Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy
The field of sales draws a large number of marketing graduates. Sales curricula used within today's marketing programs should include rigorous discussions of sales ethics. The Personal Selling Ethics Scale (PSE) provides an analytical tool for assessing and discussing students' ethical sales sensitivities. However, since the scale fails to address…
Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher
Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…
Since the introduction of public mental health services in Israel, the main principle of our work has been to provide equal and free of charge health services to all patients. We were proud of our ability to provide optimal treatment to all patients in all our facilities, regardless of cost or status of insurance. During the last decade, the cost of providing good quality public health services, including mental health services, has constantly increased, and the system has reached a state of financial distress resulting in insufficiency and inability to perform properly. In order to maintain the level of mental health services, the health authorities started planning a system of payment for various mental health services which, until now, were supplied free of charge. This change of policy and attitude towards the population in need poses severe ethical and practical questions and problems. It is questionable that the amount of income ensuing from the sale of mental health services and whether a relatively small financial profit justify possible injury of the population in need of these services, especially the sicker and weaker members of it. This article raises some ethical doubts involved in charging money for psychiatric services that are given to this special group of the mentally ill, and claims that the feasibility of selling services in this area of public health should be reinvestigated.
Salman Popattia, Amber; Winch, Sarah; La Caze, Adam
The widespread sale of complementary medicines in community pharmacy raises important questions regarding the responsibilities of pharmacists when selling complementary medicines. This study reviews the academic literature that explores a pharmacist's responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Embase, PubMed, Cinahl, PsycINFO and Philosopher's index databases were searched for articles written in English and published between 1995 and 2017. Empirical studies discussing pharmacists' practices or perceptions, consumers' expectations and normative studies discussing ethical perspectives or proposing ethical frameworks related to pharmacists' responsibilities in selling complementary medicines were included in the review. Fifty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies discussing the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines had an empirical focus. Pharmacists and consumers identified counselling and ensuring safe use of complementary medicines as the primary responsibilities of pharmacists. No formal ethical framework is explicitly employed to describe the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines. To the degree any ethical framework is employed, a number of papers implicitly rely on principlism. The studies discussing the ethical perspectives of selling complementary medicines mainly describe the ethical conflict between a pharmacist's business and health professional role. No attempt is made to provide guidance on appropriate ways to resolve the conflict. There is a lack of explicit normative advice in the existing literature regarding the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines. This review identifies the need to develop a detailed practice-specific ethical framework to guide pharmacists regarding their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Educators and marketing professionals agree that course-work must address interpersonal communication skills and ethical decision making in addition to traditional business functions and skills. This article describes an innovative approach to teaching the professional selling course in which students enhance their competency in these areas…
The Commission Game is an experiment-based experiential learning activity designed to elicit students' sincere ethical decision making in an ambiguous sales context. The activity includes multiple relevant stakeholders as well as tangible, shared risk/reward elements. The activity's design encourages students to contemplate their own personal code…
Patricia Fronek1,2 1Law Futures Centre, 2School of Human Services and Social Work, Griffith University, Southport, QLD, Australia Abstract: This review presents current knowledge on selling surrogacy support services in developing countries. Rather than focusing on dichotomous positions, ethical issues that are present and unresolved are discussed by following the journey of surrogate mothers and highlighting the position of children whose well-being is generally assumed in surrogacy arrangem...
Klitzman, Robert; Sauer, Mark V
The commercial creation and sale of embryos has begun, which poses a series of ethical questions that have received little scholarly attention. Some of the concerns that arise are similar to those posed by the sale of gametes, while other issues differ markedly. Questions emerge, first, regarding the rights of the unborn children and their ability to know their biological parents. Companies that create human embryos de novo may wish to keep gamete providers anonymous. Many of these offspring thus will never learn that their parents are not their biologic parents. Yet, such disclosures, regarding not only one but both of these biologic parents, may be important for these individuals; and a lack of this knowledge may impede their physical and psychological health. Second, questions surface regarding the fees that providers should charge for embryos and whether these amounts should vary based on the traits of 1 or both of the gamete donors. Some prospective parents may seek specific traits in a baby (eg, height or eye/hair coloring), which prompts the creation of embryos from 2 gamete donors who possess these characteristics. Third, ownership of embryos created without an advanced directive by patients poses dilemmas (eg, disposition of any remaining embryos). Fourth, guidelines do not yet exist to limit the number of embryos sold from each pair of gamete donors. Hence, unbeknownst to each other, full siblings could potentially meet, get married, and procreate. This discussion has several critical implications for future practice and professional education and policy. Patients with diseases associated with genetic tests may well ask obstetricians, gynecologists, and other physicians about these techniques and practices. Clinicians can refer such patients to assisted reproductive technology specialists; however, familiarity with the basic aspects of the issues and complexities involved could aid these providers and their patients Several of these issues can be
Bongiorno, Renata; Bain, Paul G; Haslam, Nick
Images of scantily clad women are used by advertisers to make products more attractive to men. This "sex sells" approach is increasingly employed to promote ethical causes, most prominently by the animal-rights organization PETA. Yet sexualized images can dehumanize women, leaving an unresolved paradox--is it effective to advertise an ethical cause using unethical means? In Study 1, a sample of Australian male undergraduates (N = 82) viewed PETA advertisements containing either sexualized or non-sexualized images of women. Intentions to support the ethical organization were reduced for those exposed to the sexualized advertising, and this was explained by their dehumanization of the sexualized women, and not by increased arousal. Study 2 used a mixed-gender community sample from the United States (N = 280), replicating this finding and extending it by showing that behaviors helpful to the ethical cause diminished after viewing the sexualized advertisements, which was again mediated by the dehumanization of the women depicted. Alternative explanations relating to the reduced credibility of the sexualized women and their objectification were not supported. When promoting ethical causes, organizations may benefit from using advertising strategies that do not dehumanize women.
Full Text Available Images of scantily clad women are used by advertisers to make products more attractive to men. This "sex sells" approach is increasingly employed to promote ethical causes, most prominently by the animal-rights organization PETA. Yet sexualized images can dehumanize women, leaving an unresolved paradox--is it effective to advertise an ethical cause using unethical means? In Study 1, a sample of Australian male undergraduates (N = 82 viewed PETA advertisements containing either sexualized or non-sexualized images of women. Intentions to support the ethical organization were reduced for those exposed to the sexualized advertising, and this was explained by their dehumanization of the sexualized women, and not by increased arousal. Study 2 used a mixed-gender community sample from the United States (N = 280, replicating this finding and extending it by showing that behaviors helpful to the ethical cause diminished after viewing the sexualized advertisements, which was again mediated by the dehumanization of the women depicted. Alternative explanations relating to the reduced credibility of the sexualized women and their objectification were not supported. When promoting ethical causes, organizations may benefit from using advertising strategies that do not dehumanize women.
Kazakhstan's government seems keen to involve foreign companies in financing the large scale exploitation of Central Asia's hydrocarbon reserves. Despite domestic uncertainty about free market ethics, the country's rulers seem keen to sell off some of its present wealth, in terms of oil production, in order to raise finance for internal projects. The author explores which of several options for financing these large projects would prove most beneficial to the Kazakhs themselves. (UK)
The subject of this paper is long-term large-scale changes in human society. Some very significant examples of large-scale change are presented: human population growth, human appropriation of land and primary production, the human use of fossil fuels, and climate change. The question is posed, which kind of attitude is appropriate when dealing with large-scale changes like these from an ethical point of view. Three kinds of approaches are discussed: Aldo Leopold's mountain thinking, th...
, which kind of attitude is appropriate when dealing with large-scale changes like these from an ethical point of view. Three kinds of approaches are discussed: Aldo Leopold's mountain thinking, the neoclassical economists' approach, and finally the so-called Concentric Circle Theories approach...
Milliken, Aimee; Ludlow, Larry; DeSanto-Madeya, Susan; Grace, Pamela
To develop and psychometrically assess the Ethical Awareness Scale using Rasch measurement principles and a Rasch item response theory model. Critical care nurses must be equipped to provide good (ethical) patient care. This requires ethical awareness, which involves recognizing the ethical implications of all nursing actions. Ethical awareness is imperative in successfully addressing patient needs. Evidence suggests that the ethical import of everyday issues may often go unnoticed by nurses in practice. Assessing nurses' ethical awareness is a necessary first step in preparing nurses to identify and manage ethical issues in the highly dynamic critical care environment. A cross-sectional design was used in two phases of instrument development. Using Rasch principles, an item bank representing nursing actions was developed (33 items). Content validity testing was performed. Eighteen items were selected for face validity testing. Two rounds of operational testing were performed with critical care nurses in Boston between February-April 2017. A Rasch analysis suggests sufficient item invariance across samples and sufficient construct validity. The analysis further demonstrates a progression of items uniformly along a hierarchical continuum; items that match respondent ability levels; response categories that are sufficiently used; and adequate internal consistency. Mean ethical awareness scores were in the low/moderate range. The results suggest the Ethical Awareness Scale is a psychometrically sound, reliable and valid measure of ethical awareness in critical care nurses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This paper analyses the role of traditional moral theories in managers’ moral decision making using the multidimensional ethics scale (MES) developed and refined by Reidenbach and Robin (1988, 1990). This study extends their work by examining the applicability of the scale to subjects from India, other than the country in which the scale was developed. The research question is: what kind of ethical dimensions do Indian managers reveal when they are making moral decisions. Factor analysis is d...
Assuming that ICT ethics are influenced by both moral and circumstantial factors, the study investigates Japanese college students' ethical judgments and behavioral intentions in three scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems and explores why they make such decisions, relying on five moral philosophies: moral equity, relativism,…
With the starting point of ethical dilemma , the authors attempt to understand how moral intensity af-fects ethical decision making in direct selling business in China .Through literature review and interview with a-gents, the researchers design a questionnaire about direct selling ethical scenarios for empirical study .The results show that:(1) in the direct selling channel , agents’ ethical perception has a significant positive correlation to eth-ical judgment and a significant negative correlation to ethical intention , while ethical judgment has a significant neg-ative correlation to ethical intention;(2) agents’ moral intensity has a positive correlation to ethical perception and ethical judgment, and a negative correlation to ethical intention;(3) the magnitude of consequence , social consen-sus and probability of effect have significant predictive effect to agents ’ ethical decision making , and concentration of effect has significant predictive effect to ethical judgment in only one of ethics scenarios .%本研究以伦理两难为切入点，探讨直销渠道中代理商的伦理决策过程以及道德强度对其伦理决策三阶段的影响。在文献综述和对直销代理商访谈的基础上，作者结合直销特点设计情境问卷对确定主题进行实证研究。研究结果表明：1．直销渠道中，代理商的伦理认知与伦理判断之间显著正相关、伦理认知与伦理意向之间显著负相关、伦理判断与伦理意向之间显著负相关。2．直销代理商的道德强度与伦理认知、伦理判断呈正相关关系，与伦理意向呈负相关关系。3．直销渠道中，道德强度中的结果大小、社会共识、效应可能性三个维度对代理商伦理决策三阶段均有显著影响，效应集中性维度仅在一个情境中对伦理判断具有显著影响。
Thomson, John, 1837-1921, photographer
85 x 107 mm. Woodburytype. A portrait of an old woman seated on a chair, with a basket on her lap. The portrait is in Thomson's 'Through Cyprus with the camera, in the autumn of 1878' (vol.1, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1879). The photograph is annotated: 'In the features of this old dame, who earns her living by selling bread in Larnaca, there still linger traces of youthful comeliness. Her thin locks are silvered with age, and the years, as they dragged heavily...
Ardani, Devi Agustia
THE INFLUENCE OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF ETHICS AND EMOTION TO ETHICAL JUDGEMENT OF ACCONTANTS : EMPHIRICAL STUDY BY USING MULTIDIMENSIONAL ETHICS SCALE FROM PT BANK BRI AND PT TELKOM IN MEDAN The formulation of problem in this study is how philosophy of ethics and emotion which consist of justice, deontology, relativism, egoism, utilitarianism, regret, relief, and satisfaction affect ethical judgement for accountants. The purpose of this study is to know and analyze the influence of ph...
Bachelor thesis is focused on the parcularities of direct selling, self regulation of this industry, multi-level marketing which is the most used sales method in the field of direct selling. The part of the thesis is dedicated to the issue of customer psychology that is very important for achieving success in direct selling. Main goals are to provide readers with the general view of direct selling and analysis of growing possibilities of the industry in the future.
Nufer, Gerd; Kelm, Daniel
Erfolgreiches Cross Selling Management bietet die Möglichkeit, die Profitabilität von Neu- oder Bestandskunden zu steigern und kann zur Verbesserung der Kundenzufriedenheit, Kundenbindung und Verlängerung des Kundenlebenszyklus beitragen. Um erfolgreiches Cross Selling Management zu betreiben, sind ein systematisches Vorgehen und die Bereitstellung von Unternehmensressourcen notwendig. Umfangreiche vorbereitende Maßnahmen stellen sicher, dass Cross Selling nicht dem Zufall überlassen wird. De...
Full Text Available A good theory-based tool for measuring ethical sensitivity, which is usable in different contexts, is scarce. In this study, we examined the Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ in line with its seven-dimension structure. The scale was presented to a sample of 556 Iranian Kurdish teachers in primary, middle, and high schools. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to scrutinize the original factor structure of the ESSQ. The results confirmed that the ESSQ supports a reasonable model fit to study the seven dimensions of ethical sensitivity as it was developed in the original study. However, some modifications were conducted to free high error covariance between four pairs of items in the scale. This modification increased the fit indices and thus resulted in a good model fit. In addition to examining the satiability of the ESSQ, a further analysis showed that the level of ethical sensitivity in the targeted sample was high.
Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Data were gathered using a self report questionnaire consisting of scales measuring variables in the study. Self efficacy, job insecurity, sexual harassment and target selling significantly jointly ...
True or false? In selling high-value products or services: "closing" increases your chance of success; it is essential to describe the benefits of your product or service to the customer; objection handling is an important skill; and open questions are more effective than closed questions. All false, says Neil Rackham. He and his team studied more than 35,000 sales calls made by 10,000 sales people in 23 countries over 12 years. Their findings revealed that many of the methods developed for selling low-value goods just don't work for major sales. Rackham went on to introduce his SPIN-selling method, where SPIN describes the whole selling process - Situation questions, Problem questions, Implication questions, Need-payoff questions. SPIN-selling provides you with a set of simple and practical techniques which have been tried in many of today's leading companies with dramatic improvements to their sales performance.
A new interactive computer simulation designed to teach sales ethics is described. Simulation learner objectives include gaining a better understanding of legal issues in selling; realizing that ethical dilemmas do arise in selling; realizing the need to be honest when selling; seeing that there are conflicting demands from a salesperson's…
Crnjanski, Tatjana; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Tadic, Ivana; Stojkov, Svetlana; Savic, Mirko
Many problems that arise when providing pharmacy services may contain some ethical components and the aims of this study were to develop and validate a scale that could assess difficulties of ethical issues, as well as the frequency of those occurrences in everyday practice of community pharmacists. Development and validation of the scale was conducted in three phases: (1) generating items for the initial survey instrument after qualitative analysis; (2) defining the design and format of the instrument; (3) validation of the instrument. The constructed Ethical Issue scale for community pharmacy setting has two parts containing the same 16 items for assessing the difficulty and frequency thereof. The results of the 171 completely filled out scales were analyzed (response rate 74.89%). The Cronbach's α value of the part of the instrument that examines difficulties of the ethical situations was 0.83 and for the part of the instrument that examined frequency of the ethical situations was 0.84. Test-retest reliability for both parts of the instrument was satisfactory with all Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values above 0.6, (for the part that examines severity ICC = 0.809, for the part that examines frequency ICC = 0.929). The 16-item scale, as a self assessment tool, demonstrated a high degree of content, criterion, and construct validity and test-retest reliability. The results support its use as a research tool to asses difficulty and frequency of ethical issues in community pharmacy setting. The validated scale needs to be further employed on a larger sample of pharmacists.
Noblet, Caroline L.; Anderson, Mark; Teisl, Mario F.
Some argue that the new ecological paradigm (NEP) scale is incomplete and does not adequately reflect contemporary debates in environmental ethics. We focus on one specific shortcoming of the NEP, its lack of an item to reflect an ecocentric viewpoint. To test this concern, we administered the NEP to three different audiences and included one…
Mullen, Patrick R.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Conley, Abigail H.
The authors present the development of the Ethical and Legal Issues in Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale (ELICSES). The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) present a rationale for the ELICSES, (b) review statistical analysis procedures used to develop the ELICSES, and (c) offer implications for future research and counselor education.
Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Kim, Jwa K.
Money has been recognized as an important factor to attract, retain, and motivate employees and has significant impacts on people's behavior, performance, and effectiveness in organizations. Created to evaluate the validity of the Money Ethic Scale, this study investigates the measurement and dimensionality of money attitudes through…
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich
This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non-exc......, the music industry should concentrate on alternative ways of creating profit such as selling access to listeners, concerts, merchandise, ringtones etc.......This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non...
Pellegrino, Edmund D
In this brief annual review of ethical issues in medicine, Pellegrino focuses on two issues, AIDS and surrogate mothers. The AIDS epidemic has generated debate over public health needs vs. individual rights, modification of sexual practices, screening programs to detect infected persons, confidentiality of test results, experimental therapies, and the duty of physicians to care for AIDS patients. Surrogate motherhood arrangements have become one of the more controversial of the new reproductive technologies. The publicity that accompanied the custody battle over New Jersey's "Baby M" intensified debate over the commercialization of childbearing and the regulation of reproduction. Pellegrino concludes that physicians, along with ethicists and policymakers, have an obligation to "lead society in careful and judicious deliberation" of the ethical issues raised by AIDS and by reproductive technologies.
The article discusses the marketing and sales of energy generated from renewable energy sources. To purchase environmental energy in the USA, the consumer need do no more than tick a box on a sheet of paper. But, it is not just households that opt for green energy: businesses are also willing customers. A factor in the success in selling green energy to big business is that the retail price of wind power can be held constant over periods of several years, whereas fossil fuel prices can fluctuate wildly. Details of sources and sales of the top ten companies selling green energy are given
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich
This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non...
Ackerman, T. P.
Our research group recently published an analysis of the combined ethical and scientific issues surrounding large-scale testing of stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI; Lenferna et al., 2017, Earth's Future). We are expanding this study in two directions. The first is extending this same analysis to other geoengineering techniques, particularly marine cloud brightening (MCB). MCB has substantial differences to SAI in this context because MCB can be tested over significantly smaller areas of the planet and, following injection, has a much shorter lifetime of weeks as opposed to years for SAI. We examine issues such as the role of intent, the lesser of two evils, and the nature of consent. In addition, several groups are currently considering climate engineering governance tools such as a code of ethics and a registry. We examine how these tools might influence climate engineering research programs and, specifically, large-scale testing. The second direction of expansion is asking whether ethical and scientific issues associated with large-scale testing are so significant that they effectively preclude moving ahead with climate engineering research and testing. Some previous authors have suggested that no research should take place until these issues are resolved. We think this position is too draconian and consider a more nuanced version of this argument. We note, however, that there are serious questions regarding the ability of the scientific research community to move to the point of carrying out large-scale tests.
Full Text Available Personal selling is common in ethics related studies. It can be said that the mostimportant reason for this, is the pressure of achieving the targets or fulfilling quotas, whichcause sales representatives to behave unethically.The purpose of this research is to define ethical attitudes of medical salesrepresentatives and analyze the differences among them in terms of their demographicfeatures in their ethical attitudes. According to the findings; there is no significantdifference among gender, age, work experince and income level. On the other hand, thereare significant differences in the origin of the companies in terms of general ethicalattitudes, sales pressure, sales quotas and the beliefs regarding whether the ethicalproblems will be resolved.Etik konulu araştırmalar içinde kişisel satış yaygındır. Bunun temel nedeninin,hedeflere ulaşma veya kotaları doldurma baskısının, satış temsilcilerini etik olmayandavranışlarda bulunmaya zorlaması olduğu söylenebilmektedir.Bu çalışmanın amacı, tıbbi satış temsilcilerinin kişisel satış süreçlerindeki etiktutumlarını belirlemek ve satış temsilcilerinin demografik özellikleri arasında etik tutumlaraçısından farklılıkları incelemektir. Bulgulara göre; cinsiyet, yaş, iş deneyimi ve gelirdüzeyi grupları arasınd, anlamlı bir fark yoktur. Diğer yandan firmaların menşeine göregenel etik tutumlar, satış baskısı, satış kotaları ve etik sorunların çözüleceğine dair inançaçısından anlamlı farklılıklar vardır.
Alpinar-Şencan, Zümrüt; Baumann, Holger; Biller-Andorno, Nikola
Shortages in the number of donated organs after death and the growing number of end-stage organ failure patients on waiting lists call for looking at alternatives to increase the number of organs that could be used for transplantation purposes. One option that has led to a legal and ethical debate is to have regulated markets in human organs. Opponents of a market in human organs offer different arguments that are mostly founded on contingent factors that can be adjusted. However, some authors have asked the question whether we still have a reason to believe that there is something wrong with offering human organs for sale for transplantation purposes, even if the circumstances under which the practice takes place are improved. One prominent argument regarding this appeals to the notion of human dignity. It is argued that organ selling violates human dignity. This paper presents a systematic discussion of dignity-based arguments in the organ selling debate, and then develops a social account of dignity. It is argued that allowing the practice of organ selling inherently runs the risk of promoting the notion that some persons have less worth than others and that persons have a price, which is incompatible with dignity. The approach is defended against possible objections and it is shown that it can capture the notion that autonomy is linked to human dignity in important ways, while dignity at the same time can constrain the autonomous choices of persons with regards to certain practices.
This paper considers a two-period model with experienced consumers and inexperienced consumers. The retailer determines both advance selling price and regular selling price at the beginning of the first period. I show that advance selling weekly dominates no advance selling, and the optimal advance selling price may be at a discount, at a premium or at the regular selling price. To help the retailer choose the optimal pricing strategy, conditions for each possible advance selling strategy to ...
When you think of marketing, chances are your mind goes right to your customers--how can you persuade more people to buy whatever it is you sell? But there's another "market" that's equally important: your employees. Author Colin Mitchell argues that executives by and large ignore this critical internal audience when developing and executing branding campaigns. As a result, employees end up undermining the expectations set by the company's advertising--either because they don't understand what the ads have promised or because they don't believe in the brand and feel disengaged or, worse, hostile toward the company. Mitchell offers three principles for executing internal branding campaigns--techniques executives can use to make sure employees understand, embrace, and "live" the brand vision companies are selling to the public. First, he says, companies need to market to employees at times when the company is experiencing a fundamental challenge or change, times when employees are seeking direction and are relatively receptive to new initiatives. Second, companies must link their internal and external marketing campaigns; employees should hear the same messages that are being sent to the market-place. And third, internal branding campaigns should bring the brand alive for employees, creating an emotional connection to the company that transcends any one experience. Internal campaigns should introduce and explain the brand messages in new and attention-grabbing ways and then reinforce those messages by weaving them into the fabric of the company. It is a fact of business, writes Mitchell, that if employees do not care about or understand their company's brands, they will ultimately weaken their organizations. It's up to top executives, he says, to give them a reason to care.
Klaus Lindgaard Hoeyer
Full Text Available During the past ten years the complex ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI typically surrounding large-scale genetic biobank research initiatives have been intensely debated in academic circles. In many ways genetic epidemiology has undergone a set of changes resembling what in physics has been called a transition into Big Science. This article outlines consequences of this transition and suggests that the change in scale implies challenges to the roles of scientists and public alike. An overview of key issues is presented, and it is argued that biobanks represent not just scientific endeavors with purely epistemic objectives, but also political projects with social implications. As such, they demand clever maneuvering among social interests to succeed.
Porfido, Sabina; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana; Alessio, Giuliana; Guerrieri, Luca
The dissemination of correct information about seismic hazard is an ethical duty of scientific community worldwide. A proper assessment of a earthquake severity and impact should not ignore the evaluation of its intensity, taking into account both the effects on humans, man-made structures, as well as on the natural evironment. We illustrate the new macroseismic scale that measures the intensity taking into account the effects of earthquakes on the environment: the ESI 2007 (Environmental Seismic Intensity) scale (Michetti et al., 2007), ratified by the INQUA (International Union for Quaternary Research) during the XVII Congress in Cairns (Australia). The ESI scale integrates and completes the traditional macroseismic scales, of which it represents the evolution, allowing to assess the intensity parameter also where buildings are absent or damage-based diagnostic elements saturate. Each degree reflects the corresponding strength of an earthquake and the role of ground effects, evaluating the Intensity on the basis of the characteristics and size of primary (e.g. surface faulting and tectonic uplift/subsidence) and secondary effects (e.g. ground cracks, slope movements, liquefaction phenomena, hydrological changes, anomalous waves, tsunamis, trees shaking, dust clouds and jumping stones). This approach can be considered "ethical" because helps to define the real scenario of an earthquake, regardless of the country's socio-economic conditions and level of development. Here lies the value and the relevance of macroseismic scales even today, one hundred years after the death of Giuseppe Mercalli, who conceived the homonymous scale for the evaluation of earthquake intensity. For an appropriate mitigation strategy in seismic areas, it is fundamental to consider the role played by seismically induced effects on ground, such as active faults (size in length and displacement) and secondary effects (the total area affecting). With these perspectives two different cases
Emily M. Cox
Full Text Available The topic of Greenhouse Gas Removal (GGR for climate geoengineering is becoming increasingly salient following the IPCC's 5th Assessment Report and the Paris Agreement. GGR is thought of as a separate category to mitigation techniques such as low-carbon supply or demand reduction, yet multiple social, ethical and acceptability concerns cut across categories. We propose moving beyond classifying climate strategies as a set of discrete categories (which may implicitly homogenize diverse technologies, toward a prioritization of questions of scale of both technology and decision-making in the examination of social and ethical risks. This is not just a theoretical issue: important questions for policy, governance and finance are raised, for instance over the future inclusion of GGR in carbon markets. We argue that the conclusions drawn about how best to categorize, govern and incentivize any strategy will depend on the framing used, because different framings could lead to very different policy recommendations being drawn. Because of this, a robust approach to developing, governing and financing GGR should pay attention first to urgent concerns regarding democracy, justice and acceptability.
On the spot ethical decision-making in CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear event) response: approaches to on the spot ethical decision-making for first responders to large-scale chemical incidents.
Rebera, Andrew P; Rafalowski, Chaim
First responders to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) events face decisions having significant human consequences. Some operational decisions are supported by standard operating procedures, yet these may not suffice for ethical decisions. Responders will be forced to weigh their options, factoring-in contextual peculiarities; they will require guidance on how they can approach novel (indeed unique) ethical problems: they need strategies for "on the spot" ethical decision making. The primary aim of this paper is to examine how first responders should approach on the spot ethical decision-making amid the stress and uncertainty of a CBRN event. Drawing on the long-term professional CBRN experience of one of the authors, this paper sets out a series of practical ethical dilemmas potentially arising in the context of a large-scale chemical incident. We propose a broadly consequentialist approach to on the spot ethical decision-making, but one which incorporates ethical values and rights as "side-constraints".
Knapp, I M
Largo, Florida dries its sludge and sells it as fertilizer for $80 to $169/T. The sludge processing plant capable of turning common sludge into a dry, pelletized soil conditioner was only slightly more expensive than the previously proposed concrete drying beds which would have required disposal of the dried residue. The city's experience in setting up the plant and marketing the finished product is discussed. The true advantage of selling heat-dried sludge is that residents of the surrounding area, knowing the value of the product to their lawns and shrubs, will provide the transportation for the product and the physical labor to spread it over an area wider than most municipalities could afford to own or operate. The current production cost of $140/T is high, but the addition of a sludge prethickener-conditioner process and expected future economies of scale as the volume of sludge treated increases should lower per ton costs.
Rippé, Cindy B.
There is a shortage of qualified salespeople, which creates a challenge for educators to prepare more students for a sales career. One of the most common teaching techniques used in preparing students is role playing, which mirrors real-world selling. However, role plays are not necessarily authentic because the players and conditions are not a…
This paper engages with the question of what it is to 'do good medical ethics' in two ways. It begins with an exploration of what it might mean to say that health professionals practise good medical ethics as part of practising good ethical medicine. Using the example of the Genethics Club, a well-established national ethics forum for genetics professionals in the UK, the paper develops an account of moral craftsmanship grounded in the concepts of shared moral commitments and practices, moral work, ethics and living morality. In the light of this discussion, the paper goes on to consider what it might mean for a specialist in medical ethics, a bioethicist, to do good medical ethics. Finally, a research agenda focusing on the challenges of thinking about good medical ethics in a global context and a proposal for an innovative approach to bioethics methodology is outlined. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; Başarır, Hacer
Structural interventions to historic stone masonry buildings require that both structural and heritage values be considered simultaneously. The absence of one of these value systems in implementation can be regarded as an unethical professional action. The research objective of this article is to prepare a guideline for ensuring ethical structural interventions to small-scale stone historic masonry buildings in the conservation areas of Northern Cyprus. The methodology covers an analysis of internationally accepted conservation documents and national laws related to the conservation of historic buildings, an analysis of building codes, especially Turkish building codes, which have been used in Northern Cyprus, and an analysis of the structural interventions introduced to a significant historic building in a semi-intact state in the walled city of Famagusta. This guideline covers issues related to whether buildings are intact or ruined, the presence of earthquake risk, the types of structural decisions in an architectural conservation project, and the values to consider during the decision making phase.
Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...
Full Text Available Media globalization is facilitated by the development of new technologies within a framework of digitization and convergence. Contemporary new media provide networks through which the mingling of media occurs, shaping a “multi-mediacy” age, and a connecting of mediated/mediating venues in a condition of “immediacy”. Additionally, the business of communication has evolved from being the “communication of business” to the “business of business”. Multi-mediacy and immediacy have generated new avenues of profit from media. The paper will draw on Chitty’s theorization on web transactional venues to discuss new ways of farming of revenue from media. Media revenues have in the past and today been drawn from licence fees, media subscriptions and advertising. Today, media networks also sell “participation” to audiences directly by charging for text message voting/gaming, or sell a range of products and services through web-venue based commerce. This paper will undertake case studies to examine the increasing trend of “direct audience payment for participation”. The case studies that will be used are (A the intervention of Chinese Service Providers in reality TV shows and (B E-commerce on the Internet. Monternet (mo[bile I]nternet and Linktone are investigated as Service Providers (SPs and the consumer-to-consumer (C2C website www.taobao.com is studied compared with Eachnet (eBay in China. The paper will also investigate the influences of “direct audience payment for participation” on the quality of media products and communication flow between media and audience and generally discuss the consequences of the “direct audience payment for participation” from the perspective of communication ethics.
Oksana Loginova; X. Henry Wang; Chenhang Zeng
The advance selling strategy is implemented when a firm offers consumers the opportunity to order its product in advance of the regular selling season. Advance selling reduces uncertainty for both the firm and the buyer and enables the firm to update its forecast of future demand. The distinctive feature of the present study of advance selling is that we divide consumers into two groups, experienced and inexperienced. Experienced consumers know their valuations of the product in advance, whil...
MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,
This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.
Presents the pros and cons concerning advertising for recruitment using three modes of analyses - economics, ethics, and law. The author concludes that advertising is an invaluable technique for information dispersal in higher education. (Author/PG)
Rodríguez-Triana, María Jesús; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Villagrá-Sobrino, Sara
As a further step towards maturity, the field of learning analytics (LA) is working on the definition of frameworks that structure the legal and ethical issues that scholars and practitioners must take into account when planning and applying LA solutions to their learning contexts. However, current efforts in this direction tend to be focused on…
To illustrate the relevance of critical communication history and theory to media ethics, this paper examines a crucial episode in the history of public relations: the American electrical industry's cooperative advertising and public relations efforts in the 1920s to sell the "electrical idea" to consumers. The paper first enumerates…
Shamarina, Daria; Stoyantcheva, Iana; Mason, Christopher E; Bibby, Kyle; Elhaik, Eran
The public commonly associates microorganisms with pathogens. This suspicion of microorganisms is understandable, as historically microorganisms have killed more humans than any other agent while remaining largely unknown until the late seventeenth century with the works of van Leeuwenhoek and Kircher. Despite our improved understanding regarding microorganisms, the general public are apt to think of diseases rather than of the majority of harmless or beneficial species that inhabit our bodies and the built and natural environment. As long as microbiome research was confined to labs, the public's exposure to microbiology was limited. The recent launch of global microbiome surveys, such as the Earth Microbiome Project and MetaSUB (Metagenomics and Metadesign of Subways and Urban Biomes) project, has raised ethical, financial, feasibility, and sustainability concerns as to the public's level of understanding and potential reaction to the findings, which, done improperly, risk negative implications for ongoing and future investigations, but done correctly, can facilitate a new vision of "smart cities." To facilitate improved future research, we describe here the major concerns that our discussions with ethics committees, community leaders, and government officials have raised, and we expound on how to address them. We further discuss ethical considerations of microbiome surveys and provide practical recommendations for public engagement.
(CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; McLaughlin, Cindy
High-performing individuals and groups are often not adequately recognized for their contributions. The antidote to being overlooked or underestimated is self-promotion-the act of generating personal visibility in service of your work and career. In this guidebook, we discuss how you can benefit from self-promotion and maintain your integrity and authenticity. We help you reframe common beliefs that get in the way of effective self-promotion, and we provide numerous strategies and activities that can become part of your repertoire.
This document treats, first, of the evolution of the German support mechanisms to renewable energy sources. Then, it presents the legal framework of direct electricity selling (goal, evolution, facilities in concern and eligibility criteria). Next, the operation of direct selling since August 2014 in Germany is presented (producers eligibility, over- and under-production, reference values, income, tariffs). Finally, the perspectives and conditions of direct selling success are summarized in the conclusion
Loe, Terry; Inks, Scott
More universities are incorporating sales content into their curriculums, and although the introductory courses in professional sales have much common ground and guidance from numerous professional selling texts, instructors teaching the advanced selling course lack the guidance provided by common academic tools and materials. The resulting…
Science popularization is ÒtheÓ tool to bridge the gap between society at large and the world of science. Compared to formal science communication Ð science taught in schools Ð informal science communication, made by the TV, the press, Òscience centresÓ and visits to scientific laboratories, has an important advantage: it makes the public meet science in a direct, informal way and on its own terms. The public is given an opportunity to develop a personal relationship with science, according to the needs, interests and abilities of the individual. But selling science is a tough job. The object of the sale is not a consumer good, but rather ideas and concepts that are sometimes so complex and distant from common sense that translating them into a comprehensible language and creating interest in the public without betraying the scientific truth is almost impossible. In the research work conducted for the thesis the importance of adopting a marketing approach in science communication is presented. Any scien...
The New Environmental or Ecological Paradigm (NEP) is widely acknowledged as a reliable multiple-item scale to capture environmental attitudes or beliefs. It has been used in statistical analyses for almost 30 years, primarily by psychologists, but also by political scientists, sociologists and geographers. The scale's theoretical foundation is,…
Full Text Available This paper aims at providing insight into some of the implication of short selling for markets, investors as well as regulators. Findings show that capital flows are adversely affected by strict regulation and bans of short sales, while market liquidity, and bid-ask spread can be improved by allowing short selling. Additionally portfolios that incorporate short selling strategies can have lower volatility in returns. The informational content of short sales can provide important feedback for informed investors and lead to better price discovery.
Nunes, Paul F; Johnson, Brian A; Breene, R Timothy S
Over the past decade, the distribution of household incomes has shifted so much that a much larger proportion of consumers now earn significantly higher-than-average incomes--while still falling short of being truly rich. As a result, what used to be a no-man's-land for new product introductions has in many categories become an extremely profitable "new middle ground." How can marketers capitalize on this new territory? The key, say the authors, is to rethink the positioning and design of offerings and the ways they can be brought to market. Take, for instance, how Procter & Gamble redefined the positioning map for tooth-whitening solutions. A decade ago, dental centers were popularizing expensive bleaching techniques that put the price of a professionally brightened smile in the 400 dollars range. At the low end, consumers also had the choice of whitening toothpastes that cost anywhere from 2 dollars to 8 dollars. P&G wisely positioned itself between the two ends, successfully targeting the new mass market with its 35 dollars Whitestrips. In product categories where it's clear the middle ground has already been populated, it's important for companies to design or redesign offerings to compete. An example is the Polo shirt. How do you sell a man yet another one after he's bought every color he wants? Add some features, and call it a golf shirt. Here, marketers have introduced designs based on the concept of "occasional use" in order to stand out. Finally, companies wishing to reach the "almost rich" can change how they go to market. Perhaps no mass retailer has made a stronger bid for the mass affluent than Target Stores, which has pioneered a focus the company itself characterizes as upscale discount. The strategy has made Target an everyday shopping phenomenon among well-heeled urbanites and prosperous professionals.
Sheri Chinen Biesen
Full Text Available Film noir is known for its duplicity. Industry censors considered 1940s noir cinema provocative, salacious and ‘sordid.’ Hollywood studios walked a fine line between appearing to comply with Hays office Production Code censorship while simultaneously pushing the envelope of its moral constraints, then hyping and sensationalizing censorable sex, violence and hard-hitting themes to sell noir films to the public. In fact, studios capitalized on the racy explicit nature of noir pictures in publicity contradicting assurances of censorial compliance. For instance, censor Joseph Breen was “shocked” when MGM purchased James Cain’s The Postman Always Rings Twice. It was banned for a decade. Yet, ten years later as filmmakers adapted hardboiled fiction, Breen assured religious groups it would “not be offensive.” Yet, it was promoted as “torrid,” “too hot to handle” with Lana Turner in a bathing suit finding “Love at Laguna Beach” with hunky John Garfield who clamored, “You must be a she-devil,” suggesting far more sex, skin and “savage boldness” than is shown in the film. Film noir responded to Production Code censorship and other regulatory factors, including Office of War Information Bureau of Motion Pictures restrictions on Hollywood screen depictions of the domestic American home front (or overseas combat front, and Office of Censorship strictures such as a wartime ban on screen gangsters as ‘un-American’ for propaganda purposes in World War II-era noir films centering on criminals. These multiple censorship entities often collided. This regulatory climate catalyzed the development of film noir, a dark cycle of shadowy 1940s-50s crime films that boomed by World War II and evolved over the postwar era. I will investigate extensive primary archival research—including scripts, memos from industry censors, writers, directors, producers, and publicity records—to compare how film noir was censored and sold.
Knight, Rod; Small, Will; Pakula, Basia; Thomson, Kimberly; Shoveller, Jean
Despite the evidence showing the promise of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) in reducing HIV incidence, a variety of ethical questions surrounding the implementation and "scaling up" of TasP have been articulated by a variety of stakeholders including scientists, community activists and government officials. Given the high profile and potential promise of TasP in combatting the global HIV epidemic, an explicit and transparent research priority-setting process is critical to inform ongoing ethical discussions pertaining to TasP. We drew on the Arksey and O'Malley framework for conducting scoping review studies as well as systematic approaches to identifying empirical and theoretical gaps within ethical discussions pertaining to population-level intervention implementation and scale up. We searched the health science database PubMed to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles on ethical and implementation issues pertaining to TasP. We included English language articles that were published after 2009 (i.e., after the emergence of causal evidence within this field) by using search terms related to TasP. Given the tendency for much of the criticism and support of TasP to occur outside the peer-reviewed literature, we also included grey literature in order to provide a more exhaustive representation of how the ethical discussions pertaining to TasP have and are currently taking place. To identify the grey literature, we systematically searched a set of search engines, databases, and related webpages for keywords pertaining to TasP. Three dominant themes emerged in our analysis with respect to the ethical questions pertaining to TasP implementation and scale-up: (a) balancing individual- and population-level interests; (b) power relations within clinical practice and competing resource demands within health care systems; (c) effectiveness considerations and socio-structural contexts of HIV treatment experiences within broader implementation contexts. Ongoing research
Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin
This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.
D.R. Gasper (Des)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Work on global ethics looks at ethical connections on a global scale. It should link closely to environmental ethics, recognizing that we live in unified social-ecological systems, and to development ethics, attending systematically to the lives and interests of
The purpose of the thesis was to provide recommendations for how the studied company could improve their Facebook marketing activities. The company was the Danish subsidiary of an multinational direct selling company of health and beauty products. The following research questions were devised: 1) What are the constraints and challenges for LR Denmark’s facebook marketing as a subsidiary of a Multinational Corporation and as a Direct Selling Company? 2) How can LR Denmark improve the...
Pais, Amelia; Stork, Philip A.
During the Global Financial Crisis, regulators imposed short-selling bans to protect financial institutions. The rationale behind the bans was that “bear raids”, driven by short-sellers, would increase the individual and systemic risk of financial institutions, especially for institutions with high leverage. This study uses Extreme Value Theory to estimate the effect of short-selling on financial institutions’ individual and systemic risks in France, Italy and Spain; it also analyses the rela...
Two court cases that involve selling prescription data for pharmaceutical marketing affect biomedical informatics, patient and clinician privacy, and regulation. Sorrell v. IMS Health Inc. et al. in the United States and R v. Department of Health, Ex Parte Source Informatics Ltd. in the United Kingdom concern privacy and health data protection, data de-identification and reidentification, drug detailing (marketing), commercial benefit from the required disclosure of personal information, clinician privacy and the duty of confidentiality, beneficial and unsavory uses of health data, regulating health technologies, and considering data as speech. Individuals should, at the very least, be aware of how data about them are collected and used. Taking account of how those data are used is needed so societal norms and law evolve ethically as new technologies affect health data privacy and protection.
Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura; Best, Mairi; Franceschini, PierLuigi; Materia, Paola; Peppoloni, Silvia; Picard, John
EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and Water Column Observatory) is a large-scale European Research Infrastructure (RI). It is a geographically distributed infrastructure composed of several deep-seafloor and water-column observatories, which will be deployed at key sites in European waters, spanning from the Arctic, through the Atlantic and Mediterranean, to the Black Sea, with the basic scientific objective of real-time, long-term monitoring of environmental processes related to the interaction between the geosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere. EMSO is one of the environmental RIs on the ESFRI roadmap. The ESRFI Roadmap identifies new RIs of pan-European importance that correspond to the long term needs of European research communities. EMSO will be the sub-sea segment of the EU's large-scale Earth Observation program, Copernicus (previously known as GMES - Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) and will significantly enhance the observational capabilities of European member states. An open data policy compliant with the recommendations being developed within the GEOSS initiative (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) will allow for shared use of the infrastructure and the exchange of scientific information and knowledge. The processes that occur in the oceans have a direct impact on human societies, therefore it is crucial to improve our understanding of how they operate and interact. To encompass the breadth of these major processes, sustained and integrated observations are required that appreciate the interconnectedness of atmospheric, surface ocean, biological pump, deep-sea, and solid-Earth dynamics and that can address: • natural and anthropogenic change; • interactions between ecosystem services, biodiversity, biogeochemistry, physics, and climate; • impacts of exploration and extraction of energy, minerals, and living resources; • geo-hazard early warning capability for earthquakes, tsunamis, gas-hydrate release, and slope
MacGregor, Hayley; Bloom, Gerald
This paper discusses health policy and systems research in complex and rapidly changing contexts. It focuses on ethical issues at stake for researchers working with government policy makers to provide evidence to inform major health systems change at scale, particularly when the dynamic nature of the context and ongoing challenges to the health system can result in unpredictable outcomes. We focus on situations where 'country ownership' of HSR is relatively well established and where there is significant involvement of local researchers and close ties and relationships with policy makers are often present. We frame our discussion around two country case studies with which we are familiar, namely China and South Africa and discuss the implications for conducting 'embedded' research. We suggest that reflexivity is an important concept for health system researchers who need to think carefully about positionality and their normative stance and to use such reflection to ensure that they can negotiate to retain autonomy, whilst also contributing evidence for health system change. A research process informed by the notion of reflexive practice and iterative learning will require a longitudinal review at key points in the research timeline. Such review should include the convening of a deliberative process and should involve a range of stakeholders, including those most likely to be affected by the intended and unintended consequences of change. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Referring to Kant's arguments addressing the moral relationship between our bodies and ourselves is quite common in contemporary debate about organ selling, although he does not provide us with any specific arguments related to this debate. It is widely argued that the most promising way to show the moral impermissibility of organ selling is to mount an argument on Kantian grounds. This paper asks whether it is possible to argue coherently against organ selling in a Kantian framework. It will be shown that by mounting the argument on Kantian grounds no compelling argument can be given against sale of organs, either because the arguments apply to donation of organs, too, or the arguments are not convincing for other independent reasons. In the first section, it will be argued that donation and selling are not distinguishable in a Kantian framework, since the concern about commodification of the body and its parts shall be raised by both actions. In the second section, some contemporary accounts inspired by Kant will be presented and discussed separately. It will be argued that the reasons for promoting organ donation while arguing against selling clash with each other in an unconvincing way.
Cooper, Richard J; Bissell, Paul; Wingfield, Joy
Community pharmacists' role in the sale and supply of emergency hormonal contraception (EHC) represents an opportunity to increase EHC availability and utilise pharmacists' expertise but little is known about pharmacists' attendant ethical concerns. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were undertaken with 23 UK pharmacists to explore their views and ethical concerns about EHC. Dispensing EHC was ethically acceptable for almost all pharmacists but beliefs about selling EHC revealed three categories: pharmacists who sold EHC, respected women's autonomy and peers' conscientious objection but feared the consequences of limited EHC availability; contingently selling pharmacists who believed doctors should be first choice for EHC supply but who occasionally supplied and were influenced by women's ages, affluence and genuineness; non-selling pharmacists who believed EHC was abortion and who found selling EHC distressing and ethically problematic. Terminological/factual misunderstandings about EHC were common and discussing ethical issues was difficult for most pharmacists. Religion informed non-selling pharmacists' ethical decisions but other pharmacists prioritised professional responsibilities over their religion. Pharmacists' ethical views on EHC and the influence of religion varied and, together with some pharmacists' reliance upon non-clinical factors, led to a potentially variable supply, which may threaten the prompt availability of EHC. Misunderstandings about EHC perpetuated lay beliefs and potentially threatened correct advice. The influence of subordination and non-selling pharmacists' dispensing EHC may also lead to variable supply and confusion amongst women. Training is needed to address both factual/terminological misunderstandings about EHC and to develop pharmacists' ethical understanding and responsibility.
Part One takes the form of a manual of the processes and techniques of buying and selling a small business . This material is presented in a...finalizing the transaction and planning for operation under new ownership and management . Part Two reports the nature of the research conducted during the
Experiential projects bring students closer to real-world situations. This is valuable in sales education because the complexities of the sales process are difficult to learn from a textbook. A student project was developed that involved the selling of advertising space in a one-time newspaper insert. The project included a substantial minimum…
Yarrington-Young, Susan; Castleberry, Stephen B.; Coleman, Joshua T.
A comprehensive project for the Advanced Selling course that has been tested at three universities is introduced. After selecting an industry and a company, students engage in a complete industry analysis, a company sales analysis, a sales-specific SWOT analysis, complete a ride day with a salesperson in that firm, then present their findings in a…
van der Borgh, M.; de Jong, A.; Nijssen, E.J.
Ambidextrous product-selling strategies, in which companies’ salespeople concurrently pursue the sale of existing and new products, are hard to implement. Previous studies have addressed this issue for relatively simple consumer settings with the manager in close proximity to the salespersons and
Burton, Suzan; Ludbrooke, Mark; Williams, Kelly; Walsberger, Scott C; Egger, Sam
To obtain insight into tobacco retailing by alcohol-licenced premises, in order to understand the financial importance of tobacco sales for such retailers. Data were collected by a telephone survey of 1042 clubs, hotels and packaged liquor outlets in New South Wales, Australia. The response rate was 86.1%. Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained. Logistic and linear regression were used to determine factors associated with the probability of selling and stopping selling and the importance of cigarette sales. More than a third (36.4%) of premises contacted did not sell cigarettes. 147 (an estimated 18.1% of those who had ever sold) had stopped selling. There were significant differences in the probability of selling, in the reported importance of cigarette sales and in the probability of stopping selling, between different outlet types and other outlet characteristics (number of gaming machines, proximity of nearest alternative tobacco retailer and remoteness). Outlets where alcohol can be consumed were more likely to rate cigarette sales as 'not important' than 'important'. Despite claims by tobacco companies that tobacco sales are important for many Australian retailers, tobacco sales appear to be of limited importance for alcohol-licenced premises. This means that opposition to stopping tobacco sales where alcohol is consumed and/or sold may be less than expected. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Oksana Loginova; X. Hnery Wang; Chenhang Zeng
The advance selling strategy is implemented when a firm offers consumers the opportunity to order its product in advance of the regular selling season. Advance selling reduces uncertainty for both the firm and the buyer and enables the firm to update its forecast of future demand. The distinctive feature of the present theoretical study of advance selling is that we divide consumers into two groups, experienced and inexperienced. Experienced consumers know their valuations of the product in a...
Stempsey, W E
This article addresses the ethics of selling transplantable organs. I examine and refute the claim that Catholic teaching would permit and even encourage an organ market. The acceptance of organ transplantation by the Church and even its praise of organ donors should not distract us from the quite explicit Church teaching that condemns an organ market. I offer some reasons why the Church should continue to disapprove of an organ market. The recent commercial turn in medicine can blind us to the problem of an organ market. In addition, the reliance on the gift image in organ transplantation raises difficulties of its own. What is needed is a fuller appreciation of the fact that the human person is essentially embodied with all its parts, and not merely an autonomous being that possesses organs as properties to sell. I support this vision of the embodied human person by appealing to the writings of Immanuel Kant.
Full Text Available The study examined the ethical sensitivity of Finnish teachers (=864 using a 28-item Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ. The psychometric qualities of this instrument were analyzed, as were the differences in self-reported ethical sensitivity between practicing and student teachers and teachers of different subjects. The results showed that the psychometric qualities of the ESSQ were satisfactory and enabled the use of an explorative factor analysis. All Finnish teachers rated their level of ethical sensitivity as high, which indicates that they had internalized the ethical professionalism of teaching. However, practicing teachers’ assessments were higher than student teachers’. Moreover, science as a subject was associated with lower self-ratings of ethical sensitivity.
The literature on creating consumer awareness and acceptance of solar water heating systems for marketing purposes is sparse. This paper discusses some of the sophisticated marketing techniques available and some results. Selling solar water heating systems in Northern European latitudes requires a degree of persistence and commitment that is probably not required in what are regarded as the 'sunny climes' around the Mediterranean., the Middle East, Africa, South East Asia and Australia. (Author)
I estimate the aggregate income elasticity of Wal-Mart's and Target's revenues using quarterly data for 1997-2006. I find that Wal-Mart's revenues increase during bad times, whereas Target's revenues decrease, consistent with Wal-Mart selling "inferior goods" in the technical sense of the term. An upper bound on the aggregate income elasticity of demand for Wal-Mart's wares is -0.5.
Ackerman, Marc Bernard
The principal objective for most patients seeking orthodontic services is a detectable improvement in their dentofacial appearance. Orthodontic treatment, in the mind of the patient, is something that makes you look better, feel better about yourself, and perhaps enhances your social possibilities, ie, to find a companion or make a positive impression during a job interview. Orthodontics, as a speciality, has collectively advanced the idea that enhanced occlusion (bite) improves the health and longevity of the dentition, and as a result many patients seeking orthodontic services affirm that their secondary goal of treatment is an oral health benefit. It would appear that there is some disparity between the end-user of orthodontic services and the orthodontic provider's perception of what constitutes orthodontic need. The aim of this paper is to examine two contrasting models that characterise how dentists 'sell' orthodontic services to patients and to discuss the conflict between professional ethics, practice management and evidence-based decision-making in orthodontic practice.
Nguyen, Nhung T.; Basuray, M. Tom; Smith, William P.; Kopka, Donald; McCulloh, Donald N.
The present study examined student learning in business ethics, particularly ethical judgment, using R. E. Reidenbach and D. P. Robin's (1990) Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES). The authors asked 262 undergraduate students to provide ethical judgment rating, first at the beginning of the semester and again at the end of the semester. Students…
The goal of this paper is to present examples of business ethics issues. What is business ethics, things concerned in this field are and why it is needed and important when doing business? The concept of business ethics has connotations to provision, rules and standards in directing the behavior of actors in the business. Business ethics involves compliance with the law, the implementation of ethical responsibilities of a business, the protection of the rights of those who are related to the ...
Macdonald, Chris; Gavura, Scott
Is it ethical to market complementary and alternative medicines? Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are medical products and services outside the mainstream of medical practice. But they are not just medicines (or supposed medicines) offered and provided for the prevention and treatment of illness. They are also products and services - things offered for sale in the marketplace. Most discussion of the ethics of CAM has focused on bioethical issues - issues having to do with therapeutic value, and the relationship between patients and those purveyors of CAM. This article aims instead to consider CAM from the perspective of commercial ethics. That is, we consider the ethics not of prescribing or administering CAM (activities most closely associated with health professionals) but the ethics of selling CAM. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Titus, David; Harris, Garth; Gulati, Rajesh; Bristow, Dennis
This paper presents a step-by-step process for the development and implementation of a professional selling specialization program in the marketing curriculum of a school of business at an AACSB accredited state university. The program is presented in detail along with the process followed in order to develop support for the program with three…
Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Chengho, Chryseis F; Khater, Emad I M
Much of the fear and uncertainty around Zika epidemics stem from potential association between Zika virus (ZIKV) complications on infected pregnant women and risk of their babies being born with microcephaly and other neurological abnormalities. However, much remains unknown about its mode of transmission, diagnosis and long-term pathogenesis. Worries of these unknowns necessitate the need for effective and efficient psychosocial programs and medical-legal strategies to alleviate and mitigate ZIKV related burdens. In this light, local and global efforts in maintaining fundamental health principles of moral, medical and legal decision-making policies, and interventions to preserve and promote individual and collectiveHuman Rights, autonomy, protection of the most vulnerable, equity, dignity, integrity and beneficence that should not be confused and relegated by compassionate humanitarian assistance and support. This paper explores the potential medical and ethical-legal implications of ZIKV epidemics emergency response packages and strategies alongside optimizing reproductive and mental health policies, programs and best practice measures. Further long-term cross-borders operational research is required in elucidating Zika-related population-based epidemiology, ethical-medical and societal implications in guiding evidence-based local and global ZIKV maternal-child health complications related approaches and interventions. Core programs and interventions including future Zika safe and effective vaccines for global Zika immunization program in most vulnerable and affected countries and worldwide should be prioritized.
Laux, Christian; Walz, Uwe
We highlight the implications of combining underwriting services and lending for the choice of underwriters and for competition in the underwriting business. We show that cross-selling can increase underwriters' incentives, and we explain three phenomena: first, that cross-selling is important for universal banks to enter the investment banking business; second, that cross-selling is particularly attractive for highly leveraged borrowers; third, that less-than-market rates are no prerequisite...
Cross selling is the practice of selling additional products to an existing customer. It has the potential to boost revenues and can be beneficial for both the company and the customer. For many multi-divisional companies with product or service oriented organizational structures the attempt to realize the benefits of cross selling generates incentive problems. In this thesis, three problems spread over three business levels are identified. Firstly, management needs to (fina...
Alturas, Bráulio; Santos, Maria da Conceição; Pereira, Ivo
This paper studies the factors that influence the consumers’ satisfaction and acceptance of direct selling. Direct selling has been exhibiting in the last decade substantial growth in sales revenues and number of salespeople involved. Also the acceptance on the part of the consumers has been increasing; in spite of they show more and more demanding and informed. The literature reveals that the relationship between customer satisfaction and direct selling has not been sufficiently studied, yet...
Full Text Available Using Functional Measurement (Anderson, 2008, Frileux, Lelièvre, Muñoz Sastre, Mullet, and Sorum (2003 examined the joint impact of several key factors on lay people's judgments of the acceptability of physicians' interventions to end patients' lives. The level of acceptability was high, and the information integration rule that best described the participants' judgments was Acceptability = Patient's Request + Patient's Age + Residual Suffering + Incurability. Critics suggested, however, that acceptability was high because the ethical problem was framed in terms of acceptability (Murphy, 2007. Presenting participants with acceptability scales may have caused the life-ending procedure to be represented in participants' mind as basically "acceptable". By contrast, presenting participants with unacceptability scales might cause the procedure to be represented as basically "unacceptable". In the present study, therefore, we directly compared lay people's judgments of the acceptability of life-ending procedures under two opposite conditions - an acceptability condition, and an unacceptability condition. The life-ending procedure did not appear as more acceptable to participants responding in terms of acceptability than to those responding in terms of unacceptability. In addition, the impacts of the factors describing the end-of-life situations were not affected by the type of judgment scale that was used. Functional Measurement seems to be resistant to goal-framing effects; the findings that have been observed using acceptability scales can be considered as robust.
Bjorkman, Maria; Widmalm, Sven
This paper traces the early (1910s to 1920s) development of Swedish eugenics through a study of the social network that promoted it. The eugenics network consisted mainly of academics from a variety of disciplines, but with medicine and biology dominating; connections with German scientists who would later shape Nazi biopolitics were strong. The paper shows how the network used political lobbying (for example, using contacts with academically accomplished MPs) and various media strategies to gain scientific and political support for their cause, where a major goal was the creation of a eugenics institute (which opened in 1922). It also outlines the eugenic vision of the institute's first director, Herman Lundborg. In effect the network, and in particular Lundborg, promoted the view that politics should be guided by eugenics and by a genetically superior elite. The selling of eugenics in Sweden is an example of the co-production of science and social order.
Danny Prabowo Soetanto
Full Text Available The determination of the price should meet certain criteria, both from the society and the company itself. The combination of various criteria will result in another problem. Fuzzy Logic covers all influencing factors and displays the membership function graphic. Furthermore, by implementing fuzzy rules and fuzzy operator, the right price can be determined which covers all the factors above. The determination of the rules is based on the raw material cost, direct labor cost, distribution cost and the customers' opinion regarding the appropriate price. Then, the model is designed with the help of Matlab software. The result is finally obtained in the form of a model performed by Matlab software. The model displays the output concerning the selling price of the product for each change in the dominant factors.
Full Text Available The direct selling industry suffers a high turnover rate of salespeople, resulting in high costs of training new salespeople. Further costs are incurred when broken relationships with customers cause them to switch from one product supplier to another. This study identifies twelve factors that drive the switching behaviour of direct sales customers and examines the extent to which these factors influence switching. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the validity of these factors. The factors were represented in a model that posits that an interpersonal relationship between a direct sales person and a customer moderates the relationship between switching behaviour and loyalty. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model. The author then discusses the empirical findings and their managerial implications, providing further avenues for research.
Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...
在梳理国外相关研究文献、开放式调查和结构访谈的基础上，编制了运动队伦理气氛测评结构初始量表，通过对初始量表的试测和修改，形成了正式的“运动队伦理气氛测评结构量表”。运用此量表对600名被试者进行了调查，通过探索性因素和验证性因素分析，得出我国运动队伦理气氛测评结构，包括道德准则型伦理气氛、关怀型伦理气氛、法律制度型伦理气氛、团队精神型伦理气氛和利己主义型伦理气氛。我国运动队伦理气氛测评结构量表与西方的有所差异。% On the basis of sorting out related domestic and foreign research literature, open surveys and structural interviews, the authors established an initial structural scale for evaluating sports team’s ethic atmospheres, formed a“Structural Scale for Evaluating Sports Team’s Ethical Atmospheres” by testing and revising the initial scale, used this scale to survey 600 testees, and by means of exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, worked out a structure for evaluating Chinese sports team’s ethical atmospheres, which include moral standard type ethical atmosphere, caring type ethical atmosphere, legal system type ethical atmosphere, team spirit type ethical atmosphere and egoism type ethical atmosphere. The structural scale for evaluating Chinese sports team’s ethical atmospheres is somewhat different from the ones used by western countries.
Jonasson, Haukur Ingi
How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.
In this address, the author explores the necessity of ethical reflection on our moral responsibility regarding the challenges of today's globalized world and the future of humankind in the midst of God's creation. In this context, the differentiation of modern ethics is seen as accompanied by the task to reintegrate the ethical discourse by means of an interdisciplinary exchange and to further especially the dialogue between theological and philosophical ethics. By agreeing on Hans-Richard Re...
... area in medicine that doesn't have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should ... orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? ...
den Hartog, D.N.
High-profile cases of leaders’ ethical failure in different settings and sectors have led to increased attention to ethical leadership in organizations. In this review, I discuss the rapidly developing field of ethical leadership from an organizational behavior/psychology perspective, taking a
Johnson, Ryan; Swicegood, Philip; Williams, Nancy
Most business ethics classes are supplemented with cases, the majority of which have a negative orientation. We empirically measure the preponderance of negative-oriented cases found in the top selling textbooks used in many business ethics courses. However, neuroscience research indicates that a negative orientation is less effective than a…
Hansson, Sven Ove
Ethicists have investigated ethical problems in other disciplines, but there has not been much discussion of the ethics of their own activities. Research in ethics has many ethical problems in common with other areas of research, and it also has problems of its own. The researcher's integrity is more precarious than in most other disciplines, and therefore even stronger procedural checks are needed to protect it. The promotion of some standpoints in ethical issues may be socially harmful, and even our decisions as to which issues we label as "ethical" may have unintended and potentially harmful social consequences. It can be argued that ethicists have an obligation to make positive contributions to society, but the practical implications of such an obligation are not easily identified. This article provides an overview of ethical issues that arise in research into ethics and in the application of such research. It ends with a list of ten practical proposals for how these issues should be dealt with.
Rohn, Don; Austin, John; Sanford, Alison
Discussion of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in improving suggestive selling behavior of sales staff focuses on a study that examined the efficacy of a consumer-driven approach to improve suggestive selling behavior of three employees of a fast food franchise. Reports that consumer-driven intervention increased suggestive selling…
Kaptein, M.C.; Parvinen, P.
Real-time adjustments in online selling are becoming increasingly common. In this paper we describe a novel method of real-time adaptation, and introduce influence strategies as a useful level of analysis for personalization of online selling. The proposed method incorporates three perspectives on
Galician, Mary Lou
Describes a course in commercial copywriting for electronic media in which students must also present orally their copy to the class to drive home two points: (1) the writing has to sell products, and (2) the writer has to sell the spot or campaign to the client or employers. (HTH)
... DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such products may qualify as exempt outside sales employees only if the employee has a primary duty of making...
Full Text Available The article explores some efforts to generate Bank’s income by optimalizing cross selling for is existing customers. After explaining background and clarifying that terminologies the paper starts with efforts and constraints of cross selling optimalization, those problem solutions, and how to promote the bank products.
The article explores some efforts to generate Bank’s income by optimalizing cross selling for is existing customers. After explaining background and clarifying that terminologies the paper starts with efforts and constraints of cross selling optimalization, those problem solutions, and how to promote the bank products.
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See 412...
Aziz, Nor a Abdul; Ghani, Abdullah Haji Abdul; Shaari, Hasnizam
This paper discusses contributing factors pertaining to the ethical behaviour of Takaful agents in Malaysia. Perspective of sales, selling pressure and the level of competitiveness are identified as factors, influencing ethical behaviour of Takaful agents. This study is conducted through focus group and formed a personal interview among branch managers, executives and Takaful agents. It revealed that unethical behaviour is evident among the Takaful agents in meeting the sales target. These fa...
The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center.
Jehiel, P.; Moldovanu, B.; Stacchetti, E.
We study the problem of a seller who wants to maximize her revenue in situations where the outcome of the sale affects the nature of the future interaction between agents. We model those situations by assuming that an agent that does not acquire the object for sale incurs an externality that may depend both on the identity of the sufferer and on the identity of the final purchaser. We describe an optimal auction that has a unique Nash equilibrium in strictly dominant strategies. We show that: 1) Outside options are endogenously determined in equilibrium. Participation constraints and the ''threats'' in case of non-participation play an important role. 2) An optimizing seller can extract surplus also from buyers that do not obtain the auctioned object. 3) The seller is better off by not selling at all (while obtaining some payments) if externalities are large when compared to the pure profits that buyers achieve if they acquire the object. 4) The revenue-maximizing equilibrium is coalition-proof if buyers cannot organize side payments among themselves. (orig.)
