WorldWideScience

Sample records for selle tendentsid seoses

  1. Põhjusliku seose tuvastamine deliktiõiguses : [bakalaureusetöö] / Kadri Michelson ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Janno Lahe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Kadri, 1984-

    2006-01-01

    Põhjusliku seose mõiste ja tähendus, lepinguõigusliku ja lepinguvälise vastutuse eristamine, delikti üldkoosseisu elemendid, põhjusliku seose tuvastamise tasandid ja faasid, peamised teooriad, kausaalseose tuvastamise olulisemad erijuhud

  2. Direct selling particularities

    OpenAIRE

    Greifová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the parcularities of direct selling, self regulation of this industry, multi-level marketing which is the most used sales method in the field of direct selling. The part of the thesis is dedicated to the issue of customer psychology that is very important for achieving success in direct selling. Main goals are to provide readers with the general view of direct selling and analysis of growing possibilities of the industry in the future.

  3. Cross Selling Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nufer, Gerd; Kelm, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Erfolgreiches Cross Selling Management bietet die Möglichkeit, die Profitabilität von Neu- oder Bestandskunden zu steigern und kann zur Verbesserung der Kundenzufriedenheit, Kundenbindung und Verlängerung des Kundenlebenszyklus beitragen. Um erfolgreiches Cross Selling Management zu betreiben, sind ein systematisches Vorgehen und die Bereitstellung von Unternehmensressourcen notwendig. Umfangreiche vorbereitende Maßnahmen stellen sicher, dass Cross Selling nicht dem Zufall überlassen wird. De...

  4. SPIN-selling

    CERN Document Server

    Rackham, Neil

    1995-01-01

    True or false? In selling high-value products or services: "closing" increases your chance of success; it is essential to describe the benefits of your product or service to the customer; objection handling is an important skill; and open questions are more effective than closed questions. All false, says Neil Rackham. He and his team studied more than 35,000 sales calls made by 10,000 sales people in 23 countries over 12 years. Their findings revealed that many of the methods developed for selling low-value goods just don't work for major sales. Rackham went on to introduce his SPIN-selling method, where SPIN describes the whole selling process - Situation questions, Problem questions, Implication questions, Need-payoff questions. SPIN-selling provides you with a set of simple and practical techniques which have been tried in many of today's leading companies with dramatic improvements to their sales performance.

  5. Selling digital music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non......, the music industry should concentrate on alternative ways of creating profit such as selling access to listeners, concerts, merchandise, ringtones etc....

  6. Selling digital music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non......, the music industry should concentrate on alternative ways of creating profit such as selling access to listeners, concerts, merchandise, ringtones etc....

  7. Kazakhstan sells its silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul.

    1995-01-01

    Kazakhstan's government seems keen to involve foreign companies in financing the large scale exploitation of Central Asia's hydrocarbon reserves. Despite domestic uncertainty about free market ethics, the country's rulers seem keen to sell off some of its present wealth, in terms of oil production, in order to raise finance for internal projects. The author explores which of several options for financing these large projects would prove most beneficial to the Kazakhs themselves. (UK)

  8. Eesti Panga staatus ning selle muutumine seoses euro kasutuselevõtuga : [bakalaureusetöö] / Ursula Laido ; Tartu Ülikooli Õigusinstituut ; juhendaja: Madis Kallion

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laido, Ursula

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Panga ajalugu, õiguslik staatus, juhtimine, ülesanded, pädevus, Euroopa Liit kui Euroopa Majandus- ja Rahaliit, keskpankade süsteem, euro, eurole üleminek ja sellest tulenevad muudatused Eesti Panga jaoks

  9. Consumer protection against aggressive selling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacşu, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive selling is selling method which consists in using a series of aggressive techniques of negotiation – the proposal to by an unnecessary product, or “charging” the client with supplementary quantities of commodities, over his needs. In our days, the companies spend each year, a lot of money to initiate their sell agents in the selling art. Unfortunately, these manipulation techniques are not prohibited by law, so we have to keep our eyes wide open and try to keep our independent thinking.

  10. The Selling of the Sheepskin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Maureen

    1980-01-01

    As higher education turns from a seller's to a buyer's market, colleges are using marketing strategy as an aid for student recruitment. Unethical and ethical promotion and recruiting practices, recruiting abuses (selling of immigration papers, etc.), legal contractual responsibilities, ethical decay, and consumer rights of students are discussed.…

  11. Supplementary income. Direct selling in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This document treats, first, of the evolution of the German support mechanisms to renewable energy sources. Then, it presents the legal framework of direct electricity selling (goal, evolution, facilities in concern and eligibility criteria). Next, the operation of direct selling since August 2014 in Germany is presented (producers eligibility, over- and under-production, reference values, income, tariffs). Finally, the perspectives and conditions of direct selling success are summarized in the conclusion

  12. Selling science to the public

    CERN Document Server

    Catapano, Paola

    1997-01-01

    Science popularization is ÒtheÓ tool to bridge the gap between society at large and the world of science. Compared to formal science communication Ð science taught in schools Ð informal science communication, made by the TV, the press, Òscience centresÓ and visits to scientific laboratories, has an important advantage: it makes the public meet science in a direct, informal way and on its own terms. The public is given an opportunity to develop a personal relationship with science, according to the needs, interests and abilities of the individual. But selling science is a tough job. The object of the sale is not a consumer good, but rather ideas and concepts that are sometimes so complex and distant from common sense that translating them into a comprehensible language and creating interest in the public without betraying the scientific truth is almost impossible. In the research work conducted for the thesis the importance of adopting a marketing approach in science communication is presented. Any scien...

  13. Support for selling embryos among infertility patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Tarun; Missmer, Stacey A

    2008-09-01

    To determine the opinions of infertility patients regarding selling extra embryos, and to investigate the relation between patient choice and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. University hospital-based fertility center. 1350 consecutive women who presented for infertility care. None. Patient opinion regarding selling extra embryos to other couples, and correlations with their demographic and socioeconomic background. Of respondents with a definitive opinion, 56% felt that selling extra embryos to other couples should be allowed. After adjustment for observed predictors favoring selling extra embryos, we found statistically significantly lower support for selling embryos among patients who were Hispanic (relative to Caucasians) or had never been pregnant, whereas significantly greater support was observed among Hindu and secular women, patients being treated for male factor infertility, and those who in the past had or were currently undergoing intrauterine insemination. Age, education, marital status, and parity were not statistically significantly associated with the opinions about selling extra embryos to other couples. A large proportion of infertility patient participants approved of selling leftover embryos to other couples. However, some demographic and reproductive factors are significantly associated with patient opinion.

  14. Personal selling and relationships:a review and explorative essay

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckström, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The overall scope of this doctoral thesis is focusing on selling. The thesis contains two studies; Study A is a synopsis of a licentiate thesis published in 2002, while Study B contains three journal articles. Study A examined industrial selling in Swedish manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The research addressed three research questions dealing with selling activities, individuals involved in selling, and selling processes in three different selling contexts. Study A ad...

  15. Selling to the moneyed masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paul F; Johnson, Brian A; Breene, R Timothy S

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, the distribution of household incomes has shifted so much that a much larger proportion of consumers now earn significantly higher-than-average incomes--while still falling short of being truly rich. As a result, what used to be a no-man's-land for new product introductions has in many categories become an extremely profitable "new middle ground." How can marketers capitalize on this new territory? The key, say the authors, is to rethink the positioning and design of offerings and the ways they can be brought to market. Take, for instance, how Procter & Gamble redefined the positioning map for tooth-whitening solutions. A decade ago, dental centers were popularizing expensive bleaching techniques that put the price of a professionally brightened smile in the 400 dollars range. At the low end, consumers also had the choice of whitening toothpastes that cost anywhere from 2 dollars to 8 dollars. P&G wisely positioned itself between the two ends, successfully targeting the new mass market with its 35 dollars Whitestrips. In product categories where it's clear the middle ground has already been populated, it's important for companies to design or redesign offerings to compete. An example is the Polo shirt. How do you sell a man yet another one after he's bought every color he wants? Add some features, and call it a golf shirt. Here, marketers have introduced designs based on the concept of "occasional use" in order to stand out. Finally, companies wishing to reach the "almost rich" can change how they go to market. Perhaps no mass retailer has made a stronger bid for the mass affluent than Target Stores, which has pioneered a focus the company itself characterizes as upscale discount. The strategy has made Target an everyday shopping phenomenon among well-heeled urbanites and prosperous professionals.

  16. Censoring and Selling Film Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Chinen Biesen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Film noir is known for its duplicity. Industry censors considered 1940s noir cinema provocative, salacious and ‘sordid.’ Hollywood studios walked a fine line between appearing to comply with Hays office Production Code censorship while simultaneously pushing the envelope of its moral constraints, then hyping and sensationalizing censorable sex, violence and hard-hitting themes to sell noir films to the public. In fact, studios capitalized on the racy explicit nature of noir pictures in publicity contradicting assurances of censorial compliance. For instance, censor Joseph Breen was “shocked” when MGM purchased James Cain’s The Postman Always Rings Twice. It was banned for a decade. Yet, ten years later as filmmakers adapted hardboiled fiction, Breen assured religious groups it would “not be offensive.” Yet, it was promoted as “torrid,” “too hot to handle” with Lana Turner in a bathing suit finding “Love at Laguna Beach” with hunky John Garfield who clamored, “You must be a she-devil,” suggesting far more sex, skin and “savage boldness” than is shown in the film. Film noir responded to Production Code censorship and other regulatory factors, including Office of War Information Bureau of Motion Pictures restrictions on Hollywood screen depictions of the domestic American home front (or overseas combat front, and Office of Censorship strictures such as a wartime ban on screen gangsters as ‘un-American’ for propaganda purposes in World War II-era noir films centering on criminals. These multiple censorship entities often collided. This regulatory climate catalyzed the development of film noir, a dark cycle of shadowy 1940s-50s crime films that boomed by World War II and evolved over the postwar era. I will investigate extensive primary archival research—including scripts, memos from industry censors, writers, directors, producers, and publicity records—to compare how film noir was censored and sold.

  17. Presentation of the Case / Florence G'Sell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    G'Sell, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Seitse artiklit töötaja kokkupuutumisest asbestiga töökohal, seoses sellega tervisekahjustuste tekkimisest sealhulgas ka kopsuvähk ja surm, töötajast kui ohvrist, kaastöötajatest kui süüalustest ning vastavast õiguslikust regulatsioonist erinevates riikides ühe kohtuasja näitel

  18. Presentation of the Case / Florence G`Sell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    G`Sell, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Seitse artiklit töötaja kokkupuutumisest asbestiga töökohal, seoses sellega tervisekahjustuste tekkimisest sealhulgas ka kopsuvähk ja surm, töötajast kui ohvrist, kaastöötajatest kui süüalustest ning vastavast õiguslikust regulatsioonist erinevates riikides ühe kohtuasja näitel

  19. Short-Selling, Leverage and Systemic Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, Amelia; Stork, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    During the Global Financial Crisis, regulators imposed short-selling bans to protect financial institutions. The rationale behind the bans was that “bear raids”, driven by short-sellers, would increase the individual and systemic risk of financial institutions, especially for institutions with high leverage. This study uses Extreme Value Theory to estimate the effect of short-selling on financial institutions’ individual and systemic risks in France, Italy and Spain; it also analyses the rela...

  20. Esmase ja teisese menetluse seosed piiriületavas pankrotimenetluses : [magistritöö] / Peeter Viirsalu ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Paul Varul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viirsalu, Peeter

    2007-01-01

    Piireületav pankrotimenetlus ja selle peamised printsiibid, esmase ja teisese menetluse olemus, algatamine, lõpetamine, likvideerijad, nõuded ning otsuste tunnustamine esmases ja teiseses menetluses

  1. Reconsidering Kantian arguments against organ selling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpinar-Şencan, Zümrüt

    2016-03-01

    Referring to Kant's arguments addressing the moral relationship between our bodies and ourselves is quite common in contemporary debate about organ selling, although he does not provide us with any specific arguments related to this debate. It is widely argued that the most promising way to show the moral impermissibility of organ selling is to mount an argument on Kantian grounds. This paper asks whether it is possible to argue coherently against organ selling in a Kantian framework. It will be shown that by mounting the argument on Kantian grounds no compelling argument can be given against sale of organs, either because the arguments apply to donation of organs, too, or the arguments are not convincing for other independent reasons. In the first section, it will be argued that donation and selling are not distinguishable in a Kantian framework, since the concern about commodification of the body and its parts shall be raised by both actions. In the second section, some contemporary accounts inspired by Kant will be presented and discussed separately. It will be argued that the reasons for promoting organ donation while arguing against selling clash with each other in an unconvincing way.

