foi de dois meses a 77 anos e a média de 33,2. Os ferimentos estiveram presentes em 19 casos (43,18%: Arma branca em cinco e projétil de arma de fogo 14. A instrumentação endoscópica foi detectada em nove casos (20,45%. Nos pacientes submetidos à esofagorrafia (diagnóstico precoce, menos de 24 horas a mortalidade esteve presente três casos (20%. Em pacientes submetidos à esofagectomia (diagnóstico tardio, mais de 24 horas a mortalidade ocorreu em oito casos (36,36%, e essa diferença não foi estatisticamente significante (p 0,05. No tratamento conservador, a mortalidade foi em cinco de sete casos a a diferença foi estatisticamente significativa quando comparado com o tratamento cirúrgico. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento conservador para mediastinite por ruptura e perfuração do esôfago mostrou mortalidade alta quando comparada com tratamento cirúrgico. Entre os pacientes operados, a diferença não foi estatisticamente significante, confirmando a indicação de esofagectomia para casos de infecção avançada e a esofagorrafia para casos precoces.

  14. Carga por mortalidad prematura de algunas afecciones de la esfera reproductiva: Años 1990, 1995 y 2000 Burden of premature mortality from some diseases in the reproductive field: Years 1990,1995 and 2000

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    Enma Domínguez Alonso

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Una forma de cuantificar la mortalidad prematura es mediante el indicador conocido como años de vida potencial perdidos, el cual ha sido ampliamente utilizado para estimar el estado de salud de las poblaciones. El objetivo del presente trabajo es comparar los años de vida potencial perdidos por mortalidad prematura de algunas afecciones de la esfera reproductiva en los años 1990, 1995 y 2000. Las afecciones analizadas fueron: síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida, otras infecciones de transmisión sexual, condiciones maternas y cáncer del aparato reproductivo. Se calcularon los años de vida potencial perdidos utilizando la esperanza de vida para el período 94-95. Se determinaron los porcentajes y las tasas por 100 000 habitantes de años de vida potencial perdidos. La tasa total de años de vida potencial perdidos aumentó en el período estudiado en ambos sexos: en el femenino de 512,4 en el año 90 a 679,9 en el 2000, mientras que en el hombre se quintuplicaron las cifras de 27,2 a 145,9. Hubo un mayor aporte a la mortalidad prematura del sexo femenino, y resultó siempre superior al 80 % de la carga total. En ambos sexos se observó un incremento del peso relativo de la mortalidad por síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida. En las mujeres el cáncer de mama y los de cuello y cuerpo de útero resultaron las causas más importantes de mortalidad prematura con ascenso en el período. El peso relativo de las condiciones maternas descendió de 10,7 % en el año 90 a 2,6 en el 2000. Las afecciones estudiadas, consideradas en su conjunto, muestran una carga por mortalidad prematura ascendente en el período estudiado, y resultaron los principales contribuyentes el cáncer de mama y los de cuello y cuerpo de útero en la mujer, y el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida en ambos sexos.A procedure for quantifying premature mortality is based on potential years of life lost, a well-known indicator, which is widely used to estimate the

  15. Entre rupturas y continuidades: la política de Chávez al África

    OpenAIRE

    Forite, Camille

    2012-01-01

    El presidente Chávez ha dado un nuevo rumbo a la política exterior de Venezuela, desde que, en el año 2005, el Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores entró bajo la guía del “Socialismo del Siglo XXI”. Con África, las relaciones han conocido un auge importante. Por ello, las nuevas líneas de la Casa Amarilla se fundan sobre bases heredadas de la tradición diplomática de la Cuarta República, ubicando la política africana de Hugo Chávez en las rupturas y continuidades con este períod...

  16. Perfil clínico-cirúrgico de pacientes operados por ruptura do septo interventricular pós-infarto do miocárdio Clinical and surgical profile of patients operated for postinfarction interventricular septal rupture

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    Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira Sá

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estudar características clínicas, complicações e desfechos intra-hospitalares de pacientes operados por ruptura do septo interventricular pós-infarto. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo 21 pacientes entre janeiro/1996 e junho/2009. Todas as operações foram realizadas na Divisão de Cirurgia Cardiovascular do Complexo Hospitalar HUOC/PROCAPE. RESULTADOS: Idade média dos pacientes foi de 62,81 anos (± 8,21, sendo 61,9% (n=13 do sexo masculino. Ruptura ocorreu, em média, 4,8 dias após o infarto. Foi observado choque cardiogênico em 57,1% (n=12 dos casos, sendo este fator de risco para óbito (100% com choque vs. 22,2% sem choque; POBJECTIVES: To study clinical features, complications and in-hospital outcomes of patients operated for postinfarction ventricular septal rupture. METHODS: A retrospective study involving 21 patients between January/1996 and June/2009. All operations were performed at the Division of Cardiovascular Surgery of Complexo Hospitalar HUOC/PROCAPE. RESULTS: Mean age of patients was 62.81 years (± 8.21, 61.9% (n = 13 were male. Rupture occurred on average 4.8 days after infarction. Cardiogenic shock was observed in 57.1% (n = 12, being risk factor for death (100% with shock vs. 22.2% without shock; P<0.001. Survivors had a higher mean ejection fraction compared to deaths (66.29% ± 4.61% versus 42.71% ± 4.79%, P <0.001. All were classified as high risk by the EuroSCORE, and the survivors had lower average score compared to deaths (6.57 ± 0.53 versus 10.93 ± 2.23; P <0.001. The majority (76.2%, n = 16 of the patients needed to use vasoactive drugs and 57.1% (n = 12 considered hemodynamically unstable. Need for vasoactive drugs was a risk factor for death (81.3% with vasoactive drugs versus 20% without vasoactive drugs, P = 0.025. Hemodynamic instability was also a risk factor for death (100% in the unstable group versus 22.2% in the stable group; P <0.001. The rate of in-hospital mortality was 66

  17. Ruptura traumática de via aérea em criança: um desafio diagnóstico Traumatic airway disruption in a child: a diagnostic challenge

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    Andréa Maria Cordeiro Ventura

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de ruptura da via aérea em criança vítima de trauma torácico decorrente de queda do tanque de lavar roupas. DESCRIÇÃO: Relato de caso descritivo. O paciente pré-escolar de 34 meses, do sexo masculino foi atendido na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica de Hospital Universitário. Foram realizados os seguintes procedimentos: radiografia simples e tomografia de tórax, endoscopia respiratória, toracotomia, antibioticoterapia, ventilação mecânica. A radiografia simples de tórax, tomografia computadorizada de tórax e endoscopia respiratória foram necessárias para definir o diagnóstico de ruptura traumática da via aérea associada a contusão pulmonar, pneumotórax, pneumomediastino e enfisema subcutâneo. O paciente foi submetido a toracotomia para reparação de lesão quase completa de brônquio principal esquerdo. Antibioticoterapia de largo espectro e suporte ventilatório contribuíram para resolução do caso sem seqüelas a médio prazo. COMENTÁRIOS: Na vigência de trauma torácico em criança, a busca diagnóstica por lesões incomuns, mas potencialmente letais, como a ruptura da via aérea, deve ser incessante, particularmente naqueles pacientes com fortes evidências clínicas. A complementação diagnóstica deve ser otimizada com a radiografia simples de tórax, a tomografia de tórax e o exame endoscópico que estabelece o diagnóstico definitivo.OBJECTIVE: To report a case of airway disruption in a child victim of blunt thoracic trauma due to falling off a sink. DESCRIPTION: Descriptive case report. A 34-month old boy victim of thoracic trauma was seen at the pediatric intensive care unit of a university hospital. Plain chest radiograph, thoracic computed tomography, bronchoscopy, thoracotomy, antibiotics, hemodynamic and respiratory support were performed. Plain chest radiograph, thoracic computed tomography and bronchoscopy were performed in order to arrive at a precise diagnosis of

  18. Reserva endocrina ovárica en mujeres con falla ovárica prematura Endocrine ovarian reserve in women with premature ovarian failure

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    Rubén S. Padrón Durán

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 19 mujeres con falla ovárica prematura que acudieron a consulta por amenorrea secundaria hipergonadotrópica, para determinar en ellas la existencia de algún grado de reserva endocrina ovárica. Se confeccionó historia clínica minuciosa y exámenes complementarios para definir la causa. Se determinaron los niveles basales de hormona folículo estimulante (FSH, luteinizante (LH, estradiol (E2, prolactina (Prl y tirotropina (TSH. Se determinó también reserva ovárica esteroidea mediante la prueba dinámica de inhibición hipofisaria de gonadotropinas (Gn con etinilestradiol y, posteriormente, se estimuló con hormona gonadotrópica menopáusica (HMG, y se determinaron los niveles basales de FSH, LH, E2, testosterona (T y androstenediona (A'd, durante la inhibición y posterior al estímulo con HMG. Se halló que los niveles basales medios de FSH fueron más altos que los LH; los de E2 fueron bajos y la Prl fue normal al analizarlas como grupo. El nivel medio de E2 basal fue bajo y no hubo aumento en los niveles medios del mismo posterior al estímulo con HMG. Los niveles medios basales de T fueron normales a diferencia de la A'd que fue baja, no se obtuvo aumento de los mismos posestímulo al analizarlas como grupo. Se comprobó que el 52,6 % de estas pacientes mantienen reserva ovárica estrogénica, mientras que sólo el 20 %, aproximadamente mantiene reserva androgénica. No hubo diferencias importantes en los resultados de la prueba dinámica al dividir a las pacientes en 2 grupos, según la edad cronológica, tiempo de amenorrea y causa de la FOP, excepto que solamente se halló reserva de T en las de causa idiopática, lo cual no se observó en las de causa inmunológica.19 women with premature ovarian failure that were seen at the physician's office due to secondary hypergonadotropic amenorrhea were studied to determine the existence of some degree of ovarian endocrine reserve. A detailed medical history was taken and

  19. Búsqueda de trastornos endocrinos en pacientes con falla ovárica prematura Search for endocrine disorders in patients with premature ovarian failure

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    Jorge Sell Lluveras

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 62 casos con falla ovárica prematura (FOP de causa no iatrogénica para conocer la frecuencia de trastornos endocrinos en estas pacientes y si es recomendable la búsqueda rutinaria de dichos trastornos. Se excluyeron 14 mujeres con FOP de causa iatrogénica. A las incluidas en el estudio se les confeccionó una historia clínica completa y se les midió tiroxina total, hormona tiroestimulante, anticuerpos antimicrosomales tiroideos, glucemia, calcio total, fosfatos en suero y orina de 24 h y se les hizo prueba de estimulación suprarrenal con corticotropina (ACTH. También se indicó radiografía simple de silla turca y tomografía axial computadorizada de la hipófisis. Se constató que tenían bocio eutiroideo 13/62 pacientes (20,9 % y algún tipo de trastorno tiroideo 18/62 (29 %. En el 36 % de las pacientes en las que se realizó la prueba de estimulación con ACTH, la respuesta de cortisol fue nula o disminuida, aunque no se recogieron manifestaciones clínicas de déficit hormonal. No se hallaron alteraciones de la glucemia en ayunas, calcio o fosfatos. Se observó un microadenoma hipofisario en 4/62 casos (6,4 %. En conclusión, los resultados indicaron que las mujeres con FOP no suelen presentar alteraciones de la glucemia en ayunas ni del metabolismo del calcio y el fósforo. Los trastornos tiroideos y adrenales son comunes por lo que es recomendable su búsqueda rutinaria en estas pacientes. La frecuencia de microadenomas hipofisarios también sugiere que su búsqueda debe hacerse en toda mujer con FOP.62 premature ovarian failures (POF of non iatrogenic cause were studied to know the frequency of endocrine disorders in these patients and whether or not the routine screening of such disorders is recommendable. 14 women with POF of iatrogenic cause were excluded. A complete medical history of those women included in the study was made and total tiroxin, thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroid anticromosomal antibodies

  20. Controle alternativo de Colletotrichum acutatum agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos Alternative control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of postbloom fruit drop of citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina Kupper

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A queda prematura dos frutos cítricos (QPFC, causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, dados os grandes prejuízos que têm causado aos produtores, constitui-se numa doença de grande importância econômica. O controle da doença é feito predominantemente mediante uso de fungicidas, que eleva o custo de produção e afeta negativamente o meio ambiente. Diante disso, este trabalho teve por objetivo buscar um método alternativo de controle da QPFC, mediante o uso de agentes de biocontrole ou de biofertilizantes. Diferentes concentrações de biofertilizantes (originários de duas fontes distintas e denominados de Bio1 e Bio 2; três isolados de Bacillus subtilis (ACB-69; 72 e 77 e três isolados de Trichoderma spp. (ACB-14; 37 e 39 foram testados, isoladamente ou em combinação, sob condições de laboratório, quanto à capacidade inibitória da germinação de conídios de C. acutatum. Estudaram-se, ainda, a produção de metabólitos termoestáveis por B. subtilis e o efeito sobre a germinação do patógeno. Quinze isolados de B. subtilis foram testados quanto à capacidade de prevenir a infecção por C. acutatum em flores destacadas de lima- ácida 'Tahiti' e, no campo, foram instalados dois experimentos, visando a testar ACBs e biofertilizantes no controle da doença. Verificou-se que o isolado ACB-72 (B. subtilis e ACB-37 (T. pseudokoningii foram os que mais inibiram a germinação do patógeno. Quanto à produção de metabólitos termoestáveis, ACB-69 e 77 foram os mais eficientes em produzir substâncias antifúngicas, e em quantidades suficientes para inibirem a germinação do patógeno. A mistura dos quatro isolados de Bacillus (ACBs: 69; 72; 77 e AP3 foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem de inibição (73%. Os biofertilizantes (Bio1 e Bio2, em concentrações acima de 10% e, quando em associação com isolados de Trichoderma spp., promoveram maiores inibições na germinação de C. acutatum. Em testes com flores destacadas

  1. Rupturas epistémicas y complejidad en los estudios de género, una aproximación a la conciencia humana feminizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Vizcarra Bordi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este texto consiste en reflexionar sobre los aportes feministas teóricos y empíricos que permitieron posicionamientos de rupturas epistémicas para revelar otras perspectivas de las realidades sociales y humanas. Se consideraron cinco rupturas epistémicas que desconstruyen una realidad unidimensional y racional, para dar cabida a otra compleja, que alcanzaría al espacio político de la educación transversalizada de género: biologicista, tecnocientífica, binarista, heterosexual y la separación objeto-sujeto. Se concluyó que los estudios de género pueden promover una educación des-universalizada, para dar lugar al pensamiento complejo que transciende las disciplinas y la misma conciencia humana.

  2. Ruptura do septo interventricular após trauma torácico fechado Ventricular septal rupture following blunt chest trauma

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    Ronaldo Peixoto de Mello

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos a seguir um caso de ruptura do septo interventricular após trauma torácico automobilístico com evolução relativamente benigna a despeito da extensão da lesão anatômica.We report a case of ventricular septal rupture following chest trauma resulting from a car accident. The outcome was relatively favorable despite the extension of the anatomic lesion.

  3. Aneurismas múltiplos de pontes aorto-coronárias de veia safena com ruptura fatal Multiple aneurysms of aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts with fatal rupture

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    Fábio R. Távora

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Aneurismas de pontes aorto-coronárias de veia safena são eventos raros, usualmente assintomáticos e detectados de forma incidental. Rupturas espontâneas de pontes de safena são raras, havendo poucos dados radiológicos disponíveis na literatura. Relatamos o caso de um senhor de 39 anos internado com hematêmese dez anos depois de ter sido submetido a cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica. Imagens tomográficas mostraram três aneurismas nas pontes de safena, mas o exame não detectou ruptura. O paciente veio a falecer e a necropsia revelou que a causa do óbito havia sido ruptura de aneurisma de pontes de safena. Esse caso ilustra a necessidade de tratamento agressivo de aneurismas sintomáticos de pontes coronarianas.Aortocoronary saphenous vein graft (SVG aneurysms are rare, and are usually asymptomatic and detected incidentally. Spontaneous rupture of SVG is rare and imaging data are few. We report on a 39-year old man who was admitted to the hospital with hematemesis 10 years after aortocoronary bypass surgery. CT images revealed 3 aortocoronary SVG aneurysms, but failed to detect any rupture. His subsequent death due to rupture of SVG aneurysm was documented at autopsy, illustrating the need for aggressive treatment of symptomatic coronary graft aneurysms.

  4. SEM probe of IC radiation sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Stanley, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) used to irradiate single integrated circuit (IC) subcomponent to test for radiation sensitivity can localize area of IC less than .03 by .03 mm for determination of exact location of radiation sensitive section.

  5. AS RUPTURAS DO DIZER: UMA DISCUSSÃO SOBRE A PRODUÇÃO DE SENTIDOS NA LÍNGUA

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    Denise Lima Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste artigo, fruto de nossa pesquisa teórica de doutorado em andamento, pretendemos refletir sobre a questão da produção de sentidos na aproximação entre Lingüística e Psicanálise. A partir da teoria do significante em Lacan, nos perguntamos: é possível compreender, no sistema lingüístico saussuriano, uma constituição de sentidos que escapa a linearidade? Haveria em Saussure um movimento entre o previsível e o imprevisível? Para tanto, discutiremos a noção de arbitrariedade e a conseqüente teoria do valor. Propomos, através da noção de arbitrariedade e do valor, que o sistema lingüístico saussuriano é acima de tudo um trabalho com a produção de sentidos. O sistema da língua, tal como colocado por Saussure, nos permite enxergar uma produção de sentidos que não é apenas linear, mas é fruto também, de um movimento contrário, aberto a rupturas.

  6. Análise de Narrativas de Ruptura e Reenquadre ao estereótipo de maternidade socialmente estabelecido

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    Allane de Souza Pedrotti Matos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo analiso o esforço conjunto para o reenquadre e manutenção dos estereótipos da maternidade estabelecidos pela instituição social da mãe biológica, quando a ruptura destes padrões surge em um momento interacional.  A interação registrada em gravação de áudio de mulheres que compartilham as rotinas de seus filhos em um condomínio na Zona Norte do Rio de Janeiro-RJ compõe o corpus desta análise.  Esse estudo lança mão do interacionismo como categoria de análise e através dos conceitos de Goffman articulados com o estudo de narrativas com base em Labov, percebeu-se como o discurso em um contexto micro faz emergir um conceito social construído, através das práticas de linguagem e nas redes de significado da comunidade discursiva.

  7. El peso de las rupturas. El acceso a las TIC por docentes rurales y la trayectoria de la escuela

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    Edgardo Carniglia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Una perspectiva situada en el acceso a las ambivalentes TIC (tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en el campo indica que toda transición digital implica importantes rupturas de la experiencia cotidiana. Se analiza cómo la apropiación de los dispositivos digitales por los docentes rurales instala a cierta trayectoria histórica de la escuela como una condición interviniente en la digitalización de la educación. En un entorno tecnocultural, con creciente arraigo de las TIC, estas apropiaciones suponen tensas interpenetraciones entre los atributos individuales y las condiciones contextuales del acceso a computadoras, telefonía móvil y redes. Se identifican rasgos históricos de la escuela rural y marcas de la trayectoria institucional significativos para los docentes que atraviesan la apropiación de las TIC en el aula. Los testimonios analizados corresponden a entrevistas semiestructuradas con maestros de escuelas primarias y públicas de un departamento de la provincia de Córdoba (Argentina con una agricultura mercantil y extensiva.

  8. Ruptura do ligamento cruzado em cães: estudo retrospectivo da reconstituição com fascia lata Managment of cruciate ligament rupture in dogs: a retrospective study fascia lata autograft

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    Paulo Iamaguti

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo de 35 casos de ruptura de ligamento cruzado atendidos pelo Serviço de Cirurgia de Pequenos Animais da FMVZ-UNESP-Campus de Botucatu, no período janeiro de 1991 a junho de 1997. Os cães foram submetidos à técnica de PAATSAMA (1952, modificada para reconstituição do ligamento cruzado, que consistiu na passagem do retalho de fascia lata através da articulação do joelho e fixação no côndilo medial da tíbia e epicôndilo medial do fêmur. Pelos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que esta técnica permite boa estabilização das superfícies articulares, com trans e pós operatório sem complicações, e permite recuperação completa da capacidade funcional do membro afetado.This is a retrospectivo study of 35 cases of cruciate ligament rupture, submitted to Small Animal Surgery Service at FMVZ - UNESP - Compus de Botucatu, from January, 1991 to June, 1997. The dogs underwent a modifica techniquefor reconstitution of the cruciate ligament. A flap of fascia lata was placed through the stifle joint andfixed at the medial condyle ofthe tíbia and the medial condyle of the femur. Results showed that this technique was simple and satisfactory, with no trans and post operative complications. The dogs totally recovered the function of the limbs in ali cases submitted to surgery.

  9. Advanced metrology by offline SEM data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakcher, Amine; Schneider, Loïc.; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Ducoté, Julien; Farys, Vincent; Besacier, Maxime

    2017-06-01

    Today's technology nodes contain more and more complex designs bringing increasing challenges to chip manufacturing process steps. It is necessary to have an efficient metrology to assess process variability of these complex patterns and thus extract relevant data to generate process aware design rules and to improve OPC models. Today process variability is mostly addressed through the analysis of in-line monitoring features which are often designed to support robust measurements and as a consequence are not always very representative of critical design rules. CD-SEM is the main CD metrology technique used in chip manufacturing process but it is challenged when it comes to measure metrics like tip to tip, tip to line, areas or necking in high quantity and with robustness. CD-SEM images contain a lot of information that is not always used in metrology. Suppliers have provided tools that allow engineers to extract the SEM contours of their features and to convert them into a GDS. Contours can be seen as the signature of the shape as it contains all the dimensional data. Thus the methodology is to use the CD-SEM to take high quality images then generate SEM contours and create a data base out of them. Contours are used to feed an offline metrology tool that will process them to extract different metrics. It was shown in two previous papers that it is possible to perform complex measurements on hotspots at different process steps (lithography, etch, copper CMP) by using SEM contours with an in-house offline metrology tool. In the current paper, the methodology presented previously will be expanded to improve its robustness and combined with the use of phylogeny to classify the SEM images according to their geometrical proximities.

  10. Oxford CyberSEM: remote microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M; Kirkland, A; Cockayne, D; Meyer, R

    2008-01-01

    The Internet has enabled researchers to communicate over vast geographical distances, sharing ideas and documents. e-Science, underpinned by Grid and Web Services, has enabled electronic communications to the next level where, in addition to document sharing, researchers can increasingly control high precision scientific instruments over the network. The Oxford CyberSEM project developed a simple Java applet via which samples placed in a JEOL 5510LV Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) can be manipulated and examined collaboratively over the Internet. Designed with schoolchildren in mind, CyberSEM does not require any additional hardware or software other than a generic Java-enabled web browser. This paper reflects on both the technical and social challenges in designing real-time systems for controlling scientific equipments in collaborative environments. Furthermore, it proposes potential deployment beyond the classroom setting.

  11. Partial Least Squares Strukturgleichungsmodellierung (PLS-SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hair, Joseph F.; Hult, G. Tomas M.; Ringle, Christian M.

    (PLS-SEM) hat sich in der wirtschafts- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschung als geeignetes Verfahren zur Schätzung von Kausalmodellen behauptet. Dank der Anwenderfreundlichkeit des Verfahrens und der vorhandenen Software ist es inzwischen auch in der Praxis etabliert. Dieses Buch liefert eine...... anwendungsorientierte Einführung in die PLS-SEM. Der Fokus liegt auf den Grundlagen des Verfahrens und deren praktischer Umsetzung mit Hilfe der SmartPLS-Software. Das Konzept des Buches setzt dabei auf einfache Erläuterungen statistischer Ansätze und die anschauliche Darstellung zahlreicher Anwendungsbeispiele anhand...... einer einheitlichen Fallstudie. Viele Grafiken, Tabellen und Illustrationen erleichtern das Verständnis der PLS-SEM. Zudem werden dem Leser herunterladbare Datensätze, Aufgaben und weitere Fachartikel zur Vertiefung angeboten. Damit eignet sich das Buch hervorragend für Studierende, Forscher und...

  12. FIB-SEM tomography in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilyaprak, Caroline; Bittermann, Anne Greet; Daraspe, Jean; Humbel, Bruno M

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional information is much easier to understand than a set of two-dimensional images. Therefore a layman is thrilled by the pseudo-3D image taken in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) while, when seeing a transmission electron micrograph, his imagination is challenged. First approaches to gain insight in the third dimension were to make serial microtome sections of a region of interest (ROI) and then building a model of the object. Serial microtome sectioning is a tedious and skill-demanding work and therefore seldom done. In the last two decades with the increase of computer power, sophisticated display options, and the development of new instruments, an SEM with a built-in microtome as well as a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM), serial sectioning, and 3D analysis has become far easier and faster.Due to the relief like topology of the microtome trimmed block face of resin-embedded tissue, the ROI can be searched in the secondary electron mode, and at the selected spot, the ROI is prepared with the ion beam for 3D analysis. For FIB-SEM tomography, a thin slice is removed with the ion beam and the newly exposed face is imaged with the electron beam, usually by recording the backscattered electrons. The process, also called "slice and view," is repeated until the desired volume is imaged.As FIB-SEM allows 3D imaging of biological fine structure at high resolution of only small volumes, it is crucial to perform slice and view at carefully selected spots. Finding the region of interest is therefore a prerequisite for meaningful imaging. Thin layer plastification of biofilms offers direct access to the original sample surface and allows the selection of an ROI for site-specific FIB-SEM tomography just by its pronounced topographic features.

  13. Search Engine Marketing (SEM: Financial & Competitive Advantages of an Effective Hotel SEM Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Search Engine Marketing and Optimization (SEO, SEM are keystones of a hotels marketing strategy, in fact research shows that 90% of travelers start their vacation planning with a Google search. Learn five strategies that can enhance a hotels SEO and SEM strategies to boost bookings.

  14. Search Engine Marketing (SEM): Financial & Competitive Advantages of an Effective Hotel SEM Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-01-01

    Search Engine Marketing and Optimization (SEO, SEM) are keystones of a hotels marketing strategy, in fact research shows that 90% of travelers start their vacation planning with a Google search. Learn five strategies that can enhance a hotels SEO and SEM strategies to boost bookings.

  15. Does Sexually Explicit Media (SEM) Affect Me?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Træen, Bente; Noor, Syed W

    2015-01-01

    and understanding of one’s sexual orientation.First-person effects refer to self-perceived and self-reported effects of SEM consumptionas experienced by the consumer. In addition, the study examined and provided athorough validation of the psychometric properties of the seven-item PornographyConsumption Effect...

  16. SEM: A user's manual for materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides a reference of techniques used by the metallurgical microscopist. It contains an introduction to the instrumentation and methods of scanning electron microscopy with historical as well as state-of-the-art methodologies. Topics covered include: SEM instrumentation, photography, energy dispersive spectroscopy, introduction to sample preparation, polished samples, fracture surfaces, replicas and thin films

  17. Building a SEM Analytics Reporting Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Jay W.; Williams, Brian G.; Kilgore, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Effective strategic enrollment management (SEM) efforts require vast amounts of internal and external data to ensure that meaningful reporting and analysis systems can assist managers in decision making. A wide range of information is integral for leading effective and efficient student recruitment and retention programs. This article is designed…

  18. Glycosaminoglycan loss from cartilage after anterior cruciate ligament rupture: influence of time since rupture and chondral injury Perda de glicosaminoglicanas da cartilagem após ruptura do ligamento cruzado anterior: influência do tempo de ruptura e da lesão condral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMG Mattiello-Rosa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the concentration of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs concentration in the synovial fluid (SF of knees with chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL rupture and to identify possible associations between GAG concentration in SF and the time elapsed since rupture and degree of chondral injury. METHOD: Fourteen adult male subjects with total unilateral ACL rupture, which had occurred between 5 and 144 months earlier, were assessed. All subjects underwent joint aspiration; it was possible to collect SF from ten individuals. The samples were quantified to determine the GAG concentration using dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB staining. The degree of chondral injury was macroscopically evaluated using the modified Mankin histological scale. Spearman correlation test (OBJETIVO: Quantificar a concentração de glicosaminoglicanas sulfatadas (GAGs no líquido sinovial (LS de joelhos com ruptura crônica do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA e identificar uma possível correlação entre a concentração de GAGs no LS e o tempo pós-ruptura e grau de lesão condral. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 14 indivíduos adultos do sexo masculino com ruptura total unilateral do LCA, ocorrida entre cinco a 144 meses. Todos os sujeitos foram puncionados, sendo possível a coleta de LS em dez indivíduos. As amostras foram quantificadas para determinar a concentração de GAGs usando a coloração azul de dimetilmetileno, método descrito por Farndale21. O grau de lesão condral foi macroscopicamente avaliado pela escala histológica de Mankin modificada por Messner14. As correlações entre concentração de GAGs e lesão condral foram feitas pelo teste de correlação de Sperman (p< 0,05 e a concentração de GAGs e tempo pós-ruptura pelo teste de correlação de Pearson (p< 0,05. RESULTADOS: Concentração de GAGs no LS apresentou variação média de 73,84 ± 40,75µg/mL, sendo o tempo médio pós-ruptura de 40,4 + 40,3 meses. Não houve correla

  19. "Antes e depois da LMC": experiências e dimensões da leucemia mieloide crônica como uma ruptura biográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeimi Alexandra Alzate López

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as experiências de enfermidade de pacientes com leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC, centrando nas dimensões que apontam a chegada da doença como uma ruptura biográfica. Este estudo qualitativo baseou-se na análise das narrativas de seis pacientes, com idades entre 23 e 62 anos, usuários do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS e pacientes de um hospital – centro de referência em atenção hematológica na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Nos resultados apresenta-se a experiência de ruptura com base em três categorias (1 os significados da doença e a LMC como ameaça; (2 rupturas físicas, sociais e as experiências estigmatizantes; (3 a percepção de um “antes” e um “depois” da LMC, apontando para as mudanças no self, nas relações sociais e na vida cotidiana. Concluiu-se que os impactos biográficos, sociais e dos sistemas de saúde (considerando o custo das medicações atualizam e ampliam questões como o acesso a tratamentos, assim como o enfrentamento do certo e do incerto, em que o “conhecido” da LMC encontra-se pouco acessível ao estoque de conhecimento da vida cotidiana.

  20. Ruptura espontánea de la vía urinaria superior: A propósito de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixcela Ares Valdés

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de ruptura espontánea del uréter que clínicamente se manifestó con dolor abdominal intenso y en el que se encontró infección urinaria por Klebsiella. Se revisan los posibles factores causales, el diagnóstico clínico y el tratamientoIt is presented a case of spontaneous rupture of the ureter, manifesting acute abdominal pain and with a urinary infection caused by Klebsiella. The possible causes, the clinical diagnosis and the treatment are review

  1. Ruptura de aneurismas de aorta abdominal. Herramienta informática para su predicción // Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Software for its prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Villalta‐Alonso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La ruptura de los aneurismas de aorta abdominal representa un evento clínico muy importantedebido a su alta tasa de mortalidad. Los indicadores empleados actualmente para decidir eltratamiento a pacientes con aneurismas son el diámetro máximo transversal y la tasa de crecimiento,los que pueden ser considerados insuficientes, pues no tienen una base teórica físicamentefundamentada. En el presente artículo se definen los fundamentos para el diseño de una herramientainformática para PC que permita predecir, con suficiente precisión para ser clínicamente relevante, elriesgo de ruptura de aneurismas de aorta abdominal sobre bases personalizadas del paciente. Laherramienta consta de 3 módulos, que están diseñados para procesar toda la información delpaciente e integrarla mediante un modelo que incorpora la interrelación de los factores biomecánicosde diferentes naturalezas (biológicos, estructurales y geométrico y escalas (temporal y dimensional,con el objetivo de calcular un indicador numérico y personalizado del riesgo de ruptura. Estaherramienta debe constituir un elemento auxiliar del facultativo médico en la toma de decisionesrespecto del tratamiento adecuado a pacientes con aneurisma.Palabras claves: AAA, riesgo de ruptura, modelo multiescala, predicción, herramienta informática.___________________________________________________________________AbstractThe rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA represents an important clinical event due to its highmortality rate. Currently the criteria to decide on the treatment of AAA patients are the peaktransverse diameter and the growth rate which can be considered insufficient because they have nota reasonable physical base. The foundations for the design of PC software to predict, with sufficientaccuracy to be clinically relevant, the risk of AAA rupture on patient-specific basis are defined in thispaper. The software consists of 3 modules which are designed for processing all

  2. Influência de aderências peritoneais e fio cirúrgico na tensão de ruptura da parede abdominal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Martins Gonçalves

    Full Text Available O resultado de operações na cavidade abdominal pode ser influenciado por aderências. Existem muitos conceitos ainda não comprovados sobre os efeitos das aderências na resistência de suturas tanto de vísceras intracavitárias quanto da parede abdominal. O presente trabalho visa a avaliar a influência das aderências peritoneais e vários tipos de fios cirúrgicos na tensão de ruptura da parede abdominal. Em 60 ratos Wistar, realizou-se laparotomia de 5cm de comprimento. A parede muscular e o peritônio foram fechados em plano único, com pontos simples, usando aleatoriamente os fios de náilon monofilamentar, ácido poliglicólico, categute simples e categute cromado, todos 4-0. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos: 1- Controle; 2- INTRODUÇÃO de 0,3g de talco dentro da cavidade abdominal; 3- Acréscimo de carboximetilcelulose sódica (CMC juntamente com o talco. Houve a análise dos grupos com sete e 21 dias. Avaliou-se o grau de aderências e a tensão de ruptura da ferida cirúrgica. A CMC reduziu a formação de aderências provocadas pelo talco (p<0,01. Houve diferença na tensão de ruptura quando comparados os grupos de sete e 21 dias (p<0,05. As aderências proporcionaram uma maior força tênsil à ferida (p<0,01. O tipo de fio utilizado não influenciou na tensão de ruptura a longo prazo. Portanto, as aderências aumentaram a força tênsil dos tecidos e o tipo de fio cirúrgico não influenciou nesse processo.

  3. Ruptura traumática de via aérea em criança: um desafio diagnóstico

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura,Andréa Maria Cordeiro; Góes,Patrícia Freitas; Otoch,José Pinhata; Fernandes,José Carlos

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de ruptura da via aérea em criança vítima de trauma torácico decorrente de queda do tanque de lavar roupas. DESCRIÇÃO: Relato de caso descritivo. O paciente pré-escolar de 34 meses, do sexo masculino foi atendido na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica de Hospital Universitário. Foram realizados os seguintes procedimentos: radiografia simples e tomografia de tórax, endoscopia respiratória, toracotomia, antibioticoterapia, ventilação mecânica. A radiografia simples...

  4. Sinovite linfocítica plasmocítica associada à ruptura de ligamento cruzado cranial em um cão

    OpenAIRE

    Tatarunas, Angelica Cecilia; Matera, Julia Maria; Dagli, Maria Lucia Zaidan; Galeazzi, Viviane Sanchez; Unruh, Silvana Maria

    2006-01-01

    Este relato descreve um caso de sinovite linfocítica plasmocítica associada à ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial em joelho esquerdo de um cão, fêmea, Pit Bull com histórico de claudicação bilateral em membros pélvicos. Durante a artroscopia, observou-se membrana sinovial bastante congesta e irregular, hiperplasia e hiperemia de vilos sinoviais, além de lesões degenerativas de cartilagem. A análise histopatológica da membrana sinovial denotou a presença de nódulos linfoplasmocíticos. This...

  5. Resultados perinatales de las mujeres con ruptura de las membranas ovulares entre las semanas 24 y 34 de la gestación sometidas a manejo expectante en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, Medellín-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Antonio Araque Fernández

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available La literatura mundial sobre el manejo de la ruptura prematura de membranas ovulares pretérmino (RPMOP y sobre los resultados perinatales, informa de una disminución de la morbilidad y la mortalidad de los recién nacidos cuyas madres recibieron profilaxis con antibióticos, pero algunos estudios presentan inconsistencias en su metodología, lo que se demuestra con el análisis del estudio ORACLE, por parte del Centro Latinoamericano de Perinatología y de Desarrollo Humano (CLAP. Esta organización consideró sin validez suficiente la conclusión acerca de la disminución de la morbilidad y mortalidad perinatales con el uso de antibióticos en el cual se hizo un análisis general para dos poblaciones distintas, una con RPMOP y otra con APP (amenaza de parto prematuro; el error metodológico estimado fue no realizar análisis por subgrupos como dos poblaciones diferentes. En el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl (HUSVP de Medellín, Colombia, se hace un manejo expectante de la RPMOP, el cual no incluye uso de antibióticos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir los desenlaces perinatales de las mujeres con RPMOP de acuerdo con los diferentes grupos de edad gestacional y los diferentes períodos de latencia, atendidas en el HUSVP y sometidas al protocolo institucional que consiste en manejo expectante, sin antibióticos. Esta investigación fue descriptiva prospectiva con mujeres cuya edad gestacional estaba comprendida entre las 24 y 33semanas + 6 días con diagnóstico de RPMOP. El diagnóstico se efectuó por el examen clínico y/o la prueba de índigo carmín. El seguimiento consistió en evaluación clínica, monitoreo electrónico fetal, perfil biofísico fetal (PBF y reactantes de fase aguda realizados periódicamente. Se evaluaron los siguientes desenlaces primarios: muerte perinatal, corioamnionitis, síndrome de dificultad respiratoria (SDR, sepsis temprana, hemorragia intraventricular (HIV, enterocolitis necrosante

  6. Bases de Datos Semánticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irving Caro Fierros

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1992, cuando Tim Berners-Lee dio a conocer la primera  versión  de  la  Web,  su  visión  a  futuro  era  incorporar metadatos  con  información  semántica  en  las  páginas  Web.  Es precisamente   a   principios   de   este   siglo   que   inicia   el   auge repentino  de  la  Web  semántica  en  el  ambiente  académico  e Internet. El modelo de datos semántico se define como un modelo conceptual que permite definir el significado de los datos a través de  sus  relaciones  con  otros.  En  este  sentido,  el  formato  de representación  de  los  datos  es  fundamental  para  proporcionar información de carácter semántico. La tecnología enfocada en las bases de datos semánticas se encuentra actualmente en un punto de  inflexión,  al  pasar  del  ámbito  académico  y  de  investigación  a ser una opción comercial completa. En este artículo se realiza un análisis  del  concepto  de  base  de  datos  semántica.  También  se presenta  un  caso  de  estudio  donde  se  ejemplifican  operaciones básicas  que  involucran  la  gestión  de  la  información  almacenada en este tipo de base de datos.

  7. SEM investigation of heart tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, R; Amoroso, M [Physics Department, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2010-07-01

    We used the scanning electron microscope to examine the cardiac tissue of a cow (Bos taurus), a pig (Sus scrofa), and a human (Homo sapiens). 1mm{sup 3} blocks of left ventricular tissue were prepared for SEM scanning by fixing in 96% ethanol followed by critical point drying (cryofixation), then sputter-coating with gold. The typical ridged structure of the myofibrils was observed for all the species. In addition crystal like structures were found in one of the samples of the heart tissue of the pig. These structures were investigated further using an EDVAC x-ray analysis attachment to the SEM. Elemental x-ray analysis showed highest peaks occurred for gold, followed by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium. As the samples were coated with gold for conductivity, this highest peak is expected. Much lower peaks at carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium suggest that a cystallized salt such as a carbonate was present in the tissue before sacrifice.

  8. SEM investigation of heart tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, R; Amoroso, M

    2010-01-01

    We used the scanning electron microscope to examine the cardiac tissue of a cow (Bos taurus), a pig (Sus scrofa), and a human (Homo sapiens). 1mm 3 blocks of left ventricular tissue were prepared for SEM scanning by fixing in 96% ethanol followed by critical point drying (cryofixation), then sputter-coating with gold. The typical ridged structure of the myofibrils was observed for all the species. In addition crystal like structures were found in one of the samples of the heart tissue of the pig. These structures were investigated further using an EDVAC x-ray analysis attachment to the SEM. Elemental x-ray analysis showed highest peaks occurred for gold, followed by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium. As the samples were coated with gold for conductivity, this highest peak is expected. Much lower peaks at carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium suggest that a cystallized salt such as a carbonate was present in the tissue before sacrifice.

  9. Viewing Integrated-Circuit Interconnections By SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Russel A.; Gauldin, Robert E.; Ruiz, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    Back-scattering of energetic electrons reveals hidden metal layers. Experiment shows that with suitable operating adjustments, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used to look for defects in aluminum interconnections in integrated circuits. Enables monitoring, in situ, of changes in defects caused by changes in temperature. Gives truer picture of defects, as etching can change stress field of metal-and-passivation pattern, causing changes in defects.

  10. Structuring Consumer Preferences with the SEM Method

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Structuring preferences has been developed with econometric models using functional flexible parametric form and the exploring the perceptions about expressed and latent needs using different multivariate approaches. Purpose of this research is to explore the demand for a new drink using the mean-end chain (MEC) theory and multivariate SEM procedure. The first part is dedicated to description of specialty foods for their capacity to create new niche markets. The MEC theory is introduced to ex...

  11. Bases de Datos Semánticas

    OpenAIRE

    Irving Caro Fierros; Víctor Hugo Menéndez Domínguez; María Enriqueta Castellanos Bolaños

    2016-01-01

    En 1992, cuando Tim Berners-Lee dio a conocer la primera  versión  de  la  Web,  su  visión  a  futuro  era  incorporar metadatos  con  información  semántica  en  las  páginas  Web.  Es precisamente   a   principios   de   este   siglo   que   inicia   el   auge repentino  de  la  Web  semántica  en  el  ambiente  académico  e Internet. El modelo de datos semántico se define como un modelo conceptual que permite definir el significado de los datos a través de  sus  relaciones  con  otros.  E...

  12. Characterization of Yeast Biofilm by Cryo-SEM and FIB-SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubanová, Kamila; Nebesářová, Jana; Růžička, F.; Dluhoš, J.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, S2 (2013), s. 226-227 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103; GA TA ČR TE01020118; GA ČR GAP205/11/1687 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : yeast biofilm * cryo-SEM * FIB-SEM Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.757, year: 2013

  13. Processo migratório e saúde mental: rupturas e continuidade na vida cotidiana The migratory process and mental health: breaks and continuity in daily life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Alves Bomfim Trad

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Os movimentos migratórios constituem um tipo complexo de mobilidade social, implicando uma ruptura com os referenciais básicos que orientam a conduta individual. O presente estudo acompanha o itinerário migratório de brasileiros que emigraram para Barcelona, analisando os fatores socioculturais psicológicos que interferem no processo migratório. O conceito de processo migratório enfatiza a relação tempo e espaço. Na nova comunidade, os imigrantes são expostos a transformações ambientais e sociais que eles tentam gradualmente entender e incorporar, especialmente na esfera cotidiana. Neste processo podemos distinguir diferentes etapas: momentos de ruptura e de construção de uma nova realidade social.Migratory movements constitute a complex type of social mobility, involving a break with the basic references orienting individual conduct. The current study follows the migratory itinerary of Brazilians who emigrated to Barcelona, Spain, analyzing the psychological socio-cultural factors intervening in the migratory process. The concept of migratory process emphasizes the relationship between time and space. In their new community, immigrants are exposed to environmental and social transformations, especially in daily life, which they gradually attempt to understand and incorporate. We can distinguish various stages in this process: moments characterized by breaks and the construction of a new social reality.

  14. O ciberativismo sem bússola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rüdiger

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Questiona-se no texto se uma abordagem que, no essencial, relata a trajetória do chamado ciberativismo de acordo com seus próprios termos se justifica academicamente ou, em vez disso, se mantém prisioneira de uma mitologia que o fenômeno, em si mesmo, já construiu e, por isso, autoriza seus sujeitos a dispensarem sem prejuízo eventual contribuição de origem universitária.

  15. Afasia global sem hemiparesia: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA,MARCUS TULIUS TEIXEIRA DA; CAVALCANTI,JOSÉ LUÍS DE SÁ; MOREIRA,DENISE MADEIRA

    2000-01-01

    Afasia global geralmente é acompanhada por hemiparesia direita devido à extensão da lesão subjacente. Recentemente têm sido registrados na literatura casos em que tal síndrome ou não se acompanha do déficit motor ou este é apenas transitório, sendo esta condição conhecida como afasia global sem hemiparesia (AGSH). Relatamos caso de AGSH devido a infarto cerebral embólico cardiogênico, corroborando a tese de que esta condição pode ter valor preditivo para o diagnóstico de infartos embólicos....

  16. Resultados do tratamento artroscópico das rupturas do manguito rotador Outcomes of arthroscopic treatment for rotator cuff tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados do reparo artroscópico das rupturas do manguito rotador. MÉTODOS: Realizado estudo retrospectivo com avaliação dos resultados da técnica em 42 pacientes operados entre 2002 e 2006. O seguimento médio foi de 31 meses e a média de idade foi de 57 anos, sendo o lado dominante operado em 73,8% dos casos. Para avaliação foram usadas escalas de UCLA e Escala Visual Analógica da dor no pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Os resultados foram satisfatórios em 85,7% (59,5% excelentes e 26,2% bons respectivamente e insatisfatórios em 14,3% dos pacientes. Nos casos com lesões associadas, a mais frequente foi no tendão da porção longa do bíceps (57,1%. Associação com outras lesões não comprometeu o resultado. O mesmo aconteceu com relação a idade e tempo de acompanhamento pós-cirurgia. Quanto ao tamanho da lesão, diferença significativa ocorreu nos casos de lesões grandes e maciças demonstrando resultados inferiores em relação às pequenas e médias. A função foi inferior principalmente nos casos de lesão maciça. CONCLUSÃO: A reparação artroscópica das lesões do manguito rotador (MR proporciona baixa morbidade cirúrgica e possibilita diagnóstico de lesões articulares associadas. O benefício do procedimento foi confirmado principalmente pela melhora significativa da dor, mesmo nos casos de lesões maiores.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of arthroscopic treatment for rotator cuff tears. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out demonstrating the results of this technique in 42 patients operated between 2002 and 2006. The mean follow-up was 31 months and average age was 57 years. The dominant limb was operated in 73.8% of cases. Function and pain were evaluated using criteria of UCLA Score System and Visual Analogic Scale respectively. RESULTS: The results were satisfactory in 85.7% (59.5% excellent and 26.2% good, with 14.3% unsatisfactory. The most frequent associated lesion was the

  17. Ciudad global y consumos culturales en Buenos Aires de fin de siglo XX: continuidades y rupturas del neoliberalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Ana Cristina Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Como muchas ciudades latinoamericanas, Buenos Aires, durante la década de 1990, fue escenario de una serie de cambios vertiginosos que se asociaron, con mayor o menor énfasis, al imperativo de entrar en un escenario global. Zonas que décadas atrás eran orgullo de la metrópolis y donde el auge constructor del siglo XIX había afincado el poderío de un Estado-Nación en crecimiento comenzaron a ser abandonadas en favor de barrios nuevos o reciclados que insinuaban una impronta estética y cultural. El neoliberalismo imprimió de esta manera sus signos en la ciudad: se produjo la formación, mpulsada por el Estado, de nuevos barrios (como Puerto Madero, el reciclaje de otros con una activa vida previa y en manos de emprendimientos privados (el barrio porteño de Palermo, el surgimiento de shoppings basados en la reconversión de antiguas estructuras industriales abandonadas, entre otros ejemplos. Después de la gran crisis argentina del año 2001, estos procesos fueron inscriptos en una oposición que sugería una ruptura entre la década neoliberal de los noventa y la década siguiente. Este artículo sostiene, por el contrario, que existe una continuidad cultural entre ambas décadas y que esa continuidad se expresa en la perpetuación y potenciación de espacios denominados "globales" y en las prácticas de consumo cultural que los caracterizan. As many cities in Latin America, during the 1990s Buenos Aires City was the scene of various dizzyng changes associated, with greater or lesser emphasis, to the imperative of entering on a global stage. Some areas that decades ago were the reason of the metropolis' pride, and where the nineteenth century, through the urban boom, had installed a symbol of the power of the emerging nation-state, began to be abandoned in favor of new or recycled neighborhoods that revealed an aesthetic or cultural mark. In this way, the neoliberalism succeeded in printing its signs in the city: the setting-up of new

  18. Optimización de sistemas centralizados de agua helada en la etapa prematura del diseño comercial // Optimization of chilled water system in premature stage of coommercial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarelis Valdivia‐Nodal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se propone un procedimiento para la optimización de un sistema de climatizacióncentralizada por agua helada en la etapa prematura del diseño comercial, para ello se crea un modelohíbrido que combina herramientas termoeconómicas con técnicas de inteligencia artificial como son lasredes neuronales artificiales y los algoritmos genéticos para minimizar el costo de los productos finales delsistema (agua fría para climatización de locales y agua caliente para calentamiento de agua sanitaria.Con este objetivo se calculan las variables de diseño y de operación que garantizan el mínimo costo totaldel sistema, formado por los costos capitales de cada uno de sus componentes y el costo asociado a laenergía consumidaPalabras claves: termoeconomía, optimización, algoritmos genéticos, sistemas de climatizacióncentralizada.__________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper the procedure of optimization for the conceptual design of a centralized air conditioning chillerwater system is developed, for which a hybrid model is created that combines thermoeconomic tools withartificial intelligence technique such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN and Genetic Algorithms (GA forthe optimization of the final products of the system. With this objective the design and operation variablesare calculated that guarantees the minimum total cost of the system, including the capital costs of each ofits components and the cost associated to the energy consumed.Key words: thermoeconomic, optimization, genetic algorithms, chiller.

  19. Os defeitos do esmalte e a erupção dentária em crianças prematuras Evaluation of the dental eruption pattern and of enamel defects in the premature child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Ferreira Caixeta

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A proposta do trabalho foi verificar a relação entre defeitos do esmalte e atraso da erupção dentária com prematuridade. MÉTODOS: A amostra consistiu de 100 crianças prematuras, entre seis meses a seis anos de idade em acompanhamento no Instituto da Criança da Faculdade de Medicina da USP. Foi feita uma anamnese da cavidade bucal por apenas um observador, avaliando o tempo da erupção dentária e a ocorrência de defeitos no esmalte. Realizou-se também uma avaliação médica, com dados referentes a possíveis problemas durante o período pré-natal, neonatal e pós-natal. A avaliação estatística utilizou análise descritiva, freqüência média e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Defeitos apareceram em 35% das crianças prematuras; 51,43% das que tinham defeitos haviam nascido com peso baixo (2500g . Não houve relação entre ocorrência de defeitos com baixo Boletim de Apgar em 1 minuto, 2 minutos e 5 minutos (p=0,628; p=0,308; p=0,193. Os defeitos mais comuns foram as opacidades brancas, tanto na dentição decídua (19% quanto na permanente (100%. Os terços incisais e cervicais das superfícies vestibulares foram os mais afetados com valores de 88,04% na dentição decídua e 100% na permanente. Cerca de 42% das crianças tiveram dentes irrompidos entre 6 e 10 meses. CONCLUSÃO: Crianças prematuras podem apresentar defeitos do esmalte causados por diferentes fatores durante a gravidez com uma possível associação entre baixo peso e defeito. Os dentes irromperam em tempo normal, no entanto, o número total de dentes até os 36 meses foi menor do que os encontrados em crianças nascidas a termo.BACKGROUD: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between enamel defects and delay of dental eruption with prematurity. METHODS: the sample consisted of 100 premature children ranging from six months to six years of age, observed in the Children Institute of the Medical School of the USP. An anamnesis

  20. El semáforo loco

    OpenAIRE

    González de Zachrisson, Hena

    2016-01-01

    El semáforo lo acababan de instalar en Vía Brasil y Calle 50 y estaba contento de poder mantener el orden del tránsito en tan importante calle. Sin embargo, pronto descubrió que su tarea no era fácil. Su territorio estaba atestado de muchachos que vendían frutas y vegetales y para escapar de ellos, los conductores hacían regatas para cruzar la calle antes de que la luz cambiara a rojo. —Todo a un dólar! —gritaban los chicos mostrando su bolsa de guineo, naranja, melón, maíz, papaya, c...