Shepherd, Nick; Haber, Alejandro
While books on archaeological and anthropological ethics have proliferated in recent years, few attempt to move beyond a conventional discourse on ethics to consider how a discussion of the social and political implications of archaeological practice might be conceptualized differently....... The conceptual ideas about ethics posited in this volume make it of interest to readers outside of the discipline; in fact, to anyone interested in contemporary debates around the possibilities and limitations of a discourse on ethics. The authors in this volume set out to do three things. The first is to track...... the historical development of a discussion around ethics, in tandem with the development and “disciplining” of archaeology. The second is to examine the meanings, consequences and efficacies of a discourse on ethics in contemporary worlds of practice in archaeology. The third is to push beyond the language...
S. V. Grishkevich
Full Text Available Strategic for power selling companies (PSC are buying, selling and investment activities. Buying activities are to be planned, selling activities predicted and both optimized by PSC on the basis of price and consumer number dynamics with due account of other factors. Very important is to develop the market of derivative instruments (derivatives as part of the risk management mechanism at all levels including that of the state, to use up-to-date and ecologically favorable technologies as well as renewable energy sources with due account of ecology improvement measurement costs.
Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed
Iyalomhe, G B S
Ethical problems routinely arise in the hospital and outpatient practice settings and times of dilemma do occur such that practitioners and patients are at cross-roads where choice and decision making become difficult in terms of ethics. This paper attempts a synopsis of the basic principles of medical ethics, identifies some ethical dilemmas that doctors often encounter and discusses some strategies to address them as well as emphasizes the need for enhanced ethics education both for physicians and patients particularly in Nigeria. Literature and computer programmes (Medline and PsychoInfo databases) were searched for relevant information. The search showed that the fundamental principles suggested by ethicists to assist doctors to evaluate the ethics of a situation while making a decision include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Although the above principles do not give answers as to how to handle a particular situation, they serve as a guide to doctors on what principles ought to apply to actual circumstances. The principles sometimes conflict with each other leading to ethical dilemmas when applied to issues such as abortion, contraception, euthanasia, professional misconduct, confidentiality truth telling, professional relationship with relatives, religion, traditional medicine and business concerns. Resolution of dilemmas demand the best of the doctor's knowledge of relevant laws and ethics, his training and experience, his religious conviction and moral principles as well as his readiness to benefit from ethics consultation and the advice of his colleagues. Ethics education should begin from the impressionable age in homes, continued in the medical schools and after graduation to ensure that doctors develop good ethical practices and acquire the ability to effectively handle ethical dilemmas. Also, education of patients and sanction of unethical behaviour will reduce ethical dilemmas.
Sõrg, Mart, 1943-
Insaiderluse all mõistetakse avalikustamata siseteabe ärakasutamist väärtpaberitega kauplemisel. Eestis seostatakse insaiderluse mõistega eelkõige pangandus- ja muud finantssektorit ja selle töötajaid
Zhang, Y.; Hua, Guowei; Wang, Shouyang; Zhang, Juliang; Fernández Alarcón, Vicenç
Demand variability is prevailing in the current rapidly changing business environment, which makes it difficult for a retailer that sells multiple substitutable products to determine the optimal inventory. To combat demand uncertainty, both strategies of inventory substitution and probabilistic selling can be used. Although the two strategies differ in operation, we believe that they share a common feature in combating demand uncertainty by encouraging some customers to give up some specific ...
Andrikopoulos, Athanasios; Markellos, Raphael N.
We develop a model of dynamic interactions between price variations in leasing and selling markets for automobiles. Our framework assumes a differential game between multiple Bertrand-type competing firms which offer differentiated products to forward-looking agents. Empirical analysis of our model using monthly US data from 2002 to 2011 shows that variations in selling (cash) market prices lead rapidly dissipating changes of leasing market prices in the opposite direction. We discuss the pra...
Forsyth, Donelson R.
Assesses the reliability and validity of the Ethics Position Questionnaire: an instrument with two scales, one measuring idealism and another measuring the rejection of universal moral principles in favor of relativism. (Author/SS)
Dooly, Melinda; Moore, Emilee; Vallejo, Claudia
Qualitative research, especially studies in educational contexts, often brings up questions of ethics because the study design involves human subjects, some of whom are under age (e.g. data collected in primary education classrooms). It is not always easy for young researchers to anticipate where ethical issues might emerge while designing their…
Chambers, David W
This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.
Full Text Available Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the elements that will form the basis of this scientific study. Lately, business ethics has been becoming an increasingly popular topic. Set against the global economic crisis, the companies’ credibility could become a major concern. Business ethics also becomes a challenge for training and informing employees and employers, in order to make not only economical, but also ethical decisions regarding their profits. In the study we shall also address the ethical standards required in a business world interested in fundamental values that can make the difference in 21st century business. Also, according to a study conducted by the authors, we shall address the two most important ethical values that prove to be essential to a business.
Slobodian, Rayna Elizabeth
Extensive media coverage regarding the proposal to send four people to Mars by 2025 has exploded recently. Private enterprise has taken the reins to venture into space, which has typically only been reserved for government agencies. I argue, that with this new direction comes less regulation, raising questions regarding the ethics of sending people into outer space to colonize Mars within a decade. Marketers selling colonization to the public include perspectives such as biological drives, species survival, inclusiveness and utopian ideals. I challenge these narratives by suggesting that much of our desire to colonize space within the next decade is motivated by ego, money and romanticism. More specifically, I will examine the roles that fear and stories of immortality play within selling space and how those stories are marketed. I am passionate about space and hope that one day humanity will colonize other worlds, but the rush to settle is dangerous and careless. I assert that humanity should first gain more experience and knowledge before colonizing outer space, using this research to mitigate the risk to astronauts and proceed with careful consideration for the lives of potential astronauts.
Research ethics has become integrated into what it means to conduct good science. This thesis is about the nature of that integration, which I argue is not neutral, carrying with it ideas of duty, moral obligations, organisational mechanisms, and processes of monitoring. For developing countries...... to participate in global research, the pre-requisite of ethical review has necessitated a growth in capacity building exercises. The chapters aim to elucidate ethnographically the activities and implications of 'capacity building' activities in biomedical research ethics, through following the trainings......, assessments and networking of the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a Non-Governmental Organisation. The work provides a critical reflection on the spread and uptake of ethics, contributing particularly to literatures in medical anthropology, organisational studies...
Rønn, Kira Vrist
Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...
Examines two ethical questions regarding the ongoing antitrust battle between the U.S. Department of Justice and Microsoft Corporation using traditional rights-based ethical theory, utilitarianism, and John Rawls's principles of justice. Concludes that it is neither good nor fair for a company having a near-monopoly over a market to sell products…
Dixon, Shane; Quirke, Linda
Methods textbooks play a role in socializing a new generation of researchers about ethical research. How do undergraduate social research methods textbooks portray harm, its prevalence, and ways to mitigate harm to participants? We conducted a content analysis of ethics chapters in the 18 highest-selling undergraduate textbooks used in sociology…
Lee, Byung; Padgett, George
Examines the effectiveness of an ethics education component in a media law and ethics course. Suggests that a short-term mass media ethics study could not develop values considered essential for ethical behavior. Argues that students developed more complexity in their reasoning not measurable by the scale. Suggests a course or module on ethics…
Seong Choul Hong
Full Text Available The lives of celebrities are often spotlighted in the media because of their newsworthiness; however, many celebrities argue that their right to privacy is often infringed upon. Concerns about celebrity privacy are not limited to the celebrities themselves and often expand to their children. As a result of their popularity, public interest has pushed paparazzi and journalists to pursue trivial and private details about the lives of both celebrities and their children. This paper investigates conflicting areas where the right to privacy and the right to know collide when dealing with the children of celebrities. In general, the courts have been unsympathetic to celebrity privacy claims, noting their newsworthiness and self-promoted characteristic. Unless the press violates news-gathering ethics or torts, the courts will often rule in favor of the media. However, the story becomes quite different when related to an infringement on the privacy of celebrities’ children. This paper argues that all children have a right to protect their privacy regardless of their parents’ social status. Children of celebrities should not be exempt to principles of privacy just because their parents are a celebrity. Furthermore, they should not be exposed by the media without the voluntary consent of their legal patrons. That is, the right of the media to publish and the newsworthiness of children of celebrities must be restrictedly acknowledged.
... farmers. 780.710 Section 780.710 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Elevator § 780.710 A country elevator may sell products and services to farmers. Section 13(b)(14... feeders and other farmers, sell fuels for farm use, sell and treat seeds, and sell other farm supplies...
Nelu BURCEA; Ion CROITORU
Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the eleme...
Mir Hossain SOHEL
Full Text Available Bangladesh is lower middle income oriented country (LMIC in South Asia where sachet product has become more popular than other scaling products. SPIN selling is an approach of consultative selling or presenting an offer to the potential clients considering their pain-points using a powerful questioning process. This study attempts to find out the reasons of gaining popularity of sachet product in Bangladesh. SPIN Selling concept is the age-old concept used in this respect. A sample size of 120 was collected from the salespeople of 15 different companies that are co-integrated sachet product in their product line. A self-administered questionnaire is applied for data collection and This study reveals hat the existence of the applicability of SPIN concept in a moderate format in Bangladesh. The findings of the study postulate that in Bangladesh, sachet product is introduced as follower product and it will be helpful for the marketing executives, R&D officers or decision makers of concerned firms in re-considering their strategic thinking aiming to gain sustainable competitive advantage in the product market of Bangladesh for sachet product.
Full Text Available The paper discusses the renewed short selling regulation (Regulation (EU No 236/2012 in the European Union. The focus is on the provisions that deal with prohibiting short selling in exceptional market circumstances. The Regulation further enforces certain obligations to report and disclose short positions. It is concluded that banning short selling is not an effective tool to contain extreme price volatility. The difference-in-differences regression and repeated measures GLM were used to test whether short selling bans were successful in containing volatility of those Spanish and Italian stocks that were subject to two back-to-back prohibitions during the years 2011-2013. The results are consistent with the majority of previous research, suggesting that the effectiveness of short sale constraints in reducing volatility is limited at best. Furthermore, there are evidence of counterproductive effects: constraints on short selling may actually increase volatility as well as deteriorate liquidity. However, based on theory and previous studies, reporting and disclosure requirements shall be favored provided they improve market efficiency as well as supervisory work of regulatory bodies.This paper discusses the renewed short selling regulation (Regulation (EU No 236/2012 in the European Union. The focus is on the provisions that deal with prohibiting short selling in exceptional market circumstances. The Regulation further enforces certain obligations to report and disclose short positions. It is concluded that banning short selling is not an effective tool to contain extreme price volatility. The difference-in-differences regression and repeated measures GLM were used to test whether short selling bans were successful in containing volatility of those Spanish and Italian stocks that were subject to two back-to-back prohibitions during the years 2011-2013. The results are consistent with the majority of previous research, suggesting that the
Anderson, Michael; Anderson, Susan Leigh
The newly emerging field of machine ethics (Anderson and Anderson 2006) is concerned with adding an ethical dimension to machines. Unlike computer ethics -- which has traditionally focused on ethical issues surrounding humans' use of machines -- machine ethics is concerned with ensuring that the behavior of machines toward human users, and perhaps other machines as well, is ethically acceptable. In this article we discuss the importance of machine ethics, the need for machines that represent ...
Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel
This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...
Altınörs, Nur; Haberal, Mehmet
The aim of this study was to review and discuss the great variety of ethical issues related to organ donation, organ procurement, transplant activities, and new ethical problems created as a result of technologic and scientific developments. An extensive literature survey was made, and expert opinions were obtained. The gap between demand and supply of organs for transplant has yielded to organ trafficking, organ tourism, and commercialism. This problem seems to be the most important issue, and naturally there are ethical dilemmas related to it. A wide number of ideas have been expressed on the subject, and different solutions have been proposed. The struggle against organ trafficking and commercialism should include legislation, efforts to increase deceased-donor donations, and international cooperation. China's policy to procure organs from prisoners sentenced to death is unethical, and the international community should exert more pressure on the Chinese government to cease this practice. Each particular ethical dilemma should be taken separately and managed.
Chambers, David W
Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession.
In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness.
Sirin, Selcuk R.; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren; Collins, Brian A.
This article presents the psychometric qualifications of a new video-based measure of school professionals' ethical sensitivity toward issues of racial intolerance in schools. The new scale, titled the Quick-Racial and Ethical Sensitivity Test (Quick-REST) is based on the ethical principles commonly shared by school-based professional…
What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter.......What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter....
textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological theories, virtue ethics, or pragmatism. As I will argue in this chapter, at present the core of the capability approach is an account of value, which together with some other (more minor) normative comm...
Sato, Hajime; Akabayashi, Akira; Kai, Ichiro
Background Public satisfaction with policy process influences the legitimacy and acceptance of policies, and conditions the future political process, especially when contending ethical value judgments are involved. On the other hand, public involvement is required if effective policy is to be developed and accepted. Methods Using the data from a large-scale national opinion survey, this study evaluates public appraisal of past government efforts to legalize organ transplant from brain-dead bodies in Japan, and examines the public's intent to participate in future policy. Results A relatively large percentage of people became aware of the issue when government actions were initiated, and many increasingly formed their own opinions on the policy in question. However, a significant number (43.3%) remained unaware of any legislative efforts, and only 26.3% of those who were aware provided positive appraisals of the policymaking process. Furthermore, a majority of respondents (61.8%) indicated unwillingness to participate in future policy discussions of bioethical issues. Multivariate analysis revealed the following factors are associated with positive appraisals of policy development: greater age; earlier opinion formation; and familiarity with donor cards. Factors associated with likelihood of future participation in policy discussion include younger age, earlier attention to the issue, and knowledge of past government efforts. Those unwilling to participate cited as their reasons that experts are more knowledgeable and that the issues are too complex. Conclusions Results of an opinion survey in Japan were presented, and a set of factors statistically associated with them were discussed. Further efforts to improve policy making process on bioethical issues are desirable. PMID:15661080
Lewis, Phillip V.; Speck, Henry E., III
Argues that history provides the necessary framework in which both to discuss and to seek answers to the three necessary and sequential questions about business ethics: (1) What is ethics and what does it mean to be ethical? (2) Why be ethical?; and (3) How can one be ethical? (SG)
Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy
Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)
Courty, Pascal; Liu, Wenyu
We study opaque selling in the hotel industry using data from Hotwire.com. An opaque room discloses only the star level and general location of the hotel at the time of booking. The exact identity of the hotel is disclosed after the booking is completed. Opaque rooms sell at a discount of 40 percent relative to regular rooms. The discount increases when hotels are more differentiated. This finding is consistent with static models of price discrimination. No support was found for predictions s...
Full Text Available Linda S Jonsson,1 Carl Göran Svedin,1 Margareta Hydén2 1Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden Abstract: The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9. Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help
Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...
Smith, Robert W.
Attention is given to the politics of initiating the Space Telescope program and to the manner in which the coalition, or working consensus, for the Telescope was assembled, in particular, the role played by astronomers. It is contended that what ensued was a case study in the influence of government patronage on a large-scale scientific and technological program. It is concluded that while a politically feasible Space Telescope did result, in the selling process the Telescope had been both oversold and underfunded.
Hasselbalch, Gry; Tranberg, Pernille
Respect for privacy and the right to control one’s own data are becoming key parameters to gain a competitive edge in today’s business world. Companies, organisations and authorities which view data ethics as a social responsibility, giving it the same importance as environmental awareness...... and respect for human rights, are tomorrow’s winners. Digital trust is paramount to digital growth and prosperity. This book combines broad trend analyses with case studies to examine companies which use data ethics to varying degrees. The authors make the case that citizens and consumers are no longer just...... concerned about a lack of control over their data, but they also have begun to act. In addition, they describe alternative business models, advances in technology and a new European data protection regulation, all of which combine to foster a growing market for data-ethical products and services...
Schianchi, A.; Bongini, L.; Degli Esposti, M.; Giardinà, C.
n this paper, we solve a general problem of optimizing a portfolio in a futures markets framework, extending the previous work of Galluccio et al. [Physica A 259, 449 (1998)]. We allow for long buying/short selling of a relatively large number of assets, assuming a fixed level of margin requirement.
Jongeneel, Roel; Silvis, Huib; Verhoog, David; Daatselaar, Co
At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, this report analyses the potential market impacts and budgetary effects of different strategies of selling EU public intervention stocks of skimmed milk powder
(SMP). A gradual phasing out of the EU's SMP stocks over
J. Vink (Jaap); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)
textabstractIn this paper the relationship between adaptive selling and organizational behavior is analysed. Specifically, it is discovered that adaptive behavior is a multifaceted concept which is not linearly related to the organizational characteristics in the way it was operationalized in a
Lott, Jason P; Marlowe, Douglas B; Forman, Robert F
This study assesses the availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin, a powerful hallucinogen contained in Psilocybe mushrooms. Over a 25-month period beginning in March 2003, eight searches were conducted in Google using the term "psilocybin spores." In each search the first 100 nonsponsored links obtained were scored by two independent raters according to standardized criteria to determine whether they offered to sell psilocybin or psilocybin spores. No attempts were made to procure the products offered for sale in order to ascertain whether the marketed psilocybin was in fact "genuine" or "counterfeit." Of the 800 links examined, 58% led to websites offering to sell psilocybin spores. Additionally, evidence that whole Psilocybe mushrooms are offered for sale online was obtained. Psilocybin and psilocybin spores were found to be widely available for sale over the Internet. Online purchase of psilocybin may facilitate illicit use of this potent psychoactive substance. Additional studies are needed to assess whether websites offering to sell psilocybin and psilocybin spores actually deliver their products as advertised.
This is our final report on the Audit of Foreign Direct Selling Costs. The Contract Management Directorate made the audit from October 1989 to January 1990 in response to a requirement in U.S.C., title 10, Sec. 2324(f)(5...
This is our final report on the Audit of Foreign Direct Selling Costs. The Contract Management Directorate made the audit from October 1989 to...The objective of the audit was to assess whether DoD regulations provided the appropriate incentives to stimulate exports by the. U.S. Defense
MootorReisi Aktsiaseltsi kümne aastaseks saamise puhul korraldati konverents "Rahvusvaheline bussiliiklus täna ja selle roll tulevikus". MootorReisi AS-i tekkimisest. Vt. samas: Intervjuu MootorReisi AS-i juhatuse esimees Hugo Osulaga
W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem); F.D. Belschak (Frank); R.P. Bagozzi (Richard)
textabstractStudy 1 investigates the beneficial effects of experiencing pride. Pride was found to have two different effects. First, it increases salespersons' performance-related motivations. Specifically, it promotes adaptive selling strategies, greater effort, and self-efficacy. Secondly, it
Robelen, Erik W.
This information brief discusses the impact of commercialism in schools. It asks the question of whether such advertising is supporting students or is simply selling access. It describes how children are a desirable market since they have most of their purchases ahead of them; they can also frequently convince parents to buy items. The brief…
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to help business marketers with offline channels to make decisions on whether to sell through Group-buying (GB websites and how to set online price with the coordination of maximum deal size on GB websites. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the deal structure of GB websites especially for the service fee and minimum deal size limit required by GB websites, advertising effect of selling on GB websites, and interaction between online and offline markets, an analytical model is built to derive optimal online price and maximum deal size for sellers selling through GB website. This paper aims to answer four research questions: (1 How to make a decision on maximum deal size with coordination of the deal price? (2 Will selling on GB websites always be better than staying with offline channel only? (3 What kind of products is more appropriate to sell on GB website? (4How could GB website operator induce sellers to offer deep discount in GB deals? Findings and Originality/value: This paper obtains optimal strategies for sellers selling on GB website and finds that: Even if a seller has sufficient capacity, he/she may still set a maximum deal size on the GB deal to take advantage of Advertisement with Limited Availability (ALA effect; Selling through GB website may not bring a higher profit than selling only through offline channel when a GB site only has a small consumer base and/or if there is a big overlap between the online and offline markets; Low margin products are more suitable for being sold online with ALA strategies (LP-ALA or HP-ALA than high margin ones; A GB site operator could set a small minimum deal size to induce deep discounts from the sellers selling through GB deals. Research limitations/implications: The present study assumed that the demand function is determinate and linear. It will be interesting to study how stochastic demand and a more general demand function affect the optimal
The position of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) as a research and development organisation is outlined. It is now a trading fund and offers research facilities to industry on a contract basis. This will be further promoted. The Authority's main business remains the development of systems producing economic electricity. An example of this is the work on the proposed commercial fast reactor. However, the expertise and specialised facilities developed for this have applications in other areas relevant to British and overseas industry. An example of this is the technology developed at the UKAEA's Harwell laboratories for assuring the firm attachment of steel platforms to the sea bed. Radioactive tracers are added to underwater cement grouting enabling the progress of grout injection to be monitored. Oil recovery techniques, chemical scaling problems, pipeline flow, safety and reliability, the development of a pocket gamma radiation dosimeter, structural integrity testing and problem solving, development of electric propulsion systems for space satellites, advanced robotics and computing services are all areas of UKAEA research and development interest and capability. (U.K.)
Hoeyer, Klaus; Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø
of treatment norms, we must move close to everyday work practices and appreciate the importance of material–technical treatment options as well as the interplay of professional ethics and identity. The cardiac treatment of brain-dead donors may thereby illuminate how treatment norms develop on the ground...
Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter
This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...
I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)
textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological
Hoskins, Brittany Noel
The field of cybersecurity is relatively uncharted by rhetoricians and sociologists but nevertheless laden with terminological assumptions, violent metaphors, and ethical conflicts. This study explores the discourse surrounding the morally contentious practice of hackers selling software vulnerabilities to third parties instead of disclosing them to the affected technology companies. Drawing on grounded theory, I utilize a combination of quantitative word-level analysis and qualitative coding...
Full Text Available Living kidney donor transplantations are complex; add to that financial compensation to the donor and one enters an ethical maze. Debates on whether the buying and selling of kidneys should be allowed are mainly between utilitarians, deontologists and virtue ethicists as legal transplants are more common in the Western world. The pros and cons of each theory in relation to the sale of human organs are analysed, after which the foundational principles for all bio-ethical judgments; beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice are also scrutinised in seeking to justify the sale of human kidneys for transplantation purposes in a country with a human rights culture.
Full Text Available Capital account liberalization created premises and allow Romania for final exit from the financial crisis. Promoting direct investment in Romania can lead to sustainable economic growth, create new jobs and thus, by selling labor set up new forms of saving, which will support investments. Banking ethics elements behind the development of direct investments in Romania are legislation, regulation and behavior of participants. Amid an emerging economy rocked by the global financial crisis, capital account liberalization has allowed entry direct investment, but allowed and the capital flight. Respect for ethics in the business financial banking groups provide, at least, economic development and upgrading the infrastructure of Romania
J. Herché (Joel); M.J. Swenson (Michael); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)
textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling
Özden, Dilek; Arslan, Gülşah Gürol; Ertuğrul, Büşra; Karakaya, Salih
The development of ethical leadership approaches plays an important role in achieving better patient care. Although studies that analyze the impact of ethical leadership on ethical climate and job satisfaction have gained importance in recent years, there is no study on ethical leadership and its relation to ethical climate and job satisfaction in our country. This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to determine the effect of nurses' ethical leadership and ethical climate perceptions on their job satisfaction. The study sample is composed of 285 nurses who agreed to participate in this research and who work at the internal, surgical, and intensive care units of a university hospital and a training and research hospital in İzmir, Turkey. Data were collected using Ethical Leadership Scale, Hospital Ethical Climate Scale, and Minnesota Satisfaction Scale. While the independent sample t-test, analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to analyze the data, the correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the scales. Ethical considerations: The study proposal was approved by the ethics committee of the Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylül University. The nurses' mean scores were 59.05 ± 14.78 for the ethical leadership, 92.62 ± 17 for the ethical climate, and 62.15 ± 13.46 for the job satisfaction. The correlation between the nurses' ethical leadership and ethical climate mean scores was moderately positive and statistically significant (r = +0.625, p = 0.000), was weak but statistically significant between their ethical leadership and job satisfaction mean scores (r = +0.461, p = 0.000), and was moderately positive and statistically significant between their ethical climate and job satisfaction mean scores (r = +0.603, p = 0.000). The nurses' ethical leadership, ethical climate, and job satisfaction levels are moderate, and there is a positive relationship between them. The nurses' perceptions of ethical
Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of the understanding of the book-selling situation as Swedish booksellers see it. It pursues the answers to the following questions: 1. What are the perceptions of Swedish booksellers of the impact of e-books on their business? 2. What drivers are important for Swedish booksellers for adopting and developing e-book sales through their own sales channels? 3. What do they perceive as barriers to e-book selling through their own channels? The authors have employed the analysis of the secondary statistical data and a survey of Swedish booksellers to answer their questions. The results of the investigation have shown that the Swedish booksellers do not feel their bookshops, or business in general, are threatened by e-books. The opinions on e-books do not differ between the few selling e-books and others who do not offer this product. The reasons for selling e-books are well-functioning routines and personal interest in the product. The reasons for not selling the books are the lack of demand and technical resources as well as contractual agreements with e-book publishers or vendors. So, technical resources for e-book sales, routines, and contracts with publishers are the main premises for this activity. The biggest barriers to e-book sales are: a the price as one can see not only in the answers of the booksellers, but also in the drop of sales obviously related to the rise of prices during 2014; b lack of demand from customers who do not enquire about e-books in bookshops. This leads to the belief that e-books will be sold mostly online either directly from publishers and authors or through online booksellers. However, an equal number of booksellers believe that physical bookshops will be selling printed books and e-books in the future. The future of e-books seems to be quite secure and non-threatening to printed books from the point of view of booksellers. The growth of e-book sales is quite slow and the respondents
Full Text Available Joseph Selling, professor emeritus from KU Leuven, Belgium, recently made a significant contribution towards ethical methodology. It is in fact a continuation of the in-house conversations that have been in vogue about methods in moral reasoning since Vatican II in the discipline called theological ethics. What is specific about Selling’s attempt is that he re-orients or reframes the evaluation of the moral event to consider human intentionality or motivation before considering human behavior or human acts. He convincingly establishes his method by a meticulous reading of Thomas Aquinas. This paper is a response to the goal-oriented ethics that he has posited. As illustrated below, this paper evaluates the goal-oriented approach as solid and sufficient. While fully endorsing this approach, this paper argues that the process of ethical goal-setting is to be framed concretely. In a concrete historical context, so that a goal-oriented approach fully serves its purpose, this paper proposes that it is to be reinforced by four supportive pillars, which are in fact assumed by Selling in his work. They are openness to human sciences, conversation among various narratives, positing a theological frame for ethical reasoning, and recourse to non-discursive reasoning.
Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle
The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe eight…
De Veirman, Marijke; Hudders, Liselot; Cauberghe, Veroline
In two experimental studies, the advertising effects of hard versus soft sell appeals are investigated. Both studies show that in online advertising (banner ads and viral video ads), soft sell appeals in advertisements on high involvement products generate a more positive attitude towards the ad than hard sell appeals. In print advertising however, hard sell appeals lead to a more positive Aad, due to the fact that the advertisement is perceived as less irritating and more credible. Additiona...
Webb, Emily M; Vella, Maya; Straus, Christopher M; Phelps, Andrew; Naeger, David M
There are little data as to whether appropriate, cost effective, and safe ordering of imaging examinations are adequately taught in US medical school curricula. We sought to determine the proportion of noninterpretive content (such as appropriate ordering) versus interpretive content (such as reading a chest x-ray) in the top-selling medical student radiology textbooks. We performed an online search to identify a ranked list of the six top-selling general radiology textbooks for medical students. Each textbook was reviewed including content in the text, tables, images, figures, appendices, practice questions, question explanations, and glossaries. Individual pages of text and individual images were semiquantitatively scored on a six-level scale as to the percentage of material that was interpretive versus noninterpretive. The predominant imaging modality addressed in each was also recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. All six books had more interpretive content. On average, 1.4 pages of text focused on interpretation for every one page focused on noninterpretive content. Seventeen images/figures were dedicated to interpretive skills for every one focused on noninterpretive skills. In all books, the largest proportion of text and image content was dedicated to plain films (51.2%), with computed tomography (CT) a distant second (16%). The content on radiographs (3.1:1) and CT (1.6:1) was more interpretive than not. The current six top-selling medical student radiology textbooks contain a preponderance of material teaching image interpretation compared to material teaching noninterpretive skills, such as appropriate imaging examination selection, rational utilization, and patient safety. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Herché, Joel; Swenson, Michael; Verbeke, Willem
textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling (ADAPTS) and customer-oriented selling (SOCO).
Timalsina, Arun Kumar
Cross-selling and product bundling are prevalent strategies in the retail sector. Instead of static bundling offers, i.e. giving the same offer to everyone, personalized dynamic cross-selling generates targeted bundle offers and can help maximize revenues and profits. In resolving the two basic problems of dynamic cross-selling, which involves…
Full Text Available Sicily has become a food and wine area of great interest. However, conflicts within the supply chains have caused the selling process to become long and complex to the disadvantage of farmers, thereby leading to an information asymmetry between producers and consumers.In order to meet the new needs of the agrifood sector, we developed a theoretical model of organized direct selling that goes beyond regional boundaries, which is an alternative model to farmers’ markets and that helps to promote the creation of a network among the operators of Sicilian agrifood supply chains. The aims of this study was to verify the potential of the proposed theoretical model based on a SWOT analysis, which was achieved by collecting data from interviews with the producers involved in the Sicilian agrifood supply chains, and with the main stakeholders involved.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the marketability of packaged fruit and vegetables, as a new trend of satisfying consumer needs, in connection with selling-culture of stall selling and self-stores sales. It emphasize fact that food have to be wrapped into the quality, health packages, under the conditions of the Act. 477/2001 Coll.Specific data for the analytical part of this paper was provided by Hortim International Ltd. This company has operate on the Czech market since 1995. Analysis of the economic results confirmes the legitimacy of the sale of packaged fresh fruits and vegetables, but there will be neccesary longer lasting promotion. This fact also confirmed the research of consumer demand, that was made by authors. Determinant for the success sales are these factors: consumer confidence that the packaged products of fruit and vegetables are high quality.
Tee, Ya-Mei; LEE, Lai-Soon; LEE, Chew-Ging; SEOW, Hsin-Vonn
The Top Application characteristics Remainder Offer characteristics Tree (TAROT) was first introduced in 2007. This is a modified Classification and Regression Trees (CART) used to help decide which question(s) to ask potential applicants to customise an offer of a personal financial product so that it would have a high probability of take up. In this piece of work the authors are presenting, they have further modified the TAROT to cross TAROT, using its properties and modeling steps to deal with the issue of cross-selling. Since the bank already has ready customers, it would be ideal to cross-sell the financial products seeing that one can ask one (or more) further question(s) based on the initial offer to identify and customise another financial product to offer.
In the modern world the importance of customer orientation cannot be underestimated. It hugely impacts the overall business performance, as well as separate areas of business-customer interaction. In this paper, we examine the role of personal level relations and customer orientation in the direct selling industry in the Russian market. Based on a sample of over 6000 participants in 74 regions of Russia, we develop a model revealing the factors that define the level of customer orientation in...
Xiaoqing Jing; Jinhong Xie
This paper examines a unique selling strategy, Group Buying, under which consumers enjoy a discounted group price if they are willing and able to achieve a required group size and coordinate their transaction time. We argue that Group Buying allows a seller to gain from facilitating consumer social interaction, i.e., using a group discount to motivate informed customers to work as "sales agents" to acquire less-informed customers through interpersonal information/knowledge sharing. We formall...
