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Sample records for sem baixa acuidade

  1. Perfil morfofuncional de pacientes com retinopatia diabética sem baixa acuidade visual severa em hospital público de referência em diabetes no Brasil Morpho-functional profile of patients with diabetic retinopathy without severe loss of visual acuity in a public hospital of reference in diabetes in Brazil

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    Alípio de Sousa Neto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar o perfil morfofuncional da avaliação de pacientes com retinopatia diabética sem baixa acuidade visual severa em hospital público de referência em endocrinologia, determinando nesta amostra, a relação entre o tempo de diabetes, idade e acuidade visual com a espessura retiniana medidas pela tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT e retinografia (RET. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo prospectivo, linear, em corte transversal de 61 pacientes consecutivos com retinopatia diabética registrados no Hospital Regional de Taguatinga (HRT, e encaminhados pelos serviços de oftalmologia e endocrinologia. Pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação oftalmológica completa, incluindo história clínica, aferição da acuidade visual com correção e com buraco estenopeico. 109 olhos de 55 pacientes foram então submetidos à OCT e RET para avaliação da presença ou ausência de edema macular pela RET e da avaliação quantitativa (medidas da espessura retiniana das 9 regiões classificadas pelo Early Tratment Diabetic Retinophaty Study - ETDRS e da avaliação qualitativa (presença ou ausência de edema retiniano pela fenda central, número 1. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio de diabetes entre os sujeitos da pesquisa foi de 12 anos, com idade variando de 23 a 86 anos; 51% eram do gênero feminino, e 49% do masculino. A avaliação da acuidade visual melhorou em 47% (51/109 dos pacientes com buraco estenopeico. Somente 22% (24/109 dos olhos apresentavam acuidade visual corrigida de 20/20 com correção e sem edema macular diabético (EMD. Em 83% (91/109 dos casos havia concordância e em 17% (18/109 olhos havia discordância em relação à presença/ausência de EMD no perfil da avaliação morfológica realizada pela OCT e pela RET nos olhos do grupo amostral. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve correlação estatística significante entre a espessura retiniana e o tempo de diabetes. O grupo da oftalmologia teve 5 vezes mais chance de apresentar EMD do

  2. A variação da acuidade visual durante esforços físicos em atletas com baixa visão, participantes de seleção brasileira de atletismo The visual acuity variability during physical efforts in low vision athletes from the athletics Brazilian team

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    Ciro Winckler de Oliveira Filho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento da acuidade visual em atletas com baixa visão, durante um protocolo de esforço contínuo. Pesquisas apontam que a acuidade visual apresenta variações de rendimento quando submetida a esforços físicos em sujeitos sem deficiência visual. MÉTODO: A população estudada foi composta por seis pessoas, praticantes de atletismo e integrantes da seleção brasileira em provas de pista. No primeiro dia aplicou-se o teste de esforço físico progressivo, realizado em esteira. No segundo dia realizou-se o teste de esforço contínuo, o qual foi dividido em três níveis, cada um com 15 minutos de duração e 30 minutos de intervalo entre eles. Como delimitador das intensidades aplicadas utilizaram-se os resultados obtidos no teste de físico progressivo (60% do VE pico, limiar de VE e 90% do VE pico. A aferição da acuidade visual aconteceu antes, durante e após cada nível de intensidade no protocolo de esforço contínuo. O teste t de Student foi utilizado para a análise estatística (p INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: This study had as an objective to evaluate the visual acuity behavior in athletes with low vision, during a continuous effort protocol. Researches point out that visual acuity presents performance varieties when submitted to physical efforts in subjects without visual impairment. METHOD: The studied population was composed by six peoples, who practiced athletics and were part of the Brazilian team in track events. The progressive physical effort test was applied on the first day in a treadmill. On the second day the continuous effort test was applied, which was divided in three levels, each one had a 15 and 30 minutes break between them. To determine the intensities, the results obtained in the progressive physical effort test (60% of VE peak, limiar VE and 90% VE peak were used. The visual acuity was measured before, during and after each level of

  3. Estudo descritivo da resposta de acuidade visual sem correção e pressão intra-ocular computadorizada de não contato em jogadores de futebol amadores e profissionais

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    Emídio Valenti Tavares

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as possíveis alterações de acuidade visual e pressão intra-ocular em jogadores de futebol. A clínica Oftalmos e Cirurgia Oftalmológica submeteu à avaliação oftalmológica 127 atletas futebolistas provenientes de várias categorias, incluindo mulheres, com idades variando de 14 a 33 anos. Todos foram submetidos a testes de acuidade visual sem correção, utilizando-se a tabela de Snellen e avaliando-se a pressão intra-ocular de não contato com um tonômetro computadorizado (modelo TX-10, Canon, EUA. Além disso, os atletas foram submetidos a exame de auto-refração, no equipamento auto-refrator (modelo R-30, Canon, EUA. Os seguintes parâmetros utilizados e os resultados encontrados foram: dos 127 atletas avaliados, 56 (44% apresentaram alterações de auto-refração, consideradas de grau mais ou menos importante em um ou ambos os olhos. No teste de acuidade visual, 3% e 2,4% dos atletas apresentaram, no OD e OE, somente 20/100 e 20/200 pés de visão, respectivamente. Em uma jogadora, foi constatada catarata puntata congênita. Os resultados da tonometria mostraram, em 5 atletas de cor negra, quadro suspeito de glaucoma (necessitando investigação mais apurada.Concluindo, o estudo comprovou a importância da oftalmologia como medida preventiva e/ou corretiva na identificação de possíveis alterações oftalmológicas em atletas futebolistas, devendo ser uma prática rotineira nesse esporte.

  4. Resultados da correção cirúrgica de esotropias de grande ângulo, em portadores de baixa de acuidade visual unilateral Results of surgical treatment of large angle esotropia in patients with low visual acuity

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    Jorge Antonio Meireles-Teixeira

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados cirúrgicos de esotropias de grande ângulo (no mínimo 60 dioptrias prismáticas - dp, associadas à baixa de acuidade visual (BAV unilateral, cuja cirurgia foi planejada com o intuito de não se operar o olho de melhor visão. Casuística e Métodos: Foram selecionados 17 casos de esotropias não-acomodativas, associadas à BAV (AV 15 dp ou rotações de ± 4. Resultados: 13 (76,4% tinham AV de conta-dedos no olho não-fixador, 2 (11,7% atingiam 0,1 e outros 2 (11,7% 0,4. Em 3 havia alta miopia (equivalente esférico > ou = -6,00 dioptrias esféricas em ambos os olhos. Entre os 17 pacientes, 12 (70,5% obtiveram bom resultado cirúrgico, 3 (17,6% foram regulares e 2 (11,7% ruins. Conclusão: A cirurgia de estrabismo sob anestesia tópica mostrou ser eficaz e segura nestes casos especiais de BAV em um dos olhos, sendo que na maioria das vezes consegue-se não operar o olho de melhor visão; o que a nosso ver, só se tornou possível pelo uso da anestesia tópica.Purpose: To evaluate the surgical outcome of large angle esotropia (minimum of 60 prism diopters -- pd associated with unilateral low visual acuity (LVA in which the surgical strategy was applied in order to operate only the non-fixating eye. Patients and Methods: We selected 17 patients with non-accommodative esotropia, LVA (VA<= 0,4 in the non-fixating eye with the better visual correction and no previous treatment. Patients were classified as good result if they had a postoperative deviation of maximally 10 pd with binocular rotations of up to --2 of medial rectus and +2 of lateral rectus. Exotropia/esotropia between 10 and 15 pd or binocular rotations of ±3 were considered as a regular outcome. Deviations greater than 15 pd or binocular rotations of ±4 were included regarded as poor results. Results: Thirteen (76.4% patients had counts fingers VA in the non-fixating eye, 2 (11.7% achieved 0.1 and another two had 0.4. Three of them were also highly

  5. Acuidade visual e desempenho escolar de estudantes em um município na Amazônia Brasileira

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    Lauramaris de Arruda Régis-Aranha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a deficiência na acuidade visual e sua associação com o desempenho escolar em escolares. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado com 1.050 estudantes entre 05 e 17 anos de idade, da rede pública de ensino de Barcelos, Amazonas. O exame foi realizado na própria escola e com o auxílio da Escala optométrica de Snellen. Resultados: Dos 1.050 estudantes submetidos ao exame, 526 (50,1% pertenciam ao sexo feminino. A frequência para baixa acuidade foi de 6,3% (66/1050. Entre os alunos avaliados, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa em nível de 5% para acuidade visual e desempenho escolar (p = 0,223. Conclusão: O estudo indicou baixa frequência para déficit visual nos estudantes da rede pública de ensino de Barcelos - AM. Apesar disso, aconselha-se a realização de ações voltadas à saúde ocular em toda rede pública de ensino, visando à prevenção e o tratamento precoce desses estudantes.

  6. Medida da acuidade visual em um shopping center metropolitano Visual acuity measurement in a metropolitan shopping mall population

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    Giovanni M. Travi

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência de baixa acuidade visual (AV em uma amostra populacional, com um padrão socioeconômico diferenciado. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo de prevalência, sendo verificada a AV de 213 voluntários examinados em um posto no interior de um shopping center em Porto Alegre, por meio do aparelho Ortho-Rater, da Bausch & Lomb. Foi medida a AV para longe em todos os indivíduos e naqueles com 40 anos ou mais, a AV para perto, ambos sem e com correção. Determinou-se como baixa AV, aquela inferior a 10 (equivalente a 20/20 na Tabela de Snellen. Resultados: A idade variou de 6 a 75 anos, com uma média ± desvio-padrão de 27,8 ± 15,16 anos, pertencendo a maioria dos examinados à faixa entre 10 e 40 anos. Encontrou-se uma prevalência de 38,7% (IC 95%: 32,1-45,7 de baixa AV para longe nos dois olhos. 24,9% (IC 95%: 19,2-31,3 apresentavam déficit visual binocular e não faziam uso de correção. Para perto, observou-se que 70,8% (IC 95%: 55,9-83 dos indivíduos testados apresentaram déficit visual binocular sem correção e 41,7% (IC 95%: 27,6-56,8 apresentaram baixa AV independente do uso de correção. Conclusão: Este estudo demonstrou que existe considerável parcela da população com déficit visual, necessitando de avaliação e manejo adequados. Conclui-se que programas de medida da AV e orientação sobre saúde ocular são importantes em qualquer ambiente e atingindo diferentes classes socioeconômicas.Purpose: To determine the prevalence of low visual acuity (VA in a populational sample, with a differentiated social pattern. Methods: This was a prevalence study, in which the 213 volunteers' VA, examined in a shopping mall in Porto Alegre, was verified through the Ortho-Rater device, from Bausch & Lomb. Far sight VA was measured in all the individuals and in those who were 40 years old or older, near sight VA, both of them without and with correction. VA was considered low when it was less than 10 (equivalent

  7. Prevalência de acuidade visual reduzida nos alunos da primeira série do ensino fundamental das redes pública estadual e privada de Londrina-PR, no ano de 2000

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    Lopes Gerson Jorge Aparecido

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Verificar a prevalência de acuidade visual reduzida em estudantes da 1ª série do ensino fundamental das redes pública estadual e privada de Londrina -- PR, zona urbana; comparar essas prevalências; verificar e comparar a prevalência de escolares utilizando correção óptica por ocasião do teste de acuidade visual e descrever as causas da acuidade visual reduzida nessa população. Métodos: Teste de acuidade visual foi realizado em 1688 alunos das escolas públicas estaduais e 611 alunos das escolas privadas. As crianças com acuidade visual menor ou igual a 0,7 foram encaminhadas para exame oftalmológico. Resultados: A prevalência de acuidade visual reduzida foi de 17,1% na rede pública estadual e 19,8% na rede privada, cuja diferença não tem significância estatística. A prevalência de escolares usando óculos foi de 2,4% na rede estadual e de 3,6% na rede privada; sem diferença estatisticamente significativa entre estes resultados. As causas de acuidade visual reduzida foram erro refracional, ambliopia, estrabismo e outras causas. Conclusão: A prevalência de acuidade visual reduzida entre escolares das redes pública estadual e privada foi estatisticamente igual, bem como a prevalência de escolares utilizando correção óptica. As causas de acuidade visual reduzida foram erro refracional, ambliopia, estrabismo, afacia por catarata congênita, catarata congênita zonular, persistência de vítreo primário hiperplásico, palidez do nervo óptico e alteração macular.

  8. Acuidade olfatória e qualidade de vida após a laringectomia total

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    Christiane Gouvêa dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Objetivo: identificar a prevalência e os fatores associados às alterações do olfato e descrever a qualidade de vida após a laringectomia total. Métodos: estudo transversal para avaliar a acuidade olfatória e a qualidade de vida de laringectomizados totais no Instituto Nacional de Câncer por meio da aplicação do Teste de Identificação do Olfato da Universidade da Pensilvânia, do Questionário de Qualidade de Vida da Universidade de Washington e do Questionário sobre a Acuidade Olfatória Pré-Reabilitação do Olfato. Resultados: foram avaliados 48 laringectomizados totais, sendo 39 do sexo masculino e 9 do sexo feminino, com idade média de 62 anos e tempo médio de 5,6 anos desde a laringectomia total. No Teste de Identificação do Olfato a pontuação média foi de 17,9. De acordo com a classificação do olfato no teste, a maioria dos participantes apresentou algum grau de alteração, sendo que apenas 2 indivíduos tiveram o olfato considerado dentro da normalidade. No Questionário de Qualidade de vida da Universidade de Washington, o escore composto foi 80,47. Os domínios que apresentaram as médias de pontos mais baixas foram paladar, saliva e fala. No questionário sobre a acuidade olfatória pré-reabilitação do olfato, a maioria dos participantes consideraram seu olfato de ruim a razoável. 21 indivíduos relataram apresentar algum grau de dificuldade em suas atividades de vida diária em decorrência de alterações do olfato. Conclusão: os laringectomizados totais apresentaram alta prevalência de alterações do olfato, com comprometimentos relacionados às suas atividades de vida diária.

  9. Anel corneano intra-estromal para baixa miopia: estudo comparativo com a técnica de LASIK

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    Forseto Adriana dos Santos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar prospectivamente a eficácia e segurança dos segmentos de anéis corneanos intra-estromais (ICRS para a correção de baixa miopia e comparar os resultados obtidos com a técnica de laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, bilateral e não randomizado. Quatorze pacientes com equivalente esférico entre -1,00 e -4,50 D foram submetidos ao implante de ICRS em um olho e à técnica de LASIK no olho contralateral. As avaliações pós-operatórias foram realizadas com um e sete dias, um, três, seis, 12 e 24 meses. RESULTADOS: Ao último exame, 64,29% dos olhos (9/14 do grupo ICRS e 85,71% (12/14 após o LASIK estavam entre ± 0,50 D da correção desejada (p=0,385. Acuidade visual sem correção >20/20 foi obtida em quatro dos 14 olhos (28,57% do grupo ICRS, e em 12 dos 14 olhos (85,71% do grupo LASIK (p=0,002¹. Durante o seguimento, não foram observadas variações refracionais superiores a 1,00 D, entre dois exames consecutivos, em ambos os grupos, ou perda significante da melhor acuidade visual corrigida. Maior indução de astigmatismo foi encontrada nos olhos implantados com ICRS. Ao exame de 24 meses, o grupo ICRS apresentou valores inferiores no exame de sensibilidade ao contraste, especialmente nas freqüências espaciais mais altas (p=0,032¹ em 18 cpd. Foram relatadas mais queixas subjetivas no período pós-operatório precoce de ICRS em relação ao LASIK. CONCLUSÕES: Os ICRS foram considerados eficazes na correção de baixa miopia, porém sua segurança foi limitada pela indução de astigmatismo no pós-operatório, e seus resultados foram inferiores aos do grupo controle.

  10. Acuidade visual em implantes bilaterais de lentes intra-oculares monofocais e multifocais Visual acuity of bilateral implants of monofocal and multifocal intraocular lenses

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    Leonardo Akaishi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a acuidade visual de longe e perto de pacientes submetidos à facoemulsificação binocular não simultânea com implante de lentes multifocais ou monofocais. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 20 pacientes com lentes multifocais bilaterais e outros 20 pacientes com lentes monofocais também bilaterais, com acuidade visual sem correção melhor ou igual a 0,63 (20/30, medidos separadamente, nos três primeiros meses de pós-operatório. Foi medida a acuidade visual para longe e perto com e sem correção e testes de sensibilidade ao contraste e ofuscamento. RESULTADOS: A acuidade visual sem correção para longe no grupo das monofocais teve média de 0,82 (DP± 0,16 e no grupo das multifocais, 0,94 (DP±0,12, valor de p 0,001. Os dois grupos de lentes tiveram visão com correção para longe igual a 1. No grupo das multifocais, 75% tiveram J1 e 100% tiveram J3 ou melhor sem correção. No grupo das lentes monofocais, 10% tiveram J1 e 70% tiveram J3 ou melhor sem correção. Não houve diferença significante na avaliação com o teste de sensibilidade ao contraste entre os grupos pesquisados. No teste de ofuscamento, os dois grupos tiveram redução da visão, que foi mais acentuada no grupo dos pacientes com lentes multifocais. CONCLUSÃO: A acuidade visual para longe com correção nos pacientes com implante multifocal foi semelhante a dos pacientes com implantes monofocais, embora a acuidade visual para perto no grupo em que foi implantado lente multifocal foi bastante superior ao grupo da lente monofocal. A sensibilidade ao contraste manteve-se semelhante nos dois grupos, já o ofuscamento ("glare test" no grupo multifocal foi maior que no grupo monofocal.PURPOSE: To compare distant and near visual acuity between patients submitted to bilateral nonsimultaneous facoemulsification and implantation of multifocal or monofocal intraocular lenses (IOL. METHODS: Twenty patients with bilateral multifocal IOL and 20 patients with

  11. Acuidade visual e eletrorretinografia de campo total em pacientes com síndrome de Usher

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    Mendieta,Luana; Berezovsky,Adriana; Salomão,Solange Rios; Sacai,Paula Yuri; Pereira,Josenilson Martins; Fantini,Sérgio Costa

    2005-01-01

    A síndrome de Usher (SU) é doença autossômica recessiva caracterizada por perda auditiva neuro-sensorial acompanhada de retinose pigmentária (RP). OBJETIVO: Analisar a eletrorretinografia de campo total (ERG) e a acuidade visual (AV) em pacientes com síndrome de Usher tipos I e II. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas as respostas da eletrorretinografia de campo total e a acuidade visual de 22 pacientes (idade média = 26,8±16,8 anos). Destes, 17 tinham síndrome de Usher tipo I e 5 tinham síndrome ...

  12. Acuidade olfatória e qualidade de vida após a laringectomia total

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    Christiane Gouvêa dos Santos; Anke Bergmann; Kaliani Lima Coça; Angela Albuquerque Garcia; Tânia Cristina de Oliveira Valente

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO: Objetivo: identificar a prevalência e os fatores associados às alterações do olfato e descrever a qualidade de vida após a laringectomia total. Métodos: estudo transversal para avaliar a acuidade olfatória e a qualidade de vida de laringectomizados totais no Instituto Nacional de Câncer por meio da aplicação do Teste de Identificação do Olfato da Universidade da Pensilvânia, do Questionário de Qualidade de Vida da Universidade de Washington e do Questionário sobre a Acuidade Olfatór...

  13. Avaliação da visão funcional para crianças com baixa visão de dois a seis anos de idade - estudo comparativo

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    Luciana Drummond de Figueiredo Rossi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar a capacidade da AVIF-2 a 6 anos para discriminar os diferentes níveis de resposta visual de crianças com baixa visão. A AVIF-2 a 6 anos foi criada no Setor de Baixa Visão Infantil do Hospital São Geraldo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Após a discussão da adequação dos itens do teste, com especialistas de diversas áreas, a AVIF-2 a 6 anos foi aplicada em 40 crianças de dois a seis anos de idade, 20 das quais com baixa visão (Grupo 1 e 20, sem baixa visão (Grupo 2. O grupo 1 foi recrutado do Setor de Baixa Visão Infantil do Hospital São Geraldo. As crianças do grupo 2 foram selecionadas em duas creches públicas. Sete domínios foram estudados: fixação visual, seguimento visual, campo visual de confrontação, coordenação olho-mão, visão de contraste, deslocamento no ambiente e visão de cores. As crianças do grupo 1 foram submetidas a exame oftalmológico completo e as do grupo 2 a triagem oftalmológica. Crianças com baixa visão e alterações neurológicas foram excluidas. Os dois grupos foram emparelhados por idade, sexo e nível socioeconômico, e os dados comparados entre as crianças do grupo geral e dos subgrupos de idade (24 a 35 meses, 36 a 59 meses e 60 a 78 meses e de acuidade visual (1,0 logMAR. RESULTADOS: No total da AVIF-2 a 6 anos e dos domínios fixação visual, seguimento visual, campo visual de confrontação, coordenação olho-mão e deslocamento no ambiente foram constatadas diferenças com significância estatística (p<0,05 entre os dois grupos. As medianas da pontuação da AVIF-2 a 6 anos foram inferiores para as crianças com baixa visão nas três faixas etárias. CONCLUSÃO: A AVIF-2 a 6 anos demonstrou ter potencial para discriminar diferentes níveis de visão funcional, entretanto, serão necessários ainda novos estudos para que o teste possa ser disponibilizado para uso clínico. (ETIC 684/07

  14. Avaliação da acuidade visual Snellen Snellen visual acuity evaluation

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    Marcio Zapparoli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a medida de acuidade visual (AV, por meio da tabela de Snellen, em consultórios de três grandes centros oftalmológicos de Curitiba, comparar essas medidas entre si, com um método computadorizado para aferição de AV, e também, com o padrão teórico desenvolvido por Hermann Snellen. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo incluindo 15 consultórios oftalmológicos e um método computadorizado para a medida de AV. Com o auxílio de uma trena e um paquímetro foi realizada a medida da distância do olho do paciente sentado até a parede de projeção dos optotipos e, ao mesmo tempo, medido o tamanho da letra que era projetada na parede para 4 linhas de AV. RESULTADOS: Para a análise dos resultados, optamos por comparar os ângulos apresentados por cada consultório no momento da realização da medida. Sem surpresas, observou-se que nenhum consultório obteve o ângulo exato de 5 minutos de arco. Comparando-se os consultórios com o método computadorizado, observou-se que apenas 2 consultórios obtiveram melhores resultados se comparados os ângulos de projeção dos optotipos, porém os dados são muito próximos e insignificantes estatisticamente. Já em relação aos demais consultórios, a superioridade do método computadorizado é bastante relevante. Todos tiveram diferenças significantes em relação ao padrão-ouro. Ainda individualmente, comparou-se o método computadorizado com o padrão teórico Snellen e observou-se que esse obteve condições muito próximas do ideal, ou seja, em todas as acuidades visuais analisadas esteve sempre próximo dos 5 minutos de arco. CONCLUSÕES: Podemos concluir que existe uma grande heterogeneidade na avaliação da AV nos diferentes centros de oftalmologia. Também se pode esperar que para um mesmo paciente, avaliado em diferentes consultórios, há a possibilidade de se obter diferenças nas medidas da AV. O método computadorizado avaliado é prático, portátil, ajustável a dist

  15. SEM Anthology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michelle; Zimar, Heather

    2004-01-01

    The "SEM Anthology" is a compilation of articles by more than 30 enrollment management professionals from a variety of institutions across the country. This collection, which has appeared in SEM Monthly over the past year, chronicles Strategic Enrollment Management efforts at campuses nationwide. The book illustrates the successes and challenges…

  16. Método computadorizado para medida da acuidade visual A computerized method for visual acuity assessment

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    Patrícia Katayama Kjaer Arippol

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Elaborar e validar teste computadorizado para medida da acuidade visual de escolares. MÉTODOS: Foi elaborado teste computadorizado para determinação da acuidade visual utilizando os padrões das tabelas logarítmicas impressas adotadas na clínica oftalmológica. Foram avaliados 90 alunos da primeira série do ensino básico, oito estudantes do curso de Tecnologia Oftálmica da UNIFESP-EPM e 10 pacientes do ambulatório de Estrabismo do Departamento de Oftalmologia da UNIFESP-EPM. Todos os sujeitos foram avaliados pelo mesmo examinador e submetidos ao exame de acuidade visual monocular, pela tabela logarítmica de optotipos E impressa e do novo teste computadorizado no mesmo momento. Os participantes forneceram os seus consentimentos após esclarecimento. RESULTADOS: As análises estatísticas revelaram correlação excelente (r>0,75 entre os dois métodos, apesar da leve tendência apresentada pelo teste computadorizado em superestimar a acuidade visual quando comparado com o padrão-ouro. O teste computadorizado apresentou sensibilidade de 100% e especificidade de 94%. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados obtidos nos permitem dizer que o teste computadorizado pode ser utilizado como novo recurso para triagem da qualidade visual dos escolares, por ser método rápido, de fácil aplicação, barato, automático e atrativo para as crianças. A automatização desvincula o aplicador da interpretação das respostas dadas pelo aluno testado, garante padronização do procedimento, que favorece as análises de acompanhamento e pode ser realizado por diferentes examinadores. Para melhor compreensão da efetividade do teste como instrumento de triagem visual, seria interessante instituí-lo nas escolas do curso básico, após treinamento dos professores para sua aplicação.PURPOSE: To elaborate and to validate a computerized test for visual acuity screening of school-age children. METHODS: We have created a computerized test for visual acuity

  17. Acuidade visual: Medidas e notações Visual acuity: Measurements and notations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley E. A. Bicas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliações da função visual são muito complexas por dependerem de mecanismos aferentes, eferentes e cognitivos, além de fatores externos à pessoa examinada, como o tipo de estímulo e o de sua apresentação. O exame da acuidade visual é discutido em seus aspectos formais de definições, quantificações (critérios de medição de um ângulo e tamanho dos optotipos, notações (decimal ou fracionárias, escalas (representando relações angulares, lineares, logarítmicas e unidades em que os valores são expressos (recíproca do minuto de arco, número puro, freqüência espacial, decibéis e oitavas. Como conseqüência, referências numéricas sobre a acuidade visual e operações que as envolvem (p.ex., cálculo de valores médios, determinação de variações, relações entre elas podem levar a interpretações muito diferentes e até opostas num mesmo estudo, dependendo dos critérios nele empregados.Evaluations of the visual function are very intricate since they depend on afferent, efferent and cognitive mechanisms, besides external factors of the examined subject, such as the type of the stimulus and of its presentation. Testing the visual acuity is discussed in its formal aspects related to definitions, quantifications (criteria for the measurements of an angle, size of optotypes, notations (decimal or fractionary, scales (representing angular, linear or logarithmic relationships and units in which the values are expressed (reciprocal of minutes of arc, pure number, spacial frequency, decibels, octaves. As a consequence, numerical references about visual acuity and respective operations (e.g., calculations of average values, determinations of variations, relationships between them may lead to very different interpretations of a study, sometimes even opposite, according to the criteria which are used.

  18. Comparação entre acuidade visual e photoscreening como métodos de triagem visual para crianças em idade escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lílian Fernandes de Sousa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sensibilidade do aparelho photoscreener na detecção de alterações oculares em crianças informantes, comparando os dados à acuidade visual obtida pela tabela E de Snellen. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 500 crianças de idades entre 5 e 12 anos, de escola do município de Botucatu, estado de São Paulo. As crianças foram submetidas ao teste de acuidade visual pela tabela E de Snellen e foram fotografadas utilizando-se o aparelho photoscreenerTM system model MTI-PS100, seguindo-se a análise das fotos obtidas. RESULTADOS: Houve concordância negativa (criança com boa acuidade visual e teste negativo com o photoscreener em 81,0%; concordância positiva (acuidade visual alterada e teste positivo em 7,6% e não houve concordância de resultados em 11,0% dos casos. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação comparativa entre o método da acuidade visual pela tabela E de Snellen e o photocreener para detecção de problemas visuais mostrou alta concordância. Os autores sugerem entretanto, a triagem usando tabelas de acuidade visual quando se trata de crianças informantes, devido aos custos com o aparelho.

  19. Age norms for monocular grating acuity measured by sweep-VEP in the first three years of age Estudo normativo de acuidade visual de resolução de grades medido pelo PVE de varredura nos três primeiros anos de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Rios Salomão

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine age norms for grating visual acuity and interocular acuity differences measured by the sweep-visually evoked potentials (VEP technique in the first three years of life. METHODS: Monocular grating visual acuity was measured using the sweep-VEP in 67 healthy normal infants and children in the first 36 months of life. RESULTS: Sweep-VEP grating acuity ranged from 0.80 logMAR (20/125 Snellen equivalent in the first month of life to 0.06 logMAR (20/20 Snellen equivalent at 36 months of age. Lower normal limits (95th percentile limit ranged from 0.95 logMAR (20/180 to 0.12 logMAR (20/25 with a progression of approximately 3 octaves in the first 36 months of age. The largest acceptable interocular acuity difference for clinical purposes was 0.10 logMAR. CONCLUSIONS: Age norms for grating acuity along with interocular acuity differences were determined using the sweep-VEP technique. These norms should be incorporated in clinical practice for precise diagnosis of visual status in infants and preverbal children.OBJETIVOS: Propor valores normativos de acuidade visual de grades e sua respectiva diferença interocular medidas pelo potencial visual evocado de varredura nos primeiros três anos de vida. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 67 crianças sadias, sem doenças oculares, que tiveram a acuidade visual medida pelos potenciais evocados visuais de varredura. RESULTADOS: A acuidade visual média variou de 0,80 logMAR (equivalente de Snellen de 20/125 no primeiro mês de vida a 0,06 logMAR (equivalente de Snellen de 20/20 aos 36 meses. Os limites normais inferiores (percentil 95% variaram de 0,95 logMAR (20/180 a 0,12 logMAR (20/25 com progressão de aproximadamente 3 oitavas nos primeiros 36 meses de vida. A diferença interocular máxima aceitável foi de 0,10 logMAR. CONCLUSÕES: Os valores normativos de acuidade visual e de diferença interocular de acuidade foram obtidos pela técnica do potencial visual evocado de varredura. Prop

  20. PRK versus LASIK para correção de miopia baixa e moderada PRK versus LASIK for correction of low and moderate myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana dos Santos Forseto

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comparar, por meio de um estudo prospectivo e bilateral randomizado, a eficácia, segurança e previsibilidade das técnicas de ceratectomia fotorrefrativa (PRK e "excimer laser in situ keratomileusis" (LASIK para o tratamento da miopia baixa e moderada. Métodos: Foram incluídos dezessete pacientes (34 olhos com equivalente esférico (EE refracional entre -2,00 e -6,00 dioptrias (D. Cada paciente foi submetido a PRK em um olho e LASIK no outro. Ambos os olhos foram tratados no mesmo dia pelo mesmo cirurgião, com o excimer laser VISX 20/20B e o microceratótomo automatizado da Chiron. Resultados: No pré-operatório, a média do EE refracional foi semelhante nos dois grupos (-3,57±1,17D e -3,71±0,98D, para PRK e LASIK, respectivamente. Dor pós-operatória foi referida somente nos casos de PRK (8 olhos: 47,1%. O seguimento pós-operatório médio foi de 14±5 meses (6 a 24 para o grupo de PRK, e 14±6 meses (3 a 24 para o de LASIK. A média do erro refrativo residual foi semelhante nos dois grupos (-0,34±0,45D e -0,29±0,52D, para PRK e LASIK, respectivamente. No primeiro dia pós-tratamento, 15 olhos (100% do grupo de LASIK e 2 (13,3% de PRK apresentavam acuidade visual sem correção (AV s/c ³ 20/40 (n=15. Ao último exame, 15 olhos (88,2% de LASIK contra 11 (64,7% de PRK atingiram AV s/c ³ 20/20 (n=17. Não houve perda da melhor acuidade visual corrigida. Conclusão: Neste estudo, tanto o PRK quanto o LASIK mostraram-se ser tecnicamente seguros, eficazes e previsíveis para a correção da miopia baixa e moderada. A técnica de LASIK foi a preferida na análise subjetiva dos pacientes, pela recuperação visual mais precoce associada a menor dor no pós-operatório.Purpose: To compare, through a prospective, randomized and bilateral study, the effectiveness, safety and predic-tability of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK and excimer laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK for correction of low and moderate myopia. Methods

  1. Variação da acuidade visual em pacientes jovens com ectopia lentis submetidos à cirurgia Variation of visual acuity in young patients with ectopia lentis submitted to surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Waiswol

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS:Avaliar os resultados quanto à acuidade visual, de dois procedimentos cirúrgicos para a ectopia lentis. MÉTODOS: Foram operados 51 olhos de 28 pacientes (16 do sexo masculino e 12 do feminino, com média de idade de 16,00±8,5 anos com ectopia lentis simples (19 casos, ou associada à síndrome de Marfan (nove casos, com diferentes graus de subluxação cristaliniana. Em 21 casos a técnica empregada foi a facectomia com implante de lente intra-ocular (LIO por fixação escleral e em 30 casos foi utilizada a facectomia com implante da lente intra-ocular no saco capsular, previamente expandido por anel endocapsular (ANEL. Os resultados enfatizaram a acuidade visual pré e pós-operatória em seguimento de seis meses. RESULTADOS:Em ambas as técnicas, a acuidade visual pós-operatória sem e com correção teve aumento significante, que foi maior nos casos operados com fixação escleral da lente intra-ocular. Mais do que a técnica empregada, os graus de subluxação pré-operatórios foram determinantes para os resultados. CONCLUSÕES: Mediante as técnicas operatórias apresentadas, a correção cirúrgica da ectopia lentis simples ou associada à síndrome de Marfan é segura e eficaz, com recuperação significante da acuidade visual, embora os resultados operatórios dependam, intrinsecamente, dos graus pré-operatórios de subluxação do cristalino.PURPOSE: To assess the results as to visual acuity of two different surgical procedures for ectopia lentis. METHODS: Fifty-one eyes of 28 patients (16 males and 12 females, mean age 16.00± 8.5 with simple (19 cases or Marfan syndrome-associated (9 cases ectopia lentis with different levels of subluxation underwent lens extraction with implantation of intraocular lenses (IOL with scleral fixation (21 cases or by lens extraction with implantation of the intraocular lenses in the capsular bag expanded by endocapsular ring (RING (30 cases. Result analysis emphasized pre- and

  2. Vastab Joan Baixas / Joan Baixas ; intervjueerinud, tõlkinud ja litereerinud Vahur Keller

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Baixas, Joan, 1946-

    2010-01-01

    Maalikunstnik, näitekirjanik, lavastaja, õppejõud Barcelona Teatriinstituudis ja Barcelona Rahvusvahelise nukuteatrifestivali kunstiline juht J. Baixas visuaalteatrist, nukuteatri olemusest, nüüdiskunstist, Joan Mirost, tööst erinevates kultuurides, kunsti eesmärgist

  3. De olhos bem abertos: investigando acuidade visual em alunos de uma escola municipal de Vitória De ojos bien abiertos: investigar la agudeza visual de los alumnos de una escuela municipal en la ciudad de Vitória With opened eyes: evaluating the visual acuity of children at an elementary school in Vitória

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rabello Laignier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa buscou verificar a acuidade visual dos estudantes de uma escola municipal de Vitória Espírito Santo, por meio da aplicação do teste de acuidade visual, baseado na Escala de Snellen; e encaminhar, para exame especializado no ambulatório de oftalmologia do Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes, as crianças que apresentaram déficit visual. Foi um estudo de abordagem quantitativa que discutiu a acuidade visual relacionada ao sexo, idade, série, uso de lentes corretoras e diagnóstico médico. Das 168 crianças avaliadas, maior número de meninas apresentou baixa acuidade visual, assim como os alunos mais jovens; o uso de lentes predominou naqueles que apresentaram redução da acuidade visual; e 71,4% das crianças encaminhadas ao médico apresentaram algum grau de ametropia. Concluiu-se que o trabalho de prevenção é fundamental para se obter uma ótima saúde visual, e que o profissional de saúde é fundamental no desenvolvimento de projetos voltados para a saúde escolar.Este estudio analiza la agudeza visual de los niños de una escuela municipal en la ciudad de Vitória Espírito Santo, mediante la aplicación de la prueba de agudeza visual. Basado en la escala de Snellen; y remitir para un examen especializado en la clínica de oftalmología del Hospital Universitario Cassiano Antônio Moraes a los niños con trastornos visuales. Desarrolla un estudio de enfoque cuantitativo y se analiza la agudeza visual relacionada con el género, la edad, la serie, el uso de lentes correctoras y el diagnóstico médico. De los 168 niños evaluados, mayor cantidad de las niñas exhibirán baja agudeza visual, así como los grupos de edad más jóvenes; el uso de lentes prevalece sobre las personas con reducción de la agudeza visual; y 71,4% de los niños a que se refiere el médico había cierto grado de ametropia. Se concluyó que el trabajo de la prevención es fundamental para obtener una óptima salud visual, y que el

  4. Doenças pulmonares intersticiais: Acuidade diagnóstica e riscos da biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guerra

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Os autores descrevem a sua casuística de biópsias pulmonares cirúrgicas em doentes com doença pulmonar intersticial, de forma a determinar a acuidade diagnóstica, os riscos e a morbimortalidade associados ao procedimento. Entre Janeiro de 1998 e De-zembro de 2007, 53 doentes (idade média de 47,2±13 anos foram referenciados para a realização de biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica, dos quais 22 eram mulheres (41,5%. As biópsias pulmonares foram realizadas quer por videotoracoscopia (37 doentes, 69,8%, quer por minitoracotomia (16 doentes, 30,2%. Foi escolhido o pulmão direito para biopsar em 88,7% dos casos. Registaram-se complicações pós-operatórias em 5 doentes (9,4%: fuga aérea prolongada em 3 doentes (5,7%, persistência de loca de pneumotórax num doente (1,9% e hemorragia com necessidade de revisão de hemostase noutro doente (1,9%. Ocor-reu um óbito de causa desconhecida num doente sem risco acrescido. A duração média da drenagem foi de 4,4±3 dias e o tempo de internamento médio de 5,5±4 dias. O diagnóstico histológico definitivo foi conseguido em 50 doentes, registando-se uma acuidade diagnóstica de 94,3%. Em conclusão, o potencial benefício de um diagnóstico histopatológico conclusivo através de uma biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica deve ser balanceado com os riscos associados ao procedimento cirúrgico, especialmente para aqueles doentes com disfunção cardiopulmonar severa.Rev Port Pneumol 2009; XV (3: 433-442 Abstract: This study reports our experience, diagnostic accuracy and safety of surgical lung biopsy in patients with interstitial lung diseases. From January 1998 – December 2007 surgical lung biopsy was performed in 53 patients (22 female [41.5%]; age 47.2±13 years. A total of 37 patients (69.8% underwent videothoracoscopic lung biopsy and minithoracotomy was performed in 16 patients (30.2%. Right lung was the

  5. Influência do astigmatismo corneano na acuidade visual final após implante de AcrySof® ReSTOR®: relato de caso Influence of corneal astigmatism in final visual acuity after implantation of AcrySofTM ReSTOR TM: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Carvalho Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente tem-se desenvolvido novos tipos de lentes intra-oculares (LIO que objetivam eliminar a presbiopia e o seu uso vem se popularizando. Descreve-se o caso de um paciente com catarata bilateral e irregularidades corneanas e astigmatismo maior que 2 D à topografia, no qual implantou-se a LIO AcrySof® ReSTOR® no olho esquerdo associado à realização de incisões limbares relaxantes para tentar diminuir o astigmatismo corneano observado. A acuidade visual pós-operatória, tanto para perto quanto para longe, ficou abaixo das expectativas, sem melhora à refração e sem uma outra alteração que a justificasse, além das citadas. Após 45 dias, sem melhora da acuidade visual, efetuou-se o explante desta LIO, seguindo-se de implante de uma monofocal, sendo observada melhora da acuidade visual corrigida final. Assim, o presente caso clínico reforça a necessidade de uma correta seleção pré-operatória dos pacientes candidatos ao implante deste tipo de LIO multifocal, atentando inclusive para os dados topográficos.Currently, new types of intraocular lenses have been developed aiming to eliminate presbyopia and the use has become more popular. The authors report the case of a patient with bilateral cataract and corneal irregularities and astigmatism higher than 2D in the corneal topography, in which AcrySofTM ReSTOR TM intraocular lens was implanted in the left eye associated to relaxing limbal incisions trying to reduce corneal astigmatism. The near and distance postoperative visual acuity were worse than expected, with no improvement with refraction. Apparently, no other reason apart from irregular astigmatism/multifocal lens justified the low vision. After 45 days, with no visual acuity improvement, the intraocular lens was explanted and a monofocal one was implanted. The final corrected visual acuity improved. Thus, the present case emphasizes the need of a correct preoperative selection of patients to implant this type of

  6. Ao leitor sem medo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eisenberg

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O texto resenha Ao leitor sem medo, de Renato Janine Ribeiro (Belo Horizonte, UFMG, 1999.This text is a review of Ao leitor sem medo by Renato Janine Ribeiro (Belo Horizonte, UFMG, 1999

  7. Advanced SEM imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D. C.; Newbury, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) represents the most promising tool for metrology, defect review, and for the analysis of ULSI structures, but both fundamental problems such as electron-solid interactions, and practical considerations such as electron-optical constraints, are now setting a limit to performance. This paper examines the directions in which an advanced SEM might be developed to overcome these constraints. The SEM also offers considerable promise as a tool for the high spatial resolution X-ray microanalysis, especially for those situations where a thin cross-section is not practical and first surface analysis is required. The ways in which this capability can be incorporated in an advanced SEM are examined

  8. Advanced SEM imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.C.; Newbury, D.E.; Newbury, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) represents the most promising tool for metrology, defect review, and for the analysis of ULSI structures, but both fundamental problems such as electron-solid interactions, and practical considerations such as electron-optical constraints, are now setting a limit to performance. This paper examines the directions in which an advanced SEM might be developed to overcome these constraints. The SEM also offers considerable promise as a tool for the high spatial resolution X-ray microanalysis, especially for those situations where a thin cross-section is not practical and first surface analysis is required. The ways in which this capability can be incorporated in an advanced SEM are examined. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  9. PROCESSOS HIDRO-EROSIVOS EM SOLOS DEGRADADOS EM RELEVO DE BAIXA DECLIVIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo dos Santos Pereira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Muitas pesquisas conferem maior peso na alta declividade do terreno como fator decisivo no processo hidro-erosivo. Porém, foi avaliado que baixas declividades (~4º já são suficientes para se iniciar o escoamento superficial. A pesquisa teve como objetivo fazer uma caracterização físico-química de solo degradado, monitorar o seu potencial matricial e o processo de formação de escoamento em uma sub-bacia do rio Maranduba - Ubatuba/SP, em encosta com baixa declividade. O trabalho se baseou na instalação de parcelas de erosão em solo sem cobertura vegetal para analisar as perdas de solo e água, bem como as propriedades físicas e químicas do solo (Porosidade, textura, densidade, pH e matéria orgânica. As parcelas se localizam na parte intermediária de um morrote com encosta retilínea, esse sofreu alteração em sua morfologia original por meio de um corte de encosta (UTM: 0474211/7395934.  O solo do local é um Latossolo que apresenta o horizonte B exposto. Cerca de 6,9 t/ha de solo foram perdidos durante o monitoramento (01 agosto 2013-20 dezembro 2014 e mais de 5.354,7 m3 de água foram escoados superficialmente. Salienta-se a fragilidade dos ambientes degradados de baixa declividade frente às altas taxas de perdas de solo e água, que, no período de 17 meses de monitoramento e com chuvas dentro da normalidade para o município, totalizaram 63 dias com ocorrências de escoamento, em solos que tendem à saturação por períodos prolongados. Portanto, o transporte das partículas de solo superficialmente está atrelado à baixa drenagem do terreno e à perda da resistência do solo, corroborando em períodos longos de umidade antecedente, sendo este um dos fatores decisivos para se iniciar o escoamento superficial.

  10. Spin-polarized SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoto, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Development of highly effective evaluation technology of magnetic structures on a nanometric scale is a key to understanding spintronics and related phenomena. A high-resolution spin-polarized scanning electron microscope (spin SEM) developed recently is quite suitable for probing such nanostructures because of the capability of analyzing local magnetization vectors in three dimensions. Utilizing the spin SEM, a layered antiferromagnetic structure with the 1nm-alternation of bilayer-sheet magnetization has been successfully resolved. The real-space imaging with full analysis of the temperature-dependent magnetization vectors will be demonstrated. (author)

  11. SEM microcharacterization of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, D B

    1989-01-01

    Applications of SEM techniques of microcharacterization have proliferated to cover every type of material and virtually every branch of science and technology. This book emphasizes the fundamental physical principles. The first section deals with the foundation of microcharacterization in electron beam instruments and the second deals with the interpretation of the information obtained in the main operating modes of a scanning electron microscope.

  12. Doenças pulmonares intersticiais: Acuidade diagnóstica e riscos da biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica Interstitial lung disease: Diagnostic accuracy and safety of surgical lung biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guerra

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem a sua casuística de biópsias pulmonares cirúrgicas em doentes com doença pulmonar intersticial, de forma a determinar a acuidade diagnóstica, os riscos e a morbimortalidade associados ao procedimento. Entre Janeiro de 1998 e Dezembro de 2007, 53 doentes (idade média de 47,2±13 anos foram referenciados para a realização de biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica, dos quais 22 eram mulheres (41,5%. As biópsias pulmonares foram realizadas quer por videotoracoscopia (37 doentes, 69,8%, quer por minitoracotomia (16 doentes, 30,2%. Foi escolhido o pulmão direito para biopsar em 88,7% dos casos. Registaram-se complicações pós-operatórias em 5 doentes (9,4%: fuga aérea prolongada em 3 doentes (5,7%, persistência de loca de pneumotórax num doente (1,9% e hemorragia com necessidade de revisão de hemostase noutro doente (1,9%. Ocorreu um óbito de causa desconhecida num doente sem risco acrescido. A duração média da drenagem foi de 4,4±3 dias e o tempo de internamento médio de 5,5±4 dias. O diagnóstico histológico definitivo foi conseguido em 50 doentes, registando-se uma acuidade diagnóstica de 94,3%. Em conclusão, o potencial benefício de um diagnóstico histopatológico conclusivo através de uma biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica deve ser balanceado com os riscos associados ao procedimento cirúrgico, especialmente para aqueles doentes com disfunção cardiopulmonar severa.This study reports our experience, diagnostic accuracy and safety of surgical lung biopsy in patients with interstitial lung diseases. From January 1998 – December 2007 surgical lung biopsy was performed in 53 patients (22 female [41.5%]; age 47.2±13 years. A total of 37 patients (69.8% underwent videothoracoscopic lung biopsy and minithoracotomy was performed in 16 patients (30.2%. Right lung was the choice in 47 patients (88.7%. Postoperative complications were rare (9.4% and included three prolonged air leaks (5.7%, one pneumothorax requiring a

  13. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  14. Fatores associados a baixa adesao ao tratamento medicamentoso em idosos

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    Noemia Urruth Leao Tavares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Analisar fatores associados à baixa adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso em idosos. MÉTODOS : Estudo transversal de base populacional, com amostra representativa de 1.593 indivíduos com 60 anos ou mais, residentes na região urbana de Bagé, RS, em 2008. A amostragem foi realizada em múltiplos estágios. Os dados foram coletados em entrevistas individuais nos domicílios. Analisou-se a associação entre a baixa adesão referida ao tratamento medicamentoso mensurado pelo Brief Medication Questionnaire (BMQ e fatores demográficos, socioeconômicos, comportamentais e de saúde, assistência e prescrição. Foi utilizado modelo de regressão de Poisson para estimar as razões de prevalência bruta e ajustada, os respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% e p-valor (teste de Wald. RESULTADOS : Cerca de 78,0% dos indivíduos referiram ter usado algum medicamento nos sete dias precedentes à entrevista. Desses, cerca de 1 / 3 foram considerados com baixa adesão ao tratamento. Os fatores significativamente associados à baixa adesão foram: idade (65 a 74 anos, não ter plano de saúde, ter que comprar (totalmente ou em parte os seus medicamentos, ter três ou mais morbidades, possuir incapacidade instrumental para a vida diária e usar três ou mais medicamentos. CONCLUSÕES : A utilização elevada de medicamentos, decorrente da alta prevalência de doenças crônico-degenerativas em idosos, e o acesso ao tratamento devem ser considerados pelos profissionais de saúde para adoção de estratégias que visem diminuir a baixa adesão ao tratamento, aumentando a resolutividade terapêutica e a qualidade de vida desses pacientes.

  15. O Cinema sem Imagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Andrade

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A obra cinematográfica de Marguerite Duras, praticamente desconhecida pelo grande público, estabeleça intricadas relações com sua obra literária, ao promover a indiscernibilidade entre os dois campo, sem, contudo, instituir qualquer tipo de subordinação de um ao outro. O processo de criação do filme Lê camion, de 1977, aponta para outras possibilidades de se pensar o cinema e a literatura.

  16. SEM analysis for irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaosong; Yao Liang

    2008-06-01

    A radiation-proof Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) system is introduced. It has been widely used in various areas. For analyzing radioactive samples, normal SEM system needs lots of alterations. Based on KYKY-2800B SEM, the sample room, belt line, operating table and aerator were updated. New radiation-proof SEM system has used to analytic surface contaminated samples and RPV materials samples. An elementary means of SEM analysis for radioactive samples was studied, and this examination supported some available references for further irradiated fuel researches. (authors)

  17. Avaliação da Estereopsia em Crianças sob Terapêutica Oclusiva por Ambliopia e Relação desta com a Acuidade Visual

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, A; Leitão, P; Paixão, A; Martins, M; Toscano, A

    2010-01-01

    Introdução: A ambliopia é a principal causa de diminuição da acuidade visual em crianças. O diagnóstico e tratamento precoces são fundamentais para o sucesso terapêutico. A oclusão continua a ser o tratamento mais utilizado nesta patologia. Objectivos: Este estudo teve como objectivo a avaliação da estereopsia em crianças com ambliopia sob terapêutica oclusiva e a sua relação com a acuidade visual. Material e Métodos: Estudo prospectivo que incluiu 35 crianças com ambliopia, por anisometropia...

  18. Acuidade visual e eletrorretinografia de campo total em pacientes com síndrome de Usher Visual acuity and full-field electroretinography in patients with Usher's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Mendieta

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Usher (SU é doença autossômica recessiva caracterizada por perda auditiva neuro-sensorial acompanhada de retinose pigmentária (RP. OBJETIVO: Analisar a eletrorretinografia de campo total (ERG e a acuidade visual (AV em pacientes com síndrome de Usher tipos I e II. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas as respostas da eletrorretinografia de campo total e a acuidade visual de 22 pacientes (idade média = 26,8±16,8 anos. Destes, 17 tinham síndrome de Usher tipo I e 5 tinham síndrome de Usher tipo II. RESULTADOS: A acuidade visual média do grupo síndrome de Usher I foi de 0,9 logMAR (20/160, equivalente de Snellen e do grupo síndrome de Usher II de 0,4 logMAR (20/50, equivalente de Snellen. As respostas dos bastonetes e as máximas respostas mostraram-se não detectáveis nos dois grupos. A amplitude média dos potenciais oscilatórios foi de 14,5 µV±6,1 na síndrome de Usher I e na síndrome de Usher II de 12,6 µV±5,2. As respostas de cones foram não detectáveis em 95% dos pacientes com síndrome de Usher I e em 100% dos pacientes com síndrome de Usher II. A amplitude média do flicker a 30 Hz nos pacientes com síndrome de Usher I foi de 3,1 µV±4,1 e do tempo de culminação de 34,0ms±6,2; nos pacientes com síndrome de Usher II a média de amplitude foi de 1,0 mV±0,6 e do tempo de culminação de 35,8 ms±3,1. CONCLUSÃO: A acuidade visual mostrou-se relativamente preservada nos dois grupos, porém com melhores resultados no grupo de síndrome de Usher II. Os achados eletrorretinográficos mostraram-se grandemente reduzidos em ambos os grupos, com a maioria dos pacientes apresentando respostas não detectáveis de bastonetes e cones.PURPOSE: Usher's syndrome (US is a group of genetically distinct autossomal conditions, characterized by sensorineural hearing loss accompanied by a retinal dystrophy indistinguishable from retinitis pigmentosa (RP. The purpose of this study was to analyze full-field electroretinography (ERG

  19. Secondary emission monitor (SEM) grids.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    A great variety of Secondary Emission Monitors (SEM) are used all over the PS Complex. At other accelerators they are also called wire-grids, harps, etc. They are used to measure beam density profiles (from which beam size and emittance can be derived) in single-pass locations (not on circulating beams). Top left: two individual wire-planes. Top right: a combination of a horizontal and a vertical wire plane. Bottom left: a ribbon grid in its frame, with connecting wires. Bottom right: a SEM-grid with its insertion/retraction mechanism.

  20. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  1. ANÁLISE DA CIDADE BAIXA COMO POLO CRIATIVO POTENCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Quadrado Closs

    Full Text Available RESUMO A Economia Criativa vem recebendo atenção crescente, podendo contribuir para um desenvolvimento centrado nas pessoas e como insumo para a criação de empregos e inovação, favorecendo a inclusão social, a diversidade cultural e a sustentabilidade. Para ampliar sua discussão no Brasil, este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar as potencialidades e os limites para um território localizado no bairro Cidade Baixa, em Porto Alegre, constituir-se como polo criativo. Entre os aspectos favoráveis destacam-se: a localização, o patrimônio histórico e o ambiente que reúne arte e cultura, bares, restaurante e casas de espetáculos, tornando-o atrativo para o turismo; a aceitação da diversidade; a concentração de empreendimentos criativos e o interesse de moradores e empreendedores no seu desenvolvimento como espaço criativo. Entre as limitações estão: as disputas entre moradores, proprietários de bares e promotores de eventos; a falta de comunicação; a ausência de laços fortes e de articulação entre atores ligados à economia criativa em prol de objetivos comuns; o risco de supervalorização de imóveis na região e de afastamento de artistas e estudantes para outros bairros, descaracterizando o seu tecido constituinte. Como principais contribuições deste estudo, alerta-se para: (a a incorporação acrítica da noção de economia criativa por instituições públicas e privadas, reproduzindo modelos internacionais; (b o predomínio do interesse em ganhos econômicos em detrimento da preservação de aspectos históricos e culturais do bairro; (c a desarticulação entre os atores do território, o que amplia conflitos e compromete a construção de uma proposta integrada para a constituição de um polo criativo; e (d o uso do conceito de território criativo para uma compreensão do espaço mais profunda do que a de polos criativos, que enfatiza elementos objetivos e convergentes, deixando de explorar contradições e

  2. Estudo morfométrico da terapia LED de baixa potência em tendinite de ratos Morphometric study of low power LED therapy tendonitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mário Nunes da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A terapia LED de baixa potência possui efeitos analgésico e antiinflamatório. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar a ação da terapia com LED de baixa potência na reparação tendínea por meio de histologia e histomorfometria. Foram usados 25 ratos Wistar, de 220 a 250 g, divididos em três grupos experimentais avaliados no 7º e 14º dia: A, tendinite induzida sem tratamento; B, tendinite induzida tratada com LED de baixa potência, densidade de energia 4 J/cm² por 120 segundos; e C, sem indução de tendinite. A histomorfometria mostrou-se altamente significativa (p0,05. As análises histológica e histomorfométrica demonstraram qualitativo e quantitativo aumento no número de fibroblastos aos sete dias de tratamento, e das fibras colágenas, aos 14 dias, para grupo tratado com LED de baixa potência em relação ao grupo sadio (C. O mesmo não foi percebido quando relacionado ao grupo tendinite (A14.The low power LED therapy has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study was to analyze the action of therapy with low power LED on the tendon repair, using histology and histomorphometry. Were used 25 Wistar rats, with 220 to 250 g, divided into three experimental groups (7 and 14 days: A7 and A14 induced tendonitis without treatment; B7 and B14, induced tendinitis treated with LED low power density energy 4 J /cm² for 120 seconds; and C, without induction of tendinitis. Histomorphometry was highly significant (p 0.05. Histology and histomorphometry analysis demonstrated qualitative and quantitative increase in the number of fibroblasts to seven days of treatment, and collagen fibers at 14 days for the group treated with LED low power compared to the healthy group (C. But it is unclear even when related to the tendinitis group (A14.

  3. Influência do formato da desepitelização corneana sobre a acuidade visual no pós-operatório da ceratectomia fotorrefrativa (PRK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Yumi Sugahara Harada

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar se a modificação no formato da desepitelização corneana na ceratectomia fotorrefrativa (PRK, de circular para oval, modifica a recuperação da acuidade visual (AV no pós-operatório. Métodos: Foram avaliados prospectivamente 43 pacientes submetidos ao PRK bilateral e simultâneo. De forma randomizada em cada paciente, um olho foi desepitelizado no formato circular e o outro no formato oval. No sexto dia de pós-operatório (D6 foram registradas a percepção subjetiva pelo paciente da qualidade de visão comparativa entre os olhos, a AV objetiva monocular e o aspecto do empilhamento epitelial corneano. Resultados: Em relação à percepção subjetiva da qualidade de visão, observou-se que 48,8% dos pacientes não perceberam diferença entre os olhos e 51,2% perceberam diferença (41,9% referiram melhor qualidade de visão no olho da desepitelização oval e 9,3% referiram melhor visão no olho da desepitelização circular. Em relação à AV (Snellen, a média na desepitelização oval, de 0,62, foi significativamente superior (p<0,001 que na circular, de 0,53. Quanto ao empilhamento epitelial, em 64,3% houve menor densidade do empilhamento nos olhos submetidos à desepitelização oval, em 31,0% não foi identificada diferença e em 4,8% dos olhos submetidos à desepitelização oval o empilhamento foi maior. Tais resultados se devem ao fato de que na desepitelização oval as células epiteliais provêm de bordas não equidistantes do centro da córnea e percorrem uma área menor, determinando um empilhamento epitelial central mais suave. Conclusão: Verificou-se que a modificação no formato da desepitelização corneana no PRK para oval, determinou uma significativa melhora da recuperação da AV.

  4. Vitrectomy with and without scleral buckling for retinal detachment Vitrectomia com e sem "scleral buckling" para descolamento da retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Camargo Siqueira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the surgical results of vitrectomy with and without scleral buckling for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR at different stages were submitted to pars plana vitrectomy as the primary surgery, 23 patients (45.09% with scleral buckle (group I and 28 (54.90% without scleral buckle (group II. Visual acuity, anterior segment complications, intraocular pressure, strabismus and retina reattachment rate were evaluated in both groups. RESULTS: The anatomical success and postoperative complications were similar in both groups. Retinal reattachment was achieved in 20 of 23 eyes (87% of group I and in 24 of 28 eyes (85.7% of group II after the initial surgery (p=1.000. Elevated intraocular pressure was noted in 2 eyes (8.7% of group I and 1 eye (3.6% of group II (p=0.583. Corneal abnormalities were seen in 3 eyes (13% of group I and 2 eyes (7.19% of the group II (p=0.647. Visual acuity improved from a preoperative median of 20/200 to a median of 20/100 in group 1 and from 20/400 to 20/100 in group 2; the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (pOBJETIVOS: Comparar os resultados cirúrgicos da vitrectomia com e sem "buckle" escleral para descolamento da retina regmatogênico (DR. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta e um pacientes com descolamento da retina regmatogênico com proliferação vitreorretiniana (PVR em diferentes estádios foram submetidos a vitrectomia pars plana como cirurgia primária; 23 pacientes (45,09% com buckle escleral (grupo 1 e 28 pacientes (54,90% sem "buckle" escleral (grupo 2. Acuidade visual, complicações do segmento anterior, pressão intra-ocular, estrabismo e razão do redescolamento da retina foram avaliados em ambos os grupos. RESULTADOS: O sucesso anatômico e complicações pós-operatórias foram semelhantes em ambos os grupos. A reaplicação da retina foi obtida em 20 dos 23

  5. Framework for SEM contour analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L.; Farys, V.; Serret, E.; Fenouillet-Beranger, C.

    2017-03-01

    SEM images provide valuable information about patterning capability. Geometrical properties such as Critical Dimension (CD) can be extracted from them and are used to calibrate OPC models, thus making OPC more robust and reliable. However, there is currently a shortage of appropriate metrology tools to inspect complex two-dimensional patterns in the same way as one would work with simple one-dimensional patterns. In this article we present a full framework for the analysis of SEM images. It has been proven to be fast, reliable and robust for every type of structure, and particularly for two-dimensional structures. To achieve this result, several innovative solutions have been developed and will be presented in the following pages. Firstly, we will present a new noise filter which is used to reduce noise on SEM images, followed by an efficient topography identifier, and finally we will describe the use of a topological skeleton as a measurement tool that can extend CD measurements on all kinds of patterns.

  6. SEM-based characterization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope is now a common instrument in materials characterization laboratories. The basic role of the SEM as a topographic imaging system has steadily been expanding to include a variety of SEM-based analytical techniques. These techniques cover the range of basic semiconductor materials characterization to live-time device characterization of operating LSI or VLSI devices. This paper introduces many of the more commonly used techniques, describes the modifications or additions to a conventional SEM required to utilize the techniques, and gives examples of the use of such techniques. First, the types of signals available from a sample being irradiated by an electron beam are reviewed. Then, where applicable, the type of spectroscopy or microscopy which has evolved to utilize the various signal types are described. This is followed by specific examples of the use of such techniques to solve problems related to semiconductor technology. Techniques emphasized include: x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, electron beam induced current (EBIC), stroboscopic voltage analysis, cathodoluminescnece and electron beam IC metrology. Current and future trends of some of the these techniques, as related to the semiconductor industry are discussed

  7. International Conference on SEMS 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chuang; Scientific explanation and methodology of science; SEMS 2012

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains the contributed papers of invitees to SEMS 2012 who have also given talks at the conference. The invitees are experts in philosophy of science and technology from Asia (besides China), Australia, Europe, Latin America, North America, as well as from within China. The papers in this volume represent the latest work of each researcher in his or her expertise; and as a result, they give a good representation of the cutting-edge researches in diverse areas in different parts of the world.

  8. The Effect of Nonnormality on CB-SEM and PLS-SEM Path Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Jannoo; B. W. Yap; N. Auchoybur; M. A. Lazim

    2014-01-01

    The two common approaches to Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) are the Covariance-Based SEM (CB-SEM) and Partial Least Squares SEM (PLS-SEM). There is much debate on the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM for small sample size and when distributions are nonnormal. This study evaluates the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM under normality and nonnormality conditions via a simulation. Monte Carlo Simulation in R programming language was employed to generate data based on the theoretical model w...

  9. Baixa temperatura noturna e deficiência hídrica na fotossíntese de cana‑de‑açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Favero São Pedro Machado

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as respostas fotossintéticas da cana‑de‑açúcar aos efeitos simultâneos e isolados de baixa temperatura noturna (TN e deficiência hídrica (DH. Após 128 dias do plantio, as plantas da cultivar IACSP94-2094 foram submetidas aos tratamentos: controle, sem DH e com TN de 20°C (TN20; com DH e TN de 20°C (DH/TN20; sem DH e com TN de 12°C (TN12; e com DH e TN de 12°C (DH/TN12 por cinco dias. Após o período de tratamento, as plantas foram irrigadas e submetidas à TN de 20°C por mais quatro dias, para recuperação. Houve decréscimos na assimilação de CO2 em todos os tratamentos. A recuperação total da assimilação de CO2 foi observada apenas nas plantas do tratamento TN12. A ocorrência simultânea da baixa temperatura noturna e da deficiência hídrica causou dano acentuado e persistente na condutância estomática, na capacidade máxima da ribulose‑1,5‑bisfosfato carboxilase, no transporte aparente de elétrons, no fator de eficiência e na eficiência operacional do fotossistema II, o que resultou em limitações difusivas, bioquímicas e fotoquímicas da fotossíntese das plantas de cana‑de‑açúcar.