  1. In-situ SEM electrochemistry and radiolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Nilsen, Rolf Erling Robberstad; Norby, Poul

    are backscattered and an image is reconstructed by the microscope. But the high energy electrons are a form of ionising radiation which can significantly affect the chemistry in liquid experiments. Ionising radiation can split water, produce radicals, reduce dissolved metal ions to metal particles, and more...... experiments. During the course of these studies it has also been possible to improve on the EC-SEM system. This has resulted in pyrolysed carbon electrodes, which offer the benefit of stability at 0.75 V higher potentials than traditional gold thin-film electrodes. With the quantitative insight...... microelectrodes on the windows to enable studies of electrohcemical processes. In this way it is possible to perform in-situ electrochemical experiments such as electroplating and charge and discharge analysis of battery electrodes. In a typical liquid cell, electrons are accelerated to sufficiently high energies...

  2. Evaluación del riesgo de ruptura de aneurismas de aorta abdominal personalizados mediante factores biomecánicos/Patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms rupture risk assessment by means of biomechanical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Zúñiga‐Reyes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El Aneurisma de Aorta Abdominal es la dilatación localizada, irreversible y progresiva que experimenta la pared aortica. Esta patología ha sido reconocida como un importante problema de salud, puesto que su ruptura está asociada mayormente a consecuencias fatales. La falta de criterios fiables, respecto a los actualmente utilizados, para la evaluación del riesgo de ruptura, constituye un inconveniente en la gestión clínica de la enfermedad. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el riesgo de ruptura de Aneurismas de Aorta Abdominal, mediante indicadores numéricos, como es previsto por el enfoque biomecánico. Fueron utilizadas técnicas de modelación por elementos finitos para determinar el comportamiento del flujo sanguíneo y el estado tensional de la pared arterial. Los resultados mostraron que ninguno de los aneurismas analizados presenta riesgo de ruptura elevado y que la evaluación del riesgo de ruptura mediante índices numéricos, es un camino viable para prever la ruptura de un aneurisma específico.Palabras claves: aneurisma de aorta abdominal, factores biomecánicos, interacción fluido-sólido, riesgo de ruptura.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractAbdominal Aortic Aneurysm is a localized, progressive and permanent dilation of the infra-renal aorta.AAA has increasingly been recognized as an important health problem in the last decades. The AAA rupture is mostly associated with fatal consequences. The lack of more reliable criteria for rupture riskassessing, results in a problem in the clinical management of the disease. This paper aims to assess the rupture risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms by means of numerical indexes, as envisaged by the biomechanical approach. Finite Volume Techniques were used to determine the blood flow behavior within aneurysmatic sac and the structural state of the arterial wall. The results showed that none of the assessed aneurysms is at

  3. Modelos de cinemática de placas para Antártida durante la ruptura de Gondwana: una revisión

    OpenAIRE

    M.E. Ghidella; L.A. Lawver; S. Marenssi; L.M. Gahagan

    2007-01-01

    La historia de apertura del mar de Weddell y del Oc éano Atlántico Sur es crítica para comprender la ruptura de Gondwana y la evolución geológica de Antártida desde el Jurásico temprano. La dispersión de los fragmentos gondwánicos es importante para entender la circulación oceánica del pasado, descifrar la historia de las cuencas sedimentarias ubicadas al Este de la Península Antártica y establecer posibles rutas de dispersión de flora y fauna entre los continentes australes. Desafortunadamen...

  4. La adición de LH a la estimulación ovárica no produce más maduración endometrial prematura ni diferente patrón de expresión génica endometrial que la estimulación con solo FSH. Un estudio comparativo en donantes de ovocitos

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Muñoz, Elkin

    2015-01-01

    El papel de la LH es controvertido en los tratamientos de reproducción asistida. La LH permitiría la eliminación del exceso de progesterona durante la fase folicular. La estimulación ovárica favorece la maduración endometrial prematura (MEP). Esta tesis evalua el impacto de la LH sobre la MEP y describe su análisis génico endometrial. Material y Métodos: Seis donantes de ovocitos se sometieron a dos procesos de estimulación cada una. Cinco días después de suspendidos los anticonceptivos se es...

  5. Comparación del efecto de penicilina versus eritromicina para la prevención de infección neonatal por estreptococo grupo B en portadoras activas luego de rotura prematura de membranas ovulares de pretérmino

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas C,Nevenka; Carvajal,Jorge A

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Comparar la incidencia de infección neonatal por estreptococo grupo B (SGB) en portadoras activas de SGB con rotura prematura de membranas ovulares de pretérmino (RPMP) luego de profilaxis con penicilina y eritromicina. Métodos: Pacientes diagnosticadas con RPMP entre el año 2004-2009 fueron tratadas con eritromicina (grupo eritromicina), ampicilina, amoxicilina o amoxiclavulánico (grupo penicilina) o sin antibióticos (grupo control) de acuerdo con los protocolos del Departamento en...

  6. Tratamento endovascular de ruptura traumática da aorta torácica descendente Endovascular treatment of traumatic descending thoracic aortic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Roberto Breda

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Paciente do sexo feminino, 55 anos de idade, vítima de atropelamento, foi admitida em unidade de emergência, onde se realizou o diagnóstico clínico, radiológico e tomográfico de ruptura traumática da aorta torácica descendente. Diante do achado, a paciente foi encaminhada para tratamento endovascular com colocação de endoprótese auto-expansível (stent pela artéria femoral. O tratamento obteve sucesso, evidenciado pela exclusão da lesão localizada previamente no istmo aórtico. O tratamento endovascular tem sido indicado nas afecções de aorta torácica descendente com bons resultados iniciais. Na ruptura traumática de aorta, a terapêutica endovascular representa uma alternativa aceitável, especialmente devido aos riscos do tratamento operatório convencional.A 55-year-old, female patient who was run over by a motor vehicle was admitted at an emergency room. Clinical, radiological and tomographic diagnosis of traumatic descending aortic thoracic rupture was performed. The patient was referred for endovascular treatment with placement of a self-expandable stent through the femoral artery. Treatment was successful, with exclusion of the lesion previously located in the aortic isthmus. Endovascular treatment has been indicated in the treatment of descending thoracic aortic diseases, with good initial results. In case of traumatic aortic rupture, endovascular treatment is a feasible alternative, especially due to risks offered by the conventional surgical treatment.

  7. The luminal surface of thyroid cysts in SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    Four of the five kinds of cells constituting the walls of thyroid cysts can be identified in the SEM. These are cuboidal cells, mucous cells, cells with large granules and ciliated cells. A correlation between SEM and TEM observations is attempted.......Four of the five kinds of cells constituting the walls of thyroid cysts can be identified in the SEM. These are cuboidal cells, mucous cells, cells with large granules and ciliated cells. A correlation between SEM and TEM observations is attempted....

  8. Measuring topographies from conventional SEM acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiwei; Roux, Stéphane; Latourte, Félix; Hild, François; Loisnard, Dominique; Brynaert, Nicolas

    2018-04-27

    The present study extends the stereoscopic imaging principle for estimating the surface topography to two orientations, namely, normal to the electron beam axis and inclined at 70° as suited for EBSD analyses. In spite of the large angle difference, it is shown that the topography can be accurately determined using regularized global Digital Image Correlation. The surface topography is compared to another estimate issued from a 3D FIB-SEM procedure where the sample surface is first covered by a Pt layer, and its initial topography is progressively revealed from successive FIB-milling. These two methods are successfully compared on a 6% strained steel specimen in an in situ mechanical test. This analysis is supplemented by a third approach estimating the change of topography from crystal rotations as measured from successive EBSD images. This last technique ignores plastic deformation, and thus only holds in an elastic regime. For the studied example, despite the large plastic flow, it is shown that crystal rotation already accounts for a significant part of the deformation-induced topography. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis list: sem-4 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sem-4 Larvae + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/sem-4.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/sem-4.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/sem...-4.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/sem-4.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  10. Stirling Energy Module (SEM) as Micro-CHP; Stirling Energy Module (SEM) als Mini-BHKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, A.

    2006-07-01

    Since many years, a lot of effort is being put into the development of combined heat and power units (CHP) for the decentralised production of electric power. For long time, the main focus was on fuel cells. In the meantime, the Stirling technology, which is based upon classical mechanical engineering and innovative technical concepts, proceeded in its development as well. The following article describes the technology and the actual state of the development of the Stirling Energy Module (SEM) for the application as Micro-CHP in one-family-houses. SEM is based on a free-piston engine with a linear power generator, producing electric power while heating. The Stirling engine is planned the be introduced into the market as a replacement for the conventional heating systems within a couple of years. (author)

  11. Evolutional neurologic evaluation of seven year-old children born prematurely Avaliação neurológica evolutiva aos sete anos de idade de crianças nascidas prematuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Ohiweiler

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 51 children aged 7 with a history of prematurity was compared to 44 age-matched children who were born at term at the HCPA. The premature children had had gestational ages up to 37 weeks and 6 days and were born weighing less than 2500g. The control group consisted of children born with gestational age between 38 and 42 weeks and weights above 2S00g. The evaluation criteria were clinical examination, neurological examination and the evolutional neurological evaluation (ENE. The results pointed out that impulsiveness, aggressiveness, disorganization and enuresis were prevalent symptoms of developmental disturbances in the sample of prematures. Alterations at neurological examination did not discriminate between the two groups, although cerebral palsy occurred only in the proup of prematures. The ENE functions which differentiated the two groups studied were dynamic balance, appendicular and trunk-limb coordination and motor persistence.Para estudar o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor em amostra de prematuros aos 7 anos de idade, foram avaliadas 51 crianças prematuras e comparadas com 44 a termo. O grupo de prematuros tinha idade gestacional de até 37 semanas e 6 dias e peso de nascimento até 2500g. O grupo controle foi constituído de crianças com idade gestacional entre 38 e 42 semanas e acima de 2500g. Os instrumentos de avaliação utilizados foram os exames clinico, neurológico e neurológico evolutivo (ENE. Os resultados mostraram que impulsividade, agressividade, desorganização e enurese foram sintomas prevalentes nos prematuros. As alterações no exame neurológico não discriminaram os grupos, embora paralisia cerebral só tenha ocorrido nos prematuros. As funções do ENE que distinguiram os grupos foram equilíbrio dinâmico, coordenação tronco-membros e persistência motora, constituindo-se esta no comprometimento dominante nos prematuros e as alterações na coordenação tronco-membros em achado peculiar neste

  12. Rotura prematura de membranas, aspectos de interés para la atención primaria de salud Premature membrane rupture, interesting features for a primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión sobre aspectos de la rotura prematura de las membranas ovulares, la cual resulta de gran importancia por constituir un tema de mucho interés y tener una morbimortalidad importante en el desarrollo normal del embarazo en cualquiera de sus etapas, sobre todo, antes del término de este. Se destacan aspectos sobre la constitución de las membranas, la clasificación, así como los fundamentos fisiopatológicos y su etiología, enfatizando en la importancia que tienen las infecciones cervicovaginales, y, consecuentemente, en la necesidad de una prevención adecuada en ese sentido, sin prescindir de otros aspectos que también tienen su influencia, como son, las relaciones sexuales y otras complicaciones propias del embarazo (gemelaridad, sangrados de la gestación, presentaciones viciosas, polihidramnios, tabaquismo, etc.. Se resaltan también las complicaciones que pueden ocurrir para el feto y para la madre; y se enfatiza en la necesidad de una adecuada prevención, la cual puede lograrse, fundamentalmente, con el correcto seguimiento de la gestante en el nivel primario de salud.A review on the features related to premature rupture ovular membranes was carried out, which is essential because it is a interesting subject and with a high mortality and morbidity rate in the development of a normal pregnancy in any of its stages, mainly before its term. There are significant features on the membrane's composition, its classification, as well as the physiopathologic basis and its etiology, emphasizing on the significance of cervicovaginal infections and thus in the need of a appropriate prevention in that sense, without disregard of other features that also have its influence including the intercourses and other complications own of pregnancy (twinning, pregnancy bleeding, defective presentations, polyhydramnios, smoking, etc. Also are emphasized the complications that may to occur for fetus and for the mother as well as the

  13. Canticum Novum: música sem palavras e palavras sem som no pensamento de Santo Agostinho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Mammì

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available NO De Magistro, Santo Agostinho coloca a reza e o canto numa posição similar, à margem das funções imediatamente comunicativas da linguagem. A reflexão agostiniana sobre a reza se baseia nos hábitos cristãos da leitura, da oração e da meditação silenciosas. Há sobre o canto, na prática igualmente inovadora do jubilus, melodia sem palavra destinada aos momentos mais intensos e gaudiosos da liturgia. A oração silenciosa e o jubilus são temas recorrentes da literatura patrística, mas Agostinho os aborda de maneira original, desenhando, a partir das palavras sem som da oração e do som sem palavra do jubilus, o perfil de um discurso interior, que não se destina aos homens, mas a Deus.IN HIS De Magistro Saint Augustine places prayer and song on a similar level, alongside the language immediately communicative functions. His considerations on prayer are grounded on the Christian habits of silent reading, prayer and meditation; those on song, on the equally innovating practice called jubilus, which is melody without words designed for the intensest and most joyous liturgical moments. Silent prayer and jubilus are recurring topics in patristic literature, but Augustine deals with them in an original way, drawing from the soundless words of prayer and the wordless sound of jubilus an inner discourse, addressed not to men but to God.

  14. Ruptura da parede livre do ventrículo direito após infarto do miocárdio Rupture of the right ventricular free wall after myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo César Arnal Bonini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de 75 anos, com ruptura da parede livre do ventrículo direito, corrigida com pontos de prolene 3.0 ancorados em tira de pericárdio bovino, promovendo o fechamento da ruptura. O paciente recebeu alta hospitalar no 59º dia de pós-operatório, em boas condições clínicas e laboratoriais.Patient 75, years-old, with free wall rupture of the right ventricle, corrected with prolene 3.0 points anchored in bovine pericardium patch, promoting the closure of the rupture. The patient was discharged on the 59th day after surgery in good clinical ans laboratorial conditions.

  15. Efeitos de um programa de reabilitação acelerado após o tratamento cirúrgico da ruptura aguda do tendão de Aquiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Rafael Duvelius

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos de um protocolo acelerado de reabilitação (ACE) versus um protocolo tradicional de imobilização do tornozelo (TRA) sobre a função muscular e articular, após o tratamento cirúrgico da ruptura aguda do tendão de Aquiles. Método: 37 pacientes com diagnóstico de ruptura aguda do tendão de Aquiles foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico aberto com reparo término-terminal pela técnica de Krackow. Após a cirurgia, foram divididos em dois grupos: no grupo ACE foi utiliza...

  16. Desequilíbrios musculares entre flexores dorsais e plantares do tornozelo após tratamento conservador e acelerado da ruptura do tendão calcâneo

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer,Alexandre; Frasson,Viviane Bortoluzzi; Ott,Rafael; Fortuna,Rafael de Oliveira; Vaz,Marco Aurélio

    2010-01-01

    A ruptura do tendão calcâneo (TC) reduz a sobrecarga mecânica dos flexores plantares (FP) do tornozelo. Essa alteração muda o equilíbrio natural entre os FP e flexores dorsais (FD) do tornozelo. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as razões isocinéticas concêntricas convencionais de torque de pacientes submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico de ruptura aguda do TC após dois protocolos diferentes de reabilitação. Após procedimento cirúrgico para reconstrução do TC, a amostra foi dividida de forma inten...

  17. Análise numérica da pressão de ruptura de tubos à base de borracha e cordonéis poliméricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikson Luiz Passaia Tonatto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo estudar o efeito de cordonéis de poliéster, poliamida, poliaramida e híbrido poliamida/poliaramida como reforço de elastômeros utilizados na fabricação de mangotes. O comportamento do tubo elastomérico reforçado com cordonéis sob pressão interna foi simulado com análise por elementos finitos (FEA utilizando-se elementos chamados reinforcement bars. Foram realizados ensaios para se obter as propriedades em tração dos cordonéis para alimentar o modelo. O cordonel de poliaramida apresentou a maior tensão de ruptura, o de poliamida maior deformação na ruptura, e o híbrido apresentou valores intermediários. O critério de falha adotado para o tubo consistiu na análise do nível de carga no cordonel. Foram avaliadas, principalmente, a pressão e a deformação de ruptura do tubo elastomérico simulado frente à variação do ângulo de orientação dos cordonéis. Os resultados mostraram que ângulos próximos a 55° tornam o tubo mais resistente porém menos rígido no sentido longitudinal.

  18. Rupturas e tensões no processo de constituição estrutural do subcampo esportivo do xadrez (1900-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano de Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo nos propomos em abordar, de um ponto de vista sociológico, a "história esportiva" do xadrez de modo a restituir algumas das rupturas e tensões inerentes ao processo de constituição dessa prática como um subcampo esportivo moderno. Mais precisamente, procuramos apresentar algumas das principais transformações estruturais que foram decisivas no sentido de afirmar o caráter de esportividade da prática enxadrística e legitimar os agentes e estruturas responsáveis pela circulação social do enxadrismo no interior do universo de concorrência esportiva. Para esse desiderato, nos valemos de uma pesquisa de caráter histórico-bibliográfica realizada com base nas literaturas enxadrísticas. No que se refere ao tratamento teórico e construção dos argumentos, tomamos como ponto de partida algumas contribuições tecidas na teoria sociológica de Pierre Bourdieu.

  19. LA LUCHA POR RUPTURAS Y RECONSTRUCCIONES ONTOLÓGICAS Y EPISTEMOLÓGICAS PROFUNDAS Y GENERALIZADAS COMO PROBLEMÁTICA DE FONDO DE LAS UNIVERSIDADES INDÍGENAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Viaña

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es una reflexión sobre la problemática de la interculturalidad crítica como una herramienta de emancipación y como presupuesto teórico y práctico de la decolonialidad del ser y del saber, de las formas del conocimiento, del capital y de las formas patriarcales en cuanto formas de opresión. En el presente artículo haremos énfasis también en algunos de los dilemas y obstáculos que están pasando con los primeros esfuerzos de construcción de las universidades indígenas. A partir de los principios de la epistemología de Thomas Khun, consideramos que la colonialidad del saber y las formas del conocimiento del capital y el patriarcado interiorizadas en nosotros operan de forma similar a lo que Khun llamo “ciencia normal”. Defendemos que el diálogo entre saberes y horizontes civilizatorios diferentes sobre el mundo supone rupturas epistemológicas y ontológicas profundas previas al “dialogo de saberes.”

  20. Description and calibration beamline SEM/Ion Chamber Current Digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoo, D.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses the following on beamline SEM/ion chamber current digitizers: Module description; testing and calibration; common setup procedures; summary of fault indications and associated causes; summary of input and output connections; SEM conversion constant table; ion chamber conversion constant table; hexadecimal to decimal conversion table; and schematic diagram

  1. lsnjbhakta@gmail.com A Comparative SEM-EDS Elemental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    effect on food production in terrestrial and aquatic compartment in ... Processing and SEM-EDS analysis of mud: In the laboratory, the ... and for SEM image observation was 15 kV, applying .... by weathering in the Omi acid clay deposit, Japan.

  2. On the Nature of SEM Estimates of ARMA Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Ellen L.; Dolan, Conor V.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2002-01-01

    Reexamined the nature of structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models, replicated the simulation experiments of P. Molenaar, and examined the behavior of the log-likelihood ratio test. Simulation studies indicate that estimates of ARMA parameters observed with SEM software are identical to those…

  3. Structural Equations and Causal Explanations: Some Challenges for Causal SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    One common application of structural equation modeling (SEM) involves expressing and empirically investigating causal explanations. Nonetheless, several aspects of causal explanation that have an impact on behavioral science methodology remain poorly understood. It remains unclear whether applications of SEM should attempt to provide complete…

  4. The influence of environment temperature on SEM image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Junshan

    2015-01-01

    As the structure dimension goes down to the nano-scale, it often requires a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to provide image magnification up to 100 000  ×. However, SEM images at such a high magnification usually suffer from high resolution value and low signal-to-noise ratio, which results in low quality of the SEM image. In this paper, the quality of the SEM image is improved by optimizing the environment temperature. The experimental results indicate that at 100 000  ×, the quality of the SEM image is influenced by the environment temperature, whereas at 50 000  × it is not. At 100 000  × the best SEM image quality can be achieved from the environment temperature ranging 292 from 294 K, and the SEM image quality evaluated by the double stimulus continuous quality scale method can increase from grade 1 to grade 5. It is expected that this image quality improving method can be used in routine measurements with ordinary SEMs to get high quality images by optimizing the environment temperature. (paper)

  5. Design and Use of the Simple Event Model (SEM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hage, W.R.; Malaisé, V.; Segers, R.H.; Hollink, L.

    2011-01-01

    Events have become central elements in the representation of data from domains such as history, cultural heritage, multimedia and geography. The Simple Event Model (SEM) is created to model events in these various domains, without making assumptions about the domain-specific vocabularies used. SEM

  6. Canticum Novum: música sem palavras e palavras sem som no pensamento de Santo Agostinho

    OpenAIRE

    Mammì, Lorenzo

    2000-01-01

    NO De Magistro, Santo Agostinho coloca a reza e o canto numa posição similar, à margem das funções imediatamente comunicativas da linguagem. A reflexão agostiniana sobre a reza se baseia nos hábitos cristãos da leitura, da oração e da meditação silenciosas. Há sobre o canto, na prática igualmente inovadora do jubilus, melodia sem palavra destinada aos momentos mais intensos e gaudiosos da liturgia. A oração silenciosa e o jubilus são temas recorrentes da literatura patrística, mas Agostinho o...

  7. O homem sem qualidades: modernidade, consumo e identidade cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pimenta Veloso Rocha

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende analisar a sociedade de consumo como ruptura com a tradição. Uma sociedade tradicional deixa muito pouca coisa à escolha de seus membros; a modernidade, ao contrário, nos oferece todas as escolhas, mas, libertando o homem das instituições que determinavam seu lugar, impõe ao indivíduo a tarefa de criar a si mesmo. O consumo surge como o lugar por excelência desta construção: é aderindo a determinados estilos de vida comportamentos, valores e hábitos de consumo que o homem moderno constrói uma identidade. Palavras-chave: Consumo; modernidade; sujeito; identidade; estilo de vida. ABSTRACT A traditional society leaves litlle choice to its members, since it’s institutions define a priori their identity. Modernity, on the contrary, offers us every choice but as it releases man from the institutions wich stablished his place, it imposes him the task to create his identity. The act of consuming appears as the locus of such a construction: by adopting certain “life styles attitudes, values and consumption habits modern man creates his identity. Keywords: Consumer society; modernity; subject; identity; life style.

  8. Automated CD-SEM metrology for efficient TD and HVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikov, Alexander; Mulapudi, Satya P.

    2008-03-01

    CD-SEM is the metrology tool of choice for patterning process development and production process control. We can make these applications more efficient by extracting more information from each CD-SEM image. This enables direct monitors of key process parameters, such as lithography dose and focus, or predicting the outcome of processing, such as etched dimensions or electrical parameters. Automating CD-SEM recipes at the early stages of process development can accelerate technology characterization, segmentation of variance and process improvements. This leverages the engineering effort, reduces development costs and helps to manage the risks inherent in new technology. Automating CD-SEM for manufacturing enables efficient operations. Novel SEM Alarm Time Indicator (SATI) makes this task manageable. SATI pulls together data mining, trend charting of the key recipe and Operations (OPS) indicators, Pareto of OPS losses and inputs for root cause analysis. This approach proved natural to our FAB personnel. After minimal initial training, we applied new methods in 65nm FLASH manufacture. This resulted in significant lasting improvements of CD-SEM recipe robustness, portability and automation, increased CD-SEM capacity and MT productivity.

  9. Colonização materna e neonatal por estreptococo do grupo B em situações de ruptura pré-termo de membranas e no trabalho de parto prematuro Group B streptococcus maternal and neonatal colonization in preterm rupture of membranes and preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luís Nomura

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar a prevalência e os fatores de risco de colonização materna por estreptococo do grupo B (EGB em gestantes com trabalho de parto prematuro (TPP e/ou ruptura prematura pré-termo de membranas (RPM. MÉTODOS: foram colhidos dois swabs anais e dois swabs vaginais de 203 gestantes com diagnóstico de TPP ou RPM entre 22 e 36 semanas completas de gestação atendidas no serviço em um período de um ano. Foram excluídas as gestantes que deram entrada com parto iminente. Um swab de cada local foi colocado em meio de transporte, sendo posteriormente enviados para cultura em placas de ágar-sangue, os outros dois foram incubados por 24 horas em meio de Todd-Hewitt para posterior semeadura em placas de ágar-sangue. Foram analisados fatores de risco com o uso do teste do qui-quadrado, t de Student (p ajustado a 0,05 e intervalo de confiança 95% e de regressão logística. Foram analisadas as seguintes variáveis: idade, raça, paridade e escolaridade maternas; resultados das culturas por local de coleta e tipo de cultura; diagnóstico de admissão; idade gestacional de admissão; bacteriúria assintomática; idade gestacional no parto; tipo de parto; taxa de colonização neonatal por EGB e resultado neonatal imediato. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de colonização materna por EGB foi de 27,6% (56 gestantes. As taxas de colonização segundo as complicações da gestação foram 30% para RPM, 25,2% para TPP e 17,8% para TPP + RPM. As variáveis "raça branca", "baixo nível de escolaridade" e "bacteriúria" foram associadas a maiores taxas de colonização na análise univariada. A presença de infecção urinária foi a única variável significativamente associada à colonização materna na análise multivariada. A taxa de detecção do estreptococo do grupo B foi significativamente maior com o uso do meio seletivo e com a associação de coleta de culturas anais e vaginais. A taxa de colonização neonatal foi de 3,1%. Ocorreram

  10. SEM-EBSP能知道些什么

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张唯敏

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 SEM-EBSP是什么 所谓SEM-EBSP是指采用在扫描电子显微镜(SEM)镜体中的反射电子菊池线衍射的结晶方位分析.被称为菊池图形的衍射图形可因结晶的稍许倾斜而大大地改变其位置,因此,通过解析菊池图形就能正确地知道结晶方位.

  11. Improvement of geometrical measurements from 3D-SEM reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Horsewell, Andy

    2009-01-01

    The quantification of 3D geometry at the nanometric scale is a major metrological challenge. In this work geometrical measurements on cylindrical items obtained with a 3D-SEM were investigated. Two items were measured: a wire gauge having a 0.25 mm nominal diameter and a hypodermic needle having...... that the diameter estimation performed using the 3D-SEM leads to an overestimation of approx. 7% compared to the reference values obtained using a 1-D length measuring machine. Standard deviation of SEM measurements performed on the wire gauge is approx. 1.5 times lower than the one performed on the hypodermic...

  12. Improvement of CD-SEM mark position measurement accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasa, Kentaro; Fukuhara, Kazuya

    2014-04-01

    CD-SEM is now attracting attention as a tool that can accurately measure positional error of device patterns. However, the measurement accuracy can get worse due to pattern asymmetry as in the case of image based overlay (IBO) and diffraction based overlay (DBO). For IBO and DBO, a way of correcting the inaccuracy arising from measurement patterns was suggested. For CD-SEM, although a way of correcting CD bias was proposed, it has not been argued how to correct the inaccuracy arising from pattern asymmetry using CD-SEM. In this study we will propose how to quantify and correct the measurement inaccuracy affected by pattern asymmetry.

  13. La neutralidad como problema y como solución. La política gremial del Partido Socialista después de la ruptura sindicalista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Martínez Mazzola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo nos preguntamos por el modo en que el Partido Socialista argentino planteó el vínculo entre acción gremial y acción política. Nuestro recorrido se abre reconstruyendo las polémicas sobre la cuestión que tuvieron lugar en los primeros grupos socialistas, que alcanzaron un punto de gran visibilidad en la “ruptura sindicalista”. Pasamos luego a señalar que, aunque la expulsión de los sindicalistas no cerró el debate, el triunfo de la postura de Juan B. Justo, favorable a la “autonomía” entre partido y organización gremial, hizo posible la permanencia de los socialistas en una organización sindical que no controlaban. A continuación mostramos que esa convivencia se mantuvo durante los primeros años del gobierno de Hipólito Yrigoyen, momento en que la postura de “autonomía” adquirió su fórmula canónica. Sin embargo, como mostramos luego, los problemas implícitos en el postulado neutralista se hicieron visibles poco tiempo después, cuando los “socios” sindicalistas comenzaron a establecer un vinculo privilegiado con los radicales, adversarios del Partido Socialista en el terreno político. En las reflexiones finales proponemos pensar la fórmula neutralista como una respuesta a lo que Juan Carlos Torre ha definido como una situación de disociación entre los terrenos de lucha gremial y lucha política.

  14. Modelado de curvas de ruptura en la adsorción de agua sobre sílica gel y zeolita 4A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Rivera Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el desarrollo de un modelo computacional para simular la adsorción de agua en un lecho empacado, comparando el desempeño de una zeolita 4A y una sílica gel tipo ‘A’. Se usó una variación de la isoterma de Langmuir para la zeolita 4A y la isoterma de Tóth para la sílica gel; se utilizó el modelo de fuerza motriz lineal (LDF para la velocidad de adsorción, con un coeficiente total dependiente de la temperatura. El modelo está constituido por cinco ecuaciones diferenciales parciales asociadas con las variables: fracción molar de agua, temperatura, presión, velocidad superficial y carga adsorbida de agua. Para resolver el sistema se empleó el método de líneas (MOL con el integrador ODE15S de Matlab ® . Se evaluaron como variables de respuesta el intervalo de tiempo característico de la curva de ruptura, la asimetría, la temperatura máxima y la caída de presión, mediante un esquema factorial de dos niveles. El tipo de adsorbente es la variable que más influencia tiene en las variables de respuesta. A la zeolita corresponde la mayor velocidad de adsorción, comportamiento que puede explicarse si se observa la forma de su isoterma de adsorción, aunque presenta una menor capacidad de retención de agua y mayor resistencia a la transferencia de masa.

  15. «Un poema es una cosa que será». Visceralidad, metalenguaje y renovación de la ruptura en Juan Gelman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pontes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone un acercamiento a la poética de Juan Gelman desde algunos ejes centrales de su escritura. Considerando la correlación entre visceralidad y metalenguaje sustentamos que sus textos, al poner en marcha la transformación de la lengua, renuevan la ruptura bajo la lógica dialéctica entre destrucción y composición creativa. Este procedimiento, así como la contradicción entre deseo y padecimiento poético y la autoconsciencia de sí mismo a través de la poesía, conecta su proyecto intelectual con las prácticas vanguardistas de Vicente Huidobro y Vladímir Maiakóvski a principios del siglo XX. Frente a la recurrente asociación crítica de Juan Gelman a una “poética del dolor”, nuestro objetivo es reforzar “una toma de partido por la materialidad estético-lingüística como elemento fundamental y emancipador de la palabra” (Milán desde la escritura del poeta argentino. Al mismo tiempo, en diálogo con la sociología del arte, la poesía de Gelman enfatiza que la imbricación entre vida y lenguaje no sólo estimula la circunstancia y condición de la palabra a través de lo político. Refuerza as correspondencias entre el discurso poético y las demás formas de vivencia asegurando que la percepción estética es, inmanentemente social, y que la realidad de la lengua también da lugar a nuevas concepciones de mundo.

  16. Infrared spectra, Raman laser, XRD, DSC/TGA and SEM ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    cussed and the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) ... acetamide as a simple organic compound at high tempera- ture has less ..... properties of selenium surface, AFM-microscopy tapping.

  17. Novel field emission SEM column with beam deceleration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiruše, Jaroslav; Havelka, Miloslav; Lopour, Filip

    2014-11-15

    A novel field-emission SEM column has been developed that features Beam Deceleration Mode, high-probe current and ultra-fast scanning. New detection system in the column is introduced to detect true secondary electron signal. The resolution power at low energy was doubled for conventional SEM optics and moderately improved for immersion optics. Application examples at low landing energies include change of contrast, imaging of non-conductive samples and thin layers. - Highlights: • A novel field-emission SEM column has been developed. • Implemented beam deceleration improves the SEM resolution at 1 keV two times. • New column maintains high analytical potential and wide field of view. • Detectors integrated in the column allow gaining true SE and BE signal separately. • Performance of the column is demonstrated on low energy applications.

  18. Role of scanning electron microscope )SEM) in metal failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaiful Rizam Shamsudin; Hafizal Yazid; Mohd Harun; Siti Selina Abd Hamid; Nadira Kamarudin; Zaiton Selamat; Mohd Shariff Sattar; Muhamad Jalil

    2005-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a scientific instrument that uses a beam of highly energetic electrons to examine the surface and phase distribution of specimens on a micro scale through the live imaging of secondary electrons (SE) and back-scattered electrons (BSE) images. One of the main activities of SEM Laboratory at MINT is for failure analysis on metal part and components. The capability of SEM is excellent for determining the root cause of metal failures such as ductility or brittleness, stress corrosion, fatigue and other types of failures. Most of our customers that request for failure analysis are from local petrochemical plants, manufacturers of automotive components, pipeline maintenance personnel and engineers who involved in the development of metal parts and component. This paper intends to discuss some of the technical concepts in failure analysis associated with SEM. (Author)

  19. Quantitative approach on SEM images of microstructure of clay soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施斌; 李生林; M.Tolkachev

    1995-01-01

    The working principles of Videolab Image Processing System (VIPS), the examining methods of orientation of microstructural units of clay soils and analysing results on SEM images of some typical microstructures of clay soils using the VIPS are introduced.

  20. semPLS: Structural Equation Modeling Using Partial Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Monecke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural equation models (SEM are very popular in many disciplines. The partial least squares (PLS approach to SEM offers an alternative to covariance-based SEM, which is especially suited for situations when data is not normally distributed. PLS path modelling is referred to as soft-modeling-technique with minimum demands regarding mea- surement scales, sample sizes and residual distributions. The semPLS package provides the capability to estimate PLS path models within the R programming environment. Different setups for the estimation of factor scores can be used. Furthermore it contains modular methods for computation of bootstrap confidence intervals, model parameters and several quality indices. Various plot functions help to evaluate the model. The well known mobile phone dataset from marketing research is used to demonstrate the features of the package.

  1. Novel field emission SEM column with beam deceleration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiruše, Jaroslav; Havelka, Miloslav; Lopour, Filip

    2014-01-01

    A novel field-emission SEM column has been developed that features Beam Deceleration Mode, high-probe current and ultra-fast scanning. New detection system in the column is introduced to detect true secondary electron signal. The resolution power at low energy was doubled for conventional SEM optics and moderately improved for immersion optics. Application examples at low landing energies include change of contrast, imaging of non-conductive samples and thin layers. - Highlights: • A novel field-emission SEM column has been developed. • Implemented beam deceleration improves the SEM resolution at 1 keV two times. • New column maintains high analytical potential and wide field of view. • Detectors integrated in the column allow gaining true SE and BE signal separately. • Performance of the column is demonstrated on low energy applications

  2. Ruptura gástrica por reanimação cardiopulmonar: relato de caso Gastric rupture following cardiopulmonary resuscitation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Teixeira Dias

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A ruptura gástrica é uma rara complicação das manobras de reanimação cardiopulmonar (RCP, com incidência de 0,1% dos casos. O desconhecimento dessa possível complicação durante essas manobras impede sua identificação e reduz a probabilidade de sobrevivência do paciente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi abordar um caso de abdômen agudo por ruptura gástrica após manobra de RCP, prontamente diagnosticada e tratada. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, de 76 anos, internada em caráter de urgência com diagnóstico inicial de pneumonia e acidente vascular encefálico. Evoluiu com quadro de insuficiência respiratória e parada cardiorrespiratória (PCR, a qual foi prontamente revertida através de manobras de RCP. Apesar da reversão da PCR, reanimação volêmica adequada, suporte com vasopressores e melhora respiratória após suporte ventilatório, a paciente permaneceu com quadro hemodinâmico instável. O exame físico revelou diminuição da macicez hepática e distensão abdominal. A radiografia de tórax evidenciou presença de pneumoperitônio. Diagnóstico de abdômen agudo perpetuando a instabilidade hemodinâmica foi pressuposto, sendo a paciente, então, encaminhada à cirurgia de emergência com hipótese diagnóstica de ruptura gástrica traumática, evidenciada macroscopicamente e confirmada por análise histopatológica da peça cirúrgica. CONCLUSÕES: No caso relatado, o pronto diagnóstico e o tratamento adequado de emergência levaram ao prognóstico favorável. Ressalta-se a importância do conhecimento dessa possível complicação com ênfase na realização do exame físico além da monitorização e vigília do paciente após PCR. Constante atualização do ensino das técnicas adequadas de RCP através de programas de educação médica continuada é crucial para que manobras incorretas sejam evitadas.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gastric rupture is a rare complication from

  3. DETECTION OF DELAMINATION IN A COMPOSITE PLATE BY SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A numerical method of integration of Green's functi ons of strip element method (SEM) is proposed. The response of ultrasonic sourc e generated by a transducer on the surface of a multi-ply composite plate conta ining a delamination is analyzed by the use of SEM. The numerical results show that the scanning features of the ultrasonic waves may be used to identify the d elamination inside the composite plate .

  4. A methodological basis for SEM autoradiography: biosynthesis and radioligand binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, G.; Hodges, G.M.; Trejdosiewicz, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for scanning electron microscope (SEM) autoradiography whereby preservation of high resolution cell surface details is retained together with degelatination of the emulsion without gross loss or redistribution of silver grains. This method should provide a convenient medium-sized marker for SEM (using secondary, backscattered electron and X-ray imaging) topographic studies of biosynthesized molecules, and of cell surface receptors and antigens, using indirect or direct labelling procedures with radio-labelled ligands. (author)

  5. FIB-SEM cathodoluminescence tomography: practical and theoretical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, D A M; Lebbink, M N; Wiggers De Vries, D F; Post, J A; Drury, M R

    2011-09-01

    Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) tomography is a powerful application in obtaining three-dimensional (3D) information. The FIB creates a cross section and subsequently removes thin slices. The SEM takes images using secondary or backscattered electrons, or maps every slice using X-rays and/or electron backscatter diffraction patterns. The objective of this study is to assess the possibilities of combining FIB-SEM tomography with cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging. The intensity of CL emission is related to variations in defect or impurity concentrations. A potential problem with FIB-SEM CL tomography is that ion milling may change the defect state of the material and the CL emission. In addition the conventional tilted sample geometry used in FIB-SEM tomography is not compatible with conventional CL detectors. Here we examine the influence of the FIB on CL emission in natural diamond and the feasibility of FIB-SEM CL tomography. A systematic investigation establishes that the ion beam influences CL emission of diamond, with a dependency on both the ion beam and electron beam acceleration voltage. CL emission in natural diamond is enhanced particularly at low ion beam and electron beam voltages. This enhancement of the CL emission can be partly explained by an increase in surface defects induced by ion milling. CL emission enhancement could be used to improve the CL image quality. To conduct FIB-SEM CL tomography, a recently developed novel specimen geometry is adopted to enable sequential ion milling and CL imaging on an untilted sample. We show that CL imaging can be manually combined with FIB-SEM tomography with a modified protocol for 3D microstructure reconstruction. In principle, automated FIB-SEM CL tomography should be feasible, provided that dedicated CL detectors are developed that allow subsequent milling and CL imaging without manual intervention, as the current CL detector needs to be manually retracted before a slice can be milled

  6. Sparsity-Based Super Resolution for SEM Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiper, Shahar; Dicker, Or; Kaizerman, Idan; Zohar, Zeev; Segev, Mordechai; Eldar, Yonina C

    2017-09-13

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is an electron microscope that produces an image of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with the atoms in the sample, which emit secondary electrons that contain information about the surface topography and composition. The sample is scanned by the electron beam point by point, until an image of the surface is formed. Since its invention in 1942, the capabilities of SEMs have become paramount in the discovery and understanding of the nanometer world, and today it is extensively used for both research and in industry. In principle, SEMs can achieve resolution better than one nanometer. However, for many applications, working at subnanometer resolution implies an exceedingly large number of scanning points. For exactly this reason, the SEM diagnostics of microelectronic chips is performed either at high resolution (HR) over a small area or at low resolution (LR) while capturing a larger portion of the chip. Here, we employ sparse coding and dictionary learning to algorithmically enhance low-resolution SEM images of microelectronic chips-up to the level of the HR images acquired by slow SEM scans, while considerably reducing the noise. Our methodology consists of two steps: an offline stage of learning a joint dictionary from a sequence of LR and HR images of the same region in the chip, followed by a fast-online super-resolution step where the resolution of a new LR image is enhanced. We provide several examples with typical chips used in the microelectronics industry, as well as a statistical study on arbitrary images with characteristic structural features. Conceptually, our method works well when the images have similar characteristics, as microelectronics chips do. This work demonstrates that employing sparsity concepts can greatly improve the performance of SEM, thereby considerably increasing the scanning throughput without compromising on analysis quality and resolution.

  7. An electron moiré method for a common SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.M.Xing; S.Kishimoto; Y.R.Zhao

    2006-01-01

    In the electron moiré method,a high-frequency grating is used to measure microscopic deformation,which promises significant potential applications for the method in the microscopic analysis of materials.However,a special beam scanning control device is required to produce a grating and generate a moiré fringe pattern for the scanning electron microscope (SEM).Because only a few SEMs used in the material science studies are equipped with this device,the use of the electron moiré method is limited.In this study,an electron moiré method for a common SEM without the beam control device is presented.A grating based on a multi-scanning concept is fabricated in any observing mode.A real-time moiré pattern can also be generated in the SEM or an optical filtering system.Without the beam control device being a prerequisite,the electron moiré method can be more widely used.The experimental results from three different types of SEMS show that high quality gratings with uniform lines and less pitch error can be fabricated by this method,and moiré patterns can also be correctly generated.

  8. SEM facility for examination of reactive and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downs, G.L.; Tucker, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) facility for the examination of tritium-containing materials is operational at Mound Laboratory. The SEM is installed with the sample chamber incorporated as an integral part of an inert gas glovebox facility to enable easy handling of radioactive and pyrophoric materials. A standard SEM (ETEC Model B-1) was modified to meet dimensional, operational, and safety-related requirements. a glovebox was designed and fabricated which permitted access with the gloves to all parts of the SEM sample chamber to facilitate director and accessory replacement and repairs. A separate console combining the electron optical column and specimen chamber was interfaced to the glovebox by a custom-made, neoprene bellows so that the vibrations normally associated with the blowers and pumps were damped. Photomicrographs of tritiated pyrophoric materials show the usefulness of this facility. Some of the difficulties involved in the investigation of these materials are also discussed. The SEM is also equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray detector (ORTEC) and a Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (3M) attachments. This latter attachment allows analysis of secondary ions with masses ranging from 1-300 amu. (Auth.)

  9. Recent advances in 3D SEM surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Alavi, Zahrasadat; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2015-11-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM), as one of the most commonly used instruments in biology and material sciences, employs electrons instead of light to determine the surface properties of specimens. However, the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface attributes, we need to restore the 3D shape model from the SEM images. 3D surface reconstruction is a longstanding topic in microscopy vision as it offers quantitative and visual information for a variety of applications consisting medicine, pharmacology, chemistry, and mechanics. In this paper, we attempt to explain the expanding body of the work in this area, including a discussion of recent techniques and algorithms. With the present work, we also enhance the reliability, accuracy, and speed of 3D SEM surface reconstruction by designing and developing an optimized multi-view framework. We then consider several real-world experiments as well as synthetic data to examine the qualitative and quantitative attributes of our proposed framework. Furthermore, we present a taxonomy of 3D SEM surface reconstruction approaches and address several challenging issues as part of our future work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A methodology for extending domain coverage in SemRep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemblat, Graciela; Shin, Dongwook; Kilicoglu, Halil; Sneiderman, Charles; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    We describe a domain-independent methodology to extend SemRep coverage beyond the biomedical domain. SemRep, a natural language processing application originally designed for biomedical texts, uses the knowledge sources provided by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS©). Ontological and terminological extensions to the system are needed in order to support other areas of knowledge. We extended SemRep's application by developing a semantic representation of a previously unsupported domain. This was achieved by adapting well-known ontology engineering phases and integrating them with the UMLS knowledge sources on which SemRep crucially depends. While the process to extend SemRep coverage has been successfully applied in earlier projects, this paper presents in detail the step-wise approach we followed and the mechanisms implemented. A case study in the field of medical informatics illustrates how the ontology engineering phases have been adapted for optimal integration with the UMLS. We provide qualitative and quantitative results, which indicate the validity and usefulness of our methodology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Permanências e rupturas: sentidos de gênero em mulheres chefes de família Permanencies and ruptures: gender meanings in female family heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Jaqueline Freiberger Testoni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo resultou de um estudo realizado com três mulheres chefes de família, moradoras de um bairro popular em uma cidade catarinense. Ao investigar de que forma constroem-se os sentidos de gênero na trajetória de vida destas mulheres, procurou-se refletir como estes sentidos posicionam os sujeitos na trama das relações sociais e de gênero. Considerando a construção histórica, social e cultural do gênero, pode-se questionar a naturalização da ligação entre sexo e gênero - tão freqüente na psicologia - e a conseqüente regulação na constituição das subjetividades femininas e masculinas dela proveniente. Os resultados apontam a existência de permanências, como a forte presença da moral sexual e do grande valor atribuído por elas à maternidade. Revelam, no entanto, alternativas de exercer pequenas rupturas neste padrão ao criarem, a partir da apropriação de outros saberes e outras significações pelas próprias experiências, um novo patamar de expectativas e possibilidades em suas vidas.This article is the result of a study accomplished with three female heads of family living in a popular neighborhood in a town of the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. When investigating how gender meanings are constructed in the life trajectory of those women, we sought to reflect how those meanings locate the subjects in the plot of social and gender relations. Considering the historical, social and cultural construction of gender, the naturalization of the linking between sex and gender - so frequent in psychology - and the resulting regulation in the constitution of female and male subjectivities deriving from it can be questioned. The results point to the existence of permanencies such as the strong presence of sexual moral and the high value attributed by them to motherhood. They reveal, however, alternatives for carrying out small ruptures in that pattern when creating, from the appropriation of other knowledges and other

  12. Aplicación de Modelos Matemáticos en Curvas de Ruptura de contaminantes del Biogás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Vasco Echeverri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available En este proyecto se purifi có el biogás empleando columnas de adsorción independientes empacadas con carbón activado, limadura de hierro, caolín y carbonato de calcio. Los experimentos se realizaron en columnas de polipropileno de 2cm de diámetro y 9cm de longitud. Las curvas de ruptura se construyeron con un fl ujo de biogás promedio diario de 2,2L. Se tomaron muestras durante 28 días como máximo, a las cuales se cuantifi caron la composición del biogás mediante cromatografía de gases y un analizador de gases en línea. Las curvas se ajustaron a tres modelos matemáticos. En el caso del Carbón activado se obtuvo un coefi ciente de correlación de 0,9987 y 0,9991 para el Sulfuro de Hidrógeno (H2S y el Amoniaco (NH3, respectivamente. En el caso de la limadura de hierro se obtuvo un coefi ciente de correlación de 0,9945 y 0,9975 para el H2S y NH3, respectivamente. Empleando caolín se obtuvo un coefi ciente de correlación de 0,9994 y 0,9885 para el H2S y NH3, respectivamente. Con Carbonato de Calcio se obtuvo un coefi ciente de correlación de 0,9988 y 0,9985 para el H2S y NH3, respectivamente. El porcentaje de remoción del H2S y del NH3 del carbón activado fue del 72,6%, la limadura de hierro fue del 74,1%, el caolín fue del 32,7% y del carbonato de calcio del 65,4%

  13. Em análise a Cooperação “Sul-Sul”: Ruptura Ideológica ou Reprodução?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Regina Ullrich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2013v12n25p65 O modelo Norte-Sul de cooperação internacional para o desenvolvimento, cuja origem remete ao período pós- Segunda Guerra Mundial, apoiou-se, historicamente, em um discurso que atribuía aos países centrais, ou do "Norte", dada sua maturidade institucional e superioridade técnica, legitimidade para definirem as regras e os procedimentos a serem observados pelos países na periferia do sistema mundo, para acederem ao propalado "desenvolvimento". Modelo este que, conforme um contingente significativo de pesquisadores (BARBANTI JUNIOR, 2005; SANTOS FILHO, 2005; AFONSO; FERNANDES, 2005; SÁNCHEZ, 2002, contemplaria, essencialmente objetivos de natureza econômica e política das potências centrais. Todavia, ao conquistarem reconhecimento econômico no plano internacional, países emergentes como o Brasil, Índia, China, Rússia e África do Sul estariam estabelecendo, entre si, assim como com outros países do "Sul", relações de parceria e cooperação às quais, também conforme um contingente expressivo de pesquisadores (XALMA, 2011; PUENTE, 2010; AYLLÓN PINO, 2012, se distinguiriam do modelo anterior pela ênfase atribuída a valores como a solidariedade e a equidade, no que tange à distribuição equitativa dos benefícios entre os países envolvidos nas ações de cooperação. De natureza teórica, o presente artigo questiona, em que medida essa tese se sustenta? Ou, dizendo de outro modo, em que medida o modelo de cooperação internacional Sul-Sul associado à promoção do desenvolvimento constitui-se em uma ruptura paradigmática com o modelo de cooperação Norte-Sul?