  2. Advanced Selling: A Comprehensive Course Sales Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrington-Young, Susan; Castleberry, Stephen B.; Coleman, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive project for the Advanced Selling course that has been tested at three universities is introduced. After selecting an industry and a company, students engage in a complete industry analysis, a company sales analysis, a sales-specific SWOT analysis, complete a ride day with a salesperson in that firm, then present their findings in a…

  3. Decision Taking for Selling Thread Startup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Decision Taking is discussed in the context of the role it may play for a selling agent in a search market, in particular for agents involved in the sale of valuable and relatively unique items, such as a dwelling, a second hand car, or a second hand recreational vessel. Detailed connections are

  4. Understanding the Sales Process by Selling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Experiential projects bring students closer to real-world situations. This is valuable in sales education because the complexities of the sales process are difficult to learn from a textbook. A student project was developed that involved the selling of advertising space in a one-time newspaper insert. The project included a substantial minimum…

  5. Perceived Organisational Target Selling, Self- Efficacy, Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed reports have shown that different variables account for differences in the psychological wellbeing of bank employees in Nigeria. Based on this premise, the study examined the contributions of perceived organizational target selling, self-efficacy, sexual harassment and job insecurity on psychological wellbeing among ...

  6. CORRUPTION AND POST-CONFLICT PEACEBUILDING: SELLING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    London: Routledge: Taylor and Francis. 2013 Reprint Edition,. 297 pages. ISBN: 0415721563. Corruption and post-conflict peacebuilding: Selling the peace? is a veritable gold mine. Its organisation is intelligent and coherent, and its range and coverage are appropriately encyclopaedic. This volume deals with the ...

  7. Selling with entrepreneurial spirit: the salles entrepreneur

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Dinu; Lauren?iu T?chiciu

    2009-01-01

    Based on a very rich literature regarding the requirements for successfully selling in nowadays conditions, the present paper brings into discussion what might become a new concept, relevant for better understanding the role that salespeople are expected to play: the concept of sales-entrepreneur, or, in other words, the person conducting sales as his own business. After a short summary of more important topics and research findings in the recent literature on sales management, authors enumer...

  8. Does organ selling violate human dignity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpinar-Şencan, Zümrüt; Baumann, Holger; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2017-11-01

    Shortages in the number of donated organs after death and the growing number of end-stage organ failure patients on waiting lists call for looking at alternatives to increase the number of organs that could be used for transplantation purposes. One option that has led to a legal and ethical debate is to have regulated markets in human organs. Opponents of a market in human organs offer different arguments that are mostly founded on contingent factors that can be adjusted. However, some authors have asked the question whether we still have a reason to believe that there is something wrong with offering human organs for sale for transplantation purposes, even if the circumstances under which the practice takes place are improved. One prominent argument regarding this appeals to the notion of human dignity. It is argued that organ selling violates human dignity. This paper presents a systematic discussion of dignity-based arguments in the organ selling debate, and then develops a social account of dignity. It is argued that allowing the practice of organ selling inherently runs the risk of promoting the notion that some persons have less worth than others and that persons have a price, which is incompatible with dignity. The approach is defended against possible objections and it is shown that it can capture the notion that autonomy is linked to human dignity in important ways, while dignity at the same time can constrain the autonomous choices of persons with regards to certain practices.

  9. Sell side recommendations during booms and busts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian W. Kretzmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study documents that the information content and the information processing of stock recommendations differ fundamentally between expansions and recessions. The initial market reaction to all recommendations is stronger in recessions, but “Buy” recommendations do not have long-term investment value. We find that in recessions sell side analysts are too optimistic about the stocks they recommend to buy, while investors initially overreact to these recommended stocks. In expansions, no such contradicting pattern exists. We also document that analysts favor “glamour” over “value” stocks irrespective of the state of the economy.

  10. Selling the PSS in a School of Business: Relationship Selling in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, David; Harris, Garth; Gulati, Rajesh; Bristow, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a step-by-step process for the development and implementation of a professional selling specialization program in the marketing curriculum of a school of business at an AACSB accredited state university. The program is presented in detail along with the process followed in order to develop support for the program with three…

  11. Cross-selling lending and underwriting : scope economies and incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Laux, Christian; Walz, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    We highlight the implications of combining underwriting services and lending for the choice of underwriters and for competition in the underwriting business. We show that cross-selling can increase underwriters' incentives, and we explain three phenomena: first, that cross-selling is important for universal banks to enter the investment banking business; second, that cross-selling is particularly attractive for highly leveraged borrowers; third, that less-than-market rates are no prerequisite...

  12. Optimal Incentives to Foster Cross Selling: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Decrouppe, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Cross selling is the practice of selling additional products to an existing customer. It has the potential to boost revenues and can be beneficial for both the company and the customer. For many multi-divisional companies with product or service oriented organizational structures the attempt to realize the benefits of cross selling generates incentive problems. In this thesis, three problems spread over three business levels are identified. Firstly, management needs to (fina...

  13. Modeling switching behaviour of direct selling customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Msweli-Mbanga

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The direct selling industry suffers a high turnover rate of salespeople, resulting in high costs of training new salespeople. Further costs are incurred when broken relationships with customers cause them to switch from one product supplier to another. This study identifies twelve factors that drive the switching behaviour of direct sales customers and examines the extent to which these factors influence switching. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the validity of these factors. The factors were represented in a model that posits that an interpersonal relationship between a direct sales person and a customer moderates the relationship between switching behaviour and loyalty. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model. The author then discusses the empirical findings and their managerial implications, providing further avenues for research.

  14. Selling Participation to Audiences in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Huang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Media globalization is facilitated by the development of new technologies within a framework of digitization and convergence. Contemporary new media provide networks through which the mingling of media occurs, shaping a “multi-mediacy” age, and a connecting of mediated/mediating venues in a condition of “immediacy”. Additionally, the business of communication has evolved from being the “communication of business” to the “business of business”. Multi-mediacy and immediacy have generated new avenues of profit from media. The paper will draw on Chitty’s theorization on web transactional venues to discuss new ways of farming of revenue from media. Media revenues have in the past and today been drawn from licence fees, media subscriptions and advertising. Today, media networks also sell “participation” to audiences directly by charging for text message voting/gaming, or sell a range of products and services through web-venue based commerce. This paper will undertake case studies to examine the increasing trend of “direct audience payment for participation”. The case studies that will be used are (A the intervention of Chinese Service Providers in reality TV shows and (B E-commerce on the Internet. Monternet (mo[bile I]nternet and Linktone are investigated as Service Providers (SPs and the consumer-to-consumer (C2C website www.taobao.com is studied compared with Eachnet (eBay in China. The paper will also investigate the influences of “direct audience payment for participation” on the quality of media products and communication flow between media and audience and generally discuss the consequences of the “direct audience payment for participation” from the perspective of communication ethics.

  15. Students Write, Then "Sell" Ad Copy to Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galician, Mary Lou

    1986-01-01

    Describes a course in commercial copywriting for electronic media in which students must also present orally their copy to the class to drive home two points: (1) the writing has to sell products, and (2) the writer has to sell the spot or campaign to the client or employers. (HTH)

  16. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Completed, cleared, productions, to the National Archives and Records Administration, National Audiovisual... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials, such as historical and stock footage. When it sells VI motion media, the DVIC assesses charges, unless...

  17. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See 412...

  18. Selling and Sales Management in Nigeria | Johnson | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of selling in the twentieth century parallel the growth of modern marketing. Sales management has become a more professionally and customer oriented endeavour in line with the philosophy of the marketing concept. The focus of selling in advanced economies has shifted to and increased emphasis on ...

  19. Upaya Meningkatkan Pendapatan Bank Melalui Optimalisasi Cross Selling Terhadap Pelanggan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Nuryadin

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explores some efforts to generate Bank’s income by optimalizing cross selling for is existing customers. After explaining background and clarifying that terminologies the paper starts with efforts and constraints of cross selling optimalization, those problem solutions, and how to promote the bank products.

  20. Upaya Meningkatkan Pendapatan Bank Melalui Optimalisasi Cross Selling Terhadap Pelanggan

    OpenAIRE

    Endang Nuryadin

    2001-01-01

    The article explores some efforts to generate Bank’s income by optimalizing cross selling for is existing customers. After explaining background and clarifying that terminologies the paper starts with efforts and constraints of cross selling optimalization, those problem solutions, and how to promote the bank products.

  1. Identifying the best market to sell: A cost function formulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the distance of the market from the farmers location; the type of produce; the transportation cost; the time taken to transport. that determine and influence the choice of market to sell. The main contributions of this paper include. the formulation of an optimization problem to identifying the best where and when to sell and ...

  2. A Study On Direct Selling Through Multi Level Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, F. Mary

    2012-09-01

    Direct selling is a multi-level marketing in which the sales force is compensated not only for the sales they make but also for the sales done through their recruit. This recruited sales force is referred to as the participants who can provide multiple levels of compensation.A person's job would be to recruit others to sell their product, and in return, receive a percentage of their sales. The next person's job then is to recruit people even more so below them, and receive a percentage of their sales. Other terms for Multi-level marketing include network marketing and referral marketing. Commonly, the salespeople are expected to sell products directly to consumers by means of relationship through referrals marketing. Some people use direct selling as a synonym for MLM, although MLM is only one type of direct selling

  3. Tendentsid sisearhitektuuris : Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemiad 2004 / Maris Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kerge, Maris

    2005-01-01

    ESL aastapreemid 2004: kodu interjöör - villa Miidurannas, Katrin ja Argo Vaikla, Tiina Teng, Vaikla Disain, projekti juhtimine: Ahti Väin; ühiskondlik interjöör - SPA Hotell Georg Ots Kuressaares, Liisi Murula, Raili Paling, KOKO Arhitektid; ajalooline interjöör - Tartu Mänguasjamuuseum, Tea Tammelaan, Krista Lepland, Malle Jürgenson, Laika, Belka & Strelka; vormipreemia seeriatoode - tool "John", Toivo Raidmets, tootja OÜ Toivo; tegevuspreemia - Disaini- ja Arhitektuurigalerii asutamise ja käigushoidmise eest, Maile Grünberg. Nominentide loetelu

  4. Insaiderlus Eesti finantssektoris ja selle tõkestamine / Mart Sõrg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõrg, Mart, 1943-

    2003-01-01

    Insaiderluse all mõistetakse avalikustamata siseteabe ärakasutamist väärtpaberitega kauplemisel. Eestis seostatakse insaiderluse mõistega eelkõige pangandus- ja muud finantssektorit ja selle töötajaid

  5. Dynamic interaction between markets for leasing and selling automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Andrikopoulos, Athanasios; Markellos, Raphael N.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a model of dynamic interactions between price variations in leasing and selling markets for automobiles. Our framework assumes a differential game between multiple Bertrand-type competing firms which offer differentiated products to forward-looking agents. Empirical analysis of our model using monthly US data from 2002 to 2011 shows that variations in selling (cash) market prices lead rapidly dissipating changes of leasing market prices in the opposite direction. We discuss the pra...

  6. 30 CFR 206.102 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length contract? 206.102 Section 206.102 Mineral Resources... Federal Oil § 206.102 How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm... seller under the arm's-length contract, less applicable allowances determined under §§ 206.110 or 206.111...

  7. Opaque Selling: Static or Inter-Temporal Price Discrimination?

    OpenAIRE

    Courty, Pascal; Liu, Wenyu

    2013-01-01

    We study opaque selling in the hotel industry using data from Hotwire.com. An opaque room discloses only the star level and general location of the hotel at the time of booking. The exact identity of the hotel is disclosed after the booking is completed. Opaque rooms sell at a discount of 40 percent relative to regular rooms. The discount increases when hotels are more differentiated. This finding is consistent with static models of price discrimination. No support was found for predictions s...