  10. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis

    2018-01-01

    -mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). METHODS: Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual...

  11. A formação do capital social em uma comunidade de baixa renda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souto-Maior Fontes, Breno Augusto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva analisar as inserções em redes egocentradas de indivíduos de uma comunidade de baixa renda na cidade do Recife. A partir de algumas considerações iniciais sobre redes egocentradas, ensaiamos uma análise de redes construídas em uma comunidade de baixa renda. Os dados de que dispomos para análise foram extraídos de uma pesquisa empírica em uma comunidade de baixa renda na cidade do Recife. O nosso objetivo é verificar o quão de particular existe nessas populações de baixa renda, e o que se pode extrair de regularidades em redes egocentradas, e também observar, a partir de índices de capital social construídos, que posições diferenciadas na estrutura social podem existir quando se introduz a variável "rede social". Interessa-nos particularmente discutir as hipóteses de FLAP sobre relações sociais como recursos ou como capital. Os índices construídos nos remeterão a três grandes blocos de questões: (a o número de relações onde se inscrevem capacidades potenciais para ajudas; (b a extensão das redes de ajuda, função da intensidade das relações; e (c os recursos que podem ser alocados a partir dessas relações. As bases empíricas desse artigo dizem respeito a informações extraídas de redes egocentradas da comunidade de Chão de Estrelas, Recife. Foram aplicados 295 questionários, a partir de amostra aleatória simples em um universo de 1.131 domicílios (sendo escolhida uma pessoa adulta por domicílio.

  12. Megafauna do Quaternário tardio de Baixa Grande, Bahia, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo da Costa Ribeiro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It is presented the first occurrence of the late Pleistocene - Holocene mammals fossils in a gnamma-like deposit in the Baixa Grande municipality, Bahia State. The identified taxa were Eremotherium laurillardi (Pilosa – Megatheriidae, Panochthus greslebini (Cingulata - Glyptodontidae, Toxodontinae (Notoungulata - Toxodontidae and Stegomastodon waringi (Proboscidea - Gomphoteriidae. The inferred ecology for this fauna is related to a savanna/forest habitat, in a more wet climate than the present-day semi-arid climate.

  13. Comparação entre acuidade visual e photoscreening como métodos de triagem visual para crianças em idade escolar Comparison between visual acuity and photoscreening used like visual screening methods for scholar aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lílian Fernandes de Sousa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sensibilidade do aparelho photoscreener na detecção de alterações oculares em crianças informantes, comparando os dados à acuidade visual obtida pela tabela E de Snellen. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 500 crianças de idades entre 5 e 12 anos, de escola do município de Botucatu, estado de São Paulo. As crianças foram submetidas ao teste de acuidade visual pela tabela E de Snellen e foram fotografadas utilizando-se o aparelho photoscreenerTM system model MTI-PS100, seguindo-se a análise das fotos obtidas. RESULTADOS: Houve concordância negativa (criança com boa acuidade visual e teste negativo com o photoscreener em 81,0%; concordância positiva (acuidade visual alterada e teste positivo em 7,6% e não houve concordância de resultados em 11,0% dos casos. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação comparativa entre o método da acuidade visual pela tabela E de Snellen e o photocreener para detecção de problemas visuais mostrou alta concordância. Os autores sugerem entretanto, a triagem usando tabelas de acuidade visual quando se trata de crianças informantes, devido aos custos com o aparelho.PURPOSE: To evaluate the sensitivity of the photoscreener equipment to detect ocular changes in informative children comparing with the data obtained by the E Snellen´s table. METHODS: We evaluated 500 children between 5 and 12 years old, from a school of Botucatu city, São Paulo state. The children were submitted to a visual acuity test using the Snellen´s E Table and were photographed with the photoscreenerTM system model MTI-PS100, following the photos' analyze. RESULTS: There were negative agreement (children with a good visual acuity and a negative test with the Photoscreener in 81.0%; positive agreement (children without a good visual acuity and a positive test in 7.6% and there was no agreement of the results in 11.0% (9 of the cases. CONCLUSION: The comparative analysis between the visual acuity test using the Snellen's E table and

  14. SEGMENTAÃÃO DA BAIXA RENDA BASEADO NO ORÃAMENTO FAMILIAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juracy Gomes Parente

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de baixa renda vem ganhando relevância econômica e as peculiaridades no seu padrão de consumo precisam ser entendidas. O objetivo deste trabalho da área de marketing é identificar, com base em um estudo de agrupamentos, padrões heterogêneos de consumo deste grupo de consumidores. Neste sentido, o presente artigo realiza um estudo descritivo do orçamento de uma amostra de 338 famílias de baixa renda de São Paulo oriundas da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF do IBGE â Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Usando micro dados da POF e aplicando a técnica de análise de conglomerados na composição do orçamento familiar, foram identificados cinco segmentos distintos de famílias de baixa renda, que foram aqui denominados de: "Sofredores do aluguel", "Jeitinho Brasileiro", "Valorização do ter", "Batalhadores pela sobrevivência" e "Investidores".

  15. Indução floral de limeiras ácidas 'Tahiti' submetidas a baixas temperaturas Flower induction of acid lime trees 'Tahiti' subjected to low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dierlei dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de quantificar a necessidade de acúmulo de horas de frio para a floração da limeira ácida 'Tahiti', sem a aplicação de deficiência hídrica, além de avaliar as trocas gasosas e fluorescência da clorofila a em condições de baixa temperatura e baixa luminosidade. O experimento foi conduzido em Viçosa-MG, Brasil, com plantas de limeira ácida 'Tahiti', enxertadas sobre limoeiro 'Cravo', cultivadas em vasos de 12 litros. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, com uma planta por parcela. A partir do dia 01/02/2008 até o dia 30/04/2008, quatro plantas foram retiradas da câmara de crescimento (CC (temperatura: 16/12°C (dia/noite; umidade relativa: 70%; fotoperíodo: 10 horas; densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossintéticos: 100µmol m-2 s-1 a cada 15 dias e levadas para a casa de vegetação (CV sem controle ambiental, totalizando sete datas de transferência. A exposição de plantas a baixas temperaturas, sob condições controladas não causou alterações significativas nas características de fluorescência da clorofila a, mas causou redução de 80% nas trocas gasosas. Entretanto, essa redução não prejudicou a floração das plantas. As plantas expostas a condições não indutoras apenas emitiram brotações vegetativas, enquanto aquelas submetidas a baixas temperaturas, quanto maior foi o tempo de exposição, maior foi o número de flores emitidas.The research was realized to quantify the need for accumulation hours under low temperatures to the acid lime 'Tahiti' flowering, without water application and beyond evaluating gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence under low temperature and light. The experiment was conducted in Viçosa-MG, Brazil, with plants from acid lime 'Tahiti' grafted on Rangpur lime grown in pots of 12 liters. The design was completely randomized with seven treatments and four replicates with one

  16. Os efeitos da idade na percepção visual de grades senoidais em luminância baixa The effects of age on visual perception of sine-wave gratings at low luminance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael Antonio dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a função de sensibilidade ao contraste (FSC de adultos e idosos (20-23, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 anos para grades senoidais de 0,25 a 2 cpg em luminância baixa. Todos os participantes apresentavam acuidade visual normal e se encontravam livres de doenças oculares identificáveis. Foram estimados limiares de contraste para 30 participantes (seis em cada faixa etária utilizando o método psicofísico da escolha forçada. Neste método, os participantes tinham que escolher um estímulo contendo uma freqüência de teste (grade senoidal em baixo contraste ou um estímulo neutro com luminância média de 0,7 cd/m². Os resultados mostraram que os grupos de 50-59 e 60-69 anos apresentaram prejuízos significativos na FSC nas freqüências espaciais de 1 e 2 cpg comparados ao grupo de 20-23 anos. Estes resultados sugerem alterações relacionadas à idade na FSC de freqüências espaciais em níveis baixos de luminância.The aim of this work was to investigate the contrast sensitivity function for sine-wave gratings in the range between 0.25-2 cpd in young and older adults (20-23, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 years old using low luminance. All subjects were free from identifiable ocular disease and had normal acuity. We measured the contrast thresholds for 30 participants (six volunteers in each age using the psychophysical forced-choice staircase method. In this method the volunteers had to choose the stimulus containing a test frequency at low contrast (e.g., a sine-wave grating, or another neutral stimulus at mean luminance (0.7 cd/m². The results showed significant changes of CSF for sine-wave gratings at 1 and 2 cpd for the adults 50-59 and 60-69 years old compared to the adults of 20-23 years old. These results suggest age-related changes in the CSF for sine-wave grating at low luminance levels.

  17. Perfil do paciente albino com visão subnormal e melhoria da acuidade visual com a adaptação de recursos ópticos e/ou eletrônicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fleury de Lemos Pereira

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o perfil do paciente albino no departamento de visão subnormal do Instituto Benjamin Constant. Ressaltar o tempo de acompanhamento, a frequência do seguimento, e a melhora visual com a adaptação de recursos ópticos e/ou eletrônicos. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo com dados de 77 pacientes albinos com idade entre 1 a 53 anos de idade atendidos no Instituto Benjamin Constant, entre 2003 e 2014. Resultados: O recurso óptico mais adaptado foi o telescópio de Galilleu 2.8x. Todos os pacientes referiram ganho de visão com os equipamentos. A maioria dos pacientes apresentaram acuidade visual com recursos ópticos entre 20/25 e 20/160. Conclusão: Os recursos ópticos auxiliaram na melhora da função visual e na qualidade de vida dos pacientes com albinismo ocular.

  18. Software xLupa - um ampliador de tela para auxílio na educação de alunos com baixa visão Xlupa Software - a screen magnifier to aid in educating students with low vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bidarra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O modelo educacional brasileiro vem passando por muitas transformações. Parte delas está relacionada a, pelo menos, dois fatores: a necessidade de inclusão de alunos com necessidades especiais no sistema educacional e o uso dos computadores nos processos de ensino, como forma de potencializar os resultados da aprendizagem desses alunos. Apesar dos esforços realizados, tanto na questão da inclusão educacional quanto na informatização de atividades inerentes aos ambientes escolares, a grande dificuldade é saber como atender adequadamente a esses alunos que, atualmente, representam uma parcela significativa da população estudantil matriculada na rede de ensino pública e/ou particular. Considerando que dentre esses alunos estão aqueles que, embora não sejam cegos, apresentam um significativo grau de redução na acuidade visual, denominados "Baixa Visão", e sabendo que o uso do computador tem aumentado nas escolas brasileiras, há fortes motivos para acreditar que a lacuna hoje existente na formação desses indivíduos pode ser minimizada mediante a adequação de recursos computacionais ao processo de aprendizagem. Neste artigo, é apresentada a ferramenta computacional denominada xLupa, um ampliador de imagens e textos em telas de computador para alunos com baixa visão. Para tanto, os tópicos abordados nesse artigo são os seguintes: Descrição da especificação e desenvolvimento da ferramenta, o que envolveu um estudo das necessidades visuais do público alvo, bem como a interação contínua de desenvolvedores e usuários; Apresentação do software xLupa e de suas funcionalidades; e uma avaliação sobre como o seu uso pode auxiliar alunos e professores no dia-a-dia escolar.The Brazilian education model has undergone many transformations. Some of these are related to at least two factors: the need for including students with special needs in the educational system, and the use of computers in learning-teaching processes in

  19. Disseny d’una sèrie de motors de baixa velocitat i parell elevat

    OpenAIRE

    Arranz Bernal, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    El present projecte té com a principal objectiu el disseny d’una sèrie formada per nou motors de baixa velocitat i elevat parell, coneguts com Direct Drive o Motors Torque. Aquests motors seran d’una tipologia de màquina síncrona amb imants permanents interiors/exteriors de Neodimi amb un bobinat concentrat. El punt de partida són les especificacions de parell i velocitat juntament amb les limitacions econòmiques específiques per aquesta sèrie sencera. A més, aquesta tind...

  20. Baixa autoestima situacional em gestantes: uma análise de acurácia

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcante, Joyce Carolle Bezerra; Sousa, Vanessa Emille Carvalho de; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Para investigar a acurácia de características definidoras do diagnóstico Baixa autoestima situacional, realizou-se um estudo transversal, com 52 gestantes atendidas num centro de atendimento familiar. Utilizou-se a taxonomia da NANDA-I e a escala de Rosenberg. O diagnóstico esteve presente em 32,7% das gestantes e todas as características apresentaram associação estatística com o diagnóstico, exceto "Relata verbalmente desafio situacional ao seu próprio valor". As características com maior se...

  1. SEM probe of IC radiation sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Stanley, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) used to irradiate single integrated circuit (IC) subcomponent to test for radiation sensitivity can localize area of IC less than .03 by .03 mm for determination of exact location of radiation sensitive section.

  2. Tolerância a baixas temperaturas de cultivares de abacate (Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Nilberto Bernardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento realizado no Núcleo de Agronomia do Sudoeste/IAC, em Capão Bonito (SP, observou-se o comportamento de 13 cultivares de abacate com seis anos de idade: Geada, Pollock e Simmonds (raça antilhana; Antoniolli, Breda, Campinas, Ermor, Jumbo, Margarida, Ouro verde, Reis e Solano (híbridos de antilhana x guatemalense e Fuerte (híbrido de mexicana x guatemalense em relação às baixas temperaturas. As temperaturas do ar registradas no posto meteorológico do local foram: -2,8degreesC; -0,4degreesC; -0,2degreesC e -1,8degreesC, respectivamente, nos dias 17; 18; 20 e 21 de julho de 2000. A cultivar Fuerte mostrou-se mais tolerante às baixas temperaturas, não apresentando injúrias nas plantas nem queda de frutos; as cultivares híbridas de antilhana x guatemalense apresentaram diferenças de tolerância ao frio; enquanto as antilhanas foram severamente injuriadas.

  3. Advanced metrology by offline SEM data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakcher, Amine; Schneider, Loïc.; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Ducoté, Julien; Farys, Vincent; Besacier, Maxime

    2017-06-01

    Today's technology nodes contain more and more complex designs bringing increasing challenges to chip manufacturing process steps. It is necessary to have an efficient metrology to assess process variability of these complex patterns and thus extract relevant data to generate process aware design rules and to improve OPC models. Today process variability is mostly addressed through the analysis of in-line monitoring features which are often designed to support robust measurements and as a consequence are not always very representative of critical design rules. CD-SEM is the main CD metrology technique used in chip manufacturing process but it is challenged when it comes to measure metrics like tip to tip, tip to line, areas or necking in high quantity and with robustness. CD-SEM images contain a lot of information that is not always used in metrology. Suppliers have provided tools that allow engineers to extract the SEM contours of their features and to convert them into a GDS. Contours can be seen as the signature of the shape as it contains all the dimensional data. Thus the methodology is to use the CD-SEM to take high quality images then generate SEM contours and create a data base out of them. Contours are used to feed an offline metrology tool that will process them to extract different metrics. It was shown in two previous papers that it is possible to perform complex measurements on hotspots at different process steps (lithography, etch, copper CMP) by using SEM contours with an in-house offline metrology tool. In the current paper, the methodology presented previously will be expanded to improve its robustness and combined with the use of phylogeny to classify the SEM images according to their geometrical proximities.

  4. Assessment of groundwater quality and contamination problems ascribed to an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa region, Central Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, O.; Matias, M. J.

    2008-02-01

    The assessment of groundwater quality and its environmental implications in the region of the abandoned Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Central Portugal) was carried out from 1995 to 2004. Shallow groundwater is the major water supply source for irrigation in the neighbourhood of Cunha Baixa village. Water samples from the mine site as well as from private wells were collected in order to identify the mining impact on water composition, the extent of contamination and the seasonal and temporal groundwater quality variations. Some of the sampled private wells contain waters having low pH (risks. Nevertheless, this study indicates that groundwater contamination suffered a small decrease from 1999 to 2004. The bioaccumulation of toxic metals such as Al, Mn, and U within the food chain may cause a serious health hazard to the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants.

  5. Oxford CyberSEM: remote microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M; Kirkland, A; Cockayne, D; Meyer, R

    2008-01-01

    The Internet has enabled researchers to communicate over vast geographical distances, sharing ideas and documents. e-Science, underpinned by Grid and Web Services, has enabled electronic communications to the next level where, in addition to document sharing, researchers can increasingly control high precision scientific instruments over the network. The Oxford CyberSEM project developed a simple Java applet via which samples placed in a JEOL 5510LV Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) can be manipulated and examined collaboratively over the Internet. Designed with schoolchildren in mind, CyberSEM does not require any additional hardware or software other than a generic Java-enabled web browser. This paper reflects on both the technical and social challenges in designing real-time systems for controlling scientific equipments in collaborative environments. Furthermore, it proposes potential deployment beyond the classroom setting.

  6. Partial Least Squares Strukturgleichungsmodellierung (PLS-SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hair, Joseph F.; Hult, G. Tomas M.; Ringle, Christian M.

    (PLS-SEM) hat sich in der wirtschafts- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschung als geeignetes Verfahren zur Schätzung von Kausalmodellen behauptet. Dank der Anwenderfreundlichkeit des Verfahrens und der vorhandenen Software ist es inzwischen auch in der Praxis etabliert. Dieses Buch liefert eine...... anwendungsorientierte Einführung in die PLS-SEM. Der Fokus liegt auf den Grundlagen des Verfahrens und deren praktischer Umsetzung mit Hilfe der SmartPLS-Software. Das Konzept des Buches setzt dabei auf einfache Erläuterungen statistischer Ansätze und die anschauliche Darstellung zahlreicher Anwendungsbeispiele anhand...... einer einheitlichen Fallstudie. Viele Grafiken, Tabellen und Illustrationen erleichtern das Verständnis der PLS-SEM. Zudem werden dem Leser herunterladbare Datensätze, Aufgaben und weitere Fachartikel zur Vertiefung angeboten. Damit eignet sich das Buch hervorragend für Studierende, Forscher und...

  7. FIB-SEM tomography in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilyaprak, Caroline; Bittermann, Anne Greet; Daraspe, Jean; Humbel, Bruno M

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional information is much easier to understand than a set of two-dimensional images. Therefore a layman is thrilled by the pseudo-3D image taken in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) while, when seeing a transmission electron micrograph, his imagination is challenged. First approaches to gain insight in the third dimension were to make serial microtome sections of a region of interest (ROI) and then building a model of the object. Serial microtome sectioning is a tedious and skill-demanding work and therefore seldom done. In the last two decades with the increase of computer power, sophisticated display options, and the development of new instruments, an SEM with a built-in microtome as well as a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM), serial sectioning, and 3D analysis has become far easier and faster.Due to the relief like topology of the microtome trimmed block face of resin-embedded tissue, the ROI can be searched in the secondary electron mode, and at the selected spot, the ROI is prepared with the ion beam for 3D analysis. For FIB-SEM tomography, a thin slice is removed with the ion beam and the newly exposed face is imaged with the electron beam, usually by recording the backscattered electrons. The process, also called "slice and view," is repeated until the desired volume is imaged.As FIB-SEM allows 3D imaging of biological fine structure at high resolution of only small volumes, it is crucial to perform slice and view at carefully selected spots. Finding the region of interest is therefore a prerequisite for meaningful imaging. Thin layer plastification of biofilms offers direct access to the original sample surface and allows the selection of an ROI for site-specific FIB-SEM tomography just by its pronounced topographic features.

  8. Influência da cera de carnaúba no comportamento reológico de misturas usadas na moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Ourique

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão (MIBP tem algumas vantagens sobre outros métodos de conformação de peças cerâmicas com formas complexas. Dentre as vantagens estão os menores custos na produção de lotes pequenos e médios e o menor desgaste de moldes e equipamento. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o efeito de um dos aditivos orgânicos usados na MIBP, a cera de carnaúba, no comportamento reológico da mistura (feedstock. O pó cerâmico utilizado foi uma alumina, com tamanho de partícula em torno de 0,4 μm. Com adições de 5% e 10% em peso de cera de carnaúba no veículo orgânico a viscosidade diminui significativamente, sendo bem mais acentuada com 10%, enquanto que, acima deste valor (15%, a viscosidade diminui, mas esta redução é menos pronunciada. Em contrapartida, em feedstocks sem a cera de carnaúba (0%, a viscosidade é tão elevada que praticamente inviabiliza a injeção em baixas pressões.

  9. Valores que motivam mulheres de baixa renda a comprar produtos de beleza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alexandre Grubits de Paula Pessôa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem como objetivo identificar valores individuais que motivam mulheres de baixa renda, mesmo vivendo com severas limitações financeiras, a comprar produtos de beleza, que poderiam, à primeira vista, ser considerados itens supérfluos. O modelo de cadeia meios-fim de Gutman (1982 e os tipos de valores de Rokeach (1973 e Floch (1990 constituíram sua base conceitual. Foram conduzidas entrevistas em profundidade, empregando a técnica laddering (REYNOLD; GUTMAN, 1988, com 17 mulheres de baixa renda residentes na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. As entrevistas também foram interpretadas com o auxílio de análises de conteúdo e de discurso. Os resultados trazem evidências de que, com o uso de produtos de beleza, as consumidoras de baixa renda buscam elevar sua autoestima, constantemente abalada pelas restrições financeiras, que as coloca em permanente situação de desvantagem. Também buscam, por meio da beleza, obter respeito de classes sociais hierarquicamente superiores, já que a aparência parece ser uma maneira eficaz para diminuir sua percepção de discriminação por serem pobres. As entrevistadas mostraram-se muito conscientes de suas limitações orçamentárias para aquisição de produtos de beleza, comprando apenas o que podem pagar. A marca dos produtos selecionados para compra surgiu como fator importante em suas escolhas, não para obter status, mas como garantia da qualidade dos produtos. Este trabalho buscou ampliar o conhecimento sobre o comportamento de consumo dos grupos sociais na base da pirâmide, examinando questões ainda pouco exploradas, como valores de sua subcultura. Sob a perspectiva gerencial, esta pesquisa propõe contribuições para a gestão do composto de marketing de empresas que pretendam atuar nesse mercado.

  10. Search Engine Marketing (SEM: Financial & Competitive Advantages of an Effective Hotel SEM Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Search Engine Marketing and Optimization (SEO, SEM are keystones of a hotels marketing strategy, in fact research shows that 90% of travelers start their vacation planning with a Google search. Learn five strategies that can enhance a hotels SEO and SEM strategies to boost bookings.

  11. Search Engine Marketing (SEM): Financial & Competitive Advantages of an Effective Hotel SEM Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-01-01

    Search Engine Marketing and Optimization (SEO, SEM) are keystones of a hotels marketing strategy, in fact research shows that 90% of travelers start their vacation planning with a Google search. Learn five strategies that can enhance a hotels SEO and SEM strategies to boost bookings.

  12. Does Sexually Explicit Media (SEM) Affect Me?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Træen, Bente; Noor, Syed W

    2015-01-01

    and understanding of one’s sexual orientation.First-person effects refer to self-perceived and self-reported effects of SEM consumptionas experienced by the consumer. In addition, the study examined and provided athorough validation of the psychometric properties of the seven-item PornographyConsumption Effect...

  13. SEM: A user's manual for materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides a reference of techniques used by the metallurgical microscopist. It contains an introduction to the instrumentation and methods of scanning electron microscopy with historical as well as state-of-the-art methodologies. Topics covered include: SEM instrumentation, photography, energy dispersive spectroscopy, introduction to sample preparation, polished samples, fracture surfaces, replicas and thin films

  14. Building a SEM Analytics Reporting Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Jay W.; Williams, Brian G.; Kilgore, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Effective strategic enrollment management (SEM) efforts require vast amounts of internal and external data to ensure that meaningful reporting and analysis systems can assist managers in decision making. A wide range of information is integral for leading effective and efficient student recruitment and retention programs. This article is designed…

  15. Influência do ambiente em cultivares de feijoeiro-comum em cerrado com baixa altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Santos Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi identificar genótipos de feijoeiro-comum com alta adaptabilidade e estabilidade de produção e verificar a ocorrência de interação genótipos x ambientes (GxA para diferentes caracteres em algumas regiões de cerrado com baixa altitude no Estado do Mato Grosso. Foram realizados 12 ensaios em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em épocas de semeadura da seca e do inverno, no Estado do Mato Grosso, em 2008 e 2009. Os ensaios foram compostos por 19 genótipos com seis diferentes tipos de grãos. Foram obtidos dados de produtividade de grãos, reação à mancha angular, ciclo, tolerância ao acamamento e massa de cem grãos, e realizadas as análises de variância. Os dados de produtividade foram analisados quanto à estabilidade e adaptabilidade pelo método proposto por Annicchiarico. Foi observada interação GxA para todas as características avaliadas. A correlação entre a produtividade dos genótipos nas duas épocas de semeadura foi intermediária (0,48 (p<0,0375, mostrando que o desempenho dos genótipos nessas épocas é razoavelmente coincidente. As cultivares BRS Estilo, de grãos carioca e BRS Esplendor e BRS Campeiro, de grãos pretos, reúnem alta adaptabilidade, estabilidade e produtividade de grãos nas épocas de semeadura da seca e do inverno em regiões de cerrado de baixa altitude no Estado do Mato Grosso.

  16. Fatores que Influenciam a Compra de Produtos Têxteis Oficiais por Torcedores de Futebol de Baixa Renda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Rial Butier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar os principais fatores que influenciam os torcedores de baixa renda a adquirirem produtos têxteis oficiais e licenciados por um clube da elite do futebol brasileiro, aparentemente inviáveis para sua capacidade de compra. A revisão de literatura abordou o marketing no futebol brasileiro, incluindo o torcedor de futebol, licenciamento da marca, consumidores de baixa renda e artigos esportivos têxteis. Para identificarmos os principais fatores foi escolhido o método de análise conjunta, técnica estatística à qual ajuda a entender a complexidade do processo de escolha e decisão de compra dos consumidores. Foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade com torcedores, lojistas, vendedores e pessoas com atuação no mercado esportivo. Os atributos selecionados para a análise conjunta foram preço, forma de pagamento, durabilidade e ajudar, ou não, o Clube. A pesquisa foi respondida por 149 torcedores durante a realização de dois jogos do Campeonato Brasileiro de 2012. Os resultados da análise conjunta sugerem que os principais fatores, ou atributos, que influenciam os torcedores no processo de compra são, em ordem de importância relativa, ajudar o clube, como mais importante, preço, forma de pagamento e, como menos importante, a durabilidade do produto.DOI: 10.5585/podium.v2i2.44

  17. Bases de Datos Semánticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irving Caro Fierros

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1992, cuando Tim Berners-Lee dio a conocer la primera  versión  de  la  Web,  su  visión  a  futuro  era  incorporar metadatos  con  información  semántica  en  las  páginas  Web.  Es precisamente   a   principios   de   este   siglo   que   inicia   el   auge repentino  de  la  Web  semántica  en  el  ambiente  académico  e Internet. El modelo de datos semántico se define como un modelo conceptual que permite definir el significado de los datos a través de  sus  relaciones  con  otros.  En  este  sentido,  el  formato  de representación  de  los  datos  es  fundamental  para  proporcionar información de carácter semántico. La tecnología enfocada en las bases de datos semánticas se encuentra actualmente en un punto de  inflexión,  al  pasar  del  ámbito  académico  y  de  investigación  a ser una opción comercial completa. En este artículo se realiza un análisis  del  concepto  de  base  de  datos  semántica.  También  se presenta  un  caso  de  estudio  donde  se  ejemplifican  operaciones básicas  que  involucran  la  gestión  de  la  información  almacenada en este tipo de base de datos.

  18. Opinião de mulheres de baixa renda, residentes em cidade do interior sobre planejamento familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Carneiro

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta opinião de mulheres de baixa renda, residentes em zona rural do interior, sobre concepção e contracepção; identifica o nível de conhecimento sobre planejamento familiar e demonstra os aspectos sócio-culturais que influenciam na opinião destas mulheres.

  19. SEM investigation of heart tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, R; Amoroso, M [Physics Department, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2010-07-01

    We used the scanning electron microscope to examine the cardiac tissue of a cow (Bos taurus), a pig (Sus scrofa), and a human (Homo sapiens). 1mm{sup 3} blocks of left ventricular tissue were prepared for SEM scanning by fixing in 96% ethanol followed by critical point drying (cryofixation), then sputter-coating with gold. The typical ridged structure of the myofibrils was observed for all the species. In addition crystal like structures were found in one of the samples of the heart tissue of the pig. These structures were investigated further using an EDVAC x-ray analysis attachment to the SEM. Elemental x-ray analysis showed highest peaks occurred for gold, followed by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium. As the samples were coated with gold for conductivity, this highest peak is expected. Much lower peaks at carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium suggest that a cystallized salt such as a carbonate was present in the tissue before sacrifice.

  20. SEM investigation of heart tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, R; Amoroso, M

    2010-01-01

    We used the scanning electron microscope to examine the cardiac tissue of a cow (Bos taurus), a pig (Sus scrofa), and a human (Homo sapiens). 1mm 3 blocks of left ventricular tissue were prepared for SEM scanning by fixing in 96% ethanol followed by critical point drying (cryofixation), then sputter-coating with gold. The typical ridged structure of the myofibrils was observed for all the species. In addition crystal like structures were found in one of the samples of the heart tissue of the pig. These structures were investigated further using an EDVAC x-ray analysis attachment to the SEM. Elemental x-ray analysis showed highest peaks occurred for gold, followed by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium. As the samples were coated with gold for conductivity, this highest peak is expected. Much lower peaks at carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium suggest that a cystallized salt such as a carbonate was present in the tissue before sacrifice.

  1. Viewing Integrated-Circuit Interconnections By SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Russel A.; Gauldin, Robert E.; Ruiz, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    Back-scattering of energetic electrons reveals hidden metal layers. Experiment shows that with suitable operating adjustments, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used to look for defects in aluminum interconnections in integrated circuits. Enables monitoring, in situ, of changes in defects caused by changes in temperature. Gives truer picture of defects, as etching can change stress field of metal-and-passivation pattern, causing changes in defects.

  2. Structuring Consumer Preferences with the SEM Method

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Structuring preferences has been developed with econometric models using functional flexible parametric form and the exploring the perceptions about expressed and latent needs using different multivariate approaches. Purpose of this research is to explore the demand for a new drink using the mean-end chain (MEC) theory and multivariate SEM procedure. The first part is dedicated to description of specialty foods for their capacity to create new niche markets. The MEC theory is introduced to ex...

  3. Bases de Datos Semánticas

    OpenAIRE

    Irving Caro Fierros; Víctor Hugo Menéndez Domínguez; María Enriqueta Castellanos Bolaños

    2016-01-01

    En 1992, cuando Tim Berners-Lee dio a conocer la primera  versión  de  la  Web,  su  visión  a  futuro  era  incorporar metadatos  con  información  semántica  en  las  páginas  Web.  Es precisamente   a   principios   de   este   siglo   que   inicia   el   auge repentino  de  la  Web  semántica  en  el  ambiente  académico  e Internet. El modelo de datos semántico se define como un modelo conceptual que permite definir el significado de los datos a través de  sus  relaciones  con  otros.  E...

  4. Characterization of Yeast Biofilm by Cryo-SEM and FIB-SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubanová, Kamila; Nebesářová, Jana; Růžička, F.; Dluhoš, J.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, S2 (2013), s. 226-227 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103; GA TA ČR TE01020118; GA ČR GAP205/11/1687 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : yeast biofilm * cryo-SEM * FIB-SEM Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.757, year: 2013

  5. Granuloma macular por tuberculose sem manifestação pulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Costa Rebello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Tuberculose é uma doença infecciosa causada pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, também conhecido como bacilo de Koch. O principal sítio de acometimento é o pulmonar, porém o bacilo pode disseminar-se por via linfo-hematogênica para outros órgãos, dentre eles o olho. A incidência de tuberculose ocular é de 1 a 2% dos casos extrapulmonares. Os autores apresentam um caso clínico de um paciente do sexo feminino de 28 anos que procura atendimento médico devido à redução da acuidade visual em olho esquerdo há 7 dias. Apresentava a melhor acuidade visual corrigida no olho acometido de 20/200 e no olho contralateral de 20/20. Na fundoscopia era evidenciado um granuloma em área macular do olho esquerdo, com edema e hemorragia intrarretiniana adjacente. Após investigação diagnóstica, a paciente foi tratada com esquema antibiótico para tuberculose durante 6 meses, obtendo regressão do granuloma e melhora da acuidade visual deste olho para 20/50.

  6. O ciberativismo sem bússola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rüdiger

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Questiona-se no texto se uma abordagem que, no essencial, relata a trajetória do chamado ciberativismo de acordo com seus próprios termos se justifica academicamente ou, em vez disso, se mantém prisioneira de uma mitologia que o fenômeno, em si mesmo, já construiu e, por isso, autoriza seus sujeitos a dispensarem sem prejuízo eventual contribuição de origem universitária.

  7. Afasia global sem hemiparesia: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA,MARCUS TULIUS TEIXEIRA DA; CAVALCANTI,JOSÉ LUÍS DE SÁ; MOREIRA,DENISE MADEIRA

    2000-01-01

    Afasia global geralmente é acompanhada por hemiparesia direita devido à extensão da lesão subjacente. Recentemente têm sido registrados na literatura casos em que tal síndrome ou não se acompanha do déficit motor ou este é apenas transitório, sendo esta condição conhecida como afasia global sem hemiparesia (AGSH). Relatamos caso de AGSH devido a infarto cerebral embólico cardiogênico, corroborando a tese de que esta condição pode ter valor preditivo para o diagnóstico de infartos embólicos....

  8. Singular Buildings on Regular Grids. Churches in L’Eixample and La Baixa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Arboix-Alió

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A building is considered unique when it outstands within the common fabric of the city due to its form, its nature, and its production and serialization process. If this architectural singularity is accompanied by an urban distinction, the result is much more effective because the compound becomes an urban enclave capable of arranging and hierarchically organising the city. The most illustrative example for historic cities with a Catholic tradition may probably be the church with the public space that materializes around it. For centuries, the sacred building and the atrium that precedes it have represented the city’s reference point and articulating centre of social, economic and cultural life. Nevertheless, if this is more or less evident in old towns consolidated over time; how is this solved in modern cities formed by a regular urban layout whose grid is put before the freedom of the buildings? With Barcelona and Lisbon as case studies, the paper focuses on the implementation and typology of the most paradigmatic churches in the neighbourhoods of L’Eixample Cerdà and La Baixa Pombalina.

  9. Efeito de impactos repetidos de baixa energia em compósitos pultrudados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morais Willy Ank de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Danos internos podem ser gerados em compósitos de matriz polimérica submetidos a impactos de baixa energia. O efeito repetido de eventos desse tipo pode levar, eventualmente, à falha da estrutura. Neste trabalho dois tipos de perfis pultrudados foram submetidos a impactos por queda livre de peso de 0,5 m e 1,0 m de altura. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados em função da disposição das fibras nos perfis e mostram que a existência de uma camada rica em resina em um dos perfis, contribui para reduzir significativamente o desempenho deste perfil. Este comportamento foi associado à formação prematura de trincas na camada rica em resina. O número de eventos de impacto, o tempo de duração de cada choque e a forma da área danificada foram correlacionados com a presença, ou não, da região rica em resina. Os resultados obtidos indicam ainda que a diferença na microestrutura dos perfis analisados é mais significativa para os ensaios de menor energia (queda de 0,5 m. Para os ensaios de maior energia (queda de 1 m a configuração do material teve apenas uma importância secundária.

  10. Baixa autoestima situacional em gestantes: uma análise de acurácia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Carolle Bezerra Cavalcante

    Full Text Available Para investigar a acurácia de características definidoras do diagnóstico Baixa autoestima situacional, realizou-se um estudo transversal, com 52 gestantes atendidas num centro de atendimento familiar. Utilizou-se a taxonomia da NANDA-I e a escala de Rosenberg. O diagnóstico esteve presente em 32,7% das gestantes e todas as características apresentaram associação estatística com o diagnóstico, exceto "Relata verbalmente desafio situacional ao seu próprio valor". As características com maior sensibilidade foram "Comportamento indeciso" e "Expressões de desamparo" (82,35%. Já as características "Expressões de sentimento de inutilidade" e "Relata verbalmente desafio situacional atual ao seu próprio valor" apresentaram maior especificidade (94,29%. Tais resultados podem contribuir com a prática de enfermagem, pois a identificação de características acuradas é fundamental para uma inferência segura.

  11. Baixa autoestima situacional em gestantes: uma análise de acurácia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Carolle Bezerra Cavalcante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Para investigar a acurácia de características definidoras do diagnóstico Baixa autoestima situacional, realizou-se um estudo transversal, com 52 gestantes atendidas num centro de atendimento familiar. Utilizou-se a taxonomia da NANDA-I e a escala de Rosenberg. O diagnóstico esteve presente em 32,7% das gestantes e todas as características apresentaram associação estatística com o diagnóstico, exceto "Relata verbalmente desafio situacional ao seu próprio valor". As características com maior sensibilidade foram "Comportamento indeciso" e "Expressões de desamparo" (82,35%. Já as características "Expressões de sentimento de inutilidade" e "Relata verbalmente desafio situacional atual ao seu próprio valor" apresentaram maior especificidade (94,29%. Tais resultados podem contribuir com a prática de enfermagem, pois a identificação de características acuradas é fundamental para uma inferência segura.

  12. Olho vivo: analisando a acuidade visual das crianças e o emprego do lúdico no cuidado de enfermagem Ojo vivo: analizando la acuidad visual de los niños y el empleo del juego en el cuidado de enfermería Alive eye: analyzing the visual intensity of the children and the use of the recreational in the care of nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica da Conceição Oliveira Coelho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa quantiqualitativa de delineamento transversal, que teve como objetivo detectar precocemente o déficit visual nas crianças em fase escolar e promover a saúde visual por meio de atividades lúdicas. Os resultados mostraram que das 250 crianças que participaram das atividades lúdicas de promoção da saúde ocular, apenas 143 crianças realizaram o teste de acuidade visual; as demais não trouxeram a autorização dos pais. Das crianças submetidas ao teste de acuidade visual, 13 foram encaminhadas ao reteste, e todas estas foram encaminhadas ao serviço de oftalmologia, pois a dificuldade visual permaneceu como resultado do reteste. Referente à aplicação do lúdico, percebemos que tanto a história quanto os personagens do teatro ficaram explícitos nas falas das crianças. Na conclusão, evidenciamos que a visão desempenha papel fundamental no desenvolvimento físico e psicossocial da criança; por isso, a triagem oftalmológica com diagnóstico precoce de alterações visuais é de extrema importância.Se trata de una investigación cuantitativa y cualitativa de carácter transversal que tuvo como objetivo detectar precozmente el déficit visual en niños que se encuentran en fase escolar y promover la salud visual a través de actividades lúdicas. Los resultados demostraron que de los 250 niños que participaron en las actividades lúdicas de promoción de la salud ocular, sólo 143 niños hicieron la prueba de agudeza visual, ya que los demás no habían traído la autorización de sus padres. Del total de niños que hicieron la prueba de agudeza visual trece fueron encaminados a realizar una repetición de la prueba y tras hacerla, los mismos trece fueron remitidos al servicio de oftalmología, ya que la dificultad visual fue confirmada por la contraprueba. En lo referente a la aplicación del juego, percibimos que tanto la historia como los personajes del teatro estaban explícitamente presentes en las

  13. Cultivo do mirtilo: atualizações e desempenho inicial de variedades de baixa exigência em frio no Estado de Säo Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Cantuarias-Avilés

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A produção comercial de mirtilos na América do Sul tem passado por mudanças importantes nos últimos anos, em função do aumento da oferta de frutos frescos dos principais países produtores, causando forte queda de preços em plena safra, entre os meses de dezembro e fevereiro. Uma alternativa para esta situação é a produção de mirtileiros de maturação precoce ou muito tardia, fora da época de meia-estação, caracterizada pelos menores preços da fruta. Em 2010, foram introduzidas no Brasil novas variedades de mirtileiros de baixa exigência em frio desenvolvidas pela Universidade da Flórida, que podem ser cultivadas em regiões quentes e apresentam uma frutificação mais precoce, quando comparadas com as variedades tradicionalmente cultivadas no Brasil. Essas novas variedades apresentam grande potencial para a produção precoce de mirtilos no País em regiões sem frio hibernal, aumentando significativamente a rentabilidade da cultura. Para viabilizar esta produção, é necessário validar estratégias de manejo para estas variedades, devido à falta de informação técnica sobre seu cultivo nas condições edafoclimáticas brasileiras. Atualmente, estäo sendo conduzidas as primeiras pesquisas fitotécnicas no Estado de Säo Paulo para avaliar o crescimento e a produção destas variedades na ausência total de frio, situação de ocorrência particular em poucos países produtores do mundo.

  14. Laser de baixa intensidade em deiscência aguda de safenectomia: proposta terapêutica Low level laser therapy in acute dehiscence saphenectomy: therapeutic proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathali Cordeiro Pinto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Deiscência é uma complicação temida em cirurgias de grande porte. Paciente submetida a revascularização miocárdica evoluiu com deiscência de safenectomia em membro inferior, edema e dor no 15º dia pós-operatório (PO, tendo sido realizado inicialmente o tratamento convencional no ambulatório sem melhora clínica. No 30º PO, aplicou-se somente Laser de Baixa Intensidade (LBI ao redor da borda da ferida, pontualmente. A lesão respondeu com tecido de granulação, diminuição do processo inflamatório e analgesia desde a primeira aplicação. Neste estudo piloto, a laserterapia mostrou ter um papel importante como agente facilitador de cicatrização, por meio de uma terapia nãoinvasiva, eficaz e segura.Dehiscence is a feared complication after major surgeries. Patient who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting developed saphenectomy's dehiscence on lower limb with edema and pain on the 15th postoperative day. Conventional treatment had been initially performed without clinical improvement. On the 30th postoperative day only Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT was applied punctually around surgical wounds edge. The results revealed granulated tissue, reduction of inflammatory process and analgesic effect since the first application. In this pilot study, LLLT has shown a considerable role as a wound healing agent, through a new proposal for efficient, safe and noninvasive therapy.

  15. Avaliação de projetos de eficiência energética no segmento baixa renda

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Felipe Conti de Souza

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho visa avaliar o resultado dos projetos de eficiência energética para o segmento baixa renda, comparando resultados de projetos de troca de equipamentos obsoletos por equipamentos novos e eficientes, com projeto de cunho educativo para o consumo eficiente de energia. Faz também parte do trabalho verificar os resultados das ações dos dois projetos combinados.

  16. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination in the vicinity of the cunha baixa and quinta do bispo old uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.J.S.C.; Neves, L.J.P.F.; Dias, J.M.M.; Barbosa, S.V.T.

    2004-01-01

    The Cunha Baixa and Quinta do Bispo uranium mines were some of the most important exploitations in Portugal and shared a common geological setting, composed of metasedimentary enclaves in hercynian porphyritic granites. The exploitation of Cunha Baixa began as an underground mine and later evolved to an open-pit; Quinta do Bispo was exclusively exploited as an open-pit. Heap leaching techniques were used in both mines to recover uranium from low-grade ores (300-500 ppm). The mining activities produced large amounts of waste, currently deposited in several tailings. To evaluate the degree and extension of the contamination of the environment, the radionuclides of the U-chain, as well as other chemical elements, were measure in samples of water (116), stream sediments (8) and soils (26), collected in the mining area and its vicinity. The activity of the radionuclides in the different environmental compartments is highly variable, and the modelling by multivariate techniques based on discriminant analysis, allow to separate the samples with chemical signature changed by the mine workings from those that only contain the variability imposed by geology or other anthropogenic activities. Mining contamination is mainly restricted to the surroundings of the studied mines and the worst environmental situation occurs in soils close to Cunha Baixa mine, as a result of the illegal use for irrigation of water collected in the wastewater treatment plant, as well as from resurgences in the tailings. (author)

  17. El semáforo loco

    OpenAIRE

    González de Zachrisson, Hena

    2016-01-01

    El semáforo lo acababan de instalar en Vía Brasil y Calle 50 y estaba contento de poder mantener el orden del tránsito en tan importante calle. Sin embargo, pronto descubrió que su tarea no era fácil. Su territorio estaba atestado de muchachos que vendían frutas y vegetales y para escapar de ellos, los conductores hacían regatas para cruzar la calle antes de que la luz cambiara a rojo. —Todo a un dólar! —gritaban los chicos mostrando su bolsa de guineo, naranja, melón, maíz, papaya, c...

  18. In-situ SEM electrochemistry and radiolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Nilsen, Rolf Erling Robberstad; Norby, Poul

    are backscattered and an image is reconstructed by the microscope. But the high energy electrons are a form of ionising radiation which can significantly affect the chemistry in liquid experiments. Ionising radiation can split water, produce radicals, reduce dissolved metal ions to metal particles, and more...... experiments. During the course of these studies it has also been possible to improve on the EC-SEM system. This has resulted in pyrolysed carbon electrodes, which offer the benefit of stability at 0.75 V higher potentials than traditional gold thin-film electrodes. With the quantitative insight...... microelectrodes on the windows to enable studies of electrohcemical processes. In this way it is possible to perform in-situ electrochemical experiments such as electroplating and charge and discharge analysis of battery electrodes. In a typical liquid cell, electrons are accelerated to sufficiently high energies...

  19. Baixa do Noroeste Argentino e Baixa do Chaco: caracterísitcas, diferenças e semelhanças The Northewestern Argentinean Low and The Chaco Low: their characteristics, differences and similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Enrique Seluchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Baixa do Chaco e a Baixa do Noroeste Argentino são frequentemente confundidas ou tratadas como um único sistema. Isso se deve a vários fatores: o pouco conhecimento que se tem sobre elas, especialmente sobre a Baixa do Chaco, a baixa resolução das reanálises globais que as mostram como um único sistema e a relativamente escassa cobertura de dados sobre a região que ocupam. Este trabalho tenta contribuir para o melhor entendimento das diferenças e semelhanças entre ambos os sistemas, analisando algumas características dinâmicas e termodinâmicas da região em que elas atuam, com a finalidade de aprofundar seu conhecimento e de possibilitar a sua melhor identificação e diferenciação. O estudo utiliza as reanálises do modelo regional Eta/CPTEC do período (2000-2004 e considera os meses de verão, período no qual as duas baixas estão ativas. Os resultados mostraram que a Baixa do Noroeste Argentino está mais relacionada com a atividade transiente, o que pode ser comprovado através da influência do jato subtropical e da variabilidade temporal de algumas variáveis, como a pressão e a temperatura potencial equivalente. A Baixa do Chaco se desenvolve numa atmosfera mais instável do ponto de vista termodinâmico, porém menos afetada pela dinâmica das latitudes médias.The Chaco Low and the Northwestern Argentinean Low are frequently confounded or treated as a single system, due to our limited knowledge about them (especially concerning the Chaco Low, the low resolution of global analyses -that show them as a single low pressure system-, and the relatively poor data coverage over the region where they are usually located. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of the differences and similarities between them, as well as to analyze the atmospheric dynamical and thermo-dynamical conditions where they evolve. It is considered that this study will aid to a better recognition of both systems. With this purpose

  20. The luminal surface of thyroid cysts in SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    Four of the five kinds of cells constituting the walls of thyroid cysts can be identified in the SEM. These are cuboidal cells, mucous cells, cells with large granules and ciliated cells. A correlation between SEM and TEM observations is attempted.......Four of the five kinds of cells constituting the walls of thyroid cysts can be identified in the SEM. These are cuboidal cells, mucous cells, cells with large granules and ciliated cells. A correlation between SEM and TEM observations is attempted....

  1. Measuring topographies from conventional SEM acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiwei; Roux, Stéphane; Latourte, Félix; Hild, François; Loisnard, Dominique; Brynaert, Nicolas

    2018-04-27

    The present study extends the stereoscopic imaging principle for estimating the surface topography to two orientations, namely, normal to the electron beam axis and inclined at 70° as suited for EBSD analyses. In spite of the large angle difference, it is shown that the topography can be accurately determined using regularized global Digital Image Correlation. The surface topography is compared to another estimate issued from a 3D FIB-SEM procedure where the sample surface is first covered by a Pt layer, and its initial topography is progressively revealed from successive FIB-milling. These two methods are successfully compared on a 6% strained steel specimen in an in situ mechanical test. This analysis is supplemented by a third approach estimating the change of topography from crystal rotations as measured from successive EBSD images. This last technique ignores plastic deformation, and thus only holds in an elastic regime. For the studied example, despite the large plastic flow, it is shown that crystal rotation already accounts for a significant part of the deformation-induced topography. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis list: sem-4 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sem-4 Larvae + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/sem-4.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/sem-4.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/sem...-4.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/sem-4.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  3. Stirling Energy Module (SEM) as Micro-CHP; Stirling Energy Module (SEM) als Mini-BHKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, A.

    2006-07-01

    Since many years, a lot of effort is being put into the development of combined heat and power units (CHP) for the decentralised production of electric power. For long time, the main focus was on fuel cells. In the meantime, the Stirling technology, which is based upon classical mechanical engineering and innovative technical concepts, proceeded in its development as well. The following article describes the technology and the actual state of the development of the Stirling Energy Module (SEM) for the application as Micro-CHP in one-family-houses. SEM is based on a free-piston engine with a linear power generator, producing electric power while heating. The Stirling engine is planned the be introduced into the market as a replacement for the conventional heating systems within a couple of years. (author)

  4. Dor posterior baixa e dor pélvica: o que interessa ao proctologista? Lower back and pelvic pain: what does concern to the proctologist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César M Santos Jr

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Um do mais intrigante e frequente sintoma de doenças agudas ou crônicas é a dor, sobretudo quando aparece sem um substrato anatomo-patológico facilmente identificável, o que dificulta o tratamento e favorece sua persistência. A dor crônica, generalizada ou localizada, transtorna a vida da pessoa, cuja qualidade é significativamente afetada na proporção da intensidade e continuidade da dor. A dor pélvica e a dor posterior baixa são sintomas relativamente comuns, principalmente por estarem relacionados etiologicamente com mais de uma centena de doenças - desde as que são de origem infecciosa até as inflamatórias inespecíficas, passando pelas que são decorrentes de alterações osteomusculares carências ou funcionais, até às neoplásicas eàs de causas indeterminadas. Além disso, há fatores estruturais sobrecarregados pelos atuais estilos de vida, não só em relaçãoà postura física, como permanecer sentado por longo período de tempo, mas também por falta de exercícios que deveriam ser praticados como preparo para o cotidiano. Soma-se, ainda, a estimativa de que 60% das pessoas estão na faixa do sobrepeso e 25% são obesas. Pela frequência de aparecimento e por sua relação com os órgãos pélvicos, a dor pélvica e a dor posterior baixa, cuja investigação pode envolver profissionais de várias áreas, devem ser do obrigatório interesse do médico coloproctologista.Pain is one the most intriguing and frequent symptom of diseases, above all when it appears without an easily identifiable anatomic pathological substratum. Widespread or located chronic pain upsets the person's life whose quality is significantly affected. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a conundrum that may be only partly explained; it is relatively common and etiologically related with more than a hundred diseases (infectious and/or inflammatory perceived in structures related to the pelvis. "Add to that a general lack of exercise, poor diet, and

  5. O teste de frio sem solo em sementes de abóbora The modified cold germination test in squash seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derblai Casaroli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o período de exposição à baixa temperatura no teste de frio sem solo, para avaliação de diferentes potenciais fisiológicos em lotes de sementes de abóbora. Foram avaliados seis lotes de sementes de abóbora cultivar "Menina Brasileira" (Cucurbita moschata Duch. produzidas na safra 2003/2004. As sementes foram submetidas a diferentes períodos (três, cinco, sete e nove dias de exposição à baixa temperatura para condução do teste de frio sem solo, a uma temperatura constante de 10°C. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em que os tratamentos constituíram um fatorial 6x4 (seis lotes e quatro períodos de exposição, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey em nível de 5% de probabilidade de erro. Realizou-se também o teste de correlação simples de Pearson .Os resultados permitiram concluir que o período de três dias de exposição à baixa temperatura foi o mais indicado para a condução do teste de frio sem solo em sementes de abóbora.This research was aimed at determining the exposition period at low temperature in the modified cold germination test, to evaluate physiological potential of squash seed lots. Six seed lots of squash, variety Menina Brasileira (Cucurbita moschata Duch., produced in 2003/2004, were submitted at different exposition times for the development of the cold test. The modified cold gernation test was carried out at 10°C of constant temperature, during exposition time of three, five, seven and nine days. A completely randomized desing was used to the cold test, 0 constituting a factorial 6x4, corresponding to the six seed lots and four exposition time (3, 5, 7, and 9 days, with four repetitions. The averages were compared by the Tukey test, at 5% of probability. The correlation test of Person (r was used too. For the modified cold germination test, the period of three days was the most

  6. EFEITOS DA TERAPIA LASER DE BAIXA INTENSIDADE EM MODELO EXPERIMENTAL DE TENDINOPATIA EM RATOS: REVISÃO DE LITERATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rodrigues Pessoa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tendinopatia é o termo utilizado para descrever lesões que afetam os tendões (tendinites e tendinoses, caracterizada pela presença de inflamação e degeneração tecidual, associada à sobrecarga mecânica e a movimentos repetitivos. Diversas modalidades terapêuticas têm sido estudadas no tratamento das tendinopatias, entre elas, destaca-se a terapia a laser de baixa intensidade (TLBI que visa acelerar o processo regenerativo, diminuir a inflamação e reduzir a dor.  Diante do exposto, este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar revisão de literatura, de artigos científicos com foco nos efeitos da terapia a laser de baixa intensidade (TLBI, em modelo experimental de tendinopatia em ratos. O estudo baseou-se na investigação de publicações entre janeiro de 2011 a outubro de 2016, em bases de dados eletrônicas com o emprego dos descritores “tendinopatia”, “laserterapia”, “ratos”, “tendão” e “terapia a laser de baixa intensidade”, combinados aos descritores booleanos. Foram selecionados sete artigos que apontam que a TLBI possibilitou a redução de importantes marcadores pró-inflamatórios, tais como IL-6 e TNF-α, bem como a proliferação aumentada de tenócitos, independentemente da dosagem aplicada. Os estudos científicos selecionados nesta revisão sistemática sinalizaram efeitos positivos da TLBI, principalmente na modulação da resposta inflamatória aguda ou crônica após a indução da tendinopatia.

  7. Desigualdades socioeconômicas na baixa estatura infantil: a experiência brasileira, 1974-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo pretente avaliar tendências da prevalência e da distribuição social da baixa estatura infantil no Brasil para calcular o efeito da renda e de políticas de redistribuição de serviços básicos implementadas recentemente no país. A prevalência de baixa estatura (escore z de altura para a idade abaixo de -2, utilizando-se os Padrões de Crescimento Infantil da Organização Mundial da Saúde em crianças menores de cinco anos foi calculada a partir de dados coletados durante pesquisas domiciliares de abrangência nacional realizadas no Brasil em 1974-1975 (n = 34.409, 1989 (n = 7.374, 1996 (n = 4.149 e 2006-07 (n = 4.414. As desigualdades socioeconômicas absoluta e relativa na baixa estatura foram medidas através do coeficiente angular de desigualdade e do índice de concentração de desigualdade, respectivamente. Durante um período de 33 anos, documentamos um declínio constante na prevalência nacional de baixa estatura, de 37,1% para 7,1%. A prevalência diminuiu de 59,0% para 11,2% no quinto mais pobre e de 12,1% para 3,3% no quinto mais rico. O declínio foi particularmente acentuado nos dez últimos anos do período (1996 a 2007, quando as diferenças entre as famílias pobres e ricas que possuíam crianças menores de cinco anos também diminuíram em termos de poder aquisitivo; acesso a educação, assistência médica e serviços de água e saneamento; e indicadores de saúde reprodutiva. No Brasil, o desenvolvimento socioeconômico, aliado a políticas públicas visando à igualdade, tem sido acompanhados por significativas melhorias das condições de vida e por um declínio substancial da desnutrição infantil, assim como por uma redução da diferença de estado nutricional entre crianças nos quintos socioeconômicos mais altos e mais baixos. Estudos futuros mostrarão se esses ganhos serão mantidos durante a atual crise econômica global.

  8. Canticum Novum: música sem palavras e palavras sem som no pensamento de Santo Agostinho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Mammì

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available NO De Magistro, Santo Agostinho coloca a reza e o canto numa posição similar, à margem das funções imediatamente comunicativas da linguagem. A reflexão agostiniana sobre a reza se baseia nos hábitos cristãos da leitura, da oração e da meditação silenciosas. Há sobre o canto, na prática igualmente inovadora do jubilus, melodia sem palavra destinada aos momentos mais intensos e gaudiosos da liturgia. A oração silenciosa e o jubilus são temas recorrentes da literatura patrística, mas Agostinho os aborda de maneira original, desenhando, a partir das palavras sem som da oração e do som sem palavra do jubilus, o perfil de um discurso interior, que não se destina aos homens, mas a Deus.IN HIS De Magistro Saint Augustine places prayer and song on a similar level, alongside the language immediately communicative functions. His considerations on prayer are grounded on the Christian habits of silent reading, prayer and meditation; those on song, on the equally innovating practice called jubilus, which is melody without words designed for the intensest and most joyous liturgical moments. Silent prayer and jubilus are recurring topics in patristic literature, but Augustine deals with them in an original way, drawing from the soundless words of prayer and the wordless sound of jubilus an inner discourse, addressed not to men but to God.

  9. Low temperature synthesis of bioactive materials Síntese de materiais bioativos a baixas temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Bandeira

    2011-06-01

    imagens de MET das amostras antes do contato com SBF revelou a presença de aglomerados amorfos. Depois de 12 dias em SBF a amostra apresentou duas fases, uma amorfa com grande quantidade de silício e oxigênio, e outra cristalina contendo cálcio e fósforo. A difração de elétrons mostrou uma distância planar de 2,86 Å, correspondendo a 2θ = 32,2º. Esse ângulo foi atribuído ao principal pico da hidroxiapatita. O íon Eu III foi usado como sonda estrutural, apresentando em seu espectro de emissão uma intensidade relativa entre as transições 5D0 → 7F2 / 5D0 →7F1 que indica um ambiente de alta simetria para este íon. Estes materiais obtidos pelo método sol-gel a baixa temperatura apresentam possibilidade de se obter biomateriais bioativos para aplicação em medicina.

  10. Percepções de pessoas com baixa visão sobre seu retorno ao mercado de trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelia Zilda Lourenço de Camargo Bittencourt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou investigar as características de pessoas com baixa visão afastadas do trabalho e encaminhadas pelo Instituto Nacional de Seguro Social para programa de reabilitação bem como identificar suas expectativas quanto ao possível retorno ao mercado de trabalho. O estudo descritivo transversal contou com entrevistas semiestruturadas. A amostra contou com 12 sujeitos em idade produtiva, sendo 11 do sexo masculino. Quanto à escolaridade, 7 dos sujeitos não completaram o ensino fundamental. O material obtido foi submetido à análise qualitativa de conteúdo, agrupado nas seguintes categorias: conhecimento da deficiência, reabilitação e acesso aos direitos sociais, retorno ao mercado de trabalho, planos para o futuro. Os entrevistados detinham pouco conhecimento sobre a deficiência visual e os direitos sociais da pessoa deficiente. A despeito das políticas afirmativas para pessoas deficientes, a desvantagem social é significativa quando se observam a baixa escolaridade e a pouca qualificação profissional, dificultando sua inclusão no mercado de trabalho.

  11. Description and calibration beamline SEM/Ion Chamber Current Digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoo, D.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses the following on beamline SEM/ion chamber current digitizers: Module description; testing and calibration; common setup procedures; summary of fault indications and associated causes; summary of input and output connections; SEM conversion constant table; ion chamber conversion constant table; hexadecimal to decimal conversion table; and schematic diagram

  12. lsnjbhakta@gmail.com A Comparative SEM-EDS Elemental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    effect on food production in terrestrial and aquatic compartment in ... Processing and SEM-EDS analysis of mud: In the laboratory, the ... and for SEM image observation was 15 kV, applying .... by weathering in the Omi acid clay deposit, Japan.

  13. On the Nature of SEM Estimates of ARMA Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Ellen L.; Dolan, Conor V.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2002-01-01

    Reexamined the nature of structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models, replicated the simulation experiments of P. Molenaar, and examined the behavior of the log-likelihood ratio test. Simulation studies indicate that estimates of ARMA parameters observed with SEM software are identical to those…

  14. Structural Equations and Causal Explanations: Some Challenges for Causal SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    One common application of structural equation modeling (SEM) involves expressing and empirically investigating causal explanations. Nonetheless, several aspects of causal explanation that have an impact on behavioral science methodology remain poorly understood. It remains unclear whether applications of SEM should attempt to provide complete…

  15. The influence of environment temperature on SEM image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Junshan

    2015-01-01

    As the structure dimension goes down to the nano-scale, it often requires a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to provide image magnification up to 100 000  ×. However, SEM images at such a high magnification usually suffer from high resolution value and low signal-to-noise ratio, which results in low quality of the SEM image. In this paper, the quality of the SEM image is improved by optimizing the environment temperature. The experimental results indicate that at 100 000  ×, the quality of the SEM image is influenced by the environment temperature, whereas at 50 000  × it is not. At 100 000  × the best SEM image quality can be achieved from the environment temperature ranging 292 from 294 K, and the SEM image quality evaluated by the double stimulus continuous quality scale method can increase from grade 1 to grade 5. It is expected that this image quality improving method can be used in routine measurements with ordinary SEMs to get high quality images by optimizing the environment temperature. (paper)

  16. Design and Use of the Simple Event Model (SEM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hage, W.R.; Malaisé, V.; Segers, R.H.; Hollink, L.

    2011-01-01

    Events have become central elements in the representation of data from domains such as history, cultural heritage, multimedia and geography. The Simple Event Model (SEM) is created to model events in these various domains, without making assumptions about the domain-specific vocabularies used. SEM

  17. Canticum Novum: música sem palavras e palavras sem som no pensamento de Santo Agostinho

    OpenAIRE

    Mammì, Lorenzo

    2000-01-01

    NO De Magistro, Santo Agostinho coloca a reza e o canto numa posição similar, à margem das funções imediatamente comunicativas da linguagem. A reflexão agostiniana sobre a reza se baseia nos hábitos cristãos da leitura, da oração e da meditação silenciosas. Há sobre o canto, na prática igualmente inovadora do jubilus, melodia sem palavra destinada aos momentos mais intensos e gaudiosos da liturgia. A oração silenciosa e o jubilus são temas recorrentes da literatura patrística, mas Agostinho o...