This paper analyses the potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy. This would both reduce the supply shortage and the prices on the eligible market, increase competition on the contract-for-difference market, indicate a clear price to which regulated energy charges could be indexed, thus extending the auction benefits to the franchise market to avoid the reintroduction of cross-subsidies [it
Mauring, Tõnu, 1968-
Austri arhitekti Georg W. Reinbergi raamatust "Ecological Architecture - Design, Planning, Realization" (2008). Uuringust, mis võttis kokku aastatel 2003-2008 Viini ehitatud elamute valimi andmed ning millest järeldub, et suuremate hoonete puhul võib passiivmaja maksumus olla madalenergiamajadega ühesugune. Vajadusest ehitada Eestis valmis oma näited, leidmaks, kas tõhus energia kasutamine ja inimsõbralik hoone on või ei ole konfliktis selle rajamise hinnaga
Pautassi G, Jorge
When the Homo Faber; to the beginning of the humanization, overcame the instinct that established a relationship balanced in the ecosphere between the animal and the nature, an interference it began in the relationship man-nature; since that was not adapted this but rather it began its transformation adapting the environment to its necessities. During miles of years the development of this production technique of the Homo Faber could be considered like a progressive and innocuous exploitation of the natural resources. At the present time, kind of a dialectical transformation of the quantity in a new quality characterizes the critical stadium of the new phase of the evolution inaugurated by the Homo Faber. We arrive this way today to that the production force, by means of the science and the technique, outlines us the problem of if for a bigger development in the productivity is necessary a progressive destruction of the ecosphere. That is to say, so that there is progress and will civilization be necessary a progressive interference of the natural balance, with the consequent setting in danger of the life? Moreover this article treats topics about their location and focuses, environmental ethics framed in the talkative ethics and virtues of the environmental ethics, among other topics
This article draws on ideas published in my "Intimations of Immortality" essay in Science (Vol. 288, No. 5463, p. 59, April 7, 2000) and my "Intimations of Immortality-The Ethics and Justice of Life Extending Therapies" in editor Michael Freeman's Current Legal Problems (Oxford University Press 2002: 65-97). This article outlines the ethical issues involved in life-extending therapies. The arguments against life extension are examined and found wanting. The consequences of life extension are explored and found challenging but not sufficiently daunting to warrant regulation or control. In short, there is no doubt that immortality would be a mixed blessing, but we should be slow to reject cures for terrible diseases that may be an inextricable part of life-extending procedures even if the price we have to pay for those cures is increasing life expectancy and even creating immortals. Better surely to accompany the scientific race to achieve immortality with commensurate work in ethics and social policy to ensure that we know how to cope with the transition to parallel populations of mortals and immortals as envisaged in mythology.
Arief Ramadhan; Dana Indra Sensuse; Aniati Murni Arymurthy
Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government eth...
Kennedy, Holly Powell; Nardini, Katrina; McLeod-Waldo, Rebecca; Ennis, Linda
Recent evidence suggests that one-third of women receive information about pregnancy and childbirth through books. Messages about what characteristics are normal (or expected) in childbirth are disseminated in a variety of ways, including popular childbirth education books, but little study of them has been conducted. The purpose of this investigation is to address that gap by examining the discussions about childbirth in the 10 top-selling books in the United States. Discourse analysis (relating to the public, personal, and political discussions about a specific phenomenon) was used to study 10 best-selling United States childbirth advice books marketed to childbearing women during the first week of November 2007. Book styles ranged from clinical descriptions of pregnancy and birth primarily offering reassurance, self-help information, and danger signs to more folksy and humorous commentaries. Presentation of scientific evidence to support recommendations was uneven and at times inaccurate. Five focal areas of discourse included body image, labor and birth, pain, power and control, and life preparation for motherhood. Top-selling books shine an interesting light on the current state of United States maternity practices. Women and health professionals should assess them carefully and engage with each other about their recommendations and implications for childbirth.
Dean, Peter J.
Discussion of ethics focuses on the role of human performance technology professionals in helping corporate ethicists. Highlights include definitions of ethics, morals, values, and business ethics; ethics in academia and in business; and application of the knowledge of ethics to decision-making. (Contains 18 references.) (LRW)
Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Bogers, R.J.
In this book we begin with two contributions on the ethical issues of working in organizations. A fruitful side effect of this start is that it gives a good insight into business ethics, a branch of applied ethics that until now is far ahead of ethics for life scientists. In the second part, ethics
Furman, Gail C.
This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…
The mandate of the Ethics Committee of the Conseil de médecins, dentistes et pharmaciens (CMDP) at the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke (CHUS), Sherbrooke, Quebec is three-fold: to guide the clinical decision; to address the institutional ethical function; to create the program for continuing education in ethics (Formation éthique continue or FEC). Might FEC be the means of bridging from individual ethics to institutional ethics at a hospital? To take the FEC perspectives considered appropriate for doctors and consider them for validation or disproving in the context of those of other professionals. Situate the proposed FEC mandate in a reference framework to evaluate (or triangulate) the clinical decision and the institutional ethic. CONVICTION: Sustainable professional development for doctors (DPD) includes ethics; it cannot be ignored. Without constant attention to upgrading one's abilities in professional ethics, these suffer the same fate as other professional aptitudes and competences (for example, techniques and scientific knowledge): decay.
Tyrväinen, Pasi; Selin, Joona
Software-as-a-Service providers have been growing fast while the contemporary research literature has neglected analysis of their business-critical marketing and sales processes. In this paper we collect the key factors characterizing how to market and sell SaaS to business customers into an eight dimensional model. We also use an explorative multi-case study to observe six SaaS providers and validate the model. The interviewed providers emphasized use of the Internet for ma...
Apr 17, 2014 ... The Anglican Prayer Book catechism (PBC) is a product of the English ..... of its ethics and economics within community (Gregory. 2012:179). ..... secularized society, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Keller, F; Winkler, U; Mayer, J; Stracke, S
We evaluated the arguments pro and con concerning kidney sales from a German perspective. At present, we see social, medical, and ethical reasons why organ selling should not be legalized in Germany. Legalization of organ selling would weaken the principle of solidarity within the German health system. Conversely, profit making will undermine the principle of social justice. Within the present social system in Germany, there is no economic pressure to sell an organ to save life, and there is no medical need to buy a kidney. Also, there exists the risk that opening the market for organ sales will de-motivate potential directed organ donors. Relatives would have more doubts about giving their consent to donate organs of their deceased. Moreover, the historical experience with the "action T4" of the Nazi regime sensitized German society for the categorical imperative set forth by Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), namely that man is not a means, but an end to himself. By selling one's kidney, the donor uses himself as a means and as an instrument for the end result of gaining money. With directed organ donation, the welfare of the recipient is the end result. The pending reform of the German health system needs a more communitarian sense, which will be eroded should organs be sold and no longer donated as gifts. Germany's special historical experience and a deeply embedded consent toward ethical values give reason for the prohibition of organ selling in Germany.
Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara
Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…
Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)
Full Text Available In the modern world the importance of customer orientation cannot be underestimated. It hugely impacts the overall business performance, as well as separate areas of business-customer interaction. In this paper, we examine the role of personal level relations and customer orientation in the direct selling industry in the Russian market. Based on a sample of over 6000 participants in 74 regions of Russia, we develop a model revealing the factors that define the level of customer orientation in personal level interactions.
Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cohen, Albert [MICHIGAN STATE UNIV
We present a method to incorporate dishonesty in online selling via a stochastic optimal control problem. In our framework, the seller wishes to maximize her average wealth level W at a fixed time T of her choosing. The corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann (HJB) equation is analyzed for a basic case. For more general models, the admissible control set is restricted to a jump process that switches between extreme values. We propose a new approach, where the optimal control problem is reduced to a multivariable optimization problem.
Doty, Ed; Tomkiewicz, Joe; Bass, Kenneth
This study is an empirical examination of possible differences between female and male accounting majors' managerial motivational traits, perceptions of ethical issues, ethical judgments, and ethical behavioral intentions regarding ethically equivocal business situations. Subjects were presented with two scales to measure their motivational…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating effects of ethical culture and psychological safety on the relationship between ethical leadership and teachers' voice behavior. The sample consists of 342 teachers randomly selected from 25 primary and secondary schools. Four different instruments are used in this study. The scales have…
Pihl, Ole Verner
Selling or telling? : A theory of ruin value Abstract: To what extent can tourism be described as an agent of peace? Can war and conflict be reconciled through tourism? Why is the children's memorial in Hiroshima so important and why is the Holocaust memorial in Berlin a reconciliating and fascinating monument? The post apocalyptic vision in our mainstream mass culture is a broad genre and is loaded with heavy, dramatic architecture and landscapes of destruction; most religions have these d...
Sternberg, Robert J.
This article argues for the importance of teaching for ethical reasoning. Much of our teaching is in vain if it is not applied to life in an ethical manner. The article reviews lapses in ethical reasoning and the great costs they have had for society. It proposes that ethical reasoning can be taught across the curriculum. It presents an eight-step…
This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.
Beggs, Jeri Mullins
The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…
Business ethics is a controversial topic. In my article I would like to explore where the limits of business ethics are and to what extent it can become part of the economic world. I would like to explore the question what the relationship between ethics and business is and whether what business ethicists consider ethics is real ethics in the fundamental sense of the world. The concept of business ethics will be discussed compared to general ethical theories and consequences drawn. I would li...
The aim of this study was to assess the current state of ethics in retail establishments and to find suitable solutions to improve the situation. In literary part I described the important concepts of business ethics, moral, ethics, social responsibility. I also dealt with business ethics and implementation of codes of conduct, which I explained in more detail in the practical part. In the practical part, I examined the ethical codes of retail companies and for better illustrative there is a ...
Luiz Martins da Silva
The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense ofestablishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no commun...
Ethics is a relevant value in business and management consulting. The presence of recognized ethics tends to reduce the need for informative or legal-contractual precautions in the formalization of relationships, for both of the parts involved in a negotiation. Management Consulting on ethics will develop more and more. Law will consider more and more ethics in business and management consulting. The ethics of corporations influences their workers and behaviour with the customers. It is an e...
Jinhong Xie; Steven M. Shugan
Advance selling occurs when sellers allow buyers to purchase at a time preceding consumption (Shugan and Xie 2000). Electronic tickets, smart cards, online prepayments, and other technological advances make advance selling possible for many, if not all, service providers. These technologies lower the cost of making complex transactions at a greater distance from the seller's site. They also give sellers more control over advance selling by decreasing arbitrage. As technology enhances the capa...
Santhi, G.; Karthikeyan, K.
In this article we introduce an economic order quantity model for perishable products like vegetables, fruits, milk, flowers, meat, etc.,with price-dependent demand, pre and post discounted selling price. Here we consider the demand is depending on selling price and deterioration rate is constant. Here we developed mathematical model to determine optimal discounton the unit selling price to maximize total profit. Numerical examples are given for illustrated.
Fromer, M J
Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view
This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...
Lee, Sun Young; Hwang, Dong Il; Kim, Min Jae; Koh, In Gyu; Kim, Soo Yong
We study the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes on the Korean stock market in high frequency. We observe that the pulling effects of volumes are as small as that of returns. The properties of the correlations of buy and sell volumes differ. They are explained by the degree of synchronization of stock volumes. Further, the pulling effects on the minimal spanning tree are studied. In minimal spanning trees with directed links, the large pulling effects are clustered at the center, not uniformly distributed. The Epps effect of buy and sell volumes are observed. The reversal of the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes is also detected.
Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B
In 2000, the Consensus Statement on the Live Organ Donor reported that "direct financial compensation for an organ from a living donor remains controversial and illegal in the United States" and took note of the position of the Transplantation Society that "Organs and tissue should be given without commercial consideration or commercial profit." Christian authorities insist that organ donors must not accrue economic advantage, and "selling" organs deprives the donation of its ethical quality. The writings of major contemporary authorities of Jewish law and ethics whose halakhic positions on bioethical issues are regularly considered by Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform ethicists were reviewed. Their positions on this issue were contrasted with those of various contemporary secular and religious authorities. These Jewish authorities reject the notion that generosity and charity, rather than monetary gain and greed, must serve as the exclusive basis for donation of functioning organs. Although nonaltruistic sale of kidneys may be theoretically ethical, ultimately its ethical status in Jewish ethics and law is inextricably connected to solving a series of pragmatic programs, such as creating a system that ensures that potential vendors and donors are properly informed and not exploited. Lacking such arrangements, ethical nonaltruistic kidney donations remain but a theoretical possibility.
Gallagher, Ann; Tschudin, Verena
In this article we consider the nature of ethical leadership in nursing. An appreciation of the basis of such leadership requires an understanding of responsibility and of key intellectual and ethical qualities or virtues. We examine some of the educational and practice strategies to promote ethical leadership. We argue that there are different levels of ethical leadership. All members of the nursing workforce are ethical leaders in so far as they demonstrate a commitment to ethical practice in their everyday work and act as ethical role models for others. Nurse managers are responsible for influencing their team and for acting as arbiters between organisational and professional values. Nurse educators are role models and ethical leaders as they ensure that the explicit and hidden curriculum demonstrate a commitment to professional values. Nurses who assume political roles have an obligation to lead on ethical agenda compatible with the values of nursing.
This paper explores the relationships that various applied ethics bear to each other, both in particular disciplines and more generally. The introductory section lays out the challenge of coming up with such an account and, drawing a parallel with the philosophy of science, offers that applied ethics may either be unified or disunified. The second section develops one simple account through which applied ethics are unified, vis-à-vis ethical theory. However, this is not taken to be a satisfying answer, for reasons explained. In the third section, specific applied ethics are explored: biomedical ethics; business ethics; environmental ethics; and neuroethics. These are chosen not to be comprehensive, but rather for their traditions or other illustrative purposes. The final section draws together the results of the preceding analysis and defends a disunity conception of applied ethics.
Full Text Available Business ethics is a controversial topic. In my article I would like to explore where the limits of business ethics are and to what extent it can become part of the economic world. I would like to explore the question what the relationship between ethics and business is and whether what business ethicists consider ethics is real ethics in the fundamental sense of the world. The concept of business ethics will be discussed compared to general ethical theories and consequences drawn. I would like to show the contradictions inherent to the connection of business and ethics are no coincidence. At the end a possible relationship between ethics and business sphere will be suggested.
The liberalization of the natural gas market in Europe has all kinds of juridical aspects. Not only with respect to new legislation (Natural Gas Law and Mining Law), but also changes in juridical structures of natural gas companies, caused by privatization or splitting up in a mains management company and a distribution company. In a series of articles lawyers of the Energy Working Group of Houthoff Buruma in The Hague, Netherlands, discuss the developments at the natural gas market. In this third part, attention will be paid to how authorities involved (municipalities, provinces) can prepare themselves properly with respect to selling the gas company and how they can retain their influence on the future activities of the gas company using legal and contractual agreements. In the article also attention is paid to the various stages of a sale
Nuclear Electric, the state-owned company that operates nuclear power stations in England and Wales, has applied to compete directly with privatized electricity generating companies in the sale of electricity to major customers. Since its formation in 1990, NE has had to sell all of its electrical output through the so-called pool operated by the National Grid Company, and then to 12 regional distribution companies that have franchises for about 75 percent of electricity consumption in their regions. On the other hand, the two large companies that took over the fossil-fuel power stations at the time of privatization, and other new independent companies that are building combined-cycle gas-turbine plants, are allowed to conclude supply contracts directly with large industrial customers
Based on our experience in representing more than 100 doctors and medical specialists in practice sales and acquisitions, we have identified 11 key considerations important to a deal. There are several issues to consider while going through the process of buying or selling a practice including the implementation of a "letter of intent" as a first step rather than drafting a contract, securing a lease, and verifying the property is not in violation of the local zoning requirements. There are also considerations with regard to the patients, which range from how will the accounts receivable at the time of the closing be handled to who is responsible for the handling of continued treatment in an ongoing case after a deal is finalized. This article details these considerations and more.
Latifi, Milad; Khalili, Azam; Rastegarnia, Amir; Zandi, Sajad; Bazzi, Wael M
Demand side energy consumption scheduling is a well-known issue in the smart grid research area. However, there is lack of a comprehensive method to manage the demand side and consumer behavior in order to obtain an optimum solution. The method needs to address several aspects, including the scale-free requirement and distributed nature of the problem, consideration of renewable resources, allowing consumers to sell electricity back to the main grid, and adaptivity to a local change in the solution point. In addition, the model should allow compensation to consumers and ensurance of certain satisfaction levels. To tackle these issues, this paper proposes a novel autonomous demand side management technique which minimizes consumer utility costs and maximizes consumer comfort levels in a fully distributed manner. The technique uses a new logarithmic cost function and allows consumers to sell excess electricity (e.g. from renewable resources) back to the grid in order to reduce their electric utility bill. To develop the proposed scheme, we first formulate the problem as a constrained convex minimization problem. Then, it is converted to an unconstrained version using the segmentation-based penalty method. At each consumer location, we deploy an adaptive diffusion approach to obtain the solution in a distributed fashion. The use of adaptive diffusion makes it possible for consumers to find the optimum energy consumption schedule with a small number of information exchanges. Moreover, the proposed method is able to track drifts resulting from changes in the price parameters and consumer preferences. Simulations and numerical results show that our framework can reduce the total load demand peaks, lower the consumer utility bill, and improve the consumer comfort level.
Full Text Available Demand side energy consumption scheduling is a well-known issue in the smart grid research area. However, there is lack of a comprehensive method to manage the demand side and consumer behavior in order to obtain an optimum solution. The method needs to address several aspects, including the scale-free requirement and distributed nature of the problem, consideration of renewable resources, allowing consumers to sell electricity back to the main grid, and adaptivity to a local change in the solution point. In addition, the model should allow compensation to consumers and ensurance of certain satisfaction levels. To tackle these issues, this paper proposes a novel autonomous demand side management technique which minimizes consumer utility costs and maximizes consumer comfort levels in a fully distributed manner. The technique uses a new logarithmic cost function and allows consumers to sell excess electricity (e.g. from renewable resources back to the grid in order to reduce their electric utility bill. To develop the proposed scheme, we first formulate the problem as a constrained convex minimization problem. Then, it is converted to an unconstrained version using the segmentation-based penalty method. At each consumer location, we deploy an adaptive diffusion approach to obtain the solution in a distributed fashion. The use of adaptive diffusion makes it possible for consumers to find the optimum energy consumption schedule with a small number of information exchanges. Moreover, the proposed method is able to track drifts resulting from changes in the price parameters and consumer preferences. Simulations and numerical results show that our framework can reduce the total load demand peaks, lower the consumer utility bill, and improve the consumer comfort level. Keywords: Energy, Systems engineering, Electrical engineering
Contemporary engineering ethics scholars deal with contesting several ethical theories without criticizing them radically and try to use them to solve ethical problems. In this paper I first show that a conflict between ethical theories is not superficial, and pragmatic methods are adopted in engineering ethics. Second, I claim that the way to deal with contesting ethical theories in contemporary engineering ethics has an unacceptable side which does not accord with my argument that a conflict between ethical theories is not superficial and pragmatic methods are adopted in engineering ethics. Finally, I conclude that this inconsistency in contemporary engineering ethics should be corrected to make contemporary engineering ethics consistent.
Flite, Cathy A; Harman, Laurinda B
The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes.
This thesis covers the topic of the ethical aspects of business. The paper defines what an ethics and a business ethics are and it describes selected tools of business ethics. The practical part focuses on building company called Skanska and on its view of business ethics. This part consists of an interview with managing director of Skanska SK a.s. and of a questionnaire survey. The main goal of this thesis is to analyze the level of the business ethics in this building company. The main rese...
This article focuses on the question of unification versus relationality in ethics. It compares two different ethical approaches from Late Antiquity, highlighting the contrast between Plotinian (Neoplatonic) ethics as striving for perfect unification of the human soul with the divinity...... - and Biblical ethics as a relational ethics, where alterity remains operative in the encounter with the deity, and where the primary ethical demand is to relate properly to fellow creatures and God as other. The latter demand is exemplified by the figure of Job, whose righteousness is interpreted as his...
environmental ethical theories, that is, normative environmental ethics, sentientist ethics, ... environmental ethics is challenging those life-threatening concerns, critical explorations of ..... such negligence, every business organization must be.
Kitchener, Richard F.
Argues that behavior therapists are really ethical relativists and sometimes ethical skeptics. Ethical naturalism found in operant behavior therapy does entail ethical relativism. Other authors respond to these views. (Author)
Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in one’s early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and “let’s talking medicine” groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.
Full Text Available In today’s marketing era, consumers seem to have known about marketed products and no longer need explanation from a salesperson. The interaction between company and target consumers can be marketed through new media such as email, Facebook, WA, Instagram, and other forms. Such situations need to be in-depth researched in terms of whether personal selling contribution is still needed in marketing communication activities. Considering the uniqueness and personal selling advantages turns out that personal selling is an important partner that can not be replaced by other forms of marketing communications even if there is exposure to new media to promote products. The specialty of personal selling lies in its ability to interact directly to improvise the sales process through person to person communication. Dalam era pemasaran masa kini nampaknya konsumen dianggap sudah mengetahui tentang produk yang dipasarkan dan tidak memerlukan lagi penjelasan dari seorang wiraniaga. Interaksi perusahaan dengan pembeli sasaran dapat dilakukan melalui media baru seperti email, facebook, WA, instagram dan bentuk lainnya. Situasi demikianlah yang memerlukan kajian mendalam dalam kaitannya bagaimana peran personal selling dalam kegiatan komunikasi pemasaran di era digital? Memperhatikan keunikan dan kelebihan personal selling ternyata personal selling merupakan mitra penting yang tidak dapat tergantikan oleh bentuk komunikasi pemasaran lainnya sekalipun ada terpaan media baru untuk mempromosikan produk. Keistimewaan personal selling terletak pada kemampuannya untuk berinteraksi secara langsung untuk mengimprovisasi proses penjualan melalui komunikasi person to person.
Paynter, Janine; Glover, Marewa; Bullen, Chris; Sonia, Deepika
Reduction of the availability of tobacco has been proposed as a means of reducing and denormalising tobacco use. Some retailers have stopped selling tobacco. Therefore, we investigated how willing New Zealand convenience store owners were to stop selling tobacco or sell nicotine replacement therapy. Promotion of their stores was offered as an incentive to stop selling tobacco. We asked convenience store owners in the Auckland metropolitan region of New Zealand to choose one of three actions. The first was to stop selling tobacco for a short period of time; the second was to restrict the hours that they sold tobacco; the third was to display and sell nicotine replacement therapy. All participating retailers completed a short interview about selling tobacco. We also surveyed customers about nicotine replacement and cessation. One-third of eligible retailers agreed to participate. Most who participated (93%) were unwilling to stop or restrict tobacco sales and 2 (7%) had already stopped selling tobacco. Tobacco was perceived as a key product for their businesses. Very few customers who purchased cigarettes noticed nicotine replacement therapy or obtained it from convenience stores. Substantially reducing the availability of tobacco in communities is likely to require legislative approaches, underpinned by sustained community pressure and support for convenience store owners who are willing to change their business model. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
... to sell and issue securities? 356.0 Section 356.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... sell and issue securities? Chapter 31 of Title 31 of the United States Code authorizes the Secretary of... AND ISSUE OF MARKETABLE BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BILLS, NOTES, AND BONDS (DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation of...
Parvinen, P.; Oinas-Kukkonen, H.; Kaptein, M.C.
E-selling is an activity that is distinct from e-commerce, e-marketing and e-retailing. E-selling is conceptualized to be computer–human dialog characterized by the digital spatio-temporal locus, the psychology of online persuasion, and complex perceptions of value. This definition warrants that
Parvinen, Petri; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Kaptein, M.C.
E-selling is an activity that is distinct from e-commerce, e-marketing and e-retailing. E-selling is conceptualized to be computer–human dialog characterized by the digital spatio-temporal locus, the psychology of online persuasion, and complex perceptions of value. This definition warrants that
The diploma thesis discusses the issues of ethics and codes of ethics in business. The theoretical part defines basic concepts of ethics, presents its historical development and the methods and tools of business ethics. It also focuses on ethical codes and the area of law and ethics. The practical part consists of a quantitative survey, which provides views of selected business entities of business ethics and the use of codes of ethics in practice.
Luiz Martins da Silva
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense of establishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no communication and by extension, no genuine mankind nor genuine humanity. Communication and ethics therefore appear inseparable; one cannot exist without the other. The audacity of this ethical visionary lies in managing to perceive more than just technological marvels, but also to appreciate the paradigm of anthropoethics entering the realm of the concrete, that is to say, ethics for mankind and for humanity, as conceived of by Apel, Habermas and Morin.
Full Text Available Since the publication of Anscombe’s famous paper “Modern Moral Philosophy” (1958, virtue ethics has become a matter of discussion among scholars. At least four charges have been raised against virtue ethics, one of which is the charge of promoting undue enthusiasm regarding the moral fitness of human beings. This article explores the limits of virtue ethics with regard to the frailty of human virtuousness. After giving a report of the charges raised against virtue ethics from the perspective of empirical ethics, the author presents the idea of what he would like to call critical virtue ethics as seen by three Lutheran thinkers: Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Nietzsche and Martin Luther himself. He will demonstrate that the empirical contestation of virtue ethics shows a remarkable resemblance to insights found in Luther, Kant and Nietzsche. And finally, the writer draws tentative conclusions about the future of critical virtue ethics.
The relationship between ethics and philosophy and jurisdiction is described; different kinds of ethics are presented. The increasing pressure of liberal points of view has boosted the ethics of utility. The ethics of care oppose a too rational utilitarianism, taking into consideration relationships such as the caregiver-patient relationship. In the multicultural society ethics of care and virtue ethics are being criticised for not giving universal answers to ethical dilemmas. Can one still define "doing good"? Is "doing good" so culturally biased that it no longer provides the basis for ethical conduct? An accurate procedural assessment of values, sometimes interpreted quite differently in different cultures, could be a tool to judge values in a less relativistic way.
Luiz Martins da Silva
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense ofestablishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no communication and by extension, no genuine mankind nor genuine humanity. Communication and ethics therefore appear inseparable; one cannot exist without the other. The audacity of this ethical visionary lies in managing to perceive more than just technological marvels, but also to appreciate the paradigm of anthropoethics entering the realm of the concrete, that is to say, ethics for mankind and for humanity, as conceived of by Apel, Habermas and Morin.
Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)
Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty
Relatively few studies have examined the correlates of adolescent drug selling in America, with most of these studies focusing on urban settings. The present study examines the risk and protective factors associated with drug selling among American Indian and white adolescents residing in a rural Northwestern state in the United States. Using survey data collected in 2010-2012, we conduct logistic regression analyses exploring the correlates of drug selling (n=568). Generally, we found support for prior explanations of drug selling, but identified some important race-specific differences. Specifically, we found that stress exposure was a risk factor for American Indians, but not whites. Conversely, academic achievement served as a protective factor for white adolescents but not American Indians. Our findings suggest that the race gap in rural drug selling can be explained by considering differences in social bonds, stress exposure, and exposure to substance using family and friends. PMID:26120365
Magelssen, Morten; Gjerberg, Elisabeth; Lillemoen, Lillian; Førde, Reidun; Pedersen, Reidar
Through the Norwegian ethics project, ethics activities have been implemented in the health and care sector in more than 200 municipalities. To study outcomes of the ethics activities and examine which factors promote and inhibit significance and sustainability of the activities. Two online questionnaires about the municipal ethics activities. Participants and research context: A total of 137 municipal contact persons for the ethics project answered the first survey (55% response rate), whereas 217 ethics facilitators responded to the second survey (33% response rate). Ethical considerations: Based on informed consent, the study was approved by the Data Protection Official of the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Around half of the respondents found the ethics project to have been highly significant for daily professional practice. Outcomes include better handling of ethical challenges, better employee cooperation, better service quality, and better relations to patients and next of kin. Factors associated with sustainability and/or significance of the activities were sufficient support from stakeholders, sufficient available time, and ethics facilitators having sufficient knowledge and skills in ethics and access to supervision. This study shows that ethics initiatives can be both sustainable and significant for practice. There is a need to create regional or national structures for follow-up and develop more comprehensive ethics training for ethics facilitators. It is both possible and potentially important to implement clinical ethics support activities in community health and care services systematically on a large scale. Future ethics initiatives in the community sector should be designed in light of documented promoting and inhibiting factors.
Traditionally, the commercial activities of gas companies have been limited almost exclusively to the sale of gas. However, several socioeconomic factors specific to the gas industry, such as increasing customer expectations, competition between gas operators, a growing emphasis on services in many companies and the opening of public monopolies to competition, will bring inevitable change. Moreover, these developments coincide with imminent gas market opening. In response to the changing situation, the gas industry will seek to develop a range of multi-service offers, probably through external partnerships. (authors)
Plesner, Ursula; Horst, Maja
This article explores how virtual worlds are rhetorically constructed as obvious, innovative spaces for communication about architecture. It is argued that the marketization of an innovative use of new media platforms happens in early phases of the innovation processes, and the success of new media...... of the communication about the innovation. It is demonstrated that the creation of markets does not begin when innovations such as Virtual Worlds Architecture are settled, but is intertwined with early expectations about their promises and limitations. Rather than seeing virtual worlds as settled and secluded sites...
Bersoff, Donald N.
Presents arguments against adopting virtue ethics as a guiding concept in developing counseling guidelines: (1) virtue ethics is irrelevant in the resolution of most ethics cases; (2) virtue and principle ethics overlap; (3) principle ethics are more suited to acting and deciding; (4) the emphasis on virtue ethics increases the possibility of…
Full Text Available An Ethical Unconcern (EthU scale was constructed and its impact on Positive Ethical Consumption was examined. The procedure of EthU included literature search, brainstorming and discussion groups to generate the preliminary pool of 99 items, refinement of the scale via a students’ survey by the employment of item-to-total correlation and alpha-if-item deleted techniques. The initial scale was tested in a consumer survey conducted in the urban area of Thessaloniki, Greece. Item-to-total correlation and alpha-if-item deleted techniques were applied again, followed by Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA by the employment of PCA. The procedure left 21 items in five factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 explaining 61.34% of the variance. The five factors were named Boycott/ Discursive, Fair-Trade, Scepticism, Powerlessness and Ineffectiveness. The AMOS SPSS was then used to conduct confirmatory factor analysis. Goodness-of-fit results indicated that the measurement model fit the data well (χ2=594.226, p<0.000, CFI=0.926, NFI=0.899, TLI=0.910, RMSEA=0.066. The examination of the Positive Ethical Consumption indicated rare to occasional ethical buying choices among Greek consumers. The inhibiting role of Ethical Unconcern on Positive Ethical Consumption was found to be rather low.
Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan
The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…
Provides a philosophical-ethical "toolkit" for analyzing central ethical issues evoked by our use of new media, including privacy, copyright, violent and sexual content online, and cross-cultural communication online.......Provides a philosophical-ethical "toolkit" for analyzing central ethical issues evoked by our use of new media, including privacy, copyright, violent and sexual content online, and cross-cultural communication online....
Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…
van de Poel, I.R.; van der Poel, Ibo; Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.
Engineering ethics and science and technology studies (STS) have until now developed as separate enterprises. The authors argue that they can learn a lot from each other. STS insights can help make engineering ethics open the black box of technology and help discern ethical issues in engineering
Full Text Available Most authors believe that ethics is set of moral principles and values which leads a person or a group toward what is good or bad. Ethics sets the standards about what is good, and what is bad in behaving and decision making. Principles are the rules or the laws that create ethical codex.
Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Ven, van de B.W.
This article presents a response to the following papers: "Ethical Marketing," by P.E. Murphy, G.R. Laczniak, N.E. Bowie, and T.A. Klein, "Marketing Ethics: Cases and Readings," edited by P.E. Murphy and G.R. Laczniak, "Advertising Ethics" by E.H. Spence and B. van Heekeren, and "Corporate Social
Medlin, E. Lander
Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…
Anker, Thomas Boysen; Sandøe, Peter; Kamin, Tanja
into account the ethical dimensions of health branding: this article presents a conceptual analysis of potential ethical problems in health branding. The analysis focuses on ethical concerns related to the application of three health brand elements (functional claims, process claims, and health symbols...
Eveslage, Thomas; D'Angelo, Paul
Suggests that publications advisors have sound, practical reasons for addressing ethical decision making. Presents a brief review of the Supreme Court's message in "Hazelwood." Surveys staffs and advisors of award-winning high school newspapers concerning ethical issues facing the student press. Finds that advisors believe ethics to be…
Full Text Available It approaches the librarian ethics comprehending the Librarianship constitution from a systemic view. In this way, with the objective to raise issues to discuss professional ethics, it places the librarian in the work world and points approaches between exertion and relation context of the professionals themselves with the human rights and alteration ethics.
Clegg, S.R.; Kornberger, M.; Rhodes, C.
In this article we develop a conceptualization of business ethics as practice. Starting from the view that the ethics that organizations display in practice will have been forged through an ongoing process of debate and contestation over moral choices, we examine ethics in relation to the ambiguous,
Sugnet, Chris, Ed.