  8. Green energy in Europe: selling green energy with green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouillet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)

  9. Identifying the best market to sell: A cost function formulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    over-hedging, full-hedging, or under-hedging strategies, depending on whether the two random prices are ... An integrated problem of procuring, processing and trading of commodities is proposed. (Devalkar et al ... We now formulate an optimization approach to enable a farmer to identify the market where we can sell with ...

  10. Retail Florist: Selling the Floral Product, Maintenance and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach units on sales of floral products and maintenance and delivery in a floral shop. Topics covered in the selling unit are basic mathematics; taxable items; sales etiquette; types of floral products; telephone etiquette; order form information; wire service regulations; care of floral…

  11. Adoption levels and information sources of "brood and sell" poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption levels and information sources of "brood and sell" poultry operators. MO Onu, MC Madukwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Agro-Science Vol. 3(1) 2002: 63-67. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/as.v3i1.1505.

  12. Report on the Audit of Foreign Direct Selling Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    This is our final report on the Audit of Foreign Direct Selling Costs. The Contract Management Directorate made the audit from October 1989 to January 1990 in response to a requirement in U.S.C., title 10, Sec. 2324(f)(5...

  13. 48 CFR 1631.205-75 - Selling costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES... commissions fees or salaries to employees or outside commercial or selling agencies for enrolling Federal... that they are necessary for conducting annual contract negotiations with the Government and for liaison...

  14. Rahvusvaheline bussiliiklus täna ja selle roll tulevikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    MootorReisi Aktsiaseltsi kümne aastaseks saamise puhul korraldati konverents "Rahvusvaheline bussiliiklus täna ja selle roll tulevikus". MootorReisi AS-i tekkimisest. Vt. samas: Intervjuu MootorReisi AS-i juhatuse esimees Hugo Osulaga

  15. PERANAN PROMOSI MELALUI PERSONAL SELLING TERHADAP VOLUME PENJUALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Rohaeni

    2016-10-01

    ABSTRACT Promotion is very closely related to the sale so that the promotion does then it will have an impact on the level of product sales in the company. This is because the more effective promotion is done, the higher the level of product sales in the company. The way the promotion can be done through a variety of one of them is through personal selling or direct sales by marketing to potential prospects. Promotion through personal selling should be done periodically because the company is required to be able to carry out the promotion of the right to be accepted by consumers and can increase product sales as expected by the company. The method used in this study is the observation, the data collection methods have writers do direct observation of the object research were observed in which the authors make observations to come directly to the Hotel Ririn Bogor on the part of the data supporting research in this part of Marketing Hotel Ririn. Based on observations of the writer to be able to increase sales and achieve sales targets, Hotel Ririn need to expand the target market. There should be training for employees in the Marketing. Hotel Ririn should not only focus promotion through personal selling, but also promote the products in the form of hotel rooms by using other strategies such as creating a website Hotel Ririn to provide information and a clear picture of Hotel Ririn.   Keywords: Promotion, Personal selling, Sales Volume

  16. Consumers' reaction towards involvement of large retailers in selling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... analysis employed to identify customers' reaction to large retailers' involvement in selling fair trade coffee. The study indicates that credence processing attributes such as 'retailers image', 'fair deal', 'fair trade promotion', 'social responsibility' and 'against own label' are the major factors that influence consumers' intention ...

  17. 48 CFR 31.205-38 - Selling costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31..., fees, commissions, percentages, retainer or brokerage fees, whether or not contingent upon the award of contracts, are allowable only when paid to bona fide employees or established commercial or selling agencies...

  18. Optimal strategy for selling on group-buying website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to help business marketers with offline channels to make decisions on whether to sell through Group-buying (GB websites and how to set online price with the coordination of maximum deal size on GB websites. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the deal structure of GB websites especially for the service fee and minimum deal size limit required by GB websites, advertising effect of selling on GB websites, and interaction between online and offline markets, an analytical model is built to derive optimal online price and maximum deal size for sellers selling through GB website. This paper aims to answer four research questions: (1 How to make a decision on maximum deal size with coordination of the deal price? (2 Will selling on GB websites always be better than staying with offline channel only? (3 What kind of products is more appropriate to sell on GB website? (4How could GB website operator induce sellers to offer deep discount in GB deals? Findings and Originality/value: This paper obtains optimal strategies for sellers selling on GB website and finds that: Even if a seller has sufficient capacity, he/she may still set a maximum deal size on the GB deal to take advantage of Advertisement with Limited Availability (ALA effect; Selling through GB website may not bring a higher profit than selling only through offline channel when a GB site only has a small consumer base and/or if there is a big overlap between the online and offline markets; Low margin products are more suitable for being sold online with ALA strategies (LP-ALA or HP-ALA than high margin ones; A GB site operator could set a small minimum deal size to induce deep discounts from the sellers selling through GB deals. Research limitations/implications: The present study assumed that the demand function is determinate and linear. It will be interesting to study how stochastic demand and a more general demand function affect the optimal

  19. Personal selling constructs and measures: Emic versus etic approaches to cross-national research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Herché (Joel); M.J. Swenson (Michael); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling

  20. Book selling and e-books in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maceviciute

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of the understanding of the book-selling situation as Swedish booksellers see it. It pursues the answers to the following questions: 1. What are the perceptions of Swedish booksellers of the impact of e-books on their business? 2. What drivers are important for Swedish booksellers for adopting and developing e-book sales through their own sales channels? 3. What do they perceive as barriers to e-book selling through their own channels? The authors have employed the analysis of the secondary statistical data and a survey of Swedish booksellers to answer their questions. The results of the investigation have shown that the Swedish booksellers do not feel their bookshops, or business in general, are threatened by e-books. The opinions on e-books do not differ between the few selling e-books and others who do not offer this product. The reasons for selling e-books are well-functioning routines and personal interest in the product. The reasons for not selling the books are the lack of demand and technical resources as well as contractual agreements with e-book publishers or vendors. So, technical resources for e-book sales, routines, and contracts with publishers are the main premises for this activity. The biggest barriers to e-book sales are: a the price as one can see not only in the answers of the booksellers, but also in the drop of sales obviously related to the rise of prices during 2014; b lack of demand from customers who do not enquire about e-books in bookshops. This leads to the belief that e-books will be sold mostly online either directly from publishers and authors or through online booksellers. However, an equal number of booksellers believe that physical bookshops will be selling printed books and e-books in the future. The future of e-books seems to be quite secure and non-threatening to printed books from the point of view of booksellers. The growth of e-book sales is quite slow and the respondents

  1. 49 CFR 375.303 - If I sell liability insurance coverage, what must I do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... damage in excess of the specified carrier liability. (c) If you sell, offer to sell, or procure liability... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false If I sell liability insurance coverage, what must...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  2. Personal selling constructs and measures: Emic versus etic approaches to cross-national research

    OpenAIRE

    Herché, Joel; Swenson, Michael; Verbeke, Willem

    1996-01-01

    textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling (ADAPTS) and customer-oriented selling (SOCO).

  3. "!Chalinas a 20 Pesos!": Economic Ideas Developed through Children's Strategies for Successful Selling in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitabkhan, Yasmin Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the economic ideas of indigenous Triqui children between the ages of 5-15 who sell artisanal goods in Oaxaca, Mexico. I report findings from two studies that investigated (1) sellers' strategies for successfully selling goods, and (2) children's economic ideas linked to their selling strategies. In…

  4. A Framework for Personalized Dynamic Cross-Selling in E-Commerce Retailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timalsina, Arun Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Cross-selling and product bundling are prevalent strategies in the retail sector. Instead of static bundling offers, i.e. giving the same offer to everyone, personalized dynamic cross-selling generates targeted bundle offers and can help maximize revenues and profits. In resolving the two basic problems of dynamic cross-selling, which involves…

  5. Selling or telling? A theory of ruin value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2011-01-01

    Selling or telling? : A theory of ruin value  Abstract: To what extent can tourism be described as an agent of peace? Can war and conflict be reconciled through tourism? Why is the children's memorial in Hiroshima so important and why is the Holocaust memorial in Berlin a reconciliating and fasci......Selling or telling? : A theory of ruin value  Abstract: To what extent can tourism be described as an agent of peace? Can war and conflict be reconciled through tourism? Why is the children's memorial in Hiroshima so important and why is the Holocaust memorial in Berlin a reconciliating...... will explore four tracks of this doomsday vision: in fiction, facts and in the world of tourism. 1. The architect who, as Faust, sold his soul for immortality and the consequences thereof. 2. The artist who creates a personal vision of our fear and anxiety. 3. A comparative analysis of a group of mainstream...

  6. ANALYSIS OF A DIRECT SELLING NETWORK FOR AGRIFOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Placido Rapisarda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sicily has become a food and wine area of great interest. However, conflicts within the supply chains have caused the selling process to become long and complex to the disadvantage of farmers, thereby leading to an information asymmetry between producers and consumers.In order to meet the new needs of the agrifood sector, we developed a theoretical model of organized direct selling that goes beyond regional boundaries, which is an alternative model to farmers’ markets and that helps to promote the creation of a network among the operators of Sicilian agrifood supply chains. The aims of this study was to verify the potential of the proposed theoretical model based on a SWOT analysis, which was achieved by collecting data from interviews with the producers involved in the Sicilian agrifood supply chains, and with the main stakeholders involved.

  7. Successful selling of packed fresh fruit and vegetable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Presová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the marketability of packaged fruit and vegetables, as a new trend of satisfying consumer needs, in connection with selling-culture of stall selling and self-stores sales. It emphasize fact that food have to be wrapped into the quality, health packages, under the conditions of the Act. 477/2001 Coll.Specific data for the analytical part of this paper was provided by Hortim International Ltd. This company has operate on the Czech market since 1995. Analysis of the economic results confirmes the legitimacy of the sale of packaged fresh fruits and vegetables, but there will be neccesary longer lasting promotion. This fact also confirmed the research of consumer demand, that was made by authors. Determinant for the success sales are these factors: consumer confidence that the packaged products of fruit and vegetables are high quality.

  8. Modified TAROT for cross-selling personal financial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Ya-Mei; LEE, Lai-Soon; LEE, Chew-Ging; SEOW, Hsin-Vonn

    2014-09-01

    The Top Application characteristics Remainder Offer characteristics Tree (TAROT) was first introduced in 2007. This is a modified Classification and Regression Trees (CART) used to help decide which question(s) to ask potential applicants to customise an offer of a personal financial product so that it would have a high probability of take up. In this piece of work the authors are presenting, they have further modified the TAROT to cross TAROT, using its properties and modeling steps to deal with the issue of cross-selling. Since the bank already has ready customers, it would be ideal to cross-sell the financial products seeing that one can ask one (or more) further question(s) based on the initial offer to identify and customise another financial product to offer.

  9. Potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campidoglio, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy. This would both reduce the supply shortage and the prices on the eligible market, increase competition on the contract-for-difference market, indicate a clear price to which regulated energy charges could be indexed, thus extending the auction benefits to the franchise market to avoid the reintroduction of cross-subsidies [it

  10. Energiatõhusus ja selle hind / Tõnu Mauring

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mauring, Tõnu, 1968-

    2010-01-01

    Austri arhitekti Georg W. Reinbergi raamatust "Ecological Architecture - Design, Planning, Realization" (2008). Uuringust, mis võttis kokku aastatel 2003-2008 Viini ehitatud elamute valimi andmed ning millest järeldub, et suuremate hoonete puhul võib passiivmaja maksumus olla madalenergiamajadega ühesugune. Vajadusest ehitada Eestis valmis oma näited, leidmaks, kas tõhus energia kasutamine ja inimsõbralik hoone on või ei ole konfliktis selle rajamise hinnaga

  11. Selling Digital Music: Business Models for Public Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Leth Hougaard; Mich Tvede

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non-excludable goods and show that despite promising theoretical results, adding just a slight uncertainty about the number of customers has significant negative implications for profitability. Indeed, as th...

  12. Personal Level Customer Orientation in Russian Direct Selling Market

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Rozhkov

    2014-01-01

    In the modern world the importance of customer orientation cannot be underestimated. It hugely impacts the overall business performance, as well as separate areas of business-customer interaction. In this paper, we examine the role of personal level relations and customer orientation in the direct selling industry in the Russian market. Based on a sample of over 6000 participants in 74 regions of Russia, we develop a model revealing the factors that define the level of customer orientation in...