  18. Atuação de professores do ensino itinerante face à inclusão de crianças com baixa visão na educação infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Júlia Canazza Dall'Acqua

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available No momento em que se discute a inclusão de alunos com necessidades educacionais especiais em escolas regulares, faz-se necessário desenvolver trabalhos de pesquisa que se dediquem a analisar as implicações da formação continuada de professores. Neste sentido, estabeleceu-se o objetivo de investigar aspectos relativos às necessidades de duas professoras itinerantes, participantes de um programa de formação. Tal programa, voltado para o acompanhamento de alunos com baixa visão, pretendeu oferecer a essas professoras, sem conhecimentos específicos em deficiência visual, elementos dessa formação, e analisar a natureza das implicações evidenciadas ao longo do processo, do qual foi possível depreender que o desenvolvimento das funções visuais constitui-se em valioso referencial teórico, bem como o fato de estar regularmente na escola, conversar com as professoras, discutir como proceder, avaliar retroativamente os exercícios e ajudar a planejar estratégias com base nas análises feitas foram as principais vantagens de atuar de forma colaborativa.

  19. EFEITO AGUDO DO LASER DE BAIXA POTÊNCIA NA FADIGA DO BÍCEPS BRAQUIAL DE ATLETAS DE VOLEIBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lôbo Froio

    Full Text Available RESUMO Introdução: A laserterapia de baixa potência tem entre seus propósitos auxiliar a recuperação de tecidos biológicos, atenuando os efeitos da fadiga muscular e contribuindo com a melhora do desempenho em atletas. Aspectos metodológicos ainda limitam as conclusões do efeito agudo da laserterapia sobre o desempenho muscular. Objetivo: Verificar o efeito agudo do laser terapêutico de baixa potência na fadiga induzida do bíceps braquial de atletas de voleibol. Métodos: Este foi um estudo randomizado e duplo-cego, aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da UNESP de Marília. Participaram do estudo 19 atletas de voleibol de ambos os sexos. Realizou-se coleta de dados eletromiográficos do músculo bíceps braquial no exercício isométrico de flexão de cotovelo antes e após a aplicação do laser terapêutico. Um haltere com 75% do pico de força, obtido por uma célula de carga, foi utilizado para o protocolo de fadiga. Em seguida, os voluntários foram submetidos à aplicação do laser (ativo ou placebo em seis pontos do músculo bíceps braquial. Os dados eletromiográficos foram analisados no domínio da frequência, utilizando-se o software Myosystem®. Verificou-se a distribuição de normalidade dos dados pelo teste de Shapiro-Wilk, e utilizou-se Anova (split plot de medidas repetidas a fim de testar a interação entre tempo e grupo. Resultados: Para nenhuma das variáveis analisadas foi observada interação significativa entre grupo e tempo, indicando que o grupo irradiado não apresentou vantagens com relação ao grupo placebo. Conclusão: Após o protocolo de fadiga proposto, uma única aplicação de laser de baixa potência não foi suficiente para produzir efeitos positivos no desempenho de força e no sinal eletromiográfico do músculo bíceps braquial de atletas de voleibol.

  20. Adaptações curriculares para o ensino-aprendizagem de alunos com baixa visão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Souza da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A visão é um dos sentidos mais importante para o ser humano é através dela que se obtém uma imagem integrada do mundo, é responsável por cerca de oitenta e cinco por cento das informações que recebemos, por meio dela apreendemos o mundo. A visão reduzida causa inúmeros prejuízos à pessoa, a área mais afetada é a aprendizagem. Considerando que o aluno com baixa visão necessita de adaptações pedagógicas nos diferentes aspectos da organização do espaço escolar, neste trabalho se buscou verificar as adaptações curriculares realizadas no interior da sala de aula comum e em atendimento especializado para deficiência visual, pertencentes a rede municipal de ensino de Sinop/MT. Constatou-se que a inclusão e atendimento ao aluno com deficiência visual, não corresponde ao discurso político e pedagógico do Plano Municipal de Educação de Sinop. Vários fatores contribuem para a não efetivação deste modelo de educação, dentre eles: acessibilidade física, escassez ou inexistência de materiais pedagógicos adaptados, falta de recursos tecnológicos e ópticos, inadequação do mobiliário, iluminação precária, paredes escuras e sujas, espaços pequenos, destinação à escola de verbas insuficientes para as adaptações necessárias, morosidade no cadastro do aluno no censo escolar nacional, e ainda, instalações provisórias e improvisadas, alocadas para funcionamento de salas de aula, inadequadas, principalmente para o aluno com baixa visão. Palavras-chave: educação; educação especial; baixa visão; adaptações curriculares; aprendizagem.

  1. Automated CD-SEM metrology for efficient TD and HVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikov, Alexander; Mulapudi, Satya P.

    2008-03-01

    CD-SEM is the metrology tool of choice for patterning process development and production process control. We can make these applications more efficient by extracting more information from each CD-SEM image. This enables direct monitors of key process parameters, such as lithography dose and focus, or predicting the outcome of processing, such as etched dimensions or electrical parameters. Automating CD-SEM recipes at the early stages of process development can accelerate technology characterization, segmentation of variance and process improvements. This leverages the engineering effort, reduces development costs and helps to manage the risks inherent in new technology. Automating CD-SEM for manufacturing enables efficient operations. Novel SEM Alarm Time Indicator (SATI) makes this task manageable. SATI pulls together data mining, trend charting of the key recipe and Operations (OPS) indicators, Pareto of OPS losses and inputs for root cause analysis. This approach proved natural to our FAB personnel. After minimal initial training, we applied new methods in 65nm FLASH manufacture. This resulted in significant lasting improvements of CD-SEM recipe robustness, portability and automation, increased CD-SEM capacity and MT productivity.

  2. SEM-EBSP能知道些什么

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张唯敏

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 SEM-EBSP是什么 所谓SEM-EBSP是指采用在扫描电子显微镜(SEM)镜体中的反射电子菊池线衍射的结晶方位分析.被称为菊池图形的衍射图形可因结晶的稍许倾斜而大大地改变其位置,因此,通过解析菊池图形就能正确地知道结晶方位.

  3. Improvement of geometrical measurements from 3D-SEM reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Horsewell, Andy

    2009-01-01

    The quantification of 3D geometry at the nanometric scale is a major metrological challenge. In this work geometrical measurements on cylindrical items obtained with a 3D-SEM were investigated. Two items were measured: a wire gauge having a 0.25 mm nominal diameter and a hypodermic needle having...... that the diameter estimation performed using the 3D-SEM leads to an overestimation of approx. 7% compared to the reference values obtained using a 1-D length measuring machine. Standard deviation of SEM measurements performed on the wire gauge is approx. 1.5 times lower than the one performed on the hypodermic...

  4. Improvement of CD-SEM mark position measurement accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasa, Kentaro; Fukuhara, Kazuya

    2014-04-01

    CD-SEM is now attracting attention as a tool that can accurately measure positional error of device patterns. However, the measurement accuracy can get worse due to pattern asymmetry as in the case of image based overlay (IBO) and diffraction based overlay (DBO). For IBO and DBO, a way of correcting the inaccuracy arising from measurement patterns was suggested. For CD-SEM, although a way of correcting CD bias was proposed, it has not been argued how to correct the inaccuracy arising from pattern asymmetry using CD-SEM. In this study we will propose how to quantify and correct the measurement inaccuracy affected by pattern asymmetry.

  5. Tratamento de grave hemorragia digestiva baixa sem uso de sangue em paciente dependente de hemodiálise: relato de casodoi: 10.20513/2447-6595.2016v56n2p51-53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walberto Monteiro Neiva Eulálio Filho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um relato de caso de uma paciente Testemunha de Jeová, feminina, 66 anos, com insuficiência renal crônica dialítica, apresentou episódio de grave enterorragia e choque hemorrágico. Como a paciente recusara transfusões de sangue foram adotadas condutas alternativas para estabilização hemodinâmica. Devido a sucessivas hemodiálises apresentou queda dos níveis de hemoglobina de 7,3 g/dl no pós-operatório imediato (POI para o valor mínimo atingido de 3,9 g/dl no 11º dia pós-operatório. Permaneceu internada recebendo altas doses de eritropoietina, ferro, vitamina B12 e ácido fólico até que os níveis de hemoglobina se reestabelecessem.

  6. Infrared spectra, Raman laser, XRD, DSC/TGA and SEM ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    cussed and the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) ... acetamide as a simple organic compound at high tempera- ture has less ..... properties of selenium surface, AFM-microscopy tapping.

  7. Novel field emission SEM column with beam deceleration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiruše, Jaroslav; Havelka, Miloslav; Lopour, Filip

    2014-11-15

    A novel field-emission SEM column has been developed that features Beam Deceleration Mode, high-probe current and ultra-fast scanning. New detection system in the column is introduced to detect true secondary electron signal. The resolution power at low energy was doubled for conventional SEM optics and moderately improved for immersion optics. Application examples at low landing energies include change of contrast, imaging of non-conductive samples and thin layers. - Highlights: • A novel field-emission SEM column has been developed. • Implemented beam deceleration improves the SEM resolution at 1 keV two times. • New column maintains high analytical potential and wide field of view. • Detectors integrated in the column allow gaining true SE and BE signal separately. • Performance of the column is demonstrated on low energy applications.

  8. Role of scanning electron microscope )SEM) in metal failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaiful Rizam Shamsudin; Hafizal Yazid; Mohd Harun; Siti Selina Abd Hamid; Nadira Kamarudin; Zaiton Selamat; Mohd Shariff Sattar; Muhamad Jalil

    2005-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a scientific instrument that uses a beam of highly energetic electrons to examine the surface and phase distribution of specimens on a micro scale through the live imaging of secondary electrons (SE) and back-scattered electrons (BSE) images. One of the main activities of SEM Laboratory at MINT is for failure analysis on metal part and components. The capability of SEM is excellent for determining the root cause of metal failures such as ductility or brittleness, stress corrosion, fatigue and other types of failures. Most of our customers that request for failure analysis are from local petrochemical plants, manufacturers of automotive components, pipeline maintenance personnel and engineers who involved in the development of metal parts and component. This paper intends to discuss some of the technical concepts in failure analysis associated with SEM. (Author)

  9. Quantitative approach on SEM images of microstructure of clay soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施斌; 李生林; M.Tolkachev

    1995-01-01

    The working principles of Videolab Image Processing System (VIPS), the examining methods of orientation of microstructural units of clay soils and analysing results on SEM images of some typical microstructures of clay soils using the VIPS are introduced.

  10. semPLS: Structural Equation Modeling Using Partial Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Monecke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural equation models (SEM are very popular in many disciplines. The partial least squares (PLS approach to SEM offers an alternative to covariance-based SEM, which is especially suited for situations when data is not normally distributed. PLS path modelling is referred to as soft-modeling-technique with minimum demands regarding mea- surement scales, sample sizes and residual distributions. The semPLS package provides the capability to estimate PLS path models within the R programming environment. Different setups for the estimation of factor scores can be used. Furthermore it contains modular methods for computation of bootstrap confidence intervals, model parameters and several quality indices. Various plot functions help to evaluate the model. The well known mobile phone dataset from marketing research is used to demonstrate the features of the package.

  11. Novel field emission SEM column with beam deceleration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiruše, Jaroslav; Havelka, Miloslav; Lopour, Filip

    2014-01-01

    A novel field-emission SEM column has been developed that features Beam Deceleration Mode, high-probe current and ultra-fast scanning. New detection system in the column is introduced to detect true secondary electron signal. The resolution power at low energy was doubled for conventional SEM optics and moderately improved for immersion optics. Application examples at low landing energies include change of contrast, imaging of non-conductive samples and thin layers. - Highlights: • A novel field-emission SEM column has been developed. • Implemented beam deceleration improves the SEM resolution at 1 keV two times. • New column maintains high analytical potential and wide field of view. • Detectors integrated in the column allow gaining true SE and BE signal separately. • Performance of the column is demonstrated on low energy applications

  12. DETECTION OF DELAMINATION IN A COMPOSITE PLATE BY SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A numerical method of integration of Green's functi ons of strip element method (SEM) is proposed. The response of ultrasonic sourc e generated by a transducer on the surface of a multi-ply composite plate conta ining a delamination is analyzed by the use of SEM. The numerical results show that the scanning features of the ultrasonic waves may be used to identify the d elamination inside the composite plate .

  13. A methodological basis for SEM autoradiography: biosynthesis and radioligand binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, G.; Hodges, G.M.; Trejdosiewicz, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for scanning electron microscope (SEM) autoradiography whereby preservation of high resolution cell surface details is retained together with degelatination of the emulsion without gross loss or redistribution of silver grains. This method should provide a convenient medium-sized marker for SEM (using secondary, backscattered electron and X-ray imaging) topographic studies of biosynthesized molecules, and of cell surface receptors and antigens, using indirect or direct labelling procedures with radio-labelled ligands. (author)

  14. FIB-SEM cathodoluminescence tomography: practical and theoretical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, D A M; Lebbink, M N; Wiggers De Vries, D F; Post, J A; Drury, M R

    2011-09-01

    Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) tomography is a powerful application in obtaining three-dimensional (3D) information. The FIB creates a cross section and subsequently removes thin slices. The SEM takes images using secondary or backscattered electrons, or maps every slice using X-rays and/or electron backscatter diffraction patterns. The objective of this study is to assess the possibilities of combining FIB-SEM tomography with cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging. The intensity of CL emission is related to variations in defect or impurity concentrations. A potential problem with FIB-SEM CL tomography is that ion milling may change the defect state of the material and the CL emission. In addition the conventional tilted sample geometry used in FIB-SEM tomography is not compatible with conventional CL detectors. Here we examine the influence of the FIB on CL emission in natural diamond and the feasibility of FIB-SEM CL tomography. A systematic investigation establishes that the ion beam influences CL emission of diamond, with a dependency on both the ion beam and electron beam acceleration voltage. CL emission in natural diamond is enhanced particularly at low ion beam and electron beam voltages. This enhancement of the CL emission can be partly explained by an increase in surface defects induced by ion milling. CL emission enhancement could be used to improve the CL image quality. To conduct FIB-SEM CL tomography, a recently developed novel specimen geometry is adopted to enable sequential ion milling and CL imaging on an untilted sample. We show that CL imaging can be manually combined with FIB-SEM tomography with a modified protocol for 3D microstructure reconstruction. In principle, automated FIB-SEM CL tomography should be feasible, provided that dedicated CL detectors are developed that allow subsequent milling and CL imaging without manual intervention, as the current CL detector needs to be manually retracted before a slice can be milled

  15. Sparsity-Based Super Resolution for SEM Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiper, Shahar; Dicker, Or; Kaizerman, Idan; Zohar, Zeev; Segev, Mordechai; Eldar, Yonina C

    2017-09-13

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is an electron microscope that produces an image of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with the atoms in the sample, which emit secondary electrons that contain information about the surface topography and composition. The sample is scanned by the electron beam point by point, until an image of the surface is formed. Since its invention in 1942, the capabilities of SEMs have become paramount in the discovery and understanding of the nanometer world, and today it is extensively used for both research and in industry. In principle, SEMs can achieve resolution better than one nanometer. However, for many applications, working at subnanometer resolution implies an exceedingly large number of scanning points. For exactly this reason, the SEM diagnostics of microelectronic chips is performed either at high resolution (HR) over a small area or at low resolution (LR) while capturing a larger portion of the chip. Here, we employ sparse coding and dictionary learning to algorithmically enhance low-resolution SEM images of microelectronic chips-up to the level of the HR images acquired by slow SEM scans, while considerably reducing the noise. Our methodology consists of two steps: an offline stage of learning a joint dictionary from a sequence of LR and HR images of the same region in the chip, followed by a fast-online super-resolution step where the resolution of a new LR image is enhanced. We provide several examples with typical chips used in the microelectronics industry, as well as a statistical study on arbitrary images with characteristic structural features. Conceptually, our method works well when the images have similar characteristics, as microelectronics chips do. This work demonstrates that employing sparsity concepts can greatly improve the performance of SEM, thereby considerably increasing the scanning throughput without compromising on analysis quality and resolution.

  16. An electron moiré method for a common SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.M.Xing; S.Kishimoto; Y.R.Zhao

    2006-01-01

    In the electron moiré method,a high-frequency grating is used to measure microscopic deformation,which promises significant potential applications for the method in the microscopic analysis of materials.However,a special beam scanning control device is required to produce a grating and generate a moiré fringe pattern for the scanning electron microscope (SEM).Because only a few SEMs used in the material science studies are equipped with this device,the use of the electron moiré method is limited.In this study,an electron moiré method for a common SEM without the beam control device is presented.A grating based on a multi-scanning concept is fabricated in any observing mode.A real-time moiré pattern can also be generated in the SEM or an optical filtering system.Without the beam control device being a prerequisite,the electron moiré method can be more widely used.The experimental results from three different types of SEMS show that high quality gratings with uniform lines and less pitch error can be fabricated by this method,and moiré patterns can also be correctly generated.

  17. SEM facility for examination of reactive and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downs, G.L.; Tucker, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) facility for the examination of tritium-containing materials is operational at Mound Laboratory. The SEM is installed with the sample chamber incorporated as an integral part of an inert gas glovebox facility to enable easy handling of radioactive and pyrophoric materials. A standard SEM (ETEC Model B-1) was modified to meet dimensional, operational, and safety-related requirements. a glovebox was designed and fabricated which permitted access with the gloves to all parts of the SEM sample chamber to facilitate director and accessory replacement and repairs. A separate console combining the electron optical column and specimen chamber was interfaced to the glovebox by a custom-made, neoprene bellows so that the vibrations normally associated with the blowers and pumps were damped. Photomicrographs of tritiated pyrophoric materials show the usefulness of this facility. Some of the difficulties involved in the investigation of these materials are also discussed. The SEM is also equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray detector (ORTEC) and a Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (3M) attachments. This latter attachment allows analysis of secondary ions with masses ranging from 1-300 amu. (Auth.)

  18. Recent advances in 3D SEM surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Alavi, Zahrasadat; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2015-11-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM), as one of the most commonly used instruments in biology and material sciences, employs electrons instead of light to determine the surface properties of specimens. However, the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface attributes, we need to restore the 3D shape model from the SEM images. 3D surface reconstruction is a longstanding topic in microscopy vision as it offers quantitative and visual information for a variety of applications consisting medicine, pharmacology, chemistry, and mechanics. In this paper, we attempt to explain the expanding body of the work in this area, including a discussion of recent techniques and algorithms. With the present work, we also enhance the reliability, accuracy, and speed of 3D SEM surface reconstruction by designing and developing an optimized multi-view framework. We then consider several real-world experiments as well as synthetic data to examine the qualitative and quantitative attributes of our proposed framework. Furthermore, we present a taxonomy of 3D SEM surface reconstruction approaches and address several challenging issues as part of our future work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A methodology for extending domain coverage in SemRep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemblat, Graciela; Shin, Dongwook; Kilicoglu, Halil; Sneiderman, Charles; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    We describe a domain-independent methodology to extend SemRep coverage beyond the biomedical domain. SemRep, a natural language processing application originally designed for biomedical texts, uses the knowledge sources provided by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS©). Ontological and terminological extensions to the system are needed in order to support other areas of knowledge. We extended SemRep's application by developing a semantic representation of a previously unsupported domain. This was achieved by adapting well-known ontology engineering phases and integrating them with the UMLS knowledge sources on which SemRep crucially depends. While the process to extend SemRep coverage has been successfully applied in earlier projects, this paper presents in detail the step-wise approach we followed and the mechanisms implemented. A case study in the field of medical informatics illustrates how the ontology engineering phases have been adapted for optimal integration with the UMLS. We provide qualitative and quantitative results, which indicate the validity and usefulness of our methodology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. SemGroup acquisition of central Alberta midstream : case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, T.

    2005-01-01

    A case study of SemGroup's acquisition of Central Alberta Midstream was presented. SemCAMS specializes in providing more efficient supply, storage, and distribution assets and services. Seminole Canada Gas is a leading independent natural gas marketing and energy asset management company that currently markets 369 MMbtu per day. The company purchases natural gas in western Canada for fee-based marketing services while also managing firm transportation contracts and providing gas storage for third party customers. SemCAMS owns the largest sour gas processor in Alberta as well as 3 sour gas processing plants, 600 miles of gathering pipeline, and a sweet gas processing plant. the company is also planning increased drilling and production activities and is now pursuing aggressive land acquisition policies. Over 25,000 square miles of land have been acquired. It was concluded that midstream companies should be customer-focused, provide reliability and guarantees, infrastructure investment and optimization. tabs., figs

  1. Critical factors in SEM 3D stereo microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, F.; Bariano, P.; Savio, E.

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using 3D reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. The paper presents both theoretical and experimental investigations, on the effects of instrumental variables and measure......This work addresses dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using 3D reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. The paper presents both theoretical and experimental investigations, on the effects of instrumental variables...... factors are recognized: the first one is related to the measurement operation and the instrument set-up; the second concerns the quality of scanned images and represents the major criticality in the application of SEMs for 3D characterizations....

  2. Annual International DIC Society Conference and SEM Fall Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Reu, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    This collection represents a single volume of technical papers presented at the Annual International DIC Society Conference and SEM Fall Conference organized by the Society for Experimental Mechanics and Sandia National Laboratories and held in Philadelphia, PA, November 7-10, 2016. The volume presents early findings from experimental, standards development and various other investigations concerning digital image correlation - an important area within Experimental Mechanics. The area of Digital Image Correlation has been an integral track within the SEM Annual Conference spearheaded by Professor Michael Sutton from the University of South Carolina. In 2016, the SEM and Sandia joined their collaborative strengths to launch a standing fall meeting focusing specifically on developments in the area of Digital Image Correlation. The contributed papers within this volume span numerous technical aspects of DIC including standards development for the industry. .

  3. SemVisM: semantic visualizer for medical image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta, Luis; La Cruz, Alexandra; Baranya, Alexander; Vidal, María.-Esther

    2015-01-01

    SemVisM is a toolbox that combines medical informatics and computer graphics tools for reducing the semantic gap between low-level features and high-level semantic concepts/terms in the images. This paper presents a novel strategy for visualizing medical data annotated semantically, combining rendering techniques, and segmentation algorithms. SemVisM comprises two main components: i) AMORE (A Modest vOlume REgister) to handle input data (RAW, DAT or DICOM) and to initially annotate the images using terms defined on medical ontologies (e.g., MesH, FMA or RadLex), and ii) VOLPROB (VOlume PRObability Builder) for generating the annotated volumetric data containing the classified voxels that belong to a particular tissue. SemVisM is built on top of the semantic visualizer ANISE.1

  4. SEM based overlay measurement between resist and buried patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka; Hasumi, Kazuhisa; Shao, Chuanyu; Leray, Philippe; Lorusso, Gian; Baudemprez, Bart

    2016-03-01

    With the continuous shrink in pattern size and increased density, overlay control has become one of the most critical issues in semiconductor manufacturing. Recently, SEM based overlay of AEI (After Etch Inspection) wafer has been used for reference and optimization of optical overlay (both Image Based Overlay (IBO) and Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO)). Overlay measurement at AEI stage contributes monitor and forecast the yield after formation by etch and calibrate optical measurement tools. however those overlay value seems difficult directly for feedback to a scanner. Therefore, there is a clear need to have SEM based overlay measurements of ADI (After Develop Inspection) wafers in order to serve as reference for optical overlay and make necessary corrections before wafers go to etch. Furthermore, to make the corrections as accurate as possible, actual device like feature dimensions need to be measured post ADI. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CDSEM , which can be measured with smaller area. This is currently possible only with the CD-SEM. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CD-SEM , which can be measured with smaller area. In this study, we assess SEM based overlay measurement of ADI and AEI wafer by using a sample from an N10 process flow. First, we demonstrate SEM based overlay performance at AEI by using dual damascene process for Via 0 (V0) and metal 1 (M1) layer. We also discuss the overlay measurements between litho-etch-litho stages of a triple patterned M1 layer and double pattern V0. Second, to illustrate the complexities in image acquisition and measurement we will measure overlay between M1B resist and buried M1A-Hard mask trench. Finally, we will show how high accelerating voltage can detect buried pattern information by BSE (Back Scattering Electron). In this paper we discuss the merits of this method versus standard optical metrology based corrections.

  5. Baixas temperaturas sobre a fluorescência da clorofila a em plantas de diferentes híbridos de canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Tessari Perboni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar os efeitos de baixas temperaturas sobre o aparato fotossintético de híbridos de canola. Plantas de canola foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação e, 50 dias após a semeadura, acondicionadas em câmara de crescimento com ausência de luz, onde foram submetidas a temperaturas de 0 ou 4oC pelo período de 1 ou 4 horas. Avaliou-se a cinética de emissão da fluorescência da clorofila a. Os híbridos apresentaram o mesmo comportamento em relação à fluorescência da clorofila em resposta ao estresse. Os parâmetros da fluorescência foram amplamente afetados em todos os tratamentos e a análise da cinética revelou efeitos da temperatura, principalmente no passo J, que representa o acúmulo de plastoquinona reduzida e na fase I-P, que reflete a redução dos aceptores de elétrons finais do lado aceptor do fotossistema I. Conclui-se que os parâmetros mais responsivos às condições impostas pelo frio são os que descrevem o grau de reoxidação do aceptor final de elétrons do fotossistema II e a atividade do fotossistema I

  6. Contribution for tier 1 of the ecological risk assessment of Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Central Portugal): II. Soil ecotoxicological screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, S.C.; Castro, B.B.; Pereira, R.; Goncalves, F.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the first ecotoxicological data concerning the soils of the area surrounding the Cunha Baixa uranium mine. Our main goal was to categorise soils from the area based on their toxicity profiles using a battery of cost- and time-effective bioassays (elutriate approach - Microtox (registered) and Daphnia acute tests; whole-soil approach - Microtox (registered) and avoidance assays with Eisenia andrei), as a part of tier 1 of an ongoing Environmental Risk Assessment. No acute toxicity was found for any of the 10 sites/soils using Microtox (registered) or Daphnia. On the contrary, the behavioural response of E. andrei was found to be an extremely sensitive endpoint, allowing the discrimination of highly to moderately toxic soils based on their toxicity profiles (as a function of soil concentration). Soils exhibiting highest toxicity corresponded to areas subjected to runoffs or sludge deposition from the aquatic effluent, while non-toxic soils were farthest to the mine. Data obtained in avoidance assays strengthen the previous evaluation of risks based on chemical data and supported decisions about proceeding for tier 2

  7. Protons, ions, electrons and the future of the SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D C

    2010-01-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is the most widely used high performance microscope in all fields of science but it is now reaching the theoretical limits of its performance. While advances in sources, optics, and detectors, can result in some improvement in performance the ultimate resolution is limited by fundamental physical constraints. One potential alternative is a scanning microscope utilizing light ions such as H+ and He+ . Such an instrument shares all of the benefits of the conventional SEM but is free from the constraints encountered when using electrons and could significantly extend the scope and success of scanning microscopy.

  8. What Determines Lean Manufacturing Implementation? A CB-SEM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Ching Ng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to ascertain the determinants of effective Lean Manufacturing (LM. In this research, Covariance-based Structural Equation Modeling (CB-SEM analysis will be used in order to analyze the determinants. Through CB-SEM analysis, the significant key determinants can be determined and the direct relationships among determinants can be analyzed. Thus, the findings of this research can act as guidelines for achievement of LM effectiveness, not only providing necessary steps for successful implementation of lean, but also helping lean companies to achieve higher level of lean cost and time savings.

  9. A Data-Driven Approach to SEM Development at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirius, Landon K.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores implementation of strategic enrollment management (SEM) at a two-year college and why SEM is critical to the long-term viability of an institution. This article also outlines the five initial steps needed to implement SEM, including identifying SEM leadership, building a SEM committee, developing a common understanding of…

  10. Análises macro e microscópicas de enxertos cutâneos por semeadura após laserterapia de baixa intensidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Barboza da Silva

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: observar se a laserterapia de baixa intensidade acelera o processo inflamatório, a cicatrização e epitelização de enxertos cutâneos por semeadura. MÉTODOS: vinte ratos foram submetidos a esta técnica de enxertia e divididos em dois grupos iguais, um tratado com laser e outro controle. RESULTADOS: houve menor tempo de reação inflamatória, maior velocidade de cicatrização, epitelização e queratinização nos animais tratados com laser em relação aos não tratados. CONCLUSÃO: a laserterapia de baixa intensidade é efetiva no auxílio ao tratamento de enxertos por semeadura.

  11. Habitação de baixa renda como produto do capital : o programa de arrendamento residencial (PAR) em Presidente Prudente-SP

    OpenAIRE

    Sibila Corral de Arêa Leão Honda

    2011-01-01

    Esta pesquisa busca contribuir para uma análise crítica sobre a produção da habitação de baixa renda em cidades médias, no período entre 1999 e 2008. A pesquisa aborda a política habitacional no Brasil pós-Constituição Federal de 1988, com ênfase no papel dos municípios e nos novos programas de financiamento que possibilitam a articulação com a iniciativa privada para a produção de habitações de baixa renda, particularmente as que utilizam recursos do Programa de Arrendamento ...

  12. Cuticle scale measurement of animal fibers by SEM and AFM

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Notayi, M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available -1 51st Microscopy Society of Southern Africa (MSSA) Conference, Farm Inn, Pretoria, 3-6 December 2013 Cuticle scale measurement of animal fibers by SEM and AFM Notayi M, Engelbrechts JAA, Lee ME, Goosen WE, Hunter L and Botha AF Abstract...

  13. Estudo comparativo entre histerectomia abdominal e vaginal sem prolapso uterino

    OpenAIRE

    Lisboa, Vânio Cardoso

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas. Objetivo: Comparar a histerectomia abdominal e vaginal sem prolapso uterino.

  14. SEM based CARMA time series modeling for arbitrary N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, J.H.L.; Völkle, M.C.; Driver, C.C.

    2018-01-01

    This article explains in detail the state space specification and estimation of first and higher-order autoregressive moving-average models in continuous time (CARMA) in an extended structural equation modeling (SEM) context for N = 1 as well as N > 1. To illustrate the approach, simulations will be

  15. DSS1/Sem1, a multifunctional and intrinsically disordered protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Birthe Brandt; Schenstrøm, Signe Marie; Rebula, Caio A.

    2016-01-01

    DSS1/Sem1 is a versatile intrinsically disordered protein. Besides being a bona fide subunit of the 26S proteasome, DSS1 associates with other protein complexes, including BRCA2-RPA, involved in homologous recombination; the Csn12-Thp3 complex, involved in RNA splicing; the integrator, involved...

  16. The principle of electron microscopy; SEM and TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzi, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    The article reviews the principle of electron microscopy which is used in scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). These instruments are important for the examination and analysis of the microstructural properties of solid objects. Relevance physical concept lies behind the devices are given. The main components of each device are also discussed

  17. Continuous time modeling of panel data by means of SEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, J.H.L.; Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Montfort, C.A.G.M.; Oud, J.H.L.; Satorra, A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief history of continuous time modeling and its implementation in panel analysis by means of structural equation modeling (SEM), the problems of discrete time modeling are discussed in detail. This is done by means of the popular cross-lagged panel design. Next, the exact discrete model

  18. Processing a Biological Tissue from Cryo-SEM to Replica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaškovicová, Naděžda; Hrubanová, Kamila; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 236-237 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Cryo-SEM * ACE600 Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  19. A combined optical, SEM and STM study of growth spirals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some novel results of a combined sequential study of growth spirals on the basal surface of the richly polytypic CdI2 crystals by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are presented and discussed. In confirmation of the known structural data, the STM pictures ...

  20. SEM Analysis of Surface Impact on Biofilm Antibiotic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luciana Calheiros; Mergulhão, Filipe José

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the effect of ampicillin treatment on Escherichia coli biofilms formed on two surface materials with different properties, silicone (SIL) and glass (GLA). Epifluorescence microscopy (EM) was initially used to assess biofilm formation and killing efficiency on both surfaces. This technique showed that higher bacterial colonization was obtained in the hydrophobic SIL than in the hydrophilic GLA. It has also shown that higher biofilm inactivation was attained for GLA after the antibiotic treatment (7-log reduction versus 1-log reduction for SIL). Due to its high resolution and magnification, SEM enabled a more detailed analysis of the antibiotic effect on biofilm cells, complementing the killing efficiency information obtained by EM. SEM micrographs revealed that ampicillin-treated cells have an elongated form when compared to untreated cells. Additionally, it has shown that different materials induced different levels of elongation on cells exposed to antibiotic. Biofilms formed on GLA showed a 37% higher elongation than those formed on SIL. Importantly, cell elongation was related to viability since ampicillin had a higher bactericidal effect on GLA-formed biofilms. These findings raise the possibility of using SEM for understanding the efficacy of antimicrobial treatments by observation of biofilm morphology.

  1. SEM Investigation of Superheater Deposits from Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming; Hansen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    , mature superheater deposit samples were extracted from two straw-fired boilers, Masnedø and Ensted, with fuel inputs of 33 MWth and 100 MWth, respectively. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images and EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) analyses were performed on the deposit samples. Different strategies...

  2. Correlative SEM SERS for quantitative analysis of dimer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, F J; Lenferink, A T M; van Wolferen, H A G M; Otto, C

    2016-11-14

    A Raman microscope integrated with a scanning electron microscope was used to investigate plasmonic structures by correlative SEM-SERS analysis. The integrated Raman-SEM microscope combines high-resolution electron microscopy information with SERS signal enhancement from selected nanostructures with adsorbed Raman reporter molecules. Correlative analysis is performed for dimers of two gold nanospheres. Dimers were selected on the basis of SEM images from multi aggregate samples. The effect of the orientation of the dimer with respect to the polarization state of the laser light and the effect of the particle gap size on the Raman signal intensity is observed. Additionally, calculations are performed to simulate the electric near field enhancement. These simulations are based on the morphologies observed by electron microscopy. In this way the experiments are compared with the enhancement factor calculated with near field simulations and are subsequently used to quantify the SERS enhancement factor. Large differences between experimentally observed and calculated enhancement factors are regularly detected, a phenomenon caused by nanoscale differences between the real and 'simplified' simulated structures. Quantitative SERS experiments reveal the structure induced enhancement factor, ranging from ∼200 to ∼20 000, averaged over the full nanostructure surface. The results demonstrate correlative Raman-SEM microscopy for the quantitative analysis of plasmonic particles and structures, thus enabling a new analytical method in the field of SERS and plasmonics.

  3. Revolving SEM images visualising 3D taxonomic characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkari, Nesrine; Cheung, David Koon-Bong; Enghoff, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    images taken consecutively while rotating the SEM stage 360°, which allows the structure in question to be seen from all angles of view in one plane. Seven new species of the genus Ommatoiulus collected in Tunisia are described: O. chambiensis, O. crassinigripes, O. kefi, O. khroumiriensis, O. xerophilus...

  4. Motivos e consequências da baixa adesão às precauções padrão pela equipe de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Silva Porto

    Full Text Available RESUMO As precauções padrão (PP são recomendações para prevenir infecções e proteger os trabalhadores de saúde durante a prestação de cuidados. Porém, constata-se baixa adesão a estas recomendações. Objetivo Analisar os motivos e as consequências da baixa adesão às PP pela equipe de enfermagem. Método Revisão integrativa da literatura, busca em sete bases de dados, período de 2005 a 2014. Resultados 30 artigos foram selecionados para análise. Os motivos da baixa adesão evidenciados relacionam-se a práticas deficitárias de educação permanente, comportamentos de risco de trabalhadores, provisão de material e equipamentos de proteção inadequados e condições de trabalho inadequadas. As consequências são os acidentes e as doenças do trabalho. Os estudos de intervenção são escassos e limitam-se à educação dos profissionais. Conclusões A baixa adesão às PP está vinculada a aspectos individuais dos trabalhadores e às instituições empregadoras e formadoras. As estratégias de intervenção realizadas mostram-se pouco eficientes por focar apenas o trabalhador.

  5. Quanto custa para as famílias de baixa renda obterem uma dieta saudável no Brasil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Aparecida Borges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi identificar o custo necessário para a obtenção de uma dieta saudável no Brasil e analisar o comprometimento dessa prática na renda familiar. Foram utilizados dados da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares de 2008. Aquisições de alimentos foram coletadas durante sete dias em 55.970 domicílios. Dois subconjuntos compostos apenas por famílias de baixa renda (≤ R$ 415,00 per capita/mês e ≤ US$ 1,00 per capita/dia foram analisados. A partir dos alimentos obtidos, foram calculados calorias, despesa com alimentação e o preço médio dos oito grupos alimentares presentes no Guia Brasileiro. Foram comparados os gastos atuais e ideais para os oito grupos. As obtenções excederam às recomendações para feijões, óleos/gorduras, doces, carnes/ovos e não alcançaram as recomendações para frutas, hortaliças, lácteos e cereais. Atingir as recomendações aumentaria os gastos com a alimentação em 58%, para indivíduos de renda/per capita de ≤ US$ 1,00 per capita/dia, e em 39%, para indivíduos com renda ≤ R$ 415,00, e comprometeria em 145% a renda familiar. Brasileiros de menor poder aquisitivo necessitam aumentar a renda para atingir a dieta ideal.

  6. EFEITOS DA LASERTERAPIA DE BAIXA INTENSIDADE E EXTRATOS VEGETAIS NO PROCESSO DE REPARO TECIDUAL: REVISÃO INTEGRATIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Pinto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Na prática clínica a Laserterapia de Baixa Intensidade (LBI tem sido usada para promover o alívio da dor, a ação anti-inflamatória, e para acelerar o processo de cicatrização em casos de lesão por queimaduras, feridas cirúrgicas e úlceras crônicas. Além da LBI, diversos tipos de extratos vegetais na forma hidroalcoólica ou óleo essencial, também são usadas para estimular a nutrição de células, a regeneração de tecidos e promover a velocidade de cicatrização de feridas. Neste estudo buscou-se evidências que comparasse ou associasse os efeito da LBI à óleos ou extratos vegetais no processo de cicatrização de feridas. Utilizou-se como metodologia a revisão integrativa. Na análise dos artigos, foram identificados 36 artigos, entretanto após adotar os critérios de inclusão descritos na metodologia, restaram apenas três artigos, sendo duas pesquisas que compararam os efeitos da LBI com o extrato hidroalcoólico uma que analisou a atividade das duas terapias, utilizando o extrato das folhas da Solidago chilensis e a irradiação com laser. Conclui-se que utilização a da LBI e os extratos vegetais, isoladamente, mostram-se efetivas durante o processo de reparo tecidual.

  7. As Experiências de Consumo de Eletrônicos de Consumidores de Baixa Renda no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Rezende Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir da constatação de que ainda são incipientes os estudos que buscam relacionar as experiências de consumo em uma perspectiva social, atrelada à percepção de que pouco se pesquisou sobre os consumidores pobres urbanos, este trabalho tem por objetivo geral investigar como as experiências de consumo de eletrônicos pelos consumidores de baixa renda interagem com o sistema cultural e simbólico envolvido no fluxo da vida social cotidiana. Por meio de uma abordagem interpretativista e construtivista, conduziu-se uma pesquisa de inspiração etnográfica a fim de se vivenciar o dia a dia dos consumidores no seu ambiente natural por meio de entrevistas em profundidade, observações e notas de campo. Os dados da investigação empírica foram examinados com base na Análise de Conteúdo. Com a intenção de ir além das descrições, o trabalho também visou à construção de uma teoria substantiva por meio da grounded theory construtivista tal como proposta por Strauss e Corbin (2008 e Charmaz (2006. A teoria substantiva gerada salientou que nas experiências de consumo de aparelhos eletrônicos de consumidores pobres é possível perceber uma intensa relação com o sistema cultural e simbólico construída entre os sujeitos pesquisados.DOI:10.5585/remark.v12i1.2316

  8. FIB/SEM and SEM/EDS microstructural analysis of metal-ceramic and zirconia-ceramic interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, F; Merlati, G; Sebastiani, M; Battaini, P; Menghini, P; Bemporad, E

    2012-01-10

    Recently introduced FIB/SEM analysis in microscopy seems to provide a high-resolution characterization of the samples by 3D (FIB) cross-sectioning and (SEM) high resolution imaging. The aim of this study was to apply the FIB/SEM and SEM/EDS analysis to the interfaces of a metal-ceramic vs. two zirconia-ceramic systems. Plate samples of three different prosthetic systems were prepared in the dental lab following the manufacturers' instructions, where metal-ceramic was the result of a ceramic veneering (porcelain-fused-to-metal) and the two zirconia-ceramic systems were produced by the dedicated CAD-CAM procedures of the zirconia cores (both with final sintering) and then veneered by layered or heat pressed ceramics. In a FIB/SEM equipment (also called DualBeam), a thin layer of platinum (1 μm) was deposited on samples surface crossing the interfaces, in order to protect them during milling. Then, increasingly deeper trenches were milled by a focused ion beam, first using a relatively higher and later using a lower ion current (from 9 nA to 0.28 nA, 30KV). Finally, FEG-SEM (5KV) micrographs (1000-50,000X) were acquired. In a SEM the analysis of the morphology and internal microstructure was performed by 13KV secondary and backscattered electrons signals (in all the samples). The compositional maps were then performed by EDS probe only in the metal-ceramic system (20kV). Despite the presence of many voids in all the ceramic layers, it was possible to identify: (1) the grain structures of the metallic and zirconia substrates, (2) the thin oxide layer at the metal-ceramic interface and its interactions with the first ceramic layer (wash technique), (3) the roughness of the two different zirconia cores and their interactions with the ceramic interface, where the presence of zirconia grains in the ceramic layer was reported in two system possibly due to sandblasting before ceramic firing.

  9. Three dimensional rock microstructures: insights from FIB-SEM tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Martyn; Pennock, Gill; de Winter, Matthijs

    2016-04-01

    Most studies of rock microstructures investigate two-dimensional sections or thin slices of three dimensional grain structures. With advances of X-ray and electron tomography methods the 3-D microstructure can be(relatively) routinely investigated on scales from a few microns to cm. 3D studies are needed to investigate the connectivity of microstructures and to test the assumptions we use to calculate 3D properties from 2D sections. We have used FIB-SEM tomography to study the topology of melts in synthetic olivine rocks, 3D crystal growth microstructures, pore networks and subgrain structures. The technique uses a focused ion beam to make serial sections with a spacing of tens to hundreds of nanometers. Each section is then imaged or mapped using the electron beam. The 3D geometry of grains and subgrains can be investigated using orientation contrast or EBSD mapping. FIB-SEM tomography of rocks and minerals can be limited by charging of the uncoated surfaces exposed by the ion beam. The newest generation of FIB-SEMs have much improved low voltage imaging capability allowing high resolution charge free imaging. Low kV FIB-SEM tomography is now widely used to study the connectivity of pore networks. In-situ fluids can also be studied using cryo-FIB-SEM on frozen samples, although special freezing techniques are needed to avoid artifacts produced by ice crystallization. FIB-SEM tomography is complementary, in terms of spatial resolution and sampled volume, to TEM tomography and X-ray tomography, and the combination of these methods can cover a wide range of scales. Our studies on melt topology in synthetic olivine rocks with a high melt content show that many grain boundaries are wetted by nanometre scale melt layers that are too thin to resolve by X-ray tomography. A variety of melt layer geometries occur consistent with several mechanisms of melt layer formation. The nature of melt geometries along triple line junctions and quadruple points can be resolved

  10. Critical factors in SEM 3D stereo microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinello, F; Savio, E; Bariani, P; Horsewell, A; De Chiffre, L

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using 3D reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. The paper presents both theoretical and experimental investigations, on the effects of instrumental variables and measurement parameters on reconstruction accuracy. Investigations were performed on a novel sample, specifically developed and implemented for the tests. The description is based on the model function introduced by Piazzesi and adapted for eucentrically tilted stereopairs. Two main classes of influencing factors are recognized: the first one is related to the measurement operation and the instrument set-up; the second concerns the quality of scanned images and represents the major criticality in the application of SEMs for 3D characterizations

  11. Three dimensional imaging of surface geometry in SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slowko, W.

    1997-01-01

    A great advantage of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is its ability of the surface topography in the way as a human eye is accustomed to see lights and shadows on macroobjects. However, SEM's can hardly display vertical dimensions of the structures. One of possible solutions is reconstruction of the surface profiles by directional detection of secondary electrons and proper signal processing. However, the surface profile still gives two dimensional information and the method should be extended to obtain fully three dimensional imaging. The extension consists in a simultaneous reconstruction of the surface profiles in two perpendicular directions (x and y) and their superposition. The solution proposed is based on a quadrupole detector system and a computer or analogue system for signal processing. Quantitative data of the surface topography can be displayed in many manners in the system of two or three co-ordinates with use of pseudo-colour for the altitude coding. (author)

  12. SEM and Raman studies of CNT films on porous Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belka, R.; Keczkowska, J.; Suchańska, M.; Firek, P.; Wronka, H.; Kozłowski, M.; Radomska, J.; Czerwosz, E.; Craciunoiu, F.

    2017-08-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) films deposited on different porous silica substrates were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Raman Spectroscopy (RS). The films samples were prepared by a two-step method consisting of PVD and CVD processes. In the first step the nanocomposite Ni-C film was obtained by evaporation in dynamic vacuum from two separated sources of fullerenes and nickel acetate. Those films were deposited on porous silica and DLC/porous silica substrates. Analysis of SEM imaging showed that the obtained film are composed of carbon nanotubes, the distribution, size and quality of which depend on the type of substrate. The CNT films were studied by RS method to determine the influence of the substrate type on disordering of carbonaceous structure and quality of CNT in deposited films.

  13. Repetitive Observation of Coniferous Samples in ESEM and SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tihlaříková, Eva; Neděla, Vilém

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S3 (2015), s. 1695-1696 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SEM * ESEM * biological samples * repetitive observation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  14. Characterization of some biological specimens using TEM and SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Smith, Don W.

    2009-05-01

    The advent of novel techniques using the Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes improved observation on various biological specimens to characterize them. We studied some biological specimens using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes. We followed negative staining technique with Phosphotungstic acid using bacterial culture of Bacillus subtilis. Negative staining is very convenient technique to view the structural morphology of different samples including bacteria, phage viruses and filaments in a cell. We could observe the bacterial cell wall and flagellum very well when trapped the negative stained biofilm from bacterial culture on a TEM grid. We cut ultra thin sections from the fixed root tips of Pisum sativum (Garden pea). Root tips were pre fixed with osmium tetroxide and post fixed with uranium acetate and placed in the BEEM capsule for block making. The ultrathin sections on the grid under TEM showed the granular chromatin in the nucleus. The protein bodies and large vacuoles with the storage materials were conspicuous. We followed fixation, critical point drying and sputter coating with gold to view the tissues with SEM after placing on stubs. SEM view of the leaf surface of a dangerous weed Tragia hispida showed the surface trichomes. These trichomes when break on touching releases poisonous content causing skin irritation. The cultured tissue from in vitro culture of Albizia lebbeck, a tree revealed the regenerative structures including leaf buds and stomata on the tissue surface. SEM and TEM allow investigating the minute details characteristic morphological features that can be used for classroom teaching.

  15. Surface characteristics of isopod digestive gland epithelium studied by SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millaku, Agron; Leser, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana; Godec, Matjaz; Torkar, Matjaz; Jenko, Monika; Milani, Marziale; Tatti, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The structure of the digestive gland epithelium of a terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber has been investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), and light microscopy in order to provide evidence on morphology of the gland epithelial surface in animals from a stock culture. We investigated the shape of cells, extrusion of lipid droplets, shape and distribution of microvilli, and the presence of bacteria on the cell surface. A total of 22 animals were investigated and we found some variability in the appearance of the gland epithelial surface. Seventeen of the animals had dome-shaped digestive gland "normal" epithelial cells, which were densely and homogeneously covered by microvilli and varying proportions of which extruded lipid droplets. On the surface of microvilli we routinely observed sparsely distributed bacteria of different shapes. Five of the 22 animals had "abnormal" epithelial cells with a significantly altered shape. In three of these animals, the cells were much smaller, partly or completely flat or sometimes pyramid-like. A thick layer of bacteria was detected on the microvillous border, and in places, the shape and size of microvilli were altered. In two animals, hypertrophic cells containing large vacuoles were observed indicating a characteristic intracellular infection. The potential of SEM in morphological investigations of epithelial surfaces is discussed.

  16. Analysis of microtraces in invasive traumas using SEM/EDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, E J; Zoon, P D; Chang, S B C G; Keereweer, I; Pieterman, R; Gerretsen, R R R

    2012-01-10

    Scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) is a proven forensic tool and has been used to analyze several kinds of trace evidence. A forensic application of SEM/EDS is the examination of morphological characteristics of tool marks that tools and instruments leave on bone. The microtraces that are left behind by these tools and instruments on the bone are, however, often ignored or not noticed at all. In this paper we will describe the use of SEM/EDS for the analysis of microtraces in invasive sharp-force, blunt-force and bone-hacking traumas in bone. This research is part of a larger multi-disciplinary approach in which pathologists, forensic anthropologists, toolmark and microtrace experts work together to link observed injuries to a suspected weapon or, in case of an unknown weapon, to indicate a group of objects that could have been used as a weapon. Although there are a few difficulties one have to consider, the method itself is rather simple and straightforward to apply. A sample of dry and clean bone is placed into the SEM sample chamber and brightness and contrast are set such that bone appears grey, metal appears white and organic material appears black. The sample is then searched manually to find relevant features. Once features are found their elemental composition is measured by an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). This method is illustrated using several cases. It is shown that SEM/EDS analysis of microtraces in bone is a valuable tool to get clues about an unknown weapon and can associate a specific weapon with injuries on the basis of appearance and elemental composition. In particular the separate results from the various disciplines are complementary and may be combined to reach a conclusion with a stronger probative value. This is not only useful in the courtroom but above all in criminal investigations when one have to know for what weapon or object to look for. Copyright © 2011

  17. Qualidade pós-colheita de nêsperas submetidas ao armazenamento sob baixa temperatura e atmosfera modificada Postharvest quality of loquat stored at a low temperature and modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Tavares de Campos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A curta vida-de-prateleira da nêspera (Eryobotria japonica Lindl. é um dos fatores que encarecem o preço final deste fruto constituindo um obstáculo para o aumento da sua produção e popularização de seu consumo. Neste contexto, o investimento em estratégias de armazenamento representa uma contribuição para a cadeia de produção da nêspera. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma alternativa de baixo custo para a extensão do tempo de armazenamento deste fruto. Nêsperas da cultivar Precoce de Itaquera, maduras, foram acondicionadas em bandejas de poliestireno teraftalato e embaladas com filme de polivinilcloreto de 14 µm de espessura. Os frutos foram armazenados em diferentes temperaturas (18 e 6 °C na presença e ausência de sachês de permanganato de potássio para remoção do etileno. Durante o armazenamento, os frutos foram periodicamente analisados quanto à produção de etileno e à respiração. Os frutos amostrados para análises posteriores foram descascados e a polpa congelada. Os frutos foram também monitorados quanto à perda de massa fresca e analisados os teores de glicose, frutose, sacarose e sorbitol por HPAEC-PAD. Os teores de etileno nos grupos armazenados na presença dos sachês foram significativamente menores em comparação aos demais grupos, independente da temperatura de armazenamento. A respiração mostrou dependência da temperatura, sendo menor nos frutos armazenados a 6 °C, independente da presença dos sachês. Os teores de açúcares solúveis apresentaram flutuações durante o armazenamento a baixa temperatura, mas sem alterações significativas em relação aos teores iniciais, com exceção do sorbitol que aumentou. Os efeitos do armazenamento à baixa temperatura, combinados com a presença de sachês absorvedores de etileno, sobre a respiração e os teores de etileno podem ser apontados como relevantes para o aumento na vida-de-prateleira das nêsperas, sem alterações nos n

  18. Efeitos do treinamento resistido na lipoproteína de baixa densidade Effects of resistance training on low density lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Luis da Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Os benefícios da prática regular do exercício físico estão claramente estabelecidos na literatura. Entretanto, a escolha do tipo de exercício ideal pode ser mais salutar para indivíduos com doenças específicas e patologias associadas. O propósito desta revisão foi verificar se o treinamento resistido (TR exerce alguma alteração no colesterol da lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL-C. Foram observadas grandes diferenças na literatura, dificultando uma conclusão em relação aos benefícios do TR nesta revisão. No entanto, foi visto que o TR pode ser promissor na redução dos níveis de LDL-C, principalmente em homens e mulheres adultos, em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 1 e tipo 2 e em mulheres pré-menopausa, não mostrando diferenças na população idosa. Os autores concluem que o TR é uma boa opção de exercício físico para indivíduos, principalmente quando o treinamento aeróbio (TA é contraindicado.The benefits of exercise regular practice are clearly established in the literature. However, the choice of the ideal exercise may be more beneficial for individuals with specific diseases and associated pathologies. The aim of this review was to determine whether resistance training (RT promotes any change on low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Important differences were observed in research protocols, making it difficult to define the benefits of RT in this review. However, it was noticed that RT may be promising in reducing LDL-C levels mainly in adult men and women, in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 and in pre-menopausal women, not presenting differences in the elderly population. It was concluded that the RT is an option good of physical exercise for individuals, especially when the aerobic training (AT is contra-indicated.

  19. Conservação de grãos de pólen de mamoneira a baixas temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Copstein Cuchiara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A finalidade do armazenamento do grão de pólen é conservar material para futura utilização, proporcionando-lhe condições ótimas, de forma a manter seu poder germinativo, vigor e integridade genética originais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o poder germinativo dos grãos de pólen de mamoneira (Ricinus communis L., após armazenamento a baixas temperaturas. Para tanto, grãos de pólen dos cultivares IAC 80 e AL Guarany 2002 foram utilizados e armazenados em quatro temperaturas: -196, -72, -18 e 4 ºC, durante um período de oito semanas. A avaliação da viabilidade deste pólen foi realizada semanalmente, até completar cinco semanas, sendo realizada uma última avaliação após a oitava semana de armazenamento, por meio do teste de germinação in vitro. Meio de cultura, contendo 10 gL-1 de ágar, 100 gL-1 de sacarose, 0,004 gL-1 de ácido bórico e pH 6,0, foi preparado e depositado em placas de lâmina escavada, onde o pólen foi distribuído sobre a superfície do meio. As placas foram incubadas a 20 ºC em BOD. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 (2 cultivares x 4 temperaturas para cada tempo de armazenamento, sendo analisados 100 grãos de pólen por repetição, totalizando seis de cada tratamento. Verificou-se diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para a interação cultivar x temperatura na quinta semana de observação (p < 0,05. Demais interações foram altamente significativas em todas as épocas de observação (p < 0,01. Portanto, a utilização de ultrabaixas temperaturas permite a manutenção da viabilidade de grãos de pólen de mamoneira, até a quinta semana de armazenamento.

  20. Influência da embalagem de polietileno de baixa densidade e da temperatura na conservação do repolho minimamente processado Effects of low density polyethylene packaging and temperature in the conservation of fresh-cut cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. Rinaldi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi estudado o efeito da embalagem de polietileno de baixa densidade e da temperatura de armazenagem na conservação de repolho minimamente processado. Os repolhos, previamente resfriados à temperatura de 10 ºC, foram submetidos à seleção, lavagem, corte em quatro partes com a retirada do talo central, sanitização, corte em tiras, enxágüe, centrifugação, pesagem e acondicionamento em embalagens plásticas de polietileno de baixa densidade (70 µm e armazenados em câmaras frias nas temperaturas de 1 e 10 ºC por 20 dias. Avaliaram-se dióxido de carbono, oxigênio e etileno na atmosfera interna da embalagem, bem como pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis totais, vitamina C, perda de massa fresca e relação sólidos solúveis totais/acidez no repolho minimamente processado. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os parâmetros de análise, com exceção da vitamina C, perda de massa fresca e etileno, apresentaram variação significativa entre as temperaturas e dias de armazenamento. O repolho armazenado na temperatura de 1 ºC apresentou vida de prateleira ao redor de 15 dias, significativamente maior que a 10 ºC. Nesta última, no 8º dia de armazenamento, o produto encontrava-se totalmente deteriorado, sem condições de comercialização e consumo.This research studied the effect of low density polyethylene packaging and storage temperature on the preservation of fresh-cut (minimally processed cabbage. The cabbages, previously cooled to a temperature of 10 ºC, were selected, washed, cut in four parts (with the central stalk removed, sanitized, cut in strips, rinsed, put in the centrifuge, weighed and stored in plastic packaging of low density polyethylene (70 µm, and then stored in cold chambers at temperatures of 1 and 10 ºC for 20 days. The following aspects were evaluated: carbon dioxide, oxygen and ethylene in the internal atmosphere of the package

  1. Classification and printability of EUV mask defects from SEM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Wonil; Price, Daniel; Morgan, Paul A.; Rost, Daniel; Satake, Masaki; Tolani, Vikram L.

    2017-10-01

    Classification and Printability of EUV Mask Defects from SEM images EUV lithography is starting to show more promise for patterning some critical layers at 5nm technology node and beyond. However, there still are many key technical obstacles to overcome before bringing EUV Lithography into high volume manufacturing (HVM). One of the greatest obstacles is manufacturing defect-free masks. For pattern defect inspections in the mask-shop, cutting-edge 193nm optical inspection tools have been used so far due to lacking any e-beam mask inspection (EBMI) or EUV actinic pattern inspection (API) tools. The main issue with current 193nm inspection tools is the limited resolution for mask dimensions targeted for EUV patterning. The theoretical resolution limit for 193nm mask inspection tools is about 60nm HP on masks, which means that main feature sizes on EUV masks will be well beyond the practical resolution of 193nm inspection tools. Nevertheless, 193nm inspection tools with various illumination conditions that maximize defect sensitivity and/or main-pattern modulation are being explored for initial EUV defect detection. Due to the generally low signal-to-noise in the 193nm inspection imaging at EUV patterning dimensions, these inspections often result in hundreds and thousands of defects which then need to be accurately reviewed and dispositioned. Manually reviewing each defect is difficult due to poor resolution. In addition, the lack of a reliable aerial dispositioning system makes it very challenging to disposition for printability. In this paper, we present the use of SEM images of EUV masks for higher resolution review and disposition of defects. In this approach, most of the defects detected by the 193nm inspection tools are first imaged on a mask SEM tool. These images together with the corresponding post-OPC design clips are provided to KLA-Tencor's Reticle Decision Center (RDC) platform which provides ADC (Automated Defect Classification) and S2A (SEM

  2. A simplified method for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahar, A.; Lasher, R.

    1980-01-01

    The combination of autoradiography with SEM provides a valuable tool for the study of labeled biological materials, but the previously described methods are complicated because they call first for the removal of gelatin from the film emulsion and this is then followed by deposition of gold vapor on the specimen. The authors describe a much simpler method which can easily be adapted to routine examination of cell cultures. In this method, gelatin is not removed; the film is coated with vaporized carbon only. This procedure permits visualization of both cellular image and distribution of silver grains. (Auth.)

  3. La semántica en la Web

    OpenAIRE

    Roger, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar la motivación de nuestra línea de investigación, metas y desarrollos futuros. Fundamentalmente, nuestro interés se centrará en poder capturar el potencial de las técnicas y paradigmas basadas en conocimiento semántico para la representación de conocimiento, la localización, compartición e integración de recursos a mediante la WWW.

  4. XRD and SEM study of alumina silicate porcelain insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duddi, Dharmender; Singh, G. P.; Kalra, Swati; Shekhawat, M. S.; Tak, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Higher strength electrical porcelain is a requirement of industry. This will be achieved by a specific composition of raw materials, which is consisted of clays and feldspars. Water absorption, particle size and insulating properties are of special interest now a day. China clay, Ball clay and Quartz are widely used by ceramic industries in Bikaner district of Rajasthan. Sample for present study were prepared by mixing of above clay, feldspar with MnO2, then shrinkage is observed. Bar shaped samples were prepared and heated up to a temperature of about 1185° C to observe shrinkage. For phase study of XRD and SEM are observed.

  5. Developing 3D SEM in a broad biological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, A; Lippens, S; Bartunkova, S; Asselbergh, B; Blanpain, C; Fendrych, M; Goossens, A; Holt, M; Janssens, S; Krols, M; Larsimont, J-C; Mc Guire, C; Nowack, MK; Saelens, X; Schertel, A; Schepens, B; Slezak, M; Timmerman, V; Theunis, C; Van Brempt, R; Visser, Y; GuÉRin, CJ

    2015-01-01

    When electron microscopy (EM) was introduced in the 1930s it gave scientists their first look into the nanoworld of cells. Over the last 80 years EM has vastly increased our understanding of the complex cellular structures that underlie the diverse functions that cells need to maintain life. One drawback that has been difficult to overcome was the inherent lack of volume information, mainly due to the limit on the thickness of sections that could be viewed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). For many years scientists struggled to achieve three-dimensional (3D) EM using serial section reconstructions, TEM tomography, and scanning EM (SEM) techniques such as freeze-fracture. Although each technique yielded some special information, they required a significant amount of time and specialist expertise to obtain even a very small 3D EM dataset. Almost 20 years ago scientists began to exploit SEMs to image blocks of embedded tissues and perform serial sectioning of these tissues inside the SEM chamber. Using first focused ion beams (FIB) and subsequently robotic ultramicrotomes (serial block-face, SBF-SEM) microscopists were able to collect large volumes of 3D EM information at resolutions that could address many important biological questions, and do so in an efficient manner. We present here some examples of 3D EM taken from the many diverse specimens that have been imaged in our core facility. We propose that the next major step forward will be to efficiently correlate functional information obtained using light microscopy (LM) with 3D EM datasets to more completely investigate the important links between cell structures and their functions. Lay Description Life happens in three dimensions. For many years, first light, and then EM struggled to image the smallest parts of cells in 3D. With recent advances in technology and corresponding improvements in computing, scientists can now see the 3D world of the cell at the nanoscale. In this paper we present the

  6. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM): Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis

    2018-03-01

    Investigations of patterns of sexual arousal to certain groups of sexually explicit media (SEM) in the general population in non-laboratory settings are rare. Such knowledge could be important to understand more about the relative specificity of sexual arousal in different SEM users. (i) To investigate whether sexual arousal to non-mainstream vs mainstream SEM contents could be categorized across gender and sexual orientation, (ii) to compare levels of SEM-induced sexual arousal, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluated sexual interests and fantasies between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluations of sexual interests and sexual fantasies. Groups characterized by sexual arousal to non-mainstream SEM could be identified across gender and sexual orientation. These non-mainstream SEM groups reported more SEM use and higher average levels of sexual arousal across the 27 SEM themes assessed compared with mainstream SEM groups. Only few differences were found between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups in self-evaluative judgements of sexual interests, sexual fantasies, and sexual satisfaction. The internal validity and predictive accuracy of the NPAS was good across most user groups investigated. The findings suggest that in classified non-mainstream SEM groups, patterns of sexual arousal might be less fixated and category specific than previously assumed. Further, these groups are not more judgmental of their SEM-related sexual arousal patterns than groups characterized by patterns of sexual arousal to more mainstream SEM content. Moreover, accurate identification of non-mainstream SEM group membership is generally possible across gender and sexual orientation using the NPAS. Hald GM

  7. Comunicação de Dados em Redes de Distribuição de Energia Elétrica de Baixa Tensão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Brandão Nogueira Vital

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve o mecanismo de troca de informações com uso de redes brasileiras de distribuição de energia elétrica de baixa tensão, e traça a linha evolutiva do tema até atingir o desenvolvimento tecnológico atual. Dessa forma, são abordados temas importantes sobre o assunto como aplicações comerciais, faixa de operação, descrição dos dispositivos de rede que possibilitam a troca de dados, comportamento do canal de comunicação e das fontes ruidosas.