  14. SemGroup acquisition of central Alberta midstream : case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, T.

    2005-01-01

    A case study of SemGroup's acquisition of Central Alberta Midstream was presented. SemCAMS specializes in providing more efficient supply, storage, and distribution assets and services. Seminole Canada Gas is a leading independent natural gas marketing and energy asset management company that currently markets 369 MMbtu per day. The company purchases natural gas in western Canada for fee-based marketing services while also managing firm transportation contracts and providing gas storage for third party customers. SemCAMS owns the largest sour gas processor in Alberta as well as 3 sour gas processing plants, 600 miles of gathering pipeline, and a sweet gas processing plant. the company is also planning increased drilling and production activities and is now pursuing aggressive land acquisition policies. Over 25,000 square miles of land have been acquired. It was concluded that midstream companies should be customer-focused, provide reliability and guarantees, infrastructure investment and optimization. tabs., figs

  15. Critical factors in SEM 3D stereo microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, F.; Bariano, P.; Savio, E.

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using 3D reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. The paper presents both theoretical and experimental investigations, on the effects of instrumental variables and measure......This work addresses dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using 3D reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. The paper presents both theoretical and experimental investigations, on the effects of instrumental variables...... factors are recognized: the first one is related to the measurement operation and the instrument set-up; the second concerns the quality of scanned images and represents the major criticality in the application of SEMs for 3D characterizations....

  16. Annual International DIC Society Conference and SEM Fall Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Reu, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    This collection represents a single volume of technical papers presented at the Annual International DIC Society Conference and SEM Fall Conference organized by the Society for Experimental Mechanics and Sandia National Laboratories and held in Philadelphia, PA, November 7-10, 2016. The volume presents early findings from experimental, standards development and various other investigations concerning digital image correlation - an important area within Experimental Mechanics. The area of Digital Image Correlation has been an integral track within the SEM Annual Conference spearheaded by Professor Michael Sutton from the University of South Carolina. In 2016, the SEM and Sandia joined their collaborative strengths to launch a standing fall meeting focusing specifically on developments in the area of Digital Image Correlation. The contributed papers within this volume span numerous technical aspects of DIC including standards development for the industry. .

  17. SemVisM: semantic visualizer for medical image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta, Luis; La Cruz, Alexandra; Baranya, Alexander; Vidal, María.-Esther

    2015-01-01

    SemVisM is a toolbox that combines medical informatics and computer graphics tools for reducing the semantic gap between low-level features and high-level semantic concepts/terms in the images. This paper presents a novel strategy for visualizing medical data annotated semantically, combining rendering techniques, and segmentation algorithms. SemVisM comprises two main components: i) AMORE (A Modest vOlume REgister) to handle input data (RAW, DAT or DICOM) and to initially annotate the images using terms defined on medical ontologies (e.g., MesH, FMA or RadLex), and ii) VOLPROB (VOlume PRObability Builder) for generating the annotated volumetric data containing the classified voxels that belong to a particular tissue. SemVisM is built on top of the semantic visualizer ANISE.1

  18. SEM based overlay measurement between resist and buried patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka; Hasumi, Kazuhisa; Shao, Chuanyu; Leray, Philippe; Lorusso, Gian; Baudemprez, Bart

    2016-03-01

    With the continuous shrink in pattern size and increased density, overlay control has become one of the most critical issues in semiconductor manufacturing. Recently, SEM based overlay of AEI (After Etch Inspection) wafer has been used for reference and optimization of optical overlay (both Image Based Overlay (IBO) and Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO)). Overlay measurement at AEI stage contributes monitor and forecast the yield after formation by etch and calibrate optical measurement tools. however those overlay value seems difficult directly for feedback to a scanner. Therefore, there is a clear need to have SEM based overlay measurements of ADI (After Develop Inspection) wafers in order to serve as reference for optical overlay and make necessary corrections before wafers go to etch. Furthermore, to make the corrections as accurate as possible, actual device like feature dimensions need to be measured post ADI. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CDSEM , which can be measured with smaller area. This is currently possible only with the CD-SEM. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CD-SEM , which can be measured with smaller area. In this study, we assess SEM based overlay measurement of ADI and AEI wafer by using a sample from an N10 process flow. First, we demonstrate SEM based overlay performance at AEI by using dual damascene process for Via 0 (V0) and metal 1 (M1) layer. We also discuss the overlay measurements between litho-etch-litho stages of a triple patterned M1 layer and double pattern V0. Second, to illustrate the complexities in image acquisition and measurement we will measure overlay between M1B resist and buried M1A-Hard mask trench. Finally, we will show how high accelerating voltage can detect buried pattern information by BSE (Back Scattering Electron). In this paper we discuss the merits of this method versus standard optical metrology based corrections.

  19. Protons, ions, electrons and the future of the SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D C

    2010-01-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is the most widely used high performance microscope in all fields of science but it is now reaching the theoretical limits of its performance. While advances in sources, optics, and detectors, can result in some improvement in performance the ultimate resolution is limited by fundamental physical constraints. One potential alternative is a scanning microscope utilizing light ions such as H+ and He+ . Such an instrument shares all of the benefits of the conventional SEM but is free from the constraints encountered when using electrons and could significantly extend the scope and success of scanning microscopy.

  20. What Determines Lean Manufacturing Implementation? A CB-SEM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Ching Ng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to ascertain the determinants of effective Lean Manufacturing (LM. In this research, Covariance-based Structural Equation Modeling (CB-SEM analysis will be used in order to analyze the determinants. Through CB-SEM analysis, the significant key determinants can be determined and the direct relationships among determinants can be analyzed. Thus, the findings of this research can act as guidelines for achievement of LM effectiveness, not only providing necessary steps for successful implementation of lean, but also helping lean companies to achieve higher level of lean cost and time savings.

  1. A Data-Driven Approach to SEM Development at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirius, Landon K.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores implementation of strategic enrollment management (SEM) at a two-year college and why SEM is critical to the long-term viability of an institution. This article also outlines the five initial steps needed to implement SEM, including identifying SEM leadership, building a SEM committee, developing a common understanding of…

  2. Cuticle scale measurement of animal fibers by SEM and AFM

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Notayi, M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available -1 51st Microscopy Society of Southern Africa (MSSA) Conference, Farm Inn, Pretoria, 3-6 December 2013 Cuticle scale measurement of animal fibers by SEM and AFM Notayi M, Engelbrechts JAA, Lee ME, Goosen WE, Hunter L and Botha AF Abstract...

  3. Estudo comparativo entre histerectomia abdominal e vaginal sem prolapso uterino

    OpenAIRE

    Lisboa, Vânio Cardoso

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas. Objetivo: Comparar a histerectomia abdominal e vaginal sem prolapso uterino.

  4. SEM based CARMA time series modeling for arbitrary N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, J.H.L.; Völkle, M.C.; Driver, C.C.

    2018-01-01

    This article explains in detail the state space specification and estimation of first and higher-order autoregressive moving-average models in continuous time (CARMA) in an extended structural equation modeling (SEM) context for N = 1 as well as N > 1. To illustrate the approach, simulations will be

  5. DSS1/Sem1, a multifunctional and intrinsically disordered protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Birthe Brandt; Schenstrøm, Signe Marie; Rebula, Caio A.

    2016-01-01

    DSS1/Sem1 is a versatile intrinsically disordered protein. Besides being a bona fide subunit of the 26S proteasome, DSS1 associates with other protein complexes, including BRCA2-RPA, involved in homologous recombination; the Csn12-Thp3 complex, involved in RNA splicing; the integrator, involved...

  6. The principle of electron microscopy; SEM and TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzi, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    The article reviews the principle of electron microscopy which is used in scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). These instruments are important for the examination and analysis of the microstructural properties of solid objects. Relevance physical concept lies behind the devices are given. The main components of each device are also discussed

  7. Continuous time modeling of panel data by means of SEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, J.H.L.; Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Montfort, C.A.G.M.; Oud, J.H.L.; Satorra, A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief history of continuous time modeling and its implementation in panel analysis by means of structural equation modeling (SEM), the problems of discrete time modeling are discussed in detail. This is done by means of the popular cross-lagged panel design. Next, the exact discrete model

  8. Processing a Biological Tissue from Cryo-SEM to Replica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaškovicová, Naděžda; Hrubanová, Kamila; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 236-237 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Cryo-SEM * ACE600 Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  9. A combined optical, SEM and STM study of growth spirals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some novel results of a combined sequential study of growth spirals on the basal surface of the richly polytypic CdI2 crystals by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are presented and discussed. In confirmation of the known structural data, the STM pictures ...

  10. SEM Analysis of Surface Impact on Biofilm Antibiotic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luciana Calheiros; Mergulhão, Filipe José

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the effect of ampicillin treatment on Escherichia coli biofilms formed on two surface materials with different properties, silicone (SIL) and glass (GLA). Epifluorescence microscopy (EM) was initially used to assess biofilm formation and killing efficiency on both surfaces. This technique showed that higher bacterial colonization was obtained in the hydrophobic SIL than in the hydrophilic GLA. It has also shown that higher biofilm inactivation was attained for GLA after the antibiotic treatment (7-log reduction versus 1-log reduction for SIL). Due to its high resolution and magnification, SEM enabled a more detailed analysis of the antibiotic effect on biofilm cells, complementing the killing efficiency information obtained by EM. SEM micrographs revealed that ampicillin-treated cells have an elongated form when compared to untreated cells. Additionally, it has shown that different materials induced different levels of elongation on cells exposed to antibiotic. Biofilms formed on GLA showed a 37% higher elongation than those formed on SIL. Importantly, cell elongation was related to viability since ampicillin had a higher bactericidal effect on GLA-formed biofilms. These findings raise the possibility of using SEM for understanding the efficacy of antimicrobial treatments by observation of biofilm morphology.

  11. SEM Investigation of Superheater Deposits from Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming; Hansen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    , mature superheater deposit samples were extracted from two straw-fired boilers, Masnedø and Ensted, with fuel inputs of 33 MWth and 100 MWth, respectively. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images and EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) analyses were performed on the deposit samples. Different strategies...

  12. Correlative SEM SERS for quantitative analysis of dimer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, F J; Lenferink, A T M; van Wolferen, H A G M; Otto, C

    2016-11-14

    A Raman microscope integrated with a scanning electron microscope was used to investigate plasmonic structures by correlative SEM-SERS analysis. The integrated Raman-SEM microscope combines high-resolution electron microscopy information with SERS signal enhancement from selected nanostructures with adsorbed Raman reporter molecules. Correlative analysis is performed for dimers of two gold nanospheres. Dimers were selected on the basis of SEM images from multi aggregate samples. The effect of the orientation of the dimer with respect to the polarization state of the laser light and the effect of the particle gap size on the Raman signal intensity is observed. Additionally, calculations are performed to simulate the electric near field enhancement. These simulations are based on the morphologies observed by electron microscopy. In this way the experiments are compared with the enhancement factor calculated with near field simulations and are subsequently used to quantify the SERS enhancement factor. Large differences between experimentally observed and calculated enhancement factors are regularly detected, a phenomenon caused by nanoscale differences between the real and 'simplified' simulated structures. Quantitative SERS experiments reveal the structure induced enhancement factor, ranging from ∼200 to ∼20 000, averaged over the full nanostructure surface. The results demonstrate correlative Raman-SEM microscopy for the quantitative analysis of plasmonic particles and structures, thus enabling a new analytical method in the field of SERS and plasmonics.

  13. Revolving SEM images visualising 3D taxonomic characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkari, Nesrine; Cheung, David Koon-Bong; Enghoff, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    images taken consecutively while rotating the SEM stage 360°, which allows the structure in question to be seen from all angles of view in one plane. Seven new species of the genus Ommatoiulus collected in Tunisia are described: O. chambiensis, O. crassinigripes, O. kefi, O. khroumiriensis, O. xerophilus...

  14. FIB/SEM and SEM/EDS microstructural analysis of metal-ceramic and zirconia-ceramic interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, F; Merlati, G; Sebastiani, M; Battaini, P; Menghini, P; Bemporad, E

    2012-01-10

    Recently introduced FIB/SEM analysis in microscopy seems to provide a high-resolution characterization of the samples by 3D (FIB) cross-sectioning and (SEM) high resolution imaging. The aim of this study was to apply the FIB/SEM and SEM/EDS analysis to the interfaces of a metal-ceramic vs. two zirconia-ceramic systems. Plate samples of three different prosthetic systems were prepared in the dental lab following the manufacturers' instructions, where metal-ceramic was the result of a ceramic veneering (porcelain-fused-to-metal) and the two zirconia-ceramic systems were produced by the dedicated CAD-CAM procedures of the zirconia cores (both with final sintering) and then veneered by layered or heat pressed ceramics. In a FIB/SEM equipment (also called DualBeam), a thin layer of platinum (1 μm) was deposited on samples surface crossing the interfaces, in order to protect them during milling. Then, increasingly deeper trenches were milled by a focused ion beam, first using a relatively higher and later using a lower ion current (from 9 nA to 0.28 nA, 30KV). Finally, FEG-SEM (5KV) micrographs (1000-50,000X) were acquired. In a SEM the analysis of the morphology and internal microstructure was performed by 13KV secondary and backscattered electrons signals (in all the samples). The compositional maps were then performed by EDS probe only in the metal-ceramic system (20kV). Despite the presence of many voids in all the ceramic layers, it was possible to identify: (1) the grain structures of the metallic and zirconia substrates, (2) the thin oxide layer at the metal-ceramic interface and its interactions with the first ceramic layer (wash technique), (3) the roughness of the two different zirconia cores and their interactions with the ceramic interface, where the presence of zirconia grains in the ceramic layer was reported in two system possibly due to sandblasting before ceramic firing.

  15. Three dimensional rock microstructures: insights from FIB-SEM tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Martyn; Pennock, Gill; de Winter, Matthijs

    2016-04-01

    Most studies of rock microstructures investigate two-dimensional sections or thin slices of three dimensional grain structures. With advances of X-ray and electron tomography methods the 3-D microstructure can be(relatively) routinely investigated on scales from a few microns to cm. 3D studies are needed to investigate the connectivity of microstructures and to test the assumptions we use to calculate 3D properties from 2D sections. We have used FIB-SEM tomography to study the topology of melts in synthetic olivine rocks, 3D crystal growth microstructures, pore networks and subgrain structures. The technique uses a focused ion beam to make serial sections with a spacing of tens to hundreds of nanometers. Each section is then imaged or mapped using the electron beam. The 3D geometry of grains and subgrains can be investigated using orientation contrast or EBSD mapping. FIB-SEM tomography of rocks and minerals can be limited by charging of the uncoated surfaces exposed by the ion beam. The newest generation of FIB-SEMs have much improved low voltage imaging capability allowing high resolution charge free imaging. Low kV FIB-SEM tomography is now widely used to study the connectivity of pore networks. In-situ fluids can also be studied using cryo-FIB-SEM on frozen samples, although special freezing techniques are needed to avoid artifacts produced by ice crystallization. FIB-SEM tomography is complementary, in terms of spatial resolution and sampled volume, to TEM tomography and X-ray tomography, and the combination of these methods can cover a wide range of scales. Our studies on melt topology in synthetic olivine rocks with a high melt content show that many grain boundaries are wetted by nanometre scale melt layers that are too thin to resolve by X-ray tomography. A variety of melt layer geometries occur consistent with several mechanisms of melt layer formation. The nature of melt geometries along triple line junctions and quadruple points can be resolved

  16. Critical factors in SEM 3D stereo microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinello, F; Savio, E; Bariani, P; Horsewell, A; De Chiffre, L

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using 3D reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. The paper presents both theoretical and experimental investigations, on the effects of instrumental variables and measurement parameters on reconstruction accuracy. Investigations were performed on a novel sample, specifically developed and implemented for the tests. The description is based on the model function introduced by Piazzesi and adapted for eucentrically tilted stereopairs. Two main classes of influencing factors are recognized: the first one is related to the measurement operation and the instrument set-up; the second concerns the quality of scanned images and represents the major criticality in the application of SEMs for 3D characterizations

  17. Three dimensional imaging of surface geometry in SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slowko, W.

    1997-01-01

    A great advantage of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is its ability of the surface topography in the way as a human eye is accustomed to see lights and shadows on macroobjects. However, SEM's can hardly display vertical dimensions of the structures. One of possible solutions is reconstruction of the surface profiles by directional detection of secondary electrons and proper signal processing. However, the surface profile still gives two dimensional information and the method should be extended to obtain fully three dimensional imaging. The extension consists in a simultaneous reconstruction of the surface profiles in two perpendicular directions (x and y) and their superposition. The solution proposed is based on a quadrupole detector system and a computer or analogue system for signal processing. Quantitative data of the surface topography can be displayed in many manners in the system of two or three co-ordinates with use of pseudo-colour for the altitude coding. (author)

  18. SEM and Raman studies of CNT films on porous Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belka, R.; Keczkowska, J.; Suchańska, M.; Firek, P.; Wronka, H.; Kozłowski, M.; Radomska, J.; Czerwosz, E.; Craciunoiu, F.

    2017-08-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) films deposited on different porous silica substrates were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Raman Spectroscopy (RS). The films samples were prepared by a two-step method consisting of PVD and CVD processes. In the first step the nanocomposite Ni-C film was obtained by evaporation in dynamic vacuum from two separated sources of fullerenes and nickel acetate. Those films were deposited on porous silica and DLC/porous silica substrates. Analysis of SEM imaging showed that the obtained film are composed of carbon nanotubes, the distribution, size and quality of which depend on the type of substrate. The CNT films were studied by RS method to determine the influence of the substrate type on disordering of carbonaceous structure and quality of CNT in deposited films.

  19. Repetitive Observation of Coniferous Samples in ESEM and SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tihlaříková, Eva; Neděla, Vilém

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S3 (2015), s. 1695-1696 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SEM * ESEM * biological samples * repetitive observation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  20. Characterization of some biological specimens using TEM and SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Smith, Don W.

    2009-05-01

    The advent of novel techniques using the Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes improved observation on various biological specimens to characterize them. We studied some biological specimens using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes. We followed negative staining technique with Phosphotungstic acid using bacterial culture of Bacillus subtilis. Negative staining is very convenient technique to view the structural morphology of different samples including bacteria, phage viruses and filaments in a cell. We could observe the bacterial cell wall and flagellum very well when trapped the negative stained biofilm from bacterial culture on a TEM grid. We cut ultra thin sections from the fixed root tips of Pisum sativum (Garden pea). Root tips were pre fixed with osmium tetroxide and post fixed with uranium acetate and placed in the BEEM capsule for block making. The ultrathin sections on the grid under TEM showed the granular chromatin in the nucleus. The protein bodies and large vacuoles with the storage materials were conspicuous. We followed fixation, critical point drying and sputter coating with gold to view the tissues with SEM after placing on stubs. SEM view of the leaf surface of a dangerous weed Tragia hispida showed the surface trichomes. These trichomes when break on touching releases poisonous content causing skin irritation. The cultured tissue from in vitro culture of Albizia lebbeck, a tree revealed the regenerative structures including leaf buds and stomata on the tissue surface. SEM and TEM allow investigating the minute details characteristic morphological features that can be used for classroom teaching.

  1. Surface characteristics of isopod digestive gland epithelium studied by SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millaku, Agron; Leser, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana; Godec, Matjaz; Torkar, Matjaz; Jenko, Monika; Milani, Marziale; Tatti, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The structure of the digestive gland epithelium of a terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber has been investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), and light microscopy in order to provide evidence on morphology of the gland epithelial surface in animals from a stock culture. We investigated the shape of cells, extrusion of lipid droplets, shape and distribution of microvilli, and the presence of bacteria on the cell surface. A total of 22 animals were investigated and we found some variability in the appearance of the gland epithelial surface. Seventeen of the animals had dome-shaped digestive gland "normal" epithelial cells, which were densely and homogeneously covered by microvilli and varying proportions of which extruded lipid droplets. On the surface of microvilli we routinely observed sparsely distributed bacteria of different shapes. Five of the 22 animals had "abnormal" epithelial cells with a significantly altered shape. In three of these animals, the cells were much smaller, partly or completely flat or sometimes pyramid-like. A thick layer of bacteria was detected on the microvillous border, and in places, the shape and size of microvilli were altered. In two animals, hypertrophic cells containing large vacuoles were observed indicating a characteristic intracellular infection. The potential of SEM in morphological investigations of epithelial surfaces is discussed.

  2. Proliferação das rupturas paradigmáticas: o caso da medicina baseada em evidências Proliferation of paradigmatic ruptures: the case of evidence-based medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Vasconcellos-Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve o fenômeno da proliferação das rupturas paradigmáticas publicadas na literatura biomédica. É discutida a distorção que, com o passar das décadas, atribuiu um sentido oposto ao original proposto por Thomas Khun. Na sua grande maioria percebemos que essas pseudo-rupturas se relacionam meramente a detalhes técnicos ligados a contextos específicos. Destaca-se o caso da medicina baseada em evidências (MBE, anunciada como uma dessas rupturas, em cuja essência se reafirmam antigas concepções. Alguns equívocos conceituais são enfatizados como tentativas de aplicar os pressupostos da MBE a fenômenos ligados à subjetividade e à dinâmica social, além de outros objetos de estudo peculiares às ciências sociais. São citadas 12 metanálises inconclusivas, que originam paradoxos quando estudados por esta via. A crítica a alguns aspectos da MBE é sintetizada pelo de seu efeito de confundimento epistemológico. Há imprecisões conceituais do termo relacionadas ao efeito de "entrincheiramento", ao qual são induzidos outros modelos epistemológicos não alinhados, assim como a tendência à compreensão universal dos fenômenos pela perspectiva dos estudos duplo-cego randomizados.The present study describes the phenomenon of paradigmatic ruptures proliferation in the biomedical literature. The current distortion is discussed, which has conferred in the last decades an opposite meaning to the term originally proposed by Thomas Khun. In most part, it is realized that pseudo-ruptures refer to technical details associated to specific contexts. It is pointed out the case of evidence- based medicine (EBM, proclaimed as one of these paradigmatic ruptures, but which essentially corroborates old concepts. Some conceptual errors are stressed as well as attempts to apply EBM assumptions to phenomena associated to subjectivity and social dynamics and other particular study subjects of social sciences. Twelve

  3. Analysis of microtraces in invasive traumas using SEM/EDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, E J; Zoon, P D; Chang, S B C G; Keereweer, I; Pieterman, R; Gerretsen, R R R

    2012-01-10

    Scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) is a proven forensic tool and has been used to analyze several kinds of trace evidence. A forensic application of SEM/EDS is the examination of morphological characteristics of tool marks that tools and instruments leave on bone. The microtraces that are left behind by these tools and instruments on the bone are, however, often ignored or not noticed at all. In this paper we will describe the use of SEM/EDS for the analysis of microtraces in invasive sharp-force, blunt-force and bone-hacking traumas in bone. This research is part of a larger multi-disciplinary approach in which pathologists, forensic anthropologists, toolmark and microtrace experts work together to link observed injuries to a suspected weapon or, in case of an unknown weapon, to indicate a group of objects that could have been used as a weapon. Although there are a few difficulties one have to consider, the method itself is rather simple and straightforward to apply. A sample of dry and clean bone is placed into the SEM sample chamber and brightness and contrast are set such that bone appears grey, metal appears white and organic material appears black. The sample is then searched manually to find relevant features. Once features are found their elemental composition is measured by an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). This method is illustrated using several cases. It is shown that SEM/EDS analysis of microtraces in bone is a valuable tool to get clues about an unknown weapon and can associate a specific weapon with injuries on the basis of appearance and elemental composition. In particular the separate results from the various disciplines are complementary and may be combined to reach a conclusion with a stronger probative value. This is not only useful in the courtroom but above all in criminal investigations when one have to know for what weapon or object to look for. Copyright © 2011

  4. Predicción de las curvas de ruptura para la remoción de plomo (II en disolución acuosa sobre carbón activado en una columna empacada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Valencia Ríos

    2013-01-01

    mejora cuando se incrementa la altura del lecho de carbón activado y disminuye el ̄ujo volumétrico y la concentración inicial. Los datos experimentales de las curvas de ruptura se ajustaron a los modelos BDST (Bed Depth Service Time, Clark y Wolborska. El modelo BDST proporciona el mejor ajuste para describir el comportamiento dinámico en todas las condiciones de operación estudiadas. El modelo de Clark para relaciones de C /Co entre 0,05 y 0,5 y el modelo de Wolborska para C /Co < 0,2 describen de manera satisfactoria el rendimiento de la columna.

  5. Educación Superior y Pueblos Indígenas en América Latina: “Resistencias, rupturas y pluralismos en la educación superior”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinia Zúñiga Muñoz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available En el marco del XXX Congreso de la Asociación Latinoamericana de Sociología (ALAS realizado en San José de Costa Rica, Centroamérica, entre el 30 de noviembre y el 4 de Diciembre del 2015, bajo el lema “pueblos en movimiento”, se llevó a cabo el Encuentro “Educación Superior y Pueblos Indígenas: Resistencias, rupturas y pluralismos en la educación superior” realizado durante los días 3 y 4 de Diciembre, en el Paraninfo “Daniel Oduber Quirós” de la Universidad Estatal a Distancia de Costa Rica (UNED, sede de este evento, organizado con el apoyo de la Universidad Nacional y de la Universidad de Costa Rica.

  6. Classification and printability of EUV mask defects from SEM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Wonil; Price, Daniel; Morgan, Paul A.; Rost, Daniel; Satake, Masaki; Tolani, Vikram L.

    2017-10-01

    Classification and Printability of EUV Mask Defects from SEM images EUV lithography is starting to show more promise for patterning some critical layers at 5nm technology node and beyond. However, there still are many key technical obstacles to overcome before bringing EUV Lithography into high volume manufacturing (HVM). One of the greatest obstacles is manufacturing defect-free masks. For pattern defect inspections in the mask-shop, cutting-edge 193nm optical inspection tools have been used so far due to lacking any e-beam mask inspection (EBMI) or EUV actinic pattern inspection (API) tools. The main issue with current 193nm inspection tools is the limited resolution for mask dimensions targeted for EUV patterning. The theoretical resolution limit for 193nm mask inspection tools is about 60nm HP on masks, which means that main feature sizes on EUV masks will be well beyond the practical resolution of 193nm inspection tools. Nevertheless, 193nm inspection tools with various illumination conditions that maximize defect sensitivity and/or main-pattern modulation are being explored for initial EUV defect detection. Due to the generally low signal-to-noise in the 193nm inspection imaging at EUV patterning dimensions, these inspections often result in hundreds and thousands of defects which then need to be accurately reviewed and dispositioned. Manually reviewing each defect is difficult due to poor resolution. In addition, the lack of a reliable aerial dispositioning system makes it very challenging to disposition for printability. In this paper, we present the use of SEM images of EUV masks for higher resolution review and disposition of defects. In this approach, most of the defects detected by the 193nm inspection tools are first imaged on a mask SEM tool. These images together with the corresponding post-OPC design clips are provided to KLA-Tencor's Reticle Decision Center (RDC) platform which provides ADC (Automated Defect Classification) and S2A (SEM

  7. A simplified method for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahar, A.; Lasher, R.

    1980-01-01

    The combination of autoradiography with SEM provides a valuable tool for the study of labeled biological materials, but the previously described methods are complicated because they call first for the removal of gelatin from the film emulsion and this is then followed by deposition of gold vapor on the specimen. The authors describe a much simpler method which can easily be adapted to routine examination of cell cultures. In this method, gelatin is not removed; the film is coated with vaporized carbon only. This procedure permits visualization of both cellular image and distribution of silver grains. (Auth.)

  8. La semántica en la Web

    OpenAIRE

    Roger, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar la motivación de nuestra línea de investigación, metas y desarrollos futuros. Fundamentalmente, nuestro interés se centrará en poder capturar el potencial de las técnicas y paradigmas basadas en conocimiento semántico para la representación de conocimiento, la localización, compartición e integración de recursos a mediante la WWW.

  9. XRD and SEM study of alumina silicate porcelain insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duddi, Dharmender; Singh, G. P.; Kalra, Swati; Shekhawat, M. S.; Tak, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Higher strength electrical porcelain is a requirement of industry. This will be achieved by a specific composition of raw materials, which is consisted of clays and feldspars. Water absorption, particle size and insulating properties are of special interest now a day. China clay, Ball clay and Quartz are widely used by ceramic industries in Bikaner district of Rajasthan. Sample for present study were prepared by mixing of above clay, feldspar with MnO2, then shrinkage is observed. Bar shaped samples were prepared and heated up to a temperature of about 1185° C to observe shrinkage. For phase study of XRD and SEM are observed.

  10. Developing 3D SEM in a broad biological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, A; Lippens, S; Bartunkova, S; Asselbergh, B; Blanpain, C; Fendrych, M; Goossens, A; Holt, M; Janssens, S; Krols, M; Larsimont, J-C; Mc Guire, C; Nowack, MK; Saelens, X; Schertel, A; Schepens, B; Slezak, M; Timmerman, V; Theunis, C; Van Brempt, R; Visser, Y; GuÉRin, CJ

    2015-01-01

    When electron microscopy (EM) was introduced in the 1930s it gave scientists their first look into the nanoworld of cells. Over the last 80 years EM has vastly increased our understanding of the complex cellular structures that underlie the diverse functions that cells need to maintain life. One drawback that has been difficult to overcome was the inherent lack of volume information, mainly due to the limit on the thickness of sections that could be viewed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). For many years scientists struggled to achieve three-dimensional (3D) EM using serial section reconstructions, TEM tomography, and scanning EM (SEM) techniques such as freeze-fracture. Although each technique yielded some special information, they required a significant amount of time and specialist expertise to obtain even a very small 3D EM dataset. Almost 20 years ago scientists began to exploit SEMs to image blocks of embedded tissues and perform serial sectioning of these tissues inside the SEM chamber. Using first focused ion beams (FIB) and subsequently robotic ultramicrotomes (serial block-face, SBF-SEM) microscopists were able to collect large volumes of 3D EM information at resolutions that could address many important biological questions, and do so in an efficient manner. We present here some examples of 3D EM taken from the many diverse specimens that have been imaged in our core facility. We propose that the next major step forward will be to efficiently correlate functional information obtained using light microscopy (LM) with 3D EM datasets to more completely investigate the important links between cell structures and their functions. Lay Description Life happens in three dimensions. For many years, first light, and then EM struggled to image the smallest parts of cells in 3D. With recent advances in technology and corresponding improvements in computing, scientists can now see the 3D world of the cell at the nanoscale. In this paper we present the

  11. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM): Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis

    2018-03-01

    Investigations of patterns of sexual arousal to certain groups of sexually explicit media (SEM) in the general population in non-laboratory settings are rare. Such knowledge could be important to understand more about the relative specificity of sexual arousal in different SEM users. (i) To investigate whether sexual arousal to non-mainstream vs mainstream SEM contents could be categorized across gender and sexual orientation, (ii) to compare levels of SEM-induced sexual arousal, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluated sexual interests and fantasies between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluations of sexual interests and sexual fantasies. Groups characterized by sexual arousal to non-mainstream SEM could be identified across gender and sexual orientation. These non-mainstream SEM groups reported more SEM use and higher average levels of sexual arousal across the 27 SEM themes assessed compared with mainstream SEM groups. Only few differences were found between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups in self-evaluative judgements of sexual interests, sexual fantasies, and sexual satisfaction. The internal validity and predictive accuracy of the NPAS was good across most user groups investigated. The findings suggest that in classified non-mainstream SEM groups, patterns of sexual arousal might be less fixated and category specific than previously assumed. Further, these groups are not more judgmental of their SEM-related sexual arousal patterns than groups characterized by patterns of sexual arousal to more mainstream SEM content. Moreover, accurate identification of non-mainstream SEM group membership is generally possible across gender and sexual orientation using the NPAS. Hald GM

  12. Sem-edx and ftir studies of chlorinated rubber coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, H.; Khan, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Anticorrosive performance of chlorinated rubber coating has been investigated by visual examination, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. After surface preparation, commercially available coating system based on chlorinated rubber (primer)/chlorinated rubber (topcoat) formulation was applied on mild steel test panels (10cm x 15cm sizes). Prepared coated panels were exposed at marine, industrial and urban test sites located in Karachi, Pakistan according to ISO 8565 norm. Accelerated testing was performed by using a salt spray chamber (ASTM B117 norm). Accelerated weathering methods are the methods in which the factors responsible for the degradation of coatings are artificially intensified in order to achieve the rapid degradation of coatings. Visual examination of blistering and rusting as well as SEM micrographs indicated a more severe degradation of the coating surface characteristics at natural exposure testing sites (particularly at marine test site) than for accelerated (salt spray) testing. EDX determination of the Oxygen/Carbon (O/C) ratios also indicated increased degradation at natural test sites compared to the accelerated (salt spray) testing. Photooxidation of the binder results in the formation of carbonyl compounds as revealed by FTIR spectroscopy which also indicated dehydrochlorination. (author)

  13. Comparative SEM analysis of nine F22 aligner cleaning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Luca; Martini, Marco; Cervinara, Francesca; Spedicato, Giorgio Alfredo; Oliverio, Teresa; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    The orthodontics industry has paid great attention to the aesthetics of orthodontic appliances, seeking to make them as invisible as possible. There are several advantages to clear aligner systems, including aesthetics, comfort, chairside time reduction, and the fact that they can be removed for meals and oral hygiene procedures. Five patients were each given a series of F22 aligners, each to be worn for 14 days and nights, with the exception of meal and brushing times. Patients were instructed to clean each aligner using a prescribed strategy, and sections of the used aligners were observed under SEM. One grey-scale SEM image was saved per aligner in JPEG format with an 8-bit colour depth, and a total of 45 measurements on the grey scale ("Value" variable) were made. This dataset was analysed statistically via repeated measures ANOVA to determine the effect of each of the nine cleaning strategies in each of the five patients. A statistically significant difference in the efficacy of the cleaning strategies was detected. Specifically, rinsing with water alone was significantly less efficacious, and a combination of cationic detergent solution and ultrasonication was significantly more efficacious than the other methods (p aligners.

  14. Diferenciador semántico: bipolaridad del espacio semántico, un problema de medida del significado

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez C., Ramiro

    2012-01-01

    En relación con el supuesto de bipolaridad y su aspecto recíprocamente antagónico, Osgood y otros (1957) han ligado su modelo de espacio semántico a la teoría del aprendizaje. Plantean la hipótesis de que cierto estimulo externo, o signo, desencadena un proceso mediacional interno (nn) el cual se constituye en emisor de estímulos (rm 15m). Este es el rm mediacional que contendría el significado del signo. La teoría de mediación la relacionan con el supuesto de bipolaridad en los siguientes té...

  15. Comparing the detection of iron-based pottery pigment on a carbon-coated sherd by SEM-EDS and by Micro-XRF-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Michael W; Washburn, Dorothy K; Ellis, E Ann; Pendleton, Bonnie B

    2014-03-01

    The same sherd was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and a micro X-ray fluorescence tube attached to a scanning electron microscope (Micro-XRF-SEM) to compare the effectiveness of elemental detection of iron-based pigment. To enhance SEM-EDS mapping, the sherd was carbon coated. The carbon coating was not required to produce Micro-XRF-SEM maps but was applied to maintain an unbiased comparison between the systems. The Micro-XRF-SEM analysis was capable of lower limits of detection than that of the SEM-EDS system, and therefore the Micro-XRF-SEM system could produce elemental maps of elements not easily detected by SEM-EDS mapping systems. Because SEM-EDS and Micro-XRF-SEM have been used for imaging and chemical analysis of biological samples, this comparison of the detection systems should be useful to biologists, especially those involved in bone or tooth (hard tissue) analysis.

  16. Cidadania, entre a regra e a ruptura: o fluido movimento do vídeo popular no Residencial Real Conquista em Goiânia

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Carolina Abbadia

    2011-01-01

    A pesquisa problematiza o conceito de Cidadania a partir da prática social de ativismo político de mídia que promoveu oficina de vídeo popular no bairro periférico em Goiânia, o Residencial Real Conquista, fruto da ex-ocupação no Parque Oeste Industrial, intitulada na época pelas e pelos sem-teto de Sonho Real. Diante desta realidade social, a discussão sobre a cidadania se volta para as construções simbólicas da cultura de oposição contemporânea em relacionamento com a cultura popular, assim...

  17. SEM investigation of incandescent lamp mantle structure on durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerneke, D.; Lang, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The incandescent mantle as used on pressure and non-pressure liquid fuel lamps has been in use for over 100 years. What remains unexplained is the way in which the resistance to mechanical shock and the decline in tensile strength with usage is experienced. It has been suggested that to improve durability it is necessary to continuously burn a new mantle for the first two to three hours. The known factors in mantle durability and mechanical strength are chemical composition and fabric weave. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of burning time and temperature on thorium oxide mantles. The operating temperature of mantles on a range of kerosene pressure lamps was measured and found to be between 800 and 1100 deg C. Heat treatments of thorium based Coleman mantles were carried out in a laboratory furnace within these ranges of temperatures for periods ranging from 2 minutes to 2 hours. The mantles were then viewed in a LEO S440 analytical SEM. Results at 800 deg C show a distinct change in surface morphology with increasing exposure time. At the shorter times (2-5 minutes) the surface was relatively smooth. With increased time periods (15 - 120 minutes) the surface was observed to have a large lumpy structure. At 1100 deg C the difference in surface morphology was not apparent between the shortest and longest times. The surface appears much smoother and no lumpy structure was observed. This suggests that when a mantle is operated at the higher temperature of 1100 deg C the structure of the Thorium oxide is quickly transformed into the known stronger amorphous form. This is taken as the observed smooth structure seen in the SEM images of the 1100 deg C samples. Thus the mantle is expected to be more resistant to mechanical shock and have increased durability. Practical field test results confirm these observations. The mantle on a lamp that is operating efficiently, burns brightly, will far outlast a mantle on an inefficient lamp which bums

  18. Cultivo sem solo do morangueiro Strawberry soilless cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Giménez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O morangueiro é uma cultura importante em vários países, principalmente nos Estados Unidos e na Europa, por suas características sensoriais, propriedades nutritivas e por sua rentabilidade. O cultivo comercial sem solo de morangueiro está bem desenvolvido na Europa, onde tem permitido um aumento da produtividade e qualidade da produção assim como a ampliação da oferta do produto ao longo do ano. Predomina o sistema aberto, em sacolas ou vasos com diferentes tipos de substratos, utilizando-se densidades de 8 a 12plantas m-2. As produtividades obtidas estão entre 5 e 10kg m-2. Para isolar as plantas do solo e facilitar o manejo da cultura, os vasos ou sacolas são suspensos a uma altura entre 0,8 e 1m da superfície do solo. A composição da solução nutritiva é variável, refletindo as diferentes condições produtivas. As mudas são produzidas principalmente em bandejas com substrato, a partir de pontas de estolões obtidas da multiplicação de plantas matrizes provenientes da propagação in vitro. No Brasil, o cultivo sem solo de morangueiro é ainda incipiente e os resultados produtivos e econômicos têm sido insatisfatórios, principalmente por falta de informações de pesquisas capazes de indicar sistemas apropriados de cultivo para as condições locais. É necessário desenvolver sistemas sustentáveis, preferencialmente fechados, combinando alta produtividade e elevada eficiência de utilização da água e dos nutrientes. No presente trabalho, são revisados os principais aspectos da produção em sistemas de cultivo sem solo de mudas e fruta de morangueiro. São descritos a produção de mudas, os sistemas e as soluções nutritivas empregadas em diferentes países. Ao final, são feitas inferências sobre a possibilidade de adoção e geração do sistema de cultivo sem solo apropriado para as condições brasileiras.Strawberry is a very important crop in Europe and USA due to its nutritional and sensorial

  19. Filler segmentation of SEM paper images based on mathematical morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Kbir, M; Benslimane, Rachid; Princi, Elisabetta; Vicini, Silvia; Pedemonte, Enrico

    2007-07-01

    Recent developments in microscopy and image processing have made digital measurements on high-resolution images of fibrous materials possible. This helps to gain a better understanding of the structure and other properties of the material at micro level. In this paper SEM image segmentation based on mathematical morphology is proposed. In fact, paper models images (Whatman, Murillo, Watercolor, Newsprint paper) selected in the context of the Euro Mediterranean PaperTech Project have different distributions of fibers and fillers, caused by the presence of SiAl and CaCO3 particles. It is a microscopy challenge to make filler particles in the sheet distinguishable from the other components of the paper surface. This objectif is reached here by using switable strutural elements and mathematical morphology operators.

  20. Elevated temperature transmission Kikuchi diffraction in the SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanta, Alice Bastos; Todeschini, Matteo; Burrows, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    heating associated with this system enables reliable TKD measurements at elevated temperatures without notable disturbance from infrared radiation. The dewetting of an Au thin film into Au nanoparticles upon heating is followed with orientation mapping in a temperature range between 20 °C and 900 °C....... The local thickness variation associated with the dewetting is observed qualitatively by observing the intensity of the transmitted beam, which decreases as the film thickness increases locally. The results of this study reveal that TKD is a well suited technique to study thin-film stability and solid state...... dewetting. Moreover, the outcome of this methodological study provides a baseline for further in-situ crystallographic studies of electron transparent samples in the SEM....

  1. Afasia global sem hemiparesia: AVC ou transtorno conversivo?

    OpenAIRE

    Negreiros,Daniel Philippi de; Fregni,Felipe; Scalco,Andréia Zavaloni

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXTO: A realização de diagnóstico neurológico e psiquiátrico em ambiente de emergência hospitalar com freqüência é uma tarefa complexa e exige colaboração interdisciplinar. Um dos diagnósticos diferenciais de doenças neurológicas é o transtorno conversivo, cuja característica principal é a presença de sintomas afetando funções motoras ou sensoriais, que sugerem desordem clínica ou neurológica, porém sem doença orgânica subjacente que explique o quadro. RELATO DE CASO: Os autores relatam o...

  2. SEM-EDX--a useful tool for forensic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadora, G.; Brozek-Mucha, Z.

    2003-01-01

    There are two main aims of forensic examination of the physical evidences. The first aim is comparison of the evidence with the reference material (called discrimination). The task is to find out whether they could have come from the same object. The second aim, when there is no comparative material available, is a classification of the evidence sample into a group of objects taking into account its specific chemical and physical properties. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) is a powerful tool for forensic scientists to classify and discriminate evidence material because they can simultaneously examine the morphology and the elemental composition of objects. Moreover, the obtained results could be enhanced using some methods of chemometric analysis. A few examples of problems related to the classification and discrimination of selected types of microtraces are presented

  3. Uso de misoprostol retal para indução do parto em gestantes com amniorrexe prematura: ensaio clínico fase II Use of rectal misoprostol for induction of labor in patients with premature rupture of membranes: a phase II clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Nogueira Arcanjo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar se o misoprostol por via retal constitui método efetivo para indução do parto em gestantes com amniorrexe prematura a termo. MÉTODOS: realizou-se estudo piloto, incluindo 32 gestantes com amniorrexe prematura entre 36 e 41 semanas, feto vivo e único, em apresentação cefálica, escore de Bishop 18 horas receberam antibiótico (penicilina cristalina para profilaxia de infecção estreptocócica. Analisaram-se desfechos diversos como intervalo entre indução e início do trabalho de parto, entre indução e parto, incidência de taquissistolia, tipo de parto, incidência de corioamnionite e resultados neonatais. A análise estatística foi realizada no programa de domínio público Epi-Info 2002, calculando-se médias com os respectivos desvios-padrão, além de distribuições de freqüência. Realizou-se análise de sobrevivência para determinação do percentual de partos em função do tempo transcorrido (em horas desde a administração do primeiro comprimido. RESULTADOS: os intervalos (média ± desvio padrão entre indução e início das contrações e entre indução e parto foram de, respectivamente, 299,8±199,9 e 681±340,5 minutos. Observou-se freqüência de 9,4% de taquissistolia. Cerca de 72% das pacientes evoluíram para parto vaginal. Diagnosticou-se corioamnionite em 12,5% dos casos. As medianas dos escores de Apgar foram de 8 e 9 no primeiro e quinto minuto, respectivamente. Não houve nenhum caso de Apgar PURPOSE: to investigate whether rectally administered misoprostol is an effective method for induction of labor in patients with premature ruptured membranes at term. METHODS: a pilot trial was conducted, enrolling 32 women with alive, singleton, cephalic fetus and ruptured membranes between 36 and 41 weeks of pregnancy, with Bishop score 18 h received antibiotics (crystalline penicillin for prophylaxis of streptococcal infeccion. Outcomes included time from induction to labor and induction to

  4. Alterações orais em crianças prematuras e de baixo peso ao nascer: a importância da relação entre pediatras e odontopediatras Oral abnormalities in preterm and low birth weight infants: the importance of the relationship between pediatricians and pediatric dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Baffi Diniz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão de literatura sobre as alterações orais em crianças prematuras e de baixo peso ao nascer. FONTES DE DADOS: Foram selecionados artigos em inglês e português, desde 1976 até 2009, pesquisados no PubMed, Lilacs e na Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia (BBO, além de livros e consensos nacionais e internacionais. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram: "prematuro", "recém-nascido de baixo peso", "cárie dentária", "hipoplasia do esmalte dentário", "manifestações bucais e "dentição primária". Selecionaram-se artigos avaliando incidência, prevalência e etiologia das alterações orais, além de revisões de literatura e relatos de casos clínicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: As alterações orais mais comuns em crianças prematuras e de baixo peso ao nascer são os defeitos no esmalte dentário (hipoplasias e hipocalcificações, a predisposição ao desenvolvimento de lesões de cárie dentária, as alterações na cronologia de erupção dentária e as alterações no palato com consequente aparecimento de maloclusão. Outras alterações também são relatadas, como diferenças nas dimensões das coroas dentárias e na espessura e porosidade do esmalte dentário. A interação entre pediatras e odontopediatras é fundamental no manejo dessas crianças. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento das alterações orais em crianças pré-termo e de baixo peso ao nascer por parte dos pediatras e odontopediatras favorece a atuação multidisciplinar com o objetivo de educar, prevenir e atenuar as possíveis mudanças físicas e dentárias nessas crianças.OBJECTIVE: To review the literature review concerning oral abnormalities in preterm and low birth-weight infants. DATA SOURCES: Articles published in English and Portuguese on this subject were selected from 1976 to 2009, browsed on PubMed, Lilacs and Brazilian Dentistry Bibliography, besides books and national and international consensus. The search used the following key

  5. Fatores de risco para aterosclerose em crianças e adolescentes com história familiar de doença arterial coronariana prematura Risk factors for atherosclerosis in children and adolescents with family history of premature coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres C. Romaldini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar a prevalência de dislipidemia em 109 crianças e adolescentes com história familiar de doença arterial coronariana prematura e a associação com outros fatores de risco para aterosclerose. MÉTODOS: Foram determinados valores séricos de colesterol total, de lipoproteínas de baixa densidade (LDL-C, alta densidade (HDL-C, triglicérides, índice de massa corpórea e pressão arterial. Foram também avaliados: prática de atividade física, tabagismo, renda familiar e escolaridade da mãe. RESULTADOS: Do total, 27,5 e 19,3% apresentaram, respectivamente, valores de colesterol total e LDL-C acima do normal, 13,8% valores de HDL-C diminuídos e 13,0% trigliceridemia elevada. Excesso de peso (obesidade e sobrepeso foi detectado em 25,7% dos casos; destes, 57,1% apresentavam valores anormais de lipídios. A prevalência de dislipidemia, isolada ou concomitante com outros fatores de risco, foi de 38,5%. Hábito de fumar ocorreu em 3,6% dos casos, hipertensão arterial em 2,7%, e 72,5% não praticavam atividade física. Não houve associação entre as variáveis renda familiar, escolaridade da mãe e prática de atividade física e dislipidemia. Entretanto, observou-se associação significativa entre dislipidemia e excesso de peso (p = 0,02; odds ratio = 2,82; IC 95% = 1,16-6,81. CONCLUSÃO: Fatores de risco para aterosclerose em crianças e adolescentes com história familiar de doença arterial coronariana prematura devem ser identificados o mais cedo possível para que sejam adotados programas preventivos de saúde.OBJECTIVES: To identify the prevalence of dyslipidemia in a group of 109 children and adolescents with a family history of premature coronary artery disease and to investigate the association between dyslipidemia and other risk factors for atherosclerosis. METHODS: Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, triglycerides, body mass index, blood

  6. Comparative SEM analysis of nine F22 aligner cleaning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lombardo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The orthodontics industry has paid great attention to the aesthetics of orthodontic appliances, seeking to make them as invisible as possible. There are several advantages to clear aligner systems, including aesthetics, comfort, chairside time reduction, and the fact that they can be removed for meals and oral hygiene procedures. Methods Five patients were each given a series of F22 aligners, each to be worn for 14 days and nights, with the exception of meal and brushing times. Patients were instructed to clean each aligner using a prescribed strategy, and sections of the used aligners were observed under SEM. One grey-scale SEM image was saved per aligner in JPEG format with an 8-bit colour depth, and a total of 45 measurements on the grey scale (“Value” variable were made. This dataset was analysed statistically via repeated measures ANOVA to determine the effect of each of the nine cleaning strategies in each of the five patients. Results A statistically significant difference in the efficacy of the cleaning strategies was detected. Specifically, rinsing with water alone was significantly less efficacious, and a combination of cationic detergent solution and ultrasonication was significantly more efficacious than the other methods (p < 0.05. Conclusions Of the nine cleaning strategies examined, only that involving 5 min of ultrasonication at 42 k Hz combined with a 0.3% germicidal cationic detergent was observed to be statistically effective at removing the bacterial biofilm from the surface of F22 aligners.

  7. Willis PM 10-2.5 Precision Results, pdf has summary table and SEM images

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Precision data from the SEM and SEM images from the samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Peters, T., E. Sawvel, R. Willis, R. West,...

  8. Modelo de web semántica para universidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Abad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A raíz del estudio de estado actual de micrositios y repositorios en la Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena se encontró que su información carecía de semántica óptima y adecuada. Bajo estas circunstancias, se plantea entonces la necesidad de crear un modelo de estructura de web semántica para Universidades, el cual posteriormente fue aplicado a micrositios y repositorio digital de la UPSE, como caso de prueba. Parte de este proyecto incluye la instalación de módulos de software con sus respectivas configuraciones y la utilización de estándares de metadatos como DUBLIN CORE, para la mejora del SEO (optimización en motores de búsqueda; con ello se ha logrado la generación de metadatos estandarizados y la creación de políticas para la subida de información. El uso de metadatos transforma datos simples en estructuras bien organizadas que aportan información y conocimiento para generar resultados en buscadores web. Al culminar la implementación del modelo de web semántica es posible decir que la universidad ha mejorado su presencia y visibilidad en la web a través del indexamiento de información en diferentes motores de búsqueda y posicionamiento en la categorización de universidades y de repositorios de Webometrics (ranking que proporciona clasificación de universidades de todo el mundo.   Abstract After examining the current microsites and repositories situation in University, Peninsula of Santa Elena´s, it was found that information lacked optimal and appropriate semantic. Under these circumstances, there is a need to create a semantic web structure model for Universities, which was subsequently applied to UPSE´s microsites and digital repositories, as a test study case. Part of this project includes the installation of software modules with their respective configurations and the use of metadata standards such as DUBLIN CORE, to improve the SEO (Search Engine Optimization; with these applications, it was

  9. Multiple-Group Analysis Using the sem Package in the R System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evermann, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-group analysis in covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) is an important technique to ensure the invariance of latent construct measurements and the validity of theoretical models across different subpopulations. However, not all SEM software packages provide multiple-group analysis capabilities. The sem package for the R…

  10. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM: Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Martin Hald, PhD

    2018-03-01

    Hald GM, Stulhofer A, Lange T, et al. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM: Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation. Sex Med 2018;6:30–38.