  13. Top-selling childbirth advice books: a discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Holly Powell; Nardini, Katrina; McLeod-Waldo, Rebecca; Ennis, Linda

    2009-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that one-third of women receive information about pregnancy and childbirth through books. Messages about what characteristics are normal (or expected) in childbirth are disseminated in a variety of ways, including popular childbirth education books, but little study of them has been conducted. The purpose of this investigation is to address that gap by examining the discussions about childbirth in the 10 top-selling books in the United States. Discourse analysis (relating to the public, personal, and political discussions about a specific phenomenon) was used to study 10 best-selling United States childbirth advice books marketed to childbearing women during the first week of November 2007. Book styles ranged from clinical descriptions of pregnancy and birth primarily offering reassurance, self-help information, and danger signs to more folksy and humorous commentaries. Presentation of scientific evidence to support recommendations was uneven and at times inaccurate. Five focal areas of discourse included body image, labor and birth, pain, power and control, and life preparation for motherhood. Top-selling books shine an interesting light on the current state of United States maternity practices. Women and health professionals should assess them carefully and engage with each other about their recommendations and implications for childbirth.

  14. Time dependent optimal switching controls in online selling models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cohen, Albert [MICHIGAN STATE UNIV

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to incorporate dishonesty in online selling via a stochastic optimal control problem. In our framework, the seller wishes to maximize her average wealth level W at a fixed time T of her choosing. The corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann (HJB) equation is analyzed for a basic case. For more general models, the admissible control set is restricted to a jump process that switches between extreme values. We propose a new approach, where the optimal control problem is reduced to a multivariable optimization problem.

  15. Personal Level Customer Orientation in Russian Direct Selling Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rozhkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world the importance of customer orientation cannot be underestimated. It hugely impacts the overall business performance, as well as separate areas of business-customer interaction. In this paper, we examine the role of personal level relations and customer orientation in the direct selling industry in the Russian market. Based on a sample of over 6000 participants in 74 regions of Russia, we develop a model revealing the factors that define the level of customer orientation in personal level interactions.

  16. What is the Outcome of Selling in Business Relationships?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In a B2B context, interactions between buyers and sellers typically involve more than the transaction as firms develop business relationships of different kinds before, during and beyond the transactions. Beyond loosely coupled firms and weak ties, firms often take a relational approach...... to their customers and develop structural bonds. The inherent complexities of business relationships pose a major challenge for selling as such relationships can be considered an extra task for sales executives to deal with – and an extra investment for firms that try to develop business with new customers...

  17. The quality of information on websites selling St. John's wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakor, Vijeta; Leach, Matthew J; Gillham, David; Esterman, Adrian

    2011-06-01

    Health consumers are increasingly using the Internet to access information about health care, to self-diagnose, and to purchase medication. The use of the Internet to purchase herbal products is of particular interest because of the high level of consumer expenditure on herbal medicines, and the misperception by some consumers that herbal products are natural, and thus absent of any contraindications, drug interactions and adverse effects. It is possible that consumers may purchase herbal medicines via the Internet without consulting health professionals and therefore, use these medicines in an unsafe manner. To examine the quality of e-commerce websites that sell herbal products; specifically, websites where St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) can be purchased. Cross-sectional survey of 54 selected websites, including online pharmacies, online health food stores and manufacturers of herbal medicines. A modified version of the DISCERN instrument was used to assess the quality of websites. The majority of websites rated poorly with a concerning lack of information about the interaction between hypericum and warfarin, anti-depressants and oral contraceptives. Most sites also failed to provide sufficient information about the contraindications and adverse effects of hypericum treatment. The results of this study strongly support the need for improved consumer education about herbal medicine, as well as the application of more stringent standards to websites that sell medications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EOQ model for perishable products with price-dependent demand, pre and post discounted selling price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhi, G.; Karthikeyan, K.

    2017-11-01

    In this article we introduce an economic order quantity model for perishable products like vegetables, fruits, milk, flowers, meat, etc.,with price-dependent demand, pre and post discounted selling price. Here we consider the demand is depending on selling price and deterioration rate is constant. Here we developed mathematical model to determine optimal discounton the unit selling price to maximize total profit. Numerical examples are given for illustrated.

  19. Diplomaatilise esinduse ja selle personali kaitse vastuvõtjariigis / René Värk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Värk, René, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Diplomaatilise esinduse ja selle personali füüsilise kaitse olemusest ja aspektidest, isikupuutumatusest ning liikumisvabadusest. Hinnang Eesti Moskva suursaatkonna juures 2007. aasta kevadel toimunule

  20. Cross-correlations in volume space: Differences between buy and sell volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Young; Hwang, Dong Il; Kim, Min Jae; Koh, In Gyu; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-03-01

    We study the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes on the Korean stock market in high frequency. We observe that the pulling effects of volumes are as small as that of returns. The properties of the correlations of buy and sell volumes differ. They are explained by the degree of synchronization of stock volumes. Further, the pulling effects on the minimal spanning tree are studied. In minimal spanning trees with directed links, the large pulling effects are clustered at the center, not uniformly distributed. The Epps effect of buy and sell volumes are observed. The reversal of the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes is also detected.

  1. Selling digital art in bulk through prepaid URLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John S

    2007-01-01

    Suppose a major donor anywhere in the world could sponsor tens of thousands (or any number) of copies of a song, video, or any other digital "content"--letting tens of thousands of people in social networks just click to download free, with no registration ever, instantly paying the artists or a cause by the act of free downloading itself. And each sponsor can deliver a message to the thousands of anonymous end users who download from his or her contribution. We show how independent artists could market globally at no expense if people care about their work--offering an alternative to corporate monoculture. Or they could donate their digital art to an organization that sells it this way to raise funds.

  2. NE seeks to sell power directly to customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear Electric, the state-owned company that operates nuclear power stations in England and Wales, has applied to compete directly with privatized electricity generating companies in the sale of electricity to major customers. Since its formation in 1990, NE has had to sell all of its electrical output through the so-called pool operated by the National Grid Company, and then to 12 regional distribution companies that have franchises for about 75 percent of electricity consumption in their regions. On the other hand, the two large companies that took over the fossil-fuel power stations at the time of privatization, and other new independent companies that are building combined-cycle gas-turbine plants, are allowed to conclude supply contracts directly with large industrial customers

  3. Juridical consequences of liberalization. Part 3. Selling a gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, W.

    2000-01-01

    The liberalization of the natural gas market in Europe has all kinds of juridical aspects. Not only with respect to new legislation (Natural Gas Law and Mining Law), but also changes in juridical structures of natural gas companies, caused by privatization or splitting up in a mains management company and a distribution company. In a series of articles lawyers of the Energy Working Group of Houthoff Buruma in The Hague, Netherlands, discuss the developments at the natural gas market. In this third part, attention will be paid to how authorities involved (municipalities, provinces) can prepare themselves properly with respect to selling the gas company and how they can retain their influence on the future activities of the gas company using legal and contractual agreements. In the article also attention is paid to the various stages of a sale

  4. Selling health data: de-identification, privacy, and speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie

    2015-07-01

    Two court cases that involve selling prescription data for pharmaceutical marketing affect biomedical informatics, patient and clinician privacy, and regulation. Sorrell v. IMS Health Inc. et al. in the United States and R v. Department of Health, Ex Parte Source Informatics Ltd. in the United Kingdom concern privacy and health data protection, data de-identification and reidentification, drug detailing (marketing), commercial benefit from the required disclosure of personal information, clinician privacy and the duty of confidentiality, beneficial and unsavory uses of health data, regulating health technologies, and considering data as speech. Individuals should, at the very least, be aware of how data about them are collected and used. Taking account of how those data are used is needed so societal norms and law evolve ethically as new technologies affect health data privacy and protection.

  5. Kontribusi Penggunaan Personal Selling Dalam Kegiatan Komunikasi Pemasaran Pada Era Pemasaran Masa Kini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suherman Kusniadji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s marketing era, consumers seem to have known about marketed products and no longer need explanation from a salesperson. The interaction between company and target consumers can be marketed through new media such as email, Facebook, WA, Instagram, and other forms. Such situations need to be in-depth researched in terms of whether personal selling contribution is still needed in marketing communication activities. Considering the uniqueness and personal selling advantages turns out that personal selling is an important partner that can not be replaced by other forms of marketing communications even if there is exposure to new media to promote products. The specialty of personal selling lies in its ability to interact directly to improvise the sales process through person to person communication. Dalam era pemasaran masa kini nampaknya konsumen dianggap sudah mengetahui tentang produk yang dipasarkan dan tidak memerlukan lagi penjelasan dari seorang wiraniaga. Interaksi perusahaan dengan pembeli sasaran dapat dilakukan melalui media baru seperti email, facebook, WA, instagram dan bentuk lainnya. Situasi demikianlah yang memerlukan kajian mendalam dalam kaitannya bagaimana peran personal selling dalam kegiatan komunikasi pemasaran di era digital? Memperhatikan keunikan dan kelebihan personal selling ternyata personal selling merupakan mitra penting yang tidak dapat tergantikan oleh bentuk komunikasi pemasaran lainnya sekalipun ada terpaan media baru untuk mempromosikan produk. Keistimewaan personal selling terletak pada kemampuannya untuk berinteraksi secara langsung untuk mengimprovisasi proses penjualan melalui komunikasi person to person.

  6. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation of...

  7. 31 CFR 356.0 - What authority does the Treasury have to sell and issue securities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to sell and issue securities? 356.0 Section 356.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... sell and issue securities? Chapter 31 of Title 31 of the United States Code authorizes the Secretary of... AND ISSUE OF MARKETABLE BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BILLS, NOTES, AND BONDS (DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  8. E-selling: A new avenue of research for service design and online engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvinen, P.; Oinas-Kukkonen, H.; Kaptein, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    E-selling is an activity that is distinct from e-commerce, e-marketing and e-retailing. E-selling is conceptualized to be computer–human dialog characterized by the digital spatio-temporal locus, the psychology of online persuasion, and complex perceptions of value. This definition warrants that

  9. E-selling : A new avenue of research for service design and online engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvinen, Petri; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Kaptein, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    E-selling is an activity that is distinct from e-commerce, e-marketing and e-retailing. E-selling is conceptualized to be computer–human dialog characterized by the digital spatio-temporal locus, the psychology of online persuasion, and complex perceptions of value. This definition warrants that

  10. Hard Sell: Advertising, Affluence and Transatlantic Relations, c. 1951–1969

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Sean Nixon: Hard Sell. Advertising, Affluence and Transatlantic Relations, c. 1951–1969. (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2013 xv. 2012 pp., ISBN 978-0-7190-8537-6)......Book review of: Sean Nixon: Hard Sell. Advertising, Affluence and Transatlantic Relations, c. 1951–1969. (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2013 xv. 2012 pp., ISBN 978-0-7190-8537-6)...

  11. 27 CFR 31.64 - Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines and tinctures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... selling medicines and tinctures. 31.64 Section 31.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.64 Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines... medicines and in making tinctures that are unfit for use for beverage purposes are not considered to be...

  12. 29 CFR 780.710 - A country elevator may sell products and services to farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false A country elevator may sell products and services to... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment by Small Country Elevators Within Area of Production; Exemption... Elevator § 780.710 A country elevator may sell products and services to farmers. Section 13(b)(14...

  13. Selling the selling point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Horst, Maja

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how virtual worlds are rhetorically constructed as obvious, innovative spaces for communication about architecture. It is argued that the marketization of an innovative use of new media platforms happens in early phases of the innovation processes, and the success of new media...... of the communication about the innovation. It is demonstrated that the creation of markets does not begin when innovations such as Virtual Worlds Architecture are settled, but is intertwined with early expectations about their promises and limitations. Rather than seeing virtual worlds as settled and secluded sites...... technologies such as virtual worlds hinges on the creation of expectations, which are intertwined with the discursive construction of future users. Drawing on the sociology of expectations and the sociology of technology, the article argues that the configuration of expected users is a central part...