  8. Risco e saúde no contexto do VIH/sida: o caso da prostituição na Baixa da Cidade de Maputo

    OpenAIRE

    Muianga, Baltazar Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Mestrado em Estudos Africanos. Desenvolvimento Social e Económico em África: Análise e Gestão Tendo como estudo de caso a “Rua do Bagamoyo”, na baixa da cidade de Maputo, a presente dissertação tem por objectivo identificar as estratégias a que as trabalhadoras de sexo recorrem para fazer frente ao risco de infecção pelo VIH/SIDA, por um lado e, por outro, compreender a eficácia destas respostas face aos condicionalismos sociais que influenciam significativamente a gestão de...

  9. Baixa Renda: O Consumo Simbólico e o Comércio Informal de Acessórios Femininos

    OpenAIRE

    Elisângela Domingues Michelatto Natt; Bruna Fernanda Barbosa; Francisco Giovanni David Vieira; Alexandre de Pádua Carrieri

    2017-01-01

    Para compreender mais do universo do consumo simbólico, foi realizada uma pesquisa sobre o consumo de acessórios femininos por mulheres de baixa renda. As participantes foram revendedoras ambulantes e suas clientes. Sob a perspectiva do consumo simbólico foi possível observar alguns aspectos comuns ao consumo dessa classe de mulheres que recorrem às suas experiências de consumo para relacionar-se no universo social e marcar sua presença nele. Em termos gerenciais essa pesquisa se faz importan...

  10. Sem-edx and ftir studies of chlorinated rubber coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, H.; Khan, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Anticorrosive performance of chlorinated rubber coating has been investigated by visual examination, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. After surface preparation, commercially available coating system based on chlorinated rubber (primer)/chlorinated rubber (topcoat) formulation was applied on mild steel test panels (10cm x 15cm sizes). Prepared coated panels were exposed at marine, industrial and urban test sites located in Karachi, Pakistan according to ISO 8565 norm. Accelerated testing was performed by using a salt spray chamber (ASTM B117 norm). Accelerated weathering methods are the methods in which the factors responsible for the degradation of coatings are artificially intensified in order to achieve the rapid degradation of coatings. Visual examination of blistering and rusting as well as SEM micrographs indicated a more severe degradation of the coating surface characteristics at natural exposure testing sites (particularly at marine test site) than for accelerated (salt spray) testing. EDX determination of the Oxygen/Carbon (O/C) ratios also indicated increased degradation at natural test sites compared to the accelerated (salt spray) testing. Photooxidation of the binder results in the formation of carbonyl compounds as revealed by FTIR spectroscopy which also indicated dehydrochlorination. (author)

  11. Comparative SEM analysis of nine F22 aligner cleaning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Luca; Martini, Marco; Cervinara, Francesca; Spedicato, Giorgio Alfredo; Oliverio, Teresa; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    The orthodontics industry has paid great attention to the aesthetics of orthodontic appliances, seeking to make them as invisible as possible. There are several advantages to clear aligner systems, including aesthetics, comfort, chairside time reduction, and the fact that they can be removed for meals and oral hygiene procedures. Five patients were each given a series of F22 aligners, each to be worn for 14 days and nights, with the exception of meal and brushing times. Patients were instructed to clean each aligner using a prescribed strategy, and sections of the used aligners were observed under SEM. One grey-scale SEM image was saved per aligner in JPEG format with an 8-bit colour depth, and a total of 45 measurements on the grey scale ("Value" variable) were made. This dataset was analysed statistically via repeated measures ANOVA to determine the effect of each of the nine cleaning strategies in each of the five patients. A statistically significant difference in the efficacy of the cleaning strategies was detected. Specifically, rinsing with water alone was significantly less efficacious, and a combination of cationic detergent solution and ultrasonication was significantly more efficacious than the other methods (p aligners.

  12. Prevalência baixa de adenovírus em crianças com diarreia em Belo Horizonte-MG Low prevalence of adenoviruses in children with acute diarrhea in Belo Horizonte-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jenner Duarte

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diversos microrganismos são reconhecidos como agentes de diarreia aguda, entre eles, os adenovírus, cuja associação com a doença apresenta variações geográficas e é pouco conhecida no Brasil. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a presença de adenovírus em fezes de crianças com diarreia aguda e sem diarreia, em Belo Horizonte-MG, e estudar os fatores epidemiológicos associados à adenovirose intestinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O teste imunocromatográfico qualitativo (kit VIKIA® Rota-Adeno, bioMérieux foi utilizado para pesquisa de antígenos de adenovírus em amostras fecais obtidas de 268 crianças com diarreia aguda e 124 sem diarreia, em 2005 e 2006, no Hospital Infantil João Paulo II, Belo Horizonte-MG. Dados laboratoriais, clínicos e epidemiológicos foram registrados em banco de dados (SPSS Statistical package, IBM. RESULTADOS: Adenovírus foi detectado nas fezes de 16 crianças (4,1%: 12 (4,5% com diarreia e quatro (3,2% sem diarreia. A virose foi mais comum em meninas e a distribuição etária da infecção foi homogênea. Entre as 16 crianças com infecção pelo vírus, 11 (68,8% tinham até 12 meses de idade. Entretanto, diferença significativa não foi observada para os parâmetros analisados. Distribuição sazonal da infecção por adenovírus não foi detectada. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos dados demonstram que a prevalência da adenovirose é baixa na população pediátrica no nosso meio.INTRODUCTION: Several microorganisms, among them enteric adenovirus, are widely recognized as etiological agents of acute diarrhea. The association between adenovirus and the disease varies among geographical regions and is poorly known in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence of adenovirus in stool samples from children with and without diarrhea in Belo Horizonte-MG. To study factors associated with enteric adenovirus infection. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A qualitative immunochromatographic assay (kit VIKIA® Rota-Adeno, bio

  13. Diferenciador semántico: bipolaridad del espacio semántico, un problema de medida del significado

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez C., Ramiro

    2012-01-01

    En relación con el supuesto de bipolaridad y su aspecto recíprocamente antagónico, Osgood y otros (1957) han ligado su modelo de espacio semántico a la teoría del aprendizaje. Plantean la hipótesis de que cierto estimulo externo, o signo, desencadena un proceso mediacional interno (nn) el cual se constituye en emisor de estímulos (rm 15m). Este es el rm mediacional que contendría el significado del signo. La teoría de mediación la relacionan con el supuesto de bipolaridad en los siguientes té...

  14. Comparing the detection of iron-based pottery pigment on a carbon-coated sherd by SEM-EDS and by Micro-XRF-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Michael W; Washburn, Dorothy K; Ellis, E Ann; Pendleton, Bonnie B

    2014-03-01

    The same sherd was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and a micro X-ray fluorescence tube attached to a scanning electron microscope (Micro-XRF-SEM) to compare the effectiveness of elemental detection of iron-based pigment. To enhance SEM-EDS mapping, the sherd was carbon coated. The carbon coating was not required to produce Micro-XRF-SEM maps but was applied to maintain an unbiased comparison between the systems. The Micro-XRF-SEM analysis was capable of lower limits of detection than that of the SEM-EDS system, and therefore the Micro-XRF-SEM system could produce elemental maps of elements not easily detected by SEM-EDS mapping systems. Because SEM-EDS and Micro-XRF-SEM have been used for imaging and chemical analysis of biological samples, this comparison of the detection systems should be useful to biologists, especially those involved in bone or tooth (hard tissue) analysis.

  15. Aferição dos equipamentos de laser de baixa intensidade Calibration of low-level laser therapy equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Y. Fukuda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A laserterapia de baixa intensidade (LBI vem sendo cada vez mais utilizada, porém ainda não há consenso na literatura quanto ao tempo em que os equipamentos devem ser submetidos à aferição ou calibragem. OBJETIVO: Analisar a potência média real (PmR dos equipamentos de LBI na região da Grande São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Para análise dos equipamentos, utilizou-se um potenciômetro (Lasercheck, próprio para aferição de equipamentos contínuos, o qual foi programado com dados referentes ao comprimento de onda do laser a ser avaliado, obtendo-se assim a PmR emitida. Os equipamentos foram analisados de duas formas: uma, com o LBI desaquecido, e outra, após 10 minutos de uso (aquecido, sendo que três análises foram feitas para cada condição. A caneta emissora foi acoplada ao potenciômetro, o qual fornecia a PmR emitida pelo LBI. Todos os dados e informações referentes à aplicação do laser foram coletados por um questionário respondido pelos responsáveis. RESULTADOS: Os 60 equipamentos avaliados mostraram déficit na PmR com os equipamentos desaquecidos e aquecidos. A análise estatística (ANOVA mostrou diminuição significativa (PBACKGROUND: Despite the increase in the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT, there is still a lack of consensus in the literature regarding how often the equipment must be calibrated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the real average power of LLLT devices in the Greater São Paulo area. METHODS: For the evaluation, a LaserCheck power meter designed to calibrate continuous equipment was used. The power meter was programmed with data related to the laser's wavelength to gauge the real average power being emitted. The LLLT devices were evaluated in two ways: first with the device cooled down and then with the device warmed up for 10 minutes. For each condition, three tests were performed. The laser probe was aligned with the power meter, which provided the real average power being emitted by the

  16. Sobre a sustentabilidade das associações voluntárias em uma comunidade de baixa renda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Souto-Maior Fontes

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar a relação entre o desenho das redes egocentradas de uma comunidade de baixa renda e os prováveis efeitos sobre o desempenho das associações voluntárias (associações de moradores e organizações não-governamentais do bairro. Perguntamo-nos sobre que fatores poderiam explicar o fato de alguns moradores passarem do papel de simples consumidores de serviços oferecidos pelas organizações do bairro para o de participantes na gestão dessas entidades. Maior ou menor engajamento na participação em associações voluntárias freqüentemente tem sido explicados ou por características psicossociais dos participantes (que resultaria em níveis diversos de motivação, ou em características oriundas de atributos individuais (sexo, idade, estado civil, renda etc.. Penso que características do desenho das redes egocentradas (centralidade, multiplexidade, predominância de relações fracas ou fortes, territorialidade dos laços sociais etc. são também elementos importantes a serem considerados. Admitimos, portanto, que a sustentabilidade de uma organização comunitária - isto é, o fato de essas organizações terem um forte apoio da comunidade - seria em parte função da estruturação das redes de seus participantes. Essas hipóteses são testadas empiricamente a partir de informações extraídas das redes egocentradas de habitantes da Comunidade de Chão de Estrelas, em Recife. Foram aplicados 250 questionários, a partir de amostra aleatória simples de um universo de 1.131 domicílios.To analyze the relationship between the format of the networks of a low-income community and the probable effects on the performance of district voluntary associations (community groups and NGO' s. How can we explain why some inhabitants start as simple consumers of the services offered by the district associations to later become participants in the management of those organizations. The explanation for the

  17. Validade da aferição da acuidade visual realizada pelo professor em escolares de 1ª à 4ª série de primeiro grau de uma escola pública do município de São Paulo, Brasil The validity of the visual acuity screening in school children carried oat by the teacher - comparative study of the visual acuity measurement by the teacher and the ophthalmologist from the city of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edméa Rita Temporini

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de avaliação da medida da acuidade visual pelo professor, comparativamente àquela efetuada pelo médico-oftalmologista, utilizando-se ambos da tabela optométrica de Snellen. Éste estudo foi realizado em decorrência do Plano de Oftalmologia Sanitária Escolar (POSE, em desenvolvimento no Estado de São Paulo, que atinge escolares de 1ª série, classe especial e pré-primário das escolas estaduais de 1º grau, onde a atuação dos professores constitui fator básico da programação, principalmente no seu aspecto educativo e na verificação da acuidade visual. Foram testados 1.352 escolares de 1ª a 4ª série de 1º grau de um estabelecimento de ensino do município de São Paulo (SP em 1975. Encontrou-se uma concordância de resultados em 80,86% dos casos. Com a diferença de 2 linhas entre os resultados do professor e do médico, constataram-se 122 casos (9,02% e, com a diferença de 3 linhas, 54 casos (3,99%. À medida em que se consideravam diferenças maiores, decrescia progressivamente o número de casos discordantes encontrados. Observou-se que, à medida em que aumentava a desigualdade de aferição entre o professor e o oftalmologista, isto se verificava em ambos os olhos, o que evidencia uma dificuldade de interpretação daquelas crianças para responder o teste. Considerou-se altamente válida a aplicação do teste de acuidade visual pelo professor devidamente treinado, com a finalidade de triagem a nível de escola, como um dos aspectos para identificar alunos necessitados de exame médico-oftalmológico.The Sanitary Ophthalmology School Plan is in process in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil. It includes 1st grade primary school children, special classes and kindergarten of the government schools. The teachers play an important part in the programme as to the educational aspect and the visual acuity screening. This report presents an evaluation of the visual acuity test done by the teacher in comparison with the one

  18. SEM investigation of incandescent lamp mantle structure on durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerneke, D.; Lang, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The incandescent mantle as used on pressure and non-pressure liquid fuel lamps has been in use for over 100 years. What remains unexplained is the way in which the resistance to mechanical shock and the decline in tensile strength with usage is experienced. It has been suggested that to improve durability it is necessary to continuously burn a new mantle for the first two to three hours. The known factors in mantle durability and mechanical strength are chemical composition and fabric weave. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of burning time and temperature on thorium oxide mantles. The operating temperature of mantles on a range of kerosene pressure lamps was measured and found to be between 800 and 1100 deg C. Heat treatments of thorium based Coleman mantles were carried out in a laboratory furnace within these ranges of temperatures for periods ranging from 2 minutes to 2 hours. The mantles were then viewed in a LEO S440 analytical SEM. Results at 800 deg C show a distinct change in surface morphology with increasing exposure time. At the shorter times (2-5 minutes) the surface was relatively smooth. With increased time periods (15 - 120 minutes) the surface was observed to have a large lumpy structure. At 1100 deg C the difference in surface morphology was not apparent between the shortest and longest times. The surface appears much smoother and no lumpy structure was observed. This suggests that when a mantle is operated at the higher temperature of 1100 deg C the structure of the Thorium oxide is quickly transformed into the known stronger amorphous form. This is taken as the observed smooth structure seen in the SEM images of the 1100 deg C samples. Thus the mantle is expected to be more resistant to mechanical shock and have increased durability. Practical field test results confirm these observations. The mantle on a lamp that is operating efficiently, burns brightly, will far outlast a mantle on an inefficient lamp which bums

  19. Efeitos bioestimulantes do laser de baixa potência no processo de reparo Biostimulation effects of low-power laser in the repair process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruthinéia Diógenes Alves Uchôa Lins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os lasers de baixa potência promovem efeitos biológicos benéficos, de caráter analgésico, antiinflamatório e cicatrizante, por meio de um fenômeno de bioestimulação. A radiação emitida pelo laser terapêutico afeta os processos metabólicos das células-alvo, produzindo efeitos bioestimulantes que resultam na ocorrência de eventos celulares e vasculares, os quais parecem interferir diretamente no processo de reparo. Este trabalho visa estudar o fenômeno da bioestimulação e destacar os principais efeitos bioestimulantes do laser de baixa potência na reparação tecidual.The wound healing process has always been an excellent subject for researchers. The use of low-power laser on wounds during the postoperative phase has increased the speed of the healing process. It has been implied that low power radiation affects cellular metabolic processes and promotes beneficial biological effects (analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and healing. Laser biostimulation appears to influence the behavior of the repair process. This paper aims at reviewing the most interesting aspects of the use of low-power laser in the tissue-repair process.

  20. Dating by the method of thermoluminescence of a prehistoric campfire found in the archaeological site of Baixa do Umbuzeiro, RN, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Renata L.; Santana, Sergio T.; Khoury, Helen J.; Sullasi, Henry L.; Borges, Fabio M.; Avila, Gabriela M.; Pessis, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    In this work it was carried out the dating of a prehistoric campfire found in the archaeological site of Baixa do Umbuzeiro - RN, by the method of thermoluminescence (TL). To perform the dating, were collected five sediment samples from different parts of the campfire. The accumulated dose in these samples was obtained by the method of regenerative doses in which the natural TL intensity is compared with the TL intensity of doses supplied in artificial laboratory through a Co-60 source. The determination of the annual dose rate was performed by the determination of the levels of U, Th and K in the samples by gamma spectrometry with germanium hyper pure detector (GeHP). The five values found for accumulated dose were evaluated by the statistical test ANOVA, having been discarded one of these. The accumulated dose average is 12.5 ± 1.5 Gy and the annual dose rate is 3.31 ± 0.60 mGy/year. These values provided an age of about 3776 ± 821 years for the campfire of Baixa do Umbuzeiro. (author)

  1. Avaliação cognitiva psicométrica e assistida de crianças com baixa visão moderada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Barros da Cunha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Provas assistidas, que incluem uma fase intermediária de mediação, podem promover uma percepção mais otimista do desempenho cognitivo. Este estudo analisou o desempenho de 12 crianças, com idade entre cinco e nove anos, com baixa visão moderada, em provas assistidas (Jogo de Perguntas de Busca para Crianças com Deficiência Visual -PBFG-DV ou Children Analogical Thinking Modifiability - CATM e uma psicométrica (Escala de Maturidade Mental Columbia - EMMC. Na EEMC, a mediana foi 68; no PBFG-DV, o perfil cognitivo foi ganhador e, no CATM, todas as quatro crianças em idade pré-escolar tiveram perfil de desempenho ganhador. Os tipos de ajuda mais utilizados pela examinadora foram a instrução e o feedback informativo, fornecidos desde a fase inicial das provas assistidas. Estas foram sensíveis para avaliar e diferenciar essas crianças que apresentaram baixa classificação na prova psicométrica, mostrando seu potencial de aprendizagem; porém, discute-se, ainda, a adequação do CATM para essa população.

  2. Cultivo sem solo do morangueiro Strawberry soilless cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Giménez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O morangueiro é uma cultura importante em vários países, principalmente nos Estados Unidos e na Europa, por suas características sensoriais, propriedades nutritivas e por sua rentabilidade. O cultivo comercial sem solo de morangueiro está bem desenvolvido na Europa, onde tem permitido um aumento da produtividade e qualidade da produção assim como a ampliação da oferta do produto ao longo do ano. Predomina o sistema aberto, em sacolas ou vasos com diferentes tipos de substratos, utilizando-se densidades de 8 a 12plantas m-2. As produtividades obtidas estão entre 5 e 10kg m-2. Para isolar as plantas do solo e facilitar o manejo da cultura, os vasos ou sacolas são suspensos a uma altura entre 0,8 e 1m da superfície do solo. A composição da solução nutritiva é variável, refletindo as diferentes condições produtivas. As mudas são produzidas principalmente em bandejas com substrato, a partir de pontas de estolões obtidas da multiplicação de plantas matrizes provenientes da propagação in vitro. No Brasil, o cultivo sem solo de morangueiro é ainda incipiente e os resultados produtivos e econômicos têm sido insatisfatórios, principalmente por falta de informações de pesquisas capazes de indicar sistemas apropriados de cultivo para as condições locais. É necessário desenvolver sistemas sustentáveis, preferencialmente fechados, combinando alta produtividade e elevada eficiência de utilização da água e dos nutrientes. No presente trabalho, são revisados os principais aspectos da produção em sistemas de cultivo sem solo de mudas e fruta de morangueiro. São descritos a produção de mudas, os sistemas e as soluções nutritivas empregadas em diferentes países. Ao final, são feitas inferências sobre a possibilidade de adoção e geração do sistema de cultivo sem solo apropriado para as condições brasileiras.Strawberry is a very important crop in Europe and USA due to its nutritional and sensorial

  3. Filler segmentation of SEM paper images based on mathematical morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Kbir, M; Benslimane, Rachid; Princi, Elisabetta; Vicini, Silvia; Pedemonte, Enrico

    2007-07-01

    Recent developments in microscopy and image processing have made digital measurements on high-resolution images of fibrous materials possible. This helps to gain a better understanding of the structure and other properties of the material at micro level. In this paper SEM image segmentation based on mathematical morphology is proposed. In fact, paper models images (Whatman, Murillo, Watercolor, Newsprint paper) selected in the context of the Euro Mediterranean PaperTech Project have different distributions of fibers and fillers, caused by the presence of SiAl and CaCO3 particles. It is a microscopy challenge to make filler particles in the sheet distinguishable from the other components of the paper surface. This objectif is reached here by using switable strutural elements and mathematical morphology operators.

  4. Elevated temperature transmission Kikuchi diffraction in the SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanta, Alice Bastos; Todeschini, Matteo; Burrows, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    heating associated with this system enables reliable TKD measurements at elevated temperatures without notable disturbance from infrared radiation. The dewetting of an Au thin film into Au nanoparticles upon heating is followed with orientation mapping in a temperature range between 20 °C and 900 °C....... The local thickness variation associated with the dewetting is observed qualitatively by observing the intensity of the transmitted beam, which decreases as the film thickness increases locally. The results of this study reveal that TKD is a well suited technique to study thin-film stability and solid state...... dewetting. Moreover, the outcome of this methodological study provides a baseline for further in-situ crystallographic studies of electron transparent samples in the SEM....

  5. Afasia global sem hemiparesia: AVC ou transtorno conversivo?

    OpenAIRE

    Negreiros,Daniel Philippi de; Fregni,Felipe; Scalco,Andréia Zavaloni

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXTO: A realização de diagnóstico neurológico e psiquiátrico em ambiente de emergência hospitalar com freqüência é uma tarefa complexa e exige colaboração interdisciplinar. Um dos diagnósticos diferenciais de doenças neurológicas é o transtorno conversivo, cuja característica principal é a presença de sintomas afetando funções motoras ou sensoriais, que sugerem desordem clínica ou neurológica, porém sem doença orgânica subjacente que explique o quadro. RELATO DE CASO: Os autores relatam o...

  6. SEM-EDX--a useful tool for forensic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadora, G.; Brozek-Mucha, Z.

    2003-01-01

    There are two main aims of forensic examination of the physical evidences. The first aim is comparison of the evidence with the reference material (called discrimination). The task is to find out whether they could have come from the same object. The second aim, when there is no comparative material available, is a classification of the evidence sample into a group of objects taking into account its specific chemical and physical properties. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) is a powerful tool for forensic scientists to classify and discriminate evidence material because they can simultaneously examine the morphology and the elemental composition of objects. Moreover, the obtained results could be enhanced using some methods of chemometric analysis. A few examples of problems related to the classification and discrimination of selected types of microtraces are presented

  7. Paciente com proptose ocular associado a mucocele etmoidal: apresentação clínica e tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Queiroz Cardoso Pinto

    Full Text Available Resumo Relato de um caso clínico de proptose ocular relacionado com mucocele etmoidal, o caso é raro e seu acometimento ocular não é comumente relacionado na literatura. Ressaltamos ainda sua apresentação clínica e o tratamento instituído. W.L.S, Paciente do sexo masculino, 27 anos procedente de Fortaleza-CE. Comparece ao ambulatório HUWC com queixa de baixa da acuidade visual percebida há 10 dias em olho direito (OD. Ao exame oftalmológico melhor acuidade visual corrigida de 20/200 OD e 20/20 olho esquerdo (OE, ausência de abdução e elevação do OD com ptose leve (distância margem reflexo 1-2 mm e diplopia ao olhar para direita. Proptose OD de aspecto axial de grau moderado (24mm. Biomicroscopia lâmpada de fenda sem alterações. Pressão intraocular: 18mmHg OD 12 mmHg OE. Fundo de olho: OD aspecto palidez discreta de disco, sem outras alterações e OE dentro da normalidade. Solicitada tomografia de crânio (TC que demonstrou presença de lesão arredondada em área do seio etmoidal penetrando parede óssea da órbita do OD sugestiva de mucocele etmoidal. Encaminhado para serviço de otorrinolaringologia do HUWC, sendo submetido a procedimento cirúrgico endoscópico etmoidectomia. Um mês após o procedimento cirúrgico a acuidade visual OD 20/25, movimentos oculares presentes e simétricos, ausência de diplopia e persistência de leve palidez em OD. Expansão da mucocele pode ocorrer ao longo de muitos anos ou rapidamente. Acometimento ocular com baixa da acuidade visual é incomum como primeiro sintoma, quando ocorre merece tratamento imediato. O tratamento cirúrgico é geralmente indicado no caso e deve ser instituído assim que possível para adequada recuperação visual.

  8. Comparative SEM analysis of nine F22 aligner cleaning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lombardo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The orthodontics industry has paid great attention to the aesthetics of orthodontic appliances, seeking to make them as invisible as possible. There are several advantages to clear aligner systems, including aesthetics, comfort, chairside time reduction, and the fact that they can be removed for meals and oral hygiene procedures. Methods Five patients were each given a series of F22 aligners, each to be worn for 14 days and nights, with the exception of meal and brushing times. Patients were instructed to clean each aligner using a prescribed strategy, and sections of the used aligners were observed under SEM. One grey-scale SEM image was saved per aligner in JPEG format with an 8-bit colour depth, and a total of 45 measurements on the grey scale (“Value” variable were made. This dataset was analysed statistically via repeated measures ANOVA to determine the effect of each of the nine cleaning strategies in each of the five patients. Results A statistically significant difference in the efficacy of the cleaning strategies was detected. Specifically, rinsing with water alone was significantly less efficacious, and a combination of cationic detergent solution and ultrasonication was significantly more efficacious than the other methods (p < 0.05. Conclusions Of the nine cleaning strategies examined, only that involving 5 min of ultrasonication at 42 k Hz combined with a 0.3% germicidal cationic detergent was observed to be statistically effective at removing the bacterial biofilm from the surface of F22 aligners.

  9. Willis PM 10-2.5 Precision Results, pdf has summary table and SEM images

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Precision data from the SEM and SEM images from the samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Peters, T., E. Sawvel, R. Willis, R. West,...

  10. Por que a elasticidade-preço das importações é baixa no Brasil? Evidências a partir das desagregações das importações por categorias de uso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Hamilton Matos dos Santos

    Full Text Available Resumo Estudos recentes indicam que a elasticidade-preço das importações brasileiras é baixa. Este trabalho procura racionalizar o referido resultado revisitando as estimativas das importações do país desagregadas por “categoria de uso”. Os resultados reportados sugerem que a baixa elasticidade-preço das importações agregadas reflete fundamentalmente a baixa elasticidade-preço das importações de combustíveis, bens intermediários e de alguns tipos de serviços - notadamente, transporte, aluguel de equipamentos e pagamentos de royalties - produtos que, somados, respondem por pouco menos de dois terços do total importado. Isso ocorre porque vários desses produtos têm pouca ou nenhuma possibilidade de substituição por similares nacionais, devido principalmente a deficiências estruturais na oferta nacional.

  11. Modelo de web semántica para universidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Abad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A raíz del estudio de estado actual de micrositios y repositorios en la Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena se encontró que su información carecía de semántica óptima y adecuada. Bajo estas circunstancias, se plantea entonces la necesidad de crear un modelo de estructura de web semántica para Universidades, el cual posteriormente fue aplicado a micrositios y repositorio digital de la UPSE, como caso de prueba. Parte de este proyecto incluye la instalación de módulos de software con sus respectivas configuraciones y la utilización de estándares de metadatos como DUBLIN CORE, para la mejora del SEO (optimización en motores de búsqueda; con ello se ha logrado la generación de metadatos estandarizados y la creación de políticas para la subida de información. El uso de metadatos transforma datos simples en estructuras bien organizadas que aportan información y conocimiento para generar resultados en buscadores web. Al culminar la implementación del modelo de web semántica es posible decir que la universidad ha mejorado su presencia y visibilidad en la web a través del indexamiento de información en diferentes motores de búsqueda y posicionamiento en la categorización de universidades y de repositorios de Webometrics (ranking que proporciona clasificación de universidades de todo el mundo.   Abstract After examining the current microsites and repositories situation in University, Peninsula of Santa Elena´s, it was found that information lacked optimal and appropriate semantic. Under these circumstances, there is a need to create a semantic web structure model for Universities, which was subsequently applied to UPSE´s microsites and digital repositories, as a test study case. Part of this project includes the installation of software modules with their respective configurations and the use of metadata standards such as DUBLIN CORE, to improve the SEO (Search Engine Optimization; with these applications, it was

  12. Multiple-Group Analysis Using the sem Package in the R System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evermann, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-group analysis in covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) is an important technique to ensure the invariance of latent construct measurements and the validity of theoretical models across different subpopulations. However, not all SEM software packages provide multiple-group analysis capabilities. The sem package for the R…

  13. Uso combinado da laserterapia de baixa potência e da inibição da ciclooxigenase-2 na reepitelização de ferida incisional em pele de camundongos: um estudo pré-clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Santuzzi,Cíntia Helena; Buss,Hygor Franca; Pedrosa,Diego França; Freire,Martha Oliveira Vieira Moniz; Nogueira,Breno Valentim; Gonçalves,Washington Luiz Silva

    2011-01-01

    FUNDAMENTOS: A laserterapia de baixa potência e os inibidores seletivos da ciclooxigenase-2 (ICOX2) vem sendo muito utilizados para modular a resposta inflamatória, entretanto, os seus efeitos na reepitelização de feridas não são bem compreendidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos isolados e combinados da laserterapia de baixa potência e da ICOX2 na reepitelização de ferida incisional na pele de camundongos. MÉTODO: Foi induzida uma ferida de 1 cm no dorso de cada camundongo, que foram divididos ...

  14. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM: Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Martin Hald, PhD

    2018-03-01

    Hald GM, Stulhofer A, Lange T, et al. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM: Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation. Sex Med 2018;6:30–38.

  15. Quality control of clinker products by SEM and XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziad Abu Kaddourah; Khairun Azizi

    1996-01-01

    The microstructure and chemical properties of industrial Portland cement clinkers have been examined by SEM and XRF methods to establish the nature of the clinkers and how variations in the clinker characteristics can be used to control the clinker quality. The clinker nodules were found to show differences in the chemical composition and microstructure between the inner and outer parts of the clinker nodules. Microstructure studies of industrial Portland cement clinker have shown that the outer part of the nodules are enriched in silicate more than the inner part. There is better crystallization and larger alite crystal size in the outer part than in the inner part. The alite crystal size varied between 16.2 -46.12 μ m. The clinker chemical composition was found to affect the residual >45 μ m, where a higher belite content causes an increase in the residual >45 μ m in the the cement product and will cause a decrease in the concrete strength of the cement product. The aluminate and ferrite crystals and the microcracks within the alite crystal are clear in some clinker only. The quality of the raw material preparation, burning and cooling stages can be controlled using the microstructure of the clinker product

  16. Semáforo de habilidad digital para estudiantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Organista Sandoval

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El vertiginoso cambio tecnológico y el creciente uso de dispositivos portátiles en el entorno educativo universitario han propiciado una carga importante de mediación tecnológica del proceso educativo. Ante este contexto, el reto es lograr que los estudiantes aprovechen el potencial pedagógico que ofrecen estas herramientas. Para ello, el estudiante debe contar con las habilidades digitales para utilizar eficientemente las tecnologías digitales. Se parte de la identificación de las habilidades en torno al manejo de comunicación, información, organización y dispositivos con una orientación educativa. Los resultados mostraron que 68% de los estudiantes tienen un nivel aceptable de habilidad digital, 25% regular y un 7% insuficiente. El instrumento utilizado identifica las habilidades digitales que requieren mejorarse y se muestran mediante una señalización similar a la de un semáforo. En la medida en que se identifiquen las habilidades digitales que se requieran mejorar, se espera que la comunidad académica se apropie y aplique la tecnología digital en la educación, de cara a los desafíos de la formación de recursos humanos que la sociedad actual demanda.

  17. stainless steel by SEM-XRD and image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Constanzo-R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un análisis cualitativ o de la distribución de un electrodepósito de cobre en el inter ior de electrodos porosos (EP de acero inoxidable y carbono grafito. Para ello, se reali zaron pruebas de electrodepositación de cobre a nivel de labora torio, con un posterior análisis de cortes de muestras de acero y grafito vía Microscopía Estereoscópica, Microscopía SEM-DRX y Análisis de Imagen, los cuales mostraron que el cobre no se deposita en forma uniforme al interior del electrodo. En el electrodo de acero, la penetra ción del depósito en el espesor fue alrededor de 50%, mientras que para el grafito a lrededor de 90%. En forma general, se observó un aumento de la cantidad de depósito hacia el extremo frente al ánodo y con sitios de difer ente crecimiento en depósito de cobre. Esto demuestra una distr ibución de corriente y potencial, función de parámetros físicos de electrodo y de la s características fisicoquímicas e hidrodinámicos del electroli to.

  18. SEM Based CARMA Time Series Modeling for Arbitrary N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Johan H L; Voelkle, Manuel C; Driver, Charles C

    2018-01-01

    This article explains in detail the state space specification and estimation of first and higher-order autoregressive moving-average models in continuous time (CARMA) in an extended structural equation modeling (SEM) context for N = 1 as well as N > 1. To illustrate the approach, simulations will be presented in which a single panel model (T = 41 time points) is estimated for a sample of N = 1,000 individuals as well as for samples of N = 100 and N = 50 individuals, followed by estimating 100 separate models for each of the one-hundred N = 1 cases in the N = 100 sample. Furthermore, we will demonstrate how to test the difference between the full panel model and each N = 1 model by means of a subject-group-reproducibility test. Finally, the proposed analyses will be applied in an empirical example, in which the relationships between mood at work and mood at home are studied in a sample of N = 55 women. All analyses are carried out by ctsem, an R-package for continuous time modeling, interfacing to OpenMx.

  19. Automated SEM Modal Analysis Applied to the Diogenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. E.; Spilde, M. N.; Papike, James J.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of volume proportions of minerals, or modal analysis, is routinely accomplished by point counting on an optical microscope, but the process, particularly on brecciated samples such as the diogenite meteorites, is tedious and prone to error by misidentification of very small fragments, which may make up a significant volume of the sample. Precise volume percentage data can be gathered on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizing digital imaging and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). This form of automated phase analysis reduces error, and at the same time provides more information than could be gathered using simple point counting alone, such as particle morphology statistics and chemical analyses. We have previously studied major, minor, and trace-element chemistry of orthopyroxene from a suite of diogenites. This abstract describes the method applied to determine the modes on this same suite of meteorites and the results of that research. The modal abundances thus determined add additional information on the petrogenesis of the diogenites. In addition, low-abundance phases such as spinels were located for further analysis by this method.

  20. Evaluation of muscle regeneration in aged animals after treatment with low-level laser therapy Avaliação da regeneração muscular em animais idosos após tratamento com laser de baixa intensidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pertille

    2012-12-01

    ável para a regeneração muscular. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do tratamento com laser de baixa intensidade sobre a regeneração muscular de modelos experimentais idosos após contusão. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 25 ratos machos, com 18 meses de idade, divididos em três grupos: grupo controle (CT, sem intervenção; grupo lesão (LE, com contusão muscular e sem tratamento e grupo laser (LA, com contusão muscular e tratado com laser de baixa intensidade, 830 nm, 30 mW e 4 J/cm². A contusão foi realizada no músculo tibial anterior, e as amostras coletadas após sete e 21 sessões de tratamento. O músculo foi designado às técnicas de Microscopia de Luz e Immunoblotting. RESULTADOS: Após 21 dias de tratamento, houve redução significativa na área de inflamação/regeneração no grupo LA 21 comparado ao grupo LE 21. Na área de secção transversal das fibras em processo de regeneração, não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos LA e LE. A análise molecular evidenciou que o conteúdo de MyoD apresentou redução significativa no grupo LE 21 em relação ao CT. O conteúdo de Miogenina exibiu aumento no LE 21 comparado ao CT e, por fim, o conteúdo de TGF-β1 do grupo LE 21 aumentou em relação ao grupo CT. CONCLUSÃO: Para os parâmetros utilizados, o laser demonstrou eficácia na regeneração muscular em animais idosos somente por meio do seu efeito anti-inflamatório.

  1. Baixa Renda: O Consumo Simbólico e o Comércio Informal de Acessórios Femininos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Domingues Michelatto Natt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Para compreender mais do universo do consumo simbólico, foi realizada uma pesquisa sobre o consumo de acessórios femininos por mulheres de baixa renda. As participantes foram revendedoras ambulantes e suas clientes. Sob a perspectiva do consumo simbólico foi possível observar alguns aspectos comuns ao consumo dessa classe de mulheres que recorrem às suas experiências de consumo para relacionar-se no universo social e marcar sua presença nele. Em termos gerenciais essa pesquisa se faz importante porque apresenta algumas peculiaridades desse processo de consumo, revelando informações que podem contribuir para a avaliação das estratégias de mercado.

  2. Efeitos do revenimento realizado a baixa temperatura na resistência ao impacto em aços carbono e ligados temperados

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Bruno Ozi Silva Rosalin de

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho tem como principal objetivo a determinação do comportamento mecânico, mais especificamente a resistência ao impacto, de estruturas martensíticas baseadas em aços ao carbono e ligados. A preocupação principal é a resposta dessas ligas quando revenidas em temperaturas baixas (inferior a 180°C). Foram realizados os tratamentos térmicos de têmpera em água e óleo com o intuito de verificar a severidade do meio através dos ensaios de dureza, impacto, análise micrográfica e fractográfi...

  3. Simulation of FIB-SEM images for analysis of porous microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prill, Torben; Schladitz, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Focused ion beam nanotomography-scanning electron microscopy tomography yields high-quality three-dimensional images of materials microstructures at the nanometer scale combining serial sectioning using a focused ion beam with SEM. However, FIB-SEM tomography of highly porous media leads to shine-through artifacts preventing automatic segmentation of the solid component. We simulate the SEM process in order to generate synthetic FIB-SEM image data for developing and validating segmentation methods. Monte-Carlo techniques yield accurate results, but are too slow for the simulation of FIB-SEM tomography requiring hundreds of SEM images for one dataset alone. Nevertheless, a quasi-analytic description of the specimen and various acceleration techniques, including a track compression algorithm and an acceleration for the simulation of secondary electrons, cut down the computing time by orders of magnitude, allowing for the first time to simulate FIB-SEM tomography. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. GAGG:ce single crystalline films: New perspective scintillators for electron detection in SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, Jan; Lalinský, Ondřej; Hanuš, Martin; Onderišinová, Zuzana; Kelar, Jakub; Kučera, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Single crystal scintillators are frequently used for electron detection in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We report gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG:Ce) single crystalline films as a new perspective scintillators for the SEM. For the first time, the epitaxial garnet films were used in a practical application: the GAGG:Ce scintillator was incorporated into a SEM scintillation electron detector and it showed improved image quality. In order to prove the GAGG:Ce quality accurately, the scintillation properties were examined using electron beam excitation and compared with frequently used scintillators in the SEM. The results demonstrate excellent emission efficiency of the GAGG:Ce single crystalline films together with their very fast scintillation decay useful for demanding SEM applications. - Highlights: • First practical application of epitaxial garnet films demonstrated in SEM. • Improved image quality of SEM equipped with GAGG:Ce single crystalline thin film scintillator. • Scintillation properties of GAGG:Ce films compared with standard bulk crystal scintillators.

  5. Efeito da aplicação de baixa temperatura em plantas de macieira sobre o crescimento durante a aclimatização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Jonny Everson Scherwinski

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da aplicação de baixa temperatura (4±1ºC sobre o crescimento das brotações micropropagadas de um porta-enxerto de macieira (Malus prunifolia Borkh., cv.Marubakaido, durante o processo de aclimatização. Durante as duas primeiras semanas de aclimatização, as plântulas foram transferidas para uma câmara de crescimento, e submetidas à temperatura de 4±1ºC por 0, 240, 480, 720, 960, 1.200 e 1.440 horas, sob fotoperíodo de 16 horas e radiação de 5µEm-2s-1. Em seguida, foram conduzidas para casa de vegetação e avaliadas por um período de 90 dias. Ao final do experimento, avaliou-se, ainda, o comprimento dos entrenós, o número de gemas e o peso da matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes das plantas. A porcentagem de sobrevivência também foi avaliada após um mês de permanência das plantas em casa de vegetação. Houve aumento na altura das plantas e no comprimento dos entrenós, proporcional ao tempo de sua permanência sob baixa temperatura. O frio provocou decréscimo no peso seco das raízes, porém não afetou a sobrevivência das plantas, o número de gemas e o peso da matéria seca da parte aérea.

  6. Plantas daninhas de uma pastagem cultivada de baixa produtividade no Nordeste Paraense Weeds of pasture low yielded areas of northeastern in the Pará State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo E. B. Mascarenhas

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente existem 23 milhões de hectares de pastagens cultivadas em área originalmente sob floresta na Amazônia. Desse total, em torno de cinco milhões de hectares encontram-se com baixa produtividade ou em vias de degradação, infestados de plantas daninhas. Com o objetivo de identificar as plantas daninhas que ocorrem em área de pastagem de baixa produtividade em Terra Alta, PA ( 0º 58” S e 47º 52” W. Gr. , foram efetuados levantamentos botânicos qualitativos, pelo método visual e coleta de todas as espécies presentes na área. Foram registradas 34 famílias, representadas por 118 espécies, destacando-se as famílias Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae e Asteraceae com 21, 16, 8, 7, 6 e 6 espécies, respectivamente. As plantas daninhas consideradas mais importantes foram: Borreira verticillata, Rolandra argentea, Desmodium canum, Davilla rugosa, Vismia guianensis e Imperata brasiliensis.Presently there are 23 million hectares of cultivated pasture in forest ecosystem of the Amazon Region. From that area, 5 million hectares are low yield or in some stage of degradation and invaded by weeds. Aiming to identify the weed species that occur in degraded pastures of Terra Alta, state of Pará (0º 58” S e 47º 52” W. Gr. , a botanical survey was carried out, colleting samples of all weed species presents in the area. Thirty-four families were recorded represented by 118 species, being Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae and Asteraceae the most important families with 21, 16, 8, 7, 6 and 6 species respectively. The most important weed species were: Borreira verticillata, Rolandra argentea, Desmodium canum, Davilla rugosa, Vismia guianensis e Imperata brasiliensis.

  7. Causas de cegueira e baixa visão em crianças Causes of blindness and low vision in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ribeiro Brito

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar e analisar as principais causas preveníveis e tratáveis da cegueira e baixa visão na infância. Método: 174 crianças de 3 instituições de duas cidades brasileiras (Salvador e São Paulo foram examinadas e os dados de cada criança foram registrados em protocolo padronizado pela OMS. Resultados: De acordo com a OMS, encontrou-se cegueira ou baixa visão em 82% das crianças. Entre as moléstias preveníveis e tratáveis, a retinopatia da prematuridade e o glaucoma foram as mais freqüentes. Conclusão: O presente estudo piloto demonstrou características similares às encontradas em outros países em desenvolvimento, onde pelo menos 50% das doenças são preveníveis ou tratáveis com o atual desenvolvimento científico.Purpose: To identify and analyze the major preventable and treatable causes of loss of vision in children. Methods: Children (174 from three institutions were examined in two Brazilians cities (Salvador and São Paulo and data were recorded acording to the WHO protocol. Results: According to WHO visual impairment was found in 82% of the children. The most frequent preventable and treatable ocular diseases were retinopathy of prematurity and glaucoma. Conclusions: This pilot study shows similar charac-teristics to other developing countries, where at least 50% of ocular diseases are preventable or treatable with today's knowledge.

  8. Prolongamentos na fala de adultos com e sem gagueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmila Bento da Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: realizar uma análise quantitativa e qualitativa dos prolongamentos de adultos com e sem gagueira. Métodos: os participantes foram divididos em: Grupo de Pesquisa (GP, 15 adultos com gagueira e Grupo Controle (GC, 15 fluentes. Os procedimentos utilizados foram: avaliação da fluência, Instrumento de Gravidade da Gagueira e análises quantitativa e qualitativa dos prolongamentos. Resultados: GP mostrou maior número de prolongamentos não hesitativos, enquanto que GC mostrou maior ocorrência de prolongamentos hesitativos em relação ao total das disfluências. Prolongamentos não hesitativos ocorreram com maior frequência na palavra inicial e monossilábica, bem como na posição medial da frase para GP. Em relação à tensão muscular e duração, observou-se diferença apenas para a tensão muscular nos prolongamentos não hesitativos com maior média de ocorrência para GP. Conclusão: os prolongamentos não hesitativos ocorreram com maior frequência no GP, nas palavras iniciais, monossílabos e na posição medial da frase. Qualitativamente a tensão muscular foi uma característica típica dos prolongamentos não hesitativos no GP. Com relação aos prolongamentos hesitativos houve semelhança entre os adultos dos dois grupos quanto à frequência em relação ao total da fala, a posição dos prolongamentos nas palavras e nas frases e nos aspectos qualitativos, relacionados a tensão muscular e duração.

  9. Somatização em migrantes de baixa renda no Brasil Somatization in Brazil's low-income migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antônio de Mello Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo compreender o entrelaçamento da cultura com reações psicológicas de indivíduos expostos ao processo de migração e estabelecer relações entre o fenômeno da migração e adoecimento psicossomático. O enfoque metodológico é essencialmente qualitativo, baseado em representações sociais de pacientes migrantes e da equipe de funcionários e profissionais de um centro de saúde do município próximo de Campinas. A análise demonstrou que a migração era percebida negativamente, como uma causadora de doenças quando havia perda do emprego/renda e fragmentação de laços familiares e comunitários. Se tais elementos estavam estabilizados, fatores estressantes do cotidiano permaneciam mascarados (mantidos fora da consciência e a piora da saúde não era atribuída à migração ou à qualidade de vida. O problema da migração e doença, pela perspectiva do centro de saúde, incluía abordagem terapêutica exclusivamente biológica sem outra perspectiva que contribuísse para os sujeitos assimilarem as novas condições de vida num novo ambiente sócio-cultural.This paper aims to debate relations between culture and psychological reactions of individuals exposed to the process of migration and to establish relations between migration and psychosomatic sickening. The methodological approach is essentially qualitative and based on social representations of migrant patients, staff and professionals of a public health unit near Campinas. The analysis demonstrated that migration was negatively experienced as producing ailments when loss of job/income, break of family/community ties was involved. When these elements were stabilized, stressful factors of daily life remained covered (out of conscience and worsening in health condition was attributed neither to migration nor to life quality. The problem of migration and ailments, from the health center perspective, involved merely biological procedures and did not

  10. CD-SEM real time bias correction using reference metrology based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukraintsev, V.; Banke, W.; Zagorodnev, G.; Archie, C.; Rana, N.; Pavlovsky, V.; Smirnov, V.; Briginas, I.; Katnani, A.; Vaid, A.

    2018-03-01

    Accuracy of patterning impacts yield, IC performance and technology time to market. Accuracy of patterning relies on optical proximity correction (OPC) models built using CD-SEM inputs and intra die critical dimension (CD) control based on CD-SEM. Sub-nanometer measurement uncertainty (MU) of CD-SEM is required for current technologies. Reported design and process related bias variation of CD-SEM is in the range of several nanometers. Reference metrology and numerical modeling are used to correct SEM. Both methods are slow to be used for real time bias correction. We report on real time CD-SEM bias correction using empirical models based on reference metrology (RM) data. Significant amount of currently untapped information (sidewall angle, corner rounding, etc.) is obtainable from SEM waveforms. Using additional RM information provided for specific technology (design rules, materials, processes) CD extraction algorithms can be pre-built and then used in real time for accurate CD extraction from regular CD-SEM images. The art and challenge of SEM modeling is in finding robust correlation between SEM waveform features and bias of CD-SEM as well as in minimizing RM inputs needed to create accurate (within the design and process space) model. The new approach was applied to improve CD-SEM accuracy of 45 nm GATE and 32 nm MET1 OPC 1D models. In both cases MU of the state of the art CD-SEM has been improved by 3x and reduced to a nanometer level. Similar approach can be applied to 2D (end of line, contours, etc.) and 3D (sidewall angle, corner rounding, etc.) cases.

  11. Processamento mínimo de uvas de mesa sem semente Seedless table grapes minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Hur Mattiuz

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os aspectos qualitativos de uvas de mesa apirênicas (sem sementes quando submetidas ao processamento mínimo e armazenadas sob refrigeração. Para tanto, foram utilizadas uvas da cultivar BRS Morena e da Seleção Avançada nº 8, produzidas na Embrapa Uva e Vinho/Estação Experimental de Viticultura Tropical (da Embrapa de Jales. Os cachos, depois de higienizados, imersos em água clorada a 300 mg de cloro.L-1 por 5 min., foram mantidos em câmara fria, a 12ºC, por 12 h. Pessoas treinadas e com proteção adequada procederam à degrana dos cachos e ao posterior enxágüe das bagas com água clorada (20 mg.L-1 a 12ºC. Depois de escorrido o excesso de água, as bagas foram acondicionadas em bandejas de tereftalato de polietileno (PET transparente com tampa e com capacidade para 500 mL. Cada unidade, contendo 200 g de bagas, foi armazenada a 2,5 ± 1ºC e 88% UR por at�� 36 dias. Avaliaram-se a perda de massa fresca, a evolução da aparência, a coloração e os teores de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, e de acidez titulável (AT. Nas condições do experimento, os produtos minimamente processados da cv. BRS Morena e da Seleção 8 apresentaram baixa perda acumulada de massa fresca (0,16%. O produto da cv. Morena apresentou-se mais escuro (L = 25,04 e mais arroxeado (h° = 332,88 que o da Seleção 8 (L = 29,86 e h° = 345,11, propiciando-lhe melhor qualidade visual. O suco da 'BRS Morena' apresentou maiores teores de SST (22,17 °Brix e menores para a AT (0,56 %, o que resultou em uma relação SST/AT maior e melhor (39,76 que o da Seleção 8 (18,81. A cv. BRS Morena também apresentou boa manutenção da aparência e, portanto, da qualidade comercial, por 33 dias a 2,5°C, superior ao obtido para a Seleção 8 (24 dias.This work evaluated the qualitative aspects of apirenic table grapes (seedless, cv. BRS Morena and Selection 8, when minimally processed and cold stored. Fruits were immersed in a

  12. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate rapidly remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107, and SEM2(49-107 seminal amyloid fibrils

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    Laura M. Castellano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Semen harbors amyloid fibrils formed by proteolytic fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 and PAP85-120 and semenogelins (SEM1 and SEM2 that potently enhance HIV infectivity. Amyloid but not soluble forms of these peptides enhance HIV infection. Thus, agents that remodel these amyloid fibrils could prevent HIV transmission. Here, we confirm that the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, slowly remodels fibrils formed by PAP248-286 termed SEVI (semen derived enhancer of viral infection and also exerts a direct anti-viral effect. We elucidate for the first time that EGCG remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107, and SEM2(49-107 fibrils more rapidly than SEVI fibrils. We establish EGCG as the first small molecule that can remodel all four classes of seminal amyloid. The combined anti-amyloid and anti-viral properties of EGCG could have utility in preventing HIV transmission.

  13. A Proposal on the Quantitative Homogeneity Analysis Method of SEM Images for Material Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jung-Hoon; Cho, In-Hak; Park, Hwan Seo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a method to inspect the surface microstructure of materials. The SEM uses electron beams for imaging high magnifications of material surfaces; therefore, various chemical analyses can be performed from the SEM images. Therefore, it is widely used for the material inspection, chemical characteristic analysis, and biological analysis. For the nuclear criticality analysis field, it is an important parameter to check the homogeneity of the compound material for using it in the nuclear system. In our previous study, the SEM was tried to use for the homogeneity analysis of the materials. In this study, a quantitative homogeneity analysis method of SEM images is proposed for the material inspections. The method is based on the stochastic analysis method with the information of the grayscales of the SEM images.

  14. The Antiphagocytic Activity of SeM of Streptococcus equi Requires Capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, John F; Suther, Pranav; Velineni, Sridhar; Artiushin, Sergey C

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to phagocytosis is a crucial virulence property of Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi; Se), the cause of equine strangles. The contribution and interdependence of capsule and SeM to killing in equine blood and neutrophils were investigated in naturally occurring strains of Se. Strains CF32, SF463 were capsule and SeM positive, strains Lex90, Lex93 were capsule negative and SeM positive and strains Se19, Se1-8 were capsule positive and SeM deficient. Phagocytosis and killing of Se19, Se1-8, Lex90 and Lex93 in equine blood and by neutrophils suspended in serum were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) greater compared to CF32 and SF463. The results indicate capsule and SeM are both required for resistance to phagocytosis and killing and that the anti-phagocytic property of SeM is greatly reduced in the absence of capsule.

  15. A Proposal on the Quantitative Homogeneity Analysis Method of SEM Images for Material Inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Chang Ho; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Cho, In-Hak; Park, Hwan Seo

    2015-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a method to inspect the surface microstructure of materials. The SEM uses electron beams for imaging high magnifications of material surfaces; therefore, various chemical analyses can be performed from the SEM images. Therefore, it is widely used for the material inspection, chemical characteristic analysis, and biological analysis. For the nuclear criticality analysis field, it is an important parameter to check the homogeneity of the compound material for using it in the nuclear system. In our previous study, the SEM was tried to use for the homogeneity analysis of the materials. In this study, a quantitative homogeneity analysis method of SEM images is proposed for the material inspections. The method is based on the stochastic analysis method with the information of the grayscales of the SEM images

  16. Application of SEM and EDX in studying biomineralization in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Kirilak, Yaowanuj

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes protocols using formalin-acetic acid-alcohol (FAA) to fix plant tissues for studying biomineralization by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and qualitative energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). Specimen preparation protocols for SEM and EDX mainly include fixation, dehydration, critical point drying (CPD), mounting, and coating. Gold-coated specimens are used for SEM imaging, while gold- and carbon-coated specimens are prepared for qualitative X-ray microanalyses separately to obtain complementary information on the elemental compositions of biominerals. During the specimen preparation procedure for SEM, some biominerals may be dislodged or scattered, making it difficult to determine their accurate locations, and light microscopy is used to complement SEM studies. Specimen preparation protocols for light microscopy generally include fixation, dehydration, infiltration and embedding with resin, microtome sectioning, and staining. In addition, microwave processing methods are adopted here to speed up the specimen preparation process for both SEM and light microscopy.

  17. Armazenamento da maçã cv. golden delicious em atmosfera controlada com altas concentrações de CO2 e ultra-baixas de O2 Controlled atmosphere storage of golden delicious apples with high CO2 and ulo concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de altas concentrações de CO2, e ultra-baixas de O2, sobre as qualidades fisico-químicas, distúrbios fisiológicos e podridões durante o armazenamento em atmosfera controlada (AC de maçãs da cv. 'Golden Delicious'. Os frutos foram armazenados nas temperaturas de -0,5°C e +0,5°C e umidade relativa do ar de 97%. As condições de AC foram 1.0% de O2, e 6.0% de CO2; 1,5% de O2, e 6,0% de CO2; 1,0% de O2, e 4,0% de CO2, 2.0% de O2, e 4.0% de CO2; 3,0% de O2, e 4,0% de CO2, Os parâmetros avaliados foram: firmeza da polpa, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, escaldadura, degenerescência interna e podridões. As avaliações foram realizadas em dois momentos: na abertura das câmaras (8,5 meses de armazenamento e após 14 dias (7 dias em armazenamento refrigerado e 7 dias em temperatura ambiente a 23°C. Em concentrações ultra-baixa de O2, (1% combinado com 4% de CO2, a maçã 'Golden Delicious' apresentou uma melhor manutenção das qualidades fisico-químicas após longo período de armazenamento sem apresentar sintomas de fermentação. Concentrações de 6% de CO2, com baixas de O2 na temperatura de +0,5°C, não causou danos aos frutos, porém na temperatura de -0,5"C houve degenerescência interna e escaldadura superficial, sendo a temperatura de +0,5°C mais indicada para a cv. Golden Delicious'.The experiment was conducted with the aim to evaluate the effects of the high CO2, and ultra-low O2, (ULO concentrations on the fruit quality and incidence of physiological disorders and rots during controlled atmosphere (CA storage of 'Golden Delicious'. Fruits were stored at-0.5°C and +0.5°C, with 97% relative humidity. The CA conditions were: 1.0% of O2, and 6.0% of CO2,.1.5% of O2, and 6.0% of CO2; 1.0% of O2, and 4.0% of CO2,; 2.0% of O2, and 4.0% of CO2,; 3.0% of O2, and 4.0% of CO2,. After 8.5 months of storage and 14 days after chamber opening (seven days of

  18. Comparison of SEM and VPSEM imaging techniques with respect to Streptococcus mutans biofilm topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kathryn; Delben, Juliana; Bromage, Timothy G; Duarte, Simone

    2014-01-01

    The study compared images of mature Streptococcus mutans biofilms captured at increasing magnification to determine which microscopy method is most acceptable for imaging the biofilm topography and the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). In vitro S. mutans biofilms were imaged using (1) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which requires a dehydration process; (2) SEM and ruthenium red (SEM-RR), which has been shown to support the EPS of biofilms during the SEM dehydration; and (3) variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM), which does not require the intensive dehydration process of SEM. The dehydration process and high chamber vacuum of both SEM techniques devastated the biofilm EPS, removed supporting structures, and caused cracking on the biofilm surface. The VPSEM offered the most comprehensive representation of the S. mutans biofilm morphology. VPSEM provides similar contrast and focus as the SEM, but the procedure is far less time-consuming, and the use of hazardous chemicals associated with SEM dehydration protocol is avoided with the VPSEM. The inaccurate representations of the biofilm EPS in SEM experimentation is a possible source of inaccurate data and impediments in the study of S. mutans biofilms. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potencial evocado miogênico vestibular a baixas frequências de estimulação Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials using low frequency stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cabral de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Os potenciais evocados miogênicos vestibulares são reflexos vestíbulo-cervicais, decorrentes da estimulação do sáculo com sons de forte intensidade. São necessários parâmetros de normalidade para indivíduos jovens normais, utilizando-se estímulos a baixas frequências, as quais configuram a região de maior sensibilidade desse órgão sensorial. OBJETIVO: Realizar normatização do potencial evocado miogênico vestibular para baixas frequências de estimulação. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Captou-se o potencial evocado miogênico vestibular em 160 orelhas, no músculo esternocleidomastoideo, de forma ipsilateral, por meio da promediação de 200 tone bursts, frequência de 250 Hz, intensidade de 95 dB NAn. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo de coorte contemporânea com corte transversal. RESULTADOS: Aplicando-se o teste T de Student ou o Teste de Mann-Whitney, não foi constatada diferença significativa para parâmetros do potencial evocado miogênico vestibular entre os gêneros, para p Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are vestibulocervical reflexes resulting from sacculus stimulation with strong intensity sounds. Normality parameters are necessary for young normal individuals, using low frequency stimuli, which configure the most sensitive region of this sensory organ. AIM: To establish vestibular evoked myogenic potential standards for low frequency stimulation. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Vestibular evoked myogenic potential was captured from 160 ears, in the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle, using 200 averaged tone-burst stimuli, at 250 Hz, with an intensity of 95 dB NAn. CASE STUDY: Clinical observational cross-sectional. RESULTS: Neither the student's t-test nor the Mann-Whitney test showed a significant difference in latency or vestibular evoked myogenic potential amplitudes, for p <; 0.05. Irrespective of gender, we found latencies of p13-n23 and p13-n23 interpeaks of 13.84 ms (± 1.41, 23.81 ms (±1.99 and 10.62 ms (± 6.56, respectively

  20. Transmissividade a radiação solar do polietileno de baixa densidade utilizado em estufas Solar radiation transmissivity through low density polyethylene used in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Adeli Buriol

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a transmissividade à radiação solar do polietileno de baixa densidade utilizado em estufas. O experimento foi conduzido em uma estufa tipo Capela com dimensões de 10m x 25m, coberta com polietileno transparente de baixa densidade, com espessura de 100µm e aditivado com anti-UV, instalada no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS - Brasil. A radiação solar global diária incidente no interior e exterior da estufa foi medida no período de julho de 1991 a janeiro de 1992 e também a fração difusa da radiação solar em dias com diferentes condições atmosféricas e de condensação no filme plástico durante o período de maio a julho de 1993. A transmissividade média da radiação solar global foi de 56,2% nas primeiras horas do dia e de 81,3% nas horas próximas ao meio-dia. A fração difusa da radiação solar global foi mais elevada no interior da estufa do que no exterior, evidenciando o efeito dispersante do plástico e da condensação do vapor d'água na superfície interna do filme.The transmissivity of the solar radiation by polyethylene cover used in plastic greenhouses was evaluated in the Central Region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The study was carried out inside a 10m x 25m greenhouse covered with low density transparent polyethylene with 100µm thickness, located at Federal University of Santa Maria. Incoming global solar radiation inside and outside was measured daily dunng July, 1991 to January, 1992. The effect of polyethylene cover on diffuse solar radiation was determined dunng 1993 year. The average transmissivity of global solar radiation was 56.2% early in the moming and 81.3% at near noonday. Diffuse solar radiation proportion was higher inside than outside the greenhouse and enhanced when water condenses on the inner surface of the film.