  11. Influência da extensão da palavra e local da ruptura na sílaba na fala de adolescentes e adultos gagos e fluentes The influence of word extension and the position of speech disruption within the syllable structure in the speech of stuttering and fluent adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Staróbole Juste

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência da extensão da palavra e da posição dentro da sílaba na ocorrência de rupturas de fala em adolescentes e adultos gagos e fluentes. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 120 indivíduos, de ambos os gêneros, com idades entre 12 e 49 anos e 11 meses, divididos em quatro grupos: Grupo de Pesquisa 1 (GP1 - 30 adolescentes gagos; Grupo de Pesquisa 2 (GP2 - 30 adultos gagos; Grupo Controle 1 (GC1 - 30 adolescentes fluentes; Grupo Controle 2 (GC2 - 30 adultos fluentes. Foram coletadas amostras de fala contendo 200 sílabas fluentes. Nas amostras de fala, as palavras rompidas foram analisadas quanto à sua extensão (monossílaba, dissílaba, trissílaba e polissílaba e quanto ao local da ruptura na sílaba (posição de ataque, núcleo ou coda. RESULTADOS: Quanto à extensão, os grupos de falantes gagos não apresentaram predominância de rupturas em nenhuma das possibilidades, já para os falantes fluentes, as rupturas foram mais frequentes nas palavras monossilábicas. Em relação ao local da ruptura na sílaba, os falantes gagos apresentaram ruptura principalmente na posição de ataque, enquanto os fluentes apresentaram mais rupturas em posição de núcleo. CONCLUSÃO: De maneira geral, esses resultados sugerem que as rupturas de fala ocorrem no início das palavras e sílabas, indicando uma dificuldade na temporalização entre as velocidades de seleção e ativação fonológica, que ocorre independentemente da extensão da palavra.PURPOSE: To verify the influence of word extension and the position of speech disruption within the syllable structure in the speech of stuttering and fluent adolescents and adults. METHODS: Participants were 120 individuals of both genders, with ages between 12 and 49 years and 11 months, who were divided into four groups: Research Group 1 (RG1 - 30 adolescents who stutter; Research Group 2 (RG2 - 30 adults who stutter; Control Group 1 (CG1 - 30 adolescents who do not stutter

  12. Correlação entre o diâmetro de ruptura folicular e ocorrência de gravidez em pacientes com síndrome dos ovários policísticos estimuladas com citrato de clomifeno

    OpenAIRE

    Portocarrero Sánchez, Carlos [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    A taxa de sucesso de ovulação com uso do citrato de clomifene é excelente, alcançando valores entre 80% e 85%, porém a taxa de gravidez é de apenas 20% a 40%. Quando o citrato de clomifene é usado como indutor de ovulação, em mulheres portadoras de síndrome dos ovários policísticos, a literatura não define qual o momento ideal de ruptura folicular que se correlaciona com sucesso de gravidez. Identificar o diâmetro de ruptura folicular de pacientes com síndrome de ovários policísticos (SOP) es...

  13. Quality control of clinker products by SEM and XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziad Abu Kaddourah; Khairun Azizi

    1996-01-01

    The microstructure and chemical properties of industrial Portland cement clinkers have been examined by SEM and XRF methods to establish the nature of the clinkers and how variations in the clinker characteristics can be used to control the clinker quality. The clinker nodules were found to show differences in the chemical composition and microstructure between the inner and outer parts of the clinker nodules. Microstructure studies of industrial Portland cement clinker have shown that the outer part of the nodules are enriched in silicate more than the inner part. There is better crystallization and larger alite crystal size in the outer part than in the inner part. The alite crystal size varied between 16.2 -46.12 μ m. The clinker chemical composition was found to affect the residual >45 μ m, where a higher belite content causes an increase in the residual >45 μ m in the the cement product and will cause a decrease in the concrete strength of the cement product. The aluminate and ferrite crystals and the microcracks within the alite crystal are clear in some clinker only. The quality of the raw material preparation, burning and cooling stages can be controlled using the microstructure of the clinker product

  14. Semáforo de habilidad digital para estudiantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Organista Sandoval

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El vertiginoso cambio tecnológico y el creciente uso de dispositivos portátiles en el entorno educativo universitario han propiciado una carga importante de mediación tecnológica del proceso educativo. Ante este contexto, el reto es lograr que los estudiantes aprovechen el potencial pedagógico que ofrecen estas herramientas. Para ello, el estudiante debe contar con las habilidades digitales para utilizar eficientemente las tecnologías digitales. Se parte de la identificación de las habilidades en torno al manejo de comunicación, información, organización y dispositivos con una orientación educativa. Los resultados mostraron que 68% de los estudiantes tienen un nivel aceptable de habilidad digital, 25% regular y un 7% insuficiente. El instrumento utilizado identifica las habilidades digitales que requieren mejorarse y se muestran mediante una señalización similar a la de un semáforo. En la medida en que se identifiquen las habilidades digitales que se requieran mejorar, se espera que la comunidad académica se apropie y aplique la tecnología digital en la educación, de cara a los desafíos de la formación de recursos humanos que la sociedad actual demanda.

  15. stainless steel by SEM-XRD and image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Constanzo-R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un análisis cualitativ o de la distribución de un electrodepósito de cobre en el inter ior de electrodos porosos (EP de acero inoxidable y carbono grafito. Para ello, se reali zaron pruebas de electrodepositación de cobre a nivel de labora torio, con un posterior análisis de cortes de muestras de acero y grafito vía Microscopía Estereoscópica, Microscopía SEM-DRX y Análisis de Imagen, los cuales mostraron que el cobre no se deposita en forma uniforme al interior del electrodo. En el electrodo de acero, la penetra ción del depósito en el espesor fue alrededor de 50%, mientras que para el grafito a lrededor de 90%. En forma general, se observó un aumento de la cantidad de depósito hacia el extremo frente al ánodo y con sitios de difer ente crecimiento en depósito de cobre. Esto demuestra una distr ibución de corriente y potencial, función de parámetros físicos de electrodo y de la s características fisicoquímicas e hidrodinámicos del electroli to.

  16. SEM Based CARMA Time Series Modeling for Arbitrary N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Johan H L; Voelkle, Manuel C; Driver, Charles C

    2018-01-01

    This article explains in detail the state space specification and estimation of first and higher-order autoregressive moving-average models in continuous time (CARMA) in an extended structural equation modeling (SEM) context for N = 1 as well as N > 1. To illustrate the approach, simulations will be presented in which a single panel model (T = 41 time points) is estimated for a sample of N = 1,000 individuals as well as for samples of N = 100 and N = 50 individuals, followed by estimating 100 separate models for each of the one-hundred N = 1 cases in the N = 100 sample. Furthermore, we will demonstrate how to test the difference between the full panel model and each N = 1 model by means of a subject-group-reproducibility test. Finally, the proposed analyses will be applied in an empirical example, in which the relationships between mood at work and mood at home are studied in a sample of N = 55 women. All analyses are carried out by ctsem, an R-package for continuous time modeling, interfacing to OpenMx.

  17. Automated SEM Modal Analysis Applied to the Diogenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. E.; Spilde, M. N.; Papike, James J.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of volume proportions of minerals, or modal analysis, is routinely accomplished by point counting on an optical microscope, but the process, particularly on brecciated samples such as the diogenite meteorites, is tedious and prone to error by misidentification of very small fragments, which may make up a significant volume of the sample. Precise volume percentage data can be gathered on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizing digital imaging and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). This form of automated phase analysis reduces error, and at the same time provides more information than could be gathered using simple point counting alone, such as particle morphology statistics and chemical analyses. We have previously studied major, minor, and trace-element chemistry of orthopyroxene from a suite of diogenites. This abstract describes the method applied to determine the modes on this same suite of meteorites and the results of that research. The modal abundances thus determined add additional information on the petrogenesis of the diogenites. In addition, low-abundance phases such as spinels were located for further analysis by this method.

  18. O infarto e a ruptura com o cotidiano: possível atuação da enfermagem na prevenção El infarto y la ruptura con el cotidiano: una posible actuación de la enfermería en la prevención Acute myocardial infarction and the break with everyday life: possibility of preventive nursing action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carneiro Mussi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma proposta de atuação da Enfermagem na prevenção do infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM, com base em pesquisa desenvolvida para tese de doutorado que investigou a experiência de conforto na perspectiva de pacientes, recorrendo ao Interacionismo Simbólico e à metodologia da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados. Entrevistas com 13 homens que sofreram IAM, realizadas em dois hospitais paulistas, permitiram captar as situações por eles definidas como de conforto ou desconforto. Este texto focaliza a primeira fase da experiência vivenciada por homens infartados, na qual o principal desconforto é a ruptura com o cotidiano, provocada pelo aparecimento de sintomas ou pela irrupção do infarto, examinando as possibilidades de intervenção da enfermagem na prevenção primária e secundária.Este artículo presenta una propuesta de actuación de la enfermera en la prevención del infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM, con base en una investigación desarrollada para una tesis de doctorado, con el objetivo de conocer la experiencia de conforto en la perspectiva de pacientes, acudiendo al Interaccionismo Simbólico y a la metodología de la Teoría Fundamentada en los datos. En dos hospitales paulistas, fueron realizadas 13 entrevistas con individuos del sexo masculino que sufrieron IAM. Fue posible captar las situaciones definidas por ellos como de conforto o de desconforto. Este texto enfoca la primera fase de la experiencia vivenciada por hombres infartados, donde el principal desconforto es la ruptura con el cotidiano provocada por el aparecimiento de síntomas o por la irrupción del infarto, examinando las posibilidades de intervención de la enfermera en la prevención primaria y secundaria.This proposal for Nursing action to prevent acute myocardial infarction (AMI draws on a doctoral thesis research carried out to investigate the experience of comfort and discomfort in the patient's perspective, by means of the Symbolic

  19. Simulation of FIB-SEM images for analysis of porous microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prill, Torben; Schladitz, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Focused ion beam nanotomography-scanning electron microscopy tomography yields high-quality three-dimensional images of materials microstructures at the nanometer scale combining serial sectioning using a focused ion beam with SEM. However, FIB-SEM tomography of highly porous media leads to shine-through artifacts preventing automatic segmentation of the solid component. We simulate the SEM process in order to generate synthetic FIB-SEM image data for developing and validating segmentation methods. Monte-Carlo techniques yield accurate results, but are too slow for the simulation of FIB-SEM tomography requiring hundreds of SEM images for one dataset alone. Nevertheless, a quasi-analytic description of the specimen and various acceleration techniques, including a track compression algorithm and an acceleration for the simulation of secondary electrons, cut down the computing time by orders of magnitude, allowing for the first time to simulate FIB-SEM tomography. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. GAGG:ce single crystalline films: New perspective scintillators for electron detection in SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, Jan; Lalinský, Ondřej; Hanuš, Martin; Onderišinová, Zuzana; Kelar, Jakub; Kučera, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Single crystal scintillators are frequently used for electron detection in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We report gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG:Ce) single crystalline films as a new perspective scintillators for the SEM. For the first time, the epitaxial garnet films were used in a practical application: the GAGG:Ce scintillator was incorporated into a SEM scintillation electron detector and it showed improved image quality. In order to prove the GAGG:Ce quality accurately, the scintillation properties were examined using electron beam excitation and compared with frequently used scintillators in the SEM. The results demonstrate excellent emission efficiency of the GAGG:Ce single crystalline films together with their very fast scintillation decay useful for demanding SEM applications. - Highlights: • First practical application of epitaxial garnet films demonstrated in SEM. • Improved image quality of SEM equipped with GAGG:Ce single crystalline thin film scintillator. • Scintillation properties of GAGG:Ce films compared with standard bulk crystal scintillators.

  1. Prolongamentos na fala de adultos com e sem gagueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmila Bento da Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: realizar uma análise quantitativa e qualitativa dos prolongamentos de adultos com e sem gagueira. Métodos: os participantes foram divididos em: Grupo de Pesquisa (GP, 15 adultos com gagueira e Grupo Controle (GC, 15 fluentes. Os procedimentos utilizados foram: avaliação da fluência, Instrumento de Gravidade da Gagueira e análises quantitativa e qualitativa dos prolongamentos. Resultados: GP mostrou maior número de prolongamentos não hesitativos, enquanto que GC mostrou maior ocorrência de prolongamentos hesitativos em relação ao total das disfluências. Prolongamentos não hesitativos ocorreram com maior frequência na palavra inicial e monossilábica, bem como na posição medial da frase para GP. Em relação à tensão muscular e duração, observou-se diferença apenas para a tensão muscular nos prolongamentos não hesitativos com maior média de ocorrência para GP. Conclusão: os prolongamentos não hesitativos ocorreram com maior frequência no GP, nas palavras iniciais, monossílabos e na posição medial da frase. Qualitativamente a tensão muscular foi uma característica típica dos prolongamentos não hesitativos no GP. Com relação aos prolongamentos hesitativos houve semelhança entre os adultos dos dois grupos quanto à frequência em relação ao total da fala, a posição dos prolongamentos nas palavras e nas frases e nos aspectos qualitativos, relacionados a tensão muscular e duração.

  2. Loucura e diversidade cultural: inovação e ruptura nas experiências de arte e cultura da Reforma Psiquiátrica e do campo da Saúde Mental no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Amarante

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho busca refletir sobre as inovações produzidas pela Reforma Psiquiátrica para o governo da Saúde Mental no Brasil, especialmente por meio de um movimento artístico-cultural de construção de novas concepções sobre a loucura e o sofrimento mental. Desse modo, o artigo analisa as rupturas com o paradigma psiquiátrico que vêm sendo operadas a partir das experiências artístico-culturais brasileiras, por meio de inúmeros projetos de arte-cultura no campo da Saúde Mental, nos quais os atores do processo de reforma psiquiátrica vêm produzindo não só novas possibilidades de vida, expressão e inclusão social para os sujeitos em sofrimento mental, mas também a construção de um novo lugar social para a loucura. Finalmente, reflete-se sobre as mudanças no imaginário social no sentido da solidariedade, frente a permanências e resistências às mudanças e o surgimento de outras formas de exclusão e medicalização.

  3. CD-SEM real time bias correction using reference metrology based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukraintsev, V.; Banke, W.; Zagorodnev, G.; Archie, C.; Rana, N.; Pavlovsky, V.; Smirnov, V.; Briginas, I.; Katnani, A.; Vaid, A.

    2018-03-01

    Accuracy of patterning impacts yield, IC performance and technology time to market. Accuracy of patterning relies on optical proximity correction (OPC) models built using CD-SEM inputs and intra die critical dimension (CD) control based on CD-SEM. Sub-nanometer measurement uncertainty (MU) of CD-SEM is required for current technologies. Reported design and process related bias variation of CD-SEM is in the range of several nanometers. Reference metrology and numerical modeling are used to correct SEM. Both methods are slow to be used for real time bias correction. We report on real time CD-SEM bias correction using empirical models based on reference metrology (RM) data. Significant amount of currently untapped information (sidewall angle, corner rounding, etc.) is obtainable from SEM waveforms. Using additional RM information provided for specific technology (design rules, materials, processes) CD extraction algorithms can be pre-built and then used in real time for accurate CD extraction from regular CD-SEM images. The art and challenge of SEM modeling is in finding robust correlation between SEM waveform features and bias of CD-SEM as well as in minimizing RM inputs needed to create accurate (within the design and process space) model. The new approach was applied to improve CD-SEM accuracy of 45 nm GATE and 32 nm MET1 OPC 1D models. In both cases MU of the state of the art CD-SEM has been improved by 3x and reduced to a nanometer level. Similar approach can be applied to 2D (end of line, contours, etc.) and 3D (sidewall angle, corner rounding, etc.) cases.

  4. Perfil lipídico e efeitos da orientação nutricional em adolescentes com história familiar de doença arterial coronariana prematura Lipid profile and nutrition counseling effects in adolescents with family history of premature coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine A. Mendes

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar o perfil lipídico e parâmetros nutricionais de adolescentes com história familiar de doença arterial coronariana (DAC prematura e avaliar os efeitos da orientação nutricional. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 48 adolescentes de ambos os sexos e idades entre 10 e 19 anos (grupo caso, n=18; grupo controle, n=30. RESULTADOS: Os filhos de coronarianos jovens apresentaram valores mais elevados de colesterol total (189 ± 30 vs. 167 ± 26 mg/dl, pOBJECTIVE: To assess lipid profile and nutritional parameters from adolescents with family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD and assess the effects of nutritional counseling. METHODS: The study included 48 adolescents of both gender and with ages ranging from 10 and 19 years old (case group, n=18; control group, n=30. RESULTS: Offspring of young individuals with coronary artery disease showed higher values of total cholesterol (189 ± 30 vs. 167 ± 26 mg/dl, p < 0.01, LDL-C (144 ± 20 vs. 100 ± 27 mg/dl, p < 0.001 and apoB (80 ± 15 vs. 61 ± 18 mg/dl, p = 0.001 and lower values of HDL-C (45 ± 9 vs. 51 ± 13 mg/dl, p < 0.02 than control young individuals. Differences were not found for triglycerides and apoA-I. With a dietotherapeutic counseling, we obtained a reduction in alimentary consumption of saturated fatty acids (pre: 15.5 ± 4.7% vs. post: 6.6 ± 3.7%, p = 0.003 and an improvement in lipid profile: TC (-8%, p = 0.033, LDL-C (-18.2%, p = 0.001, TG (-53%, p = 0.002 rates in offspring of premature CAD patients who showed hyperlipidemia. CONCLUSION: The presence of dyslipidemia was more prevalent among offspring adolescents of premature CAD patients, but it was responsive to nutritional intervention.

  5. Deglutição com e sem comando verbal: achados videofluoroscópicos Swallowing with and without verbal commands: videofluoroscopy findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Araújo Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a deglutição de consistências e quantidades alimentares diferentes, com e sem comando verbal, por meio da videofluoroscopia da deglutição. MÉTODOS: Estudo quantitativo, transversal e observacional em 40 indivíduos sadios e sem queixas de deglutição, realizado no período de janeiro a março de 2010. A média de idade dos indivíduos foi de 23 anos e 5 meses (DP±2,5, com idade mínima de 20 anos e máxima de 30 anos, sendo 87,5% (35/40 do gênero feminino. Realizou-se avaliação videofluoroscópica da deglutição com ingestão de bário nas consistências líquida, líquido-pastosa, pastosa e sólida. Durante a administração da consistência líquida, realizaram-se duas provas de deglutição, uma com e outra sem comando verbal. Foram analisados o local do início da fase faríngea da deglutição em diferentes estruturas, a perda prematura do alimento, o aumento do tempo de trânsito oral, a presença de deglutições múltiplas, a presença de estase alimentar e a presença de penetração e/ou aspiração laríngea nas duas situações. RESULTADOS: O início da fase faríngea ocorreu na base da língua e valéculas para a maioria das consistências e quantidades, com exceção da líquida (5 ml cuja deglutição foi ativada em valéculas. Não houve influência do comando verbal para o local do início da fase faríngea da deglutição e presença de estase alimentar, entretanto o comando foi eficaz para a diminuição dos achados orofaríngeos. CONCLUSÃO: A fase faríngea da deglutição ocorreu em base de língua e valéculas. Houve influência do comando verbal na dinâmica da deglutição.Purpose: To characterize the swallowing process of different food consistencies and quantities, with and without verbal commands, through videofluoroscopy. METHODS: Quantitative cross-sectional, observational study held in the period between January and March 2010 with 40 healthy subjects with no apparent signs of

  6. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate rapidly remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107, and SEM2(49-107 seminal amyloid fibrils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Castellano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Semen harbors amyloid fibrils formed by proteolytic fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 and PAP85-120 and semenogelins (SEM1 and SEM2 that potently enhance HIV infectivity. Amyloid but not soluble forms of these peptides enhance HIV infection. Thus, agents that remodel these amyloid fibrils could prevent HIV transmission. Here, we confirm that the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, slowly remodels fibrils formed by PAP248-286 termed SEVI (semen derived enhancer of viral infection and also exerts a direct anti-viral effect. We elucidate for the first time that EGCG remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107, and SEM2(49-107 fibrils more rapidly than SEVI fibrils. We establish EGCG as the first small molecule that can remodel all four classes of seminal amyloid. The combined anti-amyloid and anti-viral properties of EGCG could have utility in preventing HIV transmission.

  7. A Proposal on the Quantitative Homogeneity Analysis Method of SEM Images for Material Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jung-Hoon; Cho, In-Hak; Park, Hwan Seo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a method to inspect the surface microstructure of materials. The SEM uses electron beams for imaging high magnifications of material surfaces; therefore, various chemical analyses can be performed from the SEM images. Therefore, it is widely used for the material inspection, chemical characteristic analysis, and biological analysis. For the nuclear criticality analysis field, it is an important parameter to check the homogeneity of the compound material for using it in the nuclear system. In our previous study, the SEM was tried to use for the homogeneity analysis of the materials. In this study, a quantitative homogeneity analysis method of SEM images is proposed for the material inspections. The method is based on the stochastic analysis method with the information of the grayscales of the SEM images.

  8. The Antiphagocytic Activity of SeM of Streptococcus equi Requires Capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, John F; Suther, Pranav; Velineni, Sridhar; Artiushin, Sergey C

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to phagocytosis is a crucial virulence property of Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi; Se), the cause of equine strangles. The contribution and interdependence of capsule and SeM to killing in equine blood and neutrophils were investigated in naturally occurring strains of Se. Strains CF32, SF463 were capsule and SeM positive, strains Lex90, Lex93 were capsule negative and SeM positive and strains Se19, Se1-8 were capsule positive and SeM deficient. Phagocytosis and killing of Se19, Se1-8, Lex90 and Lex93 in equine blood and by neutrophils suspended in serum were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) greater compared to CF32 and SF463. The results indicate capsule and SeM are both required for resistance to phagocytosis and killing and that the anti-phagocytic property of SeM is greatly reduced in the absence of capsule.

  9. A Proposal on the Quantitative Homogeneity Analysis Method of SEM Images for Material Inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Chang Ho; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Cho, In-Hak; Park, Hwan Seo

    2015-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a method to inspect the surface microstructure of materials. The SEM uses electron beams for imaging high magnifications of material surfaces; therefore, various chemical analyses can be performed from the SEM images. Therefore, it is widely used for the material inspection, chemical characteristic analysis, and biological analysis. For the nuclear criticality analysis field, it is an important parameter to check the homogeneity of the compound material for using it in the nuclear system. In our previous study, the SEM was tried to use for the homogeneity analysis of the materials. In this study, a quantitative homogeneity analysis method of SEM images is proposed for the material inspections. The method is based on the stochastic analysis method with the information of the grayscales of the SEM images

  10. Application of SEM and EDX in studying biomineralization in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Kirilak, Yaowanuj

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes protocols using formalin-acetic acid-alcohol (FAA) to fix plant tissues for studying biomineralization by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and qualitative energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). Specimen preparation protocols for SEM and EDX mainly include fixation, dehydration, critical point drying (CPD), mounting, and coating. Gold-coated specimens are used for SEM imaging, while gold- and carbon-coated specimens are prepared for qualitative X-ray microanalyses separately to obtain complementary information on the elemental compositions of biominerals. During the specimen preparation procedure for SEM, some biominerals may be dislodged or scattered, making it difficult to determine their accurate locations, and light microscopy is used to complement SEM studies. Specimen preparation protocols for light microscopy generally include fixation, dehydration, infiltration and embedding with resin, microtome sectioning, and staining. In addition, microwave processing methods are adopted here to speed up the specimen preparation process for both SEM and light microscopy.

  11. Comparison of SEM and VPSEM imaging techniques with respect to Streptococcus mutans biofilm topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kathryn; Delben, Juliana; Bromage, Timothy G; Duarte, Simone

    2014-01-01

    The study compared images of mature Streptococcus mutans biofilms captured at increasing magnification to determine which microscopy method is most acceptable for imaging the biofilm topography and the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). In vitro S. mutans biofilms were imaged using (1) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which requires a dehydration process; (2) SEM and ruthenium red (SEM-RR), which has been shown to support the EPS of biofilms during the SEM dehydration; and (3) variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM), which does not require the intensive dehydration process of SEM. The dehydration process and high chamber vacuum of both SEM techniques devastated the biofilm EPS, removed supporting structures, and caused cracking on the biofilm surface. The VPSEM offered the most comprehensive representation of the S. mutans biofilm morphology. VPSEM provides similar contrast and focus as the SEM, but the procedure is far less time-consuming, and the use of hazardous chemicals associated with SEM dehydration protocol is avoided with the VPSEM. The inaccurate representations of the biofilm EPS in SEM experimentation is a possible source of inaccurate data and impediments in the study of S. mutans biofilms. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Uso de antagonista de GnRH (cetrorelix em dose única para evitar ovulações prematuras em ciclos de fertilização assistida Single dose of GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix to avoid premature ovulation in assisted fertilization cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luís Rosan

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a eficácia de uma dose única subcutânea de acetato de cetrorelix em evitar a ovulação prematura em ciclos de fertilização assistida. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo, randomizado e controlado, pelo qual foram avaliados 20 ciclos de estimulação ovariana em mulheres submetidas a fertilização assistida, 10 das quais utilizaram o esquema tradicional de bloqueio hipofisário com análogos de GnRH em doses diárias (grupo controle e 10 utilizaram antagonista de GnRH em dose única de 3 mg no 7º dia de estimulação ovariana (grupo cetrorelix. Foram dosados FSH, LH, estradiol e progesterona no soro no primeiro e sétimo dia da estimulação, no dia da injeção de HCG e no dia da captação de oócitos. Os grupos foram comparados entre si quanto a eficácia do bloqueio hipofisário (nível de progesterona no dia da aplicação do HCG e desempenho nos ciclos de fertilização assistida (ampolas de gonadotrofinas utilizadas, folículos maiores que 18 mm, oócitos captados, taxas de fertilização, implantação e gravidez utilizando os testes de Mann-Whitney e exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos controle e cetrorelix, respectivamente, para a mediana da idade (31,5 e 34 anos, índice de massa corpórea (24 e 22, ampolas de gonadotrofinas utilizadas (34 e 32, folículos recrutados (3,5 e 3,0, oócitos captados (11 e 5, embriões obtidos (4 e 3, taxas de fertilização (93,7 e 60%, p = 0,07 e gravidez (50 e 60%, p = 0,7. Em ambos os grupos observou-se bloqueio hipofisário eficaz durante o período de estimulação ovariana. CONCLUSÕES: estes resultados confirmam a eficácia da dose única de 3 mg de acetato de cetrorelix em prevenir ovulações prematuras em pacientes submetidas a fertilização assistida, mostrando tendência a obtenção de menor número de embriões e menores taxas de fertilização no grupo cetrorelix em relação ao grupo controle. As taxas de implantação e

  13. ESTRATÉGIA PARA MODELAGEM NUMÉRICA DE SISTEMAS MISTOS CONSIDERANDO DIFERENTES MODELOS DE RUPTURA PARA OS MATERIAIS STRATEGY FOR NUMERIC MODELLING OF COMPOSITE SYSTEMS CONSIDERING DIFFERENT MODELS OF RUPTURE FOR THE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a estratégia utilizada na modelagem numérica de um corpo-de-prova misto de madeira e concreto, com sistema de conexão metálico, sob carregamento. A modelagem do sistema foi efetuada a partir de um modelo tridimensional, que utiliza o software ANSYS, versão 10.0, que tem como base o Método dos Elementos Finitos, onde foram considerados diferentes modelos de ruptura para os materiais unidos, além de elementos de contato nas interfaces dos mesmos. Os elementos finitos, assim como os materiais utilizados, foram escolhidos em função de suas representatividades perante os comportamentos a serem simulados, para que, dessa forma, fosse possível a consideração de efeitos importantes como plasticidade e ortotropia para os materiais. Os resultados obtidos a partir da modelagem proposta foram comparados com os resultados experimentais de ensaios de cisalhamento, realizados em corpos-de-prova mistos com carregamento aplicado até a ruptura e o erro obtido, neste caso, foi de até 15%. A finalidade deste trabalho é servir de base para a modelagem de sistemas estruturais, presentes em diversas áreas da engenharia, dentre elas, mecânica e civil, onde são utilizados materiais com diferentes comportamentos estruturais. A modelagem proposta possibilita a análise global do modelo assim como a análise dos aspectos localizados de interesse como a concentração de tensões, efeito de difícil quantificação em uma análise experimental.This paper shows the strategy used in the numeric modeling of a composite specimen of wood and concrete, with metallic connection system, with applied cyclical load. The modeling of the system was made starting from a three-dimensional model, using the software ANSYS, version 10.0, that has as base the Method of the Finite Elements, in which different rupture models were considered for the materials, besides contact elements in the interfaces of the materials. The finite elements, as well as the

  14. Ruptura da barreira hematoencefálica após injeção de droga gliotóxica no tronco encefálico de ratos wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondan Eduardo Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O brometo de etídio (BE determina desaparecimento astrocitário local, com ruptura da glia limitans e suposto dano na barreira hematoencefálica (BBB. Este estudo visou avaliar a integridade da BBB após injeção de solução de BE a 0,1% (grupo E ou de salina a 0,9% (grupo C na cisterna pontis de ratos Wistar. Fragmentos do tronco encefálico foram coletados das 24 horas aos 31 dias pós-injeção para estudo ultra-estrutural e marcação imuno-histoquímica para a GFAP. Alguns animais receberam carvão coloidal por via intravenosa nos mesmos períodos. Nos ratos do grupo C, não houve sinal de perda astrocitária, nem extravasamento vascular de carvão no sítio da injeção. No grupo E, o desaparecimento astrocitário começou às 48 horas e algumas áreas estavam ainda destituídas de processos astrocíticos 31 dias após. Extravasamento de partículas de carvão nas lesões foi visto de 48 horas até 7 dias, não sendo detectada qualquer alteração ultra-estrutural das junções oclusivas pela falta de astrócitos perivasculares.

  15. Ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial em um gato: reconstituição com fáscia lata Cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a cat: reconstitution with fascia lata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Fernanda Villamayor Garcia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Em gatos, a ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial (RLCC trata-se de diagnóstico raro e a correção cirúrgica propicia o retorno mais rápido à função do membro. Foi atendida, no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, uma gata apresentando claudicação aguda e dor à palpação do joelho direito. O diagnóstico de RLCC foi realizado através dos testes de compressão tibial e gaveta cranial positivos e confirmado na cirurgia. Optou-se por realizar a reconstituição do ligamento com fáscia lata e, após achados clínicos pós-operatórios e em longo prazo concluiu-se que a técnica apresentou resultados satisfatórios neste caso.The cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR is rare diagnosis in cats and the surgical correction provides a faster return to limb function. A cat with acute lameness and pain on palpation of the right stifle was attended at the Veterinary Hospital of UFSM. The diagnosis of CCLR was performed by positive tibial compression test and positive cranial drawer sign and confirmed by surgery. We chose to perform the reconstruction of the ligament with fascia lata and after of the observe clinical postoperative and in the long-term it was concluded that the technique showed satisfactory results in this case.

  16. Los estudios de herencia cultural como una alternativa a la arqueología científica o a la patrimonialización de los dioses: del paradigma de la ruptura al de la continuidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Londoño

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas dos décadas varios arqueólogos han reflexionado sobre la problemática relación de la arqueología con la construcción de comunidades imaginadas nacionales. En estas reflexiones el balance ha señalado que la arqueología ha sido funcional a un proyecto nacionalista que ubicó la alteridad en una dimensión temporal distanciada del presente. En este sentido la se legitimó como una disciplina encargada de dar cuenta del pasado (ruptura. A pesar del peso que tiene esta imagen dentro del imaginario, cada vez más comunidades locales están reclamando, no sólo un papel más activo en esta maquinaria de representación  del pasado, sino controles más efectivos sobre los espacios donde se practica la arqueología. Estas peticiones han sido, en muchos casos, legitimadas por el reconocimiento sobre las maneras como el colonialismo impelió a las comunidades locales a desprenderse de prácticas rituales celebradas sobre espacios y objetos específicos (continuidad. Dentro de este escenario ha emergido un nuevo paradigma que busca no saber lo que  ocurrió en el pasado, sino los medios a través de los cuales se desplegaron dispositivos del olvido (efecto de  colonialismo. En este artículo se desea hablar de este campo que puede ser definido  como “estudios de herencia cultural”.

  17. QEM*SEM: a necessary tool in the metallurgical evaluation of ore bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creelman, R.A.; Gottlieb, P.; Sutherland, D.; Jackson, R.

    1989-01-01

    The QEM*SEM system for automated image analysis of mineral samples is described. Details of the equipment are given together with information on the methods of measurement. Finally some practical applications are described where QEM*SEM has been used for the solution of metallurgical problems. 14 refs., 1 fig

  18. Strategic Enrolment Management (SEM) in Self-Financed Higher Education of Hong Kong: Evaluation and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Peggy; Galbraith, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how the dimensions of strategic enrolment management (SEM) tie to the success metrics in the area of enrolment, retention and graduation from senior and programme management perspectives of a self-financed institution in Hong Kong. The literature on SEM has demonstrated that managing enrolment is a global…

  19. Shocked quartz in the SEM: Distinction between amorphous and healed PDFs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, M.F.; Pennock, G.M.; Drury, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Combined SEM techniques show that different CL signatures of PDFs are related to fresh and healed microstructures of PDFs and host quartz. This is confirmed by TEM results. A combination of SEM techniques can give the same type of information as TEM

  20. In-Situ tensile testing of propellants in SEM: influence of temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Benedetto, G.L.; Ramshorst, M.C.J.; Duvalois, W.; Hooijmeijer, P.; Heijden, A. van der

    2017-01-01

    A tensile module system placed within a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was utilized to conduct insitu tensile testing of propellant samples. The tensile module system allows for real-time in-situ SEM analysis of the samples to determine the failure mechanism of the propellant material under

  1. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama, E-mail: rkant@chemistry.du.ac.in

    2013-10-01

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  2. From patterns to causal understanding: Structural equation modeling (SEM) in soil ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Powell, Jeff R; Grace, James B.; Bowker, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    In this perspectives paper we highlight a heretofore underused statistical method in soil ecological research, structural equation modeling (SEM). SEM is commonly used in the general ecological literature to develop causal understanding from observational data, but has been more slowly adopted by soil ecologists. We provide some basic information on the many advantages and possibilities associated with using SEM and provide some examples of how SEM can be used by soil ecologists to shift focus from describing patterns to developing causal understanding and inspiring new types of experimental tests. SEM is a promising tool to aid the growth of soil ecology as a discipline, particularly by supporting research that is increasingly hypothesis-driven and interdisciplinary, thus shining light into the black box of interactions belowground.

  3. Two novel approaches to study arthropod anatomy by using dualbeam FIB/SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Andrea; Muzzi, Maurizio

    2018-03-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has always been the conventional method to study arthropod ultrastructure, while the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was mainly devoted to the examination of the external cuticular structures by secondary electrons. The new generation field emission SEMs are capable to generate images at sub-cellular level, comparable to TEM images employing backscattered electrons. The potential of this kind of acquisition becomes very powerful in the dual beam FIB/SEM where the SEM column is combined with a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) column. FIB uses ions as a nano-scalpel to slice samples fixed and embedded in resin, replacing traditional ultramicrotomy. We here present two novel methods, which optimize the use of FIB/SEM for studying arthropod anatomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama

    2013-01-01

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  5. GAGG:ce single crystalline films: New perspective scintillators for electron detection in SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Lalinský, Ondřej; Hanuš, Martin; Onderišinová, Zuzana; Kelar, Jakub; Kučera, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Single crystal scintillators are frequently used for electron detection in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We report gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG:Ce) single crystalline films as a new perspective scintillators for the SEM. For the first time, the epitaxial garnet films were used in a practical application: the GAGG:Ce scintillator was incorporated into a SEM scintillation electron detector and it showed improved image quality. In order to prove the GAGG:Ce quality accurately, the scintillation properties were examined using electron beam excitation and compared with frequently used scintillators in the SEM. The results demonstrate excellent emission efficiency of the GAGG:Ce single crystalline films together with their very fast scintillation decay useful for demanding SEM applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Falha prematura em implantes orais = Early oral implant failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadanelli, Alexandro Bianchi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, ainda há uma percentagem significativa de fracassos de implantes na prática clínica, causando transtorno para o profissional e para o paciente. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a bibliografia disponível sobre o assunto, apresentar um caso clínico e discutir os aspectos relacionados aos insucessos na terapia com implantes ocorridos durante o período de osteointegração. A avaliação da literatura mostrou haverem múltiplos fatores possivelmente envolvidos nas falhas de implantes, sendo que através do estudo das falhas pode-se minimizar sua ocorrência

  7. Tillandsia stricta Sol (Bromeliaceae) leaves as monitors of airborne particulate matter-A comparative SEM methods evaluation: Unveiling an accurate and odd HP-SEM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Martha Lima; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Miguens, Flávio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure. Hydrated specimen observation by ESEM was the best way to get information from T. stricta leaves. If any artifacts were introduced by AD/FA, they were indiscernible from those caused by CPD. Leaf anatomy was always well preserved. PM density was determined on adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis for each of the SEM proceedings. When compared with ESEM, particle extraction varied from 0 to 20% in air-dried leaves while 23-78% of particles deposited on leaves surfaces were extracted by CPD procedures. ESEM was obviously the best choice over other methods but morphological artifacts increased in function of operation time while HPSEM operation time was without limit. AD/FA avoided the shrinkage observed in the air-dried leaves and particle extraction was low when compared with CPD. Structural and particle density results suggest AD/FA as an important methodological approach to air pollution biomonitoring that can be widely used in all electron microscopy labs. Otherwise, previous PM assessments using terrestrial plants as biomonitors and performed by conventional SEM could have underestimated airborne particulate matter concentration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Characterisation of nanoparticles by means of high-resolution SEM/EDS in transmission mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodoroaba, V-D; Rades, S; Mielke, J; Ortel, E; Salge, T; Schmidt, R

    2016-01-01

    Advances in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enable the high-resolution imaging of single nanoparticles (NPs) with sizes well below 10 nm. The SEM analysis in transmission mode (T-SEM) of NPs on thin film supports has many benefits when compared to the analysis of NPs on bulk substrates. The enhanced material (mass - thickness) contrast of the T-SEM imaging mode is well suited for in-depth and, particularly valuable, to very accurate, traceable, lateral dimensional measurements of NPs. Compared to samples prepared on bulk substrates, T-SEM with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) achieves a drastically improved spatial resolution of the emitted X-rays. The poor signal-to-noise ratio of the X-ray spectra emitted by a single nanoparticle (NP) can be improved by the use of high-sensitivity (high collection solid angle) silicon drift (SDD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS). The EDS spectral imaging of a single NP with a spatial resolution below 10 nm has become possible. This is demonstrated by means of various examples of nanostructures. Advanced data processing of T-SEM/EDS results sets the stage for the automated classification of NPs by feature analysis. This method combines the detection of morphological structures of interest by image processing of T-SEM micrographs with the chemical classification by EDS. (paper)

  9. Inter-operator and inter-device agreement and reliability of the SEM Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenin, Marta; Jaradeh, Kindah; Shamirian, Anasheh; Rhodes, Shannon L

    2015-02-01

    The SEM Scanner is a medical device designed for use by healthcare providers as part of pressure ulcer prevention programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inter-rater and inter-device agreement and reliability of the SEM Scanner. Thirty-one (31) volunteers free of pressure ulcers or broken skin at the sternum, sacrum, and heels were assessed with the SEM Scanner. Each of three operators utilized each of three devices to collect readings from four anatomical sites (sternum, sacrum, left and right heels) on each subject for a total of 108 readings per subject collected over approximately 30 min. For each combination of operator-device-anatomical site, three SEM readings were collected. Inter-operator and inter-device agreement and reliability were estimated. Over the course of this study, more than 3000 SEM Scanner readings were collected. Agreement between operators was good with mean differences ranging from -0.01 to 0.11. Inter-operator and inter-device reliability exceeded 0.80 at all anatomical sites assessed. The results of this study demonstrate the high reliability and good agreement of the SEM Scanner across different operators and different devices. Given the limitations of current methods to prevent and detect pressure ulcers, the SEM Scanner shows promise as an objective, reliable tool for assessing the presence or absence of pressure-induced tissue damage such as pressure ulcers. Copyright © 2015 Bruin Biometrics, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. A brief discussion about image quality and SEM methods for quantitative fractography of polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L R O; Campos, K A; Caltabiano, P C R O; Kostov, K G

    2013-01-01

    The methodology for fracture analysis of polymeric composites with scanning electron microscopes (SEM) is still under discussion. Many authors prefer to use sputter coating with a conductive material instead of applying low-voltage (LV) or variable-pressure (VP) methods, which preserves the original surfaces. The present work examines the effects of sputter coating with 25 nm of gold on the topography of carbon-epoxy composites fracture surfaces, using an atomic force microscope. Also, the influence of SEM imaging parameters on fractal measurements is evaluated for the VP-SEM and LV-SEM methods. It was observed that topographic measurements were not significantly affected by the gold coating at tested scale. Moreover, changes on SEM setup leads to nonlinear outcome on texture parameters, such as fractal dimension and entropy values. For VP-SEM or LV-SEM, fractal dimension and entropy values did not present any evident relation with image quality parameters, but the resolution must be optimized with imaging setup, accompanied by charge neutralization. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Three-Dimensional (3D) Nanometrology Based on Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Stereophotogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondare, Vipin N; Villarrubia, John S; Vlada R, András E

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of a sample surface from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images taken at two perspectives has been known for decades. Nowadays, there exist several commercially available stereophotogrammetry software packages. For testing these software packages, in this study we used Monte Carlo simulated SEM images of virtual samples. A virtual sample is a model in a computer, and its true dimensions are known exactly, which is impossible for real SEM samples due to measurement uncertainty. The simulated SEM images can be used for algorithm testing, development, and validation. We tested two stereophotogrammetry software packages and compared their reconstructed 3D models with the known geometry of the virtual samples used to create the simulated SEM images. Both packages performed relatively well with simulated SEM images of a sample with a rough surface. However, in a sample containing nearly uniform and therefore low-contrast zones, the height reconstruction error was ≈46%. The present stereophotogrammetry software packages need further improvement before they can be used reliably with SEM images with uniform zones.

  12. Sobre la estructura semántica de las palabras autosemánticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Ascencio Bernardo

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A partir de los conceptos de semema o estructura semémica y de los conceptos tradicionales de afijos y los accidentes gramaticales se plantea una supuesta estructura semántica profunda de la palabra, análoga a la de la oración en el modelo de la gramática de casos. Con base en este supuesto se reinterpretan algunas funciones semánticas de los afijos (particularmente de los sufijos, entre otras, como formas de la expresión de la modalidad léxica; se plantea una correlación entre rasgos semánticos específicos y las relaciones semánticas de caso. Por último se deducen algunas consideraciones pertinentes y se demuestra un isomorfismo entre la estructura profunda de la oración y la supuesta estructura semántica profunda de las palabras auto  semánticas.

  13. Diversity of seM in Streptococcus equi subsp. equi isolated from strangles outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardoni, Felipe; Vielmo, Andréia; Farias, Luana; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Pötter, Luciana; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2013-03-23

    Strangles is the main upper respiratory tract disease of horses. There are currently no studies on the changes in alleles of the M protein gene (seM) in Brazilian isolates of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (S. equi). This study aimed to analyze and differentiate molecularly S. equi isolates from equine clinical specimens from southern Brazil, between 1994 and 2010. seM alleles were analyzed in 47 isolates of S. equi obtained from clinical cases of strangles (15 Thoroughbred horses, 29 Crioulo breed horses and three Brasileiro de Hipismo--BH). seM alleles characterization was performed by comparing variable region sequences of the seM gene. The alleles were also phylogenetically grouped by Neighbor-joining analysis, which demonstrated the geographic distribution of those in properties from southern Brazil. Fifteen alleles of the gene seM were found among the 47 S. equi isolates analyzed. Among these, only one allele (seM-61), which was identified in seven isolates (14.9%), was found in the database PubMLST-seM. Within the new alleles, allele seM-115 was the most prevalent, having been found in 13 isolates (27.7%), followed by allele seM-117 in 10 isolates (21.3%). In the Brazilian horse population studied, there is greater diversity of M protein alleles in S. equi isolates compared to worldwide data deposited in PubMLST-seM. Among the 15 seM alleles identified, only one allele sequence was previously published. The alleles identification is important to control the disease by guiding selection of strains for the manufacture of commercial and autogenous vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of Focused Ion Beam technique for high speed steel 3D-SEM artefact fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; MacDonald, A. Nicole; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    The work describes preliminary manufacture by grinding, followed by machining on a Focused Ion Beam (FIB), of a high speed steel step artefact for 3D-SEM calibration. The FIB is coupled with a SEM in the so called dual beam instrument. The milling capabilities of FIB were checked from a qualitative...... point of view, using the dual beam SEM imaging, and quantitatively using a reference stylus instrument, to establish traceability. A triangular section having a depth of about 10 μm was machined, where the 50 μm curvature radius due to grinding was reduced to about 2 μm by FIB milling...

  15. The SEM description of interaction of a transient electromagnetic wave with an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, L. W.; Wilton, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    The singularity expansion method (SEM), proposed as a means for determining and representing the transient surface current density induced on a scatterer by a transient electromagnetic wave is described. The resulting mathematical description of the transient surface current on the object is discussed. The data required to represent the electromagnetic scattering properties of a given object are examined. Experimental methods which were developed for the determination of the SEM description are discussed. The feasibility of characterizing the surface current induced on aircraft flying in proximity to a lightning stroke by way of SEM is examined.

  16. Um corpo na dança contemporânea brasileira: percurso de rupturas e afirmações / A body in Brazilian contemporary dance: path of breaks and affirmations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Vilela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto faz parte de uma pesquisa de doutorado realizada no Laborarte/ UNICAMP, com foco central na história de vida artística de Denise Stutz, bailarina brasileira, e seu percurso de atuação desde a década de 1970 até os dias atuais. O recorte aqui refere-se ao seu período de questionamento com a dança e sua experiência no campo teatral e da performance, em um momento de ruptura estética e existencial. Esta pesquisa alia voz e corpo em seus aspectos sensíveis, adotando como procedimento metodológico na pesquisa qualitativa, a transcriação de suas narrativas orais e as análises de movimento integradas às análises de espetáculo das narrativas cênicas de obras de referência na trajetória da bailarina. Costurando as reflexões estéticas vividas e encenadas podemos constatar a potência da arte da dança como modo de percepção, transformação e criação de si mesmo, e desta dança como discurso pronunciado pelo corpo-sujeito no mundo e para o mundo circundante.This paper is part of a doctorate research made at Laborarte/UNICAMP from which the main focus is the story of artistic life of Denise Stutz, Brazilian dancer, and her way of acting since the 1970 until today. The specific aproach of this work refers to the period of questioning the dance and her experience in drama and performance, in a moment of esthetical and existential crisis. This research puts together voice and body in their sensitive aspects adopting as a methodological procedure in the qualitative research, the transcriation of her oral narratives and the movement analysis integrated to the analysis of the spectacle of reference works in the way of the dancer. Sewing aesthetic reflections experienced and played we may confirm the power of the art of dancing as a way of perception, transformation and creation of oneself, and this dance as a language of the body-subject pronounced in the world and for the world around.

  17. In-line CD metrology with combined use of scatterometry and CD-SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masafumi; Ikeda, Takahiro; Koike, Toru; Abe, Hideaki

    2006-03-01

    Measurement characteristics in scatterometry and CD-SEM for lot acceptance sampling of inline critical dimension (CD) metrology were investigated by using a statistical approach with Monte Carlo simulation. By operation characteristics curve analysis, producer's risk and consumer's risk arising from sampling were clarified. Single use of scatterometry involves a higher risk, such risk being particularly acute in the case of large intra-chip CD variation because it is unable to sufficiently monitor intra-chip CD variation including local CD error. Substituting scatterometry for conventional SEM metrology is accompanied with risks, resulting in the increase of unnecessary cost. The combined use of scatterometry and SEM metrology in which the sampling plan for SEM is controlled by scatterometry is a promising metrology from the viewpoint of the suppression of risks and cost. This is due to the effect that CD errors existing in the distribution tails are efficiently caught.

  18. Mathematical model of the seismic electromagnetic signals (SEMS) in non crystalline substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, L. C. C.; Yahya, N.; Daud, H.; Shafie, A. [Electromagnetic cluster, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    The mathematical model of seismic electromagnetic waves in non crystalline substances is developed and the solutions are discussed to show the possibility of improving the electromagnetic waves especially the electric field. The shear stress of the medium in fourth order tensor gives the equation of motion. Analytic methods are selected for the solutions written in Hansen vector form. From the simulated SEMS, the frequency of seismic waves has significant effects to the SEMS propagating characteristics. EM waves transform into SEMS or energized seismic waves. Traveling distance increases once the frequency of the seismic waves increases from 100% to 1000%. SEMS with greater seismic frequency will give seismic alike waves but greater energy is embedded by EM waves and hence further distance the waves travel.

  19. SEM-668-G2(日东科技)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    SEM-668-G2比SEM-668在视觉技术上更加精湛,采用美国AGILENT(安提伦)LASER 5519A及HP的双重频率技术,加强运动;隹确性。在智能化印刷头上,SEM-668-G2印刷质量更加均匀、稳定,操作界面更加简易、更加人性化。在综合性能上更加卓越,保证实现现代化的生产效率。产品体具性能如下:SEM-668-G2视觉全自动印刷机

  20. Mathematical model of the seismic electromagnetic signals (SEMS) in non crystalline substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, L. C. C.; Yahya, N.; Daud, H.; Shafie, A.

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical model of seismic electromagnetic waves in non crystalline substances is developed and the solutions are discussed to show the possibility of improving the electromagnetic waves especially the electric field. The shear stress of the medium in fourth order tensor gives the equation of motion. Analytic methods are selected for the solutions written in Hansen vector form. From the simulated SEMS, the frequency of seismic waves has significant effects to the SEMS propagating characteristics. EM waves transform into SEMS or energized seismic waves. Traveling distance increases once the frequency of the seismic waves increases from 100% to 1000%. SEMS with greater seismic frequency will give seismic alike waves but greater energy is embedded by EM waves and hence further distance the waves travel.

  1. Assessment of Paint Layers by FE-SEM and EDS Examination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, Donovan

    2004-01-01

    .... The approach was to remove free-film samples from each panel, fracture the films, and then examine at high magnification the cross sections using a field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM...