  14. Selling gas, selling services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncel, V.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, the commercial activities of gas companies have been limited almost exclusively to the sale of gas. However, several socioeconomic factors specific to the gas industry, such as increasing customer expectations, competition between gas operators, a growing emphasis on services in many companies and the opening of public monopolies to competition, will bring inevitable change. Moreover, these developments coincide with imminent gas market opening. In response to the changing situation, the gas industry will seek to develop a range of multi-service offers, probably through external partnerships. (authors)

  15. Subsidiaarsuse põhimõte Euroopa Liidu õiguses : Eesti võimalused taotleda selle põhimõtte kaitsmist Euroopa Kohtus : [bakalaureusetöö] / Gaido Kreek ; Akadeemia Nord, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Mailis Reps

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreek, Gaido

    2004-01-01

    Subsidiaarsuse põhimõtte õiguslik raamistik, uued tuuled Euroopa Liidu õiguses seoses subsidiaarsuse põhimõttega, Eesti kui liikmesriigi võimalused taotleda subsidiaarsuse põhimõtte kaitsmist Euroopa Kohtus

  16. Family planning and the labor sector: soft-sell approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teston, R C

    1981-01-01

    Dr. Cesar T. San Pedro, the director of the company clinic at Dole Philippines plantation in South Cotabato in Region 11, has been pressing the management to initiate a comprehensive family planning programs for their 10,000 workers. Pedro wants the Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE) to enforce its population program. The situation at Dole is one that requires an arbiter. Since 1977, there has not been a Population/Family Planning Officer (PFPO) for the area, and it is not possible to monitor closely if the qualified firms are following the labor code and providing family planning services to their employees. Susan B. Dedel, executive director of the PFPO, has reported that the office has sought to endear its program to the private sector by showing that family planning is also profitable for the firm. This "soft-sell" approach has been the hallmark of the MOLE-PFPO since it began in 1975 as a joint project of the Commission on Population (POPCOM), United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), and International Labor Organization (ILO). Some critics have argued that this liberal style of implementation is short-selling the program. They point out that the Labor Code of 1973 enforces all establishments with at least 200 employees to have a free in-plant family planning program which includes clinic care, paid motivators, and volunteer population workers. The critics seem, at 1st glance, to have the statistics on their side. In its 5 years of operation, the PFPO has convinced only 137,000 workers to accept family planning. This is quite low, since of the 1.2 million employed by the covered firms, 800,000 are eligible for the MOLE program. Much of the weakness of the implementation is said to be due to the slow activation of the Labor-Management Coordinating Committees (LMCC). The critics maintain that because of the liberal enforcement of Department Order No. 9, the recalcitrant firms see no reason to comply. Dedel claims that the program is on the

  17. Assembling cyavanaprāsh, Ayurveda's best-selling medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    The paper discusses the many forms and representations of cyavanaprāsh, Ayurveda's best-selling medicine, already mentioned in Caraka's Compendium (c. 200 CE). The medicine's compositions, applications, and meanings, change over time and from locality to locality. Cyavanaprāsh is, for example, a patriotic formula, a booster of the immune system, a modern geriatric drug, and one of the elements in canonical Ayurvedic treatments. In the beginning of the 19th century cyavanaprāsh was a patriotic formula for fortifying Indian bodies and the nascent Indian nation. Nowadays the medicine is a Fast Moving Consumer Good (FMCG) and a money maker for Dabur India Ltd., the world largest Ayurvedic manufacturer. Instead of vitalising the nation its consumption now promises to make urban middle class consumers effectively modern. Branding and modern science must make Dabur Chyawanprash attractive in the eyes of these consumers. Ayurveda and cyavanaprāsh are also part of a global counter culture marked by neo-Orientalism and Ayurvedic medicines as facilitators of spirituality. The marketing of cyavanaprāsh by India's largest Ayurvedic manufacturer is used as a case study for discussing the proliferation of Ayurvedic brands and its critics. The imaging of Ayurvedic brands such as Dabur Chyawanprash threatens to obscure the fact that Ayurveda represents a unique way of looking upon health, disease and the human body. The proliferation of brands also makes Ayurvedic medicines more expensive and puts pressure on the natural environment as the main supplier of Ayurvedic ingredients.

  18. Selling from Ontario into the U.S. midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.

    2002-01-01

    The market structure of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) for the electric power grid was described with reference to physical bilateral markets, multi-control areas, and MISO services such as security coordination, congestion management, billing, generator interconnections, tariff administration, energy imbalance, market monitoring, and electronic scheduling. The drivers impacting MISO development include MISO-PJM-SPP common market initiative, the FERC Standard Market Design initiative, the integration of alliance companies with MISO, and the division of functional responsibilities between RTOs and ITCs. The characteristics of the Michigan market were described, along with participation in the midwest (Ohio and Michigan) wholesale and retail markets. It was noted that in order for Ontario to sell to the midwest, the Ontario market design would need a successful export bid each hour to get power out of the province. Sales of ancillary services from Ontario-based generation are not permitted in the initial Ontario market design. Energy and transmission is currently bundled in Ontario tariffs. 1 fig

  19. ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE ON CUSTOMER LOYALTY FOR DIRECT SELLING COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia BOBALCA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to investigate Romanian direct sellers’ perceptions on customers’ loyalty. The research objectives are: (1 to identify the direct sellers’ perceptions on the concept of loyalty; (2 to identify the main loyalty techniques that direct sellers use in their work with the clients; (3 to frame the portrait of a loyal customer. As a research method, we used qualitative research based on depth interviews. It is an exploratory and instrumental research, the results being used for building a questionnaire for a future survey. The investigated population is represented by direct selling women, with ages beteeen 19 and 30 years. For direct sellers, loyalty is an attitude and also a behavior, it means buying from the same company, from the same seller and preferring the products of the company. The main loyalty techniques that direct sellers use in their work with the clients are: promotional actions, personalization the relation with the client and offering stimulants. The loyal customer is the one who buys companies’ products every month or at least quarterly, spends a monthly amount of 100 Ron on these products, works with the same seller, pays on time for the order, doesn’t look only after promotions, loves the products, recommends the company to others, doesn’t return the order, wants to buy more products from the company and trusts its products.

  20. European experience of regulating distance selling of medicines for Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Hrekov, Yevhen; Hrekova, Maryna

    Some countries have already tried and tested mechanisms of regulating distance sales as form of distribution of medicines that have been used more or less effectively for a fairly long time. Herewith, so far, the approach of the competent authorities of some countries including Ukraine can be called prevailing in quantitative terms under which the official prohibition on distance sales of medicines is set. The aim of this study is a detailed examination of the nature of the prohibition of the medicines distance selling in Ukraine, namely the an analysis of advantages and disadvantages of this form of distribution of medicines and identification of appropriate ways for gradual repeal of the prohibition in terms of regulatory reform in Ukraine in the sphere of circulation of medicines due to the process of adaptation of statutory regulation in this area to the EU legislation. This study is based on Ukrainian regulation acts, Council Directives 97/7/EC, 2000/31/EC, 2001/83/EC, scientific works and opinions of progressiveminded people in this sphere. Such methods as dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive have been used in the article. Reception of the described experience of regulation in EU will allow a further review of the principles of regulation in Ukraine in the sphere of medicines with a shift in the main emphasis in the direction of ensuring adequate consumer rights in this area and preventing the risks of patients' and public health.

  1. Urania in the Marketplace: Using Telescopes to Sell Consumer Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2018-01-01

    For well over a century the iconic image of the astronomical telescope has been widely used to promote distinctly non-astronomical consumer goods. One of the most famous of early examples is the 1893 Chicago newspaper advertisement for Kirk’s Soap, which was inspired by the opening of the Yerkes Observatory. But such usage was not limited to periodicals. Advertising trade cards had become popular at the end of the 17th century in Europe, notably in Paris and London. In a time prior to the introduction of formal systems of street address numbering, they served as both advertisement and map, directing consumers to the merchants' stores. In many cases, attention was drawn to the product by picturing it as a heavenly body to be observed telescopically! In the 20th century trade cards gave way to the modern business card, and manufacturers began to increasingly rely on magazine and newspaper (and radio and television) advertising. But the telescope remains an evocative image! In modern advertising we see it used to sell an incredible variety of consumer goods: candy, coffee, cigarettes, whiskey, foodstuffs, clothing; the list is endless! Examples of these, along with earlier Victorian-era usages, are presented. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  2. USING CHILDREN TO SELL: CHILDHOOD AND ADVERTISING OF CONSUMER MAGAZINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Deporte Andrade

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present society, also identified as a "consumer society" (Bauman, 2008, people, irrespective of gender, age, social and financial conditions, are all called for consumption. In this article we turn to the childhood and approached one of the faces of their insertion into the society of consumers, trying to show how children are used to sell. As a frame of theoretical reference we adopt, among others, the writings of Zygmunt Bauman, Juliet Schor and Robert Bocock, dealing with contemporary versions of consumption. Analyzing weekly magazines of large circulation, we discuss how productive it is for the economic market the alliance between childhood and consumption and we argue that this use of children in publicity contributes for a new conception of childhood: the childhood of consumption. An erotized childhood, always wanting more and never feeling satisfied, focused in acquiring and showing off. This is the childhood that is coming to school with new interests, preferences and behavior, deserving our entire attention. Key-words: contemporary childhood, childhood and consumption, consumer society, advertising, magazines.

  3. Recessions and the participation of youth in the selling and use of illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2011-09-01

    There has been limited research on how recessions (or more generally, the strength of the economy) affect drug use and the related outcome of drug selling. This is especially important, given the current economic crisis. This paper aims to use a conceptual framework, previous research, and new research to predict how the current economic crisis may be affecting youth drug selling and drug use. A conceptual framework to understand how a recession could affect youth drug selling and drug use is presented, along with a review of the literature on empirical investigations on how the strength of the economy affects these behaviours among teenagers. In addition, new analyses for young adults are presented. The conceptual framework postulates that a recession would have direct positive effects on the prevalence of youth drug selling but ambiguous direct effects on youth drug use. The conceptual framework also postulates that drug selling and drug use are inter-connected at the individual level and the aggregate level. Thus, any effect of a recession on one would likely affect the other in the same direction. The limited empirical evidence indicates that both drug selling and drug use among youth are higher when the economy is weaker. The current economic crisis will likely increase both youth drug selling and drug use relative to what they would have otherwise been. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Kollektiivne turgu valitsev seisund - uus instituut Eesti konkurentsiõiguses / Hent Kalmo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalmo, Hent, 1979-

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa ühenduste kohtute praktikast seoses kollektiivse turgu valitseva seisundi kuritarvitamisega. Selle instituudi mõistest ja kolmest põhiosisest: kollektiivsusest, turgu valitsevast seisundist ja kuritarvitamisest

  5. Otsedemokraatia diskursused Riigikogus: rahvaalgatuse seadustamise menetlus aastatel 2003-2008 / Ero Liivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivik, Ero, 1971-

    2012-01-01

    Otsedemokraatiast seoses Euroopa Stabiilsusmehhanismi asutamislepingu mittevastavusega põhiseadusele, otsedemokraatia mõistest, selle rakendamisest Eestis aastatel 1923-2003, rahvaalgatuse seadustamise menetlusest Riigikogus 2003-2008. Tabelid

  6. Konfiskeerimine haldussunnivahendina / Indrek Koolmeister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koolmeister, Indrek, 1949-

    1999-01-01

    Konfiskeerimise olemusest ja objektist, selle kohaldamisest juriidiliste isikute suhtes, konfiskeerimise ulatusest ja täitemenetlusest ning kolmandate isikute õigustest seoses asja konfiskeerimisega

  7. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it must...

  8. 12 CFR 617.7620 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? 617.7620 Section 617.7620 Banks and... What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? System institutions electing to sell or lease acquired agricultural real estate or a...

  9. 40 CFR 1054.330 - May I sell engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.330 May I sell engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity? You may sell engines that you produce after we... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I sell engines from an engine...

  10. Preference for art: similarity, statistics, and selling price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Daniel J.; Friedenberg, Jay D.; McCandless, Cyrus H.; Rockmore, Daniel N.

    2010-02-01

    preference, one might expect "free markets" to value art in proportion to its aesthetic appeal, at least to some extent. To assess the role of value, a further test of preference was performed on a separate set of paintings recently sold at auction. Results showed that the selling price of these works showed no correlation with preference, while basic statistics were significantly correlated with preference. We conclude that selling price, which could be seen as a proxy for a painting's "value," is not predictive of preference, while shared preferences may to some extent be predictable based on image statistics. We also suggest that contextual and semantic factors play an important role in preference given that image content appears to lead to greater divergence between similarity and preference ratings for representational works, and especially for artwork that prominently depicts faces. The present paper paves the way for a more complete understanding of the relationship between shared human preferences and image statistical regularities, and it outlines the basic geometry of perceptual spaces for artwork.