  1. Cirurgia de revascularização coronariana esquerda sem CEC e sem manuseio da aorta em pacientes acima de 75 anos: análise das mortalidades imediata e a médio prazo e das complicações neurológicas no pós-operatório imediato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Glauco LOBO FILHO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A circulação extracorpórea (CEC e o manuseio da aorta ascendente (MAA estão associados a alta incidência de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC na cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (RM em pacientes idosos. Esta complicação deve-se, sobretudo, ao MAA, por ocasião do pinçamento e despinçamento, quer para isolamento do coração do circuito de CEC, quer para realização das anastomoses dos enxertos na aorta ascendente. OBJETIVOS: Verificar mortalidades imediata e a médio prazo e a ocorrência de AVC no pós-operatório imediato (POI em pacientes acima de 75 anos submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do sistema coronariano esquerdo (SCE, sem CEC e sem MAA. MÉTODO: De janeiro de 2000 a abril de 2002, 40 pacientes acima de 75 anos (média 79,1 anos foram submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do SCE, com enxerto de artéria torácica interna esquerda (ATIE para a artéria descendente anterior (DA, e enxerto(s de veia safena magna oriundo(s da ATIE para outro(s ramo(s da coronária esquerda (enxerto composto, sem CEC e sem MAA. Houve predominância do sexo masculino (67,5%. Foram realizados 89 enxertos (média 2,22 pontes por paciente, sendo 40 (44,94% de ATIE e 49 (55,06% de veia safena. A ocorrência de AVC foi avaliada por exames clínico e neurológico. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada ocorrência de AVC no grupo estudado. Não houve óbitos no POI. CONCLUSÃO: A cirurgia de revascularização do SCE em pacientes acima de 75 anos sem CEC e sem MAA pode ser realizada sistematicamente de modo a evitar a ocorrência de AVC, com baixa mortalidade.INTRODUCTION: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and Ascending Aorta manipulation (AAM are associated with a high incidence of stroke in coronary surgery in patients older than 75 years. This complication is due, mostly, to the handling of the aorta by the time of the cross-clamping, either for heart isolation from CPB, or to perform saphenous vein graft anastomosis to the

  2. Treinamento em natação com baixa intensidade não protege músculo esquelético contra lesões induzidas por exercício exaustivo em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Enquanto o exercício aeróbico regular promove adaptações benéficas ao músculo esquelético, o exercício físico exaustivo induz lesões musculares. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se um programa de natação com baixa intensidade é capaz de proteger músculos esqueléticos contra lesões induzidas por exercício exaustivo. Ratos Wistar (peso: 376,50 ± 4,36g; idade: 90 dias foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos: controle sedentário (CS; sedentário submetido a teste de exaustão (SE; treinado em natação (TN; treinado em natação submetido a teste de exaustão (TNE. Animais dos grupos TN e TNE foram submetidos a um programa de natação sem sobrecarga por 90 minutos/dia, cinco dias/semana, durante 17 semanas. Após este período, os grupos SE e TNE foram submetidos a um teste de exaustão em natação. Após eutanásia, fragmentos dos músculos sóleo e reto femoral foram coletados e submetidos à análise histológica e de proteínas de choque térmico (HSP70. Os resultados mostraram que o tempo até a exaustão foi maior no grupo TNE que no SE (125,0 ± 6,0 vs. 90,0 ± 8,5min, respectivamente, P < 0,05. Os níveis de lactato sanguíneo durante o teste e exaustão foram menores no grupo TNE que no SE (5,31 ± 0,22 vs. 8,76 ± 0,59mmol/L, respectivamente, P < 0,05. A frequência de fibras lesadas nos músculos foi maior nos grupos SE (sóleo: 34,86 ± 0,04; reto femoral: 37,57 ± 0,07 e TNE (sóleo: 41,57 ± 0,08; reto femoral: 39,57 ± 0,05, comparada aos grupos CS (sóleo: 13,88 ± 0,81; reto femoral: 16,75 ± 0,79 e TN (sóleo: 24,14 ± 0,06; reto femoral: 24,0 ± 0,05, respectivamente (P < 0,05. Não houve diferença significativa nos níveis de HSP70 dos músculos analisados entre os quatro grupos. Concluimos que apesar do treinamento em natação melhorar o desempenho dos animais no teste de exaustão, não promoveu proteção aos seus músculos esqueléticos contra as lesões induzidas pelo exercício exaustivo

  3. Laserterapia de baixa intensidade no pós-operatório da síndrome do túnel do carpo Low-level laser therapy after carpal tunnel release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Pinho Teixeira Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o tratamento pós-operatório da síndrome do túnel do carpo (STC, utilizando-se a laserterapia de baixa intensidade (LBI. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados prospectivamente 58 pacientes portadores de STC, divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: tratamento com LBI (grupo 1 e placebo (grupo 2. Foi utilizado laser de 830nm, de gálio-alumínio-arsênico, e potência de 30mW. RESULTADOS: Houve predominância do sexo feminino, em ambos os grupos. A média de idade dos pacientes do grupo 1 foi de 44,3 anos e do grupo 2, de 51,9 anos. A média do tempo de evolução da doença foi aproximadamente dois anos em ambos os grupos. A média do tempo decorrido para alta do tratamento foi de 3,6 meses, em ambos os grupos, com menor número de pacientes queixosos no pós-operatório do grupo 1 do que do grupo 2. Ao fim do tratamento, no grupo 1, 29,41% dos pacientes apresentavam eletroneuromiografia alterada, enquanto que, no grupo 2, foram 63,64% dos pacientes após seis meses. CONCLUSÕES: Trata-se de estudo inicial sobre a terapêutica adjuvante utilizando LBI no pós-operatório da STC. A metodologia apresentada foi suficiente para a avaliação pós-operatória dos pacientes do estudo. Os pacientes submetidos à LBI após a cirurgia para STC foram beneficiados e obtiveram melhores resultados funcionais quando comparados ao grupo controle. A técnica foi eficaz e sem efeitos adversos nos pacientes estudados.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the post-operative treatment of CTS, using the LLLT. METHOD: We prospectively evaluated 58 patients with CTS, randomly divided into two groups: treatment with LLLT (Group 1 and placebo (Group 2. A 830 nm gallium-aluminum-arsenic laser was used, with a power of 30 mW. RESULTS: There was female predominance in both groups. The mean age of the patients in Group 1 was 44.3 years and in Group 2, 51.9 years. The average duration of disease progression was around two years in both groups. The average time elapsed since discharge

  4. A laserterapia de baixa potência melhora o desempenho muscular mensurado por dinamometria isocinética em humanos Low-level laser therapy enhances muscular performance as measured by isokinetic dynamometry in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A fadiga muscular é uma nova área de pesquisa em laserterapia, com poucos estudos conduzidos. Embora a laserterapia de baixa potência (LBP previamente ao exercício tenha apresentado resultados positivos no retardo da fadiga musculoesquelética, ainda não foi estudada utilizando-se a dinamometria isocinética para mensurar desempenho e fadiga muscular. Este estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da LBP (655 nm, 50 mW, 2,4 J por ponto e 12 J de energia total sobre o desempenho e fadiga muscular do músculo tibial anterior, utilizando dinamometria isocinética (30 repetições de contração concêntrica em 14 indivíduos saudáveis sedentários do sexo masculino. Os voluntários foram avaliados ao efetuar 30 repetições isocinéticas de dorsiflexão de tornozelo à velocidade angular de 240°.seg-1. Os resultados mostram que, quando os voluntários foram tratados com LBP antes do exercício, os valores do pico de torque (30,91±5,86 N.m foram significativamente superiores, comparados a três medições anteriores sem a aplicação de LBP (24,92±7,45 N.m, pSkeletal muscle fatigue is a novel research area in laser therapy, there being few studies carried out. Though low-level laser therapy (LLLT applied prior to exercise has showed positive results in delaying skeletal muscle fatigue, no studies could be found that measured muscle performance and fatigue by means of isokinetic dynamometry. This clinical trial aims at assessing the effects of LLLT (655 nm, 50 mW and 12 J total energy delivered on anterior tibialis muscle performance and fatigue by means of isokinetic dynamometry (30 concentric-mode repetitions at 240º.sec-1 angular speed in 14 healthy male subjects. Results show that, when volunteers had been treated with LLLT prior to exercise, torque peak values (30.91±5.86 N.m were significantly higher than those of three previous measurements with no LLLT (24.92±7.45 N.m, p<0.001; 26.83±7.74 N.m, p<0.01; and 26.00±7.88 N.m, p<0

  5. QEM*SEM: a necessary tool in the metallurgical evaluation of ore bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creelman, R.A.; Gottlieb, P.; Sutherland, D.; Jackson, R.

    1989-01-01

    The QEM*SEM system for automated image analysis of mineral samples is described. Details of the equipment are given together with information on the methods of measurement. Finally some practical applications are described where QEM*SEM has been used for the solution of metallurgical problems. 14 refs., 1 fig

  6. Strategic Enrolment Management (SEM) in Self-Financed Higher Education of Hong Kong: Evaluation and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Peggy; Galbraith, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how the dimensions of strategic enrolment management (SEM) tie to the success metrics in the area of enrolment, retention and graduation from senior and programme management perspectives of a self-financed institution in Hong Kong. The literature on SEM has demonstrated that managing enrolment is a global…

  7. Shocked quartz in the SEM: Distinction between amorphous and healed PDFs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, M.F.; Pennock, G.M.; Drury, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Combined SEM techniques show that different CL signatures of PDFs are related to fresh and healed microstructures of PDFs and host quartz. This is confirmed by TEM results. A combination of SEM techniques can give the same type of information as TEM

  8. In-Situ tensile testing of propellants in SEM: influence of temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Benedetto, G.L.; Ramshorst, M.C.J.; Duvalois, W.; Hooijmeijer, P.; Heijden, A. van der

    2017-01-01

    A tensile module system placed within a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was utilized to conduct insitu tensile testing of propellant samples. The tensile module system allows for real-time in-situ SEM analysis of the samples to determine the failure mechanism of the propellant material under

  9. Prevalência e fatores associados à consulta médica entre adultos de uma comunidade de baixa renda do Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Alsina Nader Bastos

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estimar a prevalência de consultas médicas, nos três meses que antecederam à entrevista, em adultos de 20 anos ou mais, de uma comunidade de baixa renda, do Sul do Brasil, em 2O09. MÉTODOS: foi realizado estudo transversal, com análise ajustada por meio de Regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de consulta médica nos 3.391 entrevistados foi 76,2% (Intervalo de Confiança de 95% (IC95% 74,8; 77,6% no último ano e 64,8% (IC95% 63,0; 66,7% nos últimos três meses, maior entre as mulheres (67,8% do que entre os homens (60,2% (p<0,001. Na análise ajustada, para homens, o desfecho associou-se mais fortemente: ao aumento de idade (p=0,001 e autopercepção de saúde ruim/ muito ruim (p<0,001. Entre mulheres, ao aumento da idade (p=0,001, possuir médico de referência (p=0,001, local usual de atendimento (p<0,001 e morbidades (p= 0,001. CONCLUSÕES: a diferença na utilização de consultas deve ser considerada no planejamento e organização do acesso.

  10. O EMPREGO DA TERAPIA LASER DE BAIXA INTENSIDADE NO TRATAMENTO DA HERPES-ZÓSTER E NEURALGIA PÓS-HERPÉTICA COM ACOMETIMENTO OROFACIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Ribeiro Costa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O herpes-zóster facial é definido como uma doença infecciosa, que durante seu desenvolvimento apresenta lesões dolorosas na região orofacial. A Neuralgia pós-herpética é uma complicação da HZ facial que é caracteriza pela sintomatologia  dolorosa. A terapia com laser  de baixa intensidade (TLBI tem sido amplamente divulgada nos meios científicos, devido o seu efeito positivo  na redução da dor em uma série de condições. Nesse contexto, o presente estudo objetivou analisar os principais efeitos da TLBI, com base na literatura, de forma a apresentar uma terapia alternativa, que pode ser empregada no tratamento da HZ facial e NPHT, salientando as doses e os possíveis locais para a irradiação em cada fase. A TLBI é uma terapia não invasiva, que não apresenta efeitos adversos, quando empregada de maneira correta. Essa terapia apresenta efeitos anti-álgico, anti-inflamatório, de reparo tecidual e neuronal, o que justifica a sua utilização no tratamento da HZ facial e NPHT.

  11. Treinamento em corrida de baixa intensidade: propriedades estruturais e mecânicas da epífise proximal do fêmur de ratas osteopênicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Braga Fernandes Maia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou os efeitos do treinamento em corrida de baixa intensidade (TCBI sobre propriedades estruturais e mecânicas da epífise proximal do fêmur de ratas osteopênicas. Ratas Wistar [idade = 20 semanas; massa corporal = 271,42 ± 17,6 g] foram submetidas à ovariectomia (OVX ou laparotomia (SHAM e alocadas em quatro grupos: corrida OVX (CO, n = 12, controle OVX (CONO, n = 12, corrida SHAM (CS, n = 12 e controle SHAM (CONS, n = 12. Quinze dias pós-cirurgia, os grupos CO e CS foram submetidos ao TCBI em esteira (16 m/min, 60 min/dia, cinco dias/semana por 10 semanas. O TCBI não alterou os efeitos deletérios da osteopenia induzida por ovariectomia sobre a densidade mineral do fêmur, a quantidade de osso trabecular no trocanter e colo do fêmur, a tenacidade e a força máxima de fratura do colo do fêmur de ratas.

  12. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama, E-mail: rkant@chemistry.du.ac.in

    2013-10-01

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  13. From patterns to causal understanding: Structural equation modeling (SEM) in soil ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Powell, Jeff R; Grace, James B.; Bowker, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    In this perspectives paper we highlight a heretofore underused statistical method in soil ecological research, structural equation modeling (SEM). SEM is commonly used in the general ecological literature to develop causal understanding from observational data, but has been more slowly adopted by soil ecologists. We provide some basic information on the many advantages and possibilities associated with using SEM and provide some examples of how SEM can be used by soil ecologists to shift focus from describing patterns to developing causal understanding and inspiring new types of experimental tests. SEM is a promising tool to aid the growth of soil ecology as a discipline, particularly by supporting research that is increasingly hypothesis-driven and interdisciplinary, thus shining light into the black box of interactions belowground.

  14. Two novel approaches to study arthropod anatomy by using dualbeam FIB/SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Andrea; Muzzi, Maurizio

    2018-03-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has always been the conventional method to study arthropod ultrastructure, while the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was mainly devoted to the examination of the external cuticular structures by secondary electrons. The new generation field emission SEMs are capable to generate images at sub-cellular level, comparable to TEM images employing backscattered electrons. The potential of this kind of acquisition becomes very powerful in the dual beam FIB/SEM where the SEM column is combined with a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) column. FIB uses ions as a nano-scalpel to slice samples fixed and embedded in resin, replacing traditional ultramicrotomy. We here present two novel methods, which optimize the use of FIB/SEM for studying arthropod anatomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama

    2013-01-01

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  16. GAGG:ce single crystalline films: New perspective scintillators for electron detection in SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Lalinský, Ondřej; Hanuš, Martin; Onderišinová, Zuzana; Kelar, Jakub; Kučera, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Single crystal scintillators are frequently used for electron detection in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We report gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG:Ce) single crystalline films as a new perspective scintillators for the SEM. For the first time, the epitaxial garnet films were used in a practical application: the GAGG:Ce scintillator was incorporated into a SEM scintillation electron detector and it showed improved image quality. In order to prove the GAGG:Ce quality accurately, the scintillation properties were examined using electron beam excitation and compared with frequently used scintillators in the SEM. The results demonstrate excellent emission efficiency of the GAGG:Ce single crystalline films together with their very fast scintillation decay useful for demanding SEM applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tillandsia stricta Sol (Bromeliaceae) leaves as monitors of airborne particulate matter-A comparative SEM methods evaluation: Unveiling an accurate and odd HP-SEM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Martha Lima; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Miguens, Flávio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure. Hydrated specimen observation by ESEM was the best way to get information from T. stricta leaves. If any artifacts were introduced by AD/FA, they were indiscernible from those caused by CPD. Leaf anatomy was always well preserved. PM density was determined on adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis for each of the SEM proceedings. When compared with ESEM, particle extraction varied from 0 to 20% in air-dried leaves while 23-78% of particles deposited on leaves surfaces were extracted by CPD procedures. ESEM was obviously the best choice over other methods but morphological artifacts increased in function of operation time while HPSEM operation time was without limit. AD/FA avoided the shrinkage observed in the air-dried leaves and particle extraction was low when compared with CPD. Structural and particle density results suggest AD/FA as an important methodological approach to air pollution biomonitoring that can be widely used in all electron microscopy labs. Otherwise, previous PM assessments using terrestrial plants as biomonitors and performed by conventional SEM could have underestimated airborne particulate matter concentration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Characterisation of nanoparticles by means of high-resolution SEM/EDS in transmission mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodoroaba, V-D; Rades, S; Mielke, J; Ortel, E; Salge, T; Schmidt, R

    2016-01-01

    Advances in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enable the high-resolution imaging of single nanoparticles (NPs) with sizes well below 10 nm. The SEM analysis in transmission mode (T-SEM) of NPs on thin film supports has many benefits when compared to the analysis of NPs on bulk substrates. The enhanced material (mass - thickness) contrast of the T-SEM imaging mode is well suited for in-depth and, particularly valuable, to very accurate, traceable, lateral dimensional measurements of NPs. Compared to samples prepared on bulk substrates, T-SEM with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) achieves a drastically improved spatial resolution of the emitted X-rays. The poor signal-to-noise ratio of the X-ray spectra emitted by a single nanoparticle (NP) can be improved by the use of high-sensitivity (high collection solid angle) silicon drift (SDD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS). The EDS spectral imaging of a single NP with a spatial resolution below 10 nm has become possible. This is demonstrated by means of various examples of nanostructures. Advanced data processing of T-SEM/EDS results sets the stage for the automated classification of NPs by feature analysis. This method combines the detection of morphological structures of interest by image processing of T-SEM micrographs with the chemical classification by EDS. (paper)

  19. Inter-operator and inter-device agreement and reliability of the SEM Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenin, Marta; Jaradeh, Kindah; Shamirian, Anasheh; Rhodes, Shannon L

    2015-02-01

    The SEM Scanner is a medical device designed for use by healthcare providers as part of pressure ulcer prevention programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inter-rater and inter-device agreement and reliability of the SEM Scanner. Thirty-one (31) volunteers free of pressure ulcers or broken skin at the sternum, sacrum, and heels were assessed with the SEM Scanner. Each of three operators utilized each of three devices to collect readings from four anatomical sites (sternum, sacrum, left and right heels) on each subject for a total of 108 readings per subject collected over approximately 30 min. For each combination of operator-device-anatomical site, three SEM readings were collected. Inter-operator and inter-device agreement and reliability were estimated. Over the course of this study, more than 3000 SEM Scanner readings were collected. Agreement between operators was good with mean differences ranging from -0.01 to 0.11. Inter-operator and inter-device reliability exceeded 0.80 at all anatomical sites assessed. The results of this study demonstrate the high reliability and good agreement of the SEM Scanner across different operators and different devices. Given the limitations of current methods to prevent and detect pressure ulcers, the SEM Scanner shows promise as an objective, reliable tool for assessing the presence or absence of pressure-induced tissue damage such as pressure ulcers. Copyright © 2015 Bruin Biometrics, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. A brief discussion about image quality and SEM methods for quantitative fractography of polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L R O; Campos, K A; Caltabiano, P C R O; Kostov, K G

    2013-01-01

    The methodology for fracture analysis of polymeric composites with scanning electron microscopes (SEM) is still under discussion. Many authors prefer to use sputter coating with a conductive material instead of applying low-voltage (LV) or variable-pressure (VP) methods, which preserves the original surfaces. The present work examines the effects of sputter coating with 25 nm of gold on the topography of carbon-epoxy composites fracture surfaces, using an atomic force microscope. Also, the influence of SEM imaging parameters on fractal measurements is evaluated for the VP-SEM and LV-SEM methods. It was observed that topographic measurements were not significantly affected by the gold coating at tested scale. Moreover, changes on SEM setup leads to nonlinear outcome on texture parameters, such as fractal dimension and entropy values. For VP-SEM or LV-SEM, fractal dimension and entropy values did not present any evident relation with image quality parameters, but the resolution must be optimized with imaging setup, accompanied by charge neutralization. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Three-Dimensional (3D) Nanometrology Based on Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Stereophotogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondare, Vipin N; Villarrubia, John S; Vlada R, András E

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of a sample surface from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images taken at two perspectives has been known for decades. Nowadays, there exist several commercially available stereophotogrammetry software packages. For testing these software packages, in this study we used Monte Carlo simulated SEM images of virtual samples. A virtual sample is a model in a computer, and its true dimensions are known exactly, which is impossible for real SEM samples due to measurement uncertainty. The simulated SEM images can be used for algorithm testing, development, and validation. We tested two stereophotogrammetry software packages and compared their reconstructed 3D models with the known geometry of the virtual samples used to create the simulated SEM images. Both packages performed relatively well with simulated SEM images of a sample with a rough surface. However, in a sample containing nearly uniform and therefore low-contrast zones, the height reconstruction error was ≈46%. The present stereophotogrammetry software packages need further improvement before they can be used reliably with SEM images with uniform zones.

  2. Sobre la estructura semántica de las palabras autosemánticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Ascencio Bernardo

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A partir de los conceptos de semema o estructura semémica y de los conceptos tradicionales de afijos y los accidentes gramaticales se plantea una supuesta estructura semántica profunda de la palabra, análoga a la de la oración en el modelo de la gramática de casos. Con base en este supuesto se reinterpretan algunas funciones semánticas de los afijos (particularmente de los sufijos, entre otras, como formas de la expresión de la modalidad léxica; se plantea una correlación entre rasgos semánticos específicos y las relaciones semánticas de caso. Por último se deducen algunas consideraciones pertinentes y se demuestra un isomorfismo entre la estructura profunda de la oración y la supuesta estructura semántica profunda de las palabras auto  semánticas.

  3. Diversity of seM in Streptococcus equi subsp. equi isolated from strangles outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardoni, Felipe; Vielmo, Andréia; Farias, Luana; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Pötter, Luciana; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2013-03-23

    Strangles is the main upper respiratory tract disease of horses. There are currently no studies on the changes in alleles of the M protein gene (seM) in Brazilian isolates of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (S. equi). This study aimed to analyze and differentiate molecularly S. equi isolates from equine clinical specimens from southern Brazil, between 1994 and 2010. seM alleles were analyzed in 47 isolates of S. equi obtained from clinical cases of strangles (15 Thoroughbred horses, 29 Crioulo breed horses and three Brasileiro de Hipismo--BH). seM alleles characterization was performed by comparing variable region sequences of the seM gene. The alleles were also phylogenetically grouped by Neighbor-joining analysis, which demonstrated the geographic distribution of those in properties from southern Brazil. Fifteen alleles of the gene seM were found among the 47 S. equi isolates analyzed. Among these, only one allele (seM-61), which was identified in seven isolates (14.9%), was found in the database PubMLST-seM. Within the new alleles, allele seM-115 was the most prevalent, having been found in 13 isolates (27.7%), followed by allele seM-117 in 10 isolates (21.3%). In the Brazilian horse population studied, there is greater diversity of M protein alleles in S. equi isolates compared to worldwide data deposited in PubMLST-seM. Among the 15 seM alleles identified, only one allele sequence was previously published. The alleles identification is important to control the disease by guiding selection of strains for the manufacture of commercial and autogenous vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of Focused Ion Beam technique for high speed steel 3D-SEM artefact fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; MacDonald, A. Nicole; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    The work describes preliminary manufacture by grinding, followed by machining on a Focused Ion Beam (FIB), of a high speed steel step artefact for 3D-SEM calibration. The FIB is coupled with a SEM in the so called dual beam instrument. The milling capabilities of FIB were checked from a qualitative...... point of view, using the dual beam SEM imaging, and quantitatively using a reference stylus instrument, to establish traceability. A triangular section having a depth of about 10 μm was machined, where the 50 μm curvature radius due to grinding was reduced to about 2 μm by FIB milling...

  5. The SEM description of interaction of a transient electromagnetic wave with an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, L. W.; Wilton, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    The singularity expansion method (SEM), proposed as a means for determining and representing the transient surface current density induced on a scatterer by a transient electromagnetic wave is described. The resulting mathematical description of the transient surface current on the object is discussed. The data required to represent the electromagnetic scattering properties of a given object are examined. Experimental methods which were developed for the determination of the SEM description are discussed. The feasibility of characterizing the surface current induced on aircraft flying in proximity to a lightning stroke by way of SEM is examined.

  6. Dinâmica da dormência de gemas de videira e quivizeiro em região de baixa ocorrência de frio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Biasi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar a dinâmica da dormência de gemas de videira cv. Niagara Branca e de quivizeiro cv. Bruno, em região de baixa ocorrência de frio. Os experimentos foram realizados nos anos de 2007 e 2008, com coletas de ramos a cada duas semanas, em pomares localizados em Pinhais-PR. Na última coleta, um grupo adicional de ramos foi coletado e mantido em refrigerador a temperatura de 4 a 7º C, por 1.440 horas. A avaliação da dormência foi realizada por meio do teste biológico de estacas de nós isolados em sala de crescimento, à temperatura de 25º C e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Foi realizada a quantificação de horas de frio (HF e de unidades de frio (UF ocorridas na região. As duas espécies foram avaliadas como experimentos distintos. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o completamente casualizado, com doze tratamentos em 2007 e onze tratamentos em 2008, ambos com quatro repetições e dez estacas por unidade experimental. A endodormência de gemas de quivizeiro 'Bruno' instala-se a partir de abril e atinge maior intensidade do final de maio à segunda metade de junho. A saída da endodormência pode ocorrer naturalmente até o fim de agosto, mas com variações entre os anos. A endodormência de gemas de videira 'Niagara Branca' instala-se em abril e mantém-se intensa até maio. A saída natural da endodormência ocorre da metade de agosto ao início de setembro.

  7. Perfil lipídico e obesidade em escolares de baixa renda Lipid profile and obesity in low income school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Peter Grillo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil lipídico de escolares de baixa renda e sua relação com a obesidade. METODOLOGIA: A população em estudo foi composta por 257 escolares, com idade entre 3 e 14 anos, freqüentadores de instituições chamadas COMBEMI, no município de Itajaí - SC. Dados socioeconômicos foram coletados para caracterização da amostra. As concentrações lipídicas de colesterol total (CT, frações HDL-c (lipoproteína de alta densidade e LDL-c (lipoproteína de baixa densidade e triglicerídeo (TGL foram determinadas e avaliadas segundo os pontos de corte propostos pelas III Diretrizes Brasileiras sobre Dislipidemias. A condição de obesidade foi estabelecida entre os escolares, por meio do índice peso/estatura, em escore z, nas crianças, e do Índice de Massa Corporal, em percentis, nos adolescentes, sendo os pontos de corte maior que 2 e maior que o percentil 95, respectivamente. Os dados foram analisados segundo teste t de "Student", Mann-Whitney e Qui-quadrado. A associação entre dislipidemias e obesidade foi avaliada por meio da "odds ratio". RESULTADOS: A renda per capita média foi de R$ 86,65. As médias de CT, TGL, HDL-c e LDL-c foram 145, 61, 82 e 49 mg/dl, respectivamente. A hipercolesterolemia esteve presente em 3,1% da amostra, hipertrigliceridemia em 4,7%, LDL-c elevado em 6,6% e inadequados níveis de HDL-c em 17,9%. O percentual de obesidade encontrado foi de 7,4% nos escolares. Diferenças entre os sexos não foram observadas. Os níveis de HDL-c baixo associaram-se de maneira significante com a presença de obesidade (OR: 3,27 IC= 1,08-9,74. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados apontam para um perfil lipídico diferenciado, com médias inferiores se comparados aos da literatura, sendo apenas a lipoproteína HDL-c associada à presença de obesidade entre os escolares de baixa renda.PURPOSE: To evaluate the lipid profile of school children from low-income families and its relation with obesity. METHODOLOGY: The study

  8. Doses e épocas de aplicação de nitrogênio na suscetibilidade do arroz à temperatura baixa na fase reprodutiva Nitrogen doses and timing on rice susceptibility to low temperature in reproductive stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Méndez Larrosa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de nitrogênio (N deve afetar a sensibilidade das plantas de arroz quando submetidas ao frio na fase reprodutiva. Assim, foram instalados dois experimentos em casa de vegetação, no Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agropecuária (INIA, INIA Treinta y Tres, Uruguai, na safra agrícola 2007/08. O primeiro experimento teve o objetivo de determinar o efeito da época e o segundo, o efeito de dose de aplicação de N sobre a suscetibilidade de plantas de arroz irrigado à temperatura baixa na fase reprodutiva. Realizou-se um experimento bifatorial em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (fator A: épocas ou doses de aplicação de N e fator B: aplicação ou não de frio nos dois experimentos, com quatro repetições. No experimento 1, os tratamentos do fator A foram a aplicação de N (30kg ha-1 nos estádios V4, V5, V6, V7, V8, R0, R1+4 dias e a testemunha sem N em cobertura. Nesse experimento, os tratamentos que receberam N de V4 a V8 também receberam mais 30kg ha-1 no estádio R0, e os tratamentos que receberam N nos estádios R0 e R1+4 dias também receberam 30kg ha-1 no estádio V4. No experimento 2, o fator A foram níveis de N de 0, 23, 46 e 69kg ha-1 de N no estádio V4 mais uma aplicação de 23kg ha-1 no estádio R0 e as mesmas doses em R0 com 23kg ha-1 no estádio V4, mais uma testemunha sem aplicação de N nos dois estádios. No tratamento com frio, as plantas foram submetidas a 12,5°C durante sete horas em quatro noites quando o colar da folha bandeira ficou com a mesma altura que o colar da folha anterior. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: a percentagem de esterilidade de espiguetas, o índice SPAD, realizado aos três, 10 e 16 dias após o tratamento do frio no estádio R2-R3, a produtividade de grãos por vaso, o número de panículas por balde e a massa de mil grãos. A esterilidade de espiguetas não foi influenciada pela época, pela dose de aplicação de N ou pelo tratamento de frio, mas encontrou

  9. In-line CD metrology with combined use of scatterometry and CD-SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masafumi; Ikeda, Takahiro; Koike, Toru; Abe, Hideaki

    2006-03-01

    Measurement characteristics in scatterometry and CD-SEM for lot acceptance sampling of inline critical dimension (CD) metrology were investigated by using a statistical approach with Monte Carlo simulation. By operation characteristics curve analysis, producer's risk and consumer's risk arising from sampling were clarified. Single use of scatterometry involves a higher risk, such risk being particularly acute in the case of large intra-chip CD variation because it is unable to sufficiently monitor intra-chip CD variation including local CD error. Substituting scatterometry for conventional SEM metrology is accompanied with risks, resulting in the increase of unnecessary cost. The combined use of scatterometry and SEM metrology in which the sampling plan for SEM is controlled by scatterometry is a promising metrology from the viewpoint of the suppression of risks and cost. This is due to the effect that CD errors existing in the distribution tails are efficiently caught.

  10. Mathematical model of the seismic electromagnetic signals (SEMS) in non crystalline substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, L. C. C.; Yahya, N.; Daud, H.; Shafie, A. [Electromagnetic cluster, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    The mathematical model of seismic electromagnetic waves in non crystalline substances is developed and the solutions are discussed to show the possibility of improving the electromagnetic waves especially the electric field. The shear stress of the medium in fourth order tensor gives the equation of motion. Analytic methods are selected for the solutions written in Hansen vector form. From the simulated SEMS, the frequency of seismic waves has significant effects to the SEMS propagating characteristics. EM waves transform into SEMS or energized seismic waves. Traveling distance increases once the frequency of the seismic waves increases from 100% to 1000%. SEMS with greater seismic frequency will give seismic alike waves but greater energy is embedded by EM waves and hence further distance the waves travel.

  11. SEM-668-G2(日东科技)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    SEM-668-G2比SEM-668在视觉技术上更加精湛,采用美国AGILENT(安提伦)LASER 5519A及HP的双重频率技术,加强运动;隹确性。在智能化印刷头上,SEM-668-G2印刷质量更加均匀、稳定,操作界面更加简易、更加人性化。在综合性能上更加卓越,保证实现现代化的生产效率。产品体具性能如下:SEM-668-G2视觉全自动印刷机

  12. Mathematical model of the seismic electromagnetic signals (SEMS) in non crystalline substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, L. C. C.; Yahya, N.; Daud, H.; Shafie, A.

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical model of seismic electromagnetic waves in non crystalline substances is developed and the solutions are discussed to show the possibility of improving the electromagnetic waves especially the electric field. The shear stress of the medium in fourth order tensor gives the equation of motion. Analytic methods are selected for the solutions written in Hansen vector form. From the simulated SEMS, the frequency of seismic waves has significant effects to the SEMS propagating characteristics. EM waves transform into SEMS or energized seismic waves. Traveling distance increases once the frequency of the seismic waves increases from 100% to 1000%. SEMS with greater seismic frequency will give seismic alike waves but greater energy is embedded by EM waves and hence further distance the waves travel.

  13. Assessment of Paint Layers by FE-SEM and EDS Examination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, Donovan

    2004-01-01

    .... The approach was to remove free-film samples from each panel, fracture the films, and then examine at high magnification the cross sections using a field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM...

  14. Corrigendum to: Bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses in SEM using Mplus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, R.; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hoijtink, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper corrects: van de Schoot, R., Verhoeven, M., & Hoijtink, H. (2013). Bayesian evaluation ofinformative hypotheses in SEM using Mplus: A black bear story. EuropeanJournal of Developmental Psychology, 10, 81 –98.

  15. Automated CD-SEM recipe creation technology for mass production using CAD data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Toshikazu; Yoshida, Masamichi; Tanaka, Masashi; Ido, Sanyu; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Naokaka; Abe, Yuichi; Nagatomo, Wataru

    2011-03-01

    Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope (CD-SEM) recipe creation needs sample preparation necessary for matching pattern registration, and recipe creation on CD-SEM using the sample, which hinders the reduction in test production cost and time in semiconductor manufacturing factories. From the perspective of cost reduction and improvement of the test production efficiency, automated CD-SEM recipe creation without the sample preparation and the manual operation has been important in the production lines. For the automated CD-SEM recipe creation, we have introduced RecipeDirector (RD) that enables the recipe creation by using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data and text data that includes measurement information. We have developed a system that automatically creates the CAD data and the text data necessary for the recipe creation on RD; and, for the elimination of the manual operation, we have enhanced RD so that all measurement information can be specified in the text data. As a result, we have established an automated CD-SEM recipe creation system without the sample preparation and the manual operation. For the introduction of the CD-SEM recipe creation system using RD to the production lines, the accuracy of the pattern matching was an issue. The shape of design templates for the matching created from the CAD data was different from that of SEM images in vision. Thus, a development of robust pattern matching algorithm that considers the shape difference was needed. The addition of image processing of the templates for the matching and shape processing of the CAD patterns in the lower layer has enabled the robust pattern matching. This paper describes the automated CD-SEM recipe creation technology for the production lines without the sample preparation and the manual operation using RD applied in Sony Semiconductor Kyusyu Corporation Kumamoto Technology Center (SCK Corporation Kumamoto TEC).

  16. Understanding the Online : Jewellery Retail Market : an integrated model to conduct SEM

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yihong

    2013-01-01

    Research into e-commerce is becoming more and more popular; however the jewellery industry is somewhat special. There are very few studies having adapted a strategic marketing perspective on the online jewellery retail market. This study suggested an integrated online marketing strategy which focuses on the search engine marketing (SEM) approach. A detailed procedure of conducting search engine marketing (SEM) is introduced. Through the method of online questionnaires, with the help of soc...

  17. Why semicarbazide (SEM) is not an appropriate marker for the usage of nitrofurazone on agricultural animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Richard H; Verzegnassi, Ludovica; Seefelder, Walburga; Racault, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive global database on semicarbazide (SEM) in foodstuffs and food ingredients is presented, with over 4000 data collected in foods such as seafood (crustaceans, fish powders), meat (beef, chicken powders), dairy products (e.g. raw milk, milk powders, whey, sweet buttermilk powder, caseinate, yoghurt, cheese), honey and other ingredients. The results provide evidence that the presence of SEM in certain dairy ingredients (whey, milk protein concentrates) is a by-product of chemical reactions taking place during the manufacturing process. Of the dairy ingredients tested (c. 2000 samples), 5.3% showed traces of SEM > 0.5 µg/kg. The highest incidence of SEM-positive samples in the dairy category were whey (powders, liquid) and milk protein concentrates (35% positive), with up to 13 µg/kg measured in a whey powder. Sweet buttermilk powder and caseinate followed, with 27% and 9.3% positives, respectively. SEM was not detected in raw milk, or in yoghurt or cheese. Of the crustacean products (shrimp and prawn powders) tested, 44% were positive for SEM, the highest value measured at 284 µg/kg. Fish powders revealed an unexpectedly high incidence of positive samples (25%); in this case, fraudulent addition of shellfish shells or carry-over during processing cannot be excluded. Overall, the data provide new insights into the occurrence of SEM (for dairy products and fish powders), substantially strengthening the arguments that SEM in certain food categories is not a conclusive marker of the use of the illegal antibiotic nitrofurazone.

  18. Information or resolution: Which is required from an SEM to study bulk inorganic materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Q

    2016-11-01

    Significant technological advances in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been achieved over the past years. Different SEMs can have significant differences in functionality and performance. This work presents the perspectives on selecting an SEM for research on bulk inorganic materials. Understanding materials demands quantitative composition and orientation information, and informative and interpretable images that reveal subtle differences in chemistry, orientation/structure, topography, and electronic structure. The capability to yield informative and interpretable images with high signal-to-noise ratios and spatial resolutions is an overall result of the SEM system as a whole, from the electron optical column to the detection system. The electron optical column determines probe performance. The roles of the detection system are to capture, filter or discriminate, and convert signal electrons to imaging information. The capability to control practical operating parameters including electron probe size and current, acceleration voltage or landing voltage, working distance, detector selection, and signal filtration is inherently determined by the SEM itself. As a platform for various accessories, e.g. an energy-dispersive spectrometer and an electron backscatter diffraction detector, the properties of the electron optical column, specimen chamber, and stage greatly affect the performance of accessories. Ease-of-use and ease-of-maintenance are of practical importance. It is practically important to select appropriate test specimens, design suitable imaging conditions, and analyze the specimen chamber geometry and dimensions to assess the overall functionality and performance of an SEM. For an SEM that is controlled/operated with a computer, the stable software and user-friendly interface significantly improve the usability of the SEM. SCANNING 38:864-879, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The relationship between cost estimates reliability and BIM adoption: SEM analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, N. A. A.; Idris, N. H.; Ramli, H.; Rooshdi, R. R. Raja Muhammad; Sahamir, S. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the usage of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach in analysing the effects of Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology adoption in improving the reliability of cost estimates. Based on the questionnaire survey results, SEM analysis using SPSS-AMOS application examined the relationships between BIM-improved information and cost estimates reliability factors, leading to BIM technology adoption. Six hypotheses were established prior to SEM analysis employing two types of SEM models, namely the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) model and full structural model. The SEM models were then validated through the assessment on their uni-dimensionality, validity, reliability, and fitness index, in line with the hypotheses tested. The final SEM model fit measures are: P-value=0.000, RMSEA=0.0790.90, TLI=0.956>0.90, NFI=0.935>0.90 and ChiSq/df=2.259; indicating that the overall index values achieved the required level of model fitness. The model supports all the hypotheses evaluated, confirming that all relationship exists amongst the constructs are positive and significant. Ultimately, the analysis verified that most of the respondents foresee better understanding of project input information through BIM visualization, its reliable database and coordinated data, in developing more reliable cost estimates. They also perceive to accelerate their cost estimating task through BIM adoption.

  20. Raman-in-SEM, a multimodal and multiscale analytical tool: performance for materials and expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Guillaume; Bourrat, Xavier; Maubec, Nicolas; Lahfid, Abdeltif

    2014-12-01

    The availability of Raman spectroscopy in a powerful analytical scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows morphological, elemental, chemical, physical and electronic analysis without moving the sample between instruments. This paper documents the metrological performance of the SEMSCA commercial Raman interface operated in a low vacuum SEM. It provides multiscale and multimodal analyses as Raman/EDS, Raman/cathodoluminescence or Raman/STEM (STEM: scanning transmission electron microscopy) as well as Raman spectroscopy on nanomaterials. Since Raman spectroscopy in a SEM can be influenced by several SEM-related phenomena, this paper firstly presents a comparison of this new tool with a conventional micro-Raman spectrometer. Then, some possible artefacts are documented, which are due to the impact of electron beam-induced contamination or cathodoluminescence contribution to the Raman spectra, especially with geological samples. These effects are easily overcome by changing or adapting the Raman spectrometer and the SEM settings and methodology. The deletion of the adverse effect of cathodoluminescence is solved by using a SEM beam shutter during Raman acquisition. In contrast, this interface provides the ability to record the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum of a phase. In a second part, this study highlights the interest and efficiency of the coupling in characterizing micrometric phases at the same point. This multimodal approach is illustrated with various issues encountered in geosciences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Feature evaluation of complex hysteresis smoothing and its practical applications to noisy SEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Oho, Eisaku

    2013-01-01

    Quality of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image is strongly influenced by noise. This is a fundamental drawback of the SEM instrument. Complex hysteresis smoothing (CHS) has been previously developed for noise removal of SEM images. This noise removal is performed by monitoring and processing properly the amplitude of the SEM signal. As it stands now, CHS may not be so utilized, though it has several advantages for SEM. For example, the resolution of image processed by CHS is basically equal to that of the original image. In order to find wide application of the CHS method in microscopy, the feature of CHS, which has not been so clarified until now is evaluated correctly. As the application of the result obtained by the feature evaluation, cursor width (CW), which is the sole processing parameter of CHS, is determined more properly using standard deviation of noise Nσ. In addition, disadvantage that CHS cannot remove the noise with excessively large amplitude is improved by a certain postprocessing. CHS is successfully applicable to SEM images with various noise amplitudes. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Performance of SEM scintillation detector evaluated by modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, the SEM detector is evaluated by the modulation transfer function (MTF) which expresses the detector's influence on the SEM image contrast. This is a novel approach, since the MTF was used previously to describe only the area imaging detectors, or whole imaging systems. The measurement technique and calculation of the MTF for the SEM detector are presented. In addition, the measurement and calculation of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of the spatial frequency for the SEM detector are described. In this technique, the time modulated e-beam is used in order to create well-defined input signal for the detector. The MTF and DQE measurements are demonstrated on the Everhart-Thornley scintillation detector. This detector was alternated using the YAG:Ce, YAP:Ce, and CRY18 single-crystal scintillators. The presented MTF and DQE characteristics show good imaging properties of the detectors with the YAP:Ce or CRY18 scintillator, especially for a specific type of the e-beam scan. The results demonstrate the great benefit of the description of SEM detectors using the MTF and DQE. In addition, point-by-point and continual-sweep e-beam scans in SEM were discussed and their influence on the image quality was revealed using the MTF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. BAIXA RENDA DO LITORAL CATARINENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Peter Grillo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar los riesgos nutricionales de los escolares entre 5 y 12 años de edad de las familias de clase baja pertenecientes a la red de enseñanza pública de la ciudad de Camboriú - SC. Fueron evaluados 819 escolares (579 niños y 240 adolescentes. Los riesgos nutricionales fueron verificados mediante la clasificación antropométrica y se constató que el 78% estaban eutróficos, 13% desnutridos y 9% con sobrepeso. La ingestión alimenticia indicó un consumo excesivo de proteínas (48% e insuficiente en azúcares (96%, vegetales (80%, grasas (68%, cereales (68% y frutas (48%. Los datos socio-económicos demonstraron que la clase predominante fue la D (43%, seguida de la C (30%, E (22% y B (5%. Se encontró que un 46% de escolares presentavan anemia ferropriva. El estudio sugiere que por medio de la identificación y el análisis de los factores nutricionales será posible la construcción de estrategias de intervención más eficaces para la promoción de la salud, siendo la cuestión nutricional un elemento primordial.

  4. SEM Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Expectations of higher education leaders are high, varied, and numerous. Leaders are expected not only to be visionary, decisive, and articulate, but also to share information, purposes, commitments, and struggles. Effective leaders must know and understand their faculty and staff; insist on realism; set clear goals and priorities; follow through;…

  5. Cirurgia de revascularização completa do miocárdio sem circulação extracorpórea: uma realidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glauco LOBO FILHO

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available No período de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 1996, nossa equipe cirúrgica procurou sintematizar a cirurgia de revascularização completa do miocárdio sem circulação extracorpórea. Foram realizadas 385 operações de revascularização do miocárdio, das quais 333 (86% sem o uso de circulação extracorpórea. O objetivo do presente estudo é analisar os resultados imediatos destes 333 pacientes, no que concerne ao tempo de permanência hospitalar, idade, sexo, número de enxertos e morbimortalidade. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia prévia. Realizaram-se pontes para todas as coronárias, inclusive para as marginais da circunflexa. A idade variou de 35 a 86 anos, com média de 61 anos. O sexo masculino foi predominante com 214 (64% pacientes. O tempo médio de permanência hospitalar foi de 7 dias. O número total de pontes implantadas foi 625, variando de 1 a 4, com média de 1,9 pontes por paciente. Houve 7 casos de complicações sem óbitos, perfazendo um total de 2% de morbidade. Registraram-se 10 óbitos no pós-operatório imediato, equivalentes a 3% de mortalidade. Em face dos dados obtidos, concluímos que este método pode ser utilizado para a grande maioria dos pacientes a serem submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio, com baixa morbimortalidade.From January/95 to December/96 our surgical team (ICORP - Fortaleza - Ceará, has performed coronary artery surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB as a routine. During this period, 385 operations were sequencially performed, 86 per cent of them (333 without CPB. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of these 333 patients regarding hospitalization time, age, gender, number of grafts, functional status and morbimortality. All patients were submitted to previous coronary arteriography. All coronaies were by-passed, including the circumflex marginal artery. The age of these patients ranged from 35 to 86 years with a mean age

  6. The Effectiveness of Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Insertion in Treating Right-Sided Colonic Obstruction: A Comparison between SEMS and Decompression Tube Placement and an Investigation of the Safety and Difficulties of SEMS Insertion in Right Colons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintaro Moroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS is widely used to treat malignant colonic obstruction. However, most reports about SEMS insertion have concentrated on the left colon. This study aimed to (1 investigate the effectiveness of SEMS insertion compared with conventional decompression tube for right-sided colonic obstruction and (2 compare the safety and technical success of SEMS insertion between left- and right-sided colonic obstructions. Methods. The data from thirty-seven patients who underwent SEMS or conventional decompression tube placement for malignant colonic obstruction in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Technical and clinical success, complications, and technical difficulties were analyzed. We compared the results between SEMS insertion and decompression tube placement in right colons and the outcomes of SEMS insertion between right- and left-sided colonic obstructions. Results. For right colons, the clinical success rate of SEMS insertion (100% was significantly higher than that of decompression tube placement (55.9%. Concerning SEMS insertion, the technical difficulty and safety of SEMS insertion were similar between right- and left-sided colonic obstructions. Conclusion. SEMS insertion for right-sided colon is significantly more effective than conventional decompression tube placement, and this procedure was safer and less technically challenging than expected. SEMS insertion should be considered for treating right-sided malignant colonic obstruction.

  7. Recent improvement of a FIB-SEM serial-sectioning method for precise 3D image reconstruction - application of the orthogonally-arranged FIB-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toru

    2014-11-01

    IntroductionWe installed the first "orthogonally-arranged" FIB-SEM in 2011. The most characteristic point of this instrument is that the FIB and SEM columns are perpendicularly mounted; this is specially designed to obtain a serial-sectioning dataset more accurately and precisely with higher contrast and higher spatial resolution compare to other current FIB-SEMs [1]. Since the installation in 2011, we have developed the hardware and methodology of the serial-sectioning based on this orthogonal FIB-SEM. In order to develop this technique, we have widely opened this instrument to every researcher of all fields. In the presentation, I would like to introduce some of application results that are obtained by users of this instrument. The characteristic points of the orthogonal systemFigure 1 shows a difference between the standard and the orthogonal FIB-SEM systems: In the standard system, shown in Fig.1(a), optical axes of a FIB and a SEM crosses around 60deg., while in the orthogonal system (Fig.1(b)), they are perpendicular to each other. The standard arrangement (a) is certainly suitable for TEM lamellae preparation etc. because the FIB and the SEM can see the same position simultaneously. However, for a serial-sectioning, it is not to say the best arrangement. One of the reasons is that the sliced plane by the FIB is not perpendicular to the electron beam so that the background contrast is not uniform and observed plane is distorted. On the other hand, in case of the orthogonally-arranged system,(b), these problems are resolved. In addition, spatial resolution can keep high enough even in a low accelerating voltage (e.g. 500V) because a working distance is set very small, 2mm. From these special design, we can obtain the serial-sectioning dataset from rather wide area (∼100um) with high spatial resolution (Max. 2×2×2nm). As this system has many kinds of detectors: SE, ET, Backscatter Electron(Energy-selective), EDS, EBSD, STEM(BF&ADF), with Ar+ ion-gun and a

  8. A combined SEM, CV and EIS study of multi-layered porous ceramic reactors for flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Nygaard, Frederik Berg

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sintering temperature of 12-layered porous ceramic reactors (comprising 5 cells) was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The difference in microstructures of the reactors was evaluated by SEM...

  9. Evaluation of an IBAD thin-film process as an alternative method for surface incorporation of bioceramics on dental implants: a study in dogs Avaliação de um recobrimento de baixa espessura processado pela deposição assistida por feixe iônico como alternativa para a incorporação de biocerâmicas em implantes dentários: estudo em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo G. Coelho

    2005-03-01

    de hidroxiapatita, onde a dissolução desigual e a presença de uma fraca interface metal-cerâmica são problemas inerentes ao seu processamento. O propósito desta investigação foi determinar os níveis de atividade óssea total e específica a uma área (0.5 mm da superfície do implante ao redor de um implante de liga de titânio (superficie jateada seguida de ataque ácido recoberto com um filme biocerâmico de baixa espessura processado através de deposição auxiliada por feixe iônico, contra um implante de liga de titânio sem recobrimento biocerâmico em cães. O modelo cirúrgico utilizou a epífise proximal da tibia, com quatro implantes colocados em cada uma, onde permaneceram por um período de 2 e 4 semanas. Oxitetraciclina (10 mg/Kg foi administrada 48 horas antes dos animais serem sacrificados. As tíbias foram dissecadas, reduzidas a blocos, e processadas para análise em microscópio ótico. Microfotografias com aumento de 20x foram obtidas da região perimetral do implante e foram alinhadas para análise da resposta biológica total. Subsequentemente, quatro micro-fotografias com aumento de 40x, sub- divididas em retângulos, foram obtidas de um dos lados do implante para quantificação da área marcada por tetraciclina. Os resultados mostraram biocompatibilidade e osseocondutividade dos implantes de liga de titânio com ou sem filme biocerâmico de baixa espessura. Análise da área marcada por tetraciclina mostrou que os implantes com recobrimento apresentaram uma maior atividade óssea total e específica ao redor do implante em 2 e 4 semanas. Os valores de atividade óssea específica à área adjacente à superfície do implante foram significantemente maiores comparados aos valores obtidos em regiões afastadas dos implantes com ou sem recobrimento biocerâmico. De acordo com os resultados obtidos neste estudo, concluímos que os implantes com recobrimento biocerâmico de baixa espessura aumentaram a resposta biológica após 2 e 4

  10. Comportamento da produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio em miocárdio de ratos submetidos a treinamento de baixa intensidade em diferentes temperaturas Behavior of oxygen reactive species production in myocardium of rats submitted to low intensity training under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme Netto Jr.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A prática de exercício físico proporciona aumento da produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ERO resultantes do metabolismo aeróbio e, gera uma quantidade significativa de calor, em conseqüência da produção de energia, resultando em sobrecarga orgânica. A associação entre ERO e exercício, e entre exercício e variações da temperatura ambiente têm sido estudadas, contudo, há escassez de informações que considere a associação entre produção de radicais livres no miocárdio e atividade física em temperatura elevada. OBJETIVO: Comparar a produção de ERO em miocárdio de ratos submetidos ao treinamento de baixa intensidade em diferentes temperaturas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 20 ratos Wistar, machos, jovens, peso (250 a 280g, divididos em quatro grupos: G1 (n = 5 expostos ao treinamento e calor (39º ± 1C; G2 (n = 5 expostos somente ao calor durante o mesmo período de G1, sem treinamento; G3 (n = 5 expostos ao treinamento em temperatura ambiente (22º ± 1C; G4 (n = 5 expostos à temperatura ambiente sem treinamento. O treinamento foi realizado em esteira rolante climatizada por cinco semanas, evoluindo 5 minutos a cada duas sessões finalizando em 60 minutos em baixa intensidade 8m/min. O ambiente foi controlado entre 39 ± 1ºC e 22 ± 1ºC e entre 40 e 60 % de umidade relativa. A lipoperoxidação foi avaliada por Quimiluminescência (QL. A análise dos dados foi realizada a partir do teste Two Way ANOVA para análise da QL e t de student para a Capacidade Antioxidante Total (TRAP. RESULTADOS: A análise da QL revelou uma curva de emissão de luz significantemente mais baixa para o grupo exposto ao exercício em normotermia comparado aos sedentários mantidos no calor. A análise da TRAP mostrou diminuição em todos os grupos experimentais em relação ao G4. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que houve níveis menores de produção de ERO nos grupos submetidos somente ao calor ou somente ao exerc

  11. In-situ SEM microchip setup for electrochemical experiments with water based solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.; Købler, C.; Jensen, P.S.; Mølhave, K.

    2013-01-01

    Studying electrochemical (EC) processes with electron microscopes offers the possibility of achieving much higher resolution imaging of nanoscale processes in real time than with optical microscopes. We have developed a vacuum sealed liquid sample electrochemical cell with electron transparent windows, microelectrodes and an electrochemical reference electrode. The system, called the EC-SEM Cell, is used to study electrochemical reactions in liquid with a standard scanning electron microscope (SEM). The central component is a microfabricated chip with a thin (50 nm) Si-rich silicon nitride (SiNx) window with lithographically defined platinum microelectrodes. We show here the design principles of the EC-SEM system, its detailed construction and how it has been used to perform a range of EC experiments, two of which are presented here. It is shown that the EC-SEM Cell can survive extended in-situ EC experiments. Before the EC experiments we characterized the beam current being deposited in the liquid as this will affect the experiments. The first EC experiment shows the influence of the electron-beam (e-beam) on a nickel solution by inducing electroless nickel deposition on the window when increasing the current density from the e-beam. The second experiment shows electrolysis in EC-SEM Cell, induced by the built-in electrodes. - Highlights: • New in-situ SEM system for electrochemistry. • In-situ Beam current measurements through liquid. • In-situ SEM E-beam-induced electroless deposition of Ni. • In-situ electrolysis

  12. In-situ SEM microchip setup for electrochemical experiments with water based solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, E., E-mail: eric.jensen@nanotech.dtu.dk [DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, Building 345E, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); DTU CEN, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, Building 307, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Købler, C., E-mail: carsten.kobler@nanotech.dtu.dk [DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, Building 345E, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); DTU CEN, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, Building 307, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Jensen, P.S., E-mail: psj@kemi.dtu.dk [DTU Kemi, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 207, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Mølhave, K., E-mail: kristian.molhave@nanotech.dtu.dk [DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, Building 345E, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-06-15

    Studying electrochemical (EC) processes with electron microscopes offers the possibility of achieving much higher resolution imaging of nanoscale processes in real time than with optical microscopes. We have developed a vacuum sealed liquid sample electrochemical cell with electron transparent windows, microelectrodes and an electrochemical reference electrode. The system, called the EC-SEM Cell, is used to study electrochemical reactions in liquid with a standard scanning electron microscope (SEM). The central component is a microfabricated chip with a thin (50 nm) Si-rich silicon nitride (SiNx) window with lithographically defined platinum microelectrodes. We show here the design principles of the EC-SEM system, its detailed construction and how it has been used to perform a range of EC experiments, two of which are presented here. It is shown that the EC-SEM Cell can survive extended in-situ EC experiments. Before the EC experiments we characterized the beam current being deposited in the liquid as this will affect the experiments. The first EC experiment shows the influence of the electron-beam (e-beam) on a nickel solution by inducing electroless nickel deposition on the window when increasing the current density from the e-beam. The second experiment shows electrolysis in EC-SEM Cell, induced by the built-in electrodes. - Highlights: • New in-situ SEM system for electrochemistry. • In-situ Beam current measurements through liquid. • In-situ SEM E-beam-induced electroless deposition of Ni. • In-situ electrolysis.

  13. The importance of scanning electron microscopy (sem in taxonomy and morphology of Chironomidae (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kownacki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the value of scanning electron microscopy (SEM in the taxonomy and morphology of Chironomidae. This method has been relatively rarely used in Chironomidae studies. Our studies suggest that the SEM method provides a lot of new information. For example, the plastron plate of the thoracic horn of Macropelopia nebulosa (Meigen under light microscopy is visible as points, while under SEM we have found that it consists of a reticular structure with holes. By using SEM a more precise picture of the body structure of Chironomidae can be revealed. It allows researchers to explain inconsistencies in the existing descriptions of species. Another advantage of the SEM method is obtaining spatial images of the body and organs of Chironomidae. However, the SEM method also has some limitations. The main problem is dirt or debris (e.g. algae, mud, secretions, mucus, bacteria, etc., which often settles on the external surface of structures, especially those which are uneven or covered with hair. The dirt should be removed after collection of chironomid material because if left in place it can become chemically fixed to various surfaces. It unnecessarily remains at the surface and final microscopic images may contain artifacts that obscure chironomid structures being investigated. In this way many details of the surface are thus unreadable. The results reported here indicate that SEM examination helps us to identify new morphological features and details that will facilitate the identification of species of Chironomidae and may help to clarify the function of various parts of the body. Fast development of electron microscope technique allows us to learn more about structure of different organisms.

  14. Evaluation of depth of field in SEM images in terms of the information-passing capacity (IPC) and contrast gradient in SEM image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mitsugu; Ishitani, Tohru; Watanabe, Shunya; Nakagawa, Mine

    2004-01-01

    The depth of field (DoF) in scanning electron microscope (SEM) images has been determined by estimating the change of image sharpness or resolution near the exact focus position. The image sharpness or resolution along the optical axis is determined by calculating the information-passing capacity (IPC) of an optical system taking into account the effect of pixel size of the image. The change of image sharpness near the exact focus position is determined by measuring the slope gradient of the line profile in SEM images obtained at various focal positions of beam. The change of image sharpness along the optical axis determined by the IPC agrees well with those determined by the slope gradient of line profiles in SEM images when a Gaussian distribution having radius 0.86L p (L p : pixel size in image) at which the intensity has fallen to 1/e of the maximum is applied to the IPC calculation for each pixel intensity. The change of image sharpness near the exact focus position has also been compared with those determined by the CG (Contrast-to-Gradient) method. The CG method slightly underestimates the change of image sharpness compared with those determined by the IPC method

  15. Comportamento de porta-enxertos de mangueira (Mangifera indica L. submetidos a condições de baixas temperaturas Mango rotstock resistance to low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVAN JOSÉ ANTUNES RIBEIRO

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento, observou-se o comportamento de porta-enxertos mono e poliembriônicos de manga em relação a baixa temperaturas, na Estação Experimental de Agronomia de Tatuí, do IAC. Utilizaram-se como porta-enxertos monoembriônicos as variedades Sensation, Haden e Tommy Atkins para a copa Haden, e os poliembriônicos Coquinho, Manga-d'Água, Carabao e Pico para as copas Haden e IAC 100 Bourbon. As mudas, com 18 a 24 meses de idade, foram plantadas em janeiro de 1990. As temperaturas registradas no abrigo meteorológico atingiram valores de 1ºC, 2ºC e 2,4ºC, respectivamente, nos dias 19, 20 e 23 de maio de 1990; 1,6ºC, 1ºC e 2ºC, nos dias 22, 23 e 24 de junho e 1ºC e 2,4ºC, nos dias 30 e 31 de julho, respectivamente. Essas temperaturas, no abrigo meteorológico, correspondem a temperaturas inferiores a 0ºC ao nível do solo. Verificou-se que não houve morte do porta-enxerto Carabao, independentemente da copa enxertada. Para os demais porta-enxertos, o índice de mortalidade variou de 35 a 70%.The performance of mango mono and poliembrionic rootstock to environmental low temperature was observed at Tatuí, SP, Brazil (23º20'S and 47º52'W. The varieties Sensation, Haden and Tommy Atkins were used as monoembrionic rootstock for Haden scion and Coquinho, Manga d'Àgua, Carabao and Pico as poliembrionic rootstock for Haden and IAC 100 Bourbon scions. The grafted plants aging 18 to 24 months were planted in January, 1990. Registered temperatures in the standard weather station reached 1ºC, 2ºC and 2,4ºC in May 19th, 20th and 23rd, 1990 respectively; 1,6ºC, 1ºC and 2ºC in June, 22nd, 23rd and 24th and 1ºC and 2,4ºC in July, 30th and 31st respectively. These temperatures at the weather station are corresponding to temperetures under 0ºC at soil level. The rootstock Carabao survived to those temperatures in spite of the scion. The others rootstocks showed a mortality from 35 to 70%

  16. Experimental investigation on 3D-SEM reconstructions of a wire gauge using stereo-pair technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; Genta, G.; Cantatore, Angela

    2011-01-01

    In this work an experimental investigation is addressed concerning 3D-SEM reconstructions obtained from the so-called stereo-pair technique. Three-dimensional topography of an object can be derived from two SEM images acquired from two different angles, through item rotation by means of the SEM...

  17. A Teoria dos Blocos Semânticos em revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Machado

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A Teoria dos Blocos Semânticos ocupa lugar significativo nos trabalhos mundiais em Semântica, Argumentação e Enunciação, dentre outros. Por isso sua pertinência para a Linguística reclama uma reflexão. O presente trabalho pretende refletir algumas reformulações na Teoria dos Blocos Semânticos nas últimas duas décadas, a saber: (a polifonia, (b bloco semântico, e (c quadrado argumentativo. Especificamente, trataremos das seguintes relações: (a’ da Teoria Polifônica da Enunciação à Teoria Argumentativa da Polifonia; (b’ do bloco semântico ao semi-bloco; e (c’ do quadrado argumentativo ao cubo argumentativo. A necessidade deste trabalho é duplamente justificada: (i devido à constante revisão teórica do arcabouço teórico deste saber, sobretudo na sua última década, característica de Marion Carel e de Oswald Ducrot; e (ii pela falta de tradução/circulação no Brasil de obras fundamentais no que tange à re-elaboração das noções chaves desta teoria.

  18. SEM-REV: A sea test site for Marine Energy Converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berhault, Christian; Le Crom, Izan; Le Bihan, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to a main funding of Region des Pays de la Loire, the sea test site SEM-REV has been developed by Ecole Centrale de Nantes since 2007 to test both Wave Energy Converters and Floating Wind Turbine in real sea conditions. The sea test site is equipped with a set of oceanographic sensors and with an electric cable of 8 MW, connected to the French grid. The project is located close to Le Croisic, Western coast of France. SEM-REV is one of the main test facilities operated by Ecole Centrale de Nantes to support MRE technologies development. After presenting the initial motivations of the SEM-REV development, the paper describes, in parts 1 and 2, the complete administrative and technical processes that were followed to reach SEM-REV commissioning in 2014. The third part is focused on the exploitation process, including technical and contractual specifications imposed to the MRE developers for installation, tests and decommissioning phases. Some words are given also on the R and D projects using the SEM-REV in-situ monitoring system: prediction of environmental conditions, bio-fooling, acoustic impact. Even if operational phase is not started, expected extensions of the tests site are listed. (authors)

  19. The use of SEM/EDS method in mineralogical analysis of ordinary chondritic meteorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Mirtič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersiveX-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS for determination of mineral phases according to their stoichiometry and assessment of mineral composition of ordinary chondritic meteorite. For the purposes of this study, H3 type ordinary chondritic meteorite Abbott was selected. SEM/EDS allows identification and characterisation of mineralphases, whose size is below the resolution of an optical microscope. Mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix were located in backscattered electron (BSE mode and were assessed from atomic proportions of constituent elements, obtained by the EDS analysis. SEM/EDS analyses of mineral phases showed that Abbott meteorite is characterised by Fe-rich (Fe, Ni-alloy kamacite, Fe-sulphide troilite or pyrrhotite, chromite, Mg-rich olivine, orthopyroxene bronzite or hypersthene, clinopyroxene Al-diopside, acid plagioclase oligoclase, accessory mineral chlorapatite and secondary minerals Fe-hydroxides (goethite or lepidocrocite. Results of semi-quantitative analyses confirmed that most of analysed mineralphases conform well to stoichiometric minerals with minor deviations of oxygen from stoichiometric proportions. Comparison between mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix was also performed, however it showed no significant differences in elemental composition.Differences in chemical composition between minerals in interstitial matrix and chondrules are sometimes too small to be discernedby the SEM/EDS, therefore knowledge of SEM/EDS capabilities is important for correct interpretation of chondrite formation.