Representatives of five library integrated system vendors express their views on ethics and the marketplace, emphasizing the need for ethical behavior by librarians, consultants, and vendors. Four sidebars are included: one on the need for customer data rights standards; others containing the codes of ethics of three professional consultants'…
Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen
Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…
Millar, K.; Tomkins, S.; Thorstensen, E.; Mepham, B.; Kaiser, M.
An ethical Delphi is an iterative participatory process between experts for exchanging views and arguments on ethical issues. The method is structured around the notion of a virtual committee where the exchange of ideas is conducted remotely through a series of opinion exchanges. The ethical Delphi
Alrøe, Hugo; Kristensen, Erik Steen
ambiguities of the new normative concepts and the conflicts between new and traditional moral concepts and theories. We employ a systemic approach to analyze the past and possible future extension of ethics and establish an inclusive framework of ethical extension. This framework forms the basis for what we...... call a systemic ethic...
Teston, R C
Dr. Cesar T. San Pedro, the director of the company clinic at Dole Philippines plantation in South Cotabato in Region 11, has been pressing the management to initiate a comprehensive family planning programs for their 10,000 workers. Pedro wants the Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE) to enforce its population program. The situation at Dole is one that requires an arbiter. Since 1977, there has not been a Population/Family Planning Officer (PFPO) for the area, and it is not possible to monitor closely if the qualified firms are following the labor code and providing family planning services to their employees. Susan B. Dedel, executive director of the PFPO, has reported that the office has sought to endear its program to the private sector by showing that family planning is also profitable for the firm. This "soft-sell" approach has been the hallmark of the MOLE-PFPO since it began in 1975 as a joint project of the Commission on Population (POPCOM), United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), and International Labor Organization (ILO). Some critics have argued that this liberal style of implementation is short-selling the program. They point out that the Labor Code of 1973 enforces all establishments with at least 200 employees to have a free in-plant family planning program which includes clinic care, paid motivators, and volunteer population workers. The critics seem, at 1st glance, to have the statistics on their side. In its 5 years of operation, the PFPO has convinced only 137,000 workers to accept family planning. This is quite low, since of the 1.2 million employed by the covered firms, 800,000 are eligible for the MOLE program. Much of the weakness of the implementation is said to be due to the slow activation of the Labor-Management Coordinating Committees (LMCC). The critics maintain that because of the liberal enforcement of Department Order No. 9, the recalcitrant firms see no reason to comply. Dedel claims that the program is on the
Bohm, G.; Pfister, H.R.
Full text of publication follows: the present paper will be concerned with environmental risk perception, with special emphasis on those environmental risks that pertain to global change phenomena, such as climate change and ozone depletion. Two determinants of risk judgments are investigated that seem particularly relevant to environmental risks: ethical and affective evaluations. It is assumed that the focus of risk evaluation can be on one of two aspects: a) on an evaluation of potential losses, or b) on ethical considerations. We assume that both, potential loss and violation of ethical principles elicit emotional evaluations, but that these two judgmental aspects are associated with different specific emotions. Following cognitive emotion theories, we distinguish loss-based emotions, such as worry and fear, from ethical emotions, e.g., guilt and anger. A study is presented that investigates the role of ethical and affective evaluations in risk judgments. Various environmental risks were presented to subjects, e.g., air pollution, ozone depletion, climate change and destruction of ecological balance. For each environmental risk, subjects indicated in free-response format as well as on rating scales the extent to which ethical principles were violated, and the intensity of both loss-based and ethical emotions. The correlational structure of the emotion ratings confirms the distinction between loss-based and ethical emotions. Risk judgments co-vary with the strength of ethical evaluation and with the intensity of loss-based emotions, but are independent of ethical emotions. The implications of these findings for the risk appraisal process are discussed. (authors)
Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor
Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…
Serani Merlo, Alejandro
There is actually a pervasive tendency to consider environmental ethics and bioethics as specific cases pertaining to a supposed kind of ″applied ethics″. Application can be understood in two different meanings: a concrete sense, as in technical applications, and a psychological meaning, as when we mentally apply ourselves to a task. Ethics has been always thought as a practical knowledge, in a ″praxical″ sense and not in a ″poietic″ one. Ethics has to do with ″ends″ not with ″means″; in this sense ethics is ″useless″. Since ethics has to do with the ultimate meaning of things, ethical choices give meaning to all practical activities. In that sense ethics instead of being useless must be considered as ″over-useful″ (Maritain). Nowadays politics tend to instrumentalize ethics in order to political objectives. The consequence has been the reconceptualization of specific ethics as applied ethics. Environmental ethics and bioethics are then submitted to politics following the logic of technical applications. Environmental ethics and bioethics considered as applied ethics are at risk to becoming not only useless, but also meaningless.
The market structure of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) for the electric power grid was described with reference to physical bilateral markets, multi-control areas, and MISO services such as security coordination, congestion management, billing, generator interconnections, tariff administration, energy imbalance, market monitoring, and electronic scheduling. The drivers impacting MISO development include MISO-PJM-SPP common market initiative, the FERC Standard Market Design initiative, the integration of alliance companies with MISO, and the division of functional responsibilities between RTOs and ITCs. The characteristics of the Michigan market were described, along with participation in the midwest (Ohio and Michigan) wholesale and retail markets. It was noted that in order for Ontario to sell to the midwest, the Ontario market design would need a successful export bid each hour to get power out of the province. Sales of ancillary services from Ontario-based generation are not permitted in the initial Ontario market design. Energy and transmission is currently bundled in Ontario tariffs. 1 fig
Green, B. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)
The market structure of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) for the electric power grid was described with reference to physical bilateral markets, multi-control areas, and MISO services such as security coordination, congestion management, billing, generator interconnections, tariff administration, energy imbalance, market monitoring, and electronic scheduling. The drivers impacting MISO development include MISO-PJM-SPP common market initiative, the FERC Standard Market Design initiative, the integration of alliance companies with MISO, and the division of functional responsibilities between RTOs and ITCs. The characteristics of the Michigan market were described, along with participation in the midwest (Ohio and Michigan) wholesale and retail markets. It was noted that in order for Ontario to sell to the midwest, the Ontario market design would need a successful export bid each hour to get power out of the province. Sales of ancillary services from Ontario-based generation are not permitted in the initial Ontario market design. Energy and transmission is currently bundled in Ontario tariffs. 1 fig.
Rumstay, Kenneth S.
For well over a century the iconic image of the astronomical telescope has been widely used to promote distinctly non-astronomical consumer goods. One of the most famous of early examples is the 1893 Chicago newspaper advertisement for Kirk’s Soap, which was inspired by the opening of the Yerkes Observatory. But such usage was not limited to periodicals. Advertising trade cards had become popular at the end of the 17th century in Europe, notably in Paris and London. In a time prior to the introduction of formal systems of street address numbering, they served as both advertisement and map, directing consumers to the merchants' stores. In many cases, attention was drawn to the product by picturing it as a heavenly body to be observed telescopically! In the 20th century trade cards gave way to the modern business card, and manufacturers began to increasingly rely on magazine and newspaper (and radio and television) advertising. But the telescope remains an evocative image! In modern advertising we see it used to sell an incredible variety of consumer goods: candy, coffee, cigarettes, whiskey, foodstuffs, clothing; the list is endless! Examples of these, along with earlier Victorian-era usages, are presented. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.
O. S. Ivanova
Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of the pricing policy determination in the company, selling information resource at the market. The problem of the optimal price determination for an information resource is solved depending on the time for the case when the seller-company has no competitors in the market, the market is saturated, and buyers are not able to further spread of the resource. Conditions for the optimal choice of information resource price have been obtained; the maximum possible income of the company has been calculated for linear demand function, and conditions, determining the duration and volume of sales, providing the maximum of average income of the company, have been obtained as well. The problem of optimal price choice is solved by macrosystem approach that has made it possible to reduce it to the isoperimetric kind. It is shown that the optimal price dependence on time for a linear demand function should provide a linearly increasing rate of sales. Conditions have been derived under which the sales proceedings for an information resource are positive, relationship is determined between volume of sales and timeline at which the average income during the sales reaches its maximum. The results are given in dimensionless form, thereby reducing the number of independent parameters. These results are usable for the pricing analysis of software and other information products.
Paula Deporte Andrade
Full Text Available In the present society, also identified as a "consumer society" (Bauman, 2008, people, irrespective of gender, age, social and financial conditions, are all called for consumption. In this article we turn to the childhood and approached one of the faces of their insertion into the society of consumers, trying to show how children are used to sell. As a frame of theoretical reference we adopt, among others, the writings of Zygmunt Bauman, Juliet Schor and Robert Bocock, dealing with contemporary versions of consumption. Analyzing weekly magazines of large circulation, we discuss how productive it is for the economic market the alliance between childhood and consumption and we argue that this use of children in publicity contributes for a new conception of childhood: the childhood of consumption. An erotized childhood, always wanting more and never feeling satisfied, focused in acquiring and showing off. This is the childhood that is coming to school with new interests, preferences and behavior, deserving our entire attention. Key-words: contemporary childhood, childhood and consumption, consumer society, advertising, magazines.
Pashkov, Vitalii; Hrekov, Yevhen; Hrekova, Maryna
Some countries have already tried and tested mechanisms of regulating distance sales as form of distribution of medicines that have been used more or less effectively for a fairly long time. Herewith, so far, the approach of the competent authorities of some countries including Ukraine can be called prevailing in quantitative terms under which the official prohibition on distance sales of medicines is set. The aim of this study is a detailed examination of the nature of the prohibition of the medicines distance selling in Ukraine, namely the an analysis of advantages and disadvantages of this form of distribution of medicines and identification of appropriate ways for gradual repeal of the prohibition in terms of regulatory reform in Ukraine in the sphere of circulation of medicines due to the process of adaptation of statutory regulation in this area to the EU legislation. This study is based on Ukrainian regulation acts, Council Directives 97/7/EC, 2000/31/EC, 2001/83/EC, scientific works and opinions of progressiveminded people in this sphere. Such methods as dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive have been used in the article. Reception of the described experience of regulation in EU will allow a further review of the principles of regulation in Ukraine in the sphere of medicines with a shift in the main emphasis in the direction of ensuring adequate consumer rights in this area and preventing the risks of patients' and public health.
Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to investigate Romanian direct sellers’ perceptions on customers’ loyalty. The research objectives are: (1 to identify the direct sellers’ perceptions on the concept of loyalty; (2 to identify the main loyalty techniques that direct sellers use in their work with the clients; (3 to frame the portrait of a loyal customer. As a research method, we used qualitative research based on depth interviews. It is an exploratory and instrumental research, the results being used for building a questionnaire for a future survey. The investigated population is represented by direct selling women, with ages beteeen 19 and 30 years. For direct sellers, loyalty is an attitude and also a behavior, it means buying from the same company, from the same seller and preferring the products of the company. The main loyalty techniques that direct sellers use in their work with the clients are: promotional actions, personalization the relation with the client and offering stimulants. The loyal customer is the one who buys companies’ products every month or at least quarterly, spends a monthly amount of 100 Ron on these products, works with the same seller, pays on time for the order, doesn’t look only after promotions, loves the products, recommends the company to others, doesn’t return the order, wants to buy more products from the company and trusts its products.
Birkvad Bernth, Camilla; Houmøller Mortensen, Kasper; Calles, Mark Benjamin; Wind, Martin; Saalfeldt, Rie
This project seeks to dissect the advent of CSR in business practice from the view of ethics. We perform this by laying out the theories of CSR, business ethics, deontology and utilitarianism. We then use the case studies of Lundbeck, The Body Shop, and British American Tobacco, to dissect some productions of CSR. These are compared to the above mentioned theories on ethics. We conclude that business ethics and CSR are only as good as the ethical base upon which they are built. This projec...
Lisa Sowle Cahill
Full Text Available Joseph Selling rightly defines human intentions and motivations as part of human nature and an important determinant of the morality of personal actions. The thesis of this paper is that Selling’s view of agency, as focused on the individual, must be expanded to include social relationships and the social constitution of selves and communities. This requires cross-cultural dialogue about human nature, the goods for persons and societies, and social ethics.
Vaage, Nora S
Living artworks created with biotechnology raise a range of ethical questions, some of which are unprecedented, others well known from other contexts. These questions are often discussed within the framework of bioethics, the ethics of the life sciences. The basic concern of institutionalised bioethics is to develop and implement ethical guidelines for ethically responsible handling of living material in technological and scientific contexts. Notably, discussions of ethical issues in bioart do not refer to existing discourses on art and morality from the field of aesthetics. The latter framework is primarily concerned with how the moral value of an artwork affects its artistic value. The author argues that a successful integration of these two frameworks will make possible an ethics of bioart that is adequate to its subject matter and relevant for practice. Such an integrated approach can give increased depth to understandings of ethical issues in bioart, inspire new ways of thinking about ethics in relation to art in general and give novel impulses to bioethics and technology assessment. Artworks by the Tissue Culture and Art Project and their reception serve as the empirical starting point for connecting perspectives in art with those of bioethics, developing an ethics for bioart. The author suggests that consideration of the effect of these artworks is vital in validating ethically problematical applications of biotechnology for art. It is argued that the affective, visceral qualities of living artworks may spur the audience to adjust, revise or develop their personal ethical framework.
Addison, Courtney Page
. However, social scientists have yet to devote much attention to this ethically contentious and medically complex field. This project aimed to identify and explore social and ethical factors shaping gene therapy practice in clinical settings. It is based on six months of participant observation in a London...... children’s hospital (the UKCH), thirty-two interviews with key actors in the gene therapy field, and scientific and policy document analysis. One of the main interests of this research is with the politics of ethics. The thesis shows that ‘ethical boundary work’ was central to establishing the credibility...... of gene therapy, and the authority of its practitioners. The politics of ethics can also be discerned in practice: the UK research ethics system structures scientific work but cannot account for the various, complex, and on-going ethical dilemmas that patients and practitioners face when undertaking gene...
Camargo, Aline; Liu, Li; Yousem, David M
The purpose of this study is to assess medical ethics knowledge among trainees and practicing radiologists through an online survey that included questions about the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics and the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics. Most survey respondents reported that they had never read the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics or the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics (77.2% and 67.4% of respondents, respectively). With regard to ethics education during medical school and residency, 57.3% and 70.0% of respondents, respectively, found such education to be insufficient. Medical ethics training should be highlighted during residency, at specialty society meetings, and in journals and online resources for radiologists.
Devettere, R J
Most contemporary accounts of clinical ethics do not explain why clinicians should be ethical. Those few that do attempt an explanation usually claim that clinicians should be ethical because ethical behavior provides an important good for the patient--better care. Both these approaches ignore the customary traditional reason for being ethical, namely, the good of the moral agent. This good was commonly called 'happiness'. The following article shows how the personal happiness of the moral agent provided a major reason for being ethical in the ancient philosophical and biblical traditions and how it continues to play a role in the more modern rights-based, Kantian and utilitarian theories. This history suggests that the personal happiness of the clinician, rightly understood, is a legitimate and important goal of clinical ethics.
There has been limited research on how recessions (or more generally, the strength of the economy) affect drug use and the related outcome of drug selling. This is especially important, given the current economic crisis. This paper aims to use a conceptual framework, previous research, and new research to predict how the current economic crisis may be affecting youth drug selling and drug use. A conceptual framework to understand how a recession could affect youth drug selling and drug use is presented, along with a review of the literature on empirical investigations on how the strength of the economy affects these behaviours among teenagers. In addition, new analyses for young adults are presented. The conceptual framework postulates that a recession would have direct positive effects on the prevalence of youth drug selling but ambiguous direct effects on youth drug use. The conceptual framework also postulates that drug selling and drug use are inter-connected at the individual level and the aggregate level. Thus, any effect of a recession on one would likely affect the other in the same direction. The limited empirical evidence indicates that both drug selling and drug use among youth are higher when the economy is weaker. The current economic crisis will likely increase both youth drug selling and drug use relative to what they would have otherwise been. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; DeLisi, Matt; Shook, Jeffrey J; Terzis, Lauren
Although studies have found that young adults who sell drugs are more likely to be involved in risky behaviors than those who do not sell drugs, there has been relatively little research that has explored heterogeneity among young adults who sell drugs. Using a pooled sample of 18 to 25 year olds from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2006-2010) who report past-year drug selling (N = 5,373), this study employs latent profile analysis to specify latent groups and assess the correlates of group membership. Findings indicate substantial differences among young adults who sell drugs. In particular, the analysis found four groups of drug sellers: normative (49.6%), club drug users (23.6%), polysubstance users (16.0%), and criminal offenders (10.8%). Club drug users were characterized by high levels of ecstasy and hallucinogen use, polysubstance users were more likely to be depressed and anxious, White and female than the other groups. Criminal offenders were overwhelmingly male and more likely to be comprised of African-Americans and Hispanics. RESULTS indicate that drug selling in early adulthood varies substantially. Contrary to media and popular notions most drug sellers are not involved in crime and polysubstance using drug sellers are in clear need of mental health services. Further, most drug sellers in this age range are White. Findings suggest that policy efforts that operate under the assumption of homogeneity of drug selling may be misguided.
... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it must...
... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? 617.7620 Section 617.7620 Banks and... What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? System institutions electing to sell or lease acquired agricultural real estate or a...
Cooper, P D; King, K K
Survey data were used to evaluate the role of marketing in the nonprofit arena of health promotion. Questionnaires utilizing a Likert type scale were sent to 106 marketers and 247 health educators soliciting their opinions about health care marketing. Both groups agreed that marketing was appropriate for both profit and non-profit organizations, but were not in total agreement on specific aspects of the marketing process. Marketers were adamant that marketing is not confined to promotional, advertising and communication functions, while health educators were neutral. Marketers were strong in their disagreement that marketing is selling; health educators were still neutral but in slight disagreement. Marketers did not believe that marketing uses gimmickry heavily, while health educators agreed that it does use gimmickry. A significant finding from the survey is that the major ethical issue for health educators is their view that marketing manipulates society. Both community and school health educators agreed that using marketing techniques is a step forward manipulation of a society, while the group of marketers disagreed.
Zinnbauer, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)
As most of the electric utilities in Germany have decided by now to adopt the multi-utility strategy for sales promotion in the open electricity market, a questionnaire has been distributed to 1 000 households in order to find out whether product bundling or cross selling in combination with the low-interest product 'electricity' is a good strategy to enlarge the customer basis. EFOplan (Munic University) and the consulting firm Accenture have been in charge of the survey. The results show the current status of insight of household customers and their motives to change supplier, as well as the pattern of demand for product bundling. (orig./CB) [German] Da mittlerweile die meisten EVUs eine Multi-Utility-Strategie anstreben, wurde mittels einer schriftlichen Befragung von 1 000 deutschen Haushalten untersucht, ob die Vermarktung von Zusatz- bzw. Buendelprodukten in Kombination mit dem Low-Interest-Produkt Strom erfolgsversprechend ist. Die Befragung, die von EFOplan (Universitaet Muenchen) in Kooperation mit der Unternehmensberatung Accenture durchgefuehrt wurde, zeigt einerseits den aktuellen Status von Informationsstand und Wechselmotiven beim Stromkauf und andererseits die Bedarfsstruktur im Hinblick auf moegliche Buendelprodukte. (orig.)
Kelleher, Martin G D; Djemal, Serpil; Lewis, Nicholas
This is the second article in a series of three. It is essential to find out from patients what it is that they hope to achieve when requesting an improvement in their dental appearance. Their expectations, hopes and fears need to be explored in detail. The long-term biologic costs of some invasive procedures need to be explained to patients in advance so that they can make properly informed decisions. Failure to do so renders the practitioner vulnerable to a charge of behaving unethically. The differences between ethical marketing and selling are explained including the historic development of marketing. A practical approach, using a modification of the Edward de Bono Six Thinking Hats model is described to help ethical practitioners to develop sound treatment plans when dealing with complex aesthetic problems.
DiMichele, D; Chuansumrit, A; London, A J; Thompson, A R; Cooper, C G; Killian, R M; Ross, L F; Lillicrap, D; Kimmelman, J
Ethical issues surrounding both the lack of global access to care as well as the implementation of advancing technologies, continue to challenge the international haemophilia community. Haemophilia is not given the priority it deserves in most developing countries. Given the heavy burdens of sickness and disease and severe resource constraints, it may not be possible to provide effective treatment to all who suffer from the various 'orphan' diseases. Nevertheless, through joint efforts, some package of effective interventions can be deployed for a significant number of those who are afflicted with 'orphan' diseases. With cost-effective utilization of limited resources, a national standard of care is possible and affordable. Gene-based diagnosis carries attendant ethical concerns whether for clinical testing or for research purposes, even as the list of its potential benefits to the haemophilia community grows rapidly. As large-scale genetic sequencing becomes quicker and cheaper, moving from the research to the clinic, we will face decisions about the implementation of prenatal, neonatal and other screening programs. Such debates will require input from not just the health care professionals but from all stakeholders in the haemophilia community. Finally, long-term therapeutic success gene transfer in small and large animal models raises the question of when and in which patient population the novel therapeutic approach should first be studied in humans with haemophilia. Although gene therapy represents a worthy goal, the central question for the haemophilia community should be whether it wishes to volunteer itself as a model for a much broader set of innovations.
Dyck, Murray; Allen, Gary
Review boards responsible for vetting the ethical conduct of research have been criticised for their costliness, unreliability and inappropriate standards when evaluating some non-medical research, but the basic value of mandatory ethical review has not been questioned. When the standards that review boards use to evaluate research proposals are applied to review board practices, it is clear that review boards do not respect researchers or each other, lack merit and integrity, are not just and are not beneficent. The few benefits of mandatory ethical review come at a much greater, but mainly hidden, social cost. It is time that responsibility for the ethical conduct of research is clearly transferred to researchers, except possibly in that small proportion of cases where prospective research participants may be so intrinsically vulnerable that their well-being may need to be overseen.
Ahmad Lukman Nugraha
Full Text Available Islam affirms that there stand for mutual affect in business processes, until the business practice as a work field recommended to the adherents; while discussing ethics of business activity poped out to minimize cheating and fraud activities. However, Islamic business ethics felt difficult to apply in practice, especially in the business of buying and selling. Modern Islamic Boarding School “Darussalam” Gontor is one of the self-financing and self-help islamic boarding schools in the economic supported by cooperatives in pesantren (koppontren. This paper aims to comprehensively understand the application of Islamic business ethics and focus on the entrepreneurs in business sectors Gontor La-Tansa’s cooperatives. This research had systematically employed mix method research with sequential explanatory design and case study. Gathering data through using questionnaires, interviews, observation and documentation has been performing analysis through data reduction, data display, and data verification. This paper argues that Gontor La-Tansa’s cooperatives sector can run the business activities with implementing business ethics according to the Qur’an and Sunna values. Appear from the height comprehension of the business to the axiom business ethics and the height application in business activities in each business sector. In addition, the role of kiai and business unit supervisor is high. Data displays a level of the height direction (80 percent and control on the application of business ethics (72 percent. The Islamic business ethics can be applied on firm’s and government’s law with height comprehension and controlling.
Full Text Available Moral behavior in sports is one of the most important issues that concern sportspersons. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the ethical work climate that prevails in non profit sport teams is related to moral behaviours (sports personship. Two hundred and fourteen students of three sport schools (n=126males, n=88females, aged between 12-18 years, from ten different sports (both individual and team have been used in this study. The students filled in the Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ; Victor &Cullen, 1987, 1988 and the Multidimensional Sportsperson-ship Orientation Scale (Vallerand, Briere, Blanchard, & Provencher, 1997. The results revealed the presence of a caring climate in non profit sport teams. Moreover, it was found that the individual climate is positively related to the four dimensions of sportsperson ship, while the machiavelianism climate is negatively related to the dimension respect for rules and officials.
Zagorsky, Jay L.
This research investigates if ethical behaviors and personal finances are related using a large scale U.S. random survey called the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). Fifteen indicators covering both ethical and unethical behaviors are compared to net worth for people in their 20s and 30s, who are called Generation Y. Breaking…
Running head: ETHICS : CAN IT BE TAUGHT? 1 Ethics : Can It Be Taught? Ancel B. Hodges Defense Acquisition University...U.S. Army Materiel Command Public Affairs ETHICS : CAN IT BE TAUGHT? 2 Approval Page Title: Ethics ...Date Submitted for Journal Publication: ETHICS : CAN IT BE TAUGHT? 3 Acknowledgements I would like to thank
Paul, Jim; Strbiak, Christy A.
Examines the concept of strategic ambiguity in communication, and addresses the ethics of strategic ambiguity from an intrapersonal perspective that considers the congruity of communicators' espoused-ethics, ethics-in-use, and behavior, where ethical judgements are based on the congruity between espoused-ethics and actual behavior. Poses questions…
Brey, Philip A.E.
In this essay, a new approach for the ethical study of emerging technology ethics will be presented, called anticipatory technology ethics (ATE). The ethics of emerging technology is the study of ethical issues at the R&D and introduction stage of technology development through anticipation of
Sotsiaalse kapitali mõistest ning lähenemisviisidest selle defineerimiseks. Sotsiaalse kapitali mõõtmisest Suurbritannias ja Soomes. Senisest Eesti kogemusest sotsiaalset kapitali puudutavate statistiliste andmete kogumisel. Tabel: Sotsiaalset kapitali iseloomustavad näitajad.
... incurred in promotional, demonstrating, and selling activities, except by merchandising, the object of... expenses of merchandising, jobbing and contract work (§ 367.4160), or 930.1, General advertising expenses...
Long, Zhuhan; Meng, Shiyu; Dou, Jinyue; Zeng, Ming; Sun, Chenjun
The opening of the sale side of electricity market is an important goal of the new round of power system reform in China, and it is necessary to speed up the establishment and development of the electricity selling companies to achieve this goal. First of all, this paper defines the key problems, which are needed to be solved in the establishment of the sale side market, such as demand side response, optimization of users' power consumption mode, profit mode of electricity selling companies and fair competition in the market. On this basis, this paper analyzes the business of electricity selling company, from the aspects of the transition of business ideas, improving the energy efficiency level, providing integrated energy solutions and innovating business management mode; and then, the service strategies of electricity selling companies are put forward.
Kärmas, Mihkel, 1974-
Firma Ragn-Sells kahtlustab, et Reformierakonda rahastati prügiärist kanditud miljonitega. Ragn-Sellsi kirjast riigikontrollile, õiguskantslerile ja siseministrile. Konkureeriva firma Veolia juhataja Argo Luude seisukoht
... Flow and Direction Sell the Sizzle Starting Strongly Making Your Point Finishing in Style Bridging with Transitions Tried and Proven Organizational Patterns Use a Persuasive Structure to Add Cohere...
Ćorić Dragana M.
Full Text Available Ethics is becoming one of the most often used but also misinterpreted words. It is often taken as an additional, corrective parameter to the policies and strategies that has to be adopted in the area of political works, environment, business, and medicine. Computer ethics thus makes the latest ethical discipline in the scientific sky. But its roots, as it was the case with environmental ethics, ranging decades; only the speech and the use of the same, as well as discussions on the postulates of computer ethics, are the results of rapid IT development in the last decade or two. In this paper, according to the title, will be shown introduction to computer ethics-its basis, the most important representatives, as well as the most important succession.
This paper analyses the contribution of virtue ethics, the study of good character traits, to the humanitarian context. It argues that a virtue ethics perspective paints a realistic picture of the use of ethical standards in morally complex circumstances. Virtuous relief workers can employ standards in their thinking, but they are also committed to professional excellence that goes beyond any formal code. The concept of virtue ethics places a stress on moral development, which can be facilitated by role models that impart modest and feasible ideals. However, virtue ethics cannot provide simple guidelines on how to resolve difficult situations. It is possible that two virtuous persons can disagree on what should be done in a particular instance. In addition, a virtue ethics perspective emphasises the need for both individuals and organisations to discuss the actual purpose of relief work in order to pinpoint the virtues of a good relief professional. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.
Full Text Available The Slovak Association of Social Anthropologists initiated recently a discussion about the ethics in the ethnology, social and cultural anthropology. In January 2009 the association organized the seminar “Ethics in ethnology/social anthropology which brought vivid response in the academic community in Slovakia. The paper will deal with the question which are the most frequent ethic problems in field work such as for example the selection of research topic from the ethic point of view, ethic regulations during the conducting of field work, the protection of respondent’s personal data during the elaboration of data and archiving, the publication of research data etc. The author will inform about approaches and react to the current discussion about the possibilities how to solve the ethic questions in the field work.
We begin this article with the distinction between Deontology, Moral and Ethics. We also review the concept and the relevance of Bioethics, as the "science of survival", and as part of Ethics, a section of Philosophy. We tried to answer two further questions considering the role of Science in orienting Ethics, or the possible place of utilitarianism in controlling Ethics. The author discusses some new aspects of the doctor/patient relationship, and their evolution in the last 100 years, as well as the relations between patients and Health care institutions. Some ethical problems were also raised related to the beginning and the end of life. Finally the author reflects on the difficulties of defining ethical concepts in the near future.
Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig
This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...
Novita Eva Natalya
Full Text Available Appearing many types of bank proves that business of banking is growing up rapidly and and competing to compile society’s found. Therefore, each bank does the best promotion in order to get the attention and trust from society. PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero, Tbk is using personal selling in promoting Program Super Untung in 2014, this research focuses on monitoring the process of implementation personal selling in Program Super Untung done by PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero,Tbk.This research aims to monitor the implementation of personal selling done by PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero,Tbk to promote Program Super Untung by using personal selling process method from Churchill,. Method applied in this research is descriptive qualitative with design of study case and technic of collecting data done by interviewing and compiling documents from the company related with the research. The result of this research discussed about implementation of personal selling done by PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero,Tbk in 2014. The steps of personal selling are prospecting for customer, opening the relationship, qualifiying the prospect, presenting the sales message, closing the sales, until servicing the account. This research concludes that personal selling has view steps, every steps have relationship and will influence the other steps. Every steps have substantial points that can influence the success of personal selling, i.e. good communication between seller and candidate of customer. Muncul banyak jenis bank membuktikan bahwa bisnis perbankan berkembang pesat dan dan bersaing untuk menyusun masyarakat yang ditemukan. Oleh karena itu, setiap bank melakukan promosi terbaik agar mendapat perhatian dan kepercayaan dari masyarakat. PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero, Tbk menggunakan penjualan pribadi dalam mempromosikan Program Super Untung pada tahun 2014, penelitian ini berfokus pada pemantauan proses implementasi personal selling di Program Super Untung
Kenney, Shannon R; Anderson, Bradley J; Bailey, Genie L; Stein, Michael D
Buprenorphine medication-assisted treatment (B-MAT) is an efficacious and popular outpatient treatment for opioid use disorder. However, the likelihood of buprenorphine diversion is a public health concern. We examined the relationship between attitudes toward diversion as predictors of both sharing and selling buprenorphine. Participants (n=476) were patients undergoing short-term inpatient opioid detoxification. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted association of sharing and selling buprenorphine with demographics, substance use behaviors, and attitudes toward sharing and selling buprenorphine. Among the two hundred persons who had ever been prescribed buprenorphine (73.4% male, 89% heroin users), 50.5% reported they had shared buprenorphine and 28.0% reported they had sold buprenorphine. Controlling for other covariates, the odds of sharing buprenorphine were 3.17 (95% CI 1.21; 8.32) times higher for persons who agreed that it was "right to share buprenorphine with dope sick friends" than for those who did not agree with this attitude. Attitudes toward selling (OR 2.92; 95% CI 1.35; 6.21) and sharing (OR 4.12; 95% CI 1.64; 10.32) buprenorphine were the only significant correlates of selling, with the odds of selling exponentially greater among persons with favorable attitudes toward sharing or selling buprenorphine. Although considered diversion, sharing B-MAT is normative among B-MAT patients. Assessing B-MAT patients' attitudes about diversion may help identify patients requiring enhanced oversight, education, or intervention aimed at modifying attitudes to reduce their likelihood to share or sell buprenorphine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Altruistic donation of organs from living donors is widely accepted as a virtue and even encouraged as a duty. Selling organs, on the other hand, is highly controversial and banned in most countries. What is the Jewish legal (halachic) position on these issues? In this review it is explained that altruistic donation is praiseworthy but in no way obligatory. Selling organs is a subject of rabbinic dispute among contemporary authorities.