  11. Radiology: does it have a sell-by date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Andy

    2009-12-01

    In a few years we are likely to see 3D images generated instantly, and with comparable resolution to today's 2D views. Inclusion of functional information, possibly at the molecular level, could also assist in clinical decision-making. Some specialist clinicians with intimate knowledge of their field of interest are likely to have a better understanding of the pathology and physiology of an organ system than a general radiologist. So given that the images will be presented in a more familiar format, why should clinicians and surgeons wait for a general radiologist to read them? If radiologists wish to retain their role as the experts in image interpretation, they will not only need a thorough understanding of imaging and radiological anatomy, but also a detailed understanding of pathology and physiology. It is clearly unrealistic to expect most people to gain that knowledge across a range of fields, hence the need for subspecialization. There are already commercial moves to harness the expertise of superspecialist radiologists, using teleradiology, to provide expert opinions in particularly difficult cases. This is just the beginning of a major shift in the pattern of practice in radiology. The radiology community cannot ignore impending technological developments. If radiologists take no interest in the emergence of highly detailed, user-friendly images, then the clinicians and surgeons will organise their own department-based image interpretation. However, radiologists are very good at adapting to technological change and are very likely to rise to these challenges. Far from having a sell-by date, radiology has a bright future.

  12. 18 CFR 367.9120 - Account 912, Demonstrating and selling expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... incurred in promotional, demonstrating, and selling activities, except by merchandising, the object of... expenses of merchandising, jobbing and contract work (§ 367.4160), or 930.1, General advertising expenses...

  13. Research on service strategy of electricity selling company under the reform of electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhuhan; Meng, Shiyu; Dou, Jinyue; Zeng, Ming; Sun, Chenjun

    2017-10-01

    The opening of the sale side of electricity market is an important goal of the new round of power system reform in China, and it is necessary to speed up the establishment and development of the electricity selling companies to achieve this goal. First of all, this paper defines the key problems, which are needed to be solved in the establishment of the sale side market, such as demand side response, optimization of users' power consumption mode, profit mode of electricity selling companies and fair competition in the market. On this basis, this paper analyzes the business of electricity selling company, from the aspects of the transition of business ideas, improving the energy efficiency level, providing integrated energy solutions and innovating business management mode; and then, the service strategies of electricity selling companies are put forward.

  14. Power points: how to design and deliver presentations that sizzle and sell

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mills, Harry

    2007-01-01

    ... Flow and Direction Sell the Sizzle Starting Strongly Making Your Point Finishing in Style Bridging with Transitions Tried and Proven Organizational Patterns Use a Persuasive Structure to Add Cohere...

  15. Sotsiaalne kapital ja selle mõõtmine / Väino Kuri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuri, Väino

    2003-01-01

    Sotsiaalse kapitali mõistest ning lähenemisviisidest selle defineerimiseks. Sotsiaalse kapitali mõõtmisest Suurbritannias ja Soomes. Senisest Eesti kogemusest sotsiaalset kapitali puudutavate statistiliste andmete kogumisel. Tabel: Sotsiaalset kapitali iseloomustavad näitajad.

  16. Ragn-Sells: Reformierakond kandib prügiraha! / Mihkel Kärmas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärmas, Mihkel, 1974-

    2010-01-01

    Firma Ragn-Sells kahtlustab, et Reformierakonda rahastati prügiärist kanditud miljonitega. Ragn-Sellsi kirjast riigikontrollile, õiguskantslerile ja siseministrile. Konkureeriva firma Veolia juhataja Argo Luude seisukoht

  17. KEABSAHAN KONTRAK JUAL BELI RUMAH SUSUN DENGAN SISTEM PRE PROJECT SELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintang Yudhantaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, most of the developers use Pre Project Selling system in selling a flat. Pre Project Selling system is the selling before the property was constructed in which the property is still in the form of images or concepts. This system is always related with a Binding Sale and Purchase Agreement (PPJB. To make a PPJB, a requirements that regulated in Law Number 20 of 2011 about Flat should be fulfilled. If those requirements are not fulfilled, it will certainly has the potential to harming the parties, especially the purchaser. Usually, PPJB is a standard contract that was made unilaterally by the developer and tends to ignoring the interest of the purchaser. The objective of this research is to know about the validity of PPJB. This Article user descriptive analysis method. The conclusion is that PPJB is valid when the requirements in Law Number 20 of 2011 about Flat has been fulfilled.

  18. IMPLEMENTATION OF PERSONAL SELLING PT BANK TABUNGAN NEGARA (PERSERO, TBK IN PROMOTING PROGRAM SUPER UNTUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Eva Natalya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Appearing many types of bank proves that business of banking is growing up rapidly and and competing to compile society’s found. Therefore, each bank does the best promotion in order to get the attention and trust from society. PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero, Tbk is using personal selling in promoting Program Super Untung in 2014, this research focuses on monitoring the process of implementation personal selling in Program Super Untung done by PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero,Tbk.This research aims to monitor the implementation of personal selling done by PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero,Tbk to promote Program Super Untung by using personal selling process method from Churchill,. Method applied in this research is descriptive qualitative with design of study case and technic of collecting data done by interviewing and compiling documents from the company related with the research. The result of this research discussed about implementation of personal selling done by PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero,Tbk in 2014. The steps of personal selling are prospecting for customer, opening the relationship, qualifiying the prospect, presenting the sales message, closing the sales, until servicing the account. This research concludes that personal selling has view steps, every steps have relationship and will influence the other steps. Every steps have substantial points that can influence the success of personal selling, i.e. good communication between seller and candidate of customer.  Muncul banyak jenis bank membuktikan bahwa bisnis perbankan berkembang pesat dan dan bersaing untuk menyusun masyarakat yang ditemukan. Oleh karena itu, setiap bank melakukan promosi terbaik agar mendapat perhatian dan kepercayaan dari masyarakat. PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero, Tbk menggunakan penjualan pribadi dalam mempromosikan Program Super Untung pada tahun 2014, penelitian ini berfokus pada pemantauan proses implementasi personal selling di Program Super Untung

  19. Ethical responsibilities of pharmacists when selling complementary medicines: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Popattia, Amber; Winch, Sarah; La Caze, Adam

    2018-04-01

    The widespread sale of complementary medicines in community pharmacy raises important questions regarding the responsibilities of pharmacists when selling complementary medicines. This study reviews the academic literature that explores a pharmacist's responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Embase, PubMed, Cinahl, PsycINFO and Philosopher's index databases were searched for articles written in English and published between 1995 and 2017. Empirical studies discussing pharmacists' practices or perceptions, consumers' expectations and normative studies discussing ethical perspectives or proposing ethical frameworks related to pharmacists' responsibilities in selling complementary medicines were included in the review. Fifty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies discussing the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines had an empirical focus. Pharmacists and consumers identified counselling and ensuring safe use of complementary medicines as the primary responsibilities of pharmacists. No formal ethical framework is explicitly employed to describe the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines. To the degree any ethical framework is employed, a number of papers implicitly rely on principlism. The studies discussing the ethical perspectives of selling complementary medicines mainly describe the ethical conflict between a pharmacist's business and health professional role. No attempt is made to provide guidance on appropriate ways to resolve the conflict. There is a lack of explicit normative advice in the existing literature regarding the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines. This review identifies the need to develop a detailed practice-specific ethical framework to guide pharmacists regarding their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. The search for organs: halachic perspectives on altruistic giving and the selling of organs

    OpenAIRE

    Kunin, J

    2005-01-01

    Altruistic donation of organs from living donors is widely accepted as a virtue and even encouraged as a duty. Selling organs, on the other hand, is highly controversial and banned in most countries. What is the Jewish legal (halachic) position on these issues? In this review it is explained that altruistic donation is praiseworthy but in no way obligatory. Selling organs is a subject of rabbinic dispute among contemporary authorities.

  1. Pengaruh Advertising, Personal Selling, Dan Sales Promotion Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Pada Toko Perkasatex 3 Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Maya

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh Advertising, Personal Selling dan Sales Promotion terhadap Keputusan Pembelian pada Toko Perkasatex 3 Medan. Berdasarkan uji F diperoleh nilai sebesar 62.219 lebih besar dari F table yakni 2.70, artinya variabel bebas (advertising, personal selling, sales promotion) secara bersama – sama memiliki pengaruh yang positif dan signifikan terhadap variabel terikat (keputusan pembelian pada tokko perkasatex 3 Medan). Melalui pengujian koefisie...

  2. E-commerce: Buying and Selling through Internet in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Jusuf Qarkaxhija

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Before internet was invented, there were invented numerous networks that helped American businesses in multiple savings. First of, they didn’t spend money on buying printers or scanners for the computers they possessed, meaning that the money spent before on buying hundreds of them, now was saved and used to buy a few of printers and scanners. How was this done? This worked by binding the entire computers of a floor to a single network. Second, the factor mostly taken into account is the energy saving and various abuses. Imagine the enormous amount of electricity that hundreds of printers and scanners would spend  and how much energy tens of them would spend, moreover  just think about how much these devices would be used in offices, where nobody is looking, for personal interests. American business, as the most creative one and the strongest was bothered by only one thing . This was the misuse of secret corporation information. These abuses occurred when the data had to be printed and transferred to corporate subsidiaries around the world. During the transfer the data could also be lost or damaged (intentionally or unintentionally and then the corporation would suffer losses (the data were transferred via floppy discs, or they were printed in hard copies. The solution for these problems came from the US military that had invented the internet earlier and after having consumed it for its own needs, decided to put it up for American businesses. The internet has developed its own services such as : www, ftp, e-mail, and buying and selling though internet (e-commerce. Nowadays, information exchanges with corporate branches are not made roughly, but electronically in real time. Additionally, this made it possible for a new category of web designers to be created and they created a powerful web-site through which some businesses created virtual shops and they started earning more money than they used to, in their physical stores. This American

  3. Biogas conference on direct selling and financing in France and in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furois, Timothee; Vollmer, Carla; Schlienger, Marc; Delagrandanne, Julien; Schwill, Jochen; Trommler, Marcus; Barchmann, Tino; Dotzauer, Martin; Durot, Alexandre; Ricordeau, Damien; Schuenemann-Plag, Peter; Wehner, Gustav; Wagner, Robert; Mestrel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the regulatory context, direct selling and financing of methanation plants in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 60 participants debated the following topics: direct selling impact on biogas industry, key-steps of methanation development in Germany, experience feedback of direct electricity selling and optimization of the production, banks experience feedback in methanation financing. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - French support schemes for biogas (Timothee Furois); 2 - Development of the framework for biogas plants within the Renewable energy Sources Act from 2000 until 2015 (Carla Vollmer); 3 - Direct selling: challenges and opportunities (Marc Schlienger); 4 - The rules of the aggregator and electricity market (Julien Delagrandanne); 5 - Feed in Premium (FiP) with Biogas Power Plants, experiences in Germany (Jochen Schwill); 6 - Flexibilisation of biogas production - Impulses from EEG -legislation (Marcus Trommler); 7 - Bank approach in the direct selling approach (Alexandre Durot); 8 - Biogas Financing - Correlation between Return and Project Financing (Damien Ricordeau); 9 - Comparative economic analysis of various types of biogas plant Profitability of small and medium biogas plants on the basis of slurry and maize silage in Germany (Peter Schuenemann-Plag); 10 - experience feedback on important financing leviers (Gustav Wehner); 11 - Analysis of the different ways of methanation facilities financing (Robert Wagner); 12- The development of biogas project without recourse to purchase prices in France and Germany (Marc Mestrel)

  4. Design of an ARM-based Automatic Rice-Selling Machine for Cafeterias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Kang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To address the problems of low selling efficiency, poor sanitation conditions, labor-intensive requirement, and quick rice cooling speed in manual rice selling in cafeterias, especially in colleges and secondary schools, this paper presented an Advanced RISC Machines (ARM microprocessor-based rice-selling machine for cafeterias. The machines consisted of a funnel-shaped rice bin, a thermal insulation box, and a conveying and scattering mechanism. Moreover, this machine exerts fuzzy control over stepper motor rpm, and the motor drives the conveyor belt with a scraper to scatter rice, deliver it, and keep it warm. Apart from an external 4*4 keyboard, a point of sale (POS machine, an ARM process and a pressure sensor, the machine is also equipped with card swiping and weighting mechanisms to achieve functions of card swiping payment and precise measurement, respectively. In addition, detection of the right amount of rice and the alarm function are achieved using an ultrasonic sensor and a beeper, respectively. The presence of the rice container on the rice outlet is detected by an optoelectronic switch. Results show that this rice-selling machine achieves precise measurement, quick card swiping, fast rice selling, stable operation, and good rice heat preservation. Therefore, the mechanical design enables the machine to achieve its goals.