  20. In Situ Characterization of Boehmite Particles in Water Using Liquid SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Juan; Arey, Bruce W; Yang, Li; Zhang, Fei; Komorek, Rachel; Chun, Jaehun; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2017-09-27

    In situ imaging and elemental analysis of boehmite (AlOOH) particles in water is realized using the System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). This paper describes the method and key steps in integrating the vacuum compatible SAVLI to SEM and obtaining secondary electron (SE) images of particles in liquid in high vacuum. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) is used to obtain elemental analysis of particles in liquid and control samples including deionized (DI) water only and an empty channel as well. Synthesized boehmite (AlOOH) particles suspended in liquid are used as a model in the liquid SEM illustration. The results demonstrate that the particles can be imaged in the SE mode with good resolution (i.e., 400 nm). The AlOOH EDX spectrum shows significant signal from the aluminum (Al) when compared with the DI water and the empty channel control. In situ liquid SEM is a powerful technique to study particles in liquid with many exciting applications. This procedure aims to provide technical know-how in order to conduct liquid SEM imaging and EDX analysis using SALVI and to reduce potential pitfalls when using this approach.

  1. New airtight transfer box for SEM experiments: Application to lithium and sodium metals observation and analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephant, Nicolas; Grissa, Rabeb; Guillou, Fanch; Bretaudeau, Mickaël; Borjon-Piron, Yann; Guillet, Jacques; Moreau, Philippe

    2018-04-18

    The surface of some materials reacts very quickly on contact with air, either because it is oxidized or because it gets humidity from the air. For the sake of original surface observation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we conceived an airtight transfer box to keep the samples under vacuum from the place of manufacturing to the SEM chamber. This object is designed to fit in all the models of SEM including those provided with an airlock chamber. The design is voluntarily simplified to allow the manufacturing of the object by a standard mechanical workshop. The transfer box can be easily opened by gravity inside the SEM and allows the preservation of the best vacuum inside, before opening. SEM images and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) analyses of metallic lithium and sodium samples are presented prior and after exposure to the air. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of all samples are also discussed in order to investigate the chemical environments of the detected elements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Orientation mapping by transmission-SEM with an on-axis detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundenberger, J.J.; Bouzy, E.; Goran, D.; Guyon, J.; Yuan, H.; Morawiec, A.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional orientation mapping in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a valuable technique for characterizing crystalline materials, but its application to ultrafine or nano-grain materials is limited by its spatial resolution. The resolution can be increased by collecting transmission diffraction patterns in SEM. In previous works, such patterns were collected using off-axis detectors in nearly vertical position. To avoid some drawbacks of such arrangement, a new configuration was devised in which the scintillator is located underneath the thin foil on the optical axis of the microscope, and the light is reflected towards the camera by a mirror. This simple configuration gives intense patterns even at very low probe currents, and can be potentially used for collecting maps of relatively high spatial resolution. Example maps reveal details with dimensions of about 5 nm. Because of its resolution and geometric simplicity, the proposed configuration will open new opportunities in SEM-based characterization of nanocrystalline materials. - Highlights: • New experimental configuration for SEM-based orientation mapping is presented. • The geometry of recording transmission Kikuchi patterns in SEM is simplified. • The new configuration allows for reaching relatively high spatial resolution.

  3. Surgery on spinal epidural metastases (SEM) in renal cell carcinoma: a plea for a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Nicolaas A; Coppes, Maarten H; Vergeer, Rob A; Kuijlen, Jos M A; Groen, Rob J M

    2014-09-01

    Prediction models for outcome of decompressive surgical resection of spinal epidural metastases (SEM) have in common that they have been developed for all types of SEM, irrespective of the type of primary tumor. It is our experience in clinical practice, however, that these models often fail to accurately predict outcome in the individual patient. To investigate whether decision making could be optimized by applying tumor-specific prediction models. For the proof of concept, we analyzed patients with SEM from renal cell carcinoma that we have operated on. Retrospective chart analysis 2006 to 2012. Twenty-one consecutive patients with symptomatic SEM of renal cell carcinoma. Predictive factors for survival. Next to established predictive factors for survival, we analyzed the predictive value of the Motzer criteria in these patients. The Motzer criteria comprise a specific and validated risk model for survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma. After multivariable analysis, only Motzer intermediate (hazard ratio [HR] 17.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.82-166, p=.01) and high risk (HR 39.3, 95% CI 3.10-499, p=.005) turned out to be significantly associated with survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma that we have operated on. In this study, we have demonstrated that decision making could have been optimized by implementing the Motzer criteria next to established prediction models. We, therefore, suggest that in future, in patients with SEM from renal cell carcinoma, the Motzer criteria are also taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Soft tissue digestion of Paradiplozoon vaalense for SEM of sclerites and simultaneous molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Q M; Avenant-Oldewage, A

    2015-02-01

    Classification of most monogeneans is primarily based on size, shape, and arrangement of haptoral sclerites. These structures are often obscured or misinterpreted when studied using light microscopy, leading to confusion regarding defining characters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has predominantly been used to study haptoral sclerites in smaller monogeneans, focusing on hooks and anchors. In the Diplozoidae, SEM has not been used to study haptoral sclerites. Using new and modified techniques, the sclerites of diplozoids collected in South Africa were successfully studied using SEM. The digestion buffer from a DNA extraction kit was used to digest the surrounding tissue, and Poly-L-lysine-coated and concavity slides were employed to limit the movement and loss of sclerites, with the latter being more user-friendly. In addition to the success of visualizing the sclerites using SEM, the digested tissue from as little as half of the haptor provided viable genetic material for molecular characterization. From the results presented here, the study of the sclerites of larger monogeneans using SEM, including those bearing clamps, is a viable possibility for future research. Also, this method may be beneficial for the study of other, non-haptoral sclerites, such as cirri in other families of monogeneans. During this study, Labeo capensis was noted as a valid host of Paradiplozoon vaalense in a region of the Vaal River where the type host, Labeo umbratus, appears to be absent.

  5. SEM/EDS and optical microscopy analyses of microplastics in ocean trawl and fish guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Wagner, Jeff; Ghosal, Sutapa; Bedi, Gagandeep; Wall, Stephen

    2017-12-15

    Microplastic particles from Atlantic and Pacific Ocean trawls, lab-fed fish guts and ocean fish guts have been characterized using optical microscopy and SEM/EDS in terms of size, morphology, and chemistry. We assessed whether these measurements could serve as a rapid screening process for subsequent identification of the likely microplastic candidates by micro-spectroscopy. Optical microscopy enabled morphological classification of the types of particles or fibers present in the sample, as well as the quantification of particle size ranges and fiber lengths. SEM/EDS analysis was used to rule out non-plastic particles and screen the prepared samples for potential microplastic, based on their element signatures and surface characteristics. Chlorinated plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) could be easily identified with SEM/EDS due to their unique elemental signatures including chlorine, as could mineral species that are falsely identified as plastics by optical microscopy. Particle morphology determined by optical microscopy and SEM suggests the fish ingested particles contained both degradation fragments from larger plastic pieces and also manufactured microplastics. SEM images of microplastic particle surfaces revealed characteristic cracks consistent with environmental exposure, as well as pigment particles consistent with manufactured materials. Most of the microplastic surfaces in the fish guts and ocean trawls were covered with biofilms, radiolarians, and crustaceans. Many of the fish stomachs contained micro-shell pieces which visually resembled microplastics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Minimal resin embedding of multicellular specimens for targeted FIB-SEM imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, Nicole L; Machado, Pedro; Markert, Sebastian M; Stigloher, Christian; Schwab, Yannick; Steyer, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is a powerful tool to perform ultrastructural analysis of targeted tissues or cells. The large field of view of the light microscope (LM) enables quick and efficient surveys of the whole specimen. It is also compatible with live imaging, giving access to functional assays. CLEM protocols take advantage of the features to efficiently retrace the position of targeted sites when switching from one modality to the other. They more often rely on anatomical cues that are visible both by light and electron microscopy. We present here a simple workflow where multicellular specimens are embedded in minimal amounts of resin, exposing their surface topology that can be imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). LM and SEM both benefit from a large field of view that can cover whole model organisms. As a result, targeting specific anatomic locations by focused ion beam-SEM (FIB-SEM) tomography becomes straightforward. We illustrate this application on three different model organisms, used in our laboratory: the zebrafish embryo Danio rerio, the marine worm Platynereis dumerilii, and the dauer larva of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we focus on the experimental steps to reduce the amount of resin covering the samples and to image the specimens inside an FIB-SEM. We expect this approach to have widespread applications for volume electron microscopy on multiple model organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Refinement of Monte Carlo simulations of electron-specimen interaction in low-voltage SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieft, Erik; Bosch, Eric

    2008-01-01

    A Monte Carlo tool is presented for the simulation of secondary electron (SE) emission in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool is based on the Geant4 platform of CERN. The modularity of this platform makes it comparatively easy to add and test individual physical models. Our aim has been to develop a flexible and generally applicable tool, while at the same time including a good description of low-energy (<50 eV) interactions of electrons with matter. To this end we have combined Mott cross-sections with phonon-scattering based cross-sections for the elastic scattering of electrons, and we have adopted a dielectric function theory approach for inelastic scattering and generation of SEs. A detailed model of the electromagnetic fields from an actual SEM column has been included in the tool for ray tracing of secondary and backscattered electrons. Our models have been validated against experimental results through comparison of the simulation results with experimental yields, SE spectra and SEM images. It is demonstrated that the resulting simulation package is capable of quantitatively predicting experimental SEM images and is an important tool in building a deeper understanding of SEM imaging.

  8. Avaliação da tolerabilidade e do controle de ciclo de dois contraceptivos orais de baixa dose: estudo comparativo aberto Assessment of the tolerability and cycle control of two low-dose oral contraceptives: an open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund C. Baracat

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo aberto comparativo em nove centros brasileiros para avaliar a tolerabilidade e o controle de ciclo obtido com o uso de dois contraceptivos orais de baixa dose contendo 20 mg etinilestradiol/75 mg gestodeno e 20 mg etinilestradiol/150 mg desogestrel, durante seis ciclos de tratamento. Foram selecionadas 167 mulheres saudáveis com vida sexual ativa (77 no grupo do gestodeno e 90 no grupo do desogestrel, das quais 138 completaram os seis ciclos de tratamento. Em um subgrupo de novas usuárias realizou-se também perfil lipídico e hemostático. Foram avaliados 867 ciclos no total. Ocorreu sangramento irregular em 4,6% dos ciclos com gestodeno e em 8,1% com desogestrel. A tolerabilidade a ambas preparações foi boa, mas houve significativamente mais náusea no grupo do desogestrel. O controle de ciclo foi bom com os dois contraceptivos, sendo que houve freqüência significativamente menor de sangramento irregular no grupo do gestodeno quando se leva em conta que todos os ciclos foram considerados. Não houve alterações clinicamente significativas no perfil hemostático. O perfil lipídico mostrou tendência a tornar-se mais favorável após seis ciclos de tratamento com as duas preparações. Não ocorreu alteração no peso médio das mulheres no grupo do gestodeno; no grupo do desogestrel houve aumento significativo no peso médio de aproximadamente 1 kg após seis meses de tratamento. A adesão ao tratamento foi boa com as duas preparações. Os resultados deste estudo mostram que preparações contendo baixa dose de gestodeno ou desogestrel associados a 20 mg de etinilestradiol são contraceptivos bem tolerados que permitem bom controle de ciclo, sem efeitos colaterais significantes.An open-label comparative study was conducted in nine centers in Brazil to evaluate the tolerability and cycle control of two low-dose oral contraceptives containing 20 mg ethynylestradiol/75 mg gestodene and 20 mg ethynylestradiol/150 mg

  9. The influence of low-level laser therapy on biomodulation of collagen and elastic fibers A influência da terapia a laser de baixa densidade de energia na biomodulação das fibras colágenas e elásticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Souza Pugliese

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of low-level laser therapy upon extracellular matrix elements is important to understand the wound healing process under this agent. However, little is known about the interference of laser light in relation to collagen and elastic fibers. Cutaneous wounds were performed on the back of 72 Wistar rats and a Ga-Al-As low-level laser was punctually applied with different energy densities. The animals were killed after 24, 48, 72 hours and 5, 7 and 14 days. Tissues were stained with hematoxilin-eosin, sirius red fast green and orcein and then analyzed. It was observed that the treated group exhibited larger reduction of edema and inflammatory infiltrate. The treated animals presented a larger expression of collagen and elastic fibers, although without statistical significance (p > 0.05. Treatment with a dosage of 4 J/cm² exhibited more expressive results than that with 8 J/cm². In this study, the authors concluded that low-level laser therapy contributed to a larger expression of collagen and elastic fibers during the early phases of the wound healing process.O estudo da terapia a laser de baixa densidade de energia sobre os diversos constituintes da matriz extracelular é crucial para o entendimento do processo cicatricial sob esse agente. Todavia, pouco se sabe sobre a interferência do laser em relação às fibras colágenas e elásticas. Realizaram-se ferimentos cutâneos padronizados no dorso de setenta e dois ratos Wistar e, em seguida, aplicação pontual do raio laser de baixa potência do tipo Arseneto de Gálio-Alumínio (Ga-Al-As com diferentes densidades de energia. Os animais foram sacrificados com 24, 48 e 72 horas e aos 5, 7 e 14 dias. Procedeu-se à análise das secções teciduais coradas por hematoxilina-eosina, sírius vermelho e orceína. Observou-se, que nos grupos submetidos à terapia a laser, houve maior redução do edema e infiltrado inflamatório. Os animais tratados apresentaram uma maior expressão de fibras

  10. O parênquima pulmonar do rato Wistar exposto a ruído de baixa frequência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno A.A. Castelo Branco

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Em estudos prévios do aparelho respiratório realizados em ratos expostos a ruído de baixa frequência (RBF, observaram-se lesões irreversíveis do epitélio respiratório. Um dos aspectos mais notáveis destas lesões diz respeito às imagens das microvilosidades das células em escova que apresentam alterações importantes na distribuição e na morfologia. Este estudo é dirigido às populações celulares dos alvéolos pulmonares de ratos expostos a RBF em comparação com ratos mantidos em silêncio. Dez ratos Wistar foram expostos continuadamente a 2160 horas de RBF e sacrificados após uma semana em silêncio. Dez ratos de controlo, do mesmo grupo etário, foram mantidos em condições idênticas mas em silêncio. Todos os animais foram tratados de acordo com a norma 86/609/CE. Fragmentos do parênquima pulmonar foram recolhidos e processados para microscopia óptica e electrónica de varrimento. Nos ratos expostos, as paredes alveolares apresentam-se grosseiramente espessadas e a estrutura distorcida ou mesmo apagada. Os macrófagos são extremamente frequentes nos ratos expostos, embora também se observem em menor número nos ratos de controlo. As paredes dos vasos estão espessadas e os pneumócitos de tipo I são raros. Em contraste, os de tipo II tornam-se na população celular alveolar mais frequente e importante. Nestas células, as microvilosidades distribuem-se irregularmente. Ainda nos pneumócitos tipo II, observa-se com grande frequência “buracos negros” na superfície. Observam-se ainda 2 tipos de células em escova: as intersticiais e as externas. Nos ratos expostos, as microvilosidades destas células apresentam-se fundidas. O RBF exerce uma acção nociva sobre o parênquima pulmonar.REV PORT PNEUMOL 2004; X (1: 77-85 ABSTRACT: Previous studies of low frequency noise (LFN (≤ 500

  11. Desenvolvimento de cultivares de soja em função do grupo de maturação e tipo de crescimento em terras altas e terras baixas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alencar Junior Zanon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o desenvolvimento de cultivares de soja com diferentes grupos de maturação e tipos de crescimento em terras altas e terras baixas no Rio Grande do Sul. Foram conduzidas nove épocas de semeadura em Santa Maria (ambiente de terras altas e uma época de semeadura em Capão do Leão (ambiente de terras baixas durante os anos agrícolas 2010/2011, 2011/2012 e 2012/2013, com 11 cultivares de soja. O delineamento experimental em todos os experimentos foi blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas. Foi quantificada a duração, em ºC dia, do ciclo de desenvolvimento, da fase vegetativa e reprodutiva, e do período entre a data que ocorreu o início do florescimento e o número final de nós para todas as épocas e locais de semeadura. Houve redução da duração da fase reprodutiva, do ciclo total de desenvolvimento (exceto algumas cultivares semeadas em setembro, com o atraso da data de semeadura independentemente do grupo de maturação e tipo de crescimento. As semeaduras de setembro, janeiro e fevereiro promovem uma redução da fase vegetativa na maioria das cultivares quando comparadas com a época recomendada (novembro e dezembro. Cultivares indeterminadas apresentam um maior período de sobreposição das fases vegetativa e reprodutiva do que as cultivares determinadas em todas as épocas e locais de cultivo. O desenvolvimento da soja é similar quando cultivada em terras altas e terras baixas.

  12. Speciation of uranium in minerals by Sem, Tem, μ-PIXE, XPS and XAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshihiko Ohnuki; Hiroshi Isobe; Tomihiro Kamiya; Takuro Sakai; Takashi Murakami

    2001-01-01

    Many kinds of electromagnetic waves and particle beams are used as analytical probes for the investigation of uranium-mineralogy and speciation. The representatives of the probes are SEM, TEM, μ-PIRE, XPS and XAFS. Each of these analytical probes has its own advantages and disadvantages. We have performed studies to compare the advantages and disadvantages on the basis of the analysis of the distribution and speciation of U containing rock samples collected at the Koongarra uranium deposit, Australia. The spatial resolutions of the probes are in the order of TEM>SEM, μ-PIXE>XFAS, XPS. The lower detection limits of the probes are in the order of μ-PIXE< TEM, SEM< XFAS, XPS. Oxidation state of U was determined by XFAS and XPS. These results indicate that combination of the above probes can give us sufficient data on U speciation not only in natural rock samples but in solid samples obtained in the laboratory. (authors)

  13. Carotene location in processed food samples measured by cryo In-SEM Raman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia; Schumm, Stephan; Pudney, Paul D A; Hazekamp, Johan

    2011-09-21

    Cryo In-SEM Raman has been used for the first time to localise carotene compounds in a food matrix. Raman spectra of lycopene and β-carotene have been obtained from sampling oil droplets and plant cell structures visualised with cryo-SEM in tomato and carrot based emulsions containing 5% oil. It was possible to identify the carotenoids in both the oil droplets and the cell walls. Furthermore our results gave some indication that the carotenoids were in the non-crystalline state. It has been suggested that a higher amount of carotenes solubilised into the oil phase of the food matrix would lead to a higher bioaccessibility, thus understanding the effect of processing conditions on micronutrients distribution in a food matrix might help the design of plant based food products with a better nutritional quality. This shows improved structural characterisation of the cryo-SEM with the molecular sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy as a promising approach for complex biological problems.

  14. The advancement of the built environment research through employment of structural equation modeling (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilah, S.; Fahmyddin, T.

    2018-03-01

    The employment of structural equation modeling (SEM) in research has taken an increasing attention in among researchers in built environment. There is a gap to understand the attributes, application, and importance of this approach in data analysis in built environment study. This paper intends to provide fundamental comprehension of SEM method in data analysis, unveiling attributes, employment and significance and bestow cases to assess associations amongst variables and constructs. The study uses some main literature to grasp the essence of SEM regarding with built environment research. The better acknowledgment of this analytical tool may assist the researcher in the built environment to analyze data under complex research questions and to test multivariate models in a single study.

  15. High resolution SEM characterization of nano-precipitates in ODS steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwik, Iwona; Strojny-Nędza, Agata; Chmielewski, Marcin; Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Kurpaska, Łukasz; Nosewicz, Szymon

    2018-05-01

    The performance of the present-day scanning electron microscopy (SEM) extends far beyond delivering electronic images of the surface topography. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel is on of the most promising materials for the future nuclear fusion reactor because of its good radiation resistance, and higher operation temperature up to 750°C. The microstructure of ODS should not exceed tens of nm, therefore there is a strong need in a fast and reliable technique for their characterization. In this work, the results of low-kV SEM characterization of nanoprecipitates formed in the ODS matrix are presented. Application of highly sensitive photo-diode BSE detector in SEM imaging allowed for the registration of single nm-sized precipitates in the vicinity of the ODS alloys. The composition of the precipitates has been confirmed by TEM-EDS. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Enhanced EDX images by fusion of multimodal SEM images using pansharpening techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, G; Angulo, J; Moreaud, M; Sorbier, L

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential interest of image fusion in the context of multimodal scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. In particular, we aim at merging the backscattered electron images that usually have a high spatial resolution but do not provide enough discriminative information to physically classify the nature of the sample, with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) images that have discriminative information but a lower spatial resolution. The produced images are named enhanced EDX. To achieve this goal, we have compared the results obtained with classical pansharpening techniques for image fusion with an original approach tailored for multimodal SEM fusion of information. Quantitative assessment is obtained by means of two SEM images and a simulated dataset produced by a software based on PENELOPE. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  17. Development of an Economical Interfacing Circuit for Upgrading of SEM Data Printing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnachaiya, S.; Thong-Aram, D.

    2002-01-01

    The operating conditions of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) i.e., magnification, accelerating voltage, micron mark and film identification labeling, are very important for the accurate interpretation of a micrograph picture. In the old model SEM, the built-in data printing system for film identification can be inputted only the numerical number. This will be made a confusing problems when various operating conditions were applied in routine work. An economical interfacing circuit, therefore, was developed to upgrade the data printing system for capable of alphanumerical labeling. The developed circuit was tested on both data printing systems of JSM-T220 and JSM-T330 (JEOL SEM). It was found that the interfacing function worked properly and easily installed

  18. Comparison of multilayered nanowire imaging by SEM and Helium Ion Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inkson, B J; Peng, Y; Jepson, M A E; Rodenburg, C; Liu, X

    2010-01-01

    The helium ion microscope (HeIM) is capable of probe sizes smaller than SEM and, with intrinsically small ion/sample interaction volumes, may therefore potentially offer higher spatial resolution secondary electron (SE) imaging of nanostructures. Here 55 nm diameter CoPt/Pt multilayered nanowires have been imaged by HeIM, SEM and TEM. It is found that there is an increased resolution of nanowire surface topography in HeIM SE images compared to SEM, however there is a reduction of materials contrast of the alternating Pt and CoPt layers. This can be attributed to the increased contribution of surface contamination layers to the ion-induced SE signal, and carbon is also observed to grow on the nanowires under prolonged HeIM scanning.

  19. Precise and economic FIB/SEM for CLEM: with 2 nm voxels through mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckner, Manja; Wanner, Gerhard

    2018-05-23

    A portfolio is presented documenting economic, high-resolution correlative focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) in routine, comprising: (i) the use of custom-labeled slides and coverslips, (ii) embedding of cells in thin, or ultra-thin resin layers for correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) and (iii) the claim to reach the highest resolution possible with FIB/SEM in xyz. Regions of interest (ROIs) defined in light microscope (LM), can be relocated quickly and precisely in SEM. As proof of principle, HeLa cells were investigated in 3D context at all stages of the cell cycle, documenting ultrastructural changes during mitosis: nuclear envelope breakdown and reassembly, Golgi degradation and reconstitution and the formation of the midzone and midbody.

  20. Encontros e desvios nos semáforos: investigando artistas em Florianópolis/SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz S. Albino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2178-4582.2012v46n2p469 A ideia de investigar artistas que atuam em semáforos de Florianópolis/SC teve sua origem em um estranhamento que nos fez vê-los na forma de uma alteridade radical. A pesquisa etnográfica permitiu descobrir relações simbólicas de pertencimentoe de desvio entre os artistas, destacando-se a figura de um “outro”, próximo, mas perigoso, que partilha simbolicamente os semáforos: o micróbio, estrangeiro que faria confundir o artista com a marginalidade. No semáforo ocorre também, no entanto, a reafirmação, por meio das performances dos artistas, do que deles é esperado: a comicidade, o virtuosismo, a aparência adequada.

  1. PAT and SEM study of porous silicon formed by anodization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jian; Wei Long; Wang Huiyao; Ma Chuangxin; Wang Baoyi

    2000-01-01

    The porous silicon formed by anodization of crystal silicon was studied by positron annihilation technique (PAT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The PAT experiments showed that the mean life and vacancy defects increased with the increasing anodization time. While the intensities of the longest lifetime, several ns-tens ns (ortho-positronium) dropped down. Small single-crystal Si spheres with mean radius of a few μm were observed by SEM after anodization. Pits with mean radius of a few μm from the divorcement of single-crystal spheres were also observed after further anodization. The increases of vacancy defects might be that the extension of structures of porous silicon towards inner layer with anodization time and caused more vacancy defects in inner layer. The SEM observation presented another possibility of the increase of density of vacancy defects in surface layer induced by the change of structures

  2. SEM studies of the structure of the gels prepared from untreated and radiation modified potato starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieśla, Krystyna; Sartowska, Bożena; Królak, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Potato starch was irradiated with a 60 Co gamma rays using doses of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. Gels containing ca. 9.1% of starch were prepared by heating the starch suspensions in the heating chamber stabilized at 100 °C. Four procedures were applied for preparation of the samples in regard to SEM studies and the ability to observe the radiation effect by SEM was assessed for each method. Differences were observed between the SEM images recorded for the non-irradiated samples prepared using all the methods, and those irradiated. Images of the non-irradiated gels indicate generally a honey-comb structure, while smooth areas but with oriented fractures has appeared after irradiation. Modification of gel structure corresponds to the applied dose. The results were related to the process of gel formation (as observed by means of the hot stage microscope) to decrease in swelling power of the irradiated starch and to decreased viscosity of the resulting gels. It can be concluded that the differences in structural properties of gels shown by SEM result probably due to the better homogenization of the gels formed after radiation induced degradation. - Highlights: • Four procedures of the preservation of starch gels for SEM studies were applied. • The ability to observe the radiation effect by SEM was assessed for each method. • Dose dependent changes in the gel structure were discovered. • It was related to decrease in the swelling power and decreased viscosity of the gels. • A hot-stage microscope was applied in order to follow the gelatinization process

  3. Proposição e teste de um modelo de turismo para a população de baixa renda na cidade de São Paulo [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20090801002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Giovinazzo Spers

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 RESUMO No campo de oportunidades que a população de classe de baixa renda apresenta, esse artigo visa analisar essas oportunidades na área do turismo, com o objetivo de propor um modelo de turismo voltado para as classes C e D, especificamente na região de São Paulo (capital e verificar sua aceitação junto à população de baixa renda. O modelo foi estruturado com base na teoria sobre o mercado popular, adaptando serviços de turismo existentes aos interesses e renda disponível deste segmento popular, tendo em vista o referencial conceitual analisado. A partir de uma pesquisa de campo, pode-se comprovar que as mudanças propostas para estruturar o modelo de turismo para baixa renda tiveram boa aceitação pelo público-alvo. Este público busca um pacote turístico com boa qualidade, preço baixo e com supressão de serviços dispensáveis (como arrumação do quarto todos os dias, refeições e televisão no quarto. Além disso, pode-se notar o interesse desse público por alguns roteiros de turismo e passeios ecológicos, representando uma oportunidade a ser explorada junto a uma parcela da população disposta a gastar parte de sua renda com o lazer, especialmente com viagens.   Palavras-chave Estratégias para baixa renda; Mercado popular; Turismo popular.   ABSTRACT In the opportunities that the income market bring to the firms, this paper will explore the opportunities in the tourism industry. The purpose of this paper is to develop a tourism model to low-income market in São Paulo, and to test it’s acceptance. The model was structured based on the theory about the low-income market, adapting the services to the interest of the potential consumers. The research proved that the changes had well acceptance. It becomes clear that the income market looks for quality and low price, excluding unessential services. Besides that, it’s possible to notice

  4. Disseleneto de difenila: Um organocalcogênio com baixa toxicidade em não roedores e importantes propriedades anti-aterogênicas em modelos in vivo e in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Andreza Fabro de Bem

    2007-01-01

    A aterosclerose é uma condição inflamatória crônica associada à produção de espécies oxidantes. A oxidação da lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL) parece ter um papel fundamental na patogênese da aterosclerose, desta forma os antioxidantes, substâncias capazes de inibir o processo oxidativo, podem ser úteis na prevenção das condições patológicas associadas à aterosclerose, como doenças cardiovasculares e acidentes vasculares cerebrais. Nesta tese, investigou-se os potenciais efeitos to...

  5. Desarrollo metodológico para la caracterización morfodinámica de playas mediante el empleo de técnicas eléctricas : aplicación en la Rías Baixas gallegas

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Gómez, Ángela

    2014-01-01

    Las playas son ambientes de alto valor ambiental sin olvidar que una de sus funciones, es la protección de la costa frente a fenómenos costeros y que cada vez son más frecuentes e intensos. Son ambientes complejos debido a los grandes cambios morfodinámicos que ocurren en ellos, y el desarrollo de nuevas metodologías para su estudio es de gran interés a nivel mundial. Nuestra primera aportación, consistió en analizar el grado de modificación de las Rías Baixas gallegas identifi...

  6. Análise dos efeitos agudos do laser de baixa intensidade. (660nm) sobre os níveis de estresse oxidativo de ratos diabéticos com feridas na pele

    OpenAIRE

    Denadai, Amanda Silveira

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O termo estresse oxidativo é utilizado quando se evidencia um desequilíbrio entre os sistemas pró e antioxidantes. A laserterapia influencia parâmetros de estresse oxidativo como a alteração da atividade das enzimas antioxidantes e a produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ERO). Objetivo: Analisar o efeito da laserterapia de baixa intensidade - LLLT sobre o estresse oxidativo provocado por ferida cirúrgica aguda em ratos diabéticos. Materiais e métodos: ...

  7. Avaliação do efeito da laserterapia em baixa intensidade na reparação óssea após radioterapia externa – estudo experimental em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão, Darcy de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da Laserterapia em baixa intensidade na reparação de feridas cirúrgicas produzidas no tecido ósseo de ratos da raça Wistar. Para isso, foi artificialmente produzido um orifício no fêmur dos ratos e quatro dias após, os ratos foram submetidos a radioterapia externa com fonte de cobalto radioativo na dosagem de 3000 cGys. O grupo experimental recebeu adicionalmente sete sessões de Laserterapia de 780 hm, 40 nW, 100 J/cm2, por 100 seg. (qu...

  8. Efeitos da laserterapia de baixa potência associada ou não a exercício excêntrico no tratamento de tendinopatia induzida do tendão calcanear comum de Ratos (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Micheline Ozana da

    2013-01-01

    A dissertação foi desenvolvida em dois subprojetos, sendo o primeiro intitulado Análises clínica e biomecânica do tendão calcanear comuns de ratos Wistar submetido à laserterapia associada ou não a exercício excêntrico , e o segundo Análise histomorfometrica do tendão calcanear comum de ratos Wistar tratado com laserterapia e exercício excêntrico . O primeiro subprojeto teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da terapia com laser de baixa potência associada a exercício excêntrico (caminhada em ...

  9. A SEM-correlation of the anatomy of the vitreous body: making visible the invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongebloed, W L; Humalda, D; Worst, J F

    1986-12-30

    The naked human vitreous (sclera, iris and cornea removed) suspended in water does not reveal inner structures. After ink injection into the vitreous, the presence of different compartments and the existence of cisterns becomes evident. A concept of the internal system of cisterns is given on the basis of stereoscopic-lightmicroscopic images. An attempt is made to correlate images of the complete vitreous body, obtained with a stereo-lightmicroscope, with images of segments of cisternal walls produced with a scanning electron-microscope (SEM). A comparison is made between SEM-images of the vitreous bodies of human and rabbit eyes.

  10. Neuropsicología de la demencia semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Quintero, Luz Helena

    2012-01-01

    La Demencia Semántica causa alteraciones en la capacidad para recordar el significado de las palabras, rostros y objetos, producto de atrofia asimétrica o bilateral de los lóbulos temporales anteriores. Clínicamente se han observado múltiples síndromes clínicos superpuestos con otras enfermedades degenerativas como la Afasia Primaria Progresiva y la Demencia tipo Alzheimer. El propósito de este estudio fue identificar alteraciones lingüísticas y semánticas en un grupo de pacientes con Demenci...

  11. SEM-EDX IDENTIFICATION OF PARTICLES FROM FOG IN AN INDUSTRIALLY POLLUTED REGION OF CZECH REPUBLIC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoyanova, V.; Shoumkova, A.; Fišák, Jaroslav; Tsacheva, Ts.

    Vol. II - BUA32, č. 1 (2010), s. 269-276 ISSN 1314-2704. [International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2010 /10./. Albena, 20.06.2010-26.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : SEM-EDX * solid atmospheric pollutants * trace elements * heavy metals * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.ipc.bas.bg/PPages/Shoumkova/Publications/Articles/2010%20SEM-EDX%20identification%20of%20FP.pdf

  12. SEM examination and analysis of the interface character in surface modified aramid-epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Khan, M.B.; Hussain, R.

    2011-01-01

    The surface of Kevlar fibers is chemically modified by treatment with Phthalic anhydride (PA) and the effect is examined by SEM for the laser cut, three point bending and interlaminar shear delaminated surfaces. The surface modification improved the adhesion to epoxy resin that clearly leads to cohesive fracture as opposed to interfacial failure in the untreated specimen. SEM reveals marginal surface roughening of fibers without compromising their strength. The interface modification technique described in this paper is attractive thermodynamically as it does not compromise surface free energy of the polymer matrix or that of the fiber itself to enhance wet ability. (author)

  13. El adjetivo en el Nuevo Testamento: clasificación semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Romero González, Dámaris

    2011-01-01

    El adjetivo ha sido estudiado habitualmente desde el punto de vista del sustantivo, como una subclase de éste, ya que ambos poseen una morfología similar. Semánticamente, la mayoría de las gramáticas los clasifican según su capacidad para calificar o determinar al sustantivo, denominándolo calificativo y determinativo respectivamente. Dentro de esta clasificación, se han establecido subgrupos basados en criterios semánticos. Por tanto, el propósito de esta tesis es esbozar una nueva...

  14. SEM analysis of ionizing radiation effects in linear integrated circuits. [Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, A. G.; Gauthier, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    A successful diagnostic technique was developed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as a precision tool to determine ionization effects in integrated circuits. Previous SEM methods radiated the entire semiconductor chip or major areas. The large area exposure methods do not reveal the exact components which are sensitive to radiation. To locate these sensitive components a new method was developed, which consisted in successively irradiating selected components on the device chip with equal doses of electrons /10 to the 6th rad (Si)/, while the whole device was subjected to representative bias conditions. A suitable device parameter was measured in situ after each successive irradiation with the beam off.

  15. Wi-Fi Salvador: mapeamento colaborativo e redes sem fio no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, André; Pastor, Leonardo; Oliveira, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    O trabalho faz uma breve demonstração de políticas públicas para inclusão digital por meio da disponibilização do acesso à internet por meio de redes sem fio e discute a forma como as pessoas se relacionam com os lugares, de acordo com a existência ou inexistência de acessibilidade à internet. O objetivo é discutir o acesso à internet pelas redes sem fio no Brasil e, mais especificamente, na cidade de Salvador. Este trabalho é fruto de pesquisa realizada no âmbito do Grupo de Pesquisa em Cibe...

  16. Mapping the Complex Morphology of Cell Interactions with Nanowire Substrates Using FIB-SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Købler, Carsten; Jensen, Mikkel Ravn Boye

    2013-01-01

    Using high resolution focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) we study the details of cell-nanostructure interactions using serial block face imaging. 3T3 Fibroblast cellular monolayers are cultured on flat glass as a control surface and on two types of nanostructured scaffold...... substrates made from silicon black (Nanograss) with low- and high nanowire density. After culturing for 72 hours the cells were fixed, heavy metal stained, embedded in resin, and processed with FIB-SEM block face imaging without removing the substrate. The sample preparation procedure, image acquisition...

  17. STEM mode in the SEM for the analysis of cellular sections prepared by ultramicrotome sectioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondow, N; Harrington, J; Brydson, R; Brown, A

    2012-01-01

    The use of the dual imaging capabilities of a scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector is highlighted in the analysis of samples with importance in the field of nanotoxicology. Cellular uptake of nanomaterials is often examined by transmission electron microscopy of thin sections prepared by ultramicrotome sectioning. Examination by SEM allows for the detection of artefacts caused by sample preparation (eg. nanomaterial pull-out) and the complementary STEM mode permits study of the interaction between nanomaterials and cells. Thin sections of two nanomaterials of importance in nanotoxicology (cadmium selenide quantum dots and single walled carbon nanotubes) are examined using STEM mode in the SEM.

  18. Marginal adaptation of a low-shrinkage silorane-based composite: A SEM-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Malene; Bindslev, Preben Hørsted; Poulsen, Sven

    2012-01-01

    shrinkage, has been marketed. Objective. To investigate whether reduced polymerization shrinkage improves the marginal adaptation of composite restorations. Material and methods. A total of 156 scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures (78 baseline, 78 follow-up) of the occlusal part of Class II......-casts of the restorations were used for SEM pictures at x 16 magnification. Pictures from baseline and follow-up (398 days, SD 29 days) were randomized and the examiner was blinded to the material and the age of the restoration. Stereologic measurements were used to calculate the length and the width of the marginal...

  19. Separating topographical and chemical analysis of nanostructure of polymer composite in low voltage SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Q; Plenderleith, R A; Claeyssens, F; Rodenburg, C; Dapor, M; Rimmer, S

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of separating the topographical and chemical information in a polymer nano-composite using low-voltage SEM imaging is demonstrated, when images are acquired with a Concentric Backscattered (CBS) detector. This separation of chemical and topographical information is based on the different angular distribution of electron scattering which were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation based on angular restricted detection was applied to a semi-branched PNIPAM/PEGDA interpenetration network for which a linear relationship of topography SEM contrast and feature height data was observed. (paper)

  20. Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)-in-SEM for Bio- and Organo-Mineral Interface Characterization in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Guillaume; Hellal, Jennifer; Ollivier, Patrick; Richard, Annie; Burel, Agnes; Jolly, Louis; Crampon, Marc; Michel, Caroline

    2017-12-01

    Understanding biofilm interactions with surrounding substratum and pollutants/particles can benefit from the application of existing microscopy tools. Using the example of biofilm interactions with zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI), this study aims to apply various approaches in biofilm preparation and labeling for fluorescent or electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) microanalysis for accurate observations. According to the targeted microscopy method, biofilms were sampled as flocs or attached biofilm, submitted to labeling using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindol, lectins PNA and ConA coupled to fluorescent dye or gold nanoparticles, and prepared for observation (fixation, cross-section, freezing, ultramicrotomy). Fluorescent microscopy revealed that nZVI were embedded in the biofilm structure as aggregates but the resolution was insufficient to observe individual nZVI. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed nZVI aggregates close to bacteria, but it was not possible to confirm direct interactions between nZVI and cell membranes. Scanning transmission electron microscopy in the SEM (STEM-in-SEM) showed that nZVI aggregates could enter the biofilm to a depth of 7-11 µm. Bacteria were surrounded by a ring of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) preventing direct nZVI/membrane interactions. STEM/EDS mapping revealed a co-localization of nZVI aggregates with lectins suggesting a potential role of EPS in nZVI embedding. Thus, the combination of divergent microscopy approaches is a good approach to better understand and characterize biofilm/metal interactions.

  1. Supraglotoplastia endoscópica em crianças com laringomalacia grave com e sem doença neurológica associada Endoscopic supraglottoplasty in children with severe laryngomalacia with and without neurological impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Fraga

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever as indicações e resultados da supraglotoplastia endoscópica em crianças com e sem lesão neurológica que apresentavam laringomalacia grave. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo de 8 crianças com laringomalacia grave submetidas à supraglotoplastia endoscópica com material de microcirurgia. Quatro crianças tinham paralisia cerebral (todas masculinas, idade média 6 anos e 4 eram crianças sem doença neurológica (3 femininas, idade média de 11,5 meses. As indicações da cirurgia foram dificuldade respiratória em repouso e/ou esforço, dificuldade de deglutição, deficiência de crescimento e baixa saturação transcutânea de oxigênio. Estudo polissonográfico realizado nas últimas duas crianças mostrou dessaturação na oximetria, apnéia e hipoventilação durante o sono. As crianças receberam corticóide e antibiótico no pré-operatório. RESULTADOS: todas as crianças sem doença neurológica apresentaram melhora significativa do estridor e da obstrução ventilatória. Das crianças com paralisia cerebral, uma necessitou traqueostomia logo após a cirurgia por edema e tecido de granulação supraglótico. As outras três apresentaram melhora clínica inicial, mas pioraram progressivamente, apesar da realização de outros procedimentos: uma necessitou nova supraglotoplastia após 6 meses; outra necessitou traqueostomia após 7 meses. Aquelas sem traqueostomia persistem com obstrução ventilatória grave. Não foi observada complicação do procedimento cirúrgico. CONCLUSÕES: 1 a supraglotoplastia é bem tolerada e sem complicações na criança; 2 a supraglotoplastia, neste estudo, mostrou-se eficaz no tratamento da laringomalacia grave em crianças sem paralisia cerebral; entretanto, a supraglotoplastia não melhorou a obstrução ventilatória de crianças com paralisia cerebral e laringomalacia grave.OBJECTIVE: to describe indications and results of supraglottoplasty for severe laryngomalacia in

  2. A escola média: um espaço sem consenso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Nora

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca discutir o processo de implementação da reforma do ensino médio, a partir de dados colhidos em pesquisa realizada em três estados brasileiros. O intuito é analisar os principais eixos das reformas estaduais e seus focos mais críticos, a partir do estudo de seus diferentes aspectos e das tensões geradas entre a intencionalidade das novas estratégias, a realidade que se quer transformar e o que foi efetivamente produzido como decorrência das medidas propostas. As preocupações principais suscitadas referem-se: ao cenário educacional em que convivem velhos e novos problemas que apontam para a expansão do ensino médio com baixa qualidade, para a privatização da sua gestão, e, simultaneamente, para um forte componente de exclusão; ao fato de que a reforma em curso vem afetando sensivelmente o trabalho do professor e a dinâmica institucional da escola e, em muito menor grau, a realidade educacional do aluno. O estudo conclui que a situação atual do ensino médio encerra o seguinte paradoxo: uma reforma curricular complexa junto com a desvalorização do trabalho intelectual da escola como instituição cultural.

  3. Adsorção de fósforo em solos de argila de atividade baixa Phosphate sorption in low activity clay soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Souza Valladares

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram avaliadas possíveis correlações entre atributos físicos e químicos do solo e a capacidade máxima de adsorção de fósforo (CMAP em solos com argila de atividade baixa de diferentes regiões do Brasil, sendo utilizadas amostras de horizontes superficiais (A e subsuperficiais (B de 16 perfis de solos. As doses para a determinação da CMAP foram calculadas com base no teor de fósforo remanescente e variaram de 0 a 135 mg.L-1. A partir dos dados obtidos foram então construídas isotermas de adsorção de Langmuir. Foram feitas correlações entre CMAP e os teores de argila, de carbono orgânico, ki, kr, superfície específica, teor de alumínio determinado por ataque sulfúrico e teores das diferentes formas de ferro extraível. Foi observada grande variação nos valores de CMAP para o horizonte superficial (48 a 1429 mg.kg-1 e para o horizonte subsuperficial (455 e 1.667 mg.kg-1. Os coeficientes de correlação demonstraram haver uma associação significativa entre a CMAP e o teor de argila dos solos, ferro e alumínio, determinados pelo ataque sulfúrico e ferro extraído com ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato (DCB. A análise de regressão múltipla mostrou bom ajuste aos valores da CMAP com base em atributos dos solos estudados.In this study possible correlations between physical and chemical properties and the maximum phosphorus adsorption capacity (MAPC were evaluated in soils with low activity clay from different regions of Brazil, using samples from the surface (A and subsurface (B horizons of 16 soil profiles. The dosages for the determination of MAPC were calculated from the level of remaining phosphorus and they ranged from 0 to 135 mg L-1. From this data isotherms of P adsorption were built. Correlations were tested between MAPC and the clay content, organic carbon, ki, kr, specific surface, Al content determined by sulfuric acid attack, and content of different forms of extracted iron. A high variation in the

  4. Análise da dose do laser de baixa potência em equipamentos nacionais Analysis of low-level laser therapy doses in Brazilian equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TY Fukuda

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A laserterapia de baixa potência vem sendo cada vez mais utilizada, e o crescente interesse por seus efeitos relaciona-se com a grande quantidade de publicações científicas. Muitos terapeutas e pesquisadores têm-se baseado na definição da dose do laser pela densidade energética (deltaE; porém, a grande variedade de equipamentos de laser pode levar a diferença nos resultados terapêuticos encontrados, por fornecerem parâmetros que variam de acordo com o fabricante. OBJETIVO: Analisar a energia final transmitida ao tecido ao aplicar-se a mesma deltaE em equipamentos de diferentes marcas nacionais. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados sete equipamentos nacionais, com potência média (Pm diferentes, e foram realizadas simulações aplicando deltaE de 1J/cm² em cada aparelho, para avaliar possíveis diferenças na energia final. RESULTADOS: A mesmadeltaE aplicada em diferentes aparelhos nacionais forneceu energia final que variou entre 10 e 90mJ. Esta variação na energia deveu-se principalmente a diferenças na Pm, sendo encontrados valores entre 5,4 e 75mW. CONCLUSÃO: Esta variabilidade na energia final, que é transmitida ao tecido, indica que a deltaE parece não ser o parâmetro que melhor descreve a dose a ser utilizada. É preciso mencionar não só a deltaE, mas também a energia final, para que se possa estabelecer a dose para obtenção do melhor resultado terapêutico.INTRODUCTION: Low-level laser therapy is becoming more popular and there is a growing interest in its effects, as reflected in the increased number of articles published about the subject. Many therapists and researchers have used a laser dose definition based on energy density (deltaE. However, the variety of laser equipments may lead to differences in the therapeutic results found, since the parameters supplied by these equipments vary according to the manufacturer. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the final energy transmitted to the tissue when

  5. Avaliação dO DESEMPENHO de um Pivô Central de Grande Porte e Baixa Pressão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. FOLEGATTI

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de irrigação Pivô Central tem proporcionado um significativo avanço da agricultura irrigada no Brasil. A grande aceitação do equipamento se deve às suas características, que permitem a irrigação mecanizada de extensas áreas, mesmo de topografia irregular, facilidade de utilização de práticas de quimigação, estrutura que não interfere nas operações agrícolas, e em relação ao manejo, possibilidade de aplicação de pequenas lâminas a intervalos reduzidos, além da grande vantagem de após completar um ciclo de irrigação, está no lugar exato para reiniciar outro ciclo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar e analisar as características operacionais de um sistema pivô central de baixa pressão e de grande porte e vazão. Foram estudadas a uniformidade de distribuição e taxa de aplicação de água, distribuição de pressão, o deslocamento das torres e o manejo do equipamento em um sistema instalado na Fazenda Canadá, pertencente à Samambaia Empreendimentos Agrícolas, município de Santa Fé de Goiás (GO. Os resultados permitiram concluir que: 1 o sistema apresenta adequada uniformidade de distribuição de água; 2 a capacidade de aplicação de água é elevada; 3 a tubulação de grande diâmetro da lateral reduz a perda de carga e permite uma distribuição de pressão com menor amplitude de variação, comparável a sistemas de menor porte; 4 o sistema de propulsão com relé percentual de ciclo reduzido e alta velocidade de deslocamento das torres minimiza os efeitos de redução da uniformidade, reduz o tempo de giro e a lâmina por volta.The Center Pivot sprinkler irrigation system is giving a large contribution to the irrigation development in Brazil. The success of the equipment is due to the following reasons: this mechanized equipment can be used in large areas even with irregular topography; the possibility of fertigation associated with the fact of not interfering on agricultural

  6. 3D SEM for surface topography quantification – a case study on dental surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glon, F; Flys, O; Lööf, P-J; Rosén, B-G

    2014-01-01

    3D analysis of surface topography is becoming a more used tool for industry and research. New ISO standards are being launched to assist in quantifying engineering surfaces. The traditional optical measuring instrumentation used for 3D surface characterization has been optical interferometers and confocal based instrumentation. However, the resolution here is limited in the lateral dimension to the wavelength of visible light to about 500 nm. The great advantage using the SEM for topography measurements is the high flexibility to zoom from low magnifications and locating interesting areas to high magnification of down to nanometer large surface features within seconds. This paper presents surface characterization of dental implant micro topography. 3D topography data was created from SEM images using commercial photogrammetric software. A coherence scanning interferometer was used for reference measurements to compare with the 3D SEM measurements on relocated areas. As a result of this study, measurements emphasizes that the correlation between the accepted CSI measurements and the new technology represented by photogrammetry based on SEM images for many areal characterization parameters are around or less than 20%. The importance of selecting sampling and parameter sensitivity to varying sampling is high-lighted. Future work includes a broader study of limitations of the photogrammetry technique on certified micro-geometries and more application surfaces at different scales

  7. Latent vs. Observed Variables : Analysis of Irrigation Water Efficiency Using SEM and SUR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Jianjun; Folmer, Henk

    In this paper we compare conceptualising single factor technical and allocative efficiency as indicators of a single latent variable, or as separate observed variables. In the former case, the impacts on both efficiency types are analysed by means of structural equationmodeling (SEM), in the latter

  8. 3D reconstruction of SEM images by use of optical photogrammetry software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulitz, Mona; Reiss, Gebhard

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) surface of an object to be examined is widely used for structure analysis in science and many biological questions require information about their true 3D structure. For Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) there has been no efficient non-destructive solution for reconstruction of the surface morphology to date. The well-known method of recording stereo pair images generates a 3D stereoscope reconstruction of a section, but not of the complete sample surface. We present a simple and non-destructive method of 3D surface reconstruction from SEM samples based on the principles of optical close range photogrammetry. In optical close range photogrammetry a series of overlapping photos is used to generate a 3D model of the surface of an object. We adapted this method to the special SEM requirements. Instead of moving a detector around the object, the object itself was rotated. A series of overlapping photos was stitched and converted into a 3D model using the software commonly used for optical photogrammetry. A rabbit kidney glomerulus was used to demonstrate the workflow of this adaption. The reconstruction produced a realistic and high-resolution 3D mesh model of the glomerular surface. The study showed that SEM micrographs are suitable for 3D reconstruction by optical photogrammetry. This new approach is a simple and useful method of 3D surface reconstruction and suitable for various applications in research and teaching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hacia una visión generativista de la semántica lexical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales A. Bernardo

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Uno de los objetivos de la teoría semántica de una lengua natural es dar información satisfactoria sobre el significado de las formas lingüísticas. Consideramos que de éstas, las de mayor  importancia significativa son la palabra, la oración y el texto. La palabra, porque en virtud de su compleja estructura semántica y psicológica funciona como el principal medio para la abstracción y conformación de los conceptos destinados para la comunicación; la oración, porque es la unidad de la lengua viva que expresa relaciones de conceptos; el texto, porque es la explicitación del pensamiento en la interacción humana. Las semánticas lexical, oracional y textual son los tres grandes capítulos de la semántica lingüística.


  10. Surface topography characterization using 3D stereoscopic reconstruction of SEM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantha Krishna, Amogh; Flys, Olena; Reddy, Vijeth V.; Rosén, B. G.

    2018-06-01

    A major drawback of the optical microscope is its limitation to resolve finer details. Many microscopes have been developed to overcome the limitations set by the diffraction of visible light. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one such alternative: it uses electrons for imaging, which have much smaller wavelength than photons. As a result high magnification with superior image resolution can be achieved. However, SEM generates 2D images which provide limited data for surface measurements and analysis. Often many research areas require the knowledge of 3D structures as they contribute to a comprehensive understanding of microstructure by allowing effective measurements and qualitative visualization of the samples under study. For this reason, stereo photogrammetry technique is employed to convert SEM images into 3D measurable data. This paper aims to utilize a stereoscopic reconstruction technique as a reliable method for characterization of surface topography. Reconstructed results from SEM images are compared with coherence scanning interferometer (CSI) results obtained by measuring a roughness reference standard sample. This paper presents a method to select the most robust/consistent surface texture parameters that are insensitive to the uncertainties involved in the reconstruction technique itself. Results from the two-stereoscopic reconstruction algorithms are also documented in this paper.

  11. Characterisation of early medieval frescoes by {mu}-PIXE, SEM and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, A. E-mail: zucc@ge.infn.it; Prati, P.; Bouquillon, A.; Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Migliori, A.; Cagnana, A.; Roascio, S

    2004-06-01

    We have studied the VIII-IX century frescoes of the Longobard temple of Cividale del Friuli in Italy with noninvasive sampling and, for the first time in such a context, with high chemical and spatial sensitivity techniques (PIXE, SEM and Raman). Results demonstrate richness of manufacturing details and integrate in a substantial way the historic and artistic framework of this early medieval monument.

  12. 78 FR 50079 - Information Collection Activities: Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS); Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement [Docket ID BSEE-2013-0005; OMB Control Number 1014-0017: 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS); Proposed Collection; Comment Request...

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN LENS CAPSULES - A COMPARATIVE LM, SEM AND TEM EXAMINATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGEBLOED, WL; KALICHARAN, D; LOS, LI; VANDERVEEN, G; WORST, JGF

    1991-01-01

    Lens capsules of patients of advanced age, obtained after extracapsular cataract surgery, were carefully prepared for a combined LM, TEM and SEM investigation, after preliminary washing and mounting onto a holder in a buffer solution. After pre-fixation with GA, samples were postfixed for LM/TEM and

  14. HUMAN CAPSULE EPITHELIAL-CELL DEGENERATION A LM, SEM AND TEM INVESTIGATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGEBLOED, WL; KALICHARAN, D; WORST, JGF

    1993-01-01

    The degeneration of the capsule epithelium of cataractous lenses has been studied with LM, SEM on TEM with emphases on TEM. The observed degeneration of the epithelial cells can be described as follows: The cell nucleus becomes picnotic and desintegrates as result of change of the chromatin.

  15. Analysis the fatigue using pro taper rotary instruments durin instrumentation of extrated mandibular premolars. SEM observation.

    OpenAIRE

    Siragusa, Martha; Racciatti, Gabriela; García, María

    2007-01-01

    Recibido: Marzo 2007 Aceptado: Julio 2007 Siragusa, Martha; Racciatti, Gabriela y García, María. Analysis the fatigue using pro taper rotary instruments durin instrumentation of extrated mandibular premolars. SEM observation. Electronic Journal of Endodontics Rosario [Online], Volumen 2 Número 13. [octubre 2007]. http://www.endojournal.com.ar/journal/index.php/ejer/article/view/44. ISSN 1666-6143.

  16. Integration of Correlative Raman microscopy in a dual beam FIB-SEM J. of Raman Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Frank Jan; Liszka, B.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Otto, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    We present an integrated confocal Raman microscope in a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB SEM). The integrated system enables correlative Raman and electron microscopic analysis combined with focused ion beam sample modification on the same sample location. This provides new

  17. Characterisation of early medieval frescoes by μ-PIXE, SEM and Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Prati, P.; Bouquillon, A.; Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Migliori, A.; Cagnana, A.; Roascio, S.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the VIII-IX century frescoes of the Longobard temple of Cividale del Friuli in Italy with noninvasive sampling and, for the first time in such a context, with high chemical and spatial sensitivity techniques (PIXE, SEM and Raman). Results demonstrate richness of manufacturing details and integrate in a substantial way the historic and artistic framework of this early medieval monument

  18. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  19. Cryo-SEM studies of latex/ceramic nanoparticle coating microstructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui; Scriven, L E; Francis, Lorraine F

    2007-12-15

    Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was used to investigate microstructure development of composite coatings prepared from dispersions of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles (approximately 30 nm) or indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles (approximately 40 nm) and latex particles (polydisperse, D(v): approximately 300 nm). Cryo-SEM images of ATO/latex dispersions as-frozen show small clusters of ATO and individual latex particles homogeneously distribute in a frozen water matrix. In contrast, cryo-SEM images of ITO/latex dispersions as-frozen show ITO particles adsorb onto latex particle surfaces. Electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged ATO and negatively charged latex particles stabilizes the ATO/latex dispersion, whereas in ITO/latex dispersion, positively charged ITO particles are attracted onto surfaces of negatively charged latex particles. These results are consistent with calculations of interaction potentials from past research. Cryo-SEM images of frozen and fractured coatings reveal that both ceramic nanoparticles and latex become more concentrated as drying proceeds; larger latex particles consolidate with ceramic nanoparticles in the interstitial spaces. With more drying, compaction flattens the latex-latex particle contacts and shrinks the voids between them. Thus, ceramic nanoparticles are forced to pack closely in the interstitial spaces, forming an interconnected network. Finally, latex particles partially coalesce at their flattened contacts, thereby yielding a coherent coating. The research reveals how nanoparticles segregate and interconnect among latex particles during drying.

  20. Combination of FTIR and SEM for Identifying Freshwater-Cultured Pearls from Different Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satitkune, Somruedee; Monarumit, Natthapong; Boonmee, Chakkrich; Phlayrahan, Aumaparn; Promdee, Kittiphop; Won-in, Krit

    2016-03-01

    The freshwater-cultured pearl ( Chamberlainia hainesiana species) is an organic gemstone mainly composed of calcium carbonate mineral including calcite, aragonite and vaterite phases. Generally, the quality of freshwater-cultured pearl is based on its luster. The high luster pearl is full of the aragonite phase without vaterite phase. On the other hand, the low luster pearl consists of aragonite and vaterite phases. These data could be proved by the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As the results, the high luster pearl similarly shows the FTIR spectrum of aragonite phase, and also, it shows the hexagonal shape of aragonite for the SEM image. On the other hand, the FTIR spectrum of low luster pearl has been pointed to the mixture component among aragonite and vaterite phases, and based on the SEM image; the irregular form is also interpreted to the mixture of aragonite and vaterite phases. This research concludes that the quality of freshwater-cultured pearls can be identified by the combination data of FTIR spectra and SEM images. These techniques are suitable for applied gemology.

  1. MICROORGANISMS FOUND IN SECONDARY CATARACT MATERIAL OF ECCE PATIENTS, A STUDY WITH SEM AND TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KALICHARAN, D; JONGEBLOED, WL; LOS, LI; WORST, JGF

    1993-01-01

    Globular secondary cataract material, removed from 24 patients with ECCE after ophthalmic cleaning of the anterior capsule, were investigated with SEM and TEM. Besides spherical, somewhat oval shaped bodies of various shape and size comparable with those found in cataractous lenses, (an)aerobic

  2. (AN)AEROBIC BACTERIA FOUND IN SECONDARY-CATARACT MATERIAL - A SEM/TEM STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KALICHARAN, D; JONGEBLOED, WL; LOS, LI; WORST, JGF

    1992-01-01

    Twentyfour patients, who had marked reduction of vision due to secondary-cataract developed after an ECCE, were treated by surgical cleaning of the posterior lens capsule. During this procedure globular secondary-cataract material was removed and collected for morphological examination by SEM and

  3. Controlled dehydration of a biological sample using an alternative form of environmental SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 237, č. 1 (2010), s. 7-11 ISSN 0022-2720 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : biological sample * dehydration * environmental SEM * AQUASEM II * hydration system Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.872, year: 2010

  4. Fractionation of Pb in Soil of Abandoned Pb Mine by SEM-EDX and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) were used for the identification of fractional forms of Pb that are liable to leach out/down from the soil matrix of the abandoned mine site to surface-andunderground water bodies of the nearby localities, and to determine ...

  5. A Comparative SEM-EDS Elemental Composition of Mud in Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to understand the comparative abundance and source of elemental constituents in mud of four coastal shrimp farming areas, Vunh Tau (VT), Nha Trang (NT), Da Nang (DN) and Hue (HU) in Viet Nam using SEM-EDS analysis. Mud samples were collected from shrimp farming coastal zones ...

  6. Recent Advances on In Situ SEM Mechanical and Electrical Characterization of Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM has become a powerful technique for the experimental study of low-dimensional (1D/2D nanomaterials, since it can provide unprecedented details for individual nanostructures upon mechanical and electrical stimulus and thus uncover the fundamental deformation and failure mechanisms for their device applications. In this overview, we summarized recent developments on in situ SEM-based mechanical and electrical characterization techniques including tensile, compression, bending, and electrical property probing on individual nanostructures, as well as the state-of-the-art electromechanical coupling analysis. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of in situ SEM tests were also discussed with some possible solutions to address the challenges. Furthermore, critical challenges were also discussed for the development and design of robust in situ SEM characterization platform with higher resolution and wider range of samples. These experimental efforts have offered in-depth understanding on the mechanical and electrical properties of low-dimensional nanomaterial components and given guidelines for their further structural and functional applications.

  7. A Sandwich-Type Standard Error Estimator of SEM Models with Multivariate Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangjian; Chow, Sy-Miin; Ong, Anthony D.

    2011-01-01

    Structural equation models are increasingly used as a modeling tool for multivariate time series data in the social and behavioral sciences. Standard error estimators of SEM models, originally developed for independent data, require modifications to accommodate the fact that time series data are inherently dependent. In this article, we extend a…

  8. Are the evidences of forensic entomology preserved in ethanol suitable for SEM studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Esclapez, Raquel; García, María-Dolores; Arnaldos, María-Isabel; Presa, Juan José; Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás

    2014-07-01

    In forensic practice, the use of arthropod evidences to estimate the postmortem interval is a very good approach when the elapsed time from death is long, but it requires the correct identification of the specimens. This is a crucial step, not always easy to achieve, in particular when dealing with immature specimens. In this case, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) can be useful, but the techniques used to preserve specimens in forensic practice are usually different from those used to prepare specimens for SEM studies. To determine whether forensic evidences preserving techniques are also compatible with SEM analysis, we have compared specimens of all the immature stages of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera, Calliphoridae) preserved in 70% ethanol, with others prepared with aldehydic fixative techniques that are more appropriate for SEM studies. At the same time, two drying techniques have also been compared with both fixative techniques, the critical point drying and air-drying following with hexamethyldisilizane treatment (HMDS). Our results indicate that there are not basis against recommending the use of ethanol to preserve forensic entomological evidences and that both drying methods appear to offer good results for second and third instar larvae, although HMDS behaves better with eggs and pupae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) as an approach for nanoparticle detection inside cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havrdová, M.; Poláková, K.; Skopalík, J.; Vůjtek, M.; Mokdad, A.; Homolková, M.; Tuček, J.; Nebesářová, Jana; Zbořil, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, DEC 2014 (2014), s. 149-154 ISSN 0968-4328 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Field emission scanning electronmicroscopy (FE-SEM) * Stem cells * Iron oxide nanoparticles * Cellular morphology * Endosomes * Cell uptake Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2014

  10. Surface ultrastructural (SEM) characteristics of oropharyngeal cavity of house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abumandour, Mohamed M A

    2018-06-01

    The focus of the present study is to provide a full morphological description of the oropharyngeal cavity of the house sparrow. The head of six birds was prepared for gross examination and by stereo and electron microscopy. The bifid lingual apex has multiple long, rostrally directed needle-like processes. The lateral border of the apex carries rostromedially directed needle-like processes. The dorsal lingual surface of the apex and body carries numerous caudomedially directed filiform papillae and many orifices of lingual salivary glands. The lingual body is divided into two parts: rostral and caudal. The caudal part is divided into two laterally elevated regions by a median groove, while the rostral part is bounded laterally by a rostrodorsally directed papillary row, which on SEM is formed from two rows. On SEM, the lingual root has many orifices of posterior salivary glands. The pharyngeal papillary row is located at the caudal border of the laryngeal mound, but this single papillary row is formed from two rows at SEM magnification. The laryngeal cleft continues caudally as a laryngeal fissure bounded by two longitudinal rows of caudally directed papillae; at high SEM magnification, this fissure is divided into two halves by a median ridge which carries caudally directed papillae on its posterior part. The choanal cleft proceeds rostrally by the median tubercle. There are a small number of orifices of palatine salivary glands. The morphological characters of the oropharyngeal cavity of the sparrow confirm its adaptation to surrounding environmental conditions and available food particles.