Full Text Available The paper intends to explore the ethical ideology and ethical judgments of accounting practitioners in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are twofold. First, the paper intends to examine the factors that contribute to the different ethical ideology among Malaysian accounting practitioners. Second, it aims to investigate the influence of demographic factors and ethical ideology on ethical judgments of accounting practitioners. The study used Forsyth’s (1980 Ethics Position Questionnaire instrument to examine the ethical ideology of the accountants and adopted ethics vignettes used by Emerson et al. (2007 to assess the ethical judgments of the respondents. From the statistical analysis, this study found that age and gender have a significant impact on ethical judgment but not on ethical ideology. In addition, idealism and relativism have a significant influence on ethical judgment, especially in a legally unethical situation.
The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipientís consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It...
Secretary is a comprehensive, service, auxiliary and political job with high requests. The so-called secretary's business ethics refers to the sum of all the secretary's acts required to comply with professional responsibility, professional emotion, role orientation, discipline-obeying and ethics-obeying. The purpose of this paper is to present a good way to know the ethics that a secretary should own to act out perfectly.
Yaghmaei, Emad; van de Poel, Ibo; Christen, Markus; Gordijn, Bert; Kleine, Nadia; Loi, Michele; Morgan, Gwenyth; Weber, Karsten
This White Paper outlines how the ethical discourse on cybersecurity has developed in the scientific literature, which ethical issues gained interest, which value conflicts are discussed, and where the “blind spots” in the current ethical discourse on cybersecurity are located. The White Paper is based on an extensive literature with a focus on three reference domains with unique types of value conflicts: health, business/finance and national security. For each domain, a systematic literature...
Di Nucci, Ezio
Ethics Without Intention tackles the questions raised by difficult moral dilemmas by providing a critical analysis of double effect and its most common ethical and political applications. The book discusses the philosophical distinction between intended harm and foreseen but unintended harm...... of our time. An engaging and comprehensive introduction to the doctrine of double effect. - See more at: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/ethics-without-intention-9781472525796/#sthash.NKISOPL8.dpuf...
Henn, N.; Train, E.; Chagnoux, H.; Heinzle, P.; Daubresse, M.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Fradin, J.
7 articles in this data sheet, they concern: political stakes and stakes of the industrial petroleum sector towards ethical questions; establishment of associations attending to human and environmental questions; examples of of ethical, environmental and safety policy in an industrialized country (ExxonMobil) and in a developing country (TotalFina); synthesis of the ethical problems that the petroleum industry encounter in industrialized and developing countries; considerations on the communication stakes in petroleum companies with the general public. (O.M.)
Ethics can be defined as a reflection on nature and a definition of “the good”. Individuals value qualities and things dissimilarly, most visibly, but they also value their goods in different ways, in different relations to each other, for different reasons, and to different ends. These differences are very applicable to sustainability. In other words, sustainability cannot be achieved without attention to its ethical dimensions. The aim of this research is to examine the ethical aspects of s...
"Demography is, explicitly and not, imbued with an [ethical] content.... As demography involves both public policies and individual choices, the [ethical] slant should be [examined]. Thus, what we have on the one hand is an [ethical] state, which dictates its citizens' personal behaviour and, on the other, a state based on liberty, backed up by three shared values: human rights, pluralism and equality. This article looks at how today these may be reinterpreted when making decisions regarding the population." (EXCERPT)
Full Text Available This paper makes the review of the literature dedicated to relevant social issues that have been addressed by business practices and the business ethics literature, especially during the past century. The review of practical literature is undertaken from the perspective of the practitioner and demonstrates that the business ethics literature has been lax in the sense that it mostly addresses specific managerial problems and personal ethics within the business environment.
Godbold, Rosemary; Lees, Amanda
It is now widely accepted that ethics is an essential part of educating health professionals. Despite a clear mandate to educators, there are differing approaches, in particular, how and where ethics is positioned in training programmes, underpinning philosophies and optimal modes of assessment. This paper explores varying practices and argues for a values based approach to ethics education. It then explores the possibility of using a web-based technology, the Values Exchange, to facilitate a values based approach. It uses the findings of a small scale study to signal the potential of the Values Exchange for engaging, meaningful and applied ethics education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
York, Travis; Becker, Christian
Despite increased attention for environmental sustainability programming, large-scale adoption of pro-environmental behaviors has been slow and largely short-term. This article analyzes the crucial role of ethics in this respect. The authors utilize an interdisciplinary approach drawing on virtue ethics and cognitive development theory to…
Ethics is a branch of philosophy. Its object is the study of both moral and immoral behaviour in order to make well founded judgements and to arrive at adequate recommendations. The Collins English Dictionary provides the following definitions of the word ethic: Ethic: a moral principle or set of moral values held by an individual or group; Ethics(singular): the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it; Ethics(pleural): a social, religious or civil code of behaviour considered correct, especially that of a particular group, profession or individual; Ethics(pleural): the moral fitness of a decision, course of action, etc. Ethics has a two-fold objective: Firstly it evaluates human practices by calling upon moral standards; it may give prescriptive advice on how to act morally in a specific kind of situation. This implies analysis and evaluation. Sometimes this is known as Normative ethics. The second is to provide therapeutic advice, suggesting solutions and policies. It must be based on well-informed opinions and requires a clear understanding of the vital issues. In the medical world, we are governed by the Hippocratic Oath. Essentially this requires medical practitioners (doctors) to do good, not harm. There is great interest and even furore regarding ethics in radiation protection
Full Text Available The ethics is the inner law of the individual. Its application is controlled and sacked by the self-awareness and the surrounding (by ethical codecs. The self-awareness is the inner law produced by everyday life, and is therefore changeable and adaptable to the outer reality. The ethics is a common field of marketing research, within the processes of ethical dilemmas and the marketing research process itself (identified target segments: the public the consumer, the subject ordering marketing research and marketing researchers.
In IT divisions and organizations, the need to execute in a competitive and complex technical environment while demonstrating personal integrity can be a significant personal and organizational challenge. Supplying concrete guidelines for those at an ethical crossroads, Ethics in IT Outsourcing explores the complex challenges of aligning IT outsourcing programs with ethical conduct and standards. This one-stop reference on the ethical structure and execution of IT outsourcing incorporates an easy-to-apply checklist of principles for outsourcing executives and managers. It examines certificatio
Ray, Susan L
The purpose of this article is to discuss an external whistleblowing event that occurred after all internal whistleblowing through the hierarchy of the organization had failed. It is argued that an organization that does not support those that whistle blow because of violation of professional standards is indicative of a failure of organizational ethics. Several ways to build an ethics infrastructure that could reduce the need to resort to external whistleblowing are discussed. A relational ethics approach is presented as a way to eliminate the negative consequences of whistleblowing by fostering an interdependent moral community to address ethical concerns.
Potter, Van Rensselaer
Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)
Full Text Available Modern humanity can survive only if traditional ethics are extended to include eco-ethics and econ-ethics. Success or failure in developing and implementing these new ethical constructs will affect the fate of our species Homo sapiens and that of millions of other forms of life. In the long run failure to accept and apply eco-ethics and econ-ethics would reduce the capacities of Planet Earth to support life.
Dr.Sc. Jusuf Qarkaxhija
Full Text Available Before internet was invented, there were invented numerous networks that helped American businesses in multiple savings. First of, they didn’t spend money on buying printers or scanners for the computers they possessed, meaning that the money spent before on buying hundreds of them, now was saved and used to buy a few of printers and scanners. How was this done? This worked by binding the entire computers of a floor to a single network. Second, the factor mostly taken into account is the energy saving and various abuses. Imagine the enormous amount of electricity that hundreds of printers and scanners would spend and how much energy tens of them would spend, moreover just think about how much these devices would be used in offices, where nobody is looking, for personal interests. American business, as the most creative one and the strongest was bothered by only one thing . This was the misuse of secret corporation information. These abuses occurred when the data had to be printed and transferred to corporate subsidiaries around the world. During the transfer the data could also be lost or damaged (intentionally or unintentionally and then the corporation would suffer losses (the data were transferred via floppy discs, or they were printed in hard copies. The solution for these problems came from the US military that had invented the internet earlier and after having consumed it for its own needs, decided to put it up for American businesses. The internet has developed its own services such as : www, ftp, e-mail, and buying and selling though internet (e-commerce. Nowadays, information exchanges with corporate branches are not made roughly, but electronically in real time. Additionally, this made it possible for a new category of web designers to be created and they created a powerful web-site through which some businesses created virtual shops and they started earning more money than they used to, in their physical stores. This American
Schutte, Ingrid; Wolfensberger, Marca; Tirri, Kirsi
This study examined the ethical sensitivity of high-ability undergraduate students (n=731) in the Netherlands who completed the 28-item Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ) developed by Tirri & Nokelainen (2007; 2011). The ESSQ is based on Narvaez' (2001) operationalization of ethical sensitivity in seven dimensions. The following…
Gokce, Asiye Toker
This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool to enhance ethical evaluation literature. The tool consists of two subscales named "Bases of ethical evaluation," and "Grounds of ethical evaluation." In order to determine the factor structure of the scales, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were…
Lindeman, M; Väänänen, M
The two studies describe the development of three complementary scales to the Food Choice Questionnaire developed by Steptoe, Pollard & Wardle (1995). The new items address various ethical food choice motives and were derived from previous studies on vegetarianism and ethical food choice. The items were factor analysed in Study 1 (N=281) and the factor solution was confirmed in Study 2 (N=125), in which simple validity criteria were also included. Furthermore, test-retest reliability was assessed with a separate sample of subjects (N=36). The results indicated that the three new scales, Ecological Welfare (including subscales for Animal Welfare and Environment Protection), Political Values and Religion, are reliable and valid instruments for a brief screening of ethical food choice reasons. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl
This paper presents the concept of ethical economy (Wirtschaftsethik) and the relation between ethics and economics on the basis of the work of the German ethical economist Peter Koslowski. The concept of ethical economy includes three levels: micro, meso and macro levels; and it also deals...... with the philosophical analysis of the ethical foundations of the economy. After the discussion of these elements of the ethical economy, the paper presents some possible research topics for a research agenda about economic ethics or ethical economy....
attempts for application to computer ethics and cyberethics. In this paper, the author argues that current trends and behaviours in online communication require an ethics of self-care found in Plotinus’ self-centred virtue ethics theory. The paper supports the position that Plotinus’ virtue ethics......n normative ethical theory, computer ethics belongs to the area of applied ethics dealing with practical and everyday moral problems arising from the use of computers and computer networks in the information society. Modern scholarship usually approves deontological and utilitarian ethics...... as appropriate to computer ethics, while classical theories of ethics, such as virtue ethics, are usually neglected as anachronistic and unsuitable to the information era and ICT industry. During past decades, an Aristotelian form of virtue ethics has been revived in modern philosophical enquiries with serious...
Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…
Floridi, Luciano; Taddeo, Mariarosaria
This theme issue has the founding ambition of landscaping data ethics as a new branch of ethics that studies and evaluates moral problems related to data (including generation, recording, curation, processing, dissemination, sharing and use), algorithms (including artificial intelligence, artificial agents, machine learning and robots) and corresponding practices (including responsible innovation, programming, hacking and professional codes), in order to formulate and support morally good solutions (e.g. right conducts or right values). Data ethics builds on the foundation provided by computer and information ethics but, at the same time, it refines the approach endorsed so far in this research field, by shifting the level of abstraction of ethical enquiries, from being information-centric to being data-centric. This shift brings into focus the different moral dimensions of all kinds of data, even data that never translate directly into information but can be used to support actions or generate behaviours, for example. It highlights the need for ethical analyses to concentrate on the content and nature of computational operations-the interactions among hardware, software and data-rather than on the variety of digital technologies that enable them. And it emphasizes the complexity of the ethical challenges posed by data science. Because of such complexity, data ethics should be developed from the start as a macroethics, that is, as an overall framework that avoids narrow, ad hoc approaches and addresses the ethical impact and implications of data science and its applications within a consistent, holistic and inclusive framework. Only as a macroethics will data ethics provide solutions that can maximize the value of data science for our societies, for all of us and for our environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'. © 2016 The Author(s).
ethical theories and ethics in war, provides a summary of the three important ethical theories ( utilitarianism , rule- based ethical ...practical merit: utilitarianism , rule- based ethical systems, and virtue ethics . Utilitarian Ethics Utilitarian acts are defined as morally right... utilitarian ethics certainly can be applied to justify some restrictions on the conduct of warfare.23 According to this theory, the solution to
This study investigated the relationship between ethical leadership and ethical sales behavior. A total of 248 matched surveys with participant responses from insurance agents and their customers were collected. The insurance agents were asked to rate the ethical leadership of their leaders, the ethical climate in their organization, and their individual moral identity. Customers were asked to rate the perceived ethical sales behavior of the insurance agents. This empirical study utilized moderated mediation techniques to analyze the data. Results indicated that ethical climate mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and ethical sales behavior when moral identity was high, however, did not when moral identity was low. The research framework including contextual effects (i.e., ethical climate) and individual differences in moral judgment (i.e., moral identity) can provide a comprehensive picture of how ethical leadership influences ethical sales behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.
Merrick, Allison; Green, Rochelle; Cunningham, Thomas V; Eisenberg, Leah R; Hester, D Micah
Although ethics is an essential component of undergraduate medical education, research suggests that current medical ethics curricula face considerable challenges in improving students' ethical reasoning. This article discusses these challenges and introduces a promising new mode of graduate and professional ethics instruction for overcoming them. We begin by describing common ethics curricula, focusing in particular on established problems with current approaches. Next, we describe a novel method of ethics education and assessment for medical students that we have devised: the Medical Ethics Bowl (MEB). Finally, we suggest the pedagogical advantages of the MEB when compared to other ethics curricula.
Baranov G. V.
Full Text Available the article presents the principles of ethical management of scientific communication. The author approves the priority of ethical principle of social responsibility of the scientist.
The following Master's thesis is an analysis of the terms used in both the ethical guidelines and values espoused by companies, weighed up against classical philosophical texts and normative ethical theories, as well as traditional business ethics.
Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)
Poel, van de I.R.; Royakkers, L.M.M.
Arriving at a moral judgment is not a straightforward or linear process in which ethical theories are simply applied to cases. Instead it is a process in which the formulation of the moral problem, the formulation of possible "solutions", and the ethical judging of these solutions go hand in hand.
Mepham, B.; Kaiser, M.; Thorstensen, E.; Tomkins, S.; Millar, K.
The ethical matrix is a conceptual tool designed to help decision-makers (as individuals or working in groups) reach sound judgements or decisions about the ethical acceptability and/or optimal regulatory controls for existing or prospective technologies in the field of food and agriculture.
Update on Law-Related Education, 1990
Presents a lesson developed by the Center for Civic Education giving secondary students the opportunity to explore ethical issues in government from the perspective of corrective justice. Outlines role plays and other class activities based on a fictitious ethics scandal involving bribery. Identifies specific questions to be asked on issues of…
This article examines the work that goes in to ‘making room’ for ethics, literally and figuratively. It follows the activities of a capacity building Asia-Pacific NGO in training and recognising ethics review committees, using multi-sited field materials collected over 12 months between 2009...
A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…
Many ethics courses are philosophy based, others focus on building character, and many are a combination of the two. Sharpening one's moral reasoning and reinforcing one's character are certainly beneficial courses of action for those who wish to be better people and those who wish to teach others how to act more ethically. Because the empirical…
The video gives examples, where the social educator in the very situations in the kindergartens has to make ethical decisions when using digital media in a kindergarten.......The video gives examples, where the social educator in the very situations in the kindergartens has to make ethical decisions when using digital media in a kindergarten....
Verweij, M.F.; Quah, S.R.; Cockerham, W.C.
Collective immunization can be highly effective in protecting societies against infectious diseases, but policy decisions about both the character and the content of immunization policies require ethical justification. This article offers an overview of ethical aspects that should be taken into
Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009
The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…
Buuck, R. John
Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…
Hager, Elizabeth A.
Describes the Ethics Challenge Game (developed by Lockheed Martin Corp. and free to educators), which is a board game based on the Dilbert comic strip character that provides realistic scenarios for discussion of ethical behavior in various business/workplace situations. Describes the game, offers comments on faculty reactions after playing the…
This discussion of the ethics of the information process provides a brief review of the process of information supply and flow, primarily in science and technology; looks at various points in the flow of information; and highlights particular ethical concerns. Facets of the process discussed in more detail include ways in which some scientists…
Hongladarom, Soraj; Ess, Charles
This book was the first publication to take a genuinely global approach to the diverse ethical issues evoked by Information and Communication Technologies and their possible resolutions. Readers will gain a greater appreciation for the problems and possibilities of genuinely global information...... ethics, which are urgently needed as information and communication technologies continue their exponential growth...
Designed as both a teaching text and reader for students and faculty across diverse disciplines, the book provides an "ethical toolkit" - an introduction to prevailing ethical frameworks - and shows their application to both general issues and specific case-studies in digital media (privacy...
Lenard, Christopher; McCarthy, Sally; Mills, Terence
There are many different aspects of statistics. Statistics involves mathematics, computing, and applications to almost every field of endeavour. Each aspect provides an opportunity to spark someone's interest in the subject. In this paper we discuss some ethical aspects of statistics, and describe how an introduction to ethics has been…
Have, H.A.M.J. ten
Unesco initiated the Ethics Education Programme in 2004 at the request of member states to reinforce and increase the capacities in the area of ethics teaching. The programme is focused on providing detailed information about existing teaching programmes. It also develops and promotes teaching
It is difficult to speak of ethic dilemmas in a society that has relativism as the oficial philosophical and political doctrine, i.e., stable values and behavior references, are denied, both in health care and in any other area of human knowledge. In the field of medical sciences it is even pretended to pass from the observational methodology to a field of manipulation and manipulability. It is the very Ethic that is presented as a dilemma. In these conditions one needs to know the lines of thought that are defended, to replace and make disappear the stable ethic references: ecletism, historicism, scientificism, pragmatism, and nihilism itself, that lead to the 'new ethic paradigm', that has created by itself a pseudo-spirituality. The truth is we are adrift in the 'Ethic of Convenience' which changes according to the majorities. In this setting the way to go is to rediscover the abandoned ethic values: only with an objective ethic, with sound references and foundations, it is possible to re-establish and perfect the patient-physician relationship, for a better social health. And this begins with the ethic problem of human life.
Journals have been publishing the results of scientific investigations since the founding of Philosophical Transactions in 1665. Since then we have witnessed a massive expansion in the number of journals to the point that there are now approximately 28,000 active, peer reviewed journals collectively publishing more than 1.8 million articles per year. Before the mid-1990s, these journals were only available on paper but by the end of the 20th century, most journals had moved to online platforms. Online publication has also served as the impetus for the move to 'open-access' to the information contained in journals. The fact that a publication is 'on-line' and 'open-access' does not negate the responsibility of the author and the publisher to publish in an ethical way.  The document produced by the IFCC Ethics Task Force (TF-E) on publication ethics states that 'Ethics in Science at its broadest level encompasses research ethics, medical ethics, publication ethics, conflicts of interest, ethical responsibilities as educator, plus many other areas.' Thus publication ethics is a continuum from the first step of research design through to the information being read by the reader. In general terms 'publication ethics' includes the ethical behaviour of the authors in writing and submitting a scientific manuscript to a publisher for the purpose of publication, thus any discussion of publication ethics must include the role of the authors, referees, publisher and reader and the issues of authorship (and the use of 'ghosts'), plagiarism, duplicate publication (including in different languages), image manipulation (particularly in the era of digitisation), and conflict of interest . To aid the authors, and others involved in the process of publication, a number of resources are now available particularly those from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)  and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) . More recently the issue of 'publisher ethics' has
“Leadership is lifting a person’s vision to higher sights, the raising of a person’s performance to a higher standard, the building of a personality beyond its normal limitations” – Peter F Drucker. Leadership is a special talent based on timeless wisdom that not all people possess. Leadership is based on one’s vision, principle and integrity. To be effective, a leader must be ethical. Ethical leadership involves one’s core values, to live a life of integrity and in service of the...
Luciano Floridi develops an original ethical framework for dealing with the new challenges posed by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). ICTs have profoundly changed many aspects of life, including the nature of entertainment, work, communication, education, health care, industrial production and business, social relations, and conflicts. They have had a radical and widespread impact on our moral lives and on contemporary ethical debates. Privacy, ownership, freedom of speech, responsibility, technological determinism, the digital divide, and pornography online are only some of the pressing issues that characterise the ethical discourse in the information society. They are the subject of Information Ethics (IE), the new philosophical area of research that investigates the ethical impact of ICTs on human life and society. Since the seventies, IE has been a standard topic in many curricula. In recent years, there has been a flourishing of new university courses, international conferences, workshop...
James R. Welch
Full Text Available With the recent multiplication of traditional and electronic venues for publishing in ethnobiology, the social sciences, the life sciences, and related fields, it is increasingly important that authors practice self-diligence to ensure that the contents of their publications meet criteria of veracity and ethical soundness. Although the peer-review process encourages high standards, it is an insufficient means for verifying the ethical worthiness of most publications. The ethical merits of published research derive from a cumulative process including formulating a research design, obtaining permissions, collecting and analyzing data, and finally composing and submitting a manuscript. Unfortunately, there is no failsafe ethical gatekeeper at any stage of the process. The importance of ethical publishing is all the more important in the field of ethnobiology, as professionals in the field often cross the intellectual and methodological boundaries between disciplines, and their research often involves multiple stakeholders in widespread jurisdictions.
Full Text Available Debates about political ethics aren't new. They have been present since ancient Greek philosophers. Machiavelli set some new principles, regarding amoral behavior of the prince, which could be quite legitimate and legal. He didn't invented anything new, he just admitted that, that was the reality. Some modern authors think that ethics and politics should be departed always, some other think that they should cooperate. In the end of the day, the voters are those who must face with amoral behavior of politicians, because it seems that politicians don't recognize ethics at all? Or is it just look like? In this paper, we will try in short to tell something about origins of political ethics, its burning issues, and about possible ways of implementation of political ethics and its development.
Damveld, Herman [Groningen (Netherlands)
In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible.
Full Text Available Fast development of medical genetics and it’s subdisciplines is noticed in last thirty years. Modern diagnostic methods made possible to establish human genome and its impairment. In human genetics, ethic is main principle in working. Ethic is science about biggest goodness for human or society, and its aim protecting human health.Today's conditions for leaving and science development open a wide way for ethical approaches, but also for non-ethical manipulations with human even before his conception. We must keep to attitude that without law, with our behavior will must conduct our conscience. It is best to have neutral eugenetic attitude, which allows free ethical choice of each individual, in any case, for the well being of man.
In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible
Christensen, Anne-Marie Søndergaard
According to the standard reception, Kierkegaard thinks of ethics as a possible stage in human life. In this paper, I do not want to contest this interpretation, but I will argue that it often overlooks how the concept of ethics plays another vital role in Kierkegaard's thinking, namely...... that of establishing a necessary connection between ethics and certain forms of philosophy. To avoid the unfruitful thinking of ‘the speculation', the philosopher must accept that her vantage point is given, not in pure objectivity, but in the fact that she is this particular human being; that is, the ethical...... dimension of her life. In this way, Kierkegaard claims that any philosophy concerning human existence must also include ethical considerations. This is a view also held by Ludwig Wittgenstein, but a comparison of the two philosophers shows that even if Kierkegaard finds such fruitful philosophy possible, he...
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
Human subjects and social relations are crucial in research psychologists’ ethical considerations. Lists of ethical criteria - including how to anonymize data, avoid causing harm, handle asymmetries – are pivotal. A situated ethics inspired by new materialism and poststructuralism would, however......, elaborate these focuses to include social orders, discursive power, and more comprehensive material-discursive apparatuses. I will draw on concepts developed by Barad, Foucault and Butler to discuss how ethics can be understood as an intra-acting, emergent element of the research apparatus. Barad’s notion...... the researchers’ moral narcissism in relation to the enactment of social-subjective phenomena in research; on the other hand, it leaves researchers with a broader spectrum of phenomena to include in their ethical considerations. This invites new questions: Which perspectives of human and non-human existence...
Gökçe, Asiye Toker
This study inquires ethical evaluation of teachers, investigating their moral reasoning to ethical decision making, in Turkey. Specifically three hypotheses were tested: Overall ethical awareness of teachers is high; Teachers will identify reasons for ethical evaluation related to philosophical values such as justice, deontology, utilitarianism,…
Safatly, Lise; Itani, Hiba; El-Hajj, Ali; Salem, Dania
In modern and well-structured universities, ethics centers are playing a key role in hosting, organizing, and managing activities to enrich and guide students' ethical thinking and analysis. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the goals, activities, and administration of ethics centers, as well as their role in promoting ethical thinking…
Rochania Ayu Yunanda
and also increase public confidence in the profession. However, the efforts to integrate ethical values in educational system will not work well if there are no moral commitments implanted in the individuals. Islam with its divine values plays the notable role to embed cognitive ethical values. It emphasizes on the unity of God, the accountability to God and the concept of maslahah (public benefits to be the foundations of ethics. Incorporating Islamic ethics into the system will be a significant contribution towards generating ethical accounting education. This paper attempts to elucidate how the Islamic ethics contribute its role towards ethical accountants as the products of accounting education.
Magelssen, Morten; Pedersen, Reidar; Førde, Reidun
When clinical ethics committee members discuss a complex ethical dilemma, what use do they have for normative ethical theories? Members without training in ethical theory may still contribute to a pointed and nuanced analysis. Nonetheless, the knowledge and use of ethical theories can play four important roles: aiding in the initial awareness and identification of the moral challenges, assisting in the analysis and argumentation, contributing to a sound process and dialogue, and inspiring an attitude of reflexivity. These four roles of ethical theory in clinical ethics consultation are described and their significance highlighted, while an example case is used as an illustration throughout.
Kristiana, S. P. D.
Corporate chain store is one type of retail industries companies that are developing growing rapidly in Indonesia. The competition between retail companies is very tight, so retailer companies should evaluate its performance continuously in order to survive. The selling price of products is one of the essential attributes and gets attention of many consumers where it’s used to evaluate the performance of the industry. This research aimed to determine optimal selling price of product with considering cost factors, namely purchase price of the product from supplier, holding costs, and transportation costs. Fuzzy logic approach is used in data processing with MATLAB software. Fuzzy logic is selected to solve the problem because this method can consider complexities factors. The result is a model of determination of the optimal selling price by considering three cost factors as inputs in the model. Calculating MAPE and model prediction ability for some products are used as validation and verification where the average value is 0.0525 for MAPE and 94.75% for prediction ability. The conclusion is this model can predict the selling price of up to 94.75%, so it can be used as tools for the corporate chain store in particular to determine the optimal selling price for its products.
Full Text Available To address the problems of low selling efficiency, poor sanitation conditions, labor-intensive requirement, and quick rice cooling speed in manual rice selling in cafeterias, especially in colleges and secondary schools, this paper presented an Advanced RISC Machines (ARM microprocessor-based rice-selling machine for cafeterias. The machines consisted of a funnel-shaped rice bin, a thermal insulation box, and a conveying and scattering mechanism. Moreover, this machine exerts fuzzy control over stepper motor rpm, and the motor drives the conveyor belt with a scraper to scatter rice, deliver it, and keep it warm. Apart from an external 4*4 keyboard, a point of sale (POS machine, an ARM process and a pressure sensor, the machine is also equipped with card swiping and weighting mechanisms to achieve functions of card swiping payment and precise measurement, respectively. In addition, detection of the right amount of rice and the alarm function are achieved using an ultrasonic sensor and a beeper, respectively. The presence of the rice container on the rice outlet is detected by an optoelectronic switch. Results show that this rice-selling machine achieves precise measurement, quick card swiping, fast rice selling, stable operation, and good rice heat preservation. Therefore, the mechanical design enables the machine to achieve its goals.
Furois, Timothee; Vollmer, Carla; Schlienger, Marc; Delagrandanne, Julien; Schwill, Jochen; Trommler, Marcus; Barchmann, Tino; Dotzauer, Martin; Durot, Alexandre; Ricordeau, Damien; Schuenemann-Plag, Peter; Wehner, Gustav; Wagner, Robert; Mestrel, Marc
The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the regulatory context, direct selling and financing of methanation plants in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 60 participants debated the following topics: direct selling impact on biogas industry, key-steps of methanation development in Germany, experience feedback of direct electricity selling and optimization of the production, banks experience feedback in methanation financing. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - French support schemes for biogas (Timothee Furois); 2 - Development of the framework for biogas plants within the Renewable energy Sources Act from 2000 until 2015 (Carla Vollmer); 3 - Direct selling: challenges and opportunities (Marc Schlienger); 4 - The rules of the aggregator and electricity market (Julien Delagrandanne); 5 - Feed in Premium (FiP) with Biogas Power Plants, experiences in Germany (Jochen Schwill); 6 - Flexibilisation of biogas production - Impulses from EEG -legislation (Marcus Trommler); 7 - Bank approach in the direct selling approach (Alexandre Durot); 8 - Biogas Financing - Correlation between Return and Project Financing (Damien Ricordeau); 9 - Comparative economic analysis of various types of biogas plant Profitability of small and medium biogas plants on the basis of slurry and maize silage in Germany (Peter Schuenemann-Plag); 10 - experience feedback on important financing leviers (Gustav Wehner); 11 - Analysis of the different ways of methanation facilities financing (Robert Wagner); 12- The development of biogas project without recourse to purchase prices in France and Germany (Marc Mestrel)
Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Jae Hyung; Yoon, Soon Ho
According to the recent developments in radiological techniques, the role of radiology in the clinical management of patients is ever increasing and in turn, so is the importance of radiology in patient management. Thus far, there have been few open discussions about medical ethics related to radiology in Korea. Hence, concern about medical ethics as an essential field of radiology should be part of an improved resident training program and patient management. The categories of medical ethics related with radiology are ethics in the radiological management of patient, the relationship of radiologists with other medical professionals or companies, the hazard level of radiation for patients and radiologists, quality assurance of image products and modalities, research ethics, and other ethics issues related to teleradiology and fusion imaging. In order to achieve the goal of respectful progress in radiology as well as minimizing any adverse reaction from other medical professions or society, we should establish a strong basis of medical ethics through the continuous concern and self education
Bager, Ann Starbæk; Svane, Marita Susanna; Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg
Based upon the writings of Arendt, Butler and Bakhtin we propose an ethics of entrepreneurship in which the concepts of precarity, action and answerability to the world are central. We argue that the governing condition of entrepreneurship is precarity, which is described as a situation of insecu......Based upon the writings of Arendt, Butler and Bakhtin we propose an ethics of entrepreneurship in which the concepts of precarity, action and answerability to the world are central. We argue that the governing condition of entrepreneurship is precarity, which is described as a situation...... beginners, which for Arendt were so important for transformation and change. But new beginnings are always fragile and rely on the support from others in order to persist. Hence entrepreneurial ethics cannot simply be a question of the entrepreneur’s relationship to herself but instead how she relates...... and acts together with others. This also means that entrepreneurial ethics also relies on the space for ethics that others create for entrepreneurs. This play between the entrepreneur and context is important but has largely been overlooked by prevalent approaches to ethics. The entrepreneurial ethics...