  5. Implementation of fuzzy logic to determining selling price of products in a local corporate chain store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiana, S. P. D.

    2017-12-01

    Corporate chain store is one type of retail industries companies that are developing growing rapidly in Indonesia. The competition between retail companies is very tight, so retailer companies should evaluate its performance continuously in order to survive. The selling price of products is one of the essential attributes and gets attention of many consumers where it’s used to evaluate the performance of the industry. This research aimed to determine optimal selling price of product with considering cost factors, namely purchase price of the product from supplier, holding costs, and transportation costs. Fuzzy logic approach is used in data processing with MATLAB software. Fuzzy logic is selected to solve the problem because this method can consider complexities factors. The result is a model of determination of the optimal selling price by considering three cost factors as inputs in the model. Calculating MAPE and model prediction ability for some products are used as validation and verification where the average value is 0.0525 for MAPE and 94.75% for prediction ability. The conclusion is this model can predict the selling price of up to 94.75%, so it can be used as tools for the corporate chain store in particular to determine the optimal selling price for its products.

  6. Laste seksuaalse väärkohtlemise kui kuriteoliigi tendentsid / Elmar Nurmela

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurmela, Elmar

    2000-01-01

    Seadusandlikest muudatustest laste seksuaalse ärakasutamise tõkestamiseks. Lisatud statistilised tabelid laste kallal toime pandud seksuaalkuritegude ja alaealiste prostituutide kohta aastatel 1994-1999

  7. A Partial Backlogging Inventory Model for Deteriorating Items with Fluctuating Selling Price and Purchasing Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ling Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive markets, selling price and purchasing cost are usually fluctuating with economic conditions. Both selling price and purchasing cost are vital to the profitability of a firm. Therefore, in this paper, I extend the inventory model introduced by Teng and Yang (2004 to allow for not only the selling price but also the purchasing cost to change from one replenishment cycle to another during a finite time horizon. The objective is to find the optimal replenishment schedule and pricing policy to obtain the profit as maximum as possible. The conditions that lead to a maximizing solution guarantee that the existence, uniqueness, and global optimality are proposed. An efficient solution procedure and some theoretical results are presented. Finally, numerical examples for illustration and sensitivity analysis for managerial decision making are also performed.

  8. Real Time Business Analytics for Buying or Selling Transaction on Commodity Warehouse Receipt System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djatna, Taufik; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Hairiyah, Nina; Marimin

    2017-10-01

    The requirement for smooth information such as buying and selling is essential for commodity warehouse receipt system such as dried seaweed and their stakeholders to transact for an operational transaction. Transactions of buying or selling a commodity warehouse receipt system are a risky process due to the fluctuations in dynamic commodity prices. An integrated system to determine the condition of the real time was needed to make a decision-making transaction by the owner or prospective buyer. The primary motivation of this study is to propose computational methods to trace market tendency for either buying or selling processes. The empirical results reveal that feature selection gain ratio and k-NN outperforms other forecasting models, implying that the proposed approach is a promising alternative to the stock market tendency of warehouse receipt document exploration with accurate level rate is 95.03%.

  9. The prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in top-selling foods in grocery stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Janeen B; Sullivan, Catherine M; Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best-selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top-selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. The labels of 2394 best-selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best-selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created, and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content. Forty-four percent of the best-selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread and baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive-containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 g more than matched nonadditive-containing foods (P = .03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared with meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Phosphorus additives are common in best-selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Prevalence of Phosphorus Containing Food Additives in Top Selling Foods in Grocery Stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Janeen B.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. Design The labels of 2394 best selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Setting Northeast Ohio Main outcome measures Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content Results 44% of the best selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread & baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 gm more than matched non-additive containing foods (p=.03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared to meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Conclusion Phosphorus additives are common in best selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. PMID:23402914

  11. Emotional Intelligence – Sales Performance Relationship: A Mediating Role of Adaptive Selling Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisker Zazli Lily

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the impact of emotional intelligence on sales performance. We posited that the impact of emotional intelligence (EI on sales performance was mediated by adaptive selling behaviour (ASB. Data were collected from 281 sales people in the financial industries in Malaysia via the WLEIS emotional intelligence scale and ADAPTS adaptive selling behaviour scale, and were quantitatively analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM. Results were in keeping with the model. Three domains of EI were not found to impact sales performance directly but through ASB. Theoretical implications and managerial ramifications were also discussed.

  12. Life Insurance Funding of Buy-Sell Arrangements in Small Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Tauer, Loren W.

    1999-01-01

    Buy-sell arrangements for the death of a co-owner may be funded with life insurance. The mechanisms and details of buy-sell arrangements were discussed. The decision whether to use life insurance was modeled using the expected utility theorem. State dependent utility was used since a surviving partner may become more (or less) risk averse upon the death of a co-owner. Life insurance funding is preferred at relatively low amounts of risk aversion, especially if the surviving partner becomes mo...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1234-1 - Options to buy or sell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... illustrated by the following examples: Example 1. A taxpayer is considering buying a new house for his residence and acquires an option to buy a certain house at a fixed price. Although the property goes up in... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Options to buy or sell. 1.1234-1 Section 1.1234...

  14. Determinants of the place of sell and price of kale for Kiambu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salasya, B.D.S.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Kale is a major source of cash for many households in Kenya. A study of households in Kiambu district revealed that kale made the highest contribution to household income among the crops. The farmers of Kiambu sell their kale either in Nairobi, at farm gate, or at the local market and fetch

  15. Selling the Drama: Army Marketing Strategies and the Future of Word-of-Mouth Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-16

    addressed some handicaps the Army has as an organization; “Unlike its sister services, the Army cannot rely on technology or equipment to sell its...service has benefitted them, could work towards recruiting the Millennial Generation”11. Word-of-mouth recruiting can be very effective, especially

  16. Effect of national recommendation on sweet selling as an intervention for a healthier school environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Jaakko; Rytkönen, Tatu; Kankaanpää, Rami; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Lahti, Satu

    2015-02-01

    In 2007, the Finnish National Board of Education (FNBE) and the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) gave a national recommendation that Finnish upper comprehensive schools should not sell sweet products. The aim was to find out how the national recommendation changed the schools' selling of sweet products. This longitudinal survey was conducted in Finnish upper comprehensive school classes 7-9 (13-15-year-old pupils) in 2007 and 2010. All the schools (N=970) were invited to answer the questionnaire and 237 schools answered in both years (response rate 24%). The questionnaires contained questions concerning the selling of sweet and healthy products and school policy on sweet selling guidelines. Of the nine items in the questionnaire, three weighted sum scores were formed for oral health promotion: Exposure, enabling and policy (higher score indicating better actions). These sum scores were also trichotomized. Statistical significances of the changes were analyzed using nonparametric Wilcoxon's test, McNemar's test, and McNemar-Bowker's test. Schools had decreased exposure of pupils to sweet products (psweet products, candies and soft drinks had decreased (psweet products had not changed (p=0.665). Schools tended to improve their exposure and policy status (psweet products among adolescents. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Risk Preferences Necessary to Choose Life Insurance Funding of Buy-Sell Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Tauer, Loren W,

    1985-01-01

    Pratt-Arrow risk aversion coefficients are derived such that term life insurance funding of buy-sell arrangements is preferred by decision makers with risk preferences greater than those breakeven coefficients. Given previous estimates of farmers' risk preferences, anything greater than a 25 percent loading of actuarially fair premiums would discourage life insurance funding.

  18. Don't Sell Tobacco to Minors: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-07-08

    This podcast helps raise retailers awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations. Under the new regulations, retailers can not sell cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to anyone younger 18.  Created: 7/8/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 7/8/2010.

  19. The Problems of Bulk-Selling Yams in Harvest and Poverty of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple percentages and frequency tables were used in analyzing the data. Results from this study show that poor storage facilities, poor marketing strategy, problem of income and culture of the people account for the bulk-selling of yams in the study area. The study recommends that there is need for the provision of modern ...

  20. Using Sales Management Students to Manage Professional Selling Students in an Innovative Active Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joyce A.; Hawes, Jon M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an application of active learning within two different courses: professional selling and sales management. Students assumed the roles of sales representatives and sales managers for an actual fund-raiser--a golf outing--sponsored by a student chapter of the American Marketing Association. The sales project encompassed an…

  1. The Local Food Grower's Behavior during Planning, Growing, Harvesting, and Selling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumirakiza, J. Dominique

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the behavior of the local food grower during the market-related decision-making process. The relevant behavior is manifested during the planning, growing, and harvesting and selling phases of the agricultural business cycle. The local food grower faces a set of market alternatives from which, if applying a…

  2. What are we downloading for our children? : Best-selling children's apps in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    The present article provides an overview of the best-selling apps for the age range of 0-8 years old under various categories, including ‘Kids’, ‘Books’, ‘Educational games’, ‘Family games’ and ‘Word games’ in the two major application stores (Google Play and iTunes App Store) in four economically

  3. Sex selling and autism spectrum disorder : Impaired capacity, free enterprise, or sexual victimization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.T.; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Sexual behavior is a complex phenomenon. While appetitive and linked to reproduction, it also has a strong hedonic component to it. Like other human behaviors, it is dimensional and, although it may fall along a continuum of normality, it may also deviate in a variety of directions. Selling and

  4. Cross-Cultural Selling: Examining the Importance of Cultural Intelligence in Sales Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpechitre, Duleep; Baker, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Cross-cultural selling has become an important factor in sales education. In the current competitive business graduate market, students who enter the workforce in frontline customer service positions are expected to perform sales at a higher level. Students that have acquired an education in sales during their undergraduate program have been found…

  5. An Innovative, Experiential-Learning Project for Sales Management and Professional Selling Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Joseph; Schetzsle, Stacey; Wahlers, Russell

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an innovative, experiential-learning project that incorporates students from two different courses: sales management and professional selling. Sales management students actually manage sales students on an outside sales project. Students apply classroom knowledge to a real-life sales project for a local community…

  6. Acquisition Pattern Analyses for Recognising Cross-Sell Opportunities in the Financial Services Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, L.; Kuijlen, A.A.A.

    2001-01-01

    In previously published papers it was shown that consumers often acquire financial products in the same order. Knowledge on such acquisition patterns is useful for marketing purposes. This study aims to define optimal utilisation of the acquisition pattern approach for cross-sell purposes. The

  7. A legal and empirical investigation into the direct selling industry’s advocacy in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokaji-Nagy, Orsolya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is made up of legal and empirical research into the direct selling industry’s advocacy in the European Union. In the context of the European pluralistic democracy or, somewhat pejoratively, the Brussels “lobbyocracy”, the thesis intends to increase lobbying transparency by mapping

  8. Marketing and Selling CD-ROM Products on the World-Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Becki

    1995-01-01

    Describes three companies' approaches to marketing and selling CD-ROM products on the World Wide Web. Benefits include low overhead for Internet-based sales, allowance for creativity, and ability to let customers preview products online. Discusses advertising, information delivery, content, information services, and security. (AEF)

  9. Selling and Implementing Leadership Development: Chapter, Verse, and Lessons Learned from Carlson's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevette, Rick D.; Cohen, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a case study template for creating and "selling" an enterprise-wide leadership development initiative in a highly decentralized organization. Using a story-telling approach, the authors delineate the five separate but highly interdependent stages used to achieve this. Sandwiched between a prologue and epilogue are five…

  10. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... one of the following ways: (i) The container shows signs of rupture or other damage which reduces its... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products...