  2. Corrigendum to: Bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses in SEM using Mplus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, R.; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hoijtink, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper corrects: van de Schoot, R., Verhoeven, M., & Hoijtink, H. (2013). Bayesian evaluation ofinformative hypotheses in SEM using Mplus: A black bear story. EuropeanJournal of Developmental Psychology, 10, 81 –98.

  3. Automated CD-SEM recipe creation technology for mass production using CAD data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Toshikazu; Yoshida, Masamichi; Tanaka, Masashi; Ido, Sanyu; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Naokaka; Abe, Yuichi; Nagatomo, Wataru

    2011-03-01

    Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope (CD-SEM) recipe creation needs sample preparation necessary for matching pattern registration, and recipe creation on CD-SEM using the sample, which hinders the reduction in test production cost and time in semiconductor manufacturing factories. From the perspective of cost reduction and improvement of the test production efficiency, automated CD-SEM recipe creation without the sample preparation and the manual operation has been important in the production lines. For the automated CD-SEM recipe creation, we have introduced RecipeDirector (RD) that enables the recipe creation by using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data and text data that includes measurement information. We have developed a system that automatically creates the CAD data and the text data necessary for the recipe creation on RD; and, for the elimination of the manual operation, we have enhanced RD so that all measurement information can be specified in the text data. As a result, we have established an automated CD-SEM recipe creation system without the sample preparation and the manual operation. For the introduction of the CD-SEM recipe creation system using RD to the production lines, the accuracy of the pattern matching was an issue. The shape of design templates for the matching created from the CAD data was different from that of SEM images in vision. Thus, a development of robust pattern matching algorithm that considers the shape difference was needed. The addition of image processing of the templates for the matching and shape processing of the CAD patterns in the lower layer has enabled the robust pattern matching. This paper describes the automated CD-SEM recipe creation technology for the production lines without the sample preparation and the manual operation using RD applied in Sony Semiconductor Kyusyu Corporation Kumamoto Technology Center (SCK Corporation Kumamoto TEC).

  4. Understanding the Online : Jewellery Retail Market : an integrated model to conduct SEM

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yihong

    2013-01-01

    Research into e-commerce is becoming more and more popular; however the jewellery industry is somewhat special. There are very few studies having adapted a strategic marketing perspective on the online jewellery retail market. This study suggested an integrated online marketing strategy which focuses on the search engine marketing (SEM) approach. A detailed procedure of conducting search engine marketing (SEM) is introduced. Through the method of online questionnaires, with the help of soc...

  5. Why semicarbazide (SEM) is not an appropriate marker for the usage of nitrofurazone on agricultural animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Richard H; Verzegnassi, Ludovica; Seefelder, Walburga; Racault, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive global database on semicarbazide (SEM) in foodstuffs and food ingredients is presented, with over 4000 data collected in foods such as seafood (crustaceans, fish powders), meat (beef, chicken powders), dairy products (e.g. raw milk, milk powders, whey, sweet buttermilk powder, caseinate, yoghurt, cheese), honey and other ingredients. The results provide evidence that the presence of SEM in certain dairy ingredients (whey, milk protein concentrates) is a by-product of chemical reactions taking place during the manufacturing process. Of the dairy ingredients tested (c. 2000 samples), 5.3% showed traces of SEM > 0.5 µg/kg. The highest incidence of SEM-positive samples in the dairy category were whey (powders, liquid) and milk protein concentrates (35% positive), with up to 13 µg/kg measured in a whey powder. Sweet buttermilk powder and caseinate followed, with 27% and 9.3% positives, respectively. SEM was not detected in raw milk, or in yoghurt or cheese. Of the crustacean products (shrimp and prawn powders) tested, 44% were positive for SEM, the highest value measured at 284 µg/kg. Fish powders revealed an unexpectedly high incidence of positive samples (25%); in this case, fraudulent addition of shellfish shells or carry-over during processing cannot be excluded. Overall, the data provide new insights into the occurrence of SEM (for dairy products and fish powders), substantially strengthening the arguments that SEM in certain food categories is not a conclusive marker of the use of the illegal antibiotic nitrofurazone.

  6. Information or resolution: Which is required from an SEM to study bulk inorganic materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Q

    2016-11-01

    Significant technological advances in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been achieved over the past years. Different SEMs can have significant differences in functionality and performance. This work presents the perspectives on selecting an SEM for research on bulk inorganic materials. Understanding materials demands quantitative composition and orientation information, and informative and interpretable images that reveal subtle differences in chemistry, orientation/structure, topography, and electronic structure. The capability to yield informative and interpretable images with high signal-to-noise ratios and spatial resolutions is an overall result of the SEM system as a whole, from the electron optical column to the detection system. The electron optical column determines probe performance. The roles of the detection system are to capture, filter or discriminate, and convert signal electrons to imaging information. The capability to control practical operating parameters including electron probe size and current, acceleration voltage or landing voltage, working distance, detector selection, and signal filtration is inherently determined by the SEM itself. As a platform for various accessories, e.g. an energy-dispersive spectrometer and an electron backscatter diffraction detector, the properties of the electron optical column, specimen chamber, and stage greatly affect the performance of accessories. Ease-of-use and ease-of-maintenance are of practical importance. It is practically important to select appropriate test specimens, design suitable imaging conditions, and analyze the specimen chamber geometry and dimensions to assess the overall functionality and performance of an SEM. For an SEM that is controlled/operated with a computer, the stable software and user-friendly interface significantly improve the usability of the SEM. SCANNING 38:864-879, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The relationship between cost estimates reliability and BIM adoption: SEM analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, N. A. A.; Idris, N. H.; Ramli, H.; Rooshdi, R. R. Raja Muhammad; Sahamir, S. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the usage of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach in analysing the effects of Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology adoption in improving the reliability of cost estimates. Based on the questionnaire survey results, SEM analysis using SPSS-AMOS application examined the relationships between BIM-improved information and cost estimates reliability factors, leading to BIM technology adoption. Six hypotheses were established prior to SEM analysis employing two types of SEM models, namely the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) model and full structural model. The SEM models were then validated through the assessment on their uni-dimensionality, validity, reliability, and fitness index, in line with the hypotheses tested. The final SEM model fit measures are: P-value=0.000, RMSEA=0.0790.90, TLI=0.956>0.90, NFI=0.935>0.90 and ChiSq/df=2.259; indicating that the overall index values achieved the required level of model fitness. The model supports all the hypotheses evaluated, confirming that all relationship exists amongst the constructs are positive and significant. Ultimately, the analysis verified that most of the respondents foresee better understanding of project input information through BIM visualization, its reliable database and coordinated data, in developing more reliable cost estimates. They also perceive to accelerate their cost estimating task through BIM adoption.

  8. Raman-in-SEM, a multimodal and multiscale analytical tool: performance for materials and expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Guillaume; Bourrat, Xavier; Maubec, Nicolas; Lahfid, Abdeltif

    2014-12-01

    The availability of Raman spectroscopy in a powerful analytical scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows morphological, elemental, chemical, physical and electronic analysis without moving the sample between instruments. This paper documents the metrological performance of the SEMSCA commercial Raman interface operated in a low vacuum SEM. It provides multiscale and multimodal analyses as Raman/EDS, Raman/cathodoluminescence or Raman/STEM (STEM: scanning transmission electron microscopy) as well as Raman spectroscopy on nanomaterials. Since Raman spectroscopy in a SEM can be influenced by several SEM-related phenomena, this paper firstly presents a comparison of this new tool with a conventional micro-Raman spectrometer. Then, some possible artefacts are documented, which are due to the impact of electron beam-induced contamination or cathodoluminescence contribution to the Raman spectra, especially with geological samples. These effects are easily overcome by changing or adapting the Raman spectrometer and the SEM settings and methodology. The deletion of the adverse effect of cathodoluminescence is solved by using a SEM beam shutter during Raman acquisition. In contrast, this interface provides the ability to record the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum of a phase. In a second part, this study highlights the interest and efficiency of the coupling in characterizing micrometric phases at the same point. This multimodal approach is illustrated with various issues encountered in geosciences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Feature evaluation of complex hysteresis smoothing and its practical applications to noisy SEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Oho, Eisaku

    2013-01-01

    Quality of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image is strongly influenced by noise. This is a fundamental drawback of the SEM instrument. Complex hysteresis smoothing (CHS) has been previously developed for noise removal of SEM images. This noise removal is performed by monitoring and processing properly the amplitude of the SEM signal. As it stands now, CHS may not be so utilized, though it has several advantages for SEM. For example, the resolution of image processed by CHS is basically equal to that of the original image. In order to find wide application of the CHS method in microscopy, the feature of CHS, which has not been so clarified until now is evaluated correctly. As the application of the result obtained by the feature evaluation, cursor width (CW), which is the sole processing parameter of CHS, is determined more properly using standard deviation of noise Nσ. In addition, disadvantage that CHS cannot remove the noise with excessively large amplitude is improved by a certain postprocessing. CHS is successfully applicable to SEM images with various noise amplitudes. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Performance of SEM scintillation detector evaluated by modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, the SEM detector is evaluated by the modulation transfer function (MTF) which expresses the detector's influence on the SEM image contrast. This is a novel approach, since the MTF was used previously to describe only the area imaging detectors, or whole imaging systems. The measurement technique and calculation of the MTF for the SEM detector are presented. In addition, the measurement and calculation of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of the spatial frequency for the SEM detector are described. In this technique, the time modulated e-beam is used in order to create well-defined input signal for the detector. The MTF and DQE measurements are demonstrated on the Everhart-Thornley scintillation detector. This detector was alternated using the YAG:Ce, YAP:Ce, and CRY18 single-crystal scintillators. The presented MTF and DQE characteristics show good imaging properties of the detectors with the YAP:Ce or CRY18 scintillator, especially for a specific type of the e-beam scan. The results demonstrate the great benefit of the description of SEM detectors using the MTF and DQE. In addition, point-by-point and continual-sweep e-beam scans in SEM were discussed and their influence on the image quality was revealed using the MTF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Ruptura y continuidad: la caída de «Mel» Zelaya en perspectiva comparada Continuity and rupture: the fall of ‹‹Mel›› Zelaya in a comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiv MARSTEINTREDET

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artículo analiza y compara la deposición del presidente de Honduras, Manuel Zelaya, con otras crisis presidenciales acontecidas en América Latina durante la tercera ola de democratización. El trabajo indaga sobre los procedimientos, causas y consecuencias en torno de esta caída presidencial con instrumentos de análisis previstos por la teoría de las rupturas presidenciales. La caída de Zelaya fue producto de una escalada de conflictos interinstitucionales, protagonizados por las elites civiles del país. En perspectiva comparada, el caso se distingue por la intervención de los militares como poder moderador a invitación de las instituciones civiles, la falta de movilización popular antes del golpe y la irrupción de una crisis internacional y conflictos callejeros después de que la caída presidencial tuviera lugar. El caso de Honduras contribuye a la teoría de las rupturas presidenciales al poner el acento en el papel de los militares y el estadio de desarrollo en que se encuentra el régimen político democrático al estallar la crisis.

    SEM Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Expectations of higher education leaders are high, varied, and numerous. Leaders are expected not only to be visionary, decisive, and articulate, but also to share information, purposes, commitments, and struggles. Effective leaders must know and understand their faculty and staff; insist on realism; set clear goals and priorities; follow through;…

  12. Energia total de ruptura: um teste biomecânico para avaliação de material biológico com propriedade viscoelástica não linear Total energy of rupture: a biomechanical test to evaluate non-linear viscoelastic biological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chung Wu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Apresentação do teste biomecânico Energia Total de Ruptura para o estudo da resistência intrínseca de material biológico com propriedade viscoelástica não-linear representado neste trabalho por segmento íntegro de cólon descendente de rato. Métodos: Implementação do teste biomecânico Energia Total de Ruptura e do Sistema de Aquisição e Análise de dados Biomecânicos - SABI 2.0. Para esse fim, foram utilizados conceitos físico-mecânicos, computacionais e biomecânicos e como corpos de teste, 15 espécimes de cólon descendente de ratos. Resultados: O teste biomecânico Energia Total de Ruptura permitiu o cálculo da energia total acumulada necessária para promover a ruptura dos corpos de prova durante os ensaios mecânicos. Por meio da automatização e gerenciamento da aquisição e análise dos dados capturados foi possível a geração de gráficos e relatórios descritivos e estatísticos. Conclusão: Fundamentado em conceitos físico-mecânicos, computacionais e biomecânicos, o teste Energia Total de Ruptura pôde proporcionar análise matemática do comportamento dos segmentos de cólon descendente de ratos durante os ensaios, demonstrando ser um possível método de medição da resistência intrínseca desse material biológico com propriedade viscoelástica não-linear.Purpose: Presentation of the Total Energy of Rupture biomechanical test to evaluate the intrinsic resistance of the rat’s left colon which presents a non-linear viscoelastic property. Methods: Implementation of Total Energy of Rupture test (ETR and the Biomechanical Data Acquisition and Analysis System (SABI 2.0 based on physic-mechanical, computational and biomechanical concepts. Fifteen specimens of Wistar adults rat’s left colon where considered for experiments. Results: Using the TER biomechanical test it was possible calculate the accumulated total energy necessary to promote the specimens rupture during the mechanical trial. It was

  13. The Effectiveness of Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Insertion in Treating Right-Sided Colonic Obstruction: A Comparison between SEMS and Decompression Tube Placement and an Investigation of the Safety and Difficulties of SEMS Insertion in Right Colons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintaro Moroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS is widely used to treat malignant colonic obstruction. However, most reports about SEMS insertion have concentrated on the left colon. This study aimed to (1 investigate the effectiveness of SEMS insertion compared with conventional decompression tube for right-sided colonic obstruction and (2 compare the safety and technical success of SEMS insertion between left- and right-sided colonic obstructions. Methods. The data from thirty-seven patients who underwent SEMS or conventional decompression tube placement for malignant colonic obstruction in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Technical and clinical success, complications, and technical difficulties were analyzed. We compared the results between SEMS insertion and decompression tube placement in right colons and the outcomes of SEMS insertion between right- and left-sided colonic obstructions. Results. For right colons, the clinical success rate of SEMS insertion (100% was significantly higher than that of decompression tube placement (55.9%. Concerning SEMS insertion, the technical difficulty and safety of SEMS insertion were similar between right- and left-sided colonic obstructions. Conclusion. SEMS insertion for right-sided colon is significantly more effective than conventional decompression tube placement, and this procedure was safer and less technically challenging than expected. SEMS insertion should be considered for treating right-sided malignant colonic obstruction.

  14. Recent improvement of a FIB-SEM serial-sectioning method for precise 3D image reconstruction - application of the orthogonally-arranged FIB-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toru

    2014-11-01

    IntroductionWe installed the first "orthogonally-arranged" FIB-SEM in 2011. The most characteristic point of this instrument is that the FIB and SEM columns are perpendicularly mounted; this is specially designed to obtain a serial-sectioning dataset more accurately and precisely with higher contrast and higher spatial resolution compare to other current FIB-SEMs [1]. Since the installation in 2011, we have developed the hardware and methodology of the serial-sectioning based on this orthogonal FIB-SEM. In order to develop this technique, we have widely opened this instrument to every researcher of all fields. In the presentation, I would like to introduce some of application results that are obtained by users of this instrument. The characteristic points of the orthogonal systemFigure 1 shows a difference between the standard and the orthogonal FIB-SEM systems: In the standard system, shown in Fig.1(a), optical axes of a FIB and a SEM crosses around 60deg., while in the orthogonal system (Fig.1(b)), they are perpendicular to each other. The standard arrangement (a) is certainly suitable for TEM lamellae preparation etc. because the FIB and the SEM can see the same position simultaneously. However, for a serial-sectioning, it is not to say the best arrangement. One of the reasons is that the sliced plane by the FIB is not perpendicular to the electron beam so that the background contrast is not uniform and observed plane is distorted. On the other hand, in case of the orthogonally-arranged system,(b), these problems are resolved. In addition, spatial resolution can keep high enough even in a low accelerating voltage (e.g. 500V) because a working distance is set very small, 2mm. From these special design, we can obtain the serial-sectioning dataset from rather wide area (∼100um) with high spatial resolution (Max. 2×2×2nm). As this system has many kinds of detectors: SE, ET, Backscatter Electron(Energy-selective), EDS, EBSD, STEM(BF&ADF), with Ar+ ion-gun and a

  15. A combined SEM, CV and EIS study of multi-layered porous ceramic reactors for flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Nygaard, Frederik Berg

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sintering temperature of 12-layered porous ceramic reactors (comprising 5 cells) was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The difference in microstructures of the reactors was evaluated by SEM...

  16. In-situ SEM microchip setup for electrochemical experiments with water based solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.; Købler, C.; Jensen, P.S.; Mølhave, K.

    2013-01-01

    Studying electrochemical (EC) processes with electron microscopes offers the possibility of achieving much higher resolution imaging of nanoscale processes in real time than with optical microscopes. We have developed a vacuum sealed liquid sample electrochemical cell with electron transparent windows, microelectrodes and an electrochemical reference electrode. The system, called the EC-SEM Cell, is used to study electrochemical reactions in liquid with a standard scanning electron microscope (SEM). The central component is a microfabricated chip with a thin (50 nm) Si-rich silicon nitride (SiNx) window with lithographically defined platinum microelectrodes. We show here the design principles of the EC-SEM system, its detailed construction and how it has been used to perform a range of EC experiments, two of which are presented here. It is shown that the EC-SEM Cell can survive extended in-situ EC experiments. Before the EC experiments we characterized the beam current being deposited in the liquid as this will affect the experiments. The first EC experiment shows the influence of the electron-beam (e-beam) on a nickel solution by inducing electroless nickel deposition on the window when increasing the current density from the e-beam. The second experiment shows electrolysis in EC-SEM Cell, induced by the built-in electrodes. - Highlights: • New in-situ SEM system for electrochemistry. • In-situ Beam current measurements through liquid. • In-situ SEM E-beam-induced electroless deposition of Ni. • In-situ electrolysis

  17. In-situ SEM microchip setup for electrochemical experiments with water based solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, E., E-mail: eric.jensen@nanotech.dtu.dk [DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, Building 345E, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); DTU CEN, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, Building 307, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Købler, C., E-mail: carsten.kobler@nanotech.dtu.dk [DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, Building 345E, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); DTU CEN, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, Building 307, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Jensen, P.S., E-mail: psj@kemi.dtu.dk [DTU Kemi, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 207, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Mølhave, K., E-mail: kristian.molhave@nanotech.dtu.dk [DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, Building 345E, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-06-15

    Studying electrochemical (EC) processes with electron microscopes offers the possibility of achieving much higher resolution imaging of nanoscale processes in real time than with optical microscopes. We have developed a vacuum sealed liquid sample electrochemical cell with electron transparent windows, microelectrodes and an electrochemical reference electrode. The system, called the EC-SEM Cell, is used to study electrochemical reactions in liquid with a standard scanning electron microscope (SEM). The central component is a microfabricated chip with a thin (50 nm) Si-rich silicon nitride (SiNx) window with lithographically defined platinum microelectrodes. We show here the design principles of the EC-SEM system, its detailed construction and how it has been used to perform a range of EC experiments, two of which are presented here. It is shown that the EC-SEM Cell can survive extended in-situ EC experiments. Before the EC experiments we characterized the beam current being deposited in the liquid as this will affect the experiments. The first EC experiment shows the influence of the electron-beam (e-beam) on a nickel solution by inducing electroless nickel deposition on the window when increasing the current density from the e-beam. The second experiment shows electrolysis in EC-SEM Cell, induced by the built-in electrodes. - Highlights: • New in-situ SEM system for electrochemistry. • In-situ Beam current measurements through liquid. • In-situ SEM E-beam-induced electroless deposition of Ni. • In-situ electrolysis.

  18. The importance of scanning electron microscopy (sem in taxonomy and morphology of Chironomidae (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kownacki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the value of scanning electron microscopy (SEM in the taxonomy and morphology of Chironomidae. This method has been relatively rarely used in Chironomidae studies. Our studies suggest that the SEM method provides a lot of new information. For example, the plastron plate of the thoracic horn of Macropelopia nebulosa (Meigen under light microscopy is visible as points, while under SEM we have found that it consists of a reticular structure with holes. By using SEM a more precise picture of the body structure of Chironomidae can be revealed. It allows researchers to explain inconsistencies in the existing descriptions of species. Another advantage of the SEM method is obtaining spatial images of the body and organs of Chironomidae. However, the SEM method also has some limitations. The main problem is dirt or debris (e.g. algae, mud, secretions, mucus, bacteria, etc., which often settles on the external surface of structures, especially those which are uneven or covered with hair. The dirt should be removed after collection of chironomid material because if left in place it can become chemically fixed to various surfaces. It unnecessarily remains at the surface and final microscopic images may contain artifacts that obscure chironomid structures being investigated. In this way many details of the surface are thus unreadable. The results reported here indicate that SEM examination helps us to identify new morphological features and details that will facilitate the identification of species of Chironomidae and may help to clarify the function of various parts of the body. Fast development of electron microscope technique allows us to learn more about structure of different organisms.

  19. Evaluation of depth of field in SEM images in terms of the information-passing capacity (IPC) and contrast gradient in SEM image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mitsugu; Ishitani, Tohru; Watanabe, Shunya; Nakagawa, Mine

    2004-01-01

    The depth of field (DoF) in scanning electron microscope (SEM) images has been determined by estimating the change of image sharpness or resolution near the exact focus position. The image sharpness or resolution along the optical axis is determined by calculating the information-passing capacity (IPC) of an optical system taking into account the effect of pixel size of the image. The change of image sharpness near the exact focus position is determined by measuring the slope gradient of the line profile in SEM images obtained at various focal positions of beam. The change of image sharpness along the optical axis determined by the IPC agrees well with those determined by the slope gradient of line profiles in SEM images when a Gaussian distribution having radius 0.86L p (L p : pixel size in image) at which the intensity has fallen to 1/e of the maximum is applied to the IPC calculation for each pixel intensity. The change of image sharpness near the exact focus position has also been compared with those determined by the CG (Contrast-to-Gradient) method. The CG method slightly underestimates the change of image sharpness compared with those determined by the IPC method

  1. Experimental investigation on 3D-SEM reconstructions of a wire gauge using stereo-pair technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; Genta, G.; Cantatore, Angela

    2011-01-01

    In this work an experimental investigation is addressed concerning 3D-SEM reconstructions obtained from the so-called stereo-pair technique. Three-dimensional topography of an object can be derived from two SEM images acquired from two different angles, through item rotation by means of the SEM...

  2. A Teoria dos Blocos Semânticos em revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Machado

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A Teoria dos Blocos Semânticos ocupa lugar significativo nos trabalhos mundiais em Semântica, Argumentação e Enunciação, dentre outros. Por isso sua pertinência para a Linguística reclama uma reflexão. O presente trabalho pretende refletir algumas reformulações na Teoria dos Blocos Semânticos nas últimas duas décadas, a saber: (a polifonia, (b bloco semântico, e (c quadrado argumentativo. Especificamente, trataremos das seguintes relações: (a’ da Teoria Polifônica da Enunciação à Teoria Argumentativa da Polifonia; (b’ do bloco semântico ao semi-bloco; e (c’ do quadrado argumentativo ao cubo argumentativo. A necessidade deste trabalho é duplamente justificada: (i devido à constante revisão teórica do arcabouço teórico deste saber, sobretudo na sua última década, característica de Marion Carel e de Oswald Ducrot; e (ii pela falta de tradução/circulação no Brasil de obras fundamentais no que tange à re-elaboração das noções chaves desta teoria.

  3. SEM-REV: A sea test site for Marine Energy Converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berhault, Christian; Le Crom, Izan; Le Bihan, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to a main funding of Region des Pays de la Loire, the sea test site SEM-REV has been developed by Ecole Centrale de Nantes since 2007 to test both Wave Energy Converters and Floating Wind Turbine in real sea conditions. The sea test site is equipped with a set of oceanographic sensors and with an electric cable of 8 MW, connected to the French grid. The project is located close to Le Croisic, Western coast of France. SEM-REV is one of the main test facilities operated by Ecole Centrale de Nantes to support MRE technologies development. After presenting the initial motivations of the SEM-REV development, the paper describes, in parts 1 and 2, the complete administrative and technical processes that were followed to reach SEM-REV commissioning in 2014. The third part is focused on the exploitation process, including technical and contractual specifications imposed to the MRE developers for installation, tests and decommissioning phases. Some words are given also on the R and D projects using the SEM-REV in-situ monitoring system: prediction of environmental conditions, bio-fooling, acoustic impact. Even if operational phase is not started, expected extensions of the tests site are listed. (authors)

  4. The use of SEM/EDS method in mineralogical analysis of ordinary chondritic meteorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Mirtič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersiveX-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS for determination of mineral phases according to their stoichiometry and assessment of mineral composition of ordinary chondritic meteorite. For the purposes of this study, H3 type ordinary chondritic meteorite Abbott was selected. SEM/EDS allows identification and characterisation of mineralphases, whose size is below the resolution of an optical microscope. Mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix were located in backscattered electron (BSE mode and were assessed from atomic proportions of constituent elements, obtained by the EDS analysis. SEM/EDS analyses of mineral phases showed that Abbott meteorite is characterised by Fe-rich (Fe, Ni-alloy kamacite, Fe-sulphide troilite or pyrrhotite, chromite, Mg-rich olivine, orthopyroxene bronzite or hypersthene, clinopyroxene Al-diopside, acid plagioclase oligoclase, accessory mineral chlorapatite and secondary minerals Fe-hydroxides (goethite or lepidocrocite. Results of semi-quantitative analyses confirmed that most of analysed mineralphases conform well to stoichiometric minerals with minor deviations of oxygen from stoichiometric proportions. Comparison between mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix was also performed, however it showed no significant differences in elemental composition.Differences in chemical composition between minerals in interstitial matrix and chondrules are sometimes too small to be discernedby the SEM/EDS, therefore knowledge of SEM/EDS capabilities is important for correct interpretation of chondrite formation.

  5. In Situ Characterization of Boehmite Particles in Water Using Liquid SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Juan; Arey, Bruce W; Yang, Li; Zhang, Fei; Komorek, Rachel; Chun, Jaehun; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2017-09-27

    In situ imaging and elemental analysis of boehmite (AlOOH) particles in water is realized using the System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). This paper describes the method and key steps in integrating the vacuum compatible SAVLI to SEM and obtaining secondary electron (SE) images of particles in liquid in high vacuum. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) is used to obtain elemental analysis of particles in liquid and control samples including deionized (DI) water only and an empty channel as well. Synthesized boehmite (AlOOH) particles suspended in liquid are used as a model in the liquid SEM illustration. The results demonstrate that the particles can be imaged in the SE mode with good resolution (i.e., 400 nm). The AlOOH EDX spectrum shows significant signal from the aluminum (Al) when compared with the DI water and the empty channel control. In situ liquid SEM is a powerful technique to study particles in liquid with many exciting applications. This procedure aims to provide technical know-how in order to conduct liquid SEM imaging and EDX analysis using SALVI and to reduce potential pitfalls when using this approach.

  6. New airtight transfer box for SEM experiments: Application to lithium and sodium metals observation and analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephant, Nicolas; Grissa, Rabeb; Guillou, Fanch; Bretaudeau, Mickaël; Borjon-Piron, Yann; Guillet, Jacques; Moreau, Philippe

    2018-04-18

    The surface of some materials reacts very quickly on contact with air, either because it is oxidized or because it gets humidity from the air. For the sake of original surface observation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we conceived an airtight transfer box to keep the samples under vacuum from the place of manufacturing to the SEM chamber. This object is designed to fit in all the models of SEM including those provided with an airlock chamber. The design is voluntarily simplified to allow the manufacturing of the object by a standard mechanical workshop. The transfer box can be easily opened by gravity inside the SEM and allows the preservation of the best vacuum inside, before opening. SEM images and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) analyses of metallic lithium and sodium samples are presented prior and after exposure to the air. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of all samples are also discussed in order to investigate the chemical environments of the detected elements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Orientation mapping by transmission-SEM with an on-axis detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundenberger, J.J.; Bouzy, E.; Goran, D.; Guyon, J.; Yuan, H.; Morawiec, A.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional orientation mapping in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a valuable technique for characterizing crystalline materials, but its application to ultrafine or nano-grain materials is limited by its spatial resolution. The resolution can be increased by collecting transmission diffraction patterns in SEM. In previous works, such patterns were collected using off-axis detectors in nearly vertical position. To avoid some drawbacks of such arrangement, a new configuration was devised in which the scintillator is located underneath the thin foil on the optical axis of the microscope, and the light is reflected towards the camera by a mirror. This simple configuration gives intense patterns even at very low probe currents, and can be potentially used for collecting maps of relatively high spatial resolution. Example maps reveal details with dimensions of about 5 nm. Because of its resolution and geometric simplicity, the proposed configuration will open new opportunities in SEM-based characterization of nanocrystalline materials. - Highlights: • New experimental configuration for SEM-based orientation mapping is presented. • The geometry of recording transmission Kikuchi patterns in SEM is simplified. • The new configuration allows for reaching relatively high spatial resolution.

  8. Surgery on spinal epidural metastases (SEM) in renal cell carcinoma: a plea for a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Nicolaas A; Coppes, Maarten H; Vergeer, Rob A; Kuijlen, Jos M A; Groen, Rob J M

    2014-09-01

    Prediction models for outcome of decompressive surgical resection of spinal epidural metastases (SEM) have in common that they have been developed for all types of SEM, irrespective of the type of primary tumor. It is our experience in clinical practice, however, that these models often fail to accurately predict outcome in the individual patient. To investigate whether decision making could be optimized by applying tumor-specific prediction models. For the proof of concept, we analyzed patients with SEM from renal cell carcinoma that we have operated on. Retrospective chart analysis 2006 to 2012. Twenty-one consecutive patients with symptomatic SEM of renal cell carcinoma. Predictive factors for survival. Next to established predictive factors for survival, we analyzed the predictive value of the Motzer criteria in these patients. The Motzer criteria comprise a specific and validated risk model for survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma. After multivariable analysis, only Motzer intermediate (hazard ratio [HR] 17.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.82-166, p=.01) and high risk (HR 39.3, 95% CI 3.10-499, p=.005) turned out to be significantly associated with survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma that we have operated on. In this study, we have demonstrated that decision making could have been optimized by implementing the Motzer criteria next to established prediction models. We, therefore, suggest that in future, in patients with SEM from renal cell carcinoma, the Motzer criteria are also taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Soft tissue digestion of Paradiplozoon vaalense for SEM of sclerites and simultaneous molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Q M; Avenant-Oldewage, A

    2015-02-01

    Classification of most monogeneans is primarily based on size, shape, and arrangement of haptoral sclerites. These structures are often obscured or misinterpreted when studied using light microscopy, leading to confusion regarding defining characters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has predominantly been used to study haptoral sclerites in smaller monogeneans, focusing on hooks and anchors. In the Diplozoidae, SEM has not been used to study haptoral sclerites. Using new and modified techniques, the sclerites of diplozoids collected in South Africa were successfully studied using SEM. The digestion buffer from a DNA extraction kit was used to digest the surrounding tissue, and Poly-L-lysine-coated and concavity slides were employed to limit the movement and loss of sclerites, with the latter being more user-friendly. In addition to the success of visualizing the sclerites using SEM, the digested tissue from as little as half of the haptor provided viable genetic material for molecular characterization. From the results presented here, the study of the sclerites of larger monogeneans using SEM, including those bearing clamps, is a viable possibility for future research. Also, this method may be beneficial for the study of other, non-haptoral sclerites, such as cirri in other families of monogeneans. During this study, Labeo capensis was noted as a valid host of Paradiplozoon vaalense in a region of the Vaal River where the type host, Labeo umbratus, appears to be absent.

  10. SEM/EDS and optical microscopy analyses of microplastics in ocean trawl and fish guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Wagner, Jeff; Ghosal, Sutapa; Bedi, Gagandeep; Wall, Stephen

    2017-12-15

    Microplastic particles from Atlantic and Pacific Ocean trawls, lab-fed fish guts and ocean fish guts have been characterized using optical microscopy and SEM/EDS in terms of size, morphology, and chemistry. We assessed whether these measurements could serve as a rapid screening process for subsequent identification of the likely microplastic candidates by micro-spectroscopy. Optical microscopy enabled morphological classification of the types of particles or fibers present in the sample, as well as the quantification of particle size ranges and fiber lengths. SEM/EDS analysis was used to rule out non-plastic particles and screen the prepared samples for potential microplastic, based on their element signatures and surface characteristics. Chlorinated plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) could be easily identified with SEM/EDS due to their unique elemental signatures including chlorine, as could mineral species that are falsely identified as plastics by optical microscopy. Particle morphology determined by optical microscopy and SEM suggests the fish ingested particles contained both degradation fragments from larger plastic pieces and also manufactured microplastics. SEM images of microplastic particle surfaces revealed characteristic cracks consistent with environmental exposure, as well as pigment particles consistent with manufactured materials. Most of the microplastic surfaces in the fish guts and ocean trawls were covered with biofilms, radiolarians, and crustaceans. Many of the fish stomachs contained micro-shell pieces which visually resembled microplastics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Minimal resin embedding of multicellular specimens for targeted FIB-SEM imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, Nicole L; Machado, Pedro; Markert, Sebastian M; Stigloher, Christian; Schwab, Yannick; Steyer, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is a powerful tool to perform ultrastructural analysis of targeted tissues or cells. The large field of view of the light microscope (LM) enables quick and efficient surveys of the whole specimen. It is also compatible with live imaging, giving access to functional assays. CLEM protocols take advantage of the features to efficiently retrace the position of targeted sites when switching from one modality to the other. They more often rely on anatomical cues that are visible both by light and electron microscopy. We present here a simple workflow where multicellular specimens are embedded in minimal amounts of resin, exposing their surface topology that can be imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). LM and SEM both benefit from a large field of view that can cover whole model organisms. As a result, targeting specific anatomic locations by focused ion beam-SEM (FIB-SEM) tomography becomes straightforward. We illustrate this application on three different model organisms, used in our laboratory: the zebrafish embryo Danio rerio, the marine worm Platynereis dumerilii, and the dauer larva of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we focus on the experimental steps to reduce the amount of resin covering the samples and to image the specimens inside an FIB-SEM. We expect this approach to have widespread applications for volume electron microscopy on multiple model organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Refinement of Monte Carlo simulations of electron-specimen interaction in low-voltage SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieft, Erik; Bosch, Eric

    2008-01-01

    A Monte Carlo tool is presented for the simulation of secondary electron (SE) emission in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool is based on the Geant4 platform of CERN. The modularity of this platform makes it comparatively easy to add and test individual physical models. Our aim has been to develop a flexible and generally applicable tool, while at the same time including a good description of low-energy (<50 eV) interactions of electrons with matter. To this end we have combined Mott cross-sections with phonon-scattering based cross-sections for the elastic scattering of electrons, and we have adopted a dielectric function theory approach for inelastic scattering and generation of SEs. A detailed model of the electromagnetic fields from an actual SEM column has been included in the tool for ray tracing of secondary and backscattered electrons. Our models have been validated against experimental results through comparison of the simulation results with experimental yields, SE spectra and SEM images. It is demonstrated that the resulting simulation package is capable of quantitatively predicting experimental SEM images and is an important tool in building a deeper understanding of SEM imaging.

  13. Speciation of uranium in minerals by Sem, Tem, μ-PIXE, XPS and XAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshihiko Ohnuki; Hiroshi Isobe; Tomihiro Kamiya; Takuro Sakai; Takashi Murakami

    2001-01-01

    Many kinds of electromagnetic waves and particle beams are used as analytical probes for the investigation of uranium-mineralogy and speciation. The representatives of the probes are SEM, TEM, μ-PIRE, XPS and XAFS. Each of these analytical probes has its own advantages and disadvantages. We have performed studies to compare the advantages and disadvantages on the basis of the analysis of the distribution and speciation of U containing rock samples collected at the Koongarra uranium deposit, Australia. The spatial resolutions of the probes are in the order of TEM>SEM, μ-PIXE>XFAS, XPS. The lower detection limits of the probes are in the order of μ-PIXE< TEM, SEM< XFAS, XPS. Oxidation state of U was determined by XFAS and XPS. These results indicate that combination of the above probes can give us sufficient data on U speciation not only in natural rock samples but in solid samples obtained in the laboratory. (authors)

  14. Carotene location in processed food samples measured by cryo In-SEM Raman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia; Schumm, Stephan; Pudney, Paul D A; Hazekamp, Johan

    2011-09-21

    Cryo In-SEM Raman has been used for the first time to localise carotene compounds in a food matrix. Raman spectra of lycopene and β-carotene have been obtained from sampling oil droplets and plant cell structures visualised with cryo-SEM in tomato and carrot based emulsions containing 5% oil. It was possible to identify the carotenoids in both the oil droplets and the cell walls. Furthermore our results gave some indication that the carotenoids were in the non-crystalline state. It has been suggested that a higher amount of carotenes solubilised into the oil phase of the food matrix would lead to a higher bioaccessibility, thus understanding the effect of processing conditions on micronutrients distribution in a food matrix might help the design of plant based food products with a better nutritional quality. This shows improved structural characterisation of the cryo-SEM with the molecular sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy as a promising approach for complex biological problems.

  15. The advancement of the built environment research through employment of structural equation modeling (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilah, S.; Fahmyddin, T.

    2018-03-01

    The employment of structural equation modeling (SEM) in research has taken an increasing attention in among researchers in built environment. There is a gap to understand the attributes, application, and importance of this approach in data analysis in built environment study. This paper intends to provide fundamental comprehension of SEM method in data analysis, unveiling attributes, employment and significance and bestow cases to assess associations amongst variables and constructs. The study uses some main literature to grasp the essence of SEM regarding with built environment research. The better acknowledgment of this analytical tool may assist the researcher in the built environment to analyze data under complex research questions and to test multivariate models in a single study.

  16. High resolution SEM characterization of nano-precipitates in ODS steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwik, Iwona; Strojny-Nędza, Agata; Chmielewski, Marcin; Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Kurpaska, Łukasz; Nosewicz, Szymon

    2018-05-01

    The performance of the present-day scanning electron microscopy (SEM) extends far beyond delivering electronic images of the surface topography. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel is on of the most promising materials for the future nuclear fusion reactor because of its good radiation resistance, and higher operation temperature up to 750°C. The microstructure of ODS should not exceed tens of nm, therefore there is a strong need in a fast and reliable technique for their characterization. In this work, the results of low-kV SEM characterization of nanoprecipitates formed in the ODS matrix are presented. Application of highly sensitive photo-diode BSE detector in SEM imaging allowed for the registration of single nm-sized precipitates in the vicinity of the ODS alloys. The composition of the precipitates has been confirmed by TEM-EDS. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Enhanced EDX images by fusion of multimodal SEM images using pansharpening techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, G; Angulo, J; Moreaud, M; Sorbier, L

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential interest of image fusion in the context of multimodal scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. In particular, we aim at merging the backscattered electron images that usually have a high spatial resolution but do not provide enough discriminative information to physically classify the nature of the sample, with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) images that have discriminative information but a lower spatial resolution. The produced images are named enhanced EDX. To achieve this goal, we have compared the results obtained with classical pansharpening techniques for image fusion with an original approach tailored for multimodal SEM fusion of information. Quantitative assessment is obtained by means of two SEM images and a simulated dataset produced by a software based on PENELOPE. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  18. Development of an Economical Interfacing Circuit for Upgrading of SEM Data Printing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnachaiya, S.; Thong-Aram, D.

    2002-01-01

    The operating conditions of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) i.e., magnification, accelerating voltage, micron mark and film identification labeling, are very important for the accurate interpretation of a micrograph picture. In the old model SEM, the built-in data printing system for film identification can be inputted only the numerical number. This will be made a confusing problems when various operating conditions were applied in routine work. An economical interfacing circuit, therefore, was developed to upgrade the data printing system for capable of alphanumerical labeling. The developed circuit was tested on both data printing systems of JSM-T220 and JSM-T330 (JEOL SEM). It was found that the interfacing function worked properly and easily installed

  19. Comparison of multilayered nanowire imaging by SEM and Helium Ion Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inkson, B J; Peng, Y; Jepson, M A E; Rodenburg, C; Liu, X

    2010-01-01

    The helium ion microscope (HeIM) is capable of probe sizes smaller than SEM and, with intrinsically small ion/sample interaction volumes, may therefore potentially offer higher spatial resolution secondary electron (SE) imaging of nanostructures. Here 55 nm diameter CoPt/Pt multilayered nanowires have been imaged by HeIM, SEM and TEM. It is found that there is an increased resolution of nanowire surface topography in HeIM SE images compared to SEM, however there is a reduction of materials contrast of the alternating Pt and CoPt layers. This can be attributed to the increased contribution of surface contamination layers to the ion-induced SE signal, and carbon is also observed to grow on the nanowires under prolonged HeIM scanning.

  20. Precise and economic FIB/SEM for CLEM: with 2 nm voxels through mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckner, Manja; Wanner, Gerhard

    2018-05-23

    A portfolio is presented documenting economic, high-resolution correlative focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) in routine, comprising: (i) the use of custom-labeled slides and coverslips, (ii) embedding of cells in thin, or ultra-thin resin layers for correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) and (iii) the claim to reach the highest resolution possible with FIB/SEM in xyz. Regions of interest (ROIs) defined in light microscope (LM), can be relocated quickly and precisely in SEM. As proof of principle, HeLa cells were investigated in 3D context at all stages of the cell cycle, documenting ultrastructural changes during mitosis: nuclear envelope breakdown and reassembly, Golgi degradation and reconstitution and the formation of the midzone and midbody.

  1. Encontros e desvios nos semáforos: investigando artistas em Florianópolis/SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz S. Albino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2178-4582.2012v46n2p469 A ideia de investigar artistas que atuam em semáforos de Florianópolis/SC teve sua origem em um estranhamento que nos fez vê-los na forma de uma alteridade radical. A pesquisa etnográfica permitiu descobrir relações simbólicas de pertencimentoe de desvio entre os artistas, destacando-se a figura de um “outro”, próximo, mas perigoso, que partilha simbolicamente os semáforos: o micróbio, estrangeiro que faria confundir o artista com a marginalidade. No semáforo ocorre também, no entanto, a reafirmação, por meio das performances dos artistas, do que deles é esperado: a comicidade, o virtuosismo, a aparência adequada.

  2. PAT and SEM study of porous silicon formed by anodization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jian; Wei Long; Wang Huiyao; Ma Chuangxin; Wang Baoyi

    2000-01-01

    The porous silicon formed by anodization of crystal silicon was studied by positron annihilation technique (PAT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The PAT experiments showed that the mean life and vacancy defects increased with the increasing anodization time. While the intensities of the longest lifetime, several ns-tens ns (ortho-positronium) dropped down. Small single-crystal Si spheres with mean radius of a few μm were observed by SEM after anodization. Pits with mean radius of a few μm from the divorcement of single-crystal spheres were also observed after further anodization. The increases of vacancy defects might be that the extension of structures of porous silicon towards inner layer with anodization time and caused more vacancy defects in inner layer. The SEM observation presented another possibility of the increase of density of vacancy defects in surface layer induced by the change of structures

  3. SEM studies of the structure of the gels prepared from untreated and radiation modified potato starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieśla, Krystyna; Sartowska, Bożena; Królak, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Potato starch was irradiated with a 60 Co gamma rays using doses of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. Gels containing ca. 9.1% of starch were prepared by heating the starch suspensions in the heating chamber stabilized at 100 °C. Four procedures were applied for preparation of the samples in regard to SEM studies and the ability to observe the radiation effect by SEM was assessed for each method. Differences were observed between the SEM images recorded for the non-irradiated samples prepared using all the methods, and those irradiated. Images of the non-irradiated gels indicate generally a honey-comb structure, while smooth areas but with oriented fractures has appeared after irradiation. Modification of gel structure corresponds to the applied dose. The results were related to the process of gel formation (as observed by means of the hot stage microscope) to decrease in swelling power of the irradiated starch and to decreased viscosity of the resulting gels. It can be concluded that the differences in structural properties of gels shown by SEM result probably due to the better homogenization of the gels formed after radiation induced degradation. - Highlights: • Four procedures of the preservation of starch gels for SEM studies were applied. • The ability to observe the radiation effect by SEM was assessed for each method. • Dose dependent changes in the gel structure were discovered. • It was related to decrease in the swelling power and decreased viscosity of the gels. • A hot-stage microscope was applied in order to follow the gelatinization process

  4. A SEM-correlation of the anatomy of the vitreous body: making visible the invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongebloed, W L; Humalda, D; Worst, J F

    1986-12-30

    The naked human vitreous (sclera, iris and cornea removed) suspended in water does not reveal inner structures. After ink injection into the vitreous, the presence of different compartments and the existence of cisterns becomes evident. A concept of the internal system of cisterns is given on the basis of stereoscopic-lightmicroscopic images. An attempt is made to correlate images of the complete vitreous body, obtained with a stereo-lightmicroscope, with images of segments of cisternal walls produced with a scanning electron-microscope (SEM). A comparison is made between SEM-images of the vitreous bodies of human and rabbit eyes.

  5. Neuropsicología de la demencia semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Quintero, Luz Helena

    2012-01-01

    La Demencia Semántica causa alteraciones en la capacidad para recordar el significado de las palabras, rostros y objetos, producto de atrofia asimétrica o bilateral de los lóbulos temporales anteriores. Clínicamente se han observado múltiples síndromes clínicos superpuestos con otras enfermedades degenerativas como la Afasia Primaria Progresiva y la Demencia tipo Alzheimer. El propósito de este estudio fue identificar alteraciones lingüísticas y semánticas en un grupo de pacientes con Demenci...

  6. SEM-EDX IDENTIFICATION OF PARTICLES FROM FOG IN AN INDUSTRIALLY POLLUTED REGION OF CZECH REPUBLIC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoyanova, V.; Shoumkova, A.; Fišák, Jaroslav; Tsacheva, Ts.

    Vol. II - BUA32, č. 1 (2010), s. 269-276 ISSN 1314-2704. [International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2010 /10./. Albena, 20.06.2010-26.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : SEM-EDX * solid atmospheric pollutants * trace elements * heavy metals * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.ipc.bas.bg/PPages/Shoumkova/Publications/Articles/2010%20SEM-EDX%20identification%20of%20FP.pdf

  7. SEM examination and analysis of the interface character in surface modified aramid-epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Khan, M.B.; Hussain, R.

    2011-01-01

    The surface of Kevlar fibers is chemically modified by treatment with Phthalic anhydride (PA) and the effect is examined by SEM for the laser cut, three point bending and interlaminar shear delaminated surfaces. The surface modification improved the adhesion to epoxy resin that clearly leads to cohesive fracture as opposed to interfacial failure in the untreated specimen. SEM reveals marginal surface roughening of fibers without compromising their strength. The interface modification technique described in this paper is attractive thermodynamically as it does not compromise surface free energy of the polymer matrix or that of the fiber itself to enhance wet ability. (author)

  8. El adjetivo en el Nuevo Testamento: clasificación semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Romero González, Dámaris

    2011-01-01

    El adjetivo ha sido estudiado habitualmente desde el punto de vista del sustantivo, como una subclase de éste, ya que ambos poseen una morfología similar. Semánticamente, la mayoría de las gramáticas los clasifican según su capacidad para calificar o determinar al sustantivo, denominándolo calificativo y determinativo respectivamente. Dentro de esta clasificación, se han establecido subgrupos basados en criterios semánticos. Por tanto, el propósito de esta tesis es esbozar una nueva...

  9. SEM analysis of ionizing radiation effects in linear integrated circuits. [Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, A. G.; Gauthier, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    A successful diagnostic technique was developed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as a precision tool to determine ionization effects in integrated circuits. Previous SEM methods radiated the entire semiconductor chip or major areas. The large area exposure methods do not reveal the exact components which are sensitive to radiation. To locate these sensitive components a new method was developed, which consisted in successively irradiating selected components on the device chip with equal doses of electrons /10 to the 6th rad (Si)/, while the whole device was subjected to representative bias conditions. A suitable device parameter was measured in situ after each successive irradiation with the beam off.

  10. Wi-Fi Salvador: mapeamento colaborativo e redes sem fio no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, André; Pastor, Leonardo; Oliveira, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    O trabalho faz uma breve demonstração de políticas públicas para inclusão digital por meio da disponibilização do acesso à internet por meio de redes sem fio e discute a forma como as pessoas se relacionam com os lugares, de acordo com a existência ou inexistência de acessibilidade à internet. O objetivo é discutir o acesso à internet pelas redes sem fio no Brasil e, mais especificamente, na cidade de Salvador. Este trabalho é fruto de pesquisa realizada no âmbito do Grupo de Pesquisa em Cibe...

  11. Mapping the Complex Morphology of Cell Interactions with Nanowire Substrates Using FIB-SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Købler, Carsten; Jensen, Mikkel Ravn Boye

    2013-01-01

    Using high resolution focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) we study the details of cell-nanostructure interactions using serial block face imaging. 3T3 Fibroblast cellular monolayers are cultured on flat glass as a control surface and on two types of nanostructured scaffold...... substrates made from silicon black (Nanograss) with low- and high nanowire density. After culturing for 72 hours the cells were fixed, heavy metal stained, embedded in resin, and processed with FIB-SEM block face imaging without removing the substrate. The sample preparation procedure, image acquisition...

  12. STEM mode in the SEM for the analysis of cellular sections prepared by ultramicrotome sectioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondow, N; Harrington, J; Brydson, R; Brown, A

    2012-01-01

    The use of the dual imaging capabilities of a scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector is highlighted in the analysis of samples with importance in the field of nanotoxicology. Cellular uptake of nanomaterials is often examined by transmission electron microscopy of thin sections prepared by ultramicrotome sectioning. Examination by SEM allows for the detection of artefacts caused by sample preparation (eg. nanomaterial pull-out) and the complementary STEM mode permits study of the interaction between nanomaterials and cells. Thin sections of two nanomaterials of importance in nanotoxicology (cadmium selenide quantum dots and single walled carbon nanotubes) are examined using STEM mode in the SEM.

  13. Marginal adaptation of a low-shrinkage silorane-based composite: A SEM-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Malene; Bindslev, Preben Hørsted; Poulsen, Sven

    2012-01-01

    shrinkage, has been marketed. Objective. To investigate whether reduced polymerization shrinkage improves the marginal adaptation of composite restorations. Material and methods. A total of 156 scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures (78 baseline, 78 follow-up) of the occlusal part of Class II......-casts of the restorations were used for SEM pictures at x 16 magnification. Pictures from baseline and follow-up (398 days, SD 29 days) were randomized and the examiner was blinded to the material and the age of the restoration. Stereologic measurements were used to calculate the length and the width of the marginal...