  11. Effects of Missing Data Methods in SEM under Conditions of Incomplete and Nonnormal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Lomax, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, this research examined the performance of four missing data methods in SEM under different multivariate distributional conditions. The effects of four independent variables (sample size, missing proportion, distribution shape, and factor loading magnitude) were investigated on six outcome variables: convergence rate,…

  12. Study of Morphological Changes of The Lime Putties During Maturing by SEM/ESEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátilová, Eva; Neděla, Vilém

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, S1 (2017), s. 2186-2187 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SEM * ESEM * morphological changes * lime putties Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Civil engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  13. Recent Advances on In Situ SEM Mechanical and Electrical Characterization of Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chenchen; Lu, Haojian; Zhang, Hongti; Shen, Yajing; Lu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has become a powerful technique for the experimental study of low-dimensional (1D/2D) nanomaterials, since it can provide unprecedented details for individual nanostructures upon mechanical and electrical stimulus and thus uncover the fundamental deformation and failure mechanisms for their device applications. In this overview, we summarized recent developments on in situ SEM-based mechanical and electrical characterization techniques including tensile, compression, bending, and electrical property probing on individual nanostructures, as well as the state-of-the-art electromechanical coupling analysis. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of in situ SEM tests were also discussed with some possible solutions to address the challenges. Furthermore, critical challenges were also discussed for the development and design of robust in situ SEM characterization platform with higher resolution and wider range of samples. These experimental efforts have offered in-depth understanding on the mechanical and electrical properties of low-dimensional nanomaterial components and given guidelines for their further structural and functional applications.

  14. Does your SEM really tell the truth?--How would you know? Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András E

    2013-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) has gone through a tremendous evolution to become a critical tool for many and diverse scientific and industrial applications. The high resolution of the SEM is especially suited for both qualitative and quantitative applications especially for nanotechnology and nanomanufacturing. Quantitatively, measurement, or metrology is one of the main uses. It is likely that one of the first questions asked before even the first scanning electron micrograph was ever recorded was: "… how big is that?" The quality of that answer has improved a great deal over the past few years especially since today these instruments are being used as a primary measurement tool on semiconductor processing lines to monitor the manufacturing processes. The well-articulated needs of semiconductor production prompted a rapid evolution of the instrument and its capabilities. Over the past 20 years or so, instrument manufacturers, through substantial semiconductor industry investment of research and development (R&D) money, have vastly improved the performance of these instruments. All users have benefited from this investment, especially where quantitative measurements with an SEM are concerned. But, how good are these data? This article discusses some of the most important aspects and larger issues associated with imaging and measurements with the SEM that every user should know, and understand before any critical quantitative work is attempted. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. SD-SEM: sparse-dense correspondence for 3D reconstruction of microscopic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaie, Ahmadreza; Tafti, Ahmad P; Owen, Heather A; D'Souza, Roshan M; Yu, Zeyun

    2017-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging has been a principal component of many studies in biomedical, mechanical, and materials sciences since its emergence. Despite the high resolution of captured images, they remain two-dimensional (2D). In this work, a novel framework using sparse-dense correspondence is introduced and investigated for 3D reconstruction of stereo SEM images. SEM micrographs from microscopic samples are captured by tilting the specimen stage by a known angle. The pair of SEM micrographs is then rectified using sparse scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features/descriptors and a contrario RANSAC for matching outlier removal to ensure a gross horizontal displacement between corresponding points. This is followed by dense correspondence estimation using dense SIFT descriptors and employing a factor graph representation of the energy minimization functional and loopy belief propagation (LBP) as means of optimization. Given the pixel-by-pixel correspondence and the tilt angle of the specimen stage during the acquisition of micrographs, depth can be recovered. Extensive tests reveal the strength of the proposed method for high-quality reconstruction of microscopic samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. On some contrast reversals in SEM: Application to metal/insulator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazaux, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Contrast changes of SEM images with experimental conditions (beam energy, angle of detection, etc.) are analyzed by combining physical arguments based on secondary electron emission (SEE) to instrumental arguments involving detection. Possible occurrences of contrast reversals are explored to illustrate these changes in a striking manner. Deduced from SEE yield data, simulated SEM images show a material contrast reversal for a Pt/quartz specimen, a result partly supported by real images of a Cr/quartz integrated circuit. A shift of reversal energy with the detector's position is deduced from a difference in secondary electrons (SE) angular distributions between metals and insulators. Similarly, changes of topographic contrast with detection conditions, specimen composition and angle of tilt are investigated and a possible contrast reversal is again indicated. Finally, it is shown how charging contrast deduced from the expected evolution of SEE yield during irradiation is amplified by in-lens detection: a point illustrated by a contrast reversal of images of SiC particles. The main application concerns a proper interpretation of SEM images that is essential in the investigation of devices obtained from lithographic processes. The discussion on material contrast outlines the difficulty in generalizing the present analysis based on published data and experimental strategies based on implementing specific attachments in the SEM or on biasing the specimen holder are suggested.

  17. Human cardiac telocytes: 3D imaging by FIB-SEM tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretoiu, D; Hummel, E; Zimmermann, H; Gherghiceanu, M; Popescu, L M

    2014-11-01

    Telocyte (TC) is a newly identified type of cell in the cardiac interstitium (www.telocytes.com). TCs are described by classical transmission electron microscopy as cells with very thin and long telopodes (Tps; cellular prolongations) having podoms (dilations) and podomers (very thin segments). TCs' three-dimensional (3D) morphology is still unknown. Cardiac TCs seem to be particularly involved in long and short distance intercellular signalling and, therefore, their 3D architecture is important for understanding their spatial connections. Using focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) we show, for the first time, the whole ultrastructural anatomy of cardiac TCs. 3D reconstruction of cardiac TCs by FIB-SEM tomography confirms that they have long, narrow but flattened (ribbon-like) telopodes, with humps generated by the podoms. FIB-SEM tomography also confirms the network made by TCs in the cardiac interstitium through adherens junctions. This study provides the first FIB-SEM tomography of a human cell type. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  18. Maximum Likelihood Dynamic Factor Modeling for Arbitrary "N" and "T" Using SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Oud, Johan H. L.; von Oertzen, Timo; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-01-01

    This article has 3 objectives that build on each other. First, we demonstrate how to obtain maximum likelihood estimates for dynamic factor models (the direct autoregressive factor score model) with arbitrary "T" and "N" by means of structural equation modeling (SEM) and compare the approach to existing methods. Second, we go beyond standard time…

  19. Prescriptive Statements and Educational Practice: What Can Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Offer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal structural equation modeling (SEM) can be a basis for making prescriptive statements on educational practice and offers yields over "traditional" statistical techniques under the general linear model. The extent to which prescriptive statements can be made will rely on the appropriate accommodation of key elements of research design,…

  20. Does your SEM really tell the truth? How would you know? Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András E; Purushotham, Kavuri P

    2014-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) has gone through a tremendous evolution to become indispensable for many and diverse scientific and industrial applications. The improvements have significantly enriched and augmented the overall SEM performance and have made the instrument far easier to operate. But, the ease of operation also might lead, through operator complacency, to poor results. In addition, the user friendliness has seemingly reduced the need for thorough operator training for using these complex instruments. One might then conclude that the SEM is just a very expensive digital camera or another peripheral device for a computer. Hence, a person using the instrument may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been eliminated and they believe everything they see on the micrograph is always correct. But, this may not be the case. An earlier paper (Part 1), discussed some of the potential issues related to signal generation in the SEM, instrument calibration, electron beam interactions and the need for physics-based modeling to understand the actual image formation mechanisms. All these were summed together in a discussion of how these issues effect measurements made with the instrument. This second paper discusses another major issue confronting the microscopist: electron-beam-induced specimen contamination. Over the years, NIST has done a great deal of research into the issue of sample contamination and its removal and elimination and some of this work is reviewed and discussed here. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sem-observation of developing plant organs using deep-frozen specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1982-01-01

    The SEM-observation of plant material normally requires dehydrated, dry specimens coated with carbon or metal. Unfortunately, the standard drying methods (including the critical-point-drying-technique) often cause shrinking and deformation of the specimen surface; therefore, SEMstudies on plant

  2. SEM observations of particle track membrane surfaces modificated using plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartowska, B.; Buczkowski, M.; Starosta, W.

    2003-01-01

    This work presents results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of 0.4 μm membranes after plasma treatment with different parameters. The morphology changes at the surfaces and at the pore walls were observed. The character of changes in the membrane parameters according to the process conditions was determined

  3. Trace metals in floodplain lake sediments : SEM/AVS as indicator of bioavailability and ecological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griethuysen, van C.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis addresses the geochemical aspects of AVS (Acid Volatile Sulfide) and SEM (Simultaneously Extracted Metals) in floodplain lake sediment, its spatial distribution in floodplain lakes and dynamics over time, the link with effects on single species (bioassays), as well as the impact of

  4. Dimensional verification of high aspect micro structures using FIB-SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    -SEM) assisted by Spip®. The micro features are circular holes 10μm in diameter and 20μm deep, with a 20μm pitch. Various inspection methods were attempted to obtain dimensional information. Due to the dimension, neither optical instrument nor atomic force microscope (AFM) was capable to perform the measurement...

  5. Leptina e aldosterona na atividade simpática na hipertensão resistente, com ou sem Diabetes Tipo 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Boer-Martins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A descoberta da leptina como um estimulador da atividade simpática trouxe uma nova perspectiva para os mecanismos fisiopatológicos da obesidade-hipertensão. OBJETIVO: Avaliamos a relação entre a atividade simpática aumentada e as concentrações plasmáticas de leptina e aldosterona em Hipertensos Resistentes (HR, comparando os grupos com e sem Diabetes Tipo 2 (DT2. MÉTODOS: Vinte e cinco pacientes HR foram avaliados por eletrocardiografia ambulatorial para análise da Variabilidade da Frequência Cardíaca (VFC nos domínios do tempo e frequência, os quais foram estratificados em dois períodos: 24 horas e período Diurno (D, compreendendo as medidas entre 14 e 18h (domínio do tempo e uma hora às 15h (domínio da frequência. RESULTADOS: O grupo DT2 (n = 10 apresentou maiores concentrações de aldosterona e leptina que o grupo não DT2 (n = 15 (26,0 ± 11,5 vs. 16,9 ± 7,0 ng/dL - p = 0,021; 81,368.7 ± 47,086.1 vs. 41,228.1 ± 24,523.1 pg/mL - p = 0,048, respectivamente. Houve correlação entre aldosterona e VFC no domínio da frequência em ambos os grupos. Não-DT2 apresentaram a aldosterona correlacionada com D baixa frequência em unidades normalizadas (BFnu (r = 0,6 [0,12 - 0,85] p = 0,018 e D alta frequência em unidades normalizadas (AFnu (r = -0,6 [-0,85 - -0,12] p = 0,018. No grupo com diabetes, a aldosterona correlacionou-se com DBFnu (r = 0,72 [0,16 - 0,93] p = 0,019 e DAFnu (r = -0,72 [-0,93 - -0,16] p = 0,019. Apesar da importância da leptina na atividade simpática aumentada na hipertensão, não houve correlação com VFC. CONCLUSÃO: A aldosterona parece estimular a atividade simpática em HR com ou sem DT2. Essa informação combinada com a eficácia clínica dos bloqueadores de receptor mineralocorticoide em HR pode reforçar a aldosterona como alvo terapêutico relevantes em HR. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2012; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0

  6. Análises macro e microscópicas de enxertos cutâneos por semeadura após laserterapia de baixa intensidade Macro and microscopic analysis of island skin grafts after low-level laser therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Barboza da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: observar se a laserterapia de baixa intensidade acelera o processo inflamatório, a cicatrização e epitelização de enxertos cutâneos por semeadura. MÉTODOS: vinte ratos foram submetidos a esta técnica de enxertia e divididos em dois grupos iguais, um tratado com laser e outro controle. RESULTADOS: houve menor tempo de reação inflamatória, maior velocidade de cicatrização, epitelização e queratinização nos animais tratados com laser em relação aos não tratados. CONCLUSÃO: a laserterapia de baixa intensidade é efetiva no auxílio ao tratamento de enxertos por semeadura.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of low intensity laser therapy in inflammation, wound healing and epithelialization of island skin grafts. METHODS: Twenty rats were subjected to this grafting technique and divided subsequently into two equal groups, one treated with laser and the other control. RESULTS: there was less inflammation, faster healing, epithelialization and keratinization in the laser-treated animals when compared to the untreated. CONCLUSION: Low intensity laser therapy is helpful to island skin grafting.

  7. Assessment of engineered surfaces roughness by high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontard, L.C., E-mail: lionelcg@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11510 (Spain); López-Castro, J.D.; González-Rovira, L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Laboratorio de Corrosión, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); Vázquez-Martínez, J.M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); Varela-Feria, F.M. [Servicio de Microscopía Centro de Investigación, Tecnología e Innovación (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Marcos, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); and others

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • We describe a method to acquire a high-angle tilt series of SEM images that is symmetrical respect to the zero tilt of the sample stage. The method can be applied in any SEM microscope. • Using the method, high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry can be applied on planar surfaces. • 3D models of three surfaces patterned with grooves are reconstructed with high resolution using multi-view freeware photogrammetry software as described in LC Gontard et al. Ultramicroscopy, 2016. • From the 3D models roughness parameters are measured • 3D SEM high-resolution photogrammetry is compared with two conventional methods used for roughness characetrization: stereophotogrammetry and contact profilometry. • It provides three-dimensional information with high-resolution that is out of reach for any other metrological technique. - Abstract: We describe a methodology to obtain three-dimensional models of engineered surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and multi-view photogrammetry (3DSEM). For the reconstruction of the 3D models of the surfaces we used freeware available in the cloud. The method was applied to study the surface roughness of metallic samples patterned with parallel grooves by means of laser. The results are compared with measurements obtained using stylus profilometry (PR) and SEM stereo-photogrammetry (SP). The application of 3DSEM is more time demanding than PR or SP, but it provides a more accurate representation of the surfaces. The results obtained with the three techniques are compared by investigating the influence of sampling step on roughness parameters.

  8. AxiSEM3D: broadband seismic wavefields in 3-D aspherical Earth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, K.; Nissen-Meyer, T.; Zad, K. H.; van Driel, M.; Al-Attar, D.

    2017-12-01

    Seismology is the primary tool for data-informed inference of Earth structure and dynamics. Simulating seismic wave propagation at a global scale is fundamental to seismology, but remains as one of most challenging problems in scientific computing, because of both the multiscale nature of Earth's interior and the observable frequency band of seismic data. We present a novel numerical method to simulate global seismic wave propagation in realistic 3-D Earth models. Our method, named AxiSEM3D, is a hybrid of spectral element method and pseudospectral method. It reduces the azimuthal dimension of wavefields by means of a global Fourier series parameterization, of which the number of terms can be locally adapted to the inherent azimuthal smoothness of the wavefields. AxiSEM3D allows not only for material heterogeneities, such as velocity, density, anisotropy and attenuation, but also for finite undulations on radial discontinuities, both solid-solid and solid-fluid, and thereby a variety of aspherical Earth features such as ellipticity, topography, variable crustal thickness, and core-mantle boundary topography. Such interface undulations are equivalently interpreted as material perturbations of the contiguous media, based on the "particle relabelling transformation". Efficiency comparisons show that AxiSEM3D can be 1 to 3 orders of magnitude faster than conventional 3-D methods, with the speedup increasing with simulation frequency and decreasing with model complexity, but for all realistic structures the speedup remains at least one order of magnitude. The observable frequency range of global seismic data (up to 1 Hz) has been covered for wavefield modelling upon a 3-D Earth model with reasonable computing resources. We show an application of surface wave modelling within a state-of-the-art global crustal model (Crust1.0), with the synthetics compared to real data. The high-performance C++ code is released at github.com/AxiSEM3D/AxiSEM3D.

  9. High resolution SEM imaging of gold nanoparticles in cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, A; Soroka, Y; Frušić-Zlotkin, M; Popov, I; Kohen, R

    2014-12-01

    The growing demand of gold nanoparticles in medical applications increases the need for simple and efficient characterization methods of the interaction between the nanoparticles and biological systems. Due to its nanometre resolution, modern scanning electron microscopy (SEM) offers straightforward visualization of metallic nanoparticles down to a few nanometre size, almost without any special preparation step. However, visualization of biological materials in SEM requires complicated preparation procedure, which is typically finished by metal coating needed to decrease charging artefacts and quick radiation damage of biomaterials in the course of SEM imaging. The finest conductive metal coating available is usually composed of a few nanometre size clusters, which are almost identical to the metal nanoparticles employed in medical applications. Therefore, SEM monitoring of metal nanoparticles within cells and tissues is incompatible with the conventional preparation methods. In this work, we show that charging artefacts related to non-conductive biological specimen can be successfully eliminated by placing the uncoated biological sample on a conductive substrate. By growing the cells on glass pre-coated with a chromium layer, we were able to observe the uptake of 10 nm gold nanoparticles inside uncoated and unstained macrophages and keratinocytes cells. Imaging in back scattered electrons allowed observation of gold nanoparticles located inside the cells, while imaging in secondary electron gave information on gold nanoparticles located on the surface of the cells. By mounting a skin cross-section on an improved conductive holder, consisting of a silicon substrate coated with copper, we were able to observe penetration of gold nanoparticles of only 5 nm size through the skin barrier in an uncoated skin tissue. The described method offers a convenient modification in preparation procedure for biological samples to be analyzed in SEM. The method provides high

  10. Evaluation of bone formation in calcium phosphate scaffolds with μCT-method validation using SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, S; Barba, A; Persson, C; Franch, J; Ginebra, M-P; Öhman-Mägi, C

    2017-10-05

    There is a plethora of calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds used as synthetic substitutes to bone grafts. The scaffold performance is often evaluated from the quantity of bone formed within or in direct contact with the scaffold. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) allows three-dimensional evaluation of bone formation inside scaffolds. However, the almost identical x-ray attenuation of CaP and bone obtrude the separation of these phases in μCT images. Commonly, segmentation of bone in μCT images is based on gray scale intensity, with manually determined global thresholds. However, image analysis methods, and methods for manual thresholding in particular, lack standardization and may consequently suffer from subjectivity. The aim of the present study was to provide a methodological framework for addressing these issues. Bone formation in two types of CaP scaffold architectures (foamed and robocast), obtained from a larger animal study (a 12 week canine animal model) was evaluated by μCT. In addition, cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were acquired as references to determine thresholds and to validate the result. μCT datasets were registered to the corresponding SEM reference. Global thresholds were then determined by quantitatively correlating the different area fractions in the μCT image, towards the area fractions in the corresponding SEM image. For comparison, area fractions were also quantified using global thresholds determined manually by two different approaches. In the validation the manually determined thresholds resulted in large average errors in area fraction (up to 17%), whereas for the evaluation using SEM references, the errors were estimated to be less than 3%. Furthermore, it was found that basing the thresholds on one single SEM reference gave lower errors than determining them manually. This study provides an objective, robust and less error prone method to determine global thresholds for the evaluation of bone formation in

  11. Eficiência do reator seqüencial em batelada (RSB na remoção de nitrogênio no tratamento de esgoto doméstico com DQO baixa The sequencing batch reactor (SBR efficiency in the removal of nitrogen on the treatment of domestic sewage with low COD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Abreu Cybis

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a eficiência e a estabilidade do RSB na remoção de nitrogênio no tratamento de esgoto doméstico com DQO baixa. O reator utilizado no experimento possui volume de trabalho de 600 L e trata 1200 L/d de esgoto bruto em três bateladas de oito horas. A partir dos dados obtidos na pesquisa, observou-se que o reator seqüencial em batelada possibilitou a remoção média de nitrogênio total igual a 88 % no tratamento de esgoto doméstico com DQO média de 257 mg/L. A remoção de DQO foi de 90 %, a média da alcalinidade total no efluente foi 72 mgCaCO3/L e o índice volumétrico de lodo médio ficou em 86 mL/g. Estes resultados indicam que é possível utilizar RSB para o tratamento de esgoto doméstico com matéria orgânica reduzida sem comprometer a qualidade do efluente, a remoção de nitrogênio e a estabilidade operacional do sistema.This work had the objective of evaluating the SBR efficiency and stability in the removal of nitrogen on the treatment of domestic sewage with low COD. The reactor used in the experiment has a working volume of 600 L, and treats 1200 L/d of raw sewage in three 8-hour cycles. From the data gathered during the research, it was realized that the SBR fostered an average removal of total nitrogen equal to 88% in the treatment of a domestic sewage with an average COD of 257 mg/L. The COD removal was 90%, the final effluent total alkalinity was 72 mgCaCO3/L, and the sludge volumetric index was 86 mL/g. The results indicate that is possible to use SBR for the treatment of domestic sewage with low organic matter without compromising the final effluent quality, the nitrogen removal ability, and the stability of the system.

  12. A baixa procura pela licenciatura em física, com base em depoimentos de estudantes do ensino médio público do oeste catarinense The shortage of physic's teachers in Brazil: origins of the decreasing search for a degree course in Physics from the students' testimony of the public secondary education in the Western inhabitant of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércio José Lunkes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo contextualiza a carência de professores de nível médio, especialmente de Física, e apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa com estudantes do Ensino Médio público do Oeste catarinense, sobre expectativas e críticas em relação à carreira do magistério em Física. Foram investigados, em 2007, 157 alunos de 1ª série, e, em 2009, 132 alunos remanescentes, então na 3ª série. Da análise dos dados colhidos, identificou-se que os estudantes entram no Ensino Médio sem expectativas elevadas, mas com gosto pelo ensino de ciências, e saem dele com baixo interesse pela carreira docente em Física, impressionados pela ênfase da formulação matemática, a pouca aplicação cotidiana dos conteúdos estudados e a baixa valorização social do magistério. Foram identificados eventos escolares típicos, que ocorreram durante o Ensino Médio dos estudantes investigados, parcial ou totalmente responsáveis pela modificação de atitude dos estudantes, culminando na rejeição pela carreira do magistério em Física.The subject of this article is the high school level Physics teacher shortage, and research into students of public schools in Santa Catarina state, on the expectations and criticism of the professional choice of teaching in Physics. This research investigated, in 2007, 157 pupils of the 1st series, and, in 2009, 132 of the same pupils, then in the 3rd series. The analysis identified that students join secondary education without elevated expectations but appreciating Physics, and they conclude their courses with a low interest in teaching, negative impressions of the emphasis on mathematical formulation, poor daily life application of the contents studied and the low social value of the teaching. We identified a series of typical school events, which took place during the secondary education of the investigated students, which were responsible for the modification of attitude of the students, culminating on the rejection for a

  13. Frequência de sintomas no último ano de vida de idosos de baixa renda em São Paulo: estudo transversal com cuidadores informais Frequency of symptoms in the last year of life of underprivileged elders in São Paulo: a cross-sectional study with informal caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Consentino Solano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da população idosa brasileira fez aumentar a prevalência de doenças crônicas e o número de pessoas sofrendo de diversos sintomas ao final da vida. Este estudo objetivou entrevistar cuidadores de idosos falecidos, investigando a presença, intensidade e duração de sintomas no último ano, e se os mesmos foram tratados. Arrolaram-se idosos por inquérito domiciliar de base populacional em setores de baixa renda do Butantã, São Paulo. Eram elegíveis os idosos falecidos durante o período de dois anos de seguimento. Oitenta e um cuidadores foram entrevistados entre três e 16 meses pós-óbito e responderam um questionário sobre onze sintomas. Os sintomas mais referidos foram dor (78%, fadiga (68%, dispnéia (60%, depressão e anorexia (58% cada. Dor, dispnéia e fadiga foram os mais intensos. Dor, fadiga e depressão duraram 6 meses ou mais. Ficaram sem tratamento 79% dos idosos com depressão, 77% daqueles com incontinência urinária e 67% daqueles com ansiedade. É necessário implementar conceitos e ações de cuidados paliativos para dar aos idosos mais dignidade e qualidade ao final da vida.The Brazilian population of elders is growing, resulting in high prevalences of chronic diseases and people facing distressing symptoms in their last years. This study aimed at interviewing family caregivers of deceased elders to investigate the presence, severity and duration of common symptoms in the last year, as well as whether the symptoms were managed or not. Elders were enrolled in a population-based study in deprived areas of Butantã, São Paulo. After a two-year follow-up, any death was eligible for the study. Eighty-one caregivers were interviewed between three and sixteen months after elder's death and answered a questionnaire on eleven symptoms. The most commonly reported symptoms were pain (78%, fatigue (68%, dyspnea (60%, depression, and anorexia (58% each. Pain, dyspnea and fatigue were the most severe. Pain

  14. Condicionamento osmótico de sementes de hortaliças visando a germinação em condições de temperaturas baixas Vegetable seed priming to improve germination at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Marcos Nascimento

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Baixas temperaturas por ocasião do plantio podem atrasar ou inibir a germinação das sementes de várias espécies de hortaliças, incluindo berinjela, melancia, melão e tomate. O condicionamento osmótico de sementes tem sido utilizado com o objetivo de acelerar a germinação e uniformizar a emergência das plântulas em campo, especialmente em condições adversas. Sementes de berinjela 'Ciça', melancia 'Crimson Sweet', melão 'Top Net SR' e tomate 'Heinz 9425' foram osmoticamente condicionadas. A metodologia utilizada no condicionamento osmótico foi dependente da espécie, isto é, a solução osmótica, a temperatura bem como o período de condicionamento variou entre as diferentes espécies estudadas. Após o condicionamento osmótico, as sementes foram lavadas e secas. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em condições de baixas temperaturas (10; 15; 15 e 17ºC para tomate, berinjela, melancia e melão, respectivamente e em temperaturas normais (20 e 30ºC para tomate e 25ºC para as demais espécies. Baixas temperaturas diminuíram a velocidade e a percentagem de germinação das sementes das quatro espécies. Sementes osmoticamente condicionadas de todas as espécies testadas apresentaram maior germinação do que aquelas não condicionadas, principalmente em condições de baixas temperaturas. O condicionamento osmótico pode ser utilizado para melhorar a germinação de sementes de cucurbitaceas (melão e melancia e solanaceas (berinjela e tomate, principalmente nestas condições adversas de baixas temperaturas.Under low temperatures, seed germination of several species, including eggplant, watermelon, melon and tomato can be erratic or completely inhibited. Seed priming has been used to increase germination rate and seedling uniformity, mainly under unfavorable environmental conditions. Seeds of eggplant, cv. 'Ciça', watermelon 'Crimson Sweet', melon 'Top Net SR' and tomato 'Heinz 9425' were osmoconditioned. The

  15. Ceratectomia fotorrefrativa associada à ceratotomia lamelar pediculada (LASIK para correção de miopias, com ou sem secagem do estroma Photorefractive keratectomy associated with lamellar keratotomy (LASIK for correction of myopia, with or without drying the stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar K. Suzuki

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados clínicos da ceratectomia fotorrefrativa associada à ceratotomia lamelar pediculada (LASIK, para miopia moderada e alta, com ou sem secagem do leito estromal durante a foto-ablação. Pacientes e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de 39 olhos de 30 pacientes submetidos a LASIK sem secagem do leito estromal durante a foto-ablação no período de abril de 1996 a abril de 1997 (Grupo I e 42 olhos de 28 pacientes com secagem do leito estromal durante a foto-ablação a cada 80 pulsos, no período de abril de 1997 a setembro de 1997 (Grupo II. Após a ceratotomia lamelar pediculada corneana com um microcerátomo automatizado (Chiron Corneal Shaper ®, foi realizada a foto-ablação com excimer laser de fluoreto de argônio de 193 nm da Summit modelo Apex Plus®. Em 2 olhos do Grupo I, a foto-ablação não foi realizada, devido a complicações durante a ceratotomia lamelar. Resultados: O tempo médio de seguimento pós-operatório foi de 8,7 meses no Grupo I e 7,7 meses no Grupo II. A média de tratamento foi de -10,81D (±2,38 no grupo I e -8,73D (±2,82 no grupo II. As médias das variações dos equivalentes esféricos obtidos em relação ao tratamento desejado nos meses 1, 3, 6 e 12 foram respectivamente, -0,96D (±1,19, -1,19D (±1,37, -1,06D (±1,41 e -1,10D (±0,66 no Grupo I e -0,23D (±1,02, -0,41D (±1,34, -0,75D (±1,16 e -1,03D (±1,31 no Grupo II. Três olhos do total (3,7%, todos do Grupo I, perderam 2 ou mais linhas de visão. Na visita mais recente, 17 olhos (45,9% do Grupo I e 31 olhos (73,8% do Grupo II apresentaram Acuidade Visual sem correção de 20/40 ou melhor. Ocorreram 4 complicações intra-operatórias no grupo I, sendo que 2 casos tiveram a foto-ablação não-efetuada e uma complicação intra-operatória no Grupo II. Conclusão: A secagem do leito estromal possibilitou recuperação visual mais rápida, devido a menor hipocorreção primária. O seguimento a longo prazo não evidenciou

  16. Desempenho visual após implante de uma lente intraocular asférica multifocal difrativa Visual performance after implantation of an aspheric multifocal diffractive intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Akaishi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a acuidade visual a distancia, intermediária e perto após o implante de uma lente intraocular (LIO asférica multifocal difrativa AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD1. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de 50 pacientes com catarata submetidos à facoemulsificação e implante de LIO AcrySof® ReSTOR®. Foram avaliados acuidade visual sem correção (AVSC, acuidade visual com correção (AVCC para longe, acuidade visual para perto corrigida para longe (AVPC e acuidade visual intermediária corrigida para longe (AVIC. Um questionário de satisfação e fenômenos visuais foi administrado ao final do estudo. RESULTADO: Após três meses de cirurgia, a média das acuidades (logMAR era: AVSC, 0,05 ± 0,07; AVCC, 0,00 ± 0,01; AVPC, 0,00 ± 0,0, e AVIC, 0,15 ± 0,05. A AVCC e AVPC era de 20/25 ou melhor em todos os pacientes, sendo a AVIC J3 ou melhor em 83% dos pacientes. Pacientes relataram excelente desempenho visual nas questões relacionadas a atividades para distância, intermediário, e perto com pouca ou nenhuma dificuldade. Nenhum paciente relatou halos ou 'glare' severos, sendo os mesmos caracterizados entre nenhum a moderado. CONCLUSÃO: A LIO asférica AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD1 mostrou excelentes resultados na visão para longe, perto e intermediário, além de apresentar uma baixa incidência de fenômenos visuais.PURPOSE: To evaluate distance, intermediate, and near vision after aspheric multifocal diffractive AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD1 intraocular lens (IOL implantation. METHODS: Prospective study of 50 patients with cataract that had phacoemulsification and AcrySof® ReSTOR® IOL implantation. Uncorrected distance vision acuity (UDVA, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, distance-corrected near visual acuity (DCNVA, and distance-corrected intermediate visual acuity (DCIVA were measured postoperatively. A patient-satisfaction and visual phenomena questionnaire was administered at the end of the study. RESULTS: Three months

  17. Macromolecular 3D SEM reconstruction strategies: Signal to noise ratio and resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.D.; Wepf, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy generates quantitative volumetric structural data from SEM images of macromolecules. This technique provides a quick and easy way to define the quaternary structure and handedness of protein complexes. Here, we apply a variety of preparation and imaging methods to filamentous actin in order to explore the relationship between resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, structural preservation and dataset size. This information can be used to define successful imaging strategies for different applications. - Highlights: • F-actin SEM datasets were collected using 8 different preparation/ imaging techniques. • Datasets were reconstructed by back projection and compared/analyzed • 3DSEM actin reconstructions can be produced with <100 views of the asymmetric unit. • Negatively stained macromolecules can be reconstructed by 3DSEM to ∼3 nm resolution

  18. The application of SEM in analyzing the damage to the petroleum reservoirs caused by drilling fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Razak Ismail

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to analyze the damage to the potential oil and gas reservoirs due to the invasion of drilling fluid during drilling operation. Two types of rock samples representing low and high permeability were used to stimulate the petroleum reservoirs. Sea water based drilling fluids were used in this study. Detail observations to the rock samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results of both permeability restoration and SEM observation showed that severe permeability impairments were obtained for high permeability rock. These results indicate that the relative size of the barite particles and the pore size distribution and characteristics of the formation play an important role in determining the damage caused by the drilling fluids

  19. Inconmensurabilidad semántica y progreso científico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, Juan

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Not available.En la primera parte del trabajo se hace una presentación de las nociones de «inconmensurabilidad», tal como han sido formuladas por Feyerabend y Kuhn; y en la segunda parte, después de analizar los presupuestos semánticos con los que indudablemente han ido asociadas, se presenta un modelo alternativo de análisis semántico de la ‘inconmensurabilidad’, que permite desligarla de las nociones de «incomunicabilidad» e «incomparabilidad» interteóricas. Con ese propósito se hace uso de una doble noción de objeto formulada por C. S. Peirce, en sus Collected Papers, y por E. Husserl, en el parágrafo 131 de las Ideas.

  20. OpenCV-Based Nanomanipulation Information Extraction and the Probe Operation in SEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjie Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the established telenanomanipulation system, the method of extracting location information and the strategies of probe operation were studied in this paper. First, the machine learning algorithm of OpenCV was used to extract location information from SEM images. Thus nanowires and probe in SEM images can be automatically tracked and the region of interest (ROI can be marked quickly. Then the location of nanowire and probe can be extracted from the ROI. To study the probe operation strategy, the Van der Waals force between probe and a nanowire was computed; thus relevant operating parameters can be obtained. With these operating parameters, the nanowire in 3D virtual environment can be preoperated and an optimal path of the probe can be obtained. The actual probe runs automatically under the telenanomanipulation system's control. Finally, experiments were carried out to verify the above methods, and results show the designed methods have achieved the expected effect.

  1. Consideraciones sobre la adquisición del adjetivo y su semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Millán Garrido, Mª del Rosario

    1988-01-01

    Con este trabajo se intenta profundizar en el adjetivo con un criterio semántico pero al ser difícil deslindarlo de sus estudios léxico y sintáctico, no vamos a excluir de él estos aspectos que se expondrán de forma breve y que nos ayudarán a sacar conclusiones más completas. Aunque la semántica ha ocupado la parte central de la investigación, ha tenido como apoyo el análisis léxico, reflejado en las gráficas, y un estudio sintáctico** previo.

  2. Minería de opiniones basada en patrones semánticos en Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Artacho Torres, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    La minería de opinión o análisis de sentimiento es un tipo de análisis de texto que pretende ayudar a la toma de decisiones a través de la extracción y el análisis de opiniones, identificando las opiniones positivas, negativas y neutras; y midiendo su repercusión en la percepción de un tópico. En este trabajo se propone un modelo de análisis de sentimiento basado en diccionarios, que a través de la semántica y de los patrones semánticos que conforman el texto a clasificar, permite obtener la ...

  3. Morphology of Poly lactide/Polycaprolactone (PLA/PCL) Nano composite by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Zulaiha Hairaldin; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus; Norazowa Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Octadecylamine Modified Montmorillonites (ODAMMT) were used to prepare Poly lactide/ Polycaprolactone (PLA/ PCL) nano composites. PLA and PCL mix in 90:10 ratios, using an internal mixer by melt blending technique. The other sample was blend with Natrium Montmorillonite (NaMMT) and Octadecylamine Modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) to produce PLA/ PCL-NaMMT and PLA/ PCL ODAMMT. To characterize the polymer nano composites, X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and SEM analysis were conducted. Comparison of morphology were made up between PLA/ PCL, PLA/ PCL with presence of 7 % of Na-MMT and 7 % ODA-MMT respectively based on SEM micrograph by calculate the number-average diameter. (author)

  4. Optimization study of direct morphology observation by cold field emission SEM without gold coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Fu, Cheng; Xue, Zhigang

    2018-06-01

    Gold coating is a general operation that is generally applied on non-conductive or low conductive materials, during which the morphology of the materials can be examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, fatal deficiencies in the materials can result in irreversible distortion and damage. The present study directly characterized different low conductive materials such as hydroxyapatite, modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fiber, and zinc oxide nanopillar by cold field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) without a gold coating. According to the characteristics of the low conductive materials, various test conditions, such as different working signal modes, accelerating voltages, electron beam spots, and working distances, were characterized to determine the best morphological observations of each sample. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cryo-FIB SEM for Characterization of the Structure of Fish Oil Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    layers. The emulsion fractures are random and impossible to control when using freeze-fracture cryo-SEM. We have previously shown that some types of emulsifiers tend to break along the interface layer, while others cause the fractures to be perpendicular to the interface layer [3]. To control the field...... of view more specifically and to ensure the access to the desired part of the sample, we propose now the use of cryo-FIB SEM. This method allows us to access the interface layers as needed, see figure 1. Emulsions with high oil content, i.e. 70%, and relatively large oil droplets, i.e. μm range, have been...

  6. A Data Matrix Method for Improving the Quantification of Element Percentages of SEM/EDX Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John

    2009-01-01

    A simple 2D M N matrix involving sample preparation enables the microanalyst to peer below the noise floor of element percentages reported by the SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/ energy dispersive x-ray) analysis, thus yielding more meaningful data. Using the example of a 2 3 sample set, there are M = 2 concentration levels of the original mix under test: 10 percent ilmenite (90 percent silica) and 20 percent ilmenite (80 percent silica). For each of these M samples, N = 3 separate SEM/EDX samples were drawn. In this test, ilmenite is the element of interest. By plotting the linear trend of the M sample s known concentration versus the average of the N samples, a much higher resolution of elemental analysis can be performed. The resulting trend also shows how the noise is affecting the data, and at what point (of smaller concentrations) is it impractical to try to extract any further useful data.

  7. Contrast of Backscattered Electron SEM Images of Nanoparticles on Substrates with Complex Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kowoll

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (BSE SEM contrast of complex nanoscaled samples which consist of SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs deposited on indium-tin-oxide covered bulk SiO2 and glassy carbon substrates. BSE SEM contrast of NPs is studied as function of the primary electron energy and working distance. Contrast inversions are observed which prevent intuitive interpretation of NP contrast in terms of material contrast. Experimental data is quantitatively compared with Monte-Carlo- (MC- simulations. Quantitative agreement between experimental data and MC-simulations is obtained if the transmission characteristics of the annular semiconductor detector are taken into account. MC-simulations facilitate the understanding of NP contrast inversions and are helpful to derive conditions for optimum material and topography contrast.

  8. Contrast of Backscattered Electron SEM Images of Nanoparticles on Substrates with Complex Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowoll, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Fritsch-Decker, Susanne; Hettler, Simon; Störmer, Heike; Weiss, Carsten; Gerthsen, Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    This study is concerned with backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (BSE SEM) contrast of complex nanoscaled samples which consist of SiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on indium-tin-oxide covered bulk SiO 2 and glassy carbon substrates. BSE SEM contrast of NPs is studied as function of the primary electron energy and working distance. Contrast inversions are observed which prevent intuitive interpretation of NP contrast in terms of material contrast. Experimental data is quantitatively compared with Monte-Carlo- (MC-) simulations. Quantitative agreement between experimental data and MC-simulations is obtained if the transmission characteristics of the annular semiconductor detector are taken into account. MC-simulations facilitate the understanding of NP contrast inversions and are helpful to derive conditions for optimum material and topography contrast.

  9. Characterising palladium-silver and palladium-nickel alloy membranes using SEM, XRD and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keuler, J.N.; Lorenzen, L.; Sanderson, R.D.; Prozesky, V.; Przybylowicz, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Palladium alloy membranes were prepared by successive electroless plating steps on an alumina-zirconia support membrane. Palladium, silver and nickel were deposited in layers and then the metal films were heat treated for 5 h in a hydrogen atmosphere at 650 deg. C. The topography of the metal coatings and cross-sections of the films (before and after heating) were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD was used to determine the crystal phase of the alloy coatings. Both SEM and XRD provide only surface information and therefore micro-PIXE was used to extract depth information of the alloy coating. Concentration profiles across the thickness of the films were constructed to determine penetration of the coating into the support membrane pores during electroless plating and to investigate diffusion of coated layers during the heating step

  10. Electronic structure and optical properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caid M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The structural, electronic and optical properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem superlattices have been computationally evaluated for different configurations with m = n and m≠n using the full-potential linear muffin-tin method. The exchange and correlation potentials are treated by the local density approximation (LDA. The ground state properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem binary compounds are determined and compared with the available data. It is found that the superlattice band gaps vary depending on the layers used. The optical constants, including the dielectric function ε(ω, the refractive index n(ω and the refractivity R(ω, are calculated for radiation energies up to 35 eV.

  11. Local behavior of an AISI 304 stainless steel submitted to in situ biaxial loading in SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caër, C., E-mail: celia.caer@gmail.com; Pesci, R.

    2017-04-06

    The microstructural response of a coarse grained AISI 304 stainless steel submitted to biaxial tensile loading was investigated using SEM and X-ray diffraction. The specimen geometry was designed to allow for biaxial stress state and incipient crack in the center of the active part under biaxial tensile loading. This complex loading was performed step by step by a micromachine fitting into a SEM chamber. At each loading step FSD pictures and EBSD measurements were carried out to study the microstructural evolution of the alloy, namely grain rotations and misorientations, stress-induced martensite formation and crack propagation. According to their initial orientation, grains are found to behave differently under loading. Approximately 60% of grains are shown to reorient to the [110] Z orientation under biaxial tensile loading, whereas the 40% left undergo high plastic deformation. EBSD and XRD measurements respectively performed under loading and on the post mortem specimen highlighted the formation of about 4% of martensite.

  12. XRD and SEM analysis of hydroxyapatite during immersion in stimulated physiological solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Abdullah; Idris Besar; Rosmamuhamadani Ramli; Abd Razak Daud

    2000-01-01

    XRD and SEM techniques were used to analyse the apatite layer developed on the synthetic hydroxyapatite surface following immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF) that mimics the conditions of material experiences after implantation in the human body. Initially, the new layers formed after 7 day's incubation and increased with immersion time as crystallization of apatite phase. The XRD confirmed that the deposited layer was hydroxyapatite and crystallographically. With time, the crystal growth become more random and the intensity of the peaks decreased. During immersion, hydroxyapatite was precipitated from the SBF and coherently scattered with very small crystal. The SEM observation shows that the new precipitates were increased as well as incubation period increased. Therefore, hydroxyapatite ceramics are suggested to have very good biocompatibility. (Author)

  13. O efeito do laser de baixa energia no crescimento bacteriano "in vitro" Low level laser effect in "in vitro" bacterial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Coutinho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar, por meio de estudo bacteriológico in vitro, o efeito de dois tipos de laser de baixa energia (LBE sobre diferentes populações bacterianas habitualmente presentes em feridas pós-traumáticas. MÉTODOS: Foram colhidos swabs diretamente do sítio de infecção de pacientes internados com osteomielite pós-traumática crônica. As bactérias isoladas foram Acinetobacter baumanii complex, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonela sp, Serratia sp e Staphylococcus aureus. O material coletado foi semeado em meio ágar-sangue, através de alça estéril, utilizando-se 30 placas de Petri para cada germe. Foram utilizados dois aparelhos de LBE: Ibramed Laser Pulse #01189, com 15W/904nm por 200 segundos, e Phisiolux dual Bioset #9909001, com 20W/904nm por 230 segundos. Nos grupos I (n = 10 e II (n = 10, as bactérias sofreram irradiação pelo laser. O grupo III (n = 10 serviu de controle, não sendo irradiado. As bactérias dos grupos I e II foram irradiadas em câmara de fluxo laminar, previamente esterilizada por raio ultravioleta. O laser foi administrado de forma direta, central e perpendicularmente à superfície de cultivo das bactérias, com distância-padrão de 1cm, através de orifício confeccionado na tampa das placas. O crescimento bacteriano foi analisado após 12 e 24 horas da irradiação. Os resultados foram processados estatisticamente, utilizando-se o teste não-paramétrico de Kruskall-Wallis, com nível de significância p OBJECTIVE: To perform an in vitro bacteriologic study to evaluate the effect of two types of low level laser (LLL on different bacterial populations usually present in post-traumatic wounds. METHODS: Swabs were prepared directly at the infection site of patients hospitalized with chronic post-traumatic osteomyelitis. Isolated bacteria were Acinetobacter baumanii complex, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae

  14. Uncertainty in the use of MAMA software to measure particle morphological parameters from SEM images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-05

    The MAMA software package developed at LANL is designed to make morphological measurements on a wide variety of digital images of objects. At LANL, we have focused on using MAMA to measure scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of particles, as this is a critical part of our forensic analysis of interdicted radiologic materials. In order to successfully use MAMA to make such measurements, we must understand the level of uncertainty involved in the process, so that we can rigorously support our quantitative conclusions.

  15. Dynamic Correction of Higher-Order Deflection Aberrations in the Environmental SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oral, Martin; Neděla, Vilém

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S4 (2015), s. 194-199 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : environmental SEM * ESEM * shifted deflection pivot point * Higher order deflection aberrations * vignetting * dynamic focusing * dynamic stigmator * dynamic correction Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  16. SEM-analysis of grain boundary porosity in three S-176 specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malen, K.; Birath, S.; Mattsson, O.

    1980-10-01

    Porosity in UO 2 -fuel has been studied in scanning electron microscope (SEM). The aim was to obtain a basis for evaluation of porosity in high burnup power reactor fuel. Three specimens have been analyzed. In the high temperature zones porosity can be seen both on grain boundaries and at grain edges. In the low temperature regions very little changes seem to have occurred during irradiation. (author)

  17. SEM/TIMS analysis trials on hotswipe samples taken from a shielded cell at Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushingham, J.; Vatter, I.; Cooke, R.

    1998-09-01

    The IAEA require advanced techniques and procedures for the detection of traces of actinides to be applied to their environmental sampling programme for nuclear safeguards as a means to detect undeclared activities. 'Swipe' samples taken from within nuclear facilities by IAEA inspectors require analysis to determine their actinide content and composition by bulk and particle measurements. The use of analytical equipment capable of analysing individual particles, particularly of actinides, is essential to optimise the IAEA's aim to monitor Member State's nuclear activities more proficiently. A trial has been undertaken at the Harwell Laboratory of AEA Technology to establish the efficacy of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) for the particle and bulk characterisation, respectively, of actinides on samples taken from within a shielded cell. These measurements were supported by γ-spectrometry and α-spectrometry. 'Hotswipe' samples taken from within a shielded cell with a well-known recent history have been prepared for particle and bulk analysis. SEM has been used to characterise individual particles from the swipe samples and the results have been related to known cell activities. Samples were prepared for SEM using a simple procedure to minimise the potential for sample contamination. The method proved to be capable of identifying 1 μm particles that contained U, Pu, Pa and Np. The measurement of U/Pu ratios was limited to particles that contained >2% Pu in U by weight. TIMS, together with alpha spectrometry, has been used to determine the bulk actinide composition of the samples whilst gamma spectrometry has been used to determine the fission product composition. Further work to improve the potential of SEM, and also secondary ionisation mass spectrometry (SIMS), for the measurement of hotswipe samples has been proposed. (author)

  18. Does your SEM really tell the truth? How would you know? part 3: vibration and drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.; Vladár, András. E.; Cizmar, Petr

    2014-09-01

    This is the third of a series of papers discussing various causes of measurement uncertainty in scanned particle beam instruments, and some of the solutions researched and developed at NIST. Scanned particle beam instruments especially the scanning electron microscope (SEM) have gone through tremendous evolution to become indispensable tools for many and diverse scientifi c and industrial applications. These improvements have signifi cantly enhanced their performance and made them far easier to operate. But, ease of operation has also fostered operator complacency. In addition, the user-friendliness has reduced the need for extensive operator training. Unfortunately, this has led to the concept that the SEM is just another expensive digital camera or another peripheral device connected to a computer and that all of the issues related to obtaining quality data have been solved. Hence, a person (or company) using these instruments may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been fully eliminated and they believe everything they see on the micrograph is always correct. But, as described in this and the earlier presentations this may not be the case. The fi rst paper in this series discussed some of the issues related to signal generation in the SEM, including instrument calibration, electron beam-sample interactions and the need for physics-based modelling to understand the actual image formation mechanisms to properly interpret SEM images. The second paper, discussed another major issue confronting the microscopist: specimen contamination and methods of contamination elimination. This third paper, discusses vibration and drift and some useful solutions.

  19. Nanomanufacturing concerns about measurements made in the SEM Part III: vibration and drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.; Vladár, András. E.; Cizmar, Petr

    2014-08-01

    Many advanced manufacturing processes employ scanning electron microscopes (SEM) for on-line critical measurements for process and quality control. This is the third of a series of papers discussing various causes of measurement uncertainty in scanned particle beam instruments, and some of the solutions researched and developed at NIST. Scanned particle beam instruments especially the scanning electron microscope have gone through tremendous evolution to become indispensable tools for many and diverse scientifi c and industrial applications. These improvements have signifi cantly enhanced their performance and made them far easier to operate. But, ease of operation has also fostered operator complacency. In addition, the user-friendliness has reduced the need for extensive operator training. Unfortunately, this has led to the concept that the SEM is just another expensive digital camera or another peripheral device connected to a computer and that all of the issues related to obtaining quality data have been solved. Hence, a person (or company) using these instruments may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been fully eliminated and they believe everything they see on the micrograph is always correct. But, as described in this and the earlier presentations this may not be the case. The fi rst paper in this series discussed some of the issues related to signal generation in the SEM, including instrument calibration, electron beam-sample interactions and the need for physics-based modelling to understand the actual image formation mechanisms to properly interpret SEM images. The second paper, discussed another major issue confronting the microscopist: specimen contamination and methods of contamination elimination. This third paper, discusses vibration and drift and some useful solutions.

  20. Methods for Additive Hydration Allowing Observation of Fully Hydrated State of Wet Samples in Environmental SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 2 (2007), s. 95-100 ISSN 1059-910X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0886; GA AV ČR KJB200650602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : agar * natural structure * biological specimens * environmental SEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.644, year: 2007

  1. A new method using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for preparation of anisopterous odonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Palacio, Alejandro; Sarmiento, Patricia Laura; Javier, Muzón

    2017-10-01

    Anisopterous odonate male's secondary genitalia is a complex of several structures, among them the vesica spermalis is the most informative with important specific characters. The observation of those characters, mostly of membranous nature, is difficult in the Scanning Electron Microscope due to dehydration and metallization processes. In this contribution, we discuss a new and low cost procedure for the observation of these characters in the SEM, compatible with the most common agents used for preserving specimens. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. GammaSem Proceedings. A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straalberg, E. (ed.) (Institute for Energy Technolgy (Norway)); Berg, K. (National Institute of Radiation Protection (Denmark)); Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)) (and others)

    2010-11-15

    The project GammaSem was proposed to the NKS in 2008. The aim of the project was to arrange two seminars for users of gamma spectrometry, in 2009 and 2010. The seminars were meant to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and initiate a network of gamma spectrometry users in the Nordic countries. Such a Nordic network should strengthen the collaboration between laboratories and improve all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. Both seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 65 people signed up for GammaSem 2010; representing 30 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and authorities. The working group concept as presented at last year's GammaSem, has not worked out as intended. The reason for this is probably because most of the laboratories that signed up to join the working groups, signed up because they wanted to learn more about the different subjects. In combination with the fact that no funding was made available for the working groups, it was difficult to establish goals on what to achieve. None of the working groups applied for funding from the NKS (or elsewhere) to establish separate projects. There is a big need for more cooperation and for training within the field of gamma spectrometry. This fact has been proved through these two seminars, both by the many different topics that have been discussed, but also by the huge interest for participating in the suggested series of workshop. The GammaSem seminars have thus provided a much welcomed starting point for a broader Nordic collaboration. (Author)

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Micro-porosity of Eco-material by Using SEM Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-ru; LIU Yuan-zhi; LIU Zu-de

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure of the eco-material combining vegetation recovery with slope protection is important for determining plant-growing properties.Several techniques for analyzing the eco-material microstructure are presented,including the freeze-cut-drying method of preparing samples for scanning electronic microscopy (SEM),the SEM image processing technique and quantifying analysis method of the SEM images,and etc.The aggregates and pores in SEM images are identified using the different mathematics operators,and their effects are compared.The areas of aggregates and pores are obtained using the operator of morphology,and the influences of different thresholds in image segmentation are also discussed.The results show that the method,in which the variation of non-maximum grey-level gradient is limited,improves the effect of edge detections due to a weak distinction existing at the edge between the aggregates and pores in image.The determination of the threshold should combine the image characteristic with filling operation,so as to assure the precision of the image analysis,in which the contact-segmentation is the simplest and most effective method.The results also show that the pore areas in eco-materials are generally larger than those in the correlative soils,and their increment is large as soil fabric being fine.These differences are related to admixture of expansive perliticThe operator of morphology provides a new method for the image analysis of other porous material microstructure such as soils and concretes.

  4. Do generic strategies impact performance in higher educational institutions? A SEM-based investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlam Mohammad Alzoubi; Okechukwu Lawrence Emeagwali

    2016-01-01

    This study set out to initiate an investigation into the linkage between generic strategy and performance in higher educational institutions and the moderating effect of institution-type. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), it examined the responses of a stratified sample of academics and administrative staff (n= 333) randomly selected from eight universities in northern Cyprus. Findings suggest that while there is a weak effect of differentiation strategy on performance, a strong effec...

  5. Ontologías y Web Semántica 2005. Resumen del taller

    OpenAIRE

    Corcho, Oscar; Gómez-Pérez, A.; Fernández López, Mariano; Ramos Gargantilla, JA.

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo se resumen los resultados obtenidos en el taller “Ontologías y Web Semántica 2005”, que fue celebrado el día 14 de noviembre de 2005 en Santiago de Compostela, en el contexto de la Conferencia de la Asociación Española para la Inteligencia Artificial (CAEPIA2005).

  6. Módulos interactivos para el aprendizaje de la semántica.

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino Palacios, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Se proponen modulos interactivos para lograr el aprendizaje de la semantica en alumnos del V semestre de la Carrera de Lenguas, Literatura y Comunicacion de la Facultad de Educacion de la UNCP. Los metodos utilizados fueron el experimental y el bibliografico-documental. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron la prueba objetiva, prueba de ensayo y la prueba pedagogica. Se logró mejorar el aprendizaje de la semántica 

  7. Quantifying Golgi structure using EM: combining volume-SEM and stereology for higher throughput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sophie; Steyer, Anna M; Mayhew, Terry M; Schwab, Yannick; Lucocq, John Milton

    2017-06-01

    Investigating organelles such as the Golgi complex depends increasingly on high-throughput quantitative morphological analyses from multiple experimental or genetic conditions. Light microscopy (LM) has been an effective tool for screening but fails to reveal fine details of Golgi structures such as vesicles, tubules and cisternae. Electron microscopy (EM) has sufficient resolution but traditional transmission EM (TEM) methods are slow and inefficient. Newer volume scanning EM (volume-SEM) methods now have the potential to speed up 3D analysis by automated sectioning and imaging. However, they produce large arrays of sections and/or images, which require labour-intensive 3D reconstruction for quantitation on limited cell numbers. Here, we show that the information storage, digital waste and workload involved in using volume-SEM can be reduced substantially using sampling-based stereology. Using the Golgi as an example, we describe how Golgi populations can be sensed quantitatively using single random slices and how accurate quantitative structural data on Golgi organelles of individual cells can be obtained using only 5-10 sections/images taken from a volume-SEM series (thereby sensing population parameters and cell-cell variability). The approach will be useful in techniques such as correlative LM and EM (CLEM) where small samples of cells are treated and where there may be variable responses. For Golgi study, we outline a series of stereological estimators that are suited to these analyses and suggest workflows, which have the potential to enhance the speed and relevance of data acquisition in volume-SEM.

  8. Nanomanufacturing Concerns about Measurements Made in the SEM Part IV: Charging and its Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András E

    2015-01-01

    This is the fourth part of a series of tutorial papers discussing various causes of measurement uncertainty in scanned particle beam instruments, and some of the solutions researched and developed at NIST and other research institutions. Scanned particle beam instruments especially the scanning electron microscope (SEM) have gone through tremendous evolution to become indispensable tools for many and diverse scientific and industrial applications. These improvements have significantly enhanced their performance and made them far easier to operate. But, the ease of operation has also fostered operator complacency. In addition, the user-friendliness has reduced the apparent need for extensive operator training. Unfortunately, this has led to the idea that the SEM is just another expensive "digital camera" or another peripheral device connected to a computer and that all of the problems in obtaining good quality images and data have been solved. Hence, one using these instruments may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been fully eliminated and believing that, everything one sees on the micrograph is always correct. But, as described in this and the earlier papers, this may not be the case. Care must always be taken when reliable quantitative data are being sought. The first paper in this series discussed some of the issues related to signal generation in the SEM, including instrument calibration, electron beam-sample interactions and the need for physics-based modeling to understand the actual image formation mechanisms to properly interpret SEM images. The second paper has discussed another major issue confronting the microscopist: specimen contamination and methods to eliminate it. The third paper discussed mechanical vibration and stage drift and some useful solutions to mitigate the problems caused by them, and here, in this the fourth contribution, the issues related to specimen "charging" and its mitigation are discussed relative to

  9. Elemental analyses of bulk and individual particles by PIXE and SEM-EDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Mikio; Shinoda, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Kanji; Yoshida, Kouji.

    1993-01-01

    The atmospheric aerosol samples were collected by a stacked filter method under the various environmental conditions. The elemental concentrations of aerosol particles were measured using PIXE analysis as a bulk sample. And also elemental compositions of about 200 individual particles per each sample were measured by SEM-EDX analysis. In this study, the correspondencies of analytical results measured by both analyses as well as chemical characteristics of individual and bulk aerosols were investigated. (author)

  10. SEM visualization of glycosylated surface molecules using lectin-coated microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, J.; Janer, L.; Campbell, M.

    1985-01-01

    There are several techniques currently used to localize glycosylated surface molecules by scanning electron microscopy (Grinnell, 1980; Molday, 1976; Linthicum and Sell, 1975; Nicolson, 1974; Lo Buglio, et al, 1972). A simple and rapid method, using a modification of Grinnell's technique is reported here. Essentially, microspheres coated with Concavalin A are used to bind to glycosylated regions of the palatal shelf epithelium and are visualized in the scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  11. Study of SEM induced current and voltage contrast modes to assess semiconductor reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the scanning electron microscopy study was to review the failure history of existing integrated circuit technologies to identify predominant failure mechanisms, and to evaluate the feasibility of their detection using SEM application techniques. The study investigated the effects of E-beam irradiation damage and contamination deposition rates; developed the necessary methods for applying the techniques to the detection of latent defects and weaknesses in integrated circuits; and made recommendations for applying the techniques.

  12. GammaSem Proceedings. A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straelberg, E.; Berg, K.; Dowdall, M.

    2010-11-01

    The project GammaSem was proposed to the NKS in 2008. The aim of the project was to arrange two seminars for users of gamma spectrometry, in 2009 and 2010. The seminars were meant to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and initiate a network of gamma spectrometry users in the Nordic countries. Such a Nordic network should strengthen the collaboration between laboratories and improve all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. Both seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 65 people signed up for GammaSem 2010; representing 30 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and authorities. The working group concept as presented at last year's GammaSem, has not worked out as intended. The reason for this is probably because most of the laboratories that signed up to join the working groups, signed up because they wanted to learn more about the different subjects. In combination with the fact that no funding was made available for the working groups, it was difficult to establish goals on what to achieve. None of the working groups applied for funding from the NKS (or elsewhere) to establish separate projects. There is a big need for more cooperation and for training within the field of gamma spectrometry. This fact has been proved through these two seminars, both by the many different topics that have been discussed, but also by the huge interest for participating in the suggested series of workshop. The GammaSem seminars have thus provided a much welcomed starting point for a broader Nordic collaboration. (Author)

  13. Morphological and Production Changes in Stressed Red Yeasts Monitored Using SEM and Raman Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubanová, Kamila; Samek, Ota; Haroniková, A.; Bernatová, Silvie; Zemánek, Pavel; Márová, I.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 1146-1147 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SEM * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  14. SemMat: Federated Semantic Services Platform for Open materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    SEMMAT: FEDERATED SEMANTIC SERVICES PLATFORM FOR OPEN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING WRIGHT STATE UNIVERSITY JANUARY 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL...COVERED (From - To) JUL 2013 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SemMat: FEDERATED SEMANTIC SERVICES PLATFORM FOR OPEN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...models to represent materials data. This provides a data exchange scheme for materials science , which also includes provenance information to promote

  15. 3-D Analysis of Graphite Nodules in Ductile Cast Iron Using FIB-SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, Luca; Jespersen, Freja N.; MacDonald, A. Nicole

    Ductile cast iron samples were analysed in a Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscope, FIB-SEM. The focussed ion beam was used to carefully remove layers of the graphite nodules to reveal internal structures in the nodules. The sample preparation and milling procedure for sectioning graphite...... inside the nodules, their orientation in relation to the graphite and the chemistry of the inclusions is analysed and described. Formation of the structures during solidification and subsequent cooling to room temperature is discussed....

  16. Monitoring of Multilayered Bacterial Biofilm Morphology by Cryo-SEM for Raman Spectroscopy Measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubanová, Kamila; Bernatová, Silvie; Samek, Ota; Šerý, Mojmír; Zemánek, Pavel; Nebesářová, Jana; Růžička, F.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S3 (2015), s. 187-188 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : multilayered bacterial biofilm * morphology by Cryo-SEM * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  17. Fuzzy Control and Connected Region Marking Algorithm-Based SEM Nanomanipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjie Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactive nanomanipulation platform is established based on fuzzy control and connected region marking (CRM algorithm in SEM. The 3D virtual nanomanipulation model is developed to make up the insufficiency of the 2D SEM image information, which provides the operator with depth and real-time visual feedback information to guide the manipulation. The haptic device Omega3 is used as the master to control the 3D motion of the nanopositioner in master-slave mode and offer the force sensing to the operator controlled with fuzzy control algorithm. Aiming at sensing of force feedback during the nanomanipulation, the collision detection method of the virtual nanomanipulation model and the force rending model are studied to realize the force feedback of nanomanipulation. The CRM algorithm is introduced to process the SEM image which provides effective position data of the objects for updating the virtual environment (VE, and relevant issues such as calibration and update rate of VE are also discussed. Finally, the performance of the platform is validated by the ZnO nanowire manipulation experiments.