  11. The Personal Selling Ethics Scale: Revisions and Expansions for Teaching Sales Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The field of sales draws a large number of marketing graduates. Sales curricula used within today's marketing programs should include rigorous discussions of sales ethics. The Personal Selling Ethics Scale (PSE) provides an analytical tool for assessing and discussing students' ethical sales sensitivities. However, since the scale fails to address…

  12. The Capstone Sales Course: An Integral Part of a University Level Professional Selling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, David; Harris, Garth; Gulati, Rajesh; Bristow, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    The Capstone Sales course is the final in a sequence of five required courses in a 15 credit Professional Selling program housed in the Marketing Department at St. Cloud State University. The course is heavily focused on experiential learning activities for senior-level sales students. In this paper details of the course design, instructor and…

  13. Pedagoogiline kultusraamat ja selle järjed / Linda Järve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järve, Linda, 1946-

    2016-01-01

    Anton Makarenkost ja tema kasvatussüsteemist. Tutvustatakse tema raamatuid "Pedagoogiline poeem", mille ilmumisest möödus hiljuti 80 aastat, samuti selle järge "Lipud tornidel" ning sama teemat käsitlevat Frida Vigdorova teost "Tee ellu"

  14. Integrated planning in supply chains with buy-side and sell-side

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we develop a quadratic programming model for partner selection and planning in integrated supply chain networks embedded with both sell-side and buy-side electronic marketplaces. Such a scenario arises in several practical applications. In particular, we consider a contract manufacturer who procures ...

  15. The social dynamics of selling sex in Mombasa, Kenya: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through qualitative indepth interviews and focus group discussions with FSWs, this article contextualizes the selling of sex in one large urban city of Kenya. The results of this study indicate that FSWs will never be able to enforce safe sex among male clients in such settings without structural interventions that address ...

  16. Cross-selling through database marketing : a mixed data factor analyzer for data augmentation and prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamakura, W.A.; Wedel, M.; de Rosa, F.; Mazzon, J.A.

    An important aspect of the new orientation on customer relationship marketing is the use of customer transaction databases for the cross-selling of new services and products. In this study, we propose a mixed data factor analyzer that combines information from a survey with data from the customer

  17. 41 CFR 102-38.55 - What must we do when selling personal property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personal property? When selling personal property, you must ensure that— (a) All sales are made after publicly advertising for bids, except as provided for negotiated sales in §§ 102-38.100 through 102-38.125... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE...

  18. 41 CFR 102-37.310 - What must a proposal to sell undistributed surplus property include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... include? (a) Your request to sell undistributed surplus property must include: (1) The proposed sale date; (2) A listing of the property; (3) Location of the sale; (4) Method of sale; and (5) Proposed advertising to be used. (b) If the request is approved, the GSA regional sales office will provide the...

  19. 7 CFR 29.9406 - Failure of warehouse to comply with opening and selling schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Failure of warehouse to comply with opening and... Markets § 29.9406 Failure of warehouse to comply with opening and selling schedule. (a) Each warehouse... warehouse may exceed its scheduled sales opportunity for designated or undesignated tobacco, but the pounds...

  20. 40 CFR 1051.330 - May I sell vehicles from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.330 May I sell vehicles from an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I sell vehicles from an engine...

  1. 40 CFR 1048.330 - May I sell engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I sell engines from an engine... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.330 May I sell engines from an engine...

  2. 40 CFR 1045.330 - May I sell engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I sell engines from an engine... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.330 May I sell engines from an...

  3. Airport mobile marketing as a channel to promote cross-selling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Florido-Benítez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the airport mobile marketing and what elements have had a positive or negative influence in cross-selling via an airport app.  Design/methodology: For this analysis, a survey was conducted to users that use the Schiphol Amsterdam Airport app. A total of 103 questionnaires were analyzed using structural equation modeling.  Findings: This study found that security/control factor supplied by the mobile marketing tool to passengers at the airport, it has been demonstrated that it favours an increase in cross-selling. in addition, if an airport is perceived to have a good brand image, it will have a positive effect in cross-selling.  Originality/value: This paper is the first research that examines the impact of mobile marketing in airports. Smelling multiple products and services to the same client before, during, and post consumption  is a marketing technique that intends to (1 satisfy a client’s need and (2 increase a company’s profit by using cross-selling and other complementary services. Airline companies are experts in carrying out this activity, and airports have found that mobile applications are the perfect tool to increase their commercial profits. Offering complementary products and services is a very lucrative business, and a mobile device or smartphone are -- and will become -- the ideal medium to meet users’ demands as well as to improve the passenger experience.  Keywords: mobile marketing, cross-selling, information, security-control, image-perception, satisfaction, WOM

  4. Men Selling Sex to Men in Sweden: Balancing Safety and Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuosmanen, Jari; de Cabo, Annelie

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how men who sell sex to men perceive the risks in this activity and what experiences they have of actual denigration, threats, and violence in their relations with customers. We also discuss the self-defense strategies they have used to protect themselves. The study is based on an Internet survey on Swedish websites. Statistical analyses have been carried out, and in interpreting the results, Finkelhor and Asdigian's revised routine activities theory has been used. The results show that the vulnerability of sellers of sex is greatest during the time when the sexual act is being performed, and that this is primarily linked to the customer's antagonism and seeking gratification by overstepping agreed boundaries, particularly with regard to sexual services including BDSM. Their vulnerability was also connected to the seller's diminished capacity for self-protection due to personal and external pressures. A smaller proportion of the men described risk prevention activities. These involved refusing a customer after an initial contact, protecting themselves from infection, being on their guard during the whole process, selecting the place, and deciding not to carry out certain sexual acts. An important implication concerns the occupational health and safety that men who sell sex to men can develop for themselves, while remaining within the law. International studies have demonstrated that selling sex in collective, indoor forms provides the greatest security. For decades, Swedish prostitution policy has had the ambition of reducing prostitution through targeting those who purchase sex, and those who promote prostitution in criminal legislation. This effectively prevents more systematic and collective attempts to create safer conditions for selling sex. In conclusion, it can be stated that while it is legal to sell sex in Sweden, this is done at the seller's own risk.

  5. Patterns and correlates of illicit drug selling among youth in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmedani B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael G Vaughn1, Jeffrey J Shook2, Brian E Perron3, Arnelyn Abdon4, Brian Ahmedani51School of Social Work, School of Public Health and Department of Public Policy Studies, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO USA; 2School of Social Work, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA USA; 3School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI USA; 4School of Economics, University of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines; 5Henry Ford Health System, Detroit MI, USAPurpose: Despite the high rates of drug selling among youth in juvenile justice and youth residing in disadvantage neighborhoods, relatively little is known about the patterns of illicit drug selling among youth in the general population.Methods: Using the public-use data file from the adolescent sample (N = 17 842 in the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH, this study employed multiple logistic regression to compare the behavioral, parental involvement, and prevention experiences of youth who sold and did not sell illicit drugs in the past year.Results: Findings from a series of logistic regression models indicated youth who sold drugs were far more likely to use a wide variety of drugs and engage in delinquent acts. Drug-selling youth were significantly less likely to report having a parent involved in their life and have someone to talk to about serious problems but were more likely to report exposure to drug prevention programming.Conclusion: Selling of drugs by youth appears to be a byproduct of substance abuse and deviance proneness, and the prevention programs these youth experience are likely a result of mandated exposure derived from contact with the criminal justice system. Assuming no major drug supply side reductions, policies, and practices associated with increasing drug abuse treatment, parental involvement and supervision, and school engagement are suggested.Keywords: drug distribution, prevention, adolescent risk, youth experiences, parental

  6. Advocating zoster vaccination in a community pharmacy through use of personal selling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Amy R; Liu, Yifei; Kuehl, Peggy G

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether the use of personal selling, in combination with other promotional techniques, could improve patient commitment to receive the targeted intervention of herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax-Merck). Two locally owned grocery store chain pharmacies in the Kansas City, MO, metropolitan area (Price Chopper Pharmacy 11 [PC11] and Price Chopper Pharmacy 36 [PC36]). Price Chopper Pharmacy employs pharmacists who are able to administer vaccinations to patients within the dispensing workflow. Passive signage promoting zoster vaccine was placed at both PC11 and PC36. Personal selling by pharmacy staff to targeted patients was implemented at PC36, where patients were encouraged to receive zoster vaccine at prescription pick up and/or by personalized letter. Primary measures included comparison of the number committing to receive zoster vaccine at either pharmacy, comparison of patient perceptions regarding each pharmacy's promotion of zoster vaccine, and pharmacy staff time spent identifying targeted patients and performing personal selling activities. 90 of 745 targeted patients (12.1%) at PC36 made commitments to receive zoster vaccine compared with 9 of 614 (1.5%) at PC11 (P < 0.001). The barrier of "Dr. hasn't told me I need it" was reduced for PC36 patients (P < 0.05). Patients receiving vaccination had a more favorable attitude toward receiving zoster vaccine than unvaccinated patients (P < 0.01). Among unvaccinated patients, those at PC36 had a more favorable attitude toward receiving zoster vaccine after interacting with a pharmacist (P < 0.05). Personal selling increased patient commitment to receiving a targeted intervention significantly. By using personal selling, pharmacists resolved barriers to immunization.

  7. Testeerimisvabadus ja selle piiramine Eesti territooriumil viimase 150 aasta jooksul : [bakalaureusetöö] / Tiia Ein ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Urve Liin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ein, Tiia

    2006-01-01

    Testeerimisvabaduse mõiste ja areng, selle piiramine, testeerimisvabaduse piiramisest Eesti alal (Eesti talurahvaseadus, Balti Eraseadus, tsiviilseadustiku eelnõu kavad, nõukogude õigus, Eesti kehtiv õigus ja selle reformikava)

  8. HIV, STI prevalence and risk behaviours among women selling sex in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Shakila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 340 million cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs were estimated to have occurred worldwide in 1995. Previous studies have shown that the presence of other concomitant STIs increases the likelihood of HIV transmission. The first national study of STIs conducted in Pakistan in 2004 revealed a high burden of STIs among women selling sex. The HIV epidemic in Pakistan has thus far followed the "Asian epidemic model". Earlier studies among women selling sex have shown a low prevalence of HIV coupled with a low level of knowledge about AIDS. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV and STIs, and assess knowledge and risk behaviours related to HIV/STI, among women selling sex in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods A total of 730 participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling. The participants were women selling sex in three areas (referred to as "A", "B", and "C" of Lahore. A structured questionnaire addressing demographic information, sexual life history, sexual contacts, and knowledge and practices related to HIV/STI prevention was administered by face-to-face interview. Biological samples were obtained from all participants and tested for HIV, Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Pearson's chi-square and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed to test associations between potential risk factors and specified diagnosed infections. Results The prevalence of HIV infection was 0.7%, T pallidum 4.5%, N gonorrhoeae 7.5%, C trachomatis 7.7% and T vaginalis 5.1%. The participants had been selling sex for a median period of seven years and had a median of three clients per day. Sixty five percent of the participants reported that they "Always use condom". The median fee per sexual contact was Rs. 250 (3 Euro. Compared to Areas A and C, women selling sex in Area B had a significantly higher risk of chlamydial

  9. Sakha Music: Selling 'Exotic' Europeanness in Asia and Asianness in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I compare strategies to sell Sakha music in different countries over a ten-year period with a particular emphasis on 2005–2007. due the fact that local income from performing and selling albums is not sufficient for living the artists from the republic of Sakha are trying to perform as much abroad as possible. When touring abroad, the music and performances have changed over time depending on the region. Sakha artists attempt to respond to the expectations of the audience and modify their program accordingly. In a period from the late 1990s to 2007, the same artists have switched from pop to rock to folk music, using different languages and different costumes, performing as Asian or European artists. comparing these strategies, one can see how Sakha musicians use cultural stereotypes of foreign audiences for economic purposes.

  10. Sakha Music: Selling 'Exotic' Europeanness in Asia and Asianness in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I compare strategies to sell Sakha music in different countries over a ten-year period with a particular emphasis on 2005–2007. due the fact that local income from performing and selling albums is not sufficient for living the artists from the republic of Sakha are trying to perform as much abroad as possible. When touring abroad, the music and performances have changed over time depending on the region. Sakha artists attempt to respond to the expectations of the