  14. Separating topographical and chemical analysis of nanostructure of polymer composite in low voltage SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Q; Plenderleith, R A; Claeyssens, F; Rodenburg, C; Dapor, M; Rimmer, S

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of separating the topographical and chemical information in a polymer nano-composite using low-voltage SEM imaging is demonstrated, when images are acquired with a Concentric Backscattered (CBS) detector. This separation of chemical and topographical information is based on the different angular distribution of electron scattering which were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation based on angular restricted detection was applied to a semi-branched PNIPAM/PEGDA interpenetration network for which a linear relationship of topography SEM contrast and feature height data was observed. (paper)

  15. Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)-in-SEM for Bio- and Organo-Mineral Interface Characterization in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Guillaume; Hellal, Jennifer; Ollivier, Patrick; Richard, Annie; Burel, Agnes; Jolly, Louis; Crampon, Marc; Michel, Caroline

    2017-12-01

    Understanding biofilm interactions with surrounding substratum and pollutants/particles can benefit from the application of existing microscopy tools. Using the example of biofilm interactions with zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI), this study aims to apply various approaches in biofilm preparation and labeling for fluorescent or electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) microanalysis for accurate observations. According to the targeted microscopy method, biofilms were sampled as flocs or attached biofilm, submitted to labeling using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindol, lectins PNA and ConA coupled to fluorescent dye or gold nanoparticles, and prepared for observation (fixation, cross-section, freezing, ultramicrotomy). Fluorescent microscopy revealed that nZVI were embedded in the biofilm structure as aggregates but the resolution was insufficient to observe individual nZVI. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed nZVI aggregates close to bacteria, but it was not possible to confirm direct interactions between nZVI and cell membranes. Scanning transmission electron microscopy in the SEM (STEM-in-SEM) showed that nZVI aggregates could enter the biofilm to a depth of 7-11 µm. Bacteria were surrounded by a ring of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) preventing direct nZVI/membrane interactions. STEM/EDS mapping revealed a co-localization of nZVI aggregates with lectins suggesting a potential role of EPS in nZVI embedding. Thus, the combination of divergent microscopy approaches is a good approach to better understand and characterize biofilm/metal interactions.

  16. 3D SEM for surface topography quantification – a case study on dental surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glon, F; Flys, O; Lööf, P-J; Rosén, B-G

    2014-01-01

    3D analysis of surface topography is becoming a more used tool for industry and research. New ISO standards are being launched to assist in quantifying engineering surfaces. The traditional optical measuring instrumentation used for 3D surface characterization has been optical interferometers and confocal based instrumentation. However, the resolution here is limited in the lateral dimension to the wavelength of visible light to about 500 nm. The great advantage using the SEM for topography measurements is the high flexibility to zoom from low magnifications and locating interesting areas to high magnification of down to nanometer large surface features within seconds. This paper presents surface characterization of dental implant micro topography. 3D topography data was created from SEM images using commercial photogrammetric software. A coherence scanning interferometer was used for reference measurements to compare with the 3D SEM measurements on relocated areas. As a result of this study, measurements emphasizes that the correlation between the accepted CSI measurements and the new technology represented by photogrammetry based on SEM images for many areal characterization parameters are around or less than 20%. The importance of selecting sampling and parameter sensitivity to varying sampling is high-lighted. Future work includes a broader study of limitations of the photogrammetry technique on certified micro-geometries and more application surfaces at different scales

  17. Latent vs. Observed Variables : Analysis of Irrigation Water Efficiency Using SEM and SUR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Jianjun; Folmer, Henk

    In this paper we compare conceptualising single factor technical and allocative efficiency as indicators of a single latent variable, or as separate observed variables. In the former case, the impacts on both efficiency types are analysed by means of structural equationmodeling (SEM), in the latter

  18. 3D reconstruction of SEM images by use of optical photogrammetry software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulitz, Mona; Reiss, Gebhard

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) surface of an object to be examined is widely used for structure analysis in science and many biological questions require information about their true 3D structure. For Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) there has been no efficient non-destructive solution for reconstruction of the surface morphology to date. The well-known method of recording stereo pair images generates a 3D stereoscope reconstruction of a section, but not of the complete sample surface. We present a simple and non-destructive method of 3D surface reconstruction from SEM samples based on the principles of optical close range photogrammetry. In optical close range photogrammetry a series of overlapping photos is used to generate a 3D model of the surface of an object. We adapted this method to the special SEM requirements. Instead of moving a detector around the object, the object itself was rotated. A series of overlapping photos was stitched and converted into a 3D model using the software commonly used for optical photogrammetry. A rabbit kidney glomerulus was used to demonstrate the workflow of this adaption. The reconstruction produced a realistic and high-resolution 3D mesh model of the glomerular surface. The study showed that SEM micrographs are suitable for 3D reconstruction by optical photogrammetry. This new approach is a simple and useful method of 3D surface reconstruction and suitable for various applications in research and teaching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hacia una visión generativista de la semántica lexical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales A. Bernardo

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Uno de los objetivos de la teoría semántica de una lengua natural es dar información satisfactoria sobre el significado de las formas lingüísticas. Consideramos que de éstas, las de mayor  importancia significativa son la palabra, la oración y el texto. La palabra, porque en virtud de su compleja estructura semántica y psicológica funciona como el principal medio para la abstracción y conformación de los conceptos destinados para la comunicación; la oración, porque es la unidad de la lengua viva que expresa relaciones de conceptos; el texto, porque es la explicitación del pensamiento en la interacción humana. Las semánticas lexical, oracional y textual son los tres grandes capítulos de la semántica lingüística.


  20. Surface topography characterization using 3D stereoscopic reconstruction of SEM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantha Krishna, Amogh; Flys, Olena; Reddy, Vijeth V.; Rosén, B. G.

    2018-06-01

    A major drawback of the optical microscope is its limitation to resolve finer details. Many microscopes have been developed to overcome the limitations set by the diffraction of visible light. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one such alternative: it uses electrons for imaging, which have much smaller wavelength than photons. As a result high magnification with superior image resolution can be achieved. However, SEM generates 2D images which provide limited data for surface measurements and analysis. Often many research areas require the knowledge of 3D structures as they contribute to a comprehensive understanding of microstructure by allowing effective measurements and qualitative visualization of the samples under study. For this reason, stereo photogrammetry technique is employed to convert SEM images into 3D measurable data. This paper aims to utilize a stereoscopic reconstruction technique as a reliable method for characterization of surface topography. Reconstructed results from SEM images are compared with coherence scanning interferometer (CSI) results obtained by measuring a roughness reference standard sample. This paper presents a method to select the most robust/consistent surface texture parameters that are insensitive to the uncertainties involved in the reconstruction technique itself. Results from the two-stereoscopic reconstruction algorithms are also documented in this paper.

  1. Characterisation of early medieval frescoes by {mu}-PIXE, SEM and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, A. E-mail: zucc@ge.infn.it; Prati, P.; Bouquillon, A.; Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Migliori, A.; Cagnana, A.; Roascio, S

    2004-06-01

    We have studied the VIII-IX century frescoes of the Longobard temple of Cividale del Friuli in Italy with noninvasive sampling and, for the first time in such a context, with high chemical and spatial sensitivity techniques (PIXE, SEM and Raman). Results demonstrate richness of manufacturing details and integrate in a substantial way the historic and artistic framework of this early medieval monument.

  2. 78 FR 50079 - Information Collection Activities: Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS); Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement [Docket ID BSEE-2013-0005; OMB Control Number 1014-0017: 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS); Proposed Collection; Comment Request...

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN LENS CAPSULES - A COMPARATIVE LM, SEM AND TEM EXAMINATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGEBLOED, WL; KALICHARAN, D; LOS, LI; VANDERVEEN, G; WORST, JGF

    1991-01-01

    Lens capsules of patients of advanced age, obtained after extracapsular cataract surgery, were carefully prepared for a combined LM, TEM and SEM investigation, after preliminary washing and mounting onto a holder in a buffer solution. After pre-fixation with GA, samples were postfixed for LM/TEM and

  4. HUMAN CAPSULE EPITHELIAL-CELL DEGENERATION A LM, SEM AND TEM INVESTIGATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGEBLOED, WL; KALICHARAN, D; WORST, JGF

    1993-01-01

    The degeneration of the capsule epithelium of cataractous lenses has been studied with LM, SEM on TEM with emphases on TEM. The observed degeneration of the epithelial cells can be described as follows: The cell nucleus becomes picnotic and desintegrates as result of change of the chromatin.

  5. Analysis the fatigue using pro taper rotary instruments durin instrumentation of extrated mandibular premolars. SEM observation.

    OpenAIRE

    Siragusa, Martha; Racciatti, Gabriela; García, María

    2007-01-01

    Recibido: Marzo 2007 Aceptado: Julio 2007 Siragusa, Martha; Racciatti, Gabriela y García, María. Analysis the fatigue using pro taper rotary instruments durin instrumentation of extrated mandibular premolars. SEM observation. Electronic Journal of Endodontics Rosario [Online], Volumen 2 Número 13. [octubre 2007]. http://www.endojournal.com.ar/journal/index.php/ejer/article/view/44. ISSN 1666-6143.

  6. Integration of Correlative Raman microscopy in a dual beam FIB-SEM J. of Raman Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Frank Jan; Liszka, B.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Otto, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    We present an integrated confocal Raman microscope in a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB SEM). The integrated system enables correlative Raman and electron microscopic analysis combined with focused ion beam sample modification on the same sample location. This provides new

  7. Characterisation of early medieval frescoes by μ-PIXE, SEM and Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Prati, P.; Bouquillon, A.; Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Migliori, A.; Cagnana, A.; Roascio, S.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the VIII-IX century frescoes of the Longobard temple of Cividale del Friuli in Italy with noninvasive sampling and, for the first time in such a context, with high chemical and spatial sensitivity techniques (PIXE, SEM and Raman). Results demonstrate richness of manufacturing details and integrate in a substantial way the historic and artistic framework of this early medieval monument

  8. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  9. Cryo-SEM studies of latex/ceramic nanoparticle coating microstructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui; Scriven, L E; Francis, Lorraine F

    2007-12-15

    Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was used to investigate microstructure development of composite coatings prepared from dispersions of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles (approximately 30 nm) or indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles (approximately 40 nm) and latex particles (polydisperse, D(v): approximately 300 nm). Cryo-SEM images of ATO/latex dispersions as-frozen show small clusters of ATO and individual latex particles homogeneously distribute in a frozen water matrix. In contrast, cryo-SEM images of ITO/latex dispersions as-frozen show ITO particles adsorb onto latex particle surfaces. Electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged ATO and negatively charged latex particles stabilizes the ATO/latex dispersion, whereas in ITO/latex dispersion, positively charged ITO particles are attracted onto surfaces of negatively charged latex particles. These results are consistent with calculations of interaction potentials from past research. Cryo-SEM images of frozen and fractured coatings reveal that both ceramic nanoparticles and latex become more concentrated as drying proceeds; larger latex particles consolidate with ceramic nanoparticles in the interstitial spaces. With more drying, compaction flattens the latex-latex particle contacts and shrinks the voids between them. Thus, ceramic nanoparticles are forced to pack closely in the interstitial spaces, forming an interconnected network. Finally, latex particles partially coalesce at their flattened contacts, thereby yielding a coherent coating. The research reveals how nanoparticles segregate and interconnect among latex particles during drying.

  10. Combination of FTIR and SEM for Identifying Freshwater-Cultured Pearls from Different Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satitkune, Somruedee; Monarumit, Natthapong; Boonmee, Chakkrich; Phlayrahan, Aumaparn; Promdee, Kittiphop; Won-in, Krit

    2016-03-01

    The freshwater-cultured pearl ( Chamberlainia hainesiana species) is an organic gemstone mainly composed of calcium carbonate mineral including calcite, aragonite and vaterite phases. Generally, the quality of freshwater-cultured pearl is based on its luster. The high luster pearl is full of the aragonite phase without vaterite phase. On the other hand, the low luster pearl consists of aragonite and vaterite phases. These data could be proved by the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As the results, the high luster pearl similarly shows the FTIR spectrum of aragonite phase, and also, it shows the hexagonal shape of aragonite for the SEM image. On the other hand, the FTIR spectrum of low luster pearl has been pointed to the mixture component among aragonite and vaterite phases, and based on the SEM image; the irregular form is also interpreted to the mixture of aragonite and vaterite phases. This research concludes that the quality of freshwater-cultured pearls can be identified by the combination data of FTIR spectra and SEM images. These techniques are suitable for applied gemology.

  11. MICROORGANISMS FOUND IN SECONDARY CATARACT MATERIAL OF ECCE PATIENTS, A STUDY WITH SEM AND TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KALICHARAN, D; JONGEBLOED, WL; LOS, LI; WORST, JGF

    1993-01-01

    Globular secondary cataract material, removed from 24 patients with ECCE after ophthalmic cleaning of the anterior capsule, were investigated with SEM and TEM. Besides spherical, somewhat oval shaped bodies of various shape and size comparable with those found in cataractous lenses, (an)aerobic

  12. (AN)AEROBIC BACTERIA FOUND IN SECONDARY-CATARACT MATERIAL - A SEM/TEM STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KALICHARAN, D; JONGEBLOED, WL; LOS, LI; WORST, JGF

    1992-01-01

    Twentyfour patients, who had marked reduction of vision due to secondary-cataract developed after an ECCE, were treated by surgical cleaning of the posterior lens capsule. During this procedure globular secondary-cataract material was removed and collected for morphological examination by SEM and

  13. Controlled dehydration of a biological sample using an alternative form of environmental SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 237, č. 1 (2010), s. 7-11 ISSN 0022-2720 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : biological sample * dehydration * environmental SEM * AQUASEM II * hydration system Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.872, year: 2010

  14. Fractionation of Pb in Soil of Abandoned Pb Mine by SEM-EDX and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) were used for the identification of fractional forms of Pb that are liable to leach out/down from the soil matrix of the abandoned mine site to surface-andunderground water bodies of the nearby localities, and to determine ...

  15. A Comparative SEM-EDS Elemental Composition of Mud in Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to understand the comparative abundance and source of elemental constituents in mud of four coastal shrimp farming areas, Vunh Tau (VT), Nha Trang (NT), Da Nang (DN) and Hue (HU) in Viet Nam using SEM-EDS analysis. Mud samples were collected from shrimp farming coastal zones ...

  16. Recent Advances on In Situ SEM Mechanical and Electrical Characterization of Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM has become a powerful technique for the experimental study of low-dimensional (1D/2D nanomaterials, since it can provide unprecedented details for individual nanostructures upon mechanical and electrical stimulus and thus uncover the fundamental deformation and failure mechanisms for their device applications. In this overview, we summarized recent developments on in situ SEM-based mechanical and electrical characterization techniques including tensile, compression, bending, and electrical property probing on individual nanostructures, as well as the state-of-the-art electromechanical coupling analysis. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of in situ SEM tests were also discussed with some possible solutions to address the challenges. Furthermore, critical challenges were also discussed for the development and design of robust in situ SEM characterization platform with higher resolution and wider range of samples. These experimental efforts have offered in-depth understanding on the mechanical and electrical properties of low-dimensional nanomaterial components and given guidelines for their further structural and functional applications.

  17. A Sandwich-Type Standard Error Estimator of SEM Models with Multivariate Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangjian; Chow, Sy-Miin; Ong, Anthony D.

    2011-01-01

    Structural equation models are increasingly used as a modeling tool for multivariate time series data in the social and behavioral sciences. Standard error estimators of SEM models, originally developed for independent data, require modifications to accommodate the fact that time series data are inherently dependent. In this article, we extend a…

  18. Are the evidences of forensic entomology preserved in ethanol suitable for SEM studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Esclapez, Raquel; García, María-Dolores; Arnaldos, María-Isabel; Presa, Juan José; Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás

    2014-07-01

    In forensic practice, the use of arthropod evidences to estimate the postmortem interval is a very good approach when the elapsed time from death is long, but it requires the correct identification of the specimens. This is a crucial step, not always easy to achieve, in particular when dealing with immature specimens. In this case, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) can be useful, but the techniques used to preserve specimens in forensic practice are usually different from those used to prepare specimens for SEM studies. To determine whether forensic evidences preserving techniques are also compatible with SEM analysis, we have compared specimens of all the immature stages of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera, Calliphoridae) preserved in 70% ethanol, with others prepared with aldehydic fixative techniques that are more appropriate for SEM studies. At the same time, two drying techniques have also been compared with both fixative techniques, the critical point drying and air-drying following with hexamethyldisilizane treatment (HMDS). Our results indicate that there are not basis against recommending the use of ethanol to preserve forensic entomological evidences and that both drying methods appear to offer good results for second and third instar larvae, although HMDS behaves better with eggs and pupae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) as an approach for nanoparticle detection inside cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havrdová, M.; Poláková, K.; Skopalík, J.; Vůjtek, M.; Mokdad, A.; Homolková, M.; Tuček, J.; Nebesářová, Jana; Zbořil, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, DEC 2014 (2014), s. 149-154 ISSN 0968-4328 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Field emission scanning electronmicroscopy (FE-SEM) * Stem cells * Iron oxide nanoparticles * Cellular morphology * Endosomes * Cell uptake Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2014

  20. Surface ultrastructural (SEM) characteristics of oropharyngeal cavity of house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abumandour, Mohamed M A

    2018-06-01

    The focus of the present study is to provide a full morphological description of the oropharyngeal cavity of the house sparrow. The head of six birds was prepared for gross examination and by stereo and electron microscopy. The bifid lingual apex has multiple long, rostrally directed needle-like processes. The lateral border of the apex carries rostromedially directed needle-like processes. The dorsal lingual surface of the apex and body carries numerous caudomedially directed filiform papillae and many orifices of lingual salivary glands. The lingual body is divided into two parts: rostral and caudal. The caudal part is divided into two laterally elevated regions by a median groove, while the rostral part is bounded laterally by a rostrodorsally directed papillary row, which on SEM is formed from two rows. On SEM, the lingual root has many orifices of posterior salivary glands. The pharyngeal papillary row is located at the caudal border of the laryngeal mound, but this single papillary row is formed from two rows at SEM magnification. The laryngeal cleft continues caudally as a laryngeal fissure bounded by two longitudinal rows of caudally directed papillae; at high SEM magnification, this fissure is divided into two halves by a median ridge which carries caudally directed papillae on its posterior part. The choanal cleft proceeds rostrally by the median tubercle. There are a small number of orifices of palatine salivary glands. The morphological characters of the oropharyngeal cavity of the sparrow confirm its adaptation to surrounding environmental conditions and available food particles.

  1. Effects of Missing Data Methods in SEM under Conditions of Incomplete and Nonnormal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Lomax, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, this research examined the performance of four missing data methods in SEM under different multivariate distributional conditions. The effects of four independent variables (sample size, missing proportion, distribution shape, and factor loading magnitude) were investigated on six outcome variables: convergence rate,…

  2. Study of Morphological Changes of The Lime Putties During Maturing by SEM/ESEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátilová, Eva; Neděla, Vilém

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, S1 (2017), s. 2186-2187 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SEM * ESEM * morphological changes * lime putties Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Civil engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  3. Recent Advances on In Situ SEM Mechanical and Electrical Characterization of Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chenchen; Lu, Haojian; Zhang, Hongti; Shen, Yajing; Lu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has become a powerful technique for the experimental study of low-dimensional (1D/2D) nanomaterials, since it can provide unprecedented details for individual nanostructures upon mechanical and electrical stimulus and thus uncover the fundamental deformation and failure mechanisms for their device applications. In this overview, we summarized recent developments on in situ SEM-based mechanical and electrical characterization techniques including tensile, compression, bending, and electrical property probing on individual nanostructures, as well as the state-of-the-art electromechanical coupling analysis. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of in situ SEM tests were also discussed with some possible solutions to address the challenges. Furthermore, critical challenges were also discussed for the development and design of robust in situ SEM characterization platform with higher resolution and wider range of samples. These experimental efforts have offered in-depth understanding on the mechanical and electrical properties of low-dimensional nanomaterial components and given guidelines for their further structural and functional applications.

  4. Does your SEM really tell the truth?--How would you know? Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András E

    2013-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) has gone through a tremendous evolution to become a critical tool for many and diverse scientific and industrial applications. The high resolution of the SEM is especially suited for both qualitative and quantitative applications especially for nanotechnology and nanomanufacturing. Quantitatively, measurement, or metrology is one of the main uses. It is likely that one of the first questions asked before even the first scanning electron micrograph was ever recorded was: "… how big is that?" The quality of that answer has improved a great deal over the past few years especially since today these instruments are being used as a primary measurement tool on semiconductor processing lines to monitor the manufacturing processes. The well-articulated needs of semiconductor production prompted a rapid evolution of the instrument and its capabilities. Over the past 20 years or so, instrument manufacturers, through substantial semiconductor industry investment of research and development (R&D) money, have vastly improved the performance of these instruments. All users have benefited from this investment, especially where quantitative measurements with an SEM are concerned. But, how good are these data? This article discusses some of the most important aspects and larger issues associated with imaging and measurements with the SEM that every user should know, and understand before any critical quantitative work is attempted. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. SD-SEM: sparse-dense correspondence for 3D reconstruction of microscopic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaie, Ahmadreza; Tafti, Ahmad P; Owen, Heather A; D'Souza, Roshan M; Yu, Zeyun

    2017-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging has been a principal component of many studies in biomedical, mechanical, and materials sciences since its emergence. Despite the high resolution of captured images, they remain two-dimensional (2D). In this work, a novel framework using sparse-dense correspondence is introduced and investigated for 3D reconstruction of stereo SEM images. SEM micrographs from microscopic samples are captured by tilting the specimen stage by a known angle. The pair of SEM micrographs is then rectified using sparse scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features/descriptors and a contrario RANSAC for matching outlier removal to ensure a gross horizontal displacement between corresponding points. This is followed by dense correspondence estimation using dense SIFT descriptors and employing a factor graph representation of the energy minimization functional and loopy belief propagation (LBP) as means of optimization. Given the pixel-by-pixel correspondence and the tilt angle of the specimen stage during the acquisition of micrographs, depth can be recovered. Extensive tests reveal the strength of the proposed method for high-quality reconstruction of microscopic samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On some contrast reversals in SEM: Application to metal/insulator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazaux, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Contrast changes of SEM images with experimental conditions (beam energy, angle of detection, etc.) are analyzed by combining physical arguments based on secondary electron emission (SEE) to instrumental arguments involving detection. Possible occurrences of contrast reversals are explored to illustrate these changes in a striking manner. Deduced from SEE yield data, simulated SEM images show a material contrast reversal for a Pt/quartz specimen, a result partly supported by real images of a Cr/quartz integrated circuit. A shift of reversal energy with the detector's position is deduced from a difference in secondary electrons (SE) angular distributions between metals and insulators. Similarly, changes of topographic contrast with detection conditions, specimen composition and angle of tilt are investigated and a possible contrast reversal is again indicated. Finally, it is shown how charging contrast deduced from the expected evolution of SEE yield during irradiation is amplified by in-lens detection: a point illustrated by a contrast reversal of images of SiC particles. The main application concerns a proper interpretation of SEM images that is essential in the investigation of devices obtained from lithographic processes. The discussion on material contrast outlines the difficulty in generalizing the present analysis based on published data and experimental strategies based on implementing specific attachments in the SEM or on biasing the specimen holder are suggested.

  7. Human cardiac telocytes: 3D imaging by FIB-SEM tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretoiu, D; Hummel, E; Zimmermann, H; Gherghiceanu, M; Popescu, L M

    2014-11-01

    Telocyte (TC) is a newly identified type of cell in the cardiac interstitium (www.telocytes.com). TCs are described by classical transmission electron microscopy as cells with very thin and long telopodes (Tps; cellular prolongations) having podoms (dilations) and podomers (very thin segments). TCs' three-dimensional (3D) morphology is still unknown. Cardiac TCs seem to be particularly involved in long and short distance intercellular signalling and, therefore, their 3D architecture is important for understanding their spatial connections. Using focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) we show, for the first time, the whole ultrastructural anatomy of cardiac TCs. 3D reconstruction of cardiac TCs by FIB-SEM tomography confirms that they have long, narrow but flattened (ribbon-like) telopodes, with humps generated by the podoms. FIB-SEM tomography also confirms the network made by TCs in the cardiac interstitium through adherens junctions. This study provides the first FIB-SEM tomography of a human cell type. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  8. Maximum Likelihood Dynamic Factor Modeling for Arbitrary "N" and "T" Using SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Oud, Johan H. L.; von Oertzen, Timo; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-01-01

    This article has 3 objectives that build on each other. First, we demonstrate how to obtain maximum likelihood estimates for dynamic factor models (the direct autoregressive factor score model) with arbitrary "T" and "N" by means of structural equation modeling (SEM) and compare the approach to existing methods. Second, we go beyond standard time…

  9. Prescriptive Statements and Educational Practice: What Can Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Offer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal structural equation modeling (SEM) can be a basis for making prescriptive statements on educational practice and offers yields over "traditional" statistical techniques under the general linear model. The extent to which prescriptive statements can be made will rely on the appropriate accommodation of key elements of research design,…

  10. Does your SEM really tell the truth? How would you know? Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András E; Purushotham, Kavuri P

    2014-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) has gone through a tremendous evolution to become indispensable for many and diverse scientific and industrial applications. The improvements have significantly enriched and augmented the overall SEM performance and have made the instrument far easier to operate. But, the ease of operation also might lead, through operator complacency, to poor results. In addition, the user friendliness has seemingly reduced the need for thorough operator training for using these complex instruments. One might then conclude that the SEM is just a very expensive digital camera or another peripheral device for a computer. Hence, a person using the instrument may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been eliminated and they believe everything they see on the micrograph is always correct. But, this may not be the case. An earlier paper (Part 1), discussed some of the potential issues related to signal generation in the SEM, instrument calibration, electron beam interactions and the need for physics-based modeling to understand the actual image formation mechanisms. All these were summed together in a discussion of how these issues effect measurements made with the instrument. This second paper discusses another major issue confronting the microscopist: electron-beam-induced specimen contamination. Over the years, NIST has done a great deal of research into the issue of sample contamination and its removal and elimination and some of this work is reviewed and discussed here. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sem-observation of developing plant organs using deep-frozen specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1982-01-01

    The SEM-observation of plant material normally requires dehydrated, dry specimens coated with carbon or metal. Unfortunately, the standard drying methods (including the critical-point-drying-technique) often cause shrinking and deformation of the specimen surface; therefore, SEMstudies on plant

  12. SEM observations of particle track membrane surfaces modificated using plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartowska, B.; Buczkowski, M.; Starosta, W.

    2003-01-01

    This work presents results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of 0.4 μm membranes after plasma treatment with different parameters. The morphology changes at the surfaces and at the pore walls were observed. The character of changes in the membrane parameters according to the process conditions was determined

  13. Trace metals in floodplain lake sediments : SEM/AVS as indicator of bioavailability and ecological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griethuysen, van C.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis addresses the geochemical aspects of AVS (Acid Volatile Sulfide) and SEM (Simultaneously Extracted Metals) in floodplain lake sediment, its spatial distribution in floodplain lakes and dynamics over time, the link with effects on single species (bioassays), as well as the impact of

  14. Dimensional verification of high aspect micro structures using FIB-SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    -SEM) assisted by Spip®. The micro features are circular holes 10μm in diameter and 20μm deep, with a 20μm pitch. Various inspection methods were attempted to obtain dimensional information. Due to the dimension, neither optical instrument nor atomic force microscope (AFM) was capable to perform the measurement...

  15. Assessment of engineered surfaces roughness by high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontard, L.C., E-mail: lionelcg@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11510 (Spain); López-Castro, J.D.; González-Rovira, L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Laboratorio de Corrosión, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); Vázquez-Martínez, J.M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); Varela-Feria, F.M. [Servicio de Microscopía Centro de Investigación, Tecnología e Innovación (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Marcos, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); and others

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • We describe a method to acquire a high-angle tilt series of SEM images that is symmetrical respect to the zero tilt of the sample stage. The method can be applied in any SEM microscope. • Using the method, high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry can be applied on planar surfaces. • 3D models of three surfaces patterned with grooves are reconstructed with high resolution using multi-view freeware photogrammetry software as described in LC Gontard et al. Ultramicroscopy, 2016. • From the 3D models roughness parameters are measured • 3D SEM high-resolution photogrammetry is compared with two conventional methods used for roughness characetrization: stereophotogrammetry and contact profilometry. • It provides three-dimensional information with high-resolution that is out of reach for any other metrological technique. - Abstract: We describe a methodology to obtain three-dimensional models of engineered surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and multi-view photogrammetry (3DSEM). For the reconstruction of the 3D models of the surfaces we used freeware available in the cloud. The method was applied to study the surface roughness of metallic samples patterned with parallel grooves by means of laser. The results are compared with measurements obtained using stylus profilometry (PR) and SEM stereo-photogrammetry (SP). The application of 3DSEM is more time demanding than PR or SP, but it provides a more accurate representation of the surfaces. The results obtained with the three techniques are compared by investigating the influence of sampling step on roughness parameters.

  16. AxiSEM3D: broadband seismic wavefields in 3-D aspherical Earth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, K.; Nissen-Meyer, T.; Zad, K. H.; van Driel, M.; Al-Attar, D.

    2017-12-01

    Seismology is the primary tool for data-informed inference of Earth structure and dynamics. Simulating seismic wave propagation at a global scale is fundamental to seismology, but remains as one of most challenging problems in scientific computing, because of both the multiscale nature of Earth's interior and the observable frequency band of seismic data. We present a novel numerical method to simulate global seismic wave propagation in realistic 3-D Earth models. Our method, named AxiSEM3D, is a hybrid of spectral element method and pseudospectral method. It reduces the azimuthal dimension of wavefields by means of a global Fourier series parameterization, of which the number of terms can be locally adapted to the inherent azimuthal smoothness of the wavefields. AxiSEM3D allows not only for material heterogeneities, such as velocity, density, anisotropy and attenuation, but also for finite undulations on radial discontinuities, both solid-solid and solid-fluid, and thereby a variety of aspherical Earth features such as ellipticity, topography, variable crustal thickness, and core-mantle boundary topography. Such interface undulations are equivalently interpreted as material perturbations of the contiguous media, based on the "particle relabelling transformation". Efficiency comparisons show that AxiSEM3D can be 1 to 3 orders of magnitude faster than conventional 3-D methods, with the speedup increasing with simulation frequency and decreasing with model complexity, but for all realistic structures the speedup remains at least one order of magnitude. The observable frequency range of global seismic data (up to 1 Hz) has been covered for wavefield modelling upon a 3-D Earth model with reasonable computing resources. We show an application of surface wave modelling within a state-of-the-art global crustal model (Crust1.0), with the synthetics compared to real data. The high-performance C++ code is released at github.com/AxiSEM3D/AxiSEM3D.

  17. High resolution SEM imaging of gold nanoparticles in cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, A; Soroka, Y; Frušić-Zlotkin, M; Popov, I; Kohen, R

    2014-12-01

    The growing demand of gold nanoparticles in medical applications increases the need for simple and efficient characterization methods of the interaction between the nanoparticles and biological systems. Due to its nanometre resolution, modern scanning electron microscopy (SEM) offers straightforward visualization of metallic nanoparticles down to a few nanometre size, almost without any special preparation step. However, visualization of biological materials in SEM requires complicated preparation procedure, which is typically finished by metal coating needed to decrease charging artefacts and quick radiation damage of biomaterials in the course of SEM imaging. The finest conductive metal coating available is usually composed of a few nanometre size clusters, which are almost identical to the metal nanoparticles employed in medical applications. Therefore, SEM monitoring of metal nanoparticles within cells and tissues is incompatible with the conventional preparation methods. In this work, we show that charging artefacts related to non-conductive biological specimen can be successfully eliminated by placing the uncoated biological sample on a conductive substrate. By growing the cells on glass pre-coated with a chromium layer, we were able to observe the uptake of 10 nm gold nanoparticles inside uncoated and unstained macrophages and keratinocytes cells. Imaging in back scattered electrons allowed observation of gold nanoparticles located inside the cells, while imaging in secondary electron gave information on gold nanoparticles located on the surface of the cells. By mounting a skin cross-section on an improved conductive holder, consisting of a silicon substrate coated with copper, we were able to observe penetration of gold nanoparticles of only 5 nm size through the skin barrier in an uncoated skin tissue. The described method offers a convenient modification in preparation procedure for biological samples to be analyzed in SEM. The method provides high

  18. Evaluation of bone formation in calcium phosphate scaffolds with μCT-method validation using SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, S; Barba, A; Persson, C; Franch, J; Ginebra, M-P; Öhman-Mägi, C

    2017-10-05

    There is a plethora of calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds used as synthetic substitutes to bone grafts. The scaffold performance is often evaluated from the quantity of bone formed within or in direct contact with the scaffold. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) allows three-dimensional evaluation of bone formation inside scaffolds. However, the almost identical x-ray attenuation of CaP and bone obtrude the separation of these phases in μCT images. Commonly, segmentation of bone in μCT images is based on gray scale intensity, with manually determined global thresholds. However, image analysis methods, and methods for manual thresholding in particular, lack standardization and may consequently suffer from subjectivity. The aim of the present study was to provide a methodological framework for addressing these issues. Bone formation in two types of CaP scaffold architectures (foamed and robocast), obtained from a larger animal study (a 12 week canine animal model) was evaluated by μCT. In addition, cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were acquired as references to determine thresholds and to validate the result. μCT datasets were registered to the corresponding SEM reference. Global thresholds were then determined by quantitatively correlating the different area fractions in the μCT image, towards the area fractions in the corresponding SEM image. For comparison, area fractions were also quantified using global thresholds determined manually by two different approaches. In the validation the manually determined thresholds resulted in large average errors in area fraction (up to 17%), whereas for the evaluation using SEM references, the errors were estimated to be less than 3%. Furthermore, it was found that basing the thresholds on one single SEM reference gave lower errors than determining them manually. This study provides an objective, robust and less error prone method to determine global thresholds for the evaluation of bone formation in

  19. Perfluoroctano líquido como tamponante vitreorretiniano de curta duração no pós-operatório de portadores de descolamento de retina por ruptura gigante Perfluoroctane liquid as a short-term vitreous-retinal tamponade in the postoperative period in patients with retinal detachment due to giant tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carvalho Ventura

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Relatar os resultados de vitrectomia via pars plana com utilização de perfluocarbono líquido (Perfluoroctano-Ophtalmos®, como tamponante vítreo-retiniano de curta duração, no pós-operatório de portadores de descolamento de retina, por ruptura gigante. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se dez desses pacientes. Todos os casos eram complicados por vitreorretinopatia proliferativa grau B ou pior com rupturas que variavam em extensão de 90º a 210º. O perfluorocarbono líquido foi introduzido, por via pars plana, com o volume necessário para ultrapassar o limite posterior da ruptura, permanecendo no pós-operatório por cinco dias, estando os pacientes em decúbito dorsal. Após esse período submetiam-se a segunda intervenção para troca do perfluorocarbono líquido para gás ou óleo de silicone. RESULTADOS: Após período de acompanhamento médio de 16,2 ± 12,4 meses (2 a 43 meses, 80% das retinas estavam aplicadas, sendo necessária a repetição desta técnica em 1 caso (10% caso e em 2 casos (20% não houve reaplicação da retina por vitreorretinopatia avançada. Houve melhora da acuidade visual em 5 casos (50%. CONCLUSÃO: Observaram-se bons resultados quanto à aplicação da retina (80% e melhora da acuidade visual (50% quando do uso do perfluorocarbono líquido como tamponante vitreorretiniano de curta duração no pós-operatório de cirurgias de descolamento de retina por rupturas gigantes.PURPOSE: To report pars plana vitrectomy results of intravitreous use of liquid perfluorocarbon as a short-term postoperative tamponade in retinal detachment due to giant tears in a series of patients. METHODS: Ten of those patients, all of them complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade B or worse, with tear extension varying from 90º to 210º were studied. Perfluorocarbon liquid was injected via pars plana until the posterior tear limit, remaining in the postoperative period during five days, with the patients in supine position

  20. La incorporación de las mujeres al espacio público y la ruptura parcial de la división sexual del trabajo: el tratamiento de la conciliación de la vida familar y laboral y sus consecuencias en la igualdad de género

    OpenAIRE

    Nuño Gómez, Laura

    2008-01-01

    En esta investigación se parte de la premisa de que el reconocimiento de la igualdad formal de las mujeres representó una ruptura parcial del diseño dicotómico de la sociedad civil que establecía una división del trabajo (público-privado) en función del sexo de cada persona. El objetivo de esta investigación es demostrar que la incorporación de las mujeres al espacio público supuso una reforma parcial de la sociedad civil que si bien modificó la división sexual del trabajo en el espacio públ...

  1. La ruptura de las relaciones diplomáticas: Una aproximación sistemática con una referencia especial a las consecuencias de la entrada en vigor del tratado de Lisboa en la praxis diplomática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Pérez-Desoy i Fages

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene por objeto ofrecer un análisis sistemático de las distintas formas en que puede producirse la ruptura de relaciones diplomáticas entre dos estados soberanos, así como de las diversas fases en que puede descomponerse un proceso de este tipo, caracterizadas por la adopción de distintos tipos de medidas diplomáticas y la combinación de unas con otras (llamada a consultas, retirada de Embajadores, etc. lo que constituye un lenguaje de signos decodificable en términos diplomáticos, que ha sido poco estudiado desde un punto de vista sistemático. El elemento casuístico es, necesariamente, muy importante, máxime cuando las referencias a esta cuestión dentro de las normas codificadas del Derecho Diplomático son muy limitadas, y la jurisprudencia es con frecuencia inexistente. Por otra parte, la entrada en vigor del Tratado de Lisboa, y la puesta en marcha del Servicio de Acción Exterior Europeo (SEAE abre la posibilidad de que, en caso de crisis diplomática, acciones características de la diplomacia clásica puedan ser aplicadas también en el marco del proceso de toma de decisiones colectivas de la UE, ampliando así significativamente la panoplia de posibles medidas a adoptar. La entrada en vigor del Tratado de Lisboa abre también nuevas opciones teóricas de gran interés en el caso de ruptura de relaciones diplomáticas de un Estado Miembro de la UE con un tercer Estado, como por ejemplo la posible creación de una "sección de intereses" de ese Estado en el seno de la Delegación de la UE en ese país

  2. Macromolecular 3D SEM reconstruction strategies: Signal to noise ratio and resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.D.; Wepf, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy generates quantitative volumetric structural data from SEM images of macromolecules. This technique provides a quick and easy way to define the quaternary structure and handedness of protein complexes. Here, we apply a variety of preparation and imaging methods to filamentous actin in order to explore the relationship between resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, structural preservation and dataset size. This information can be used to define successful imaging strategies for different applications. - Highlights: • F-actin SEM datasets were collected using 8 different preparation/ imaging techniques. • Datasets were reconstructed by back projection and compared/analyzed • 3DSEM actin reconstructions can be produced with <100 views of the asymmetric unit. • Negatively stained macromolecules can be reconstructed by 3DSEM to ∼3 nm resolution

  3. The application of SEM in analyzing the damage to the petroleum reservoirs caused by drilling fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Razak Ismail

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to analyze the damage to the potential oil and gas reservoirs due to the invasion of drilling fluid during drilling operation. Two types of rock samples representing low and high permeability were used to stimulate the petroleum reservoirs. Sea water based drilling fluids were used in this study. Detail observations to the rock samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results of both permeability restoration and SEM observation showed that severe permeability impairments were obtained for high permeability rock. These results indicate that the relative size of the barite particles and the pore size distribution and characteristics of the formation play an important role in determining the damage caused by the drilling fluids

  4. Inconmensurabilidad semántica y progreso científico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, Juan

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Not available.En la primera parte del trabajo se hace una presentación de las nociones de «inconmensurabilidad», tal como han sido formuladas por Feyerabend y Kuhn; y en la segunda parte, después de analizar los presupuestos semánticos con los que indudablemente han ido asociadas, se presenta un modelo alternativo de análisis semántico de la ‘inconmensurabilidad’, que permite desligarla de las nociones de «incomunicabilidad» e «incomparabilidad» interteóricas. Con ese propósito se hace uso de una doble noción de objeto formulada por C. S. Peirce, en sus Collected Papers, y por E. Husserl, en el parágrafo 131 de las Ideas.

  5. OpenCV-Based Nanomanipulation Information Extraction and the Probe Operation in SEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjie Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the established telenanomanipulation system, the method of extracting location information and the strategies of probe operation were studied in this paper. First, the machine learning algorithm of OpenCV was used to extract location information from SEM images. Thus nanowires and probe in SEM images can be automatically tracked and the region of interest (ROI can be marked quickly. Then the location of nanowire and probe can be extracted from the ROI. To study the probe operation strategy, the Van der Waals force between probe and a nanowire was computed; thus relevant operating parameters can be obtained. With these operating parameters, the nanowire in 3D virtual environment can be preoperated and an optimal path of the probe can be obtained. The actual probe runs automatically under the telenanomanipulation system's control. Finally, experiments were carried out to verify the above methods, and results show the designed methods have achieved the expected effect.

  6. Consideraciones sobre la adquisición del adjetivo y su semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Millán Garrido, Mª del Rosario

    1988-01-01

    Con este trabajo se intenta profundizar en el adjetivo con un criterio semántico pero al ser difícil deslindarlo de sus estudios léxico y sintáctico, no vamos a excluir de él estos aspectos que se expondrán de forma breve y que nos ayudarán a sacar conclusiones más completas. Aunque la semántica ha ocupado la parte central de la investigación, ha tenido como apoyo el análisis léxico, reflejado en las gráficas, y un estudio sintáctico** previo.

  7. Minería de opiniones basada en patrones semánticos en Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Artacho Torres, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    La minería de opinión o análisis de sentimiento es un tipo de análisis de texto que pretende ayudar a la toma de decisiones a través de la extracción y el análisis de opiniones, identificando las opiniones positivas, negativas y neutras; y midiendo su repercusión en la percepción de un tópico. En este trabajo se propone un modelo de análisis de sentimiento basado en diccionarios, que a través de la semántica y de los patrones semánticos que conforman el texto a clasificar, permite obtener la ...

  8. Morphology of Poly lactide/Polycaprolactone (PLA/PCL) Nano composite by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Zulaiha Hairaldin; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus; Norazowa Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Octadecylamine Modified Montmorillonites (ODAMMT) were used to prepare Poly lactide/ Polycaprolactone (PLA/ PCL) nano composites. PLA and PCL mix in 90:10 ratios, using an internal mixer by melt blending technique. The other sample was blend with Natrium Montmorillonite (NaMMT) and Octadecylamine Modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) to produce PLA/ PCL-NaMMT and PLA/ PCL ODAMMT. To characterize the polymer nano composites, X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and SEM analysis were conducted. Comparison of morphology were made up between PLA/ PCL, PLA/ PCL with presence of 7 % of Na-MMT and 7 % ODA-MMT respectively based on SEM micrograph by calculate the number-average diameter. (author)

  9. Optimization study of direct morphology observation by cold field emission SEM without gold coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Fu, Cheng; Xue, Zhigang

    2018-06-01

    Gold coating is a general operation that is generally applied on non-conductive or low conductive materials, during which the morphology of the materials can be examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, fatal deficiencies in the materials can result in irreversible distortion and damage. The present study directly characterized different low conductive materials such as hydroxyapatite, modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fiber, and zinc oxide nanopillar by cold field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) without a gold coating. According to the characteristics of the low conductive materials, various test conditions, such as different working signal modes, accelerating voltages, electron beam spots, and working distances, were characterized to determine the best morphological observations of each sample. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cryo-FIB SEM for Characterization of the Structure of Fish Oil Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    layers. The emulsion fractures are random and impossible to control when using freeze-fracture cryo-SEM. We have previously shown that some types of emulsifiers tend to break along the interface layer, while others cause the fractures to be perpendicular to the interface layer [3]. To control the field...... of view more specifically and to ensure the access to the desired part of the sample, we propose now the use of cryo-FIB SEM. This method allows us to access the interface layers as needed, see figure 1. Emulsions with high oil content, i.e. 70%, and relatively large oil droplets, i.e. μm range, have been...

  11. A Data Matrix Method for Improving the Quantification of Element Percentages of SEM/EDX Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John

    2009-01-01

    A simple 2D M N matrix involving sample preparation enables the microanalyst to peer below the noise floor of element percentages reported by the SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/ energy dispersive x-ray) analysis, thus yielding more meaningful data. Using the example of a 2 3 sample set, there are M = 2 concentration levels of the original mix under test: 10 percent ilmenite (90 percent silica) and 20 percent ilmenite (80 percent silica). For each of these M samples, N = 3 separate SEM/EDX samples were drawn. In this test, ilmenite is the element of interest. By plotting the linear trend of the M sample s known concentration versus the average of the N samples, a much higher resolution of elemental analysis can be performed. The resulting trend also shows how the noise is affecting the data, and at what point (of smaller concentrations) is it impractical to try to extract any further useful data.

  12. Contrast of Backscattered Electron SEM Images of Nanoparticles on Substrates with Complex Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kowoll

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (BSE SEM contrast of complex nanoscaled samples which consist of SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs deposited on indium-tin-oxide covered bulk SiO2 and glassy carbon substrates. BSE SEM contrast of NPs is studied as function of the primary electron energy and working distance. Contrast inversions are observed which prevent intuitive interpretation of NP contrast in terms of material contrast. Experimental data is quantitatively compared with Monte-Carlo- (MC- simulations. Quantitative agreement between experimental data and MC-simulations is obtained if the transmission characteristics of the annular semiconductor detector are taken into account. MC-simulations facilitate the understanding of NP contrast inversions and are helpful to derive conditions for optimum material and topography contrast.

  13. Contrast of Backscattered Electron SEM Images of Nanoparticles on Substrates with Complex Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowoll, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Fritsch-Decker, Susanne; Hettler, Simon; Störmer, Heike; Weiss, Carsten; Gerthsen, Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    This study is concerned with backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (BSE SEM) contrast of complex nanoscaled samples which consist of SiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on indium-tin-oxide covered bulk SiO 2 and glassy carbon substrates. BSE SEM contrast of NPs is studied as function of the primary electron energy and working distance. Contrast inversions are observed which prevent intuitive interpretation of NP contrast in terms of material contrast. Experimental data is quantitatively compared with Monte-Carlo- (MC-) simulations. Quantitative agreement between experimental data and MC-simulations is obtained if the transmission characteristics of the annular semiconductor detector are taken into account. MC-simulations facilitate the understanding of NP contrast inversions and are helpful to derive conditions for optimum material and topography contrast.

  14. Characterising palladium-silver and palladium-nickel alloy membranes using SEM, XRD and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keuler, J.N.; Lorenzen, L.; Sanderson, R.D.; Prozesky, V.; Przybylowicz, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Palladium alloy membranes were prepared by successive electroless plating steps on an alumina-zirconia support membrane. Palladium, silver and nickel were deposited in layers and then the metal films were heat treated for 5 h in a hydrogen atmosphere at 650 deg. C. The topography of the metal coatings and cross-sections of the films (before and after heating) were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD was used to determine the crystal phase of the alloy coatings. Both SEM and XRD provide only surface information and therefore micro-PIXE was used to extract depth information of the alloy coating. Concentration profiles across the thickness of the films were constructed to determine penetration of the coating into the support membrane pores during electroless plating and to investigate diffusion of coated layers during the heating step

  15. Electronic structure and optical properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caid M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The structural, electronic and optical properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem superlattices have been computationally evaluated for different configurations with m = n and m≠n using the full-potential linear muffin-tin method. The exchange and correlation potentials are treated by the local density approximation (LDA. The ground state properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem binary compounds are determined and compared with the available data. It is found that the superlattice band gaps vary depending on the layers used. The optical constants, including the dielectric function ε(ω, the refractive index n(ω and the refractivity R(ω, are calculated for radiation energies up to 35 eV.

  16. Local behavior of an AISI 304 stainless steel submitted to in situ biaxial loading in SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caër, C., E-mail: celia.caer@gmail.com; Pesci, R.

    2017-04-06

    The microstructural response of a coarse grained AISI 304 stainless steel submitted to biaxial tensile loading was investigated using SEM and X-ray diffraction. The specimen geometry was designed to allow for biaxial stress state and incipient crack in the center of the active part under biaxial tensile loading. This complex loading was performed step by step by a micromachine fitting into a SEM chamber. At each loading step FSD pictures and EBSD measurements were carried out to study the microstructural evolution of the alloy, namely grain rotations and misorientations, stress-induced martensite formation and crack propagation. According to their initial orientation, grains are found to behave differently under loading. Approximately 60% of grains are shown to reorient to the [110] Z orientation under biaxial tensile loading, whereas the 40% left undergo high plastic deformation. EBSD and XRD measurements respectively performed under loading and on the post mortem specimen highlighted the formation of about 4% of martensite.

  17. XRD and SEM analysis of hydroxyapatite during immersion in stimulated physiological solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Abdullah; Idris Besar; Rosmamuhamadani Ramli; Abd Razak Daud

    2000-01-01

    XRD and SEM techniques were used to analyse the apatite layer developed on the synthetic hydroxyapatite surface following immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF) that mimics the conditions of material experiences after implantation in the human body. Initially, the new layers formed after 7 day's incubation and increased with immersion time as crystallization of apatite phase. The XRD confirmed that the deposited layer was hydroxyapatite and crystallographically. With time, the crystal growth become more random and the intensity of the peaks decreased. During immersion, hydroxyapatite was precipitated from the SBF and coherently scattered with very small crystal. The SEM observation shows that the new precipitates were increased as well as incubation period increased. Therefore, hydroxyapatite ceramics are suggested to have very good biocompatibility. (Author)

  18. Uncertainty in the use of MAMA software to measure particle morphological parameters from SEM images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-05

    The MAMA software package developed at LANL is designed to make morphological measurements on a wide variety of digital images of objects. At LANL, we have focused on using MAMA to measure scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of particles, as this is a critical part of our forensic analysis of interdicted radiologic materials. In order to successfully use MAMA to make such measurements, we must understand the level of uncertainty involved in the process, so that we can rigorously support our quantitative conclusions.

  19. Dynamic Correction of Higher-Order Deflection Aberrations in the Environmental SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oral, Martin; Neděla, Vilém

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S4 (2015), s. 194-199 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : environmental SEM * ESEM * shifted deflection pivot point * Higher order deflection aberrations * vignetting * dynamic focusing * dynamic stigmator * dynamic correction Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  20. SEM-analysis of grain boundary porosity in three S-176 specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malen, K.; Birath, S.; Mattsson, O.

    1980-10-01

    Porosity in UO 2 -fuel has been studied in scanning electron microscope (SEM). The aim was to obtain a basis for evaluation of porosity in high burnup power reactor fuel. Three specimens have been analyzed. In the high temperature zones porosity can be seen both on grain boundaries and at grain edges. In the low temperature regions very little changes seem to have occurred during irradiation. (author)

  1. SEM/TIMS analysis trials on hotswipe samples taken from a shielded cell at Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushingham, J.; Vatter, I.; Cooke, R.