  18. Application of SEM/EBSD and FEG-TEM/CBED to determine eutectic solidification mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogita, K.; Dahle, A.K.; Drennan, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This study shows the application of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in SEM and convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) in FEG-TEM to determine eutectic nucleation and growth in hypoeutectic Al-Si foundry alloys. Because the eutectic reaction is often the final stage of solidification it can be expected to have a significant impact on the formation of casting defects, particularly porosity. Previous EBSD work by Nogita and Dahle (2001), Dahle et al (2001), has shown that the eutectic nucleates on the primary phase in the unmodified alloy, and eutectic grains are nucleated in the intergranular liquid, instead of filling the dendrite envelopes, when Sr or Sb is added. However, the orientation relationship between silicon and aluminium in the eutectic has so far not been determined because of difficulties with sample preparation for EBSD and also detection limitations of Kikuchi refraction of silicon and aluminium, particularly in modified alloys with a refined eutectic. The combination of the EBSD technique in SEM and CBED in TEM analyses can provide crystallographic orientation relationships between primary aluminium dendrites, eutectic aluminium and silicon, which are important to explicitly define the solidification mode of the eutectic in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys. These relationships are influenced, and altered, by the addition of certain elements. This paper also describes the sample preparation techniques for SEM and TEM for samples with different eutectic structures. The advantages the techniques are discussed. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  19. SEM Characterization of an Irradiated Monolithic U-10Mo Fuel Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Jue, J.F.; Robinson, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization of irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates with differing amounts of matrix Si have been reported. However, to date, no results of SEM analysis of irradiated U-Mo monolithic fuel plates have been reported. This paper describes the first SEM characterization results for an irradiated monolithic U-10Mo fuel plate. Two samples from this fuel plate were characterized. One sample was produced from the low-flux side of the fuel plate, and another was produced at the high-flux side of the fuel plate. This characterization focused on the microstructural features present at the U-10Mo foil/cladding interface, particularly the interaction zone that had developed during fabrication and irradiation. In addition, the microstructure of the foil itself was investigated, along with the morphology of the observed fission gas bubbles. It was observed that a Si-rich interaction layer was present at the U-10Mo foil/cladding interface that exhibited relatively good irradiation behavior, and within the U-10Mo foil the microstructural features differed in some respects from what is typically seen in the U-Mo powders of an irradiated dispersion fuel.

  20. Preliminary SEM Observations on the Surface of Elastomeric Impression Materials after Immersion or Ozone Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prombonas, Anthony; Yannikakis, Stavros; Karampotsos, Thanasis; Katsarou, Martha-Spyridoula; Drakoulis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surface integrity of dental elastomeric impression materials that are subjected to disinfection is of major importance for the quality of the final prosthetic restorations. Aim The aim of this qualitative Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) study was to reveal the effects of immersion or ozone disinfection on the surface of four dental elastomeric impression materials. Materials and Methods Four dental elastomeric impression material brands were used (two vinyl polysiloxane silicones, one polyether, and one vinyl polyether silicone). Total of 32 specimens were fabricated, eight from each impression material. Specimens were immersion (0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution or 0.3% benzalkonium chloride solution) or ozone disinfected or served as controls and examined with SEM. Results Surface degradation was observed on several speci-mens disinfected with 0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution. Similar wavy-wrinkling surface structures were observed in almost all specimens, when treated either with 0.3% benzalkonium chloride solution or ozone. Conclusion The SEM images obtained from this study revealed that both immersion disinfectants and ozone show similar impression material surface alterations. Ozone seems to be non-inferior as compared to immersion disinfectants, but superior as to environmental protection. PMID:28208993

  1. Blistering and exfoliation of 304 stainless steel studied by SEM and RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.; Emmoth, B.; Whitton, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Blistering and exfoliation induced by helium irradiation have been studied in polycrystalline stainless steel with the aim of measuring flake or blister skin thicknesses for different implantation energies in the keV region. The authors present measurements of skin thicknesses determined both by direct SEM observations and RBS techniques. The results of the RBS studies show for all implantation energies used that the thickness measured in target atoms/unit area of a flake equals the calculated implantation range with an accuracy of about 10%. Conversely, the SEM measurements show that swelling gives rise to a geometrical skin thickness much greater than the corresponding implantation range. Thus from the SEM and RBS data swelling as a function of the implantation energy is obtained and the linear relative swelling is shown to be strongly dependent on the energy. In addition a comparison between the skin thickness of blisters and flakes has been made for the same material. Blisters were observed at low implantation temperatures and room temperature while exfoliation occurs at elevated temperatures. The result of this comparison is that within the experimental accuracy the flake and blister thicknesses are the same. (Auth.)

  2. Automated SEM and TEM sample preparation applied to copper/low k materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R.; Shaapur, F.; Griffiths, D.; Diebold, A. C.; Foran, B.; Raz, E.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the use of automated microcleaving for preparation of both SEM and TEM samples as done by SELA's new MC500 and TEMstation tools. The MC500 is an automated microcleaving tool that is capable of producing cleaves with 0.25 μm accuracy resulting in SEM-ready samples. The TEMstation is capable of taking a sample output from the MC500 (or from SELA's earlier MC200 tool) and producing a FIB ready slice of 25±5 μm, mounted on a TEM-washer and ready for FIB thinning to electron transparency for TEM analysis. The materials selected for the tool set evaluation mainly included the Cu/TaN/HOSP low-k system. The paper is divided into three sections, experimental approach, SEM preparation and analysis of HOSP low-k, and TEM preparation and analysis of Cu/TaN/HOSP low-k samples. For the samples discussed, data is presented to show the quality of preparation provided by these new automated tools.

  3. Valores e motivações para responder sem preconceito frente a homossexuais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Veloso Gouveia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo se objetivou conhecer os correlatos valorativos das motivações interna e externa para encarar sem preconceito a homossexualidade. Foram realizados dois estudos. No Estudo 1 participaram 234 pessoas de João Pessoa, com idade média de 26 anos, que responderam à Escala de Motivações para Responder sem Precocietos Frente a Gays e ao Questionário dos Valores Básicos e perguntas demográficas. A motivação interna se correlacionou com as subfunções suprapessoal (+ e normativa (-, enquanto a motivação externa o fez com existência (+ e normativa (+. O Estudo 2 reuniu 202 pessoas da mesma população, com idade média de 25 anos. Elas responderam os mesmos instrumentos, tendo as lésbicas como grupo-alvo. As motivações interna e externa se correlacionaram com a subfunção normativa (- e +, respectivamente. Concluindo, os valores predisseram adequadamente as motivações para olhar sem preconceito a homossexualidade e os achados foram discutidos a partir do modelo dual de valores.

  4. SEM characterization of an irradiated monolithic U-10Mo fuel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Jue, J.F.; Robinson, A.B.; Finlay, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization of irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates with differing amounts of matrix Si have been reported. However, to date, no results of SEM analysis of irradiated U-Mo monolithic fuel plates have been reported. This paper describes the first SEM characterization results for an irradiated monolithic U-10Mo fuel plate. Two samples from this fuel plate were characterized. One sample was produced from the low-flux side of the fuel plate, and another was produced at the high-flux side of the fuel plate. This characterization focused on the microstructural features present at the U-10Mo foil/AA6061 cladding interface, particularly the interaction zone that had developed during fabrication and any continued development during irradiation. In addition, the microstructure of the foil itself was investigated, along with the morphology of the observed fission gas bubbles. It was observed that a Si-rich interaction layer was present at the U-10Mo foil/cladding interface that exhibited relatively good irradiation behavior, and within the U-10Mo foil the microstructural features differed in some respects from what is typically seen in the U-7Mo powders of an irradiated dispersion fuel. (author)

  5. A hybrid 3D SEM reconstruction method optimized for complex geologic material surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shang; Adegbule, Aderonke; Kibbey, Tohren C G

    2017-08-01

    Reconstruction methods are widely used to extract three-dimensional information from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. This paper presents a new hybrid reconstruction method that combines stereoscopic reconstruction with shape-from-shading calculations to generate highly-detailed elevation maps from SEM image pairs. The method makes use of an imaged glass sphere to determine the quantitative relationship between observed intensity and angles between the beam and surface normal, and the detector and surface normal. Two specific equations are derived to make use of image intensity information in creating the final elevation map. The equations are used together, one making use of intensities in the two images, the other making use of intensities within a single image. The method is specifically designed for SEM images captured with a single secondary electron detector, and is optimized to capture maximum detail from complex natural surfaces. The method is illustrated with a complex structured abrasive material, and a rough natural sand grain. Results show that the method is capable of capturing details such as angular surface features, varying surface roughness, and surface striations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of glass particles on bone lesions using SEM-EDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoriol, Romain; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Chantalat, Elodie; Roumiguié, Mathieu; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Payré, Bruno; Telmon, Norbert; Savall, Frédéric

    2017-09-01

    The problem of identifying the wounding agent in forensic cases is recurrent. Moreover, when several tools are involved, distinguishing the origin of lesions can be difficult. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) equipment is increasingly available to the scientific and medical community, and some studies have reported its use in forensic anthropology. However, at our knowledge, no study has reported the use of SEM-EDS in forensic cases involving glass tools, whether in case reports or experiments. We performed an experimental study on human rib fragments, on which we manually created wounds using fragments of window and mirror glass. SEM-EDS was executed on samples without any further preparation on low vacuum mode, then on the same samples after defleshing them completely by boiling them. Window and mirror glass particles were detected on experimental wounds. Both had silica in their spectra, and the opaque side of the mirror contained titanium, allowing for their identification. Boiling and defleshing the bone samples involved a loss of information in terms of the number of wounds detected as positive for glass particles and in the number of glass particles detected, for both window and mirror glass. We suggest the analysis of wounds with suspected glass particles using low vacuum mode and with no defleshment by boiling.

  7. Enhanced FIB-SEM systems for large-volume 3D imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C Shan; Hayworth, Kenneth J; Lu, Zhiyuan; Grob, Patricia; Hassan, Ahmed M; García-Cerdán, José G; Niyogi, Krishna K; Nogales, Eva; Weinberg, Richard J; Hess, Harald F

    2017-01-01

    Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) can automatically generate 3D images with superior z-axis resolution, yielding data that needs minimal image registration and related post-processing. Obstacles blocking wider adoption of FIB-SEM include slow imaging speed and lack of long-term system stability, which caps the maximum possible acquisition volume. Here, we present techniques that accelerate image acquisition while greatly improving FIB-SEM reliability, allowing the system to operate for months and generating continuously imaged volumes > 106 µm3. These volumes are large enough for connectomics, where the excellent z resolution can help in tracing of small neuronal processes and accelerate the tedious and time-consuming human proofreading effort. Even higher resolution can be achieved on smaller volumes. We present example data sets from mammalian neural tissue, Drosophila brain, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to illustrate the power of this novel high-resolution technique to address questions in both connectomics and cell biology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25916.001 PMID:28500755

  8. In-SEM Raman microspectroscopy coupled with EDX - a case study of uranium reference particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefaniak, Elzbieta A.; Pointurier, Fabien; Marie, Olivier; Truyens, Jan; Aregbe, Yetunde

    2014-01-01

    Information about the molecular composition of airborne uranium-bearing particles may be useful as an additional tool for nuclear safeguards. In order to combine the detection of micrometer-sized particles with the analysis of their molecular forms, we used a hybrid system enabling Raman microanalysis in high vacuum inside a SEM chamber (SEM-SCA system). The first step involved an automatic scan of a sample to detect and save coordinates of uranium particles, along with X-ray microanalysis. In the second phase, the detected particles were relocated in a white light image and subjected to Raman microanalysis. The consecutive measurements by the two beams showed exceptional fragility of uranium particles, leading to their ultimate damage and change of uranium oxidation state. We used uranium reference particles prepared by hydrolysis of uranium hexafluoride to test the reliability of the Raman measurements inside the high vacuum. The results achieved by the hybrid system were verified by using a standalone Raman micro spectrometer. When deposited on exceptionally smooth substrates, uranyl fluoride particles smaller than 1000 nm could successfully be analyzed with the SEM-SCA system. (authors)

  9. Direct comparison of AFM and SEM measurements on the same set of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvallée, A; Feltin, N; Ducourtieux, S; Trabelsi, M; Hochepied, J F

    2015-01-01

    This article is the first step in the development of a hybrid metrology combining AFM and SEM techniques for measuring the dimensions of a nanoparticle population in 3D space (X,Y,Z). This method exploits the strengths of each technique on the same set of nanoparticles. AFM is used for measuring the nanoparticle height and the measurements along X and Y axes are deduced from SEM images. A sampling method is proposed in order to obtain the best deposition conditions of SiO 2 and gold nanoparticles on mica or silicon substrates. Only the isolated nanoparticles are taken into account in the histogram of size distribution. Moreover, a semi-automatic Matlab routine has also been developed to process the AFM and SEM images, measure and count the nanoparticles. This routine allows the user to exclusively select the isolated nanoparticles through a control interface. The measurements have been performed on spherical-like nanoparticles to test the method by comparing the results obtained with both techniques. (paper)

  10. Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia with low doses of topiramate Tratamento da neuralgia do trigêmeo com baixas doses de topiramato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Barros Domingues

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Topiramate was administered to eight patients with classical trigeminal neuralgia with or without previous symptomatic therapy with other antiepileptic drugs. The topiramate doses ranged from 50 to 100 mg a day, according to the clinical response and the reported side effects. Three patients had complete symptoms remission, three reported moderate improvement, and the treatment was not effective in two. The most frequently registered side effects were dizziness, somnolence and weight loss. Topiramate can be considered an alternative treatment for patients with trigeminal neuralgia.Oito pacientes com neuralgia do trigêmeo, com ou sem tratamentos prévios com anticonvulsivantes, foram submetidos a tratamento com topiramato. As doses de topiramato variaram de 50 a 100 mg ao dia, de acordo com a resposta clínica e com os efeitos colaterais relatados. Três pacientes obtiveram remissão completa, três relataram melhora parcial e o tratamento com topiramato foi ineficaz em dois pacientes. Os efeitos colaterais mais frequentemente citados foram tontura, sonolência e perda de peso. O topiramato pode ser considerado uma alternativa potencialmente eficaz para o tratamento de pacientes com neuralgia do trigêmeo.

  11. Root growth and lignification of glyphosate susceptible and resistant soybean at low temperaturesCrescimento e lignificação de raízes de soja convencional e resistente ao glifosato, em baixa temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia da Costa Zonetti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature stress affects plant growth, including primary and secondary metabolism. Glyphosateresistant soybean contains a modified DNA, which encodes a different type of secondary metabolism enzyme related to lignin synthesis compared to conventional glyphosate-susceptible cultivars. Thus, this soybean cultivar might respond differently to low temperatures, compared to glyphosate-susceptible cultivars. This work aimed to investigate how decreasing temperatures influence the growth and lignin content of the glyphosate-resistant soybean compared to its susceptible parental cultivars. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution at 10, 15, 20, and 25°C (±2°C, using a 12-h photoperiod. After 96 h, taproot growth, fresh and dry biomass, and lignin levels were determined. The results indicate that lower temperatures decreased seedling and root growth in both types of cultivars; however, glyphosate-resistant soybean exhibited greater root length, biomass, and lignin content compared to the glyphosate-susceptible parental cultivar. O estresse causado pela baixa temperatura, dentre outras implicações, afeta o crescimento do vegetal assim como o seu metabolismo secundário. Pelo fato da soja RR apresentar variante enzimática de uma das principais vias do metabolismo secundário, ligada à síntese de lignina, pode apresentar comportamento diferenciado, sob baixa temperatura, se comparada com sua linhagem parental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar possíveis diferenças no crescimento e nos conteúdos de lignina nas raízes de soja cultivar transgênica resistente ao glifosato e cultivar parental em resposta a redução de temperatura. Após três dias de germinação das sementes, as plântulas foram mantidas em solução nutritiva, a 10, 15, 20 e 25°C (±2°C, com fotoperíodo de 12 horas. Após 96 horas, foi avaliado o comprimento relativo da raiz primária, biomassa fresca e seca das raízes e os teores de lignina

  12. Concentração de urânio em plantas desenvolvidas em solos agrícolas e de escombreira da área mineira da Cunha Baixa (Mangualde Uranium concentration in plants developed on agricultural soils and waste dumps in Cunha Baixa mine site (Mangualde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Neves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avalia-se e comparara-se a concentração e capacidade de bioconcentra­ção (CB do urânio em diversas espécies vegetais (parte aérea que se desenvolveram em solos de escombreira (Pinus pinaster, Cytisus striatus, Cytisus multiflorus e culti­vadas (Zea mays L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., Lactuca sativa L. em solos da zona agríco­la, envolvente à área mineira da Cunha Bai­xa (Mangualde. As espécies colonizadoras da escombreira estão bem adaptadas ao substrato, sendo o Pinus pinaster aquela que mais urânio concentrou na parte aérea (13,9 mg kg-1 podendo, juntamente com as espé­cies do género Cytisus, contribuir para a estabilização dos resíduos mineiros, ainda com elevada concentrações em urânio total e disponível (118 mg kg-1 e 43 mg kg-1, res­pectivamente. Entre as espécies cultivadas destaca-se a Lactuca sativa que concentrou, em média, 5,37 mg kg-1 de urânio (peso seco. Nenhuma das espécies estudadas se revelou acumuladora deste elemento (CB The uranium concentration and the bioco­centration capacity (BC in several plant species (aboveground part were evaluated and compared among species grown on soils developed on waste materials (Pinus pinaster, Cytisus striatus, Cytisus multiflo­rus and agricultural soils (Zea mays L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., Lactuca sativa L. from the surrounding area of Cunha Baixa mine (Mangualde. The species colonizing waste materials are well adapted to the substratum, which contains high total and available uranium concentration (118 mg kg-1 and 43 mg kg-1 , respectively. Pinus pinaster concentrated more uranium (13.9 mg kg-1 than the spe­cies of genus Cytisus. As a consequence, and also due to the effective vegetation cover these plants can contribute to the sta­bilization of mining wastes dumps. Lactuca sativa concentrated more uranium (on ave­rage, 5.37 mg kg-1 dry weight than the other cultivated plants. None of the studied species was uranium accumulator (BC <1, even if

  13. Quantitative Determination of Noa (Naturally Occurring Asbestos) in Rocks : Comparison Between Pcom and SEM Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baietto, Oliviero; Amodeo, Francesco; Giorgis, Ilaria; Vitaliti, Martina

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of NOA (Naturally Occurring Asbestos) in a rock or soil matrix is complex and subject to numerous errors. The purpose of this study is to compare two fundamental methodologies used for the analysis: the first one uses Phase Contrast Optical Microscope (PCOM) while the second one uses Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The two methods, although they provide the same result, which is the asbestos mass to total mass ratio, have completely different characteristics and both present pros and cons. The current legislation in Italy involves the use of SEM, DRX, FTIR, PCOM (DM 6/9/94) for the quantification of asbestos in bulk materials and soils and the threshold beyond which the material is considered as hazardous waste is a concentration of asbestos fiber of 1000 mg/kg.(DM 161/2012). The most used technology is the SEM which is the one among these with the better analytical sensitivity.(120mg/Kg DM 6 /9/94) The fundamental differences among the analyses are mainly: - Amount of analyzed sample portion - Representativeness of the sample - Resolution - Analytical precision - Uncertainty of the methodology - Operator errors Due to the problem of quantification of DRX and FTIR (1% DM 6/9/94) our Asbestos Laboratory (DIATI POLITO) since more than twenty years apply the PCOM methodology and in the last years the SEM methodology for quantification of asbestos content. The aim of our research is to compare the results obtained from a PCOM analysis with the results provided by SEM analysis on the base of more than 100 natural samples both from cores (tunnel-boring or explorative-drilling) and from tunnelling excavation . The results obtained show, in most cases, a good correlation between the two techniques. Of particular relevance is the fact that both techniques are reliable for very low quantities of asbestos, even lower than the analytical sensitivity. This work highlights the comparison between the two techniques emphasizing strengths and weaknesses of

  14. SEM AutoAnalysis: enhancing photomask and NIL defect disposition and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristian; Egodage, Kokila; Tabbone, Gilles; Ehrlich, Christian; Garetto, Anthony

    2017-06-01

    For defect disposition and repair verification regarding printability, AIMS™ is the state of the art measurement tool in industry. With its unique capability of capturing aerial images of photomasks it is the one method that comes closest to emulating the printing behaviour of a scanner. However for nanoimprint lithography (NIL) templates aerial images cannot be applied to evaluate the success of a repair process. Hence, for NIL defect dispositioning scanning, electron microscopy (SEM) imaging is the method of choice. In addition, it has been a standard imaging method for further root cause analysis of defects and defect review on optical photomasks which enables 2D or even 3D mask profiling at high resolutions. In recent years a trend observed in mask shops has been the automation of processes that traditionally were driven by operators. This of course has brought many advantages one of which is freeing cost intensive labour from conducting repetitive and tedious work. Furthermore, it reduces variability in processes due to different operator skill and experience levels which at the end contributes to eliminating the human factor. Taking these factors into consideration, one of the software based solutions available under the FAVOR® brand to support customer needs is the aerial image evaluation software, AIMS™ AutoAnalysis (AAA). It provides fully automated analysis of AIMS™ images and runs in parallel to measurements. This is enabled by its direct connection and communication with the AIMS™tools. As one of many positive outcomes, generating automated result reports is facilitated, standardizing the mask manufacturing workflow. Today, AAA has been successfully introduced into production at multiple customers and is supporting the workflow as described above. These trends indeed have triggered the demand for similar automation with respect to SEM measurements leading to the development of SEM AutoAnalysis (SAA). It aims towards a fully automated SEM image

  15. Efeito do laser de baixa potência (AsGa, 904 ηm na reparação óssea de fraturas em ratos Effect of low-level laser (GaAs, 904 ηm for bone repair on fractures in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alfredo Léo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos do laser de baixa potência, AsGa - 904 ηm, no reparo ósseo de fraturas de tíbias em ratos. MÉTODOS: 40 ratos divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais: grupo controle, sem fratura (GC; grupo com fratura, sem tratamento (GE II; grupo com fratura tratado com laser a 10J/cm² (GE III e grupo com fratura tratado com laser a 15J/cm² (GE IV. A fratura foi realizada cirurgicamente e o tratamento teve duração de 45 dias, realizado em dias alternados. Finalizado o tratamento, os ratos foram submetidos à eutanásia e as tíbias tratadas foram radiografadas e submetidas a ensaios mecânicos de flexão em três pontos para avaliar a força máxima (N para ruptura. RESULTADOS: Os valores observados de força máxima (N foram: grupo controle (GC de 51,5N ± 7,9N; GE II de 17,2N ± 7,8N; GE III de 16,6N ± 12,1N e GE IV de 30,3N ± 7,8N. Foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre o grupo controle e os grupos experimentais e também entre o grupo experimental IV e os grupos experimentais II e III. Em relação às radiografias, foi observada a formação de calo ósseo em todos os grupos fraturados, indicando que passaram pelo processo normal de reparo tecidual. CONCLUSÃO: O grupo GE IV, submetido à terapia laser com dosagem de 15J/cm² obteve o maior valor para força máxima (N entre os grupos experimentais, indicando a influência da maior dosagem do laser no reparo ósseo.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of low-level laser therapy (GaAs, 904 nm for bone repair on tibial fractures in rats. METHODS: Forty rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals: control group without fracture (CG; fracture group without treatment (EG II; fracture group treated with laser at 10 J/cm² (EG III; and fracture group treated with laser at 15 J/cm² (EG IV. The fracture was produced surgically and the treatment lasted 45 days, done on alternate days. After treatment completion, the rats were sacrificed. The

  16. Enabling CD SEM metrology for 5nm technology node and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Gian Francesco; Ohashi, Takeyoshi; Yamaguchi, Astuko; Inoue, Osamu; Sutani, Takumichi; Horiguchi, Naoto; Bömmels, Jürgen; Wilson, Christopher J.; Briggs, Basoene; Tan, Chi Lim; Raymaekers, Tom; Delhougne, Romain; Van den Bosch, Geert; Di Piazza, Luca; Kar, Gouri Sankar; Furnémont, Arnaud; Fantini, Andrea; Donadio, Gabriele Luca; Souriau, Laurent; Crotti, Davide; Yasin, Farrukh; Appeltans, Raf; Rao, Siddharth; De Simone, Danilo; Rincon Delgadillo, Paulina; Leray, Philippe; Charley, Anne-Laure; Zhou, Daisy; Veloso, Anabela; Collaert, Nadine; Hasumi, Kazuhisa; Koshihara, Shunsuke; Ikota, Masami; Okagawa, Yutaka; Ishimoto, Toru

    2017-03-01

    The CD SEM (Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope) is one of the main tools used to estimate Critical Dimension (CD) in semiconductor manufacturing nowadays, but, as all metrology tools, it will face considerable challenges to keep up with the requirements of the future technology nodes. The root causes of these challenges are not uniquely related to the shrinking CD values, as one might expect, but to the increase in complexity of the devices in terms of morphology and chemical composition as well. In fact, complicated threedimensional device architectures, high aspect ratio features, and wide variety of materials are some of the unavoidable characteristics of the future metrology nodes. This means that, beside an improvement in resolution, it is critical to develop a CD SEM metrology capable of satisfying the specific needs of the devices of the nodes to come, needs that sometimes will have to be addressed through dramatic changes in approach with respect to traditional CD SEM metrology. In this paper, we report on the development of advanced CD SEM metrology at imec on a variety of device platform and processes, for both logic and memories. We discuss newly developed approaches for standard, IIIV, and germanium FinFETs (Fin Field Effect Transistors), for lateral and vertical nanowires (NW), 3D NAND (three-dimensional NAND), STT-MRAM (Spin Transfer Magnetic Torque Random-Access Memory), and ReRAM (Resistive Random Access Memory). Applications for both front-end of line (FEOL) and back-end of line (BEOL) are developed. In terms of process, S/D Epi (Source Drain Epitaxy), SAQP (Self-Aligned Quadruple Patterning), DSA (Dynamic Self-Assembly), and EUVL (Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography) have been used. The work reported here has been performed on Hitachi CG5000, CG6300, and CV5000. In terms of logic, we discuss here the S/D epi defect classification, the metrology optimization for STI (Shallow Trench Isolation) Ge FinFETs, the defectivity of III-V STI Fin

  17. The ITZ in concrete with natural and recycled aggregates : Study of microstructures based on image and SEM analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifazi, G.; Capobianco, G.; Serranti, S.; Eggimann, M.; Wagner, E.; Di Maio, F.; Lotfi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure of the Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) between cement paste and aggregate in concrete utilizing Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in order to identify possible effects on the ITZ related to different recipes and production parameters. SEM is

  18. Transmissão de vibração e ruído de baixa frequência em edifícios de betão armado

    OpenAIRE

    Carreira, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Engenharia Civil, Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto Superior Técnico, 2016 A vibração e o ruído de baixa frequência gerados em edifícios por fontes internas, como os equipamentos mecânicos, e externas, como o tráfego rodoviário e ferroviário, podem causar incómodo e sérios problemas de saúde para as pessoas expostas, assim como interferir com o funcionamento de eventuais equipamentos de alta precisão e sensibilidade. A presença de elevados conteúdos energéticos na gam...

  19. Influência da cera de carnaúba no comportamento reológico de misturas usadas na moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. Ourique; R. C. D. Cruz; J. E. Zorzi

    2015-01-01

    A moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão (MIBP) tem algumas vantagens sobre outros métodos de conformação de peças cerâmicas com formas complexas. Dentre as vantagens estão os menores custos na produção de lotes pequenos e médios e o menor desgaste de moldes e equipamento. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o efeito de um dos aditivos orgânicos usados na MIBP, a cera de carnaúba, no comportamento reológico da mistura (feedstock). O pó cerâmico utilizado foi uma alumina, com tamanho de partícula em t...

  20. Aplicações do laser de baixa intensidade no tratamento da síndrome do túnel do carpo - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v7i2.996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Caldas Cardozo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar, por meio de revisão bibliográfica, a eficiência da aplicação do Laser de baixa intensidade (LBI no tratamento da Síndrome do Túnel do Carpo (STC. Para isso foi realizada uma pesquisa de artigos nas bases de dados PUBMED e BIREME, publicados entre 1985 e 2009, nos idiomas espanhol, inglês e português. Grande parte dos artigos consultados revelou que a LBI é eficaz no tratamento de pacientes diagnosticados com Síndrome do Túnel do Carpo. Concluiu-se que, quando associada ao uso de órtese para o punho, a laserterapia é um método eficiente no tratamento da síndrome do túnel do carpo.

  1. Doença respiratória baixa e aleitamento materno em crianças menores de 5 anos do município de Jaboatão dos Guararapes/PE: estudo de prevalência

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Manuela Correia de

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: estimar a associação entre doença respiratória baixa e aleitamento materno em crianças de 3 meses até 4 anos, no município de Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco. Métodos: estudo de corte transversal. Foram aplicados 2 questionários padronizados às mães ou responsáveis pelas crianças nos domicílios por estagiários treinados. Nesse trabalho foram analisadas informações sobre as mães e as crianças: amamentação, dados demográficos e socioeconômicos, sobre o ambiente domiciliar, taba...

  2. Doença respiratória baixa e aleitamento materno em crianças menores de 5 anos do município de Jaboatão dos Guararapes / PE : um estudo de prevalência

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Manuela Correia de

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: estimar a associação entre doença respiratória baixa e aleitamento materno em crianças de 3 meses até 4 anos, no município de Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco. Métodos: estudo de corte transversal. Foram aplicados 2 questionários padronizados às mães ou responsáveis pelas crianças nos domicílios por estagiários treinados. Nesse trabalho foram analisadas informações sobre as mães e as crianças: amamentação, dados demográficos e socioeconômicos, sobre o ambiente domiciliar, taba...

  3. Impactos ambientais decorrentes de vazamento de gás natural de baixa e média pressões, na área urbana central do município de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Moscardi, Jean Prost [UNESP

    2005-01-01

    Com o crescente desenvolvimento do mercado de gás o Brasil e, conseqüente, mudança da matriz energética do país, iniciou-se a procura por tecnologias as quais atenderiam as novas demandas. A área de Meio Ambiente, cada vez mais, está sendo direcionada como ponto-chave enquanto condicionante na realização ou não de qualquer evento. O trabalho aborda de maneira sucinta, as interações existentes entre empreendimento, tubulações de gás apresentando baixas e médias pressões; e, a área de atuação e...

  4. Da invisibilidade à regularização fundiária : a trajetória legal da moradia de baixa renda em Porto Alegre-século XX

    OpenAIRE

    Betania de Moraes Alfonsin

    2000-01-01

    O objetivo desta dissertação é analisar a evolução da legislação urbanística do município de Porto Alegre, ao longo de todo o século XX, no que diz respeito ao tratamento que a mesma dispensou aos territórios de moradia da população de baixa renda nesta cidade do Sul do Brasil. Através de uma ampla pesquisa na legislação urbanística foi possível identificar seis grandes "Ciclos" históricos na trajetória da política habitacional conduzida pelo Governo municipal: 1. A invisibilização 2. A expul...

  5. Lixiviação de cátions favorecida pela presença de ânions inorgânicos e ácidos orgânicos de baixa massa molecular em solos adubados com camas de aviário Cation leaching favored by inorganic anions and low molecular mass organic acids in soils fertilized with different poultry litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Oliveira Gebrim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o incremento exponencial da avicultura no Brasil, a disponibilidade de dejetos de aves e de cama de aviário tem aumentado de maneira semelhante. A proibição de uso desses produtos na ração animal tem feito com que eles sejam direcionados para a produção agrícola como fertilizantes. Ainda há na literatura carência de informação sobre lixiviação de bases no perfil do solo em conseqüência do efeito de ânions inorgânicos acompanhantes, como cloreto, nitrato e sulfato, e do efeito complexante de ácidos orgânicos de baixa massa molecular. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito da aplicação de cama de aviário na lixiviação de Ca, Mg, K e Na em solos e sua associação com ânions inorgânicos e ácidos orgânicos de baixa molecular. Amostras de dois Latossolos Vermelho-Amarelos, um de textura média e outro de textura argilosa, foram colocadas em colunas de PVC constituídas de cinco anéis, cada um com 10 cm de altura e 5 cm de diâmetro, ligados entre si com fita adesiva. O solo colocado no anel superior recebeu, homogeneamente, cinco tipos de camas de aviário: casca de café, casca de arroz, sabugo de milho, capim-napier e maravalha, totalizando 160 t ha-1 de material seco, comparado à testemunha (sem a cama de aviário. O experimento constituiu um fatorial 5 x 2, com cinco camas e dois solos, dispostos em blocos casualizados com três repetições. As colunas foram submetidas a 10 percolações com água deionizada, duas vezes por semana, até atingirem o volume de 1.200 mm de chuvas. Nos 10 percolados, foram analisadas as concentrações de Ca, Mg, K e Na, dos ânions Cl-, NO3-e SO4(2- e de ácidos orgânicos de baixa massa molecular. Houve grande lixiviação de bases nas colunas, principalmente até a terceira percolação. Esse fato foi causado pela adição dessas bases, em doses elevadas, pelas camas de aviário e, aparentemente, também pelo efeito dos ânions acompanhantes Cl-, NO3-e SO4(2-no solo de

  6. Procedimentos estimativos do potencial de uso de chaminés solares para promover a ventilação natural em edificações de baixa altura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia de Oliveira Neves

    Full Text Available A ventilação natural é uma das estratégias mais importantes para o condicionamento térmico passivo de ambientes internos de edificações, podendo ocorrer pela ação dos ventos, pelo efeito chaminé ou pela combinação de ambos. Em áreas urbanizadas, a velocidade do vento é sensivelmente reduzida pelos obstáculos locais, tornando o efeito chaminé uma alternativa de projeto mais viável, pois independe dos ventos. Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar e discutir procedimentos estimativos do potencial de uso de chaminés solares para edificações de baixa altura, localizadas em regiões de baixa latitude. Desenvolveram-se previsões teóricas, através de um modelo matemático e de simulação computacional. Realizou-se um processo de calibração destes modelos, utilizando como referência os resultados do monitoramento experimental de uma célula de teste. O processo baseou-se na análise comparativa de algumas variáveis selecionadas, considerando-se dados de temperatura superficial, temperatura do ar e vazão volumétrica no interior da chaminé. Os resultados indicaram que os modelos teóricos têm potencial de aplicação na avaliação do desempenho de chaminés solares, especialmente o modelo de simulação, em que foram observadas diferenças inferiores a 20% entre resultados medidos e calculados.

  7. Correlation between fatigue and self-esteem in patients with multiple sclerosis Correlação entre gravidade da fadiga e baixa estima na esclerose múltipla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yára Dadalti Fragoso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the possible association of fatigue with self-esteem in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. METHOD: Thirty patients were prospectively assessed. None of them presented moderate or severe depression or anxiety and their degree of disability was low (EDSSOBJETIVO: Avaliar a possível associação entre fadiga e autoestima em pacientes com esclerose múltipla (EM. MÉTODO: Trinta pacientes foram avaliados de forma prospectiva. Nenhum deles apresentava depressão ou ansiedade moderada ou grave, e o grau de incapacidade foi baixo (EDSS<3,5. Eles estavam clinicamente estáveis por pelo menos três meses e estavam recebendo a mesma medicação por pelo menos seis meses. O nível socioeconômico foi avaliado. A gravidade da fadiga e a autoestima foram avaliadas pelo uso de escalas especificas e validadas. Pacientes com ansiedade e/ou depressão moderadas ou graves foram excluídos. RESULTADOS: Baixa autoestima se mostrou correlacionada com fadiga (p=0,01, porém não relacionada a qualquer outra variável, como sexo, idade, EDSS, duração da EM, número se surtos, depressão e/ou ansiedade leves. CONCLUSÃO: Maior gravidade de fadiga na EM se correlaciona com baixa autoestima, sugerindo assim que esta queixa crônica que afeta tantos pacientes pode interferir com a maneira pela qual eles se vêem e se valorizam.

  8. Avaliação da apoptose de leucócitos polimorfonucleares CH138+ em leite bovino de alta e baixa contagem de células somáticas : dados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B Pessoa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A apoptose de leucócitos polimorfonucleares (PMN é um evento central no processo de resolução da inflamação. Sendo a contagem de células somáticas (CCS um indicador da situação imunológica da glândula mamária, o presente estudo buscou esclarecer a influência que esses fatores têm um sobre o outro e sobre a evolução do processo inflamatório. Marcaram-se as amostras de leite com anexina-V, iodeto de propídeo (PI, anticorpo anti-CH138A. Encontrou-se correlação negativa entre apoptose de PMN e CCS, além de diferença estatística entre um grupo de alta CCS e um grupo de baixa CCS quanto à taxa de PMN viáveis, em apoptose, em necrose e em necrose e/ou apoptose. De modo geral, o grupo de alta celularidade apresentou menos CH138+ em apoptose e mais células em necrose ou viáveis do que o grupo de baixa celularidade. Conclui-se que apoptose de PMN e CCS estão relacionados, e que em mamas com CCS elevada este evento está diminuído. Apesar de haver maior disponibilidade de fagócitos para a defesa nessa situação, os efeitos anti-inflamatórios da apoptose também estão diminuídos, enquanto os efeitos pró-inflamatórios da necrose estão aumentados, o que pode colaborar com a cronificação da inflamação.

  9. SEM-microphotogrammetry, a new take on an old method for generating high-resolution 3D models from SEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, A D; Job, P A; Walker, A E L

    2017-08-01

    The method we present here uses a scanning electron microscope programmed via macros to automatically capture dozens of images at suitable angles to generate accurate, detailed three-dimensional (3D) surface models with micron-scale resolution. We demonstrate that it is possible to use these Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images in conjunction with commercially available software originally developed for photogrammetry reconstructions from Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) cameras and to reconstruct 3D models of the specimen. These 3D models can then be exported as polygon meshes and eventually 3D printed. This technique offers the potential to obtain data suitable to reconstruct very tiny features (e.g. diatoms, butterfly scales and mineral fabrics) at nanometre resolution. Ultimately, we foresee this as being a useful tool for better understanding spatial relationships at very high resolution. However, our motivation is also to use it to produce 3D models to be used in public outreach events and exhibitions, especially for the blind or partially sighted. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. The C. elegans Spalt-like protein SEM-4 functions through the SoxC transcription factor SEM-2 to promote a proliferative blast cell fate in the postembryonic mesoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qinfang; Shi, Herong; Tian, Chenxi; Ghai, Vikas; Liu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Proper development of a multicellular organism relies on well-coordinated regulation of cell fate specification, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. The C. elegans postembryonic mesoderm provides a useful system for uncovering factors involved in these processes and for further dissecting their regulatory relationships. The single Spalt-like zinc finger containing protein SEM-4/SALL is known to be involved in specifying the proliferative sex myoblast (SM) fate. We have found that SEM-4/SALL is sufficient to promote the SM fate and that it does so in a cell autonomous manner. We further showed that SEM-4/SALL acts through the SoxC transcription factor SEM-2 to promote the SM fate. SEM-2 is known to promote the SM fate by inhibiting the expression of two BWM-specifying transcription factors. In light of recent findings in mammals showing that Sall4, one of the mammalian homologs of SEM-4, contributes to pluripotency regulation by inhibiting differentiation, our work suggests that the function of SEM-4/SALL proteins in regulating pluripotency versus differentiation appears to be evolutionarily conserved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis. Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system.

  12. Specimen's plane misaligned installation solution based on charge fluctuation inside SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haojian; Liu, Yanting; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Panbing; Shen, Yajing

    2018-04-01

    Precise specimen's installation is a sticking point to ensure the characterization accuracy of the in-situ material property test. Although it is common knowledge that specimen's plane misaligned installation (PMI) would cause extra force loading during mechanical testing, there are few effective solutions available to deal with it at the current stage, especially during the in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) test. Taking into consideration the charge fluctuation phenomenon under SEM, this paper proposes a highlight area variation (HAV) method for specimen deformation judgment, i.e., the specimen deformation is defined when the highlight area changes greater than 20% of the initial value of the specimen surface. Three types of specimens with different resistivities, i.e., human hair (electrical resistivity ˜3 × 1012 Ω cm), optical fiber (electrical resistivity ˜1017 Ω cm), and magnetic wire (electrical resistivity ˜2 × 10-5 Ω cm), are chosen to verify the effectiveness of the HAV method. Furthermore, combined with the developed robot-aided alignment system, the specimen's PMI problem can also be solved. In the demonstration, the human hair specimen is installed across two specimen stages and its in-situ twisting (in 360°) test is implemented. The results clearly indicate that the HAV method and the robot-aided alignment system are practical and reliable, and the specimen can be aligned on the same plane and installed precisely with accuracy up to 3 μm. This method will benefit the in-situ SEM material mechanical property test and has a significant impact in fundamental material research.

  13. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-06-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1–10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2} is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He–Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm{sup −2} and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2}. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  14. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1–10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm"−"2 is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He–Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm"−"2 and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm"−"2. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  15. Tumor suppressor protein SMAR1 modulates the roughness of cell surface: combined AFM and SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamgain Hitesh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imaging tools such as scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM can be used to produce high-resolution topographic images of biomedical specimens and hence are well suited for imaging alterations in cell morphology. We have studied the correlation of SMAR1 expression with cell surface smoothness in cell lines as well as in different grades of human breast cancer and mouse tumor sections. Methods We validated knockdown and overexpression of SMAR1 using RT-PCR as well as Western blotting in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293, human breast cancer (MCF-7 and mouse melanoma (B16F1 cell lines. The samples were then processed for cell surface roughness studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The same samples were used for microarray analysis as well. Tumors sections from control and SMAR1 treated mice as well as tissues sections from different grades of human breast cancer on poly L-lysine coated slides were used for AFM and SEM studies. Results Tumor sections from mice injected with melanoma cells showed pronounced surface roughness. In contrast, tumor sections obtained from nude mice that were first injected with melanoma cells followed by repeated injections of SMAR1-P44 peptide, exhibited relatively smoother surface profile. Interestingly, human breast cancer tissue sections that showed reduced SMAR1 expression exhibited increased surface roughness compared to the adjacent normal breast tissue. Our AFM data establishes that treatment of cells with SMAR1-P44 results into increase in cytoskeletal volume that is supported by comparative gene expression data showing an increase in the expression of specific cytoskeletal proteins compared to the control cells. Altogether, these findings indicate that tumor suppressor function of SMAR1 might be exhibited through smoothening of cell surface by regulating expression of cell surface proteins. Conclusion Tumor suppressor

  16. Application of FE-SEM with elemental analyzer for irradiated fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shinji; Maeda, Koji; Yamada, A.

    2012-01-01

    It is important to study the irradiation behavior of the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuels (MOX fuels) for development of fast reactor fuels. During irradiation in a fast reactor, the changes of microstructures and the changes of element distributions along radial direction occur in the MOX fuels because of a radial temperature gradient. In order to make detailed observations of microstructure and elemental analyses of fuel samples, a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with a wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (WDX) and an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) were installed in a hot laboratory. Because fuel samples have high radioactivities and emit α-particles, the instrument was modified correspondingly. The notable modified points were as follows. 1) To prevent leakage of radioactive materials, the instrument was attached to a remote control air-tight sample transfer unit between a shielded hot cell and the FE-SEM. 2) To protect operators and the instruments from radiation, the FE-SEM was installed in a lead shield box and the control unit was separately located outside the box. After the installation, the microscopy and elemental analyses were made on low burnup fuel samples. High resolution images were obtained on the fuel sample surface. The characteristic X-rays (U, Pu) emitted from the fuel sample surface measured along radial direction successfully. Thereby, it was able to grasp the change of U, Pu radial distribution after irradiation. The technique has the great advantage of being able to evaluate the changes of microstructures and the changes of element distributions of MOX fuels due to irradiation. In future work, samples of even higher radioactivity will be observed and analyzed. (author)

  17. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system. PMID:27649180

  18. Is scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) quantitative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M

    2013-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) is a widely applied elemental microanalysis method capable of identifying and quantifying all elements in the periodic table except H, He, and Li. By following the "k-ratio" (unknown/standard) measurement protocol development for electron-excited wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), SEM/EDS can achieve accuracy and precision equivalent to WDS and at substantially lower electron dose, even when severe X-ray peak overlaps occur, provided sufficient counts are recorded. Achieving this level of performance is now much more practical with the advent of the high-throughput silicon drift detector energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SDD-EDS). However, three measurement issues continue to diminish the impact of SEM/EDS: (1) In the qualitative analysis (i.e., element identification) that must precede quantitative analysis, at least some current and many legacy software systems are vulnerable to occasional misidentification of major constituent peaks, with the frequency of misidentifications rising significantly for minor and trace constituents. (2) The use of standardless analysis, which is subject to much broader systematic errors, leads to quantitative results that, while useful, do not have sufficient accuracy to solve critical problems, e.g. determining the formula of a compound. (3) EDS spectrometers have such a large volume of acceptance that apparently credible spectra can be obtained from specimens with complex topography that introduce uncontrolled geometric factors that modify X-ray generation and propagation, resulting in very large systematic errors, often a factor of ten or more. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Adapted methods for scanning electron microscopy (SEM in assessment of human sperm morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Nussdorfer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is a widespread problem, and in some cases, the routine basic semen analysis is not sufficient to detect the cause of male infertility. The use of the scanning electron microscope (SEM could provide a detailed insight into spermatozoa morphology, but it requires specific sample preparation techniques. The purpose of this study was to select, adjust, and optimize a method for the preparation of spermatozoa samples prior to SEM analysis, and to establish the protocol required for its use in clinical practice. We examined sperm samples of 50 men. The samples were fixed with modified iso-osmolar aldehyde solution followed by osmium post-fixation. In the first method, dehydration of the cells and subsequent critical point drying (CPD were performed on a coverslip. In the second method, the samples were dehydrated in centrifuge tubes; hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS was used as a drying agent instead of CPD, and the samples were air-dried. The third procedure was based on a membrane filter. The samples were dehydrated and dried with HMDS in a Gooch crucible, continuously, without centrifugation or redispersion of the sample. Our results showed that the fixation with modified iso-osmolar aldehyde solution followed by osmium post-fixation, and combined with dehydration and CPD on a coverslip, is the most convenient procedure for SEM sample preparation. In the case of small-size samples or low sperm concentration, dehydration and drying with HMDS on the membrane filter enabled the best reliability, repeatability, and comparability of the results. The presented procedures are suitable for routine use, and they can be applied to confirm as well as to correct a diagnosis.

  20. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-09-14

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system.

  1. Semântica gramatical: a significação dos pronomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildemir Ferreira de Carvalho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O estudo analisa a significação das particulas pronominais entre as quais se incluem os determinantes, os pronomes substantivos e os advérbios pronominais. Para esta análise se adota o critério dos traços constrativos (Chomsky, 2. Os resultados do trabalho mostram que as categorias semânticas dos pronomes (lato sensu se associam, de uma forma ou de outra, às nações de DEFINIDADE e PESSOA DO DISCURSO.

  2. Estudo da sintomatologia depressiva e ansiosa em crianças com e sem obesidade

    OpenAIRE

    Morgado, Joana Alexandra da Silva

    2013-01-01

    A obesidade infantil constitui um problema de saúde pública, o que motivou a sua classificação pela WHO como “epidemia do seculo XXI”. Como se não bastasse, surge sempre associada ao aumento quer da mortalidade, quer da morbilidade. Este estudo procura perceber em que medida as crianças com obesidade infantil diferem das crianças sem obesidade em termos de sintomatologia depressiva e ansiosa. O desenho do estudo é de natureza transversal e comparativa. A amostra é composta por 85 crianças, co...

  3. GAGG:ce single crystalline films: New perspective scintillators for electron detection in SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bok, Jan; Lalinský, Ondřej; Hanuš, M.; Onderišinová, Z.; Kelar, J.; Kučera, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 163, APR (2016), s. 1-5 ISSN 0304-3991 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05631S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : scintillator * GAGG:Ce * multicomponent garnet * epitaxial film * electron detection * SEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.843, year: 2016

  4. XPS and SEM studies of chromium oxide films chemically formed on stainless steel 316 L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanov, P.; Marinova, T.

    2000-01-01

    The structure and composition of chromium oxide films formed on stainless steel by immersion in a chromium electrolyte have been studied by SEM and XPS. Cr 2 O 3 crystallites in the range 30-150 nm are fully developed and cover the whole surface. The chemical composition in the depth and the thickness of the oxide layer have been determined by XPS sputter profiles. The oxide film can be described within the framework of a double layer consisting of a thin outer hydrated layer and an inner layer of Cr 2 O 3 . (orig.)

  5. Determination of gel content and SEM morphology for sago-PVA blends film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarada Idris; Zulkafli Ghazali; Kamarudin Hashim

    2006-01-01

    Blends of polyvinyl alcohol and sago starch have been prepared to evaluate the potential of producing biodegradable products. Glycerol was introduced in the blends to improve the flexibility of the films as plasticizer in order more flexible film. These blends have been subjected to electron beam irradiation to evaluate and characterized radiation effect on the blends. Subsequently films were produced from this blend. The gel content of un-irradiated and irradiated films as evidence of cross linking was measured and discussed. This paper also discuss the films morphology from Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM) observation. (Author)

  6. Red semántica de terremoto y maremoto en personas expuestas directa y vicariamente

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Moyano Díaz; Katerinne Muñoz Tapia; Claudia Estrada; Marcelo Leiva-Bianchi

    2012-01-01

    Se busca identificar el significado de los conceptos 'terremoto' y 'maremoto' en dos grupos diferentemente expuestos al evento acaecido en Chile el 27/02/2010, en una muestra no probabilística intencional, compuesta por 240 personas provenientes de las ciudades de Constitución (n=104) - expuestas directamente al terremoto y maremoto -, y de Punta Arenas (n=136) expuestas vicariamente. Mediante redes semánticas naturales (R.S.) construidas ad-hoc, fue observado que terremoto y tsunami tienen s...

  7. Unveiling the Mysteries of Mars with a Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Doloboff, I. J.; Jerman, G.

    2017-01-01

    Development of a miniaturized scanning electron microscope that will utilize the martian atmosphere to dissipate charge during analysis continues. This instrument is expected to be used on a future rover or lander to answer fundamental Mars science questions. To identify the most important questions, a survey was taken at the 47th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC). From the gathered information initial topics were identified for a SEM on the martian surface. These priorities are identified and discussed below. Additionally, a concept of operations is provided with the goal of maximizing the science obtained with the minimum amount of communication with the instrument.

  8. Application of SEM/EDS to environmental geochemistry of heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gosar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals represent a ubiquitous constituent of the near-surface environment, present in widely varyingconcentrations that typically have little impact on human behaviour and health. However, the mining of metals anduse of these metals in industrial processes has produced significant anthropogenic inputs of metals to both localand global environments. As such, a rigorous overview of the current accumulation of heavy metals and knowledgeof mineralogy of heavy metal-bearing phases is important for understanding their stability, solubility, mobility,bioavailability and toxicity. These data are of fundamental importance for environmental risk assessment and evaluationof future scenarios. Since conventional geochemical analyses provide limited information, other analyticalmethods have to be utilized for the characterisation of heavy metal-bearing phases. Significant analytical methodfor identification and characterisation of heavy metals in environmental media is a scanning electron microscopecoupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS, an apparatus for qualitative and semi-quantitative chemical analysis at microne level, newly introduced to Geological Survey of Slovenia. Use of SEM/EDS was already introduced to environmental studies world-wide. In Slovenia, SEM/EDS analyses of environmental media werefirstly carried out on the Meža River stream sediments and snow deposits from Ljubljana urban area.Heavy metal-bearing phases in the Meža River stream sediments were apportioned to three source areas: Mežica mining/smelting area (geogenic-technogenic origin, Ravne ironworks area (technogenic origin and the Meža River catchment area (geogenic origin, which corresponds to data obtained by conventional geochemical and multivariate statistical methods. Airborne particles, identified in urban snow deposits, were interpreted as geogenic particles, represented by fragments of heavy metal-bearing minerals, and technogenic particles that

  9. Chemical Characterization of Bed Material Coatingsby LA-ICP-MS and SEM-EDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piispanen, M. H.; Mustonen, A. J.; Tiainen, M. S.; Laitinen, R. S.

    Bed material coatings and the consequent agglomeration of bed material are main ash-related problems in FB-boilers. The bed agglomeration is a particular problem when combusting biofuels and waste materials. Whereas SEM-EDS together with automated image processing has proven to be a convenient method to study compositional distribution in coating layers and agglomerates, it is a relatively expensive technique and is not necessarily widely available. In this contribution, we explore the suitability of LA-ICP-MS to provide analogous information of the bed.

  10. SEM Characterization of Extinguished Grains from Plasma-Ignited M30 Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkennon, A.; Birk, A.; DelGuercio, M.; Kaste, P.; Lieb, R.; Newberry, J.; Pesce-Rodriguez, R.; Schroeder, M.

    2000-01-01

    M30 propellant grains that had been ignited in interrupted closed bomb experiments were characterize by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Previous chemical analysis of extinguished grains had given no indications of plasma-propellant chemical interactions that could explain the increased burning rates that had been previously observed in full-pressure closed bomb experiments. (This does not mean that there is no unique chemistry occurring with plasma ignition. It may occur very early in the ignition event and then become obscured by the burning chemistry.) In this work, SEM was used to look at grain morphologies to determine if there were increases in the surface areas of the plasma-ignited grains which would contribute to the apparent increase in the burning rate. Charges were made using 30 propellant grains (approximately 32 grams) stacked in two tiers and in two concentric circles around a plastic straw. Each grain was notched so that, when the grains were expelled from the bomb during extinguishment, it could be determined in which tier and which circle each grain was originally packed. Charges were ignited in a closed bomb by either a nickel wire/Mylar-capillary plasma or black powder. The bomb contained a blowout disk that ruptured when the pressure reached 35 MPa, and the propellant was vented into a collection chamber packed with polyurethane foam. SEM analysis of the grains fired with a conventional black powder igniter showed no signs of unusual burning characteristics. The surfaces seemed to be evenly burned on the exteriors of the grains and in the perforations. Grains that had been subjected to plasma ignition, however, had pits, gouges, chasms, and cracks in the surfaces. The sides of the grains closest to the plasma had the greatest amount of damage, but even surfaces facing the outer wall of the bomb had small pits. The perforations contained gouges and abnormally burned regions (wormholes) that extended into the web. The SEM photos indicated that

  11. Recent Optical and SEM Characterization of Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator Diamond on Silicon Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Ross, D. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; McNamara, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the 4 Genesis solar wind concentrator collectors was a silicon substrate coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) in which to capture solar wind. This material was designed for analysis of solar nitrogen and noble gases [1, 2]. This particular collector fractured during landing, but about 80% of the surface was recovered, including a large piece which was subdivided in 2012 [3, 4, 5]. The optical and SEM imaging and analysis described below supports the subdivision and allocation of the diamond-on-silicon (DOS) concentrator collector.

  12. Three-dimensional intracellular structure of a whole rice mesophyll cell observed with FIB-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Takao; Enomoto, Sakiko; Nakao, Tomoyo; Arai, Shigeo; Yamane, Koji; Taniguchi, Mitsutaka

    2017-07-01

    Ultrathin sections of rice leaf blades observed two-dimensionally using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) show that the chlorenchyma is composed of lobed mesophyll cells, with intricate cell boundaries, and lined with chloroplasts. The lobed cell shape and chloroplast positioning are believed to enhance the area available for the gas exchange surface for photosynthesis in rice leaves. However, a cell image revealing the three-dimensional (3-D) ultrastructure of rice mesophyll cells has not been visualized. In this study, a whole rice mesophyll cell was observed using a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM), which provides many serial sections automatically, rapidly and correctly, thereby enabling 3-D cell structure reconstruction. Rice leaf blades were fixed chemically using the method for conventional TEM observation, embedded in resin and subsequently set in the FIB-SEM chamber. Specimen blocks were sectioned transversely using the FIB, and block-face images were captured using the SEM. The sectioning and imaging were repeated overnight for 200-500 slices (each 50 nm thick). The resultant large-volume image stacks ( x = 25 μm, y = 25 μm, z = 10-25 μm) contained one or two whole mesophyll cells. The 3-D models of whole mesophyll cells were reconstructed using image processing software. The reconstructed cell models were discoid shaped with several lobes around the cell periphery. The cell shape increased the surface area, and the ratio of surface area to volume was twice that of a cylinder having the same volume. The chloroplasts occupied half the cell volume and spread as sheets along the cell lobes, covering most of the inner cell surface, with adjacent chloroplasts in close contact with each other. Cellular and sub-cellular ultrastructures of a whole mesophyll cell in a rice leaf blade are demonstrated three-dimensionally using a FIB-SEM. The 3-D models and numerical information support the hypothesis that rice mesophyll

  13. Validation of cell-free culture using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R; Elankumaran, Y; Hijjawi, N; Ryan, U

    2015-06-01

    A cell-free culture system for Cryptosporidium parvum was analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterise life cycle stages and compare gene expression in cell-free culture and cell culture using HCT-8 cells. Cryptosporidium parvum samples were harvested at 2 h, 8 h, 14 h, 26 h, 50 h, 74 h, 98 h, 122 h and 170 h, chemically fixed and specimens were observed using a Zeiss 1555 scanning electron microscope. The presence of sporozoites, trophozoites and type I merozoites were identified by SEM. Gene expression in cell culture and cell-free culture was studied using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of the sporozoite surface antigen protein (cp15), the glycoprotein 900 (gp900), the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in both cell free and conventional cell culture. In cell culture, cp15 expression peaked at 74 h, gp900 expression peaked at 74 h and 98 h and COWP expression peaked at 50 h. In cell-free culture, CP15 expression peaked at 98 h, gp900 expression peaked at 74 h and COWP expression peaked at 122 h. The present study is the first to compare gene expression of C. parvum in cell culture and cell-free culture and to characterise life cycle stages of C. parvum in cell-free culture using SEM. Findings from this study showed that gene expression patterns in cell culture and cell-free culture were similar but in cell-free culture, gene expression was delayed for CP15 and COWP in cell free culture compared with the cell culture system and was lower. Although three life cycle stageswere conclusively identified, improvements in SEM methodology should lead to the detection of more life cycle stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fast three-dimensional nanoscale metrology in dual-beam FIB-SEM instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, Luca; Buzio, Renato; Denurchis, Carlo; Firpo, Giuseppe; Piano, Emanuele; Valbusa, Ugo

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative surface reconstruction technique has been developed for the geometric characterization of three-dimensional structures by using a combined focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) instrument. A regular pattern of lines is milled at normal incidence on the sample to be characterized and an image is acquired at a large tilt angle. By analyzing the pattern under the tilted view, a quantitative estimation of surface heights is obtained. The technique has been applied to a test sample and nanoscale resolution has been achieved. The reported results are validated by a comparison with atomic force microscopy measurements.

  15. Morphological and Production Changes in Planktonic and Biofilm Cells Monitored Using SEM and Raman Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubanová, Kamila; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Samek, Ota; Skoupý, Radim; Šiler, Martin; Ježek, Jan; Obruča, S.; Zemánek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, S1 (2017), s. 1158-1159 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12477S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-15451S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : biofilm cells * SEM * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  16. An evaluation testing technique of single event effect using Beam Blanking SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, J; Hada, T; Pesce, A; Akutsu, T; Matsuda, S [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Igarashi, T; Baba, S

    1997-03-01

    Beam Blanking SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) testing technique has been applied to CMOS SRAM devices to evaluate the occurence of soft errors on memory cells. Cross-section versus beam current and LET curves derived from BBSEM and heavy ion testing technique, respectively, have been compared. A linear relation between BBSEM current and heavy ion LET has been found. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the application of focused pulsed electron beam could be a reliable, convenient and inexpensive tool to investigate the effects of heavy ions and high energy particles on memory devices for space application. (author)

  17. Roteamento em redes em malha sem fio com balanceamento de carga e caminhos mais curtos

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Micael Oliveira Massula Carvalho de

    2014-01-01

    Redes em Malha Sem Fio - Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) são infraestruturas com propriedades autonômicas, como auto-organização e autorrecuperação, que podem ser implementadas com tecnologias amplamente disponíveis e de custo acessível. Além de suas aplicações atuais, como redes comunitárias e redes de acesso à Internet, as WMNs podem auxiliar na comunicação de Internet das Coisas e constituir infraestruturas robustas para redes inteligentes de energia, dentre outros usos. No en...

  18. Potenciais evocados auditivos de músicos com e sem ouvido absoluto

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Letícia Ribeiro de

    2014-01-01

    Orientador: Prof. Dr. Francisco José Fraga da Silva Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do ABC, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia da Informação, 2014. Entende-se por ouvido absoluto a capacidade de produzir e/ou identificar e dar nome à frequência de qualquer nota musical sem a necessidade de uma referência externa. O estudo do ouvido absoluto pode ser uma oportunidade única para se investigar as interações entre informações linguísticas e não-linguísticas na memória de ...

  19. Resolving Differences in Absolute Irradiance Measurements Between the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM and the SDO/EVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieman, S R; Didkovsky, L V; Judge, D L

    The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard SOHO has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray solar irradiance nearly continuously since January 1996. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on SDO, in operation since April of 2010, measures solar irradiance in a wide spectral range that encompasses the band passes (26 - 34 nm and 0.1 - 50 nm) measured by SOHO/SEM. However, throughout the mission overlap, irradiance values from these two instruments have differed by more than the combined stated uncertainties of the measurements. In an effort to identify the sources of these differences and eliminate them, we investigate in this work the effect of reprocessing the SEM data using a more accurate SEM response function (obtained from synchrotron measurements with a SEM sounding-rocket clone instrument taken after SOHO was already in orbit) and time-dependent, measured solar spectral distributions - i.e ., solar reference spectra that were unavailable prior to the launch of the SDO. We find that recalculating the SEM data with these improved parameters reduces mean differences with the EVE measurements from about 20 % to less than 5 % in the 26 - 34 nm band, and from about 35 % to about 15 % for irradiances in the 0.1 - 7 nm band extracted from the SEM 0.1 - 50 nm channel.

  20. Fully covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMS), partially covered SEMS and self-expandable plastic stents for the treatment of benign esophageal ruptures and anastomotic leaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boeckel, Petra G A; Dua, Kulwinder S; Weusten, Bas L A M; Schmits, Ruben J H; Surapaneni, Naveen; Timmer, Robin; Vleggaar, Frank P; Siersema, Peter D

    2012-02-29

    Benign esophageal ruptures and anastomotic leaks are life-threatening conditions that are often treated surgically. Recently, placement of partially and fully covered metal or plastic stents has emerged as a minimally invasive treatment option. We aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness of covered stent placement for the treatment of esophageal ruptures and anastomotic leaks with special emphasis on different stent designs. Consecutive patients who underwent placement of a fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FSEMS), a partially covered SEMS (PSEMS) or a self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS) for a benign esophageal rupture or anastomotic leak after upper gastrointestinal surgery in the period 2007-2010 were included. Data on patient demographics, type of lesion, stent placement and removal, clinical success and complications were collected A total of 52 patients received 83 esophageal stents (61 PSEMS, 15 FSEMS, 7 SEPS) for an anastomotic leak (n=32), iatrogenic rupture (n=13), Boerhaave's syndrome (n=4) or other cause (n=3). Endoscopic stent removal was successful in all but eight patients treated with a PSEMS due to tissue ingrowth. Clinical success was achieved in 34 (76%, intention-to-treat: 65%) patients (PSEMS: 73%, FSEMS: 83%, SEPS: 83%) after a median of 1 (range 1-5) stent and a median stenting time of 39 (range 7-120) days. In total, 33 complications in 24 (46%) patients occurred (tissue in- or overgrowth (n=8), stent migration (n=10), ruptured stent cover (all Ultraflex; n=6), food obstruction (n=3), severe pain (n=2), esophageal rupture (n=2), hemorrhage (n=2)). One (2%) patient died of a stent-related cause. Covered stents placed for a period of 5-6 weeks may well be an alternative to surgery for treating benign esophageal ruptures or anastomotic leaks. As efficacy between PSEMS, FSEMS and SEPS is not different, stent choice should depend on expected risks of stent migration (SEPS and FSEMS) and tissue in- or overgrowth (PSEMS).