Jeon, Sang Hee; Park, Mihyun; Choi, Kyungok; Kim, Mi Kyoung
The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of an ethical leadership program (ELP) on ethical leadership, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and job outcomes of nursing unit managers (UMs) and to examine changes in staff nurses' perception about UMs' EL, OCB, job outcomes, and ethical work environments (EWEs) post-ELP. A quasi-experimental (pre- and post-test design) study conducted six-month intervention (ELP) using self-reported UM survey (n=44), and staff nurses (n=158) were randomly extracted by two steps. The Korean version of Ethical Leadership at Work for UMs' self-ethical leadership, the Ethical Leadership Scale for staff nurses' perceived ethical leadership, a 19-item OCB scale, and six dimensions of the medium-sized Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II for job outcomes and EWEs were administered at baseline and post-intervention. UMs' ethical leadership scores differed significantly over time in people orientation (p=0.041) and concern for ethical leadership sustainability (p=0.002) adjusting for UM experience duration and nursing unit type. Total mean and level of power-sharing of ethical leadership among UMs with leadership, OCB, job outcomes, and EWEs, significant improvement over time appeared only in EWEs' work influence level (p=0.007). This study provides useful information for clinical ELP development and examining the program's effect on leadership skills and followers' outcomes. Program facilitation relies on practical training methods, participant motivation, and assessment outcome designs by controlling clinical confounding factors. Findings have implications as an attempt for intervention to promote competencies related to ethical leadership of nursing unit managers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
SEYED ALI ENJOO
Full Text Available Introduction: The application of organizational ethics in hospitals is one of the novel ways to improve medical ethics. Nowadays achieving efficient and sufficient ethical hospital indicators seems to be inevitable. In this connection, the present study aims to determine the best indicators in hospital accreditation. Methods: 69 indicators in 11 fields to evaluate hospital ethics were achieved through a five-step qualitative and quantitative study including literature review, expert focus group, Likert scale survey, 3 rounded Delphi, and content validity measurement. Expert focus group meeting was conducted, employing Nominal Group Technique (NGT. After running NGT, a three rounded Delphi and parallel to Delphi and a Likert scale survey were performed to obtain objective indicators for each domain. The experts were all healthcare professionals who were also medical ethics researchers, teachers, or Ph.D students. Content validity measurements were computed, using the viewpoints of two different expert groups, some ethicists, and some health care professionals (n=46. Results: After conducting NGT, Delphi, Likert survey, 11 main domains were listed including: Informed consent, Medical confidentiality, Physician-patient economic relations, Ethics consultation policy in the hospital, Ethical charter of hospital, Breaking bad medical news protocol, Respect for the patients’ rights, Clinical ethics committee, Spiritual and palliative care unit programs in the hospitals, Healthcare professionals’ communication skills, and Equitable access to the healthcare. Also 71 objective indicators for these 11 domains were listed in 11 tables with 5 to 8 indicators per table. Content Validity Ratio (CVR measurements were done and 69 indicators were highlighted. Conclusion: The domains listed in this study seem to be the most important ones for evaluating hospital ethics programs and services. Healthcare organizations’ accreditation and ranking are crucial for
Silén, Marit; Ramklint, Mia; Hansson, Mats G; Haglund, Kristina
Ethics rounds are one way to support healthcare personnel in handling ethically difficult situations. A previous study in the present project showed that ethics rounds did not result in significant changes in perceptions of how ethical issues were handled, that is, in the ethical climate. However, there was anecdotal evidence that the ethics rounds were viewed as a positive experience and that they stimulated ethical reflection. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how the ethics rounds were experienced and why the intervention in the form of ethics rounds did not succeed in improving the ethical climate for the staff. An exploratory and descriptive design with a qualitative approach was adopted, using individual interviews. A total of 11 healthcare personnel, working in two different psychiatry outpatient clinics and with experience of participating in ethics rounds, were interviewed. The study was based on informed consent and was approved by one of the Swedish Regional Ethical Review Boards. The participants were generally positive about the ethics rounds. They had experienced changes by participating in the ethics rounds in the form of being able to see things from different perspectives as well as by gaining insight into ethical issues. However, these changes had not affected daily work. A crucial question is whether or not increased reflection ability among the participants is a good enough outcome of ethics rounds and whether this result could have been measured in patient-related outcomes. Ethics rounds might foster cooperation among the staff and this, in turn, could influence patient care. By listening to others during ethics rounds, a person can learn to see things from a new angle. Participation in ethics rounds can also lead to better insight concerning ethical issues. © The Author(s) 2014.
Atonement, as the representative work of British writer Ian McEwan, is of high educational significance. This article wil adopt Ethical Literary Criticism to analyze the ethical dilemmas and ethical choices of two characters in the novel: Briony and Robbie. By putting the characters into diversified ethical problems, the writer has strengthened the necessity of reflection and atonement in real life, and also the moral responsibilities one should bear. The analysis of characters' ethical problems can better highlight the writer's moral value.
Husted, B; Allen, DB
Increasingly research in the field of business and society suggests that ethics and corporate social responsibility can be profitable. Yet this work raises a troubling question: Is it ethical to use ethics and social responsibility in a strategic way? Is it possible to be ethical or socially responsible for the wrong reason? In this article, we define a strategy concept in order to situate the different approaches to the strategic use of ethics and social responsibility found in the current l...
Environmental ethics examines the relationship between human beings and nature from the moral perspective. It is also a kind of ethics arising from a concern with an earth which is on the verge of losing balance. Environmental ethics originated at the end of the 1940s. Since the 1970s, great progress has been made in environmental ethics. This…
This article studies the role of entrepreneurship in business ethics and promotes a resource-based ethics. The need for and usefulness of this form of ethics emerge from an analysis of contemporary business ethics that appears to be inefficacious and from a moral business practice formed out of the
The purpose of this study is to explore the importance of ethical value in higher education as well as the relevance between ethical value and higher education. In order to examine the study logically, three research questions are addressed: First, what is value, ethical value, and Asiatic ethical value? Second, for whom and what is higher…
Vallance, Roger J.
Research ethics is not only a matter of doing no harm, or even abiding by the guidelines of the Ethics Review Board of the institution. While these matters are important and legal requirements, there is much more at stake in discussions of research ethics. Research ethics establish the foundation upon which research rests. Taking the social…
Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan
Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a
Jimenez Mejia, Jose Fernando
It could be said that the concept of sustainability is based on ethic postulates, because it claims to bear in mind the set of necessities of future generations as a control variable for human development models and for consumption patterns. Ethics, in its own, mainly in the spinozist line of thinking, is a philosophical proposal directed to empowering the operations of expression of the beings (not only of the human being). This ethics outlines multiple developments and conceive future generations not as undifferentiated, passive and impotent collectives, but as active and joyful communities, who are sensitive to the possibilities of their own devenir
Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Chadwick, Ruth
Global collaboration in genomic research is increasingly both a scientific reality and an ethical imperative. This past decade has witnessed the emergence of six new, interconnected areas of ethical consensus and emphasis for policy in genomics: governance, security, empowerment, transparency, the right not to know, and globalization. The globalization of genomic research warrants an approach to governance policies grounded in human rights. A human rights approach activates the ethical principles underpinning genomic research. It lends force to the right of all citizens to benefit from scientific progress, and to the right of all scientists to be recognized for their contributions.
Vila, Miguel Angel Sicart
turn their users into blood thirsty zombies with a computer game learnt ability of aiming with deadly precision. The goal of this paper is to pay attention to the ethical nature of computer games, in order to understand better the ways we can evaluate their morality in western cultures providing...... a framework to understand some of these concerns. This paper poses questions about the ontology of games and their ethical meaning, in an attempt to give ethical theory a word in the analysis of computer games....
Taking into account the state of the science, the ethics committee has to decide in research projects with study-related radiation exposure, whether a compelling need for the research project exists. During the critical appraisal, further ethical and legal aspects have to be considered. Even without an application according to X-ray Ordinance (RoeV) or Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV), the Ethics Committee should advise the applicant whether from their perspective the project requires an approval according to RoeV and StrlSchV. This requires the regular involvement of expert members.
Ethics are determined by weighing risks against benefits, pros against cons, but also by evasion. Whenever decisions are taken, the side effects and risks to be accepted must be weighed. In law, this is called the principle of commensurability implying that ethical compromises are made. Too much emphasis on ethical principles leads to an evasion of realistic action. In consensus discussions it is often seen that the positions adopted by science and technology are incommensurable with those of philosophy, psychology, and theology. Any decision requires that the risk be evaluated in a spirit of responsibility. (orig.) [de
Borah, B Rashmi; Strand, Nicolle K; Chillag, Kata L
As neuroscience research advances, researchers, clinicians, and other stakeholders will face a host of ethical challenges. The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Bioethics Commission) has published two reports that provide recommendations on how to advance research endeavors ethically. The commission addressed, among other issues, how to prioritize different types of neuroscience research and how to include research participants who have impaired consent capacity. The Bioethics Commission's recommendations provide a foundation for ethical guidelines as neuroscience research advances and progresses. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
von Bergmann, K
Increasing numbers of clinical research projects are submitted to ethical committees (institutional review boards) for approval. New therapeutic developments have to be evaluated by these committees to protect patients/volunteers. Thus, the responsibility of ethical committees is increasing. The "Nürnberger Kodex" and the "Declaration of Helsinki" are the background for these evaluations. According to the German drug law the physician is obligated by law to submit the protocol to such a committee. In addition, local state physician authorities require such a procedure. Important considerations during the review process besides ethical aspects are the informed consent, which should be written in an understandable form, and the obligations of the insurance.
Full Text Available Research in business ethics is vital for the expansion and credibility of this fairly recent academic field. This article argues that there are three factors that are crucially important for research in business ethics. They are (a the ontological assumptions that research in this field is premised upon, (b the choice of research strategies and methodologies and (c the role of theory in research practice. Each of these three factors is explored and pitfalls relating to each of them are identified. The article also suggests guidelines for dealing with each of these factors in business ethics research.
Iltis, Ana S.; Sheehan, Mark
The language of ethics expertise has become particularly important in bioethics in light of efforts to establish the value of the clinical ethics consultation (CEC), to specify who is qualified to function as a clinical ethics consultant, and to characterize how one should evaluate whether or not a person is so qualified. Supporters and skeptics about the possibility of ethics expertise use the language of ethics expertise in ways that reflect competing views about what ethics expertise entails. We argue for clarity in understanding the nature of expertise and ethics expertise. To be an ethics expert, we argue, is to be an expert in knowing what ought to be done. Any attempt to articulate expertise with respect to knowing what ought to be done must include an account of ethics that specifies the nature of moral truth and the means by which we access this truth or a theoretical account of ethics such that expertise in another domain is linked to knowing or being better at judging what ought to be done and the standards by which this “knowing” or “being better at judging” is determined. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our analysis for the literature on ethics expertise in CEC. We do think that there are clear domains in which a clinical ethics consultant might be expert but we are skeptical about the possibility that this includes ethics expertise. Clinical ethics consultants should not be referred to as ethics experts. PMID:27256848
Melia, K M
This paper raises the questions: 'What do we expect from nursing ethics?' and 'Is the literature of nursing ethics any different from that of medical ethics?' It is suggested that rather than develop nursing ethics as a separate field writers in nursing ethics should take a lead in making the patient the central focus of health care ethics. The case is made for empirical work in health care ethics and it is suggested that a good way of setting about this is to ask practising nurses about the ...
Hsieh, Tsu-Pang; Cheng, Mei-Chuan; Dye, Chung-Yuan; Ouyang, Liang-Yuh
In this article, we extend the classical economic production quantity (EPQ) model by proposing imperfect production processes and quality-dependent unit production cost. The demand rate is described by any convex decreasing function of the selling price. In addition, we allow for shortages and a time-proportional backlogging rate. For any given selling price, we first prove that the optimal production schedule not only exists but also is unique. Next, we show that the total profit per unit time is a concave function of price when the production schedule is given. We then provide a simple algorithm to find the optimal selling price and production schedule for the proposed model. Finally, we use a couple of numerical examples to illustrate the algorithm and conclude this article with suggestions for possible future research.
Gordon, Rachel A; Rowe, Hillary L; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P
Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency.
Djatna, Taufik; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Hairiyah, Nina; Marimin
The requirement for smooth information such as buying and selling is essential for commodity warehouse receipt system such as dried seaweed and their stakeholders to transact for an operational transaction. Transactions of buying or selling a commodity warehouse receipt system are a risky process due to the fluctuations in dynamic commodity prices. An integrated system to determine the condition of the real time was needed to make a decision-making transaction by the owner or prospective buyer. The primary motivation of this study is to propose computational methods to trace market tendency for either buying or selling processes. The empirical results reveal that feature selection gain ratio and k-NN outperforms other forecasting models, implying that the proposed approach is a promising alternative to the stock market tendency of warehouse receipt document exploration with accurate level rate is 95.03%.
Full Text Available In today’s competitive markets, selling price and purchasing cost are usually fluctuating with economic conditions. Both selling price and purchasing cost are vital to the profitability of a firm. Therefore, in this paper, I extend the inventory model introduced by Teng and Yang (2004 to allow for not only the selling price but also the purchasing cost to change from one replenishment cycle to another during a finite time horizon. The objective is to find the optimal replenishment schedule and pricing policy to obtain the profit as maximum as possible. The conditions that lead to a maximizing solution guarantee that the existence, uniqueness, and global optimality are proposed. An efficient solution procedure and some theoretical results are presented. Finally, numerical examples for illustration and sensitivity analysis for managerial decision making are also performed.
Gordon, Rachel A.; Rowe, Hillary L.; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P.
Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency. PMID:24954999
Gross, Dominik; Tolba, René H
In recent years, there have been a number of new demands and regulations which have reignited the discussion on ethics in animal-based research. In the light of this development, the present review first presents an overview of underlying core ethical questions and issues. This is followed by an outline of the current discussion on whether animals (used for experimentation) should have rights ascribed to them and whether animals need to have certain characteristics in order to be the beneficiaries of rights. The discourse on concepts of sentience and the 'sociozoological scale' in particular is mapped out in this regard. There follows an outline of relevant ethical positions and current moral approaches to animal-based research (animal rights position, utilitarianism, 'convergence position', intrinsic cultural value of fundamental research, 'contractarianism', anthropocentrism, principle of the three Rs). 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
León, Janeen B.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.
Objective To determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. Design The labels of 2394 best selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Setting Northeast Ohio Main outcome measures Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content Results 44% of the best selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread & baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 gm more than matched non-additive containing foods (p=.03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared to meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Conclusion Phosphorus additives are common in best selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. PMID:23402914
León, Janeen B; Sullivan, Catherine M; Sehgal, Ashwini R
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best-selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top-selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. The labels of 2394 best-selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best-selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created, and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content. Forty-four percent of the best-selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread and baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive-containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 g more than matched nonadditive-containing foods (P = .03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared with meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Phosphorus additives are common in best-selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Feletto, Eleonora; Burton, Suzan; Williams, Kelly; Fry, Rae; Sutton, Clare; Bagus, Lachlan; Egger, Sam
There is evidence that wide distribution of cigarettes contributes to smoking, and multiple commentators have called for a review of tobacco retailing. This study analyses retailers who stop selling cigarettes, why they do so, and discusses the implications for tobacco control. An audit of tobacco retailers in the Australian state of NSW was used to identify retailers who had stopped selling tobacco, and they were then compared with current retailers to determine how many, and what types of outlets stop selling tobacco. Attempts were made to contact and interview all former tobacco retailers identified in three audited regions. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 ex-tobacco retailers, or 31% of the subset of ex-tobacco retailers. Low-volume outlet types were over-represented as a proportion of retailers exiting the market, and some had resumed selling within 18 months of the audit. Low profits were often cited as a contributor to stopping; however, in all but one case, the decision to stop selling was also influenced by a significant change in business circumstances-either legislative or other business changes. Few retailers stop selling tobacco while continuing in the same business, and those who stop disproportionately represent retailer types with low sales volume. The results suggest that legislative changes provide a window where retailers could be prompted to exit the market. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
The present paper debates the main aspects related to ethics, into an industry that recorded exponential growth in Romania insurance field. A very important role for a good business is enhanced by the ethics. The specialists appreciate that ethics represent a key factor for business success. Obviously, the insurance field into a competition market must follow all the aspects related to ethics. The ethics should be an essential element of every insurance company management. If we talk about et...
Pires Marques, Tiago
In the last few decades, the definition of deontological ethics, a well-identified ethical territory in psychiatry, has been the object of increasing concerns. This has been the case in France, where claims of a specific ethical tradition in psychiatry have accompanied the institutionalization of psychiatric ethics and the perceived globalization of an Anglo-American model of mental health care. This study traces the history of the 'French ethical tradition in psychiatry' and its relationship with establishing institutional spaces for ethical decision-making. The 'ethical tradition' thus conceived proves to be functional in terms of preserving the threatened identity of French psychiatry. Nevertheless, this movement also pinpoints impasses that transcend the French context and may provide valuable resources for ethical reflections on mental health on a global scale.
Mishatkina, T.V.; Vishnevskaya, Yu.A.
The necessity of creating a new field of applied Ethics – Nanoethics - is justified by specificity and magnitude of potential hazards and risks associated with the development and use of nanotechnology. (authors)
The author can see no sense in demanding an ethical regime to be applied exclusively to nuclear power but rather calls for an approach that discusses nuclear power as one constituent of the complex energy issue in a way spanning all dimensions involved, as e.g. the technological, economic, cultural, humanitarian, and humanistic aspects. An ethical approach does not question scientific research, or science or technology, but examines their relation to man and the future of humanity, so that an ethical approach will first of all demand that society will bring forward conscientious experts as reliable partners in the process of discussing the ethical implications of progress and development in a higly industrialised civilisation. (orig./CB) [de
Full Text Available The article aims at thinking the relation between ethics, science and technology, emphasising the problem of their re-linking, after the split into judgements of fact and judgements of value, which happened in the beginning of modern times. Once the warlike Aristocracy's ethics and the saint man's moral are examined, one tries to outline the way by taking as a reference the ethics of responsibility, whose prototype is the wise man's moral, which disappeared in the course of modern times, due to the fragmentation of knowing and the advent of the specialist. At the end of the study, the relation between ethics and metaphysics is discussed, aiming at adjusting the anthropological question to the cosmological perspective, as well as at providing the bases of a new humanism, objectifying the humanising of technique and the generation of a new man, literate at science, technology and the humanities.
This article offers a discussion of the connection between technology and values and, specifically, I take a closer look at ethically sound design. In order to bring the discussion into a concrete context, the theory of Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be the focus point. To illustrate my argument...... concerning design ethics, the discussion involves a case study of an augmented window, designed by the VSD Research Lab, which has turned out to be a potentially surveillance-enabling technology. I call attention to a "positivist problem" that has to do with the connection between the design context...... of design ethics, is intended as a constructive criticism, which can hopefully contribute to the further development of design ethics....
The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...
Full Text Available In order to reflect on some ethical improprieties which I had committed during the data collection phase of an information systems research study, I conducted an heuristic and psychologically-oriented self-study. As part of this heuristic reflection, I engaged in a number of self dialogues in the form of a conversation between various characters. Reported in this paper is one of these dialogues, concerning broad issues of ethics and research and discussing the notion of wisdom, maturity, meaning, and virtue. Ethical considerations are always of primary importance, and I would assert that this is even more so when considering research investigating and using new media, such as the world wide web, in which acceptable ethical practices have yet to be established and consolidated.
Barata, Rita Barradas
Human actions take place at the confluence of circumstances that require us to discern the proper way to act. Ethics falls within the terrain of practical knowledge, of knowledge about what is contingent. It belongs to the domain of moral judgments or value judgments. The counterpart of disenchantment with our contemporary world lies in an effort to re-establish an interest in ethics. There are basically three orders of relations between public health and human rights: the quest for balance between the collective good and individual rights; methods and techniques for identifying human rights violations and assessing their negative impact; and the tie between protecting individual rights and promoting health. The relationship between ethics and epidemiology goes beyond the ethical aspects involving research on human beings to encompass political commitments, practices within health services, and the production of knowledge.
This chapter joins the voices that consider research ethics to be a matter of situated, responsible judgment, rather than a matter of universal principles and rigid guidelines. When collecting data about or in digitally saturated contexts, we need to consciously choose between what is available......, findable and collectable, and what should be found, collected and used for research. Thus, this chapter will not offer a set of rules; rather, it advocates for systematic (self) reflexivity in ethical qualitative inquiry. In the following I outline some of the persistent ethical issues that scholars...... involved in internet research are faced with. Classical ethical concepts like informed consent, confidentiality, anonymity, privacy, publicity and harm are difficult to operationalize in a socio-technical context that is persistent, replicable, scalable, and searchable. Examples from my own work...
Feldman, Brenda J.
Discusses how a high school journalism advisor dealt with ethical issues (including source attribution) surrounding the publication of a story about violation of school board policies by representatives of a nationally recognized ring company. (RS)
Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne
) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways......'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1...
Recent data on US refinery sales reveal that selling prices have continued to decline in the 1990s. Reasons for this decrease include increased plant investments to meet regulatory requirements, excess refining capacity, increased imports of refined products, and reduced margins. While these expenditures enable a refinery to continue operating, they do not make the refinery more profitable or valuable. Other factors contributing to reduced selling prices of US refineries are: declining local crude production; unstable crude costs; increased energy conservation; growing competition from alternative fuels
Sorogho, Samira Amadu
This study examines contributing factors to the differential forecasting abilities of sell-side analysts and the relation between the sentiments of these analysts and their media exposure. In particular, I investigate whether the level of optimism expressed in sell-side analysts’ reports of fifteen constituents of primarily the S&P 500 Oil and Gas Industry1, enhance the media appearance of these analysts. Using a number of variables estimated from the I/B/E/S Detail history database, 15,455 a...
Wadsworth, Elle; Drummond, Colin; Deluca, Paolo
Aims: On the 26th of May 2016, the UK Government introduced the Psychoactive Substances Act, 2016. The aim of this short report is to explore online shops selling New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) stated motivations for closing and the changes that arose preceding the ban. Methods: The search for online shops selling NPS was made throughout October 2015. From March to June 2016, data were collected on the status of the online shops, and whether they mentioned the ban, the delay, or their clos...
The self-centeredness of modern organizations leads to environmental destruction and human deprivation. The principle of responsibility developed by Hans Jonas requires caring for the beings affected by our decisions and actions. Ethical decision-making creates a synthesis of reverence for ethical norms, rationality in goal achievement, and respect for the stakeholders. The maximin rule selects the "least worst alternative" in the multidimensional decision space of deontologica...
Ethics emerges in the interstices of deontology, in difficult situations generating internal conflicts for the caregiver, sources of anxiety and questioning. Ethics education has always played a major in nursing programs by initiating a reflection on human values. Faced with current uncertainties in the context of care, it is now based on the appropriation of a reflexive approach to the meaning of action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Silvia MUHCINA; Veronica POPOVICI
As well as the entire business world, marketing has its own ethics problems. Numerous marketing specialists or their representatives have consciously declared and adopted different engagements, declarations or codes of rules regarding the necessity that marketing people consider ethics regulations and values, so that they become much more responsible towards the members of society. These declarations or rules concern marketing practices in their ensemble or are guided towards certain specific...
Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235
Sunčica Ivanović; Čedomirka Stanojević; Slađana Jajić; Ana Vila; Svetlana Nikolić
The subject of interest in this article is the importance of knowing and connecting medical ethics and medical law for the category of health workers. The author believes that knowledge of bioethics which as a discipline deals with the study of ethical issues and health care law as a legal discipline, as well as medical activity in general, result in the awareness of health professionals of human rights, and since the performance of activities of health workers is almost always linked...
I take issue with Frank Leavitt's sketch of a pragmatic criterion for the relevance of metaphysics to medical ethics. I argue that appeal to the potential for confusion generated by metaphysical subtlety establishes a need for better communication rather than shows philosophical insight beside the point. I demonstrate that the proposed Criterion of Relevance has absurd consequences, and I claim that the relevance of philosophical doctrines, whether ethical or metaphysical, is best accounted for in terms of improved understanding. PMID:7608933
One of the first book-length anthologies explicitly devoted to diverse cultural perspectives, including core attention to East-West differences and similarities, on central issues in information ethics. Our introduction provides an overview of the individual chapters, draws these together to form...... a larger picture of current trends and developments, and then explores how these relate with information ethics more broadly, including future directions for research....
the combination of virtues , both those of the intellect and those of character, is where practical wisdom enables ethical virtue to flourish.21...unethical behavior in the fog of individual conflict? Aristotle seems to have lit the way to an answer - - the development of individual virtue ...St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t THE ETHICS OF ROE BY COLONEL JOSEPH P. DIMINICK United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A
Bevan, Joan C
This review will examine research ethics in the context of globalization of clinical trials and recent rapid developments in bioscience. It will focus on international ethical guidelines and the functions of research ethics review boards in research governance. Consent issues in genetic research, which must comply with privacy laws by protecting confidentiality and privacy of personal health data, will be discussed. There has been a rapid expansion of genomic and proteonomic research and biotechnology in the last decade. International ethical guidelines have been updated and the bioscience industry has developed ethics policies. At the same time, problems in academic anesthesia in the US and UK have been identified, leading to recommendations to train physician-scientists in anesthesia to stimulate research activity in the future. Anesthesiologists are joining interdisciplinary research teams and the concept of evidence-based translational research is emerging. Anesthesiologists are moving towards participation in interdisciplinary research teams. They are well placed to speed the translation of research discovery into clinical practice and provide evidence-based perioperative care. This review provides the ethical framework that anesthesiologists will need to meet the challenges of this changing pattern of practice.
Kerrie A Wilson
Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.
Moral thinking is embedded within cultures, and we use ethics all the time in our dealings with one another. Many functioning communities tend to share some values that reflect a particular view of the importance of human life in quantity and quality. Rights and duties form an interconnected network of obligations that protect the security of individuals and groups. In health care, the motives and virtues of practitioners are important sources of the determination to provide care for the ill within the limits of resource constraints. Ethics and the law have similarities, but also significant differences that may cause tension between the two systems. Health care is morally grounded, and provides a bulwark against the widespread fear of disease and suffering. The way in which health care is delivered depends on both national wealth and community values. Ethical problems can be seen as dilemmas, in which there are conflicting values. Modern ethical thinking in health is complicated by the need to consider the values and interests of many stakeholders--patients, health care workers, families, politicians, administrators, health bureaucrats and many others. There are ways of ethical thinking that take account of these often countervailing interests. No universally 'right' answers can be specified. The mode and the thoroughness of ethical consideration, and the careful consideration of local community values, will help to assure that we make the best possible decisions for the time and place.
Lurie, Yotam; Mark, Shlomo
The purpose of this article is to propose an ethical framework for software engineers that connects software developers' ethical responsibilities directly to their professional standards. The implementation of such an ethical framework can overcome the traditional dichotomy between professional skills and ethical skills, which plagues the engineering professions, by proposing an approach to the fundamental tasks of the practitioner, i.e., software development, in which the professional standards are intrinsically connected to the ethical responsibilities. In so doing, the ethical framework improves the practitioner's professionalism and ethics. We call this approach Ethical-Driven Software Development (EDSD), as an approach to software development. EDSD manifests the advantages of an ethical framework as an alternative to the all too familiar approach in professional ethics that advocates "stand-alone codes of ethics". We believe that one outcome of this synergy between professional and ethical skills is simply better engineers. Moreover, since there are often different software solutions, which the engineer can provide to an issue at stake, the ethical framework provides a guiding principle, within the process of software development, that helps the engineer evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different software solutions. It does not and cannot affect the end-product in and of-itself. However, it can and should, make the software engineer more conscious and aware of the ethical ramifications of certain engineering decisions within the process.
Shaw, William H.
In the past three decades, philosophers have delved into applied ethics, pursuing a surprisingly wide range of practically oriented normative questions, and a number of fields of applied ethical research and teaching are flourishing. There have, however, been few comparative studies of different fields in applied ethics, but such studies can, I believe, teach us something. Accordingly, this essay compares and contrasts business ethics and military ethics as distinct disciplinar...
Full Text Available Abstract: This study seeks to support an interdisciplinary, theory-practice integrated work on the applied ethics of information and communication technologies (ICT. Current work on applied ICT ethics is of a disciplinary nature and seeks to apply traditional philosophical norms to novel situations that are not easily identified by analogy to previous cases. I propose an alternative view in which ICTs are seen as a moral environment and ethical agents are seen as human-computer hybrids (cyborgs whose experiences acquire ethical value ecologically. To implement such a view, I propose employing two different kinds of semiotics: a semiotics of meaning-making that is open to the environmental effects of cyborg acts across scales, and a material semiotics that allows for interdisciplinary practitioners to recognize the modes of existence involved in the ethical issues and work out better means-ends relationships among the modes pertinent to each discipline.
Full Text Available Each year millions of nonhuman animals suffer in biomedical experiments for human health benefits. Clinical ethics demand that nonhuman animals are used in the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Nonhuman animals are also used for fundamental biomedical research. Biomedical research that uses nonhuman animals is big business but the financial gains are generally occluded. This paper explores how such research generates profits and gains for those associated with the industry. Research establishments, scientists, laboratories, companies that sell nonhuman animal subjects, that supply equipment for the research, and corporations that market the resulting products are among those that benefit financially. Given the complex articulation of ethical codes, enormous corporate profits that are secured and personal returns that are made, the accepted moral legitimacy of such experiments is compromised. In order to address this, within the confines of the moral orthodoxy, more could to be done to ensure transparency and to extricate the vested financial interests from the human health benefits. But such a determination would not address the fundamental issues that should be at the heart of human actions in respect of the nonhuman animals who are used in experiments. The paper concludes with such an address by calling for an end to the denigration of nonhuman animals as experimental subjects who can be used as commodities for profit-maximisation and as tools in experiments for human health benefits, and the implementation of a more inclusive ethic that is informed by universal concern about the suffering of and compassion for all oppressed beings.
Each year millions of nonhuman animals suffer in biomedical experiments for human health benefits. Clinical ethics demand that nonhuman animals are used in the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Nonhuman animals are also used for fundamental biomedical research. Biomedical research that uses nonhuman animals is big business but the financial gains are generally occluded. This paper explores how such research generates profits and gains for those associated with the industry. Research establishments, scientists, laboratories, companies that sell nonhuman animal subjects, that supply equipment for the research, and corporations that market the resulting products are among those that benefit financially. Given the complex articulation of ethical codes, enormous corporate profits that are secured and personal returns that are made, the accepted moral legitimacy of such experiments is compromised. In order to address this, within the confines of the moral orthodoxy, more could to be done to ensure transparency and to extricate the vested financial interests from the human health benefits. But such a determination would not address the fundamental issues that should be at the heart of human actions in respect of the nonhuman animals who are used in experiments. The paper concludes with such an address by calling for an end to the denigration of nonhuman animals as experimental subjects who can be used as commodities for profit-maximisation and as tools in experiments for human health benefits, and the implementation of a more inclusive ethic that is informed by universal concern about the suffering of and compassion for all oppressed beings.
Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David
Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.
Martin, Thomas A; Bush, Shane S
The practice of geriatric neuropsychology demands specialized training and experience that enables the practitioner to appreciate the unique challenges and opportunities that are encountered when working with older adults. In addition to maintaining advanced knowledge regarding medical and psychological conditions, assessment issues, and treatment needs specific to older persons, clinicians working with older adults must be prepared to recognize and confront ethical dilemmas that arise. For example, ethical challenges related to professional competence, informed consent, assessment, and privacy and confidentiality may be prominent when working with older persons. Maintaining an emphasis on "positive ethics" and utilizing an ethical decision-making model will promote the practitioner's ability to avoid, identify, and resolve ethical challenges. The present article reviews (1) the concept of positive ethics, (2) a comprehensive ethical decision-making model, and (3) ethical issues that are commonly encountered by geriatric neuropsychologists. A case vignette is presented to illustrate the application of the aforementioned tools to promote ethical practice.
Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B
Cesarean delivery is the most common and important surgical intervention in obstetric practice. Ethics provides essential guidance to obstetricians for offering, recommending, recommending against, and performing cesarean delivery. This chapter provides an ethical framework based on the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics. This framework is then used to address two especially ethically challenging clinical topics in cesarean delivery: patient-choice cesarean delivery and trial of labor after cesarean delivery. This chapter emphasizes a preventive ethics approach, designed to prevent ethical conflict in clinical practice. To achieve this goal, a preventive ethics approach uses the informed consent process to offer cesarean delivery as a medically reasonable alternative to vaginal delivery, to recommend cesarean delivery, and to recommend against cesarean delivery. The limited role of shared decision making is also described. The professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics guides this multi-faceted preventive ethics approach. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Atabay, Gülem; Çangarli, Burcu Güneri; Penbek, Şebnem
Moral distress is a major problem in nursing profession. Researchers identified that the stronger the ethical basis of the organization, the less moral distress is reported. However, different ethical climates may have different impacts on moral distress. Moreover, conceptualization of moral distress and ethical climate as well as their relationship may change according to the cultural context. The main aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between different types of ethical climate as described in Victor and Cullen's framework, and moral distress intensity among nurses in Turkish healthcare settings. An online survey was administrated to collect data. Questionnaires included moral distress and ethical climate scales in addition to demographic questions. Data were collected from registered nurses in Turkey. In all, 201 of 279 nurses completed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 72%. Ethical approval was obtained from the university to which the authors were affiliated, after a detailed investigation of the content and data collection method. Factor analyses showed that moral distress had three dimensions, namely, organizational constraints, misinformed and over-treated patients, and lack of time and resources, while ethical climate had four types, namely, rules, well-being of stakeholders, individualism, and organizational interests. Positive correlations were identified between certain types of ethical climate (rules, individualism, or organizational interests) and moral distress intensity. Factor distribution of the scales shows some commonalities with the findings of previous research. However, context-specific dimensions and types were also detected. No particular ethical climate type was found to have a negative correlation with moral distress. Recommendations were made for reducing the negative impact of ethical climate on moral distress. These include solving the nursing-shortage problem, increasing autonomy, and improving physical
Iki, Yuko; Ito, Takuya; Kudo, Katsuyoshi; Noda, Masafumi; Kanehira, Masahiko; Sueta, Teruko; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Kagaya, Yutaka; Okada, Yoshinori; Unno, Michiaki
Live animals are used in surgical skills training in wet lab, which has undeniable effectiveness for the development of future surgeons. However, where such training is provided, animal welfare is a major consideration. Increasingly, institutions that offer wet-lab training are incorporating animal ethics and welfare-related content into their training courses, but the effectiveness of such animal ethics education has yet to be evaluated quantitatively. We investigated whether the animal ethics content of a training course affected trainees by measuring increase in ethical awareness using visual analog scale questionnaires before and after training. Our results demonstrated a significant and positive increase in awareness of animal ethics (significance level of 5%; 0.0380≤P≤0.0016).
Amos S. Engelbrecht
Full Text Available Orientation: The increasing prevalence of theft, sabotage and other deviant behaviours in the workplace has disastrous effects for organisations, such as lowered effectiveness, escalated costs and the organisation’s declining reputation. Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to design and investigate the relationships among perceived leader effectiveness, ethical climate and ethical leadership. A further objective of the investigation was to validate a conceptual model clarifying the structural associations among the latent constructs in the South African corporate domain. Motivation for the study: A successful leader is both an ethical and an effective leader. An organisation’s leadership is seen as the most critical element in establishing and maintaining an ethical climate in organisations. Research design, approach and method: A convenient and multi-cultural sample comprised of 224 employees from various organisations in South Africa. The structure and content of the variables were analysed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, beside item analysis. Main findings: Satisfactory reliability was found for all the measurement scales. The results of CFA demonstrated acceptable fit with the data for the refined measurement and structural models. The results of structural equation modelling (SEM indicated positive relationships among ethical leadership, ethical climate and leader effectiveness. Practical implications: Organisational leaders should take full responsibility for cultivating ethics through ethical leader behaviour and an ethical climate. By reinforcing these aspects, perceived leader effectiveness can be advanced, which will ultimately decrease corruption and other forms of counterproductive behaviour in South African organisations. Contribution: The study provides further theoretical and empirical evidence that leadership effectiveness can be realised through instilling an ethical organisational climate in which
Full Text Available The subject of interest in this article is the importance of knowing and connecting medical ethics and medical law for the category of health workers. The author believes that knowledge of bioethics which as a discipline deals with the study of ethical issues and health care law as a legal discipline, as well as medical activity in general, result in the awareness of health professionals of human rights, and since the performance of activities of health workers is almost always linked to the question of life and death, then the lack of knowledge of basic legal acts would not be justified at all. The aim of the paper was to present the importance of medical ethics and medical law among the medical staff. A retrospective analysis of the medical literature available on the indexed base KOBSON for the period 2005-2010 was applied. Analysis of all work leads to the conclusion that the balance between ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, trust and cooperation between the two sides that appear over health care can be considered a goal that every health care worker should strive for. This study supports the attitude that lack of knowledge and non-compliance with the ethical principles and medical law when put together can only harm the health care worker. In a way, this is the message to health care professionals that there is a need for the adoption of ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, because the most important position of all health workers is their dedication to the patient as a primary objective and the starting point of ethics.
Carita Lilian Snellman
Full Text Available The last decades’ serious organizational scandals that mainly stem from corruption and conflicting interests but also from bribery, favoritism and other wrongdoings have ac-centuated the need for finding instruments for achieving more ethical organizations and management. Ethics management is particularly important in the public sector because public employees and holders of public office are responsible for increasing wellbeing and providing common good for all citizens. Only accountable management striving for integrity through ethical practices and decision making will guarantee ethical organiza-tional behavior. In spite of increasing research on ethics in general and ethics manage-ment in particular, increase in organizational scandals indicates that there is knowledge gap concerning ethical instruments that help to solve ethical problems. The aim of this paper is to shed light on ethical theories and instruments, and wrongdoings in public sec-tor organizations. The main questions are; why is there so much wrongdoing; how can it be reduced; and how can more ethical organization and management be achieved. This is a review paper aiming to provide a review of ethical theories and instruments and dis-cuss serious wrongdoings and the role of ethics in the public sector. The paper contrib-utes to the fields of management and organization, ethics, and public management.
Adams, J. David
This manual on drugstore selling and merchandising, together with a separate answer key, is intended for trainees in distributive education. The 18 self-study assignments, developed by an instructional coordinator with the aid of college professors and leaders in business, cover a wide range of topics, from effective sales techniques to specific…
Standard & Poor's Corp., New York, NY.
Designed for the general public and possibly suitable also for high school and college economic students, the handbook gives general information about investing in the stock market. Arranged into seven sections, the handbook discusses the typical shareholder, common and preferred stocks, buying and selling bonds, how to develop a personal…
Boyer, Renee Raiden
When preparing foods at home to sell, you must still practice good sanitation and proper food safety techniques. Microbial growth is affected by the following six factors: Food, Acidity, Time, Temperature, Oxygen and Moisture, also known as FAT TOM. Controlling one or more FAT TOM factors prevents microorganisms from growing to dangerous levels that might make someone sick.
Vladimir V. Manakhov
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of retail stock optimization within mo-nopolistic competition market while selling non-food goods to customers on-credit. Optimization model has been developed and appropriate technique of stock volume planning has been introduced
Moving between owner-occupied houses requires both buying and selling. During the Great Recession, the majority of movers sold their old houses before buying new ones, while in the preceding years the majority first bought new houses. In an equilibrium search model, by choosing the order of buying
Supply chain management; dynamic pricing; partner selection; supply chain planning; electronic marketplaces. Abstract. In this paper we develop a quadratic programming model for partner selection and planning in integrated supply chain networks embedded with both sell-side and buy-side electronic marketplaces.
Verhallen, Theo M.m.; Greve, Harriette; Frambach, Ruud Th
Notes that the literature on personal selling and advising on services stresses the importance of analysing the actual client-adviser interaction process. Explores this process of interaction in a mortgage setting by observing 42 conversations between advisers and 26 clients. The exact content and
Kristell A. Miller; Stephanie A. Snyder; Michael A. Kilgore
The nation's family forest lands can be an important contributor to carbon sequestration efforts. Yet very little is known about how family forest landowners view programs that enable them to sell carbon credits generated from the growth of their forest and the compensation that would be required to encourage a meaningful level of participation. To address this...
Kamakura, W.A.; Wedel, M.; de Rosa, F.; Mazzon, J.A.
An important aspect of the new orientation on customer relationship marketing is the use of customer transaction databases for the cross-selling of new services and products. In this study, we propose a mixed data factor analyzer that combines information from a survey with data from the customer
The present article provides an overview of the best-selling apps for the age range of 0-8 years old under various categories, including ‘Kids’, ‘Books’, ‘Educational games’, ‘Family games’ and ‘Word games’ in the two major application stores (Google Play and iTunes App Store) in four economically
Chapman, Joseph; Schetzsle, Stacey; Wahlers, Russell
This article presents an innovative, experiential-learning project that incorporates students from two different courses: sales management and professional selling. Sales management students actually manage sales students on an outside sales project. Students apply classroom knowledge to a real-life sales project for a local community…
Young, Joyce A.; Hawes, Jon M.
This paper describes an application of active learning within two different courses: professional selling and sales management. Students assumed the roles of sales representatives and sales managers for an actual fund-raiser--a golf outing--sponsored by a student chapter of the American Marketing Association. The sales project encompassed an…
This podcast helps raise retailers awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations. Under the new regulations, retailers can not sell cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to anyone younger 18. Created: 7/8/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products. Date Released: 7/8/2010.
Anttila, Jaakko; Rytkönen, Tatu; Kankaanpää, Rami; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Lahti, Satu
In 2007, the Finnish National Board of Education (FNBE) and the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) gave a national recommendation that Finnish upper comprehensive schools should not sell sweet products. The aim was to find out how the national recommendation changed the schools' selling of sweet products. This longitudinal survey was conducted in Finnish upper comprehensive school classes 7-9 (13-15-year-old pupils) in 2007 and 2010. All the schools (N=970) were invited to answer the questionnaire and 237 schools answered in both years (response rate 24%). The questionnaires contained questions concerning the selling of sweet and healthy products and school policy on sweet selling guidelines. Of the nine items in the questionnaire, three weighted sum scores were formed for oral health promotion: Exposure, enabling and policy (higher score indicating better actions). These sum scores were also trichotomized. Statistical significances of the changes were analyzed using nonparametric Wilcoxon's test, McNemar's test, and McNemar-Bowker's test. Schools had decreased exposure of pupils to sweet products (psweet products, candies and soft drinks had decreased (psweet products had not changed (p=0.665). Schools tended to improve their exposure and policy status (psweet products among adolescents. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
This dissertation is made up of legal and empirical research into the direct selling industry’s advocacy in the European Union. In the context of the European pluralistic democracy or, somewhat pejoratively, the Brussels “lobbyocracy”, the thesis intends to increase lobbying transparency by mapping
Paas, L.; Kuijlen, A.A.A.
In previously published papers it was shown that consumers often acquire financial products in the same order. Knowledge on such acquisition patterns is useful for marketing purposes. This study aims to define optimal utilisation of the acquisition pattern approach for cross-sell purposes. The
Titus, David; Harris, Garth; Gulati, Rajesh; Bristow, Dennis
The Capstone Sales course is the final in a sequence of five required courses in a 15 credit Professional Selling program housed in the Marketing Department at St. Cloud State University. The course is heavily focused on experiential learning activities for senior-level sales students. In this paper details of the course design, instructor and…
Delpechitre, Duleep; Baker, David S.
Cross-cultural selling has become an important factor in sales education. In the current competitive business graduate market, students who enter the workforce in frontline customer service positions are expected to perform sales at a higher level. Students that have acquired an education in sales during their undergraduate program have been found…
Simple percentages and frequency tables were used in analyzing the data. Results from this study show that poor storage facilities, poor marketing strategy, problem of income and culture of the people account for the bulk-selling of yams in the study area. The study recommends that there is need for the provision of modern ...
Through qualitative indepth interviews and focus group discussions with FSWs, this article contextualizes the selling of sex in one large urban city of Kenya. The results of this study indicate that FSWs will never be able to enforce safe sex among male clients in such settings without structural interventions that address ...
Colleges are not the only enterprises interested in the possibilities of free, online courses. Publishers have begun to investigate whether so-called MOOC's, or massive open online courses, can help them reach new readers and sell more books. For the moment, providers of the classes encourage professors not to require students to buy texts, in…
Describes three companies' approaches to marketing and selling CD-ROM products on the World Wide Web. Benefits include low overhead for Internet-based sales, allowance for creativity, and ability to let customers preview products online. Discusses advertising, information delivery, content, information services, and security. (AEF)
Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Prinsen, Sander
Purpose: The Dutch national policy regarding alcohol and youth relies on retailers’ willingness to refuse to sell alcohol to underage customers. This study examined unobtrusively whether supermarkets and liquor stores do indeed comply with the legal age restrictions for alcohol sales. - Methods: A
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May we sell forfeited drug paraphernalia? 102-41.235 Section 102-41.235 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 41...
Borgh, van der W.; Jong, de A.; Nijssen, E.J.
To sell new products firms increasingly rely on sales teams. Members of such teams have two potentially conflicting tasks: helping team colleagues and accomplishing high individual turnover. As a result, the challenge for salespeople is to conduct their helping in such a manner that it does not harm
Moving between owner-occupied houses requires both buying and selling. During the Great Recession, the majority of movers sold their old houses before buying new ones, while in the preceding years the majority first bought new houses. In an equilibrium search model, by choosing the order of buying
Judd, Vaughan C.
This paper argues that professional selling within the context of a marketing curricula in a business school should be described and practiced in a manner compatible with the marketing concept, which emphasizes satisfaction of consumers' needs. The paper looks at textbook approaches to sales presentations to determine their congruency with the…
Salasya, B.D.S.; Burger, C.P.J.
Kale is a major source of cash for many households in Kenya. A study of households in Kiambu district revealed that kale made the highest contribution to household income among the crops. The farmers of Kiambu sell their kale either in Nairobi, at farm gate, or at the local market and fetch
harvest and poverty of yam farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The main ... size of 300 yam farmers and yam business men and women. ... Results from this study show that poor ... the people account for the bulk-selling of yams in the study area. The study .... Benin Republic, Togo and Ghana etc, fifty (50) to Eight (80) percent of.
Tsai, Ming-Hong; Chi, Shu-Cheng Steve; Hu, Hsiu-Hua
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate how salespeople's renqing orientation and self-esteem jointly affect their selling behavior. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Data were obtained from a survey of salespeople from 17 pharmaceutical and consumer-goods companies in Taiwan (n = 216). FINDINGS: Salespeople's renqing orientation (i.e., their propensity to adhere to the accepted norm of reciprocity) compensates the negative effect of self-esteem on their selling behaviors, such as adaptive selling and hard work. IMPLICATIONS: Our study results underscore the critical role of the character trait of renqing orientation in a culture emphasizing a norm of reciprocity. Therefore, it would be useful to consider a strategy of recruiting salespeople with either a high self-esteem or a combination of high renqing orientation and low self-esteem. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The existing literature of industrial/organizational psychology and marketing primarily relies on constructs that are derived from Western cultural contexts. However, the present paper extended these literatures by investigating the possible joint effects of self-esteem with a trait originated from the Chinese culture on salespeople's selling behaviors.
Hamstra, M.R.W.; Rietzschel, E.F.; Groeneveld, D.M.
Selling products and services is a central function in organizations. Although explaining sales success has mainly been approached from broad trait perspectives, tactical decision-making potentially explains additional variance in this crucial outcome. We propose and find that promotion focus
Hamstra, Melvyn R.W.; Rietzschel, Eric F.; Groeneveld, Denise M.
Selling products and services is a central function in organizations. Although explaining sales success has mainly been approached from broad trait perspectives, tactical decision-making potentially explains additional variance in this crucial outcome. We propose and find that promotion focus
Barnes, Mary Ellen; And Others
This kit consists of: (1) a leader's guide; (2) an 18-minute videotape containing three 6-minute discussion starter segments analyzing typical commercials and advertising techniques; (3) a special issue of "Media Values" magazine on the theme "Fatal Attraction: The Selling of Addiction"; (4) an 8-page booklet "Awareness to Action: Media Literacy…
... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.330 May I sell vehicles from an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I sell vehicles from an engine...
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I sell engines from an engine... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.330 May I sell engines from an engine...
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I sell engines from an engine... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.330 May I sell engines from an...
Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars
In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.
Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars
In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards
In some cases, farmers may sell at low price when they face financial constraints, especially ... Analysis of the Determinants of Small-Scale Farmers' Grain Market Participations.  ...... An MSc Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate.
Palazoğlu, Cansu Atmaca; Koç, Zeliha
Rising levels of burnout and decreasing job satisfaction can inhibit healthcare professionals from providing high-quality care due to a corresponding decrease in their ethical sensitivity. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the level of ethical sensitivity in emergency service nurses and their levels of burnout and job satisfaction. This research employed a descriptive and cross-sectional design. Participants and research context: This study was conducted with a sample of 236 nurses, all of whom worked in emergency service between 24 July 2015 and 28 April 2016. Data were collected using the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale. Ethical considerations: This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Review Board of Ondokuz Mayıs University. There was a weak and negative correlation (r = -0.158, p = 0.015) between Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Inventory scores. There was also a weak and negative correlation (r = -0.335, p Burnout Inventory and Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale scores. Decreased job satisfaction and increased burnout levels among emergency service nurses might result in them indulging in improper practices, frequently facing ethical problems, and a decrease in the overall quality of service in hospitals. In order for emergency service nurses to recognize ethical problems and make the most accurate decisions, a high level of ethical sensitivity is critical. In this respect, it is suggested that continuing education after graduation and training programs should be organized.
Sorab Georgy Sadri
Full Text Available This is a paper based on empirical investigation conducted in Western India between 2002 and 2012 especially at a time when the Indian economy is in a stage of transition from state capitalism to free market capitalism, albeit both of a retarded variety. It takes the 7 Ps of services marketing and cross verifies responses against seven dimensions of ethical conduct. The study is based on questionnaires followed by interviews. The target respondents were life insurance employees of banc assurance involved in marketing life insurance policies to customers in the urban sector. The study brought to the fore the fact that commissions were more important that telling the truth while selling policies. In the process ethical considerations conveniently went out of the window. To protect the interest of the unsuspecting clients a plea is made to have governance machinery in place that will make the insurance marketing personnel accountable for what and how they sell their wares. This need is especially felt in a country where the social security net is virtually non existent and the erstwhile joint family system is on a fast decline. In such circumstances a lack of ethical norms on the part of the insurer is an unacceptable sociological proposition and borders on gross unethical behaviour. The task of people management experts to address this issue is of the paramount importance and urgency if the Indian life insurance industry is to sustain its social image in a highly competitive market where foreign players are steadily entering the domestic scene.
Full Text Available Michael G Vaughn1, Jeffrey J Shook2, Brian E Perron3, Arnelyn Abdon4, Brian Ahmedani51School of Social Work, School of Public Health and Department of Public Policy Studies, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO USA; 2School of Social Work, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA USA; 3School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI USA; 4School of Economics, University of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines; 5Henry Ford Health System, Detroit MI, USAPurpose: Despite the high rates of drug selling among youth in juvenile justice and youth residing in disadvantage neighborhoods, relatively little is known about the patterns of illicit drug selling among youth in the general population.Methods: Using the public-use data file from the adolescent sample (N = 17 842 in the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH, this study employed multiple logistic regression to compare the behavioral, parental involvement, and prevention experiences of youth who sold and did not sell illicit drugs in the past year.Results: Findings from a series of logistic regression models indicated youth who sold drugs were far more likely to use a wide variety of drugs and engage in delinquent acts. Drug-selling youth were significantly less likely to report having a parent involved in their life and have someone to talk to about serious problems but were more likely to report exposure to drug prevention programming.Conclusion: Selling of drugs by youth appears to be a byproduct of substance abuse and deviance proneness, and the prevention programs these youth experience are likely a result of mandated exposure derived from contact with the criminal justice system. Assuming no major drug supply side reductions, policies, and practices associated with increasing drug abuse treatment, parental involvement and supervision, and school engagement are suggested.Keywords: drug distribution, prevention, adolescent risk, youth experiences, parental
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the airport mobile marketing and what elements have had a positive or negative influence in cross-selling via an airport app. Design/methodology: For this analysis, a survey was conducted to users that use the Schiphol Amsterdam Airport app. A total of 103 questionnaires were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings: This study found that security/control factor supplied by the mobile marketing tool to passengers at the airport, it has been demonstrated that it favours an increase in cross-selling. in addition, if an airport is perceived to have a good brand image, it will have a positive effect in cross-selling. Originality/value: This paper is the first research that examines the impact of mobile marketing in airports. Smelling multiple products and services to the same client before, during, and post consumption is a marketing technique that intends to (1 satisfy a client’s need and (2 increase a company’s profit by using cross-selling and other complementary services. Airline companies are experts in carrying out this activity, and airports have found that mobile applications are the perfect tool to increase their commercial profits. Offering complementary products and services is a very lucrative business, and a mobile device or smartphone are -- and will become -- the ideal medium to meet users’ demands as well as to improve the passenger experience. Keywords: mobile marketing, cross-selling, information, security-control, image-perception, satisfaction, WOM
Kuosmanen, Jari; de Cabo, Annelie
The purpose of this study is to examine how men who sell sex to men perceive the risks in this activity and what experiences they have of actual denigration, threats, and violence in their relations with customers. We also discuss the self-defense strategies they have used to protect themselves. The study is based on an Internet survey on Swedish websites. Statistical analyses have been carried out, and in interpreting the results, Finkelhor and Asdigian's revised routine activities theory has been used. The results show that the vulnerability of sellers of sex is greatest during the time when the sexual act is being performed, and that this is primarily linked to the customer's antagonism and seeking gratification by overstepping agreed boundaries, particularly with regard to sexual services including BDSM. Their vulnerability was also connected to the seller's diminished capacity for self-protection due to personal and external pressures. A smaller proportion of the men described risk prevention activities. These involved refusing a customer after an initial contact, protecting themselves from infection, being on their guard during the whole process, selecting the place, and deciding not to carry out certain sexual acts. An important implication concerns the occupational health and safety that men who sell sex to men can develop for themselves, while remaining within the law. International studies have demonstrated that selling sex in collective, indoor forms provides the greatest security. For decades, Swedish prostitution policy has had the ambition of reducing prostitution through targeting those who purchase sex, and those who promote prostitution in criminal legislation. This effectively prevents more systematic and collective attempts to create safer conditions for selling sex. In conclusion, it can be stated that while it is legal to sell sex in Sweden, this is done at the seller's own risk.
Bryan, Amy R; Liu, Yifei; Kuehl, Peggy G
To evaluate whether the use of personal selling, in combination with other promotional techniques, could improve patient commitment to receive the targeted intervention of herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax-Merck). Two locally owned grocery store chain pharmacies in the Kansas City, MO, metropolitan area (Price Chopper Pharmacy 11 [PC11] and Price Chopper Pharmacy 36 [PC36]). Price Chopper Pharmacy employs pharmacists who are able to administer vaccinations to patients within the dispensing workflow. Passive signage promoting zoster vaccine was placed at both PC11 and PC36. Personal selling by pharmacy staff to targeted patients was implemented at PC36, where patients were encouraged to receive zoster vaccine at prescription pick up and/or by personalized letter. Primary measures included comparison of the number committing to receive zoster vaccine at either pharmacy, comparison of patient perceptions regarding each pharmacy's promotion of zoster vaccine, and pharmacy staff time spent identifying targeted patients and performing personal selling activities. 90 of 745 targeted patients (12.1%) at PC36 made commitments to receive zoster vaccine compared with 9 of 614 (1.5%) at PC11 (P < 0.001). The barrier of "Dr. hasn't told me I need it" was reduced for PC36 patients (P < 0.05). Patients receiving vaccination had a more favorable attitude toward receiving zoster vaccine than unvaccinated patients (P < 0.01). Among unvaccinated patients, those at PC36 had a more favorable attitude toward receiving zoster vaccine after interacting with a pharmacist (P < 0.05). Personal selling increased patient commitment to receiving a targeted intervention significantly. By using personal selling, pharmacists resolved barriers to immunization.
Nursing ethics centres on how nurses ought to respond to the moral situations that arise in their professional contexts. Nursing ethicists invoke normative approaches from moral philosophy. Specifically, it is increasingly common for nursing ethicists to apply virtue ethics to moral problems encountered by nurses. The point of this article is to argue for scepticism about this approach. First, the research question is motivated by showing that requirements on nurses such as to be kind, do not suffice to establish virtue ethics in nursing because normative rivals (such as utilitarians) can say as much; and the teleology distinctive of virtue ethics does not transpose to a professional context, such as nursing. Next, scepticism is argued for by responding to various attempts to secure a role for virtue ethics in nursing. The upshot is that virtue ethics is best left where it belongs - in personal moral life, not professional ethics - and nursing ethics is best done by taking other approaches.
How does one conduct, measure and record a ‘good’ ethical review of biomedical research? To what extent do ethics committees invoke professionalism in researchers and in themselves, and to what extent do they see competence as adherence to a set of standard operating procedures for ethical review......? Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork with the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a capacity-building NGO that runs ethics committee trainings and reviews in the Asia Pacific region, I develop an analysis of ethical review and its effects. I focus on a ‘second-order audit’ run...... readings of ‘ethics’. I begin and end with a reflection on the ethical effects of a measurement practice that takes ethics itself as its object....
Spagnolo, Antonio G; Daloiso, Viviana
Nanotechnologies are an expression of the human ability to control and manipulate matter on a very small scale. Their use will enable an even and constant monitoring of human organisms, in a new and perhaps less invasive way. Debates at all levels--national, European and international--have pointed out the common difficulty of giving a complete, clear definition of nanotechnologies. This is primarily due to the variety of their components, to the fact that there is not just one technology but several. The most significant medical applications of nanotechnologies are in the diagnostic and the therapeutic fields, eg biosensors and molecular imaging, providing diagnosis and drug delivery with no invasive methods involved. Like any other emerging field, such technologies imply new possibilities for improving health but, on the other hand, they are still at an experimental stage and therefore should be implemented under rigorous safety testing before going on general release. For this purpose, the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of nanotechnologies have been elaborated by study groups, in order to develop solutions before the results of the tests are diffused into medical practice. The aim of this paper is to define some of the ethical issues concerning biomedical applications and to evaluate whether there is a need for new or additional guidelines and regulations.
Full Text Available Supervision in education plays a crucial role in attaining educational goals. In addition to determining the present situation, it has a theoretical and practical function regarding the actions to be taken in general and the achievement of teacher development in particular to meet the educational goals in the most effective way. For the education supervisors to act ethically in their tasks while achieving this vital mission shall facilitate them to build up trust, to enhance the level of collaboration and sharing, thus it shall contribute to organizational effectiveness. Ethics is an essential component of educational supervision. Yet, it demonstrates rather vague quality due to the conditions, persons, and situations. Therefore, it is a difficult process to develop the ethical standards in institutions. This study aims to clarify the concept of ethics, to bring up its importance, and to make recommendations for more effective supervisions from the aspect of ethics, based on the literature review, some research results, and sample cases reported by teachers and supervisors.
Anna Maria Kucharska
Full Text Available Academic ethics has recently become an important issue in Poland. With changes in the Polish law on higher education a new approach to ethics of students and academics has been presented. As a PhD student and young researcher, I am personally interested in the introduced changes. This article seeks to examine professional academic ethics in terms of two chosen theories, that is, the Protestant work ethic of Max Weber and its adaptation to the academic environment by Robert K. Merton. I situate both theories in the Polish context of shaping the academic ethos. In my deliberations I recall Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s works as fundamental for the Protestant work ethos values, which are honesty, reliability and diligence. Additionally I present their religious as well as non religious aspects. With such theoretical foundations, I attempt to evaluate the risks and violations in the ranks of Polish academics. The theoretical basis and the collected data enable me to put forward the claim that it is not feasible in Poland to follow the Western model of work ethics. Instead, it has to be built from scratch. To start this process, we need to consider the value of responsibility as a crucial category not only for the process of academic ethos formation, but also for everyday life from the early years.
Alirio José Abreu Suarez
Full Text Available This essay is a theoretical reflection about ethics in educational research. The same is done under a documentary approach with a literature review. Ethics in teaching is important because this is a reference for all undergraduate or graduate, as well as the need to consider education authorities at different levels and modalities in order to guide the actors in the educational process. At the same time, it can be expressed that the issue will serve as background for further studies and investigations that have to do with the issues raised. It also provides basic elements for teachers who want to make some related ethical codes, principles and injury caused the researcher studies. Similarly, ethics for being a discipline where are immersed fundamental human values such as honesty, solidarity, respect, tolerance among other aspects must be taken into account by researchers. Finally, it is worth noting that if you really want relevant research to provide new knowledge seeking social and educational transformation must begin with ethics as a relevant factor during all stages of a study.
Francisco García García
Full Text Available This paper realyzes an inmersión into the youtubers world, relating it with the ethical needs of this digital context. After a bibliographic revision around the concepts of study, it develops an experiment with the aim of deeping in the field of creativity and the ethics within the most popular video made by four Spanish youtubers: ElRubius, Gym virtual, Dulceida y Verdeliss. Metodology consists in the analysis of each video from several parameters of the creativity, to then, through using Socratic maieutics, to formulate a battery of questions which are connected, as answers, to ethical axioms, later organized as a list in some categories. As a result, it shows the viability of this process for extracting ethical axioms susceptible to be used by users and youtubers. The most numerous axioms’ category of the study is “Social responsibility”, alludind therefore to the importance that this influencers have over their environment and, hence, to the importance of the ethics in their work.
H. J.G. Zandman
Full Text Available Scientists have started with experimentation that raises difficult ethical questions. It comprises taking material from the human blueprint (DNA and inserting this in various test animals. The purpose of such research is noble, namely the alleviation of hu- man suffering. Yet the ethical ramifications of blending the hu- man and animal genome are significant, especially for Chris- tians. The creation of all living entities after their kind and the image-bearing dignity attributed to man both come under se- vere ethical stress for those who presuppose divine order in God’s ecology. For non-Christians the philosophical dilemma ought not to exist in the ethical sense if applied at the purest level. If the human is merely a kind of animal, along with and ontologically not diffe- rent from other animals, there is little logical reason to object to chimeric research apart from a concern about what such re- search and application might do to the order of life pragmati- cally. However, many non-Christian do object. Man is made in God’s image and the concept of human dignity and a universal sense of right and wrong still binds Christians and non-Chris- tians when considering ethics in the field of chimeric research. As the mixing of human stem cells with embryonic animals takes place, certain non-Christian authors protest that human dignity is being diminished and the animal essence is being vio- lated.
Kelly Ann Joyce
Full Text Available The automation of knowledge via algorithms, code and big data has brought new ethical concerns that computer scientists and engineers are not yet trained to identify or mediate. We present our experience of using original research to develop scenarios to explore how STS scholars can produce materials that facilitate ethics education in computer science, data science, and software engineering. STS scholars are uniquely trained to investigate the societal context of science and technology as well as the meaning STEM researchers attach to their day-to-day work practices. In this project, we use a collaborative, co-constitutive method of doing ethics education that focuses on building an ethical framework based on empirical practices, highlighting two issues in particular: data validity and the relations between data and inequalities. Through data-grounded scenario writing, we demonstrate how STS scholars and other social scientists can apply their expertise to the production of educational materials to spark broad ranging discussions that explore the connections between values, ethics, STEM, politics, and social contexts.
Artal, Raul; Rubenfeld, Sheldon
Biomedical research is currently guided by ethical standards that have evolved over many centuries. Historical and political events, social and legal considerations, and continuous medical and technological advances have led to the prevailing research ethics and practice. Currently, patients and research subjects have complete autonomy while under medical care or when volunteering as research subjects. Enrolling volunteers in human subjects research includes a detailed and meaningful informed consent process that follows the cardinal principles of ethics: autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. These principles were gradually adopted after World War II, primarily in response to the unethical behavior of German physicians and scientists during the Third Reich. This review emphasizes the importance of historical milestones and the essential role that ethics has in contemporary medical research. Research protocols should achieve maximum benefits for the society, have clinical and scientific value, be subject to independent review, respect human dignity, and follow the principles of informed consent, and most importantly, subjects should have complete autonomy. However, current principles and regulations cannot cover every conceivable situation, particularly in view of the new advances in science and technology. New and evolving medical technology, genetic research, therapeutic interventions, and innovations challenge society to maintain the highest moral and ethical principles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Jones, Corinne A; Turkstra, Lyn S
To examine storytelling performance behaviours in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and relate these behaviours to perceived charisma and desirability as a conversation partner. Seven adult males with traumatic brain injury (TBI) told their accident narratives to a male confederate. Ten male undergraduate students rated 1-minute video clips from the beginning of each narrative using the Charismatic Leadership Communication Scale (CLCS). Raters also indicated whether or not they would like to engage in conversation with each participant. Of the performative behaviours analysed, gestures alone significantly influenced CLCS ratings and reported likelihood of engaging in future conversation with the participant. Post-hoc analysis revealed that speech rate was significantly correlated with all of the preceding measures. There was a significant correlation between self- and other-ratings of charisma. The findings suggest that aspects of non-verbal performance, namely gesture use and speech rate, influence how charismatic an individual is perceived to be and how likely someone is to engage in conversation with that person. Variability in these performance behaviours may contribute to the variation in social outcomes seen in the TBI population.