    1998-09-01

    The IAEA require advanced techniques and procedures for the detection of traces of actinides to be applied to their environmental sampling programme for nuclear safeguards as a means to detect undeclared activities. 'Swipe' samples taken from within nuclear facilities by IAEA inspectors require analysis to determine their actinide content and composition by bulk and particle measurements. The use of analytical equipment capable of analysing individual particles, particularly of actinides, is essential to optimise the IAEA's aim to monitor Member State's nuclear activities more proficiently. A trial has been undertaken at the Harwell Laboratory of AEA Technology to establish the efficacy of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) for the particle and bulk characterisation, respectively, of actinides on samples taken from within a shielded cell. These measurements were supported by γ-spectrometry and α-spectrometry. 'Hotswipe' samples taken from within a shielded cell with a well-known recent history have been prepared for particle and bulk analysis. SEM has been used to characterise individual particles from the swipe samples and the results have been related to known cell activities. Samples were prepared for SEM using a simple procedure to minimise the potential for sample contamination. The method proved to be capable of identifying 1 μm particles that contained U, Pu, Pa and Np. The measurement of U/Pu ratios was limited to particles that contained >2% Pu in U by weight. TIMS, together with alpha spectrometry, has been used to determine the bulk actinide composition of the samples whilst gamma spectrometry has been used to determine the fission product composition. Further work to improve the potential of SEM, and also secondary ionisation mass spectrometry (SIMS), for the measurement of hotswipe samples has been proposed. (author)

  2. Does your SEM really tell the truth? How would you know? part 3: vibration and drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.; Vladár, András. E.; Cizmar, Petr

    2014-09-01

    This is the third of a series of papers discussing various causes of measurement uncertainty in scanned particle beam instruments, and some of the solutions researched and developed at NIST. Scanned particle beam instruments especially the scanning electron microscope (SEM) have gone through tremendous evolution to become indispensable tools for many and diverse scientifi c and industrial applications. These improvements have signifi cantly enhanced their performance and made them far easier to operate. But, ease of operation has also fostered operator complacency. In addition, the user-friendliness has reduced the need for extensive operator training. Unfortunately, this has led to the concept that the SEM is just another expensive digital camera or another peripheral device connected to a computer and that all of the issues related to obtaining quality data have been solved. Hence, a person (or company) using these instruments may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been fully eliminated and they believe everything they see on the micrograph is always correct. But, as described in this and the earlier presentations this may not be the case. The fi rst paper in this series discussed some of the issues related to signal generation in the SEM, including instrument calibration, electron beam-sample interactions and the need for physics-based modelling to understand the actual image formation mechanisms to properly interpret SEM images. The second paper, discussed another major issue confronting the microscopist: specimen contamination and methods of contamination elimination. This third paper, discusses vibration and drift and some useful solutions.

  3. Nanomanufacturing concerns about measurements made in the SEM Part III: vibration and drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.; Vladár, András. E.; Cizmar, Petr

    2014-08-01

    Many advanced manufacturing processes employ scanning electron microscopes (SEM) for on-line critical measurements for process and quality control. This is the third of a series of papers discussing various causes of measurement uncertainty in scanned particle beam instruments, and some of the solutions researched and developed at NIST. Scanned particle beam instruments especially the scanning electron microscope have gone through tremendous evolution to become indispensable tools for many and diverse scientifi c and industrial applications. These improvements have signifi cantly enhanced their performance and made them far easier to operate. But, ease of operation has also fostered operator complacency. In addition, the user-friendliness has reduced the need for extensive operator training. Unfortunately, this has led to the concept that the SEM is just another expensive digital camera or another peripheral device connected to a computer and that all of the issues related to obtaining quality data have been solved. Hence, a person (or company) using these instruments may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been fully eliminated and they believe everything they see on the micrograph is always correct. But, as described in this and the earlier presentations this may not be the case. The fi rst paper in this series discussed some of the issues related to signal generation in the SEM, including instrument calibration, electron beam-sample interactions and the need for physics-based modelling to understand the actual image formation mechanisms to properly interpret SEM images. The second paper, discussed another major issue confronting the microscopist: specimen contamination and methods of contamination elimination. This third paper, discusses vibration and drift and some useful solutions.

  4. Methods for Additive Hydration Allowing Observation of Fully Hydrated State of Wet Samples in Environmental SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 2 (2007), s. 95-100 ISSN 1059-910X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0886; GA AV ČR KJB200650602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : agar * natural structure * biological specimens * environmental SEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.644, year: 2007

  5. A new method using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for preparation of anisopterous odonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Palacio, Alejandro; Sarmiento, Patricia Laura; Javier, Muzón

    2017-10-01

    Anisopterous odonate male's secondary genitalia is a complex of several structures, among them the vesica spermalis is the most informative with important specific characters. The observation of those characters, mostly of membranous nature, is difficult in the Scanning Electron Microscope due to dehydration and metallization processes. In this contribution, we discuss a new and low cost procedure for the observation of these characters in the SEM, compatible with the most common agents used for preserving specimens. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. GammaSem Proceedings. A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straalberg, E. (ed.) (Institute for Energy Technolgy (Norway)); Berg, K. (National Institute of Radiation Protection (Denmark)); Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)) (and others)

    2010-11-15

    The project GammaSem was proposed to the NKS in 2008. The aim of the project was to arrange two seminars for users of gamma spectrometry, in 2009 and 2010. The seminars were meant to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and initiate a network of gamma spectrometry users in the Nordic countries. Such a Nordic network should strengthen the collaboration between laboratories and improve all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. Both seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 65 people signed up for GammaSem 2010; representing 30 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and authorities. The working group concept as presented at last year's GammaSem, has not worked out as intended. The reason for this is probably because most of the laboratories that signed up to join the working groups, signed up because they wanted to learn more about the different subjects. In combination with the fact that no funding was made available for the working groups, it was difficult to establish goals on what to achieve. None of the working groups applied for funding from the NKS (or elsewhere) to establish separate projects. There is a big need for more cooperation and for training within the field of gamma spectrometry. This fact has been proved through these two seminars, both by the many different topics that have been discussed, but also by the huge interest for participating in the suggested series of workshop. The GammaSem seminars have thus provided a much welcomed starting point for a broader Nordic collaboration. (Author)

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Micro-porosity of Eco-material by Using SEM Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-ru; LIU Yuan-zhi; LIU Zu-de

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure of the eco-material combining vegetation recovery with slope protection is important for determining plant-growing properties.Several techniques for analyzing the eco-material microstructure are presented,including the freeze-cut-drying method of preparing samples for scanning electronic microscopy (SEM),the SEM image processing technique and quantifying analysis method of the SEM images,and etc.The aggregates and pores in SEM images are identified using the different mathematics operators,and their effects are compared.The areas of aggregates and pores are obtained using the operator of morphology,and the influences of different thresholds in image segmentation are also discussed.The results show that the method,in which the variation of non-maximum grey-level gradient is limited,improves the effect of edge detections due to a weak distinction existing at the edge between the aggregates and pores in image.The determination of the threshold should combine the image characteristic with filling operation,so as to assure the precision of the image analysis,in which the contact-segmentation is the simplest and most effective method.The results also show that the pore areas in eco-materials are generally larger than those in the correlative soils,and their increment is large as soil fabric being fine.These differences are related to admixture of expansive perliticThe operator of morphology provides a new method for the image analysis of other porous material microstructure such as soils and concretes.

  8. Do generic strategies impact performance in higher educational institutions? A SEM-based investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlam Mohammad Alzoubi; Okechukwu Lawrence Emeagwali

    2016-01-01

    This study set out to initiate an investigation into the linkage between generic strategy and performance in higher educational institutions and the moderating effect of institution-type. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), it examined the responses of a stratified sample of academics and administrative staff (n= 333) randomly selected from eight universities in northern Cyprus. Findings suggest that while there is a weak effect of differentiation strategy on performance, a strong effec...

  9. Ontologías y Web Semántica 2005. Resumen del taller

    OpenAIRE

    Corcho, Oscar; Gómez-Pérez, A.; Fernández López, Mariano; Ramos Gargantilla, JA.

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo se resumen los resultados obtenidos en el taller “Ontologías y Web Semántica 2005”, que fue celebrado el día 14 de noviembre de 2005 en Santiago de Compostela, en el contexto de la Conferencia de la Asociación Española para la Inteligencia Artificial (CAEPIA2005).

  10. Módulos interactivos para el aprendizaje de la semántica.

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino Palacios, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Se proponen modulos interactivos para lograr el aprendizaje de la semantica en alumnos del V semestre de la Carrera de Lenguas, Literatura y Comunicacion de la Facultad de Educacion de la UNCP. Los metodos utilizados fueron el experimental y el bibliografico-documental. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron la prueba objetiva, prueba de ensayo y la prueba pedagogica. Se logró mejorar el aprendizaje de la semántica 

  11. Quantifying Golgi structure using EM: combining volume-SEM and stereology for higher throughput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sophie; Steyer, Anna M; Mayhew, Terry M; Schwab, Yannick; Lucocq, John Milton

    2017-06-01

    Investigating organelles such as the Golgi complex depends increasingly on high-throughput quantitative morphological analyses from multiple experimental or genetic conditions. Light microscopy (LM) has been an effective tool for screening but fails to reveal fine details of Golgi structures such as vesicles, tubules and cisternae. Electron microscopy (EM) has sufficient resolution but traditional transmission EM (TEM) methods are slow and inefficient. Newer volume scanning EM (volume-SEM) methods now have the potential to speed up 3D analysis by automated sectioning and imaging. However, they produce large arrays of sections and/or images, which require labour-intensive 3D reconstruction for quantitation on limited cell numbers. Here, we show that the information storage, digital waste and workload involved in using volume-SEM can be reduced substantially using sampling-based stereology. Using the Golgi as an example, we describe how Golgi populations can be sensed quantitatively using single random slices and how accurate quantitative structural data on Golgi organelles of individual cells can be obtained using only 5-10 sections/images taken from a volume-SEM series (thereby sensing population parameters and cell-cell variability). The approach will be useful in techniques such as correlative LM and EM (CLEM) where small samples of cells are treated and where there may be variable responses. For Golgi study, we outline a series of stereological estimators that are suited to these analyses and suggest workflows, which have the potential to enhance the speed and relevance of data acquisition in volume-SEM.

  12. Nanomanufacturing Concerns about Measurements Made in the SEM Part IV: Charging and its Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András E

    2015-01-01

    This is the fourth part of a series of tutorial papers discussing various causes of measurement uncertainty in scanned particle beam instruments, and some of the solutions researched and developed at NIST and other research institutions. Scanned particle beam instruments especially the scanning electron microscope (SEM) have gone through tremendous evolution to become indispensable tools for many and diverse scientific and industrial applications. These improvements have significantly enhanced their performance and made them far easier to operate. But, the ease of operation has also fostered operator complacency. In addition, the user-friendliness has reduced the apparent need for extensive operator training. Unfortunately, this has led to the idea that the SEM is just another expensive "digital camera" or another peripheral device connected to a computer and that all of the problems in obtaining good quality images and data have been solved. Hence, one using these instruments may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been fully eliminated and believing that, everything one sees on the micrograph is always correct. But, as described in this and the earlier papers, this may not be the case. Care must always be taken when reliable quantitative data are being sought. The first paper in this series discussed some of the issues related to signal generation in the SEM, including instrument calibration, electron beam-sample interactions and the need for physics-based modeling to understand the actual image formation mechanisms to properly interpret SEM images. The second paper has discussed another major issue confronting the microscopist: specimen contamination and methods to eliminate it. The third paper discussed mechanical vibration and stage drift and some useful solutions to mitigate the problems caused by them, and here, in this the fourth contribution, the issues related to specimen "charging" and its mitigation are discussed relative to

  13. Elemental analyses of bulk and individual particles by PIXE and SEM-EDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Mikio; Shinoda, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Kanji; Yoshida, Kouji.

    1993-01-01

    The atmospheric aerosol samples were collected by a stacked filter method under the various environmental conditions. The elemental concentrations of aerosol particles were measured using PIXE analysis as a bulk sample. And also elemental compositions of about 200 individual particles per each sample were measured by SEM-EDX analysis. In this study, the correspondencies of analytical results measured by both analyses as well as chemical characteristics of individual and bulk aerosols were investigated. (author)

  14. SEM visualization of glycosylated surface molecules using lectin-coated microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, J.; Janer, L.; Campbell, M.

    1985-01-01

    There are several techniques currently used to localize glycosylated surface molecules by scanning electron microscopy (Grinnell, 1980; Molday, 1976; Linthicum and Sell, 1975; Nicolson, 1974; Lo Buglio, et al, 1972). A simple and rapid method, using a modification of Grinnell's technique is reported here. Essentially, microspheres coated with Concavalin A are used to bind to glycosylated regions of the palatal shelf epithelium and are visualized in the scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  15. Study of SEM induced current and voltage contrast modes to assess semiconductor reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the scanning electron microscopy study was to review the failure history of existing integrated circuit technologies to identify predominant failure mechanisms, and to evaluate the feasibility of their detection using SEM application techniques. The study investigated the effects of E-beam irradiation damage and contamination deposition rates; developed the necessary methods for applying the techniques to the detection of latent defects and weaknesses in integrated circuits; and made recommendations for applying the techniques.

  16. GammaSem Proceedings. A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straelberg, E.; Berg, K.; Dowdall, M.

    2010-11-01

    The project GammaSem was proposed to the NKS in 2008. The aim of the project was to arrange two seminars for users of gamma spectrometry, in 2009 and 2010. The seminars were meant to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and initiate a network of gamma spectrometry users in the Nordic countries. Such a Nordic network should strengthen the collaboration between laboratories and improve all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. Both seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 65 people signed up for GammaSem 2010; representing 30 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and authorities. The working group concept as presented at last year's GammaSem, has not worked out as intended. The reason for this is probably because most of the laboratories that signed up to join the working groups, signed up because they wanted to learn more about the different subjects. In combination with the fact that no funding was made available for the working groups, it was difficult to establish goals on what to achieve. None of the working groups applied for funding from the NKS (or elsewhere) to establish separate projects. There is a big need for more cooperation and for training within the field of gamma spectrometry. This fact has been proved through these two seminars, both by the many different topics that have been discussed, but also by the huge interest for participating in the suggested series of workshop. The GammaSem seminars have thus provided a much welcomed starting point for a broader Nordic collaboration. (Author)

  17. Morphological and Production Changes in Stressed Red Yeasts Monitored Using SEM and Raman Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubanová, Kamila; Samek, Ota; Haroniková, A.; Bernatová, Silvie; Zemánek, Pavel; Márová, I.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 1146-1147 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SEM * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  18. SemMat: Federated Semantic Services Platform for Open materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    SEMMAT: FEDERATED SEMANTIC SERVICES PLATFORM FOR OPEN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING WRIGHT STATE UNIVERSITY JANUARY 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL...COVERED (From - To) JUL 2013 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SemMat: FEDERATED SEMANTIC SERVICES PLATFORM FOR OPEN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...models to represent materials data. This provides a data exchange scheme for materials science , which also includes provenance information to promote

  19. 3-D Analysis of Graphite Nodules in Ductile Cast Iron Using FIB-SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, Luca; Jespersen, Freja N.; MacDonald, A. Nicole

    Ductile cast iron samples were analysed in a Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscope, FIB-SEM. The focussed ion beam was used to carefully remove layers of the graphite nodules to reveal internal structures in the nodules. The sample preparation and milling procedure for sectioning graphite...... inside the nodules, their orientation in relation to the graphite and the chemistry of the inclusions is analysed and described. Formation of the structures during solidification and subsequent cooling to room temperature is discussed....

  20. Monitoring of Multilayered Bacterial Biofilm Morphology by Cryo-SEM for Raman Spectroscopy Measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubanová, Kamila; Bernatová, Silvie; Samek, Ota; Šerý, Mojmír; Zemánek, Pavel; Nebesářová, Jana; Růžička, F.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S3 (2015), s. 187-188 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : multilayered bacterial biofilm * morphology by Cryo-SEM * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  1. Fuzzy Control and Connected Region Marking Algorithm-Based SEM Nanomanipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjie Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactive nanomanipulation platform is established based on fuzzy control and connected region marking (CRM algorithm in SEM. The 3D virtual nanomanipulation model is developed to make up the insufficiency of the 2D SEM image information, which provides the operator with depth and real-time visual feedback information to guide the manipulation. The haptic device Omega3 is used as the master to control the 3D motion of the nanopositioner in master-slave mode and offer the force sensing to the operator controlled with fuzzy control algorithm. Aiming at sensing of force feedback during the nanomanipulation, the collision detection method of the virtual nanomanipulation model and the force rending model are studied to realize the force feedback of nanomanipulation. The CRM algorithm is introduced to process the SEM image which provides effective position data of the objects for updating the virtual environment (VE, and relevant issues such as calibration and update rate of VE are also discussed. Finally, the performance of the platform is validated by the ZnO nanowire manipulation experiments.

  2. Application of SEM/EBSD and FEG-TEM/CBED to determine eutectic solidification mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogita, K.; Dahle, A.K.; Drennan, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This study shows the application of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in SEM and convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) in FEG-TEM to determine eutectic nucleation and growth in hypoeutectic Al-Si foundry alloys. Because the eutectic reaction is often the final stage of solidification it can be expected to have a significant impact on the formation of casting defects, particularly porosity. Previous EBSD work by Nogita and Dahle (2001), Dahle et al (2001), has shown that the eutectic nucleates on the primary phase in the unmodified alloy, and eutectic grains are nucleated in the intergranular liquid, instead of filling the dendrite envelopes, when Sr or Sb is added. However, the orientation relationship between silicon and aluminium in the eutectic has so far not been determined because of difficulties with sample preparation for EBSD and also detection limitations of Kikuchi refraction of silicon and aluminium, particularly in modified alloys with a refined eutectic. The combination of the EBSD technique in SEM and CBED in TEM analyses can provide crystallographic orientation relationships between primary aluminium dendrites, eutectic aluminium and silicon, which are important to explicitly define the solidification mode of the eutectic in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys. These relationships are influenced, and altered, by the addition of certain elements. This paper also describes the sample preparation techniques for SEM and TEM for samples with different eutectic structures. The advantages the techniques are discussed. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  3. SEM Characterization of an Irradiated Monolithic U-10Mo Fuel Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Jue, J.F.; Robinson, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization of irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates with differing amounts of matrix Si have been reported. However, to date, no results of SEM analysis of irradiated U-Mo monolithic fuel plates have been reported. This paper describes the first SEM characterization results for an irradiated monolithic U-10Mo fuel plate. Two samples from this fuel plate were characterized. One sample was produced from the low-flux side of the fuel plate, and another was produced at the high-flux side of the fuel plate. This characterization focused on the microstructural features present at the U-10Mo foil/cladding interface, particularly the interaction zone that had developed during fabrication and irradiation. In addition, the microstructure of the foil itself was investigated, along with the morphology of the observed fission gas bubbles. It was observed that a Si-rich interaction layer was present at the U-10Mo foil/cladding interface that exhibited relatively good irradiation behavior, and within the U-10Mo foil the microstructural features differed in some respects from what is typically seen in the U-Mo powders of an irradiated dispersion fuel.

  4. Preliminary SEM Observations on the Surface of Elastomeric Impression Materials after Immersion or Ozone Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prombonas, Anthony; Yannikakis, Stavros; Karampotsos, Thanasis; Katsarou, Martha-Spyridoula; Drakoulis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surface integrity of dental elastomeric impression materials that are subjected to disinfection is of major importance for the quality of the final prosthetic restorations. Aim The aim of this qualitative Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) study was to reveal the effects of immersion or ozone disinfection on the surface of four dental elastomeric impression materials. Materials and Methods Four dental elastomeric impression material brands were used (two vinyl polysiloxane silicones, one polyether, and one vinyl polyether silicone). Total of 32 specimens were fabricated, eight from each impression material. Specimens were immersion (0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution or 0.3% benzalkonium chloride solution) or ozone disinfected or served as controls and examined with SEM. Results Surface degradation was observed on several speci-mens disinfected with 0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution. Similar wavy-wrinkling surface structures were observed in almost all specimens, when treated either with 0.3% benzalkonium chloride solution or ozone. Conclusion The SEM images obtained from this study revealed that both immersion disinfectants and ozone show similar impression material surface alterations. Ozone seems to be non-inferior as compared to immersion disinfectants, but superior as to environmental protection. PMID:28208993

  5. Blistering and exfoliation of 304 stainless steel studied by SEM and RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.; Emmoth, B.; Whitton, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Blistering and exfoliation induced by helium irradiation have been studied in polycrystalline stainless steel with the aim of measuring flake or blister skin thicknesses for different implantation energies in the keV region. The authors present measurements of skin thicknesses determined both by direct SEM observations and RBS techniques. The results of the RBS studies show for all implantation energies used that the thickness measured in target atoms/unit area of a flake equals the calculated implantation range with an accuracy of about 10%. Conversely, the SEM measurements show that swelling gives rise to a geometrical skin thickness much greater than the corresponding implantation range. Thus from the SEM and RBS data swelling as a function of the implantation energy is obtained and the linear relative swelling is shown to be strongly dependent on the energy. In addition a comparison between the skin thickness of blisters and flakes has been made for the same material. Blisters were observed at low implantation temperatures and room temperature while exfoliation occurs at elevated temperatures. The result of this comparison is that within the experimental accuracy the flake and blister thicknesses are the same. (Auth.)

  6. Automated SEM and TEM sample preparation applied to copper/low k materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R.; Shaapur, F.; Griffiths, D.; Diebold, A. C.; Foran, B.; Raz, E.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the use of automated microcleaving for preparation of both SEM and TEM samples as done by SELA's new MC500 and TEMstation tools. The MC500 is an automated microcleaving tool that is capable of producing cleaves with 0.25 μm accuracy resulting in SEM-ready samples. The TEMstation is capable of taking a sample output from the MC500 (or from SELA's earlier MC200 tool) and producing a FIB ready slice of 25±5 μm, mounted on a TEM-washer and ready for FIB thinning to electron transparency for TEM analysis. The materials selected for the tool set evaluation mainly included the Cu/TaN/HOSP low-k system. The paper is divided into three sections, experimental approach, SEM preparation and analysis of HOSP low-k, and TEM preparation and analysis of Cu/TaN/HOSP low-k samples. For the samples discussed, data is presented to show the quality of preparation provided by these new automated tools.

  7. Valores e motivações para responder sem preconceito frente a homossexuais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Veloso Gouveia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo se objetivou conhecer os correlatos valorativos das motivações interna e externa para encarar sem preconceito a homossexualidade. Foram realizados dois estudos. No Estudo 1 participaram 234 pessoas de João Pessoa, com idade média de 26 anos, que responderam à Escala de Motivações para Responder sem Precocietos Frente a Gays e ao Questionário dos Valores Básicos e perguntas demográficas. A motivação interna se correlacionou com as subfunções suprapessoal (+ e normativa (-, enquanto a motivação externa o fez com existência (+ e normativa (+. O Estudo 2 reuniu 202 pessoas da mesma população, com idade média de 25 anos. Elas responderam os mesmos instrumentos, tendo as lésbicas como grupo-alvo. As motivações interna e externa se correlacionaram com a subfunção normativa (- e +, respectivamente. Concluindo, os valores predisseram adequadamente as motivações para olhar sem preconceito a homossexualidade e os achados foram discutidos a partir do modelo dual de valores.

  8. SEM characterization of an irradiated monolithic U-10Mo fuel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Jue, J.F.; Robinson, A.B.; Finlay, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization of irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates with differing amounts of matrix Si have been reported. However, to date, no results of SEM analysis of irradiated U-Mo monolithic fuel plates have been reported. This paper describes the first SEM characterization results for an irradiated monolithic U-10Mo fuel plate. Two samples from this fuel plate were characterized. One sample was produced from the low-flux side of the fuel plate, and another was produced at the high-flux side of the fuel plate. This characterization focused on the microstructural features present at the U-10Mo foil/AA6061 cladding interface, particularly the interaction zone that had developed during fabrication and any continued development during irradiation. In addition, the microstructure of the foil itself was investigated, along with the morphology of the observed fission gas bubbles. It was observed that a Si-rich interaction layer was present at the U-10Mo foil/cladding interface that exhibited relatively good irradiation behavior, and within the U-10Mo foil the microstructural features differed in some respects from what is typically seen in the U-7Mo powders of an irradiated dispersion fuel. (author)

  9. A hybrid 3D SEM reconstruction method optimized for complex geologic material surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shang; Adegbule, Aderonke; Kibbey, Tohren C G

    2017-08-01

    Reconstruction methods are widely used to extract three-dimensional information from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. This paper presents a new hybrid reconstruction method that combines stereoscopic reconstruction with shape-from-shading calculations to generate highly-detailed elevation maps from SEM image pairs. The method makes use of an imaged glass sphere to determine the quantitative relationship between observed intensity and angles between the beam and surface normal, and the detector and surface normal. Two specific equations are derived to make use of image intensity information in creating the final elevation map. The equations are used together, one making use of intensities in the two images, the other making use of intensities within a single image. The method is specifically designed for SEM images captured with a single secondary electron detector, and is optimized to capture maximum detail from complex natural surfaces. The method is illustrated with a complex structured abrasive material, and a rough natural sand grain. Results show that the method is capable of capturing details such as angular surface features, varying surface roughness, and surface striations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of glass particles on bone lesions using SEM-EDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoriol, Romain; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Chantalat, Elodie; Roumiguié, Mathieu; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Payré, Bruno; Telmon, Norbert; Savall, Frédéric

    2017-09-01

    The problem of identifying the wounding agent in forensic cases is recurrent. Moreover, when several tools are involved, distinguishing the origin of lesions can be difficult. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) equipment is increasingly available to the scientific and medical community, and some studies have reported its use in forensic anthropology. However, at our knowledge, no study has reported the use of SEM-EDS in forensic cases involving glass tools, whether in case reports or experiments. We performed an experimental study on human rib fragments, on which we manually created wounds using fragments of window and mirror glass. SEM-EDS was executed on samples without any further preparation on low vacuum mode, then on the same samples after defleshing them completely by boiling them. Window and mirror glass particles were detected on experimental wounds. Both had silica in their spectra, and the opaque side of the mirror contained titanium, allowing for their identification. Boiling and defleshing the bone samples involved a loss of information in terms of the number of wounds detected as positive for glass particles and in the number of glass particles detected, for both window and mirror glass. We suggest the analysis of wounds with suspected glass particles using low vacuum mode and with no defleshment by boiling.

  11. Enhanced FIB-SEM systems for large-volume 3D imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C Shan; Hayworth, Kenneth J; Lu, Zhiyuan; Grob, Patricia; Hassan, Ahmed M; García-Cerdán, José G; Niyogi, Krishna K; Nogales, Eva; Weinberg, Richard J; Hess, Harald F

    2017-01-01

    Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) can automatically generate 3D images with superior z-axis resolution, yielding data that needs minimal image registration and related post-processing. Obstacles blocking wider adoption of FIB-SEM include slow imaging speed and lack of long-term system stability, which caps the maximum possible acquisition volume. Here, we present techniques that accelerate image acquisition while greatly improving FIB-SEM reliability, allowing the system to operate for months and generating continuously imaged volumes > 106 µm3. These volumes are large enough for connectomics, where the excellent z resolution can help in tracing of small neuronal processes and accelerate the tedious and time-consuming human proofreading effort. Even higher resolution can be achieved on smaller volumes. We present example data sets from mammalian neural tissue, Drosophila brain, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to illustrate the power of this novel high-resolution technique to address questions in both connectomics and cell biology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25916.001 PMID:28500755

  12. In-SEM Raman microspectroscopy coupled with EDX - a case study of uranium reference particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefaniak, Elzbieta A.; Pointurier, Fabien; Marie, Olivier; Truyens, Jan; Aregbe, Yetunde

    2014-01-01

    Information about the molecular composition of airborne uranium-bearing particles may be useful as an additional tool for nuclear safeguards. In order to combine the detection of micrometer-sized particles with the analysis of their molecular forms, we used a hybrid system enabling Raman microanalysis in high vacuum inside a SEM chamber (SEM-SCA system). The first step involved an automatic scan of a sample to detect and save coordinates of uranium particles, along with X-ray microanalysis. In the second phase, the detected particles were relocated in a white light image and subjected to Raman microanalysis. The consecutive measurements by the two beams showed exceptional fragility of uranium particles, leading to their ultimate damage and change of uranium oxidation state. We used uranium reference particles prepared by hydrolysis of uranium hexafluoride to test the reliability of the Raman measurements inside the high vacuum. The results achieved by the hybrid system were verified by using a standalone Raman micro spectrometer. When deposited on exceptionally smooth substrates, uranyl fluoride particles smaller than 1000 nm could successfully be analyzed with the SEM-SCA system. (authors)

  13. Direct comparison of AFM and SEM measurements on the same set of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvallée, A; Feltin, N; Ducourtieux, S; Trabelsi, M; Hochepied, J F

    2015-01-01

    This article is the first step in the development of a hybrid metrology combining AFM and SEM techniques for measuring the dimensions of a nanoparticle population in 3D space (X,Y,Z). This method exploits the strengths of each technique on the same set of nanoparticles. AFM is used for measuring the nanoparticle height and the measurements along X and Y axes are deduced from SEM images. A sampling method is proposed in order to obtain the best deposition conditions of SiO 2 and gold nanoparticles on mica or silicon substrates. Only the isolated nanoparticles are taken into account in the histogram of size distribution. Moreover, a semi-automatic Matlab routine has also been developed to process the AFM and SEM images, measure and count the nanoparticles. This routine allows the user to exclusively select the isolated nanoparticles through a control interface. The measurements have been performed on spherical-like nanoparticles to test the method by comparing the results obtained with both techniques. (paper)

  14. Quantitative Determination of Noa (Naturally Occurring Asbestos) in Rocks : Comparison Between Pcom and SEM Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baietto, Oliviero; Amodeo, Francesco; Giorgis, Ilaria; Vitaliti, Martina

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of NOA (Naturally Occurring Asbestos) in a rock or soil matrix is complex and subject to numerous errors. The purpose of this study is to compare two fundamental methodologies used for the analysis: the first one uses Phase Contrast Optical Microscope (PCOM) while the second one uses Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The two methods, although they provide the same result, which is the asbestos mass to total mass ratio, have completely different characteristics and both present pros and cons. The current legislation in Italy involves the use of SEM, DRX, FTIR, PCOM (DM 6/9/94) for the quantification of asbestos in bulk materials and soils and the threshold beyond which the material is considered as hazardous waste is a concentration of asbestos fiber of 1000 mg/kg.(DM 161/2012). The most used technology is the SEM which is the one among these with the better analytical sensitivity.(120mg/Kg DM 6 /9/94) The fundamental differences among the analyses are mainly: - Amount of analyzed sample portion - Representativeness of the sample - Resolution - Analytical precision - Uncertainty of the methodology - Operator errors Due to the problem of quantification of DRX and FTIR (1% DM 6/9/94) our Asbestos Laboratory (DIATI POLITO) since more than twenty years apply the PCOM methodology and in the last years the SEM methodology for quantification of asbestos content. The aim of our research is to compare the results obtained from a PCOM analysis with the results provided by SEM analysis on the base of more than 100 natural samples both from cores (tunnel-boring or explorative-drilling) and from tunnelling excavation . The results obtained show, in most cases, a good correlation between the two techniques. Of particular relevance is the fact that both techniques are reliable for very low quantities of asbestos, even lower than the analytical sensitivity. This work highlights the comparison between the two techniques emphasizing strengths and weaknesses of

  15. SEM AutoAnalysis: enhancing photomask and NIL defect disposition and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristian; Egodage, Kokila; Tabbone, Gilles; Ehrlich, Christian; Garetto, Anthony

    2017-06-01

    For defect disposition and repair verification regarding printability, AIMS™ is the state of the art measurement tool in industry. With its unique capability of capturing aerial images of photomasks it is the one method that comes closest to emulating the printing behaviour of a scanner. However for nanoimprint lithography (NIL) templates aerial images cannot be applied to evaluate the success of a repair process. Hence, for NIL defect dispositioning scanning, electron microscopy (SEM) imaging is the method of choice. In addition, it has been a standard imaging method for further root cause analysis of defects and defect review on optical photomasks which enables 2D or even 3D mask profiling at high resolutions. In recent years a trend observed in mask shops has been the automation of processes that traditionally were driven by operators. This of course has brought many advantages one of which is freeing cost intensive labour from conducting repetitive and tedious work. Furthermore, it reduces variability in processes due to different operator skill and experience levels which at the end contributes to eliminating the human factor. Taking these factors into consideration, one of the software based solutions available under the FAVOR® brand to support customer needs is the aerial image evaluation software, AIMS™ AutoAnalysis (AAA). It provides fully automated analysis of AIMS™ images and runs in parallel to measurements. This is enabled by its direct connection and communication with the AIMS™tools. As one of many positive outcomes, generating automated result reports is facilitated, standardizing the mask manufacturing workflow. Today, AAA has been successfully introduced into production at multiple customers and is supporting the workflow as described above. These trends indeed have triggered the demand for similar automation with respect to SEM measurements leading to the development of SEM AutoAnalysis (SAA). It aims towards a fully automated SEM image

  16. Enabling CD SEM metrology for 5nm technology node and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Gian Francesco; Ohashi, Takeyoshi; Yamaguchi, Astuko; Inoue, Osamu; Sutani, Takumichi; Horiguchi, Naoto; Bömmels, Jürgen; Wilson, Christopher J.; Briggs, Basoene; Tan, Chi Lim; Raymaekers, Tom; Delhougne, Romain; Van den Bosch, Geert; Di Piazza, Luca; Kar, Gouri Sankar; Furnémont, Arnaud; Fantini, Andrea; Donadio, Gabriele Luca; Souriau, Laurent; Crotti, Davide; Yasin, Farrukh; Appeltans, Raf; Rao, Siddharth; De Simone, Danilo; Rincon Delgadillo, Paulina; Leray, Philippe; Charley, Anne-Laure; Zhou, Daisy; Veloso, Anabela; Collaert, Nadine; Hasumi, Kazuhisa; Koshihara, Shunsuke; Ikota, Masami; Okagawa, Yutaka; Ishimoto, Toru

    2017-03-01

    The CD SEM (Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope) is one of the main tools used to estimate Critical Dimension (CD) in semiconductor manufacturing nowadays, but, as all metrology tools, it will face considerable challenges to keep up with the requirements of the future technology nodes. The root causes of these challenges are not uniquely related to the shrinking CD values, as one might expect, but to the increase in complexity of the devices in terms of morphology and chemical composition as well. In fact, complicated threedimensional device architectures, high aspect ratio features, and wide variety of materials are some of the unavoidable characteristics of the future metrology nodes. This means that, beside an improvement in resolution, it is critical to develop a CD SEM metrology capable of satisfying the specific needs of the devices of the nodes to come, needs that sometimes will have to be addressed through dramatic changes in approach with respect to traditional CD SEM metrology. In this paper, we report on the development of advanced CD SEM metrology at imec on a variety of device platform and processes, for both logic and memories. We discuss newly developed approaches for standard, IIIV, and germanium FinFETs (Fin Field Effect Transistors), for lateral and vertical nanowires (NW), 3D NAND (three-dimensional NAND), STT-MRAM (Spin Transfer Magnetic Torque Random-Access Memory), and ReRAM (Resistive Random Access Memory). Applications for both front-end of line (FEOL) and back-end of line (BEOL) are developed. In terms of process, S/D Epi (Source Drain Epitaxy), SAQP (Self-Aligned Quadruple Patterning), DSA (Dynamic Self-Assembly), and EUVL (Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography) have been used. The work reported here has been performed on Hitachi CG5000, CG6300, and CV5000. In terms of logic, we discuss here the S/D epi defect classification, the metrology optimization for STI (Shallow Trench Isolation) Ge FinFETs, the defectivity of III-V STI Fin

  17. The ITZ in concrete with natural and recycled aggregates : Study of microstructures based on image and SEM analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifazi, G.; Capobianco, G.; Serranti, S.; Eggimann, M.; Wagner, E.; Di Maio, F.; Lotfi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure of the Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) between cement paste and aggregate in concrete utilizing Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in order to identify possible effects on the ITZ related to different recipes and production parameters. SEM is

  18. SEM-microphotogrammetry, a new take on an old method for generating high-resolution 3D models from SEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, A D; Job, P A; Walker, A E L

    2017-08-01

    The method we present here uses a scanning electron microscope programmed via macros to automatically capture dozens of images at suitable angles to generate accurate, detailed three-dimensional (3D) surface models with micron-scale resolution. We demonstrate that it is possible to use these Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images in conjunction with commercially available software originally developed for photogrammetry reconstructions from Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) cameras and to reconstruct 3D models of the specimen. These 3D models can then be exported as polygon meshes and eventually 3D printed. This technique offers the potential to obtain data suitable to reconstruct very tiny features (e.g. diatoms, butterfly scales and mineral fabrics) at nanometre resolution. Ultimately, we foresee this as being a useful tool for better understanding spatial relationships at very high resolution. However, our motivation is also to use it to produce 3D models to be used in public outreach events and exhibitions, especially for the blind or partially sighted. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  19. The C. elegans Spalt-like protein SEM-4 functions through the SoxC transcription factor SEM-2 to promote a proliferative blast cell fate in the postembryonic mesoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qinfang; Shi, Herong; Tian, Chenxi; Ghai, Vikas; Liu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Proper development of a multicellular organism relies on well-coordinated regulation of cell fate specification, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. The C. elegans postembryonic mesoderm provides a useful system for uncovering factors involved in these processes and for further dissecting their regulatory relationships. The single Spalt-like zinc finger containing protein SEM-4/SALL is known to be involved in specifying the proliferative sex myoblast (SM) fate. We have found that SEM-4/SALL is sufficient to promote the SM fate and that it does so in a cell autonomous manner. We further showed that SEM-4/SALL acts through the SoxC transcription factor SEM-2 to promote the SM fate. SEM-2 is known to promote the SM fate by inhibiting the expression of two BWM-specifying transcription factors. In light of recent findings in mammals showing that Sall4, one of the mammalian homologs of SEM-4, contributes to pluripotency regulation by inhibiting differentiation, our work suggests that the function of SEM-4/SALL proteins in regulating pluripotency versus differentiation appears to be evolutionarily conserved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis. Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system.

  1. Specimen's plane misaligned installation solution based on charge fluctuation inside SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haojian; Liu, Yanting; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Panbing; Shen, Yajing

    2018-04-01

    Precise specimen's installation is a sticking point to ensure the characterization accuracy of the in-situ material property test. Although it is common knowledge that specimen's plane misaligned installation (PMI) would cause extra force loading during mechanical testing, there are few effective solutions available to deal with it at the current stage, especially during the in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) test. Taking into consideration the charge fluctuation phenomenon under SEM, this paper proposes a highlight area variation (HAV) method for specimen deformation judgment, i.e., the specimen deformation is defined when the highlight area changes greater than 20% of the initial value of the specimen surface. Three types of specimens with different resistivities, i.e., human hair (electrical resistivity ˜3 × 1012 Ω cm), optical fiber (electrical resistivity ˜1017 Ω cm), and magnetic wire (electrical resistivity ˜2 × 10-5 Ω cm), are chosen to verify the effectiveness of the HAV method. Furthermore, combined with the developed robot-aided alignment system, the specimen's PMI problem can also be solved. In the demonstration, the human hair specimen is installed across two specimen stages and its in-situ twisting (in 360°) test is implemented. The results clearly indicate that the HAV method and the robot-aided alignment system are practical and reliable, and the specimen can be aligned on the same plane and installed precisely with accuracy up to 3 μm. This method will benefit the in-situ SEM material mechanical property test and has a significant impact in fundamental material research.

  2. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-06-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1–10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2} is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He–Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm{sup −2} and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2}. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  3. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1–10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm"−"2 is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He–Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm"−"2 and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm"−"2. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  4. Tumor suppressor protein SMAR1 modulates the roughness of cell surface: combined AFM and SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamgain Hitesh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imaging tools such as scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM can be used to produce high-resolution topographic images of biomedical specimens and hence are well suited for imaging alterations in cell morphology. We have studied the correlation of SMAR1 expression with cell surface smoothness in cell lines as well as in different grades of human breast cancer and mouse tumor sections. Methods We validated knockdown and overexpression of SMAR1 using RT-PCR as well as Western blotting in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293, human breast cancer (MCF-7 and mouse melanoma (B16F1 cell lines. The samples were then processed for cell surface roughness studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The same samples were used for microarray analysis as well. Tumors sections from control and SMAR1 treated mice as well as tissues sections from different grades of human breast cancer on poly L-lysine coated slides were used for AFM and SEM studies. Results Tumor sections from mice injected with melanoma cells showed pronounced surface roughness. In contrast, tumor sections obtained from nude mice that were first injected with melanoma cells followed by repeated injections of SMAR1-P44 peptide, exhibited relatively smoother surface profile. Interestingly, human breast cancer tissue sections that showed reduced SMAR1 expression exhibited increased surface roughness compared to the adjacent normal breast tissue. Our AFM data establishes that treatment of cells with SMAR1-P44 results into increase in cytoskeletal volume that is supported by comparative gene expression data showing an increase in the expression of specific cytoskeletal proteins compared to the control cells. Altogether, these findings indicate that tumor suppressor function of SMAR1 might be exhibited through smoothening of cell surface by regulating expression of cell surface proteins. Conclusion Tumor suppressor

  5. Application of FE-SEM with elemental analyzer for irradiated fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shinji; Maeda, Koji; Yamada, A.

    2012-01-01

    It is important to study the irradiation behavior of the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuels (MOX fuels) for development of fast reactor fuels. During irradiation in a fast reactor, the changes of microstructures and the changes of element distributions along radial direction occur in the MOX fuels because of a radial temperature gradient. In order to make detailed observations of microstructure and elemental analyses of fuel samples, a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with a wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (WDX) and an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) were installed in a hot laboratory. Because fuel samples have high radioactivities and emit α-particles, the instrument was modified correspondingly. The notable modified points were as follows. 1) To prevent leakage of radioactive materials, the instrument was attached to a remote control air-tight sample transfer unit between a shielded hot cell and the FE-SEM. 2) To protect operators and the instruments from radiation, the FE-SEM was installed in a lead shield box and the control unit was separately located outside the box. After the installation, the microscopy and elemental analyses were made on low burnup fuel samples. High resolution images were obtained on the fuel sample surface. The characteristic X-rays (U, Pu) emitted from the fuel sample surface measured along radial direction successfully. Thereby, it was able to grasp the change of U, Pu radial distribution after irradiation. The technique has the great advantage of being able to evaluate the changes of microstructures and the changes of element distributions of MOX fuels due to irradiation. In future work, samples of even higher radioactivity will be observed and analyzed. (author)

  6. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system. PMID:27649180

  7. Is scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) quantitative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M

    2013-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) is a widely applied elemental microanalysis method capable of identifying and quantifying all elements in the periodic table except H, He, and Li. By following the "k-ratio" (unknown/standard) measurement protocol development for electron-excited wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), SEM/EDS can achieve accuracy and precision equivalent to WDS and at substantially lower electron dose, even when severe X-ray peak overlaps occur, provided sufficient counts are recorded. Achieving this level of performance is now much more practical with the advent of the high-throughput silicon drift detector energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SDD-EDS). However, three measurement issues continue to diminish the impact of SEM/EDS: (1) In the qualitative analysis (i.e., element identification) that must precede quantitative analysis, at least some current and many legacy software systems are vulnerable to occasional misidentification of major constituent peaks, with the frequency of misidentifications rising significantly for minor and trace constituents. (2) The use of standardless analysis, which is subject to much broader systematic errors, leads to quantitative results that, while useful, do not have sufficient accuracy to solve critical problems, e.g. determining the formula of a compound. (3) EDS spectrometers have such a large volume of acceptance that apparently credible spectra can be obtained from specimens with complex topography that introduce uncontrolled geometric factors that modify X-ray generation and propagation, resulting in very large systematic errors, often a factor of ten or more. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Adapted methods for scanning electron microscopy (SEM in assessment of human sperm morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Nussdorfer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is a widespread problem, and in some cases, the routine basic semen analysis is not sufficient to detect the cause of male infertility. The use of the scanning electron microscope (SEM could provide a detailed insight into spermatozoa morphology, but it requires specific sample preparation techniques. The purpose of this study was to select, adjust, and optimize a method for the preparation of spermatozoa samples prior to SEM analysis, and to establish the protocol required for its use in clinical practice. We examined sperm samples of 50 men. The samples were fixed with modified iso-osmolar aldehyde solution followed by osmium post-fixation. In the first method, dehydration of the cells and subsequent critical point drying (CPD were performed on a coverslip. In the second method, the samples were dehydrated in centrifuge tubes; hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS was used as a drying agent instead of CPD, and the samples were air-dried. The third procedure was based on a membrane filter. The samples were dehydrated and dried with HMDS in a Gooch crucible, continuously, without centrifugation or redispersion of the sample. Our results showed that the fixation with modified iso-osmolar aldehyde solution followed by osmium post-fixation, and combined with dehydration and CPD on a coverslip, is the most convenient procedure for SEM sample preparation. In the case of small-size samples or low sperm concentration, dehydration and drying with HMDS on the membrane filter enabled the best reliability, repeatability, and comparability of the results. The presented procedures are suitable for routine use, and they can be applied to confirm as well as to correct a diagnosis.

  9. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-09-14

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system.

  10. Semântica gramatical: a significação dos pronomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildemir Ferreira de Carvalho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O estudo analisa a significação das particulas pronominais entre as quais se incluem os determinantes, os pronomes substantivos e os advérbios pronominais. Para esta análise se adota o critério dos traços constrativos (Chomsky, 2. Os resultados do trabalho mostram que as categorias semânticas dos pronomes (lato sensu se associam, de uma forma ou de outra, às nações de DEFINIDADE e PESSOA DO DISCURSO.

  11. Estudo da sintomatologia depressiva e ansiosa em crianças com e sem obesidade

    OpenAIRE

    Morgado, Joana Alexandra da Silva

    2013-01-01

    A obesidade infantil constitui um problema de saúde pública, o que motivou a sua classificação pela WHO como “epidemia do seculo XXI”. Como se não bastasse, surge sempre associada ao aumento quer da mortalidade, quer da morbilidade. Este estudo procura perceber em que medida as crianças com obesidade infantil diferem das crianças sem obesidade em termos de sintomatologia depressiva e ansiosa. O desenho do estudo é de natureza transversal e comparativa. A amostra é composta por 85 crianças, co...

  12. GAGG:ce single crystalline films: New perspective scintillators for electron detection in SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bok, Jan; Lalinský, Ondřej; Hanuš, M.; Onderišinová, Z.; Kelar, J.; Kučera, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 163, APR (2016), s. 1-5 ISSN 0304-3991 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05631S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : scintillator * GAGG:Ce * multicomponent garnet * epitaxial film * electron detection * SEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.843, year: 2016

  13. XPS and SEM studies of chromium oxide films chemically formed on stainless steel 316 L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanov, P.; Marinova, T.

    2000-01-01

    The structure and composition of chromium oxide films formed on stainless steel by immersion in a chromium electrolyte have been studied by SEM and XPS. Cr 2 O 3 crystallites in the range 30-150 nm are fully developed and cover the whole surface. The chemical composition in the depth and the thickness of the oxide layer have been determined by XPS sputter profiles. The oxide film can be described within the framework of a double layer consisting of a thin outer hydrated layer and an inner layer of Cr 2 O 3 . (orig.)

  14. Determination of gel content and SEM morphology for sago-PVA blends film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarada Idris; Zulkafli Ghazali; Kamarudin Hashim

    2006-01-01

    Blends of polyvinyl alcohol and sago starch have been prepared to evaluate the potential of producing biodegradable products. Glycerol was introduced in the blends to improve the flexibility of the films as plasticizer in order more flexible film. These blends have been subjected to electron beam irradiation to evaluate and characterized radiation effect on the blends. Subsequently films were produced from this blend. The gel content of un-irradiated and irradiated films as evidence of cross linking was measured and discussed. This paper also discuss the films morphology from Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM) observation. (Author)

  15. Red semántica de terremoto y maremoto en personas expuestas directa y vicariamente

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Moyano Díaz; Katerinne Muñoz Tapia; Claudia Estrada; Marcelo Leiva-Bianchi

    2012-01-01

    Se busca identificar el significado de los conceptos 'terremoto' y 'maremoto' en dos grupos diferentemente expuestos al evento acaecido en Chile el 27/02/2010, en una muestra no probabilística intencional, compuesta por 240 personas provenientes de las ciudades de Constitución (n=104) - expuestas directamente al terremoto y maremoto -, y de Punta Arenas (n=136) expuestas vicariamente. Mediante redes semánticas naturales (R.S.) construidas ad-hoc, fue observado que terremoto y tsunami tienen s...

  16. Unveiling the Mysteries of Mars with a Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Doloboff, I. J.; Jerman, G.

    2017-01-01

    Development of a miniaturized scanning electron microscope that will utilize the martian atmosphere to dissipate charge during analysis continues. This instrument is expected to be used on a future rover or lander to answer fundamental Mars science questions. To identify the most important questions, a survey was taken at the 47th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC). From the gathered information initial topics were identified for a SEM on the martian surface. These priorities are identified and discussed below. Additionally, a concept of operations is provided with the goal of maximizing the science obtained with the minimum amount of communication with the instrument.

  17. Application of SEM/EDS to environmental geochemistry of heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gosar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals represent a ubiquitous constituent of the near-surface environment, present in widely varyingconcentrations that typically have little impact on human behaviour and health. However, the mining of metals anduse of these metals in industrial processes has produced significant anthropogenic inputs of metals to both localand global environments. As such, a rigorous overview of the current accumulation of heavy metals and knowledgeof mineralogy of heavy metal-bearing phases is important for understanding their stability, solubility, mobility,bioavailability and toxicity. These data are of fundamental importance for environmental risk assessment and evaluationof future scenarios. Since conventional geochemical analyses provide limited information, other analyticalmethods have to be utilized for the characterisation of heavy metal-bearing phases. Significant analytical methodfor identification and characterisation of heavy metals in environmental media is a scanning electron microscopecoupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS, an apparatus for qualitative and semi-quantitative chemical analysis at microne level, newly introduced to Geological Survey of Slovenia. Use of SEM/EDS was already introduced to environmental studies world-wide. In Slovenia, SEM/EDS analyses of environmental media werefirstly carried out on the Meža River stream sediments and snow deposits from Ljubljana urban area.Heavy metal-bearing phases in the Meža River stream sediments were apportioned to three source areas: Mežica mining/smelting area (geogenic-technogenic origin, Ravne ironworks area (technogenic origin and the Meža River catchment area (geogenic origin, which corresponds to data obtained by conventional geochemical and multivariate statistical methods. Airborne particles, identified in urban snow deposits, were interpreted as geogenic particles, represented by fragments of heavy metal-bearing minerals, and technogenic particles that

  18. Chemical Characterization of Bed Material Coatingsby LA-ICP-MS and SEM-EDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piispanen, M. H.; Mustonen, A. J.; Tiainen, M. S.; Laitinen, R. S.

    Bed material coatings and the consequent agglomeration of bed material are main ash-related problems in FB-boilers. The bed agglomeration is a particular problem when combusting biofuels and waste materials. Whereas SEM-EDS together with automated image processing has proven to be a convenient method to study compositional distribution in coating layers and agglomerates, it is a relatively expensive technique and is not necessarily widely available. In this contribution, we explore the suitability of LA-ICP-MS to provide analogous information of the bed.

  19. SEM Characterization of Extinguished Grains from Plasma-Ignited M30 Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkennon, A.; Birk, A.; DelGuercio, M.; Kaste, P.; Lieb, R.; Newberry, J.; Pesce-Rodriguez, R.; Schroeder, M.

    2000-01-01

    M30 propellant grains that had been ignited in interrupted closed bomb experiments were characterize by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Previous chemical analysis of extinguished grains had given no indications of plasma-propellant chemical interactions that could explain the increased burning rates that had been previously observed in full-pressure closed bomb experiments. (This does not mean that there is no unique chemistry occurring with plasma ignition. It may occur very early in the ignition event and then become obscured by the burning chemistry.) In this work, SEM was used to look at grain morphologies to determine if there were increases in the surface areas of the plasma-ignited grains which would contribute to the apparent increase in the burning rate. Charges were made using 30 propellant grains (approximately 32 grams) stacked in two tiers and in two concentric circles around a plastic straw. Each grain was notched so that, when the grains were expelled from the bomb during extinguishment, it could be determined in which tier and which circle each grain was originally packed. Charges were ignited in a closed bomb by either a nickel wire/Mylar-capillary plasma or black powder. The bomb contained a blowout disk that ruptured when the pressure reached 35 MPa, and the propellant was vented into a collection chamber packed with polyurethane foam. SEM analysis of the grains fired with a conventional black powder igniter showed no signs of unusual burning characteristics. The surfaces seemed to be evenly burned on the exteriors of the grains and in the perforations. Grains that had been subjected to plasma ignition, however, had pits, gouges, chasms, and cracks in the surfaces. The sides of the grains closest to the plasma had the greatest amount of damage, but even surfaces facing the outer wall of the bomb had small pits. The perforations contained gouges and abnormally burned regions (wormholes) that extended into the web. The SEM photos indicated that

  20. Recent Optical and SEM Characterization of Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator Diamond on Silicon Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Ross, D. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; McNamara, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the 4 Genesis solar wind concentrator collectors was a silicon substrate coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) in which to capture solar wind. This material was designed for analysis of solar nitrogen and noble gases [1, 2]. This particular collector fractured during landing, but about 80% of the surface was recovered, including a large piece which was subdivided in 2012 [3, 4, 5]. The optical and SEM imaging and analysis described below supports the subdivision and allocation of the diamond-on-silicon (DOS) concentrator collector.

  1. Three-dimensional intracellular structure of a whole rice mesophyll cell observed with FIB-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Takao; Enomoto, Sakiko; Nakao, Tomoyo; Arai, Shigeo; Yamane, Koji; Taniguchi, Mitsutaka

    2017-07-01

    Ultrathin sections of rice leaf blades observed two-dimensionally using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) show that the chlorenchyma is composed of lobed mesophyll cells, with intricate cell boundaries, and lined with chloroplasts. The lobed cell shape and chloroplast positioning are believed to enhance the area available for the gas exchange surface for photosynthesis in rice leaves. However, a cell image revealing the three-dimensional (3-D) ultrastructure of rice mesophyll cells has not been visualized. In this study, a whole rice mesophyll cell was observed using a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM), which provides many serial sections automatically, rapidly and correctly, thereby enabling 3-D cell structure reconstruction. Rice leaf blades were fixed chemically using the method for conventional TEM observation, embedded in resin and subsequently set in the FIB-SEM chamber. Specimen blocks were sectioned transversely using the FIB, and block-face images were captured using the SEM. The sectioning and imaging were repeated overnight for 200-500 slices (each 50 nm thick). The resultant large-volume image stacks ( x = 25 μm, y = 25 μm, z = 10-25 μm) contained one or two whole mesophyll cells. The 3-D models of whole mesophyll cells were reconstructed using image processing software. The reconstructed cell models were discoid shaped with several lobes around the cell periphery. The cell shape increased the surface area, and the ratio of surface area to volume was twice that of a cylinder having the same volume. The chloroplasts occupied half the cell volume and spread as sheets along the cell lobes, covering most of the inner cell surface, with adjacent chloroplasts in close contact with each other. Cellular and sub-cellular ultrastructures of a whole mesophyll cell in a rice leaf blade are demonstrated three-dimensionally using a FIB-SEM. The 3-D models and numerical information support the hypothesis that rice mesophyll

  2. Validation of cell-free culture using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R; Elankumaran, Y; Hijjawi, N; Ryan, U

    2015-06-01

    A cell-free culture system for Cryptosporidium parvum was analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterise life cycle stages and compare gene expression in cell-free culture and cell culture using HCT-8 cells. Cryptosporidium parvum samples were harvested at 2 h, 8 h, 14 h, 26 h, 50 h, 74 h, 98 h, 122 h and 170 h, chemically fixed and specimens were observed using a Zeiss 1555 scanning electron microscope. The presence of sporozoites, trophozoites and type I merozoites were identified by SEM. Gene expression in cell culture and cell-free culture was studied using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of the sporozoite surface antigen protein (cp15), the glycoprotein 900 (gp900), the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in both cell free and conventional cell culture. In cell culture, cp15 expression peaked at 74 h, gp900 expression peaked at 74 h and 98 h and COWP expression peaked at 50 h. In cell-free culture, CP15 expression peaked at 98 h, gp900 expression peaked at 74 h and COWP expression peaked at 122 h. The present study is the first to compare gene expression of C. parvum in cell culture and cell-free culture and to characterise life cycle stages of C. parvum in cell-free culture using SEM. Findings from this study showed that gene expression patterns in cell culture and cell-free culture were similar but in cell-free culture, gene expression was delayed for CP15 and COWP in cell free culture compared with the cell culture system and was lower. Although three life cycle stageswere conclusively identified, improvements in SEM methodology should lead to the detection of more life cycle stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fast three-dimensional nanoscale metrology in dual-beam FIB-SEM instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, Luca; Buzio, Renato; Denurchis, Carlo; Firpo, Giuseppe; Piano, Emanuele; Valbusa, Ugo

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative surface reconstruction technique has been developed for the geometric characterization of three-dimensional structures by using a combined focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) instrument. A regular pattern of lines is milled at normal incidence on the sample to be characterized and an image is acquired at a large tilt angle. By analyzing the pattern under the tilted view, a quantitative estimation of surface heights is obtained. The technique has been applied to a test sample and nanoscale resolution has been achieved. The reported results are validated by a comparison with atomic force microscopy measurements.

  4. Morphological and Production Changes in Planktonic and Biofilm Cells Monitored Using SEM and Raman Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubanová, Kamila; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Samek, Ota; Skoupý, Radim; Šiler, Martin; Ježek, Jan; Obruča, S.; Zemánek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, S1 (2017), s. 1158-1159 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12477S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-15451S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : biofilm cells * SEM * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  5. An evaluation testing technique of single event effect using Beam Blanking SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, J; Hada, T; Pesce, A; Akutsu, T; Matsuda, S [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Igarashi, T; Baba, S

    1997-03-01

    Beam Blanking SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) testing technique has been applied to CMOS SRAM devices to evaluate the occurence of soft errors on memory cells. Cross-section versus beam current and LET curves derived from BBSEM and heavy ion testing technique, respectively, have been compared. A linear relation between BBSEM current and heavy ion LET has been found. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the application of focused pulsed electron beam could be a reliable, convenient and inexpensive tool to investigate the effects of heavy ions and high energy particles on memory devices for space application. (author)

  6. Roteamento em redes em malha sem fio com balanceamento de carga e caminhos mais curtos

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Micael Oliveira Massula Carvalho de

    2014-01-01

    Redes em Malha Sem Fio - Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) são infraestruturas com propriedades autonômicas, como auto-organização e autorrecuperação, que podem ser implementadas com tecnologias amplamente disponíveis e de custo acessível. Além de suas aplicações atuais, como redes comunitárias e redes de acesso à Internet, as WMNs podem auxiliar na comunicação de Internet das Coisas e constituir infraestruturas robustas para redes inteligentes de energia, dentre outros usos. No en...

  7. Potenciais evocados auditivos de músicos com e sem ouvido absoluto

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Letícia Ribeiro de

    2014-01-01

    Orientador: Prof. Dr. Francisco José Fraga da Silva Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do ABC, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia da Informação, 2014. Entende-se por ouvido absoluto a capacidade de produzir e/ou identificar e dar nome à frequência de qualquer nota musical sem a necessidade de uma referência externa. O estudo do ouvido absoluto pode ser uma oportunidade única para se investigar as interações entre informações linguísticas e não-linguísticas na memória de ...

  8. Resolving Differences in Absolute Irradiance Measurements Between the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM and the SDO/EVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieman, S R; Didkovsky, L V; Judge, D L

    The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard SOHO has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray solar irradiance nearly continuously since January 1996. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on SDO, in operation since April of 2010, measures solar irradiance in a wide spectral range that encompasses the band passes (26 - 34 nm and 0.1 - 50 nm) measured by SOHO/SEM. However, throughout the mission overlap, irradiance values from these two instruments have differed by more than the combined stated uncertainties of the measurements. In an effort to identify the sources of these differences and eliminate them, we investigate in this work the effect of reprocessing the SEM data using a more accurate SEM response function (obtained from synchrotron measurements with a SEM sounding-rocket clone instrument taken after SOHO was already in orbit) and time-dependent, measured solar spectral distributions - i.e ., solar reference spectra that were unavailable prior to the launch of the SDO. We find that recalculating the SEM data with these improved parameters reduces mean differences with the EVE measurements from about 20 % to less than 5 % in the 26 - 34 nm band, and from about 35 % to about 15 % for irradiances in the 0.1 - 7 nm band extracted from the SEM 0.1 - 50 nm channel.

  9. Fully covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMS), partially covered SEMS and self-expandable plastic stents for the treatment of benign esophageal ruptures and anastomotic leaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boeckel, Petra G A; Dua, Kulwinder S; Weusten, Bas L A M; Schmits, Ruben J H; Surapaneni, Naveen; Timmer, Robin; Vleggaar, Frank P; Siersema, Peter D

    2012-02-29

    Benign esophageal ruptures and anastomotic leaks are life-threatening conditions that are often treated surgically. Recently, placement of partially and fully covered metal or plastic stents has emerged as a minimally invasive treatment option. We aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness of covered stent placement for the treatment of esophageal ruptures and anastomotic leaks with special emphasis on different stent designs. Consecutive patients who underwent placement of a fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FSEMS), a partially covered SEMS (PSEMS) or a self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS) for a benign esophageal rupture or anastomotic leak after upper gastrointestinal surgery in the period 2007-2010 were included. Data on patient demographics, type of lesion, stent placement and removal, clinical success and complications were collected A total of 52 patients received 83 esophageal stents (61 PSEMS, 15 FSEMS, 7 SEPS) for an anastomotic leak (n=32), iatrogenic rupture (n=13), Boerhaave's syndrome (n=4) or other cause (n=3). Endoscopic stent removal was successful in all but eight patients treated with a PSEMS due to tissue ingrowth. Clinical success was achieved in 34 (76%, intention-to-treat: 65%) patients (PSEMS: 73%, FSEMS: 83%, SEPS: 83%) after a median of 1 (range 1-5) stent and a median stenting time of 39 (range 7-120) days. In total, 33 complications in 24 (46%) patients occurred (tissue in- or overgrowth (n=8), stent migration (n=10), ruptured stent cover (all Ultraflex; n=6), food obstruction (n=3), severe pain (n=2), esophageal rupture (n=2), hemorrhage (n=2)). One (2%) patient died of a stent-related cause. Covered stents placed for a period of 5-6 weeks may well be an alternative to surgery for treating benign esophageal ruptures or anastomotic leaks. As efficacy between PSEMS, FSEMS and SEPS is not different, stent choice should depend on expected risks of stent migration (SEPS and FSEMS) and tissue in- or overgrowth (PSEMS).

  10. Automated transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM for large volume analysis at nanoscale resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kuwajima

    Full Text Available Transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM on a field emission SEM platform was developed for efficient and cost-effective imaging of circuit-scale volumes from brain at nanoscale resolution. Image area was maximized while optimizing the resolution and dynamic range necessary for discriminating key subcellular structures, such as small axonal, dendritic and glial processes, synapses, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, microtubules, polyribosomes, and endosomes which are critical for neuronal function. Individual image fields from the tSEM system were up to 4,295 µm(2 (65.54 µm per side at 2 nm pixel size, contrasting with image fields from a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM system, which were only 66.59 µm(2 (8.160 µm per side at the same pixel size. The tSEM produced outstanding images and had reduced distortion and drift relative to TEM. Automated stage and scan control in tSEM easily provided unattended serial section imaging and montaging. Lens and scan properties on both TEM and SEM platforms revealed no significant nonlinear distortions within a central field of ∼100 µm(2 and produced near-perfect image registration across serial sections using the computational elastic alignment tool in Fiji/TrakEM2 software, and reliable geometric measurements from RECONSTRUCT™ or Fiji/TrakEM2 software. Axial resolution limits the analysis of small structures contained within a section (∼45 nm. Since this new tSEM is non-destructive, objects within a section can be explored at finer axial resolution in TEM tomography with current methods. Future development of tSEM tomography promises thinner axial resolution producing nearly isotropic voxels and should provide within-section analyses of structures without changing platforms. Brain was the test system given our interest in synaptic connectivity and plasticity; however, the new tSEM system is readily applicable to other biological systems.

  11. Avaliação funcional dos pacientes submetidos ao desbridamento artroscópico para tratamento das rupturas extensas e irreparáveis do manguito rotador Functional evaluation of patients who have undergone arthroscopic debridement to treat massive and irreparable tears of the rotator cuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio de Castro Veado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados dos pacientes submetidos ao desbridamento artroscópico das lesões extensas e irreparáveis do manguito rotador. Métodos: Foram operados 27 pacientes no período de 2003 a 2007, sendo avaliados 22 desses. O procedimento cirúrgico consistiu de desbridamento artroscópico do coto dos tendões envolvidos, bursectomia, remoção do osteófito acromial e, eventualmente, tenotomia do bíceps e tuberoplastia. RESULTADOS: No pré-operatório todos apresentavam envolvimento dos tendões do supra e infraespinal. Na avaliação pós-operatória, 14 pacientes estavam com o redondo menor íntegro e três com ruptura parcial do subescapular. Houve melhora dos critérios da UCLA de 15 no pré-operatório para 31 no pós. Não houve melhora de força muscular, porém ocorreu redução da dor. Conclusão: Desbridamento artroscópico é um procedimento indicado para pacientes idosos com ruptura irreparável do manguito rotador, que tenham boa ADM, baixa demanda funcional e com o principal objetivo de reduzir a dor.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results in patients who have undergone arthroscopic debridement of massive and irreparable injury of the rotator cuff. METHODS: 27 patients were operated in the period from 2003 to 2007, during which 22 of them were evaluated. The procedure used consisted of arthroscopic debridement of the related tendons of the residual limb, bursectomy, acromial osteophyte removal, and eventually, biceps tenotomy and tuberoplasty. RESULTS: All patients showed involvement of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons in the preoperative stage. In the postoperative evaluation, 14 patients had an teres minor muscle, and 3 had partial tears of the subscapularis tendon. There was an improvement in the UCLA criteria from 15 preoperatively to 31 postoperatively. There was no improvement in muscular strength, but there was a reduction in the pain. CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic debridement is a recommended procedure for

  12. Consecuencias de la ruptura de mutualismos planta-animal para la distribución de especies vegetales en las Islas Baleares Consequences of the disruption of plant-animal mutualisms for the distribution of plant species in the Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANN TRAVESET

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Una modificación del hábitat como puede ser la introducción de especies animales exóticas que desplazan a las nativas, reduciendo sus poblaciones o conduciéndolas a la extinción, puede resultar en la ruptura de interacciones entre especies, las cuales pueden haber evolucionado durante millones de años. Los sistemas insulares son especialmente vulnerables a dichas perturbaciones, al ser normalmente menos complejos y poseer un menor número de especies que los continentales. En el presente trabajo se documentan las consecuencias que ha tenido la desaparición de la interacción planta-dispersor, después de la introducción de mamíferos carnívoros en las Islas Baleares, para las poblaciones de dos arbustos: Cneorum tricoccon L., con una distribución microareal en el Mediterráneo Occidental, y Daphne rodriguezii Texidor, endémico de la isla de Menorca. Mientras que para el primero, los carnívoros han "reemplazado" a los dispersores (lagartijas nativos, modificando notablemente la distribución de esta especie -especialmente en Mallorca-, la ruptura del mutualismo planta-lagartija parece haber sido dramática para el segundo, reduciendo drásticamente sus poblaciones excepto en un islote donde las lagartijas aún persistenThe alteration of a habitat such as that caused by the introduction of exotic animal species that displace the native ones, reducing their populations or leading them to extinction, can result in the disruption of species interactions which may have evolved during millions of years. The insular ecosystems are especially vulnerable to such disturbances, as they are usually less complex and have a lower number of species than the continental ones. In the present work I document the consequences of the disruption of plant-disperser interactions, caused by the introduction of carnivorous mammals in the Balearic Islands, for the populations of two shrub species: Cneorum tricoccon L., with a distribution restricted to the

  13. Percepção materna quanto ao apoio social recebido no cuidado às crianças prematuras no domicílio Percepción de las madres sobre el suporte social en la atención domiciliária prestada a los niños prematuros Perception of the mothers concerning the received social support in home care to the premature children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita dos Santos Simioni

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo qualitativo objetivou conhecer a percepção das mães de crianças nascidas prematuras acerca do apoio social recebido no domicílio para o cuidado das mesmas. Incluiu 12 mães de prematuros, maiores de 20 anos, da área de cobertura das Unidades de Saúde da Família de Passo Fundo-RS. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada, genograma e ecomapa. A análise evidenciou as avós como construtoras e mantenedoras do ninho social; desalento do abandono e base segura; e a inclusão social promovida pelos amigos. O apoio social não suprido centrou-se no cuidado à criança e nas atividades domésticas. A percepção das mães revela um apoio predominantemente intra-familiar, cuja expansão permitiria configurar uma rede social mais efetiva para fortalecimento do cuidado materno.Este estudio cualitativo, intentó a saber la percepción de las madres de los niños nacidos prematuros acerca del apoyo social recibido en la casa para el cuidado del niño. La muestra incluyó a 12 madres de prematuros, más viejas que 20 años, en el área de cubiertura de las Unidades de Salud de la Familia de Passo Fundo-RS. El análisis temático de los datos reunidos a través de la entrevista semi-estructurada, genograma y echomapa evidenció las abuelas como constructoras y mantenedoras del nido social; el desaliento del abandono y la base segura y la inclusión social promovida por los amigos. El apoyo social no proporcionado se centra en el cuidado al y en las actividades de la casa. La percepción de las madres revela un apoyo predominantemente intra-familia cuya expansión permitiría a configurar un precio neto social más eficaz al fortalecimiento del cuidado maternal.This study of qualitative approach aimed at knowing the perception of mothers of premature newborn concerning the social support received in the home care. The sample included 12 mothers of premature, older than 20 years, in the coverage area of Family Health

  14. The Effect of Different Cleaning Protocols on Post Space: A SEM Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lo Giudice

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Purpose of the present paper is to analyze the efficiency of different post-space irrigation protocols. Methods. 28 single rooted teeth were endodontically treated. After post-space preparation every sample was assigned to one of three experimental groups and to one control group. In each group different irrigation protocols were performed as follows: EDTA (Group A, 37% orthophosphoric acid (Group B, and EDTA + 37% orthophosphoric acid with ultrasounds activation (Group C. In the control group (Group D the irrigate association was not activated by ultrasounds. Three zones (coronal, middle, and apical of each sample were analyzed by using Scan Electron Microscopy (SEM without any metallization procedures. The presence of smear layer on the canal surface was qualitatively evaluated by applying Serafino’s score with values included between 0 and 2. Results. The results of the research showed how Group C recorded the better results (0.81±0.72. Group A and Group B showed lower mean scores (1.06±0.69 and 1.08±0.77; Group D showed the lowest mean score of 1.30±0.69. The SEM observation analysis demonstrated how the smear layer presence decreased in the crown-apical direction. Conclusions. The different post-space treatments statistically determine significant differences on the dentinal surfaces cleansing. The absence of ultrasonic activation lowers the cleansing efficacy of endocanalar irrigants, showing sensible differences among each post-space zone.

  15. Improvement in the Characterization of the 2099 Al-Li Alloy by FE-SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Trudeau, Michel L.; Michaud, Pierre; Brochu, Mathieu; Rodrigue, Lisa; Boselli, Julien; Gauvin, Raynald

    This paper describes how state-of-the-art Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) can contribute to the characterization of the 2099 aluminum-lithium alloy, and metallic alloys in general. Investigations were carried out on bulk and thinned samples. BSE imaging at 3kV and STEM imaging at 30kV along with highly efficient microanalysis permitted to correlate experimental and expected structures. Although our results confirm previous studies, this work points out possible substitutions of Mg and Zn with Li, Al and Cu in the T1 precipitates. Zinc and magnesium are also present in "rice grain" shaped precipitates at the grain boundaries. The versatility of the FE-SEM is highlighted in that it can provide information at the macro and micro scales with relevant details. Its ability to probe the distribution of precipitates from nano-to micro-sizes throughout the matrix makes Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy a suitable technique for the characterization of metallic alloys.

  16. Marginal adaptation of newer root canal sealers to dentin: A SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polineni, Swapnika; Bolla, Nagesh; Mandava, Pragna; Vemuri, Sayesh; Mallela, Madhusudana; Gandham, Vijaya Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated and compared the marginal adaptation of three newer root canal sealers to root dentin. Thirty freshly extracted human single-rooted teeth with completely formed apices were taken. Teeth were decoronated, and root canals were instrumented. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) based upon the sealer used. Group 1 - teeth were obturated with epoxy resin sealer (MM-Seal). Group 2 - teeth were obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) based sealer (MTA Fillapex), Group 3 - teeth were obturated with bioceramic sealer (EndoSequence BC sealer). Later samples were vertically sectioned using hard tissue microtome and marginal adaptation of sealers to root dentin was evaluated under coronal and apical halves using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and marginal gap values were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple post hoc test. The highest marginal gap was seen in Group 2 (apical-16680.00 nm, coronal-10796 nm) and the lowest marginal gap was observed in Group 1 (apical-599.42 nm, coronal-522.72 nm). Coronal halves showed superior adaptation compared to apical halves in all the groups under SEM. Within the limitations of this study epoxy resin-based MM-Seal showed good marginal adaptation than other materials tested.

  17. Analyzing the scale of the bainitic ferrite plates by XRD, SEM and TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Mateo, Carlos; Jimenez, Jose A.; Lopez-Ezquerra, Belen; Rementeria, Rosalia; Morales-Rivas, Lucia; Kuntz, Matthias; Caballero, Francisca G.

    2016-01-01

    Since the major strengthening mechanisms in nanocrystalline bainitic steels arise from the exceptionally small size of the bainitc ferrite plate, accurate determination of this parameter is fundamental for quantitative relating the microstructure to the mechanical properties. In this work, the thickness of the bainitic ferrite subunits obtained by different bainitic heat treatments was determined in two steels, with carbon contents of 0.3 and 0.7 wt.%, from SEM and TEM micrographs. As these measurements were made on 2D images taken from random sections, the method includes some stereological correction factors to obtain accurate information. Finally, the determined thicknesses of bainitic ferrite plates were compared with the crystallite size calculated from the analysis of X-ray diffraction peak broadening. Although in some case the values obtained for crystallite size and plate thickness can be similar, this study confirms that indeed they are two different parameters. - Highlights: •Bainitic microstructure in a nanostructured and sub-micron steel •Bainitic ferrite plate thickness measured by SEM and TEM •Crystallite size determined by X-ray analysis

  18. Analyzing the scale of the bainitic ferrite plates by XRD, SEM and TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Mateo, Carlos, E-mail: cgm@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, Jose A.; Lopez-Ezquerra, Belen; Rementeria, Rosalia; Morales-Rivas, Lucia [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Kuntz, Matthias [Robert-Bosch GmbH, Materials and Process Engineering Metals, Renningen, 70465 Stuttgart (Germany); Caballero, Francisca G. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    Since the major strengthening mechanisms in nanocrystalline bainitic steels arise from the exceptionally small size of the bainitc ferrite plate, accurate determination of this parameter is fundamental for quantitative relating the microstructure to the mechanical properties. In this work, the thickness of the bainitic ferrite subunits obtained by different bainitic heat treatments was determined in two steels, with carbon contents of 0.3 and 0.7 wt.%, from SEM and TEM micrographs. As these measurements were made on 2D images taken from random sections, the method includes some stereological correction factors to obtain accurate information. Finally, the determined thicknesses of bainitic ferrite plates were compared with the crystallite size calculated from the analysis of X-ray diffraction peak broadening. Although in some case the values obtained for crystallite size and plate thickness can be similar, this study confirms that indeed they are two different parameters. - Highlights: •Bainitic microstructure in a nanostructured and sub-micron steel •Bainitic ferrite plate thickness measured by SEM and TEM •Crystallite size determined by X-ray analysis.

  19. Structure and surface morphology studies of cerium oxide system using XRD and SEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Jais Alimin; Farid Nasir Ani; Wan Azelee Wan Abu Bakar

    2000-01-01

    Conventional Precious Group Materials (PGM) catalyst systems have been using CeO 2 as an Oxygen Storage Capacity component in the catalyst washcoat. Due to the limitations of the PGM catalyst, researches are now focusing on improving or replacing this conventional system. In a previous work, the potential of a copper-ceria (Cu-Ce) oxide as a catalyst system has been identified. In this paper, the morphology and characterisation of Cu-Ce oxides analysed using XRD and SEM will be described. The Cu-Ce samples were prepared at a fixed ratio under temperatures of 400 o C and 800 o C. XRD diffractograms showed CeO 2 is in a cubic phase at 400 o C and 800 o C. At 800 o C, the CuO particle is visible, presumably has incorporated with the lattice structure of ceria, indicating an absent of solid state condition between copper and ceria. Analysis by SEM revealed significant increase in particle sizes with increasing calcination temperatures. (Author)

  20. Continuous observation of cavity growth and coalescence by creep-fatigue tests in SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Masayuki; Ogata, Takashi; Nitta, Akito

    1995-01-01

    Structural components operating at high temperatures in power plants are subjected to interaction of thermal fatigue and creep which results in creep-fatigue damage. In evaluating the life of those components, it is important to understand microscopic damage evolution under creep-fatigue conditions. In this study, static creep and creep-fatigue tests with tensile holdtime were conducted on SUS304 stainless steel by using a high-temperature fatigue machine combined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and cavity growth and coalescence behaviors on surface grain boundaries were observed continuously by the SEM. Quantitative analysis of creep cavity growth based on the observation was made for comparison with theoretical growth models. As a result, it was found that grain boundary cavities nucleate at random and grow preferentially on grain boundaries in a direction almost normal to the stress axis. Under the creep condition, the cavities grow monotonously on grain boundaries while they remain the elliptical shape. On the other hand, under the creep-fatigue condition the cavities grow with an effect of local strain distribution around the grain boundary due to cyclic loading and the micro cracks of one grain-boundary length were formed by coalescence of the cavities. Also, cavity nucleation and growth rates for creep-fatigue were more rapid than those for static creep and the constrained cavity growth model coincided well with the experimental data for creep. (author)

  1. Replica of human dentin treated with different desensitizing agents: a methodological SEM study in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Jose Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary study to determine a methodological sequence in vitro which may allow the reproduction of dentin for SEM analysis, after the use of different desensitizing agents. Dentin discs obtained from extracted human third molars were etched with 6% citric acid, an artificial smear layer was created and the surface dentin discs were divided into four quadrants. Quadrants 2, 3 and 4 of each disc were conditioned with 6% citric acid. The desensitizing agents (Oxa-Gel®, Gluma Desensitizer and an experimental agent were applied to quadrants 3 and 4. To evaluate the acid resistance of the treatment, quadrant 4 was etched again with 6% citric acid. An impression was then taken with Aquasil ULV. After a setting period of 6 min, each disc was removed from the impression and stored in a moist-free environment for 24 h at 37ºC. After that time, a low-viscosity epoxy resin (Araltec GY 1109 BR was poured into the impression and cured for 24 h. All specimens were metal-coated for SEM analysis. Comparison of the photomicrographs of dentin discs with their respective impressions and resin replicas showed that this technique can reproduce the characteristics of the dentin surface treated with desensitizing agents.

  2. Morphological, chemical and structural characterisation of deciduous enamel: SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR and XPS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio-Ortega, C M; Contreras-Bulnes, R; Scougall-Vilchis, R J; Morales-Luckie, R A; Olea-Mejía, O F; Rodríguez-Vilchis, L E

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterise the enamel surface of sound deciduous teeth in terms of morphology, chemical composition, structure and crystalline phases. The enamel of 30 human deciduous teeth was examined by: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Chemical differences between incisors and canines were statistically evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test (p ≤ 0.05). Three enamel patterns were observed by SEM: 'mostly smooth with some groves', 'abundant microporosities' and 'exposed prisms'. The average Ca/P molar ratios were 1.37 and 1.03 by EDS and XPS, respectively. The crystallite size determined by XRD was 210.82 ± 16.78 Å. The mean ratio between Ca bonded to phosphate and Ca bonded to hydroxyl was approximately 10:1. The enamel of sound deciduous teeth showed two main patterns: 'mostly smooth with some groves' and 'abundant microporosities'. 'Exposed prisms' was a secondary pattern. There were slight variations among the Ca/P molar ratios found by EDS and XPS, suggesting differences in the mineral content from the enamel surface to the interior. The crystalline phases found in enamel were hydroxyapatite and carbonate apatite, with major type B than type A carbonate incorporation.

  3. MULTIMODALIDADE E A CONSTRUÇÃO DA IDENTIDADE DO SEM-TERRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderleiidalice J. Zacchi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a maneira como o movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (mST utiliza os diferentesmodos de produçãode significado e como, nesse processo, é construída sua identidade. A análise será efetuada principalmente a partir de textos impressos, digitais e eletrônicos produzidos pelos sem-terra. Apesar de fazer bom uso das diversas habilidades pressupostas na multimodalidade, o movimento ainda se apoia fortemente no modo linguístico tanto na autorrepresentação quanto na ação social. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: multiletramento, mST, identidade, Internet, mídia. ABSTRACT: This paper aims at analysing the identity construction of the Landless Rural Workers movement (mST by making use of different modes of meaning-construction. The data provided for analysis are based especially on printed, electronic, and digital texts produced by the movement. Although the mST uses multimodal texts extensively, it still relies heavily on the linguistic mode when engaging in both self-representation and social action. KEYWORDS: multiliteracies, landless movement, identity, Internet, media.

  4. Microstructure investigations of Ba-Sr mixed ferrites, using SEM technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amighian, J.; Mozaffari, M.

    1996-01-01

    A series of isotropic Ba-Sr mixed ferrites were prepared, using a conventional dry technique. The starting materials were hematite by product of Isfahan steel factory, strontium carbonate from Merck company and barium carbonate obtained from local source. The principle phase of the samples was chosen to have a composition in the form of (BaO) sub 1-x (SrO) sub x nFe sub 2 O sub 3, in which x varied between 0 to l and n was varied between 5 to 6. The raw materials were thoroughly mixed and fired in an electrical furnace for 2 hours. They were then milled in an vibrating ball mill, in which the optimum milling time for each sample was obtained. After annealing at 750 degree C, the powders were compacted in a cylindrical die under 5 tons/cm sup 2. The compacts were then mixed with a binder and sintered in air for 10 minutes at their optimum temperatures. Using SEM technique, the microstructure of the samples were investigated. Using a permeameter, the coercive force Hc and remanent induction Br were measured. The microstructures obtained from SEM technique can be used to control the sintering stage in ferrite fabrication

  5. Observation particle morphology of colloidal system by conventional SEM with an improved specimen preparation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Zhaosheng; Yuan, Xiaojiao; Guo, Hong

    2011-08-01

    On the basis of our previous report that polymer emulsion with different viscosity can be investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we have developed an improved specimen preparation technique for obtaining particle morphology and size of colloidal silver, collagen, glutin, and polymer microspheres. In this study, we expect to provide a means for charactering the three-dimensional surface microstructure of colloidal particles. Dilution of the samples with appropriate volatile solvent like ethanol is effective for SEM specimen preparation. At a proper ratio between sample and ethanol, the colloidal particles are dispersed uniformly in ethanol and then deposited evenly on the substrate. Different drying methods are studied to search a proper drying condition, in which the small molecule solvent is removed without destroying the natural particle morphology. And the effects of ethanol in the specimen preparation process are described by analyzing the physicochemical properties of ethanol. The specimen preparation technique is simple and can be achieved in common laboratory for charactering the particle morphology of colloidal system. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Non-oxidative and oxidative torrefaction characterization and SEM observations of fibrous and ligneous biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lu, Ke-Miao; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Lin, Ta-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-oxidative and oxidative torrefaction of biomass is studied. • Two fibrous biomasses and two ligneous biomasses are tested. • SEM observations of four biomasses are provided. • Fibrous biomass is more sensitive to O 2 concentration than ligneous biomass. • The performance of non-oxidative torrefaction is better than that of oxidative torrefaction. - Abstract: Oxidative torrefaction is a method to reduce the operating cost of upgrading biomass. To understand the potential of oxidative torrefaction and its impact on the internal structure of biomass, non-oxidative and oxidative torrefaction of two fibrous biomass materials (oil palm fiber and coconut fiber) and two ligneous ones (eucalyptus and Cryptomeria japonica) at 300 °C for 1 h are studied and compared with each other. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations are also performed to explore the impact of torrefaction atmosphere on the lignocellulosic structure of biomass. The results indicate that the fibrous biomass is more sensitive to O 2 concentration than the ligneous biomass. In oxidative torrefaction, an increase in O 2 concentration decreases the solid yield. The energy yield is linearly proportional to the solid yield, which is opposite to the behavior of non-oxidative torrefaction. The performance of non-oxidative torrefaction is better than that of oxidative torrefaction. As a whole, ligneous biomass can be torrefied in oxidative environments at lower O 2 concentrations, whereas fibrous biomass is more suitable for non-oxidative torrefaction

  7. SEM-EDS Observation of Structure Changes in Synthetic Zeolites Modified for CO2 Capture Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowin, Magdalena; Panek, Rafal; Franus, Wojciech

    Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas and its amount still increase in the atmosphere. Air pollution and greenhouse effect caused by CO2 emission have become a major threat to the environment on a global scale. Carbon dioxide sequestration (i.e. capture and consequently geological storage) is the key strategy within the portfolio of actions to reduce CO2 emission to the atmosphere. The most costly stage is capture of CO2, therefore there is a need to search new solutions of this technology. For this purpose it was examined Na-X synthetic zeolites, that were silver and PEI (polyethyleneimine) activated. SEM-EDS investigation enable to find a changes in structure of this materials after treatment. Where, as a result of silver activation from EDS analysis it is seen that Ag occur in Na-X structure, what indicate a substitution of Ag2+ for Na+ ions in crystal lattice. Analysing wt% the EDS analysis has shown that zeolite Na-X after silver impregnation becomes Ag-X zeolite. For Na-X-PEI activated it is observed a distinct organic compound in the form of coatings on Na-X crystals causing a sealing of pores in tested zeolite. Further examination of these materials concern determination of surface properties and experiments of CO2 sorption. But SEM-EDS analysis enable to determine the extent of activation, what is very important in determination of optimal conditions for such treatment in order to obtain better sorbent of CO2.

  8. Using BIB-SEM to determine pore morphology and pore size distributions in coal macerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffin, S.; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal; Klaver, J.; Urai, J.L. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Structural Geology, Tectonics and Geomechanics

    2013-08-01

    The composition of coalbeds is considerably heterogeneous, affecting the transport pathways for fluids within the coal. Transport pathways include cleats and larger pores. However, only a few clues exist as the nature of these pores. This study examines the morphology and distribution of macro- and mesopores in coal samples, using broad ion beam (BIB) milling to prepare relief- and damage-free polished surfaces of coal samples for high-resolution SEM imaging. Broad ion beam milling is advantageous to focused ion beam milling in that a larger surface area can be milled. Combining that with SEM imaging results in a useful tool to study pore morphology and distributions in the size range between 10 nm and 10 {mu}m. Since BIB-sections of a few square millimeters are not large enough to be statistically representative, results cannot be easily interpreted from a coal seam standpoint. Therefore, porosity was investigated as a function of maceral type to characterize pore morphologies. Macerals from the vitrinite and inertinite groups were selected with a known relationship to bedding. BIB-sections were milled parallel to bedding and perpendicular to bedding, and the pores were evaluated in each section. The goal of this study is to (1) qualitatively describe pore morphology with respect to maceral type and (2) quantitatively characterize pore size distributions with respect to maceral and in relationship to bedding. Our results lead to a better understanding of bulk coal porosity due to the visual, spatial representation and quantification of pores in individual macerals. (orig.)

  9. Charging effects of PET under electron beam irradiation in a SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jbara, O; Rondot, S; Hadjadj, A; Patat, J M; Fakhfakh, S; Belhaj, M

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with charge trapping and charge transport of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer subjected to electron irradiation in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Measurement of displacement current and leakage current using an arrangement adapted to the SEM allows the amount of trapped charge during and after electron irradiation to be determined and the charge mechanisms regulation to be studied. These mechanisms involve several parameters related to the electronic injection, the characteristics of insulator and the effects of the trapped charge itself. The dynamic trapping properties of PET samples are investigated and the time constants of charging are evaluated for various conditions of irradiation. The determination of the trapping cross section for electrons is possible by using the trapping rate at the onset of irradiation. Many physical processes are involved in the charging and discharging mechanisms; among them surface conduction is outlined. Through the control of irradiation conditions, various types of surface discharging (flashover phenomenon) behaviour are also observed. The strength of the electric field initiating surface discharge is estimated.

  10. Enhancing nanoscale SEM image segmentation and reconstruction with crystallographic orientation data and machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converse, Matthew I.; Fullwood, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Current methods of image segmentation and reconstructions from scanning electron micrographs can be inadequate for resolving nanoscale gaps in composite materials (1–20 nm). Such information is critical to both accurate material characterizations and models of piezoresistive response. The current work proposes the use of crystallographic orientation data and machine learning for enhancing this process. It is first shown how a machine learning algorithm can be used to predict the connectivity of nanoscale grains in a Nickel nanostrand/epoxy composite. This results in 71.9% accuracy for a 2D algorithm and 62.4% accuracy in 3D. Finally, it is demonstrated how these algorithms can be used to predict the location of gaps between distinct nanostrands — gaps which would otherwise not be detected with the sole use of a scanning electron microscope. - Highlights: • A method is proposed for enhancing the segmentation/reconstruction of SEM images. • 3D crystallographic orientation data from a nickel nanocomposite is collected. • A machine learning algorithm is used to detect trends in adjacent grains. • This algorithm is then applied to predict likely regions of nanoscale gaps. • These gaps would otherwise be unresolved with the sole use of an SEM

  11. Effect of two bleaching agents on enamel morphology: a SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bleaching materials are able to change the surface morphology as well as mineral and organic content of tooth structure. Considering that bleaching is done for aesthetic purpose, awareness of the possible effect of these materials on hard tissue is important, because it may affect the restorative treatments. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the effect of two bleaching materials, Kimia and Ultradent both containing 35% H2O2, on tooth enamel by SEM. Materials and Methods: Five intact central incisors were cut into three sections vertically and each part was randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control, without any bleaching. Group 2, bleached with Kimia 35% H2O2. Group 3, bleached with Ultradent 35% H2O2. Each tooth served as its own control. Then the samples were observed by SEM with 250 and 500 magnifications. Results: In the control group some scratches and small white grains were observed which seems to be the result of mastication trauma and pumice powder. In the other groups, morphologic changes like increased surface roughness, deepening of cracks, rod exposure and presence of new cracks were observed. The two experimental materials did not differ in these regards. Conclusion: It seems that both studied materials have limited destructive effects on tooth enamel which seems to be of no clinical importance.

  12. Tratamento da forma mucosa de leishmaniose sem resposta a glucantime, com anfotericina B liposomal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro Sampaio

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Tratamos com ambisome (2 a 5g totais de dose seis pacientes com leishmaniose mucosa sem resposta a tratamento com glucantime (20mg SbV/kg/dia. A dose diária usada foi 2 a 3mg/kg/dia, aplicada por um mínimo de 20 dias. Após 26 a 38 meses de acompanhamento, cinco pacientes estão clinicamente curados. Um recidivou aos 6 meses. Não foram observados efeitos colaterais além de cefaléia, após a injeção. O ambisome constitue uma opção terapêutica para os pacientes com leishmaniose mucosa sem resposta aos antimoniais.We treated six patients with mucosal leishmaniasis who failed to respond to glucantime (20mg/kg/day with ambisome (2-5 grams total dose. The daily dose was 2-3mg/kg/day given for a minimum of 20 days. After 26-38 months of follow up, five patients were clinically cured. One relapsed after six months. No side effects of therapy were observed apart from headache after injection. Ambisome is a therapeutic option for patients with mucosal leishmaniasis unresponsive to antimonials.

  13. SEM Evaluation of Internal Adaptation of Bases and Liners under Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Dionysopoulos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the interfacial microgaps generating between different materials and between materials and dentin after polymerization of the composite restorations, using SEM. Methods: The materials investigated were a composite, an adhesive, a RMGI, and a calcium hydroxide. Thirty third molars were selected and two circular class V cavities (5 mm × 3 mm for each tooth were made. The teeth were randomly assigned into six groups and restored with a combination of the materials. The specimens were subjected to thermocycling and each tooth was sectioned mesiodistally in two halves. Each half was sectioned along the longitudinal axis through the center of the restorations to obtain a slice of 2 mm. The specimens were examined under SEM. The interfaces between the liners, the liners and dentin, and between the liners and the composite were examined for microgaps. Results: The results showed that there was not any significant difference in the mean width of microgaps in the interfaces between Dycal-dentin and Vitrebond-dentin (p>0.05. However, the width of microgaps in the interfaces between dentin-Clearfil Tri-S Bond was significantly smaller (p<0.05. The use of Clearfil Tri-S Bond reduced the possibility of microgap formation between the bonded interface and the materials tested.

  14. Mel de abelhas sem ferrão: proposta de regulamentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa Rodrigues de Camargo

    Full Text Available Resumo Os méis das abelhas sem ferrão são produtos únicos da biodiversidade brasileira, presentes e valorizados pela cultura popular desde os povos originais das Américas. Por ser mais ácido e apresentar maior teor de umidade, seu sabor é peculiar e sua viscosidade é menor quando comparada ao mel proveniente da espécie exótica Apis mellifera. Devido a essas diferenças, esse produto necessita do estabelecimento de parâmetros físico-químicos específicos que sejam referência tanto para controle de qualidade como para sua comercialização. Com base em pesquisas realizadas pela Embrapa, pelo Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos de Campinas e pelo levantamento bibliográfico de diversos estudos científicos realizados por outros institutos de ensino e pesquisa, esta comunicação tem como objetivo esclarecer as peculiaridades deste produto e apresentar uma proposta de Regulamento Técnico de Identidade e Padrão para o Mel das Abelhas Sem Ferrão, visando sua comercialização no Estado de São Paulo, contribuindo assim para a disponibilidade de um produto seguro e de qualidade para o consumidor final.

  15. Interpretation of secondary electron images obtained using a low vacuum SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, M.; Thiel, B.L.; Donald, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Charging of insulators in a variable pressure environment was investigated in the context of secondary electron (SE) image formation. Sample charging and ionized gas molecules present in a low vacuum specimen chamber can give rise to SE image contrast. 'Charge-induced' SE contrast reflects lateral variations in the charge state of a sample caused by electron irradiation during and prior to image acquisition. This contrast corresponds to SE emission current alterations produced by sub-surface charge deposited by the electron beam. 'Ion-induced' contrast results from spatial inhomogeneities in the extent of SE signal inhibition caused by ions in the gaseous environment of a low vacuum scanning electron microscope (SEM). The inhomogeneities are caused by ion focusing onto regions of a sample that correspond to local minima in the magnitude of the surface potential (generated by sub-surface trapped charge), or topographic asperities. The two types of contrast exhibit characteristic dependencies on microscope operating parameters such as scan speed, beam current, gas pressure, detector bias and working distance. These dependencies, explained in terms of the behavior of the gaseous environment and sample charging, can serve as a basis for a correct interpretation of SE images obtained using a low vacuum SEM

  16. A practical approach to test the scope of FIB-SEM 3D reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, M; Midgley, P A

    2010-01-01

    State-of-the-art focused ion beam (FIB) instruments have an ion column for sample modification and an electron column for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 3D reconstruction of a sample volume can be achieved by serial sectioning using the FIB in combination with high-resolution SEM imaging of each cross-section. Usually, the resolution in the direction in which the sections are milled (z-direction) is much lower than in the plane of the cross-section (xy-direction) itself. Increased sampling in the z-direction can only be achieved by decreasing the distance between single sections. For a constant volume this is equivalent to increasing the number of sections, i.e. time and effort. To perform efficient 3D reconstructions the effect of the reduced sampling in the z-direction to the overall accuracy of the 3D reconstruction has to be known. We tested this approach with FIB conical test structures that were slice-and-view processed and subsequently reconstructed. Using a reference data set with a slice thickness (z-resolution) of 22 nm, data with z-resolutions ranging from 44 nm to 440 nm were created and reconstructed with commercial software. The calculated volumes for the simulated z-resolutions and their deviations from the reference volume are shown. Deviations of up to 35% occur and reach about 10% once the z-resolution was one fifth of the upper diameter of the conical structures.

  17. The innovation of cryo-SEM freeze-fracturing methodology demonstrated on high pressure frozen biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubanova, Kamila; Nebesarova, Jana; Ruzicka, Filip; Krzyzanek, Vladislav

    2018-04-22

    In this study we present an innovative method for the preparation of fully hydrated samples of microbial biofilms of cultures Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) and high-pressure freezing (HPF) rank among cutting edge techniques in the electron microscopy of hydrated samples such as biofilms. However, the combination of these techniques is not always easily applicable. Therefore, we present a method of combining high-pressure freezing using EM PACT2 (Leica Microsystems), which fixes hydrated samples on small sapphire discs, with a high resolution SEM equipped with the widely used cryo-preparation system ALTO 2500 (Gatan). Using a holder developed in house, a freeze-fracturing technique was applied to image and investigate microbial cultures cultivated on the sapphire discs. In our experiments, we focused on the ultrastructure of the extracellular matrix produced during cultivation and the relationships among microbial cells in the biofilm. The main goal of our investigations was the detailed visualization of areas of the biofilm where the microbial cells adhere to the substrate/surface. We show the feasibility of this technique, which is clearly demonstrated in experiments with various freeze-etching times. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multi-scale characterization by FIB-SEM/TEM/3DAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, T; Sepehri-Amin, H; Sasaki, T T; Hono, K

    2014-11-01

    In order to improve properties of functional materials, it is important to understand the relation between the structure and the properties since the structure has large effect to the properties. This can be done by using multi-scale microstructure analysis from macro-scale to nano and atomic scale. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with focused ion beam (FIB), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and 3D atom probe (3DAP) are complementary analysis tools making it possible to know the structure and the chemistry from micron to atomic resolution. SEM gives us overall microstructural and chemical information by various kinds of detectors such as secondary electron, backscattered electron, EDS and EBSD detectors. Also, it is possible to analyze 3D structure and chemistry via FIB serial sectioning. In addition, using TEM we can focus on desired region to get more complementary information from HRTEM/STEM/Lorentz images, SAED/NBD patterns and EDS/EELS to see the detail micro or nano-structure and chemistry. Especially, combination of probe Cs corrector and split EDS detectors with large detector size enable us to analyze the atomic scale elemental distribution. Furthermore, if the specimen has a complicated 3D nanostructure, or we need to analyze light elements such as hydrogen, lithium or boron, 3DAP can be used as the only technique which can visualize and analyze distribution of all constituent atoms of our materials within a few hundreds nm area. Hence, site-specific sample preparation using FIB/SEM is necessary to get desired information from region of interest. Therefore, this complementary analysis combination works very well to understand the detail of materials.In this presentation, we will show the analysis results obtained from some of functional materials by Carl Zeiss CrossBeam 1540EsB FIB/SEM, FEI Tecnai G(2) F30, Titan G2 80-200 TEMs and locally build laser assisted 3DAP. As the one of the example, result of multi-scale characterization for

  19. Site specific SEM/FIB/TEM for analysis of lubricated sliding wear of aluminium alloy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J C; Jones, H; Rainforth, W M

    2006-01-01

    Although extensive research has been undertaken into the dry sliding wear of aluminium alloys, only limited work has been reported on lubricated wear. In this paper, the lubricated sliding wear of some powder derived aluminium alloy composites is reported. Stereo pairs of the worn surface were obtained in the SEM and digitally reconstructed to give an accurate projection of the surface topography. Analysis of the average surface roughness (R a ) along chosen sections provided quantitative information about the wear mechanism. Following this, dual beam focused ion beam (FIB) was undertaken to further explore the features revealed by the SEM surface reconstructions, with TEM sections removed from selected regions. Surface deformation was confined to a narrow layer, typically 1μm thick. Subgrain size within the subsurface layer was comparable to that found in dry sliding wear tests. Reinforcement fracture occurred in the surface particles only. The resultant fragments were often incorporated back into the surface following detachment, such that the total volume fraction reinforcement at the surface was greater than in the bulk. Thus, the dynamic surface topography was a result of three factors: surface deformation, local detachment of reinforcement and re-incorporation of the fragments back into the surface

  20. SEM and AFM studies of dip-coated CuO nanofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, V; Mahalingam, T; Ganesan, V

    2013-01-01

    Cupric oxide (CuO) semiconducting thin films were prepared at various copper sulfate concentrations by dip coating. The copper sulfate concentration was varied to yield films of thicknesses in the range of 445-685 nm by surface profilometer. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the deposited films were polycrystalline in nature with monoclinic structure of (-111) plane. The surface morphology and topography of monoclinic-phase CuO thin films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Surface roughness profile was plotted using WSxM software and the estimated surface roughness was about ∼19.4 nm at 30 mM molar concentration. The nanosheets shaped grains were observed by SEM and AFM studies. The stoichiometric compound formation was observed at 30 mM copper sulfate concentration prepared film by EDX. The indirect band gap energy of CuO films was increased from 1.08 to 1.20 eV with the increase of copper sulfate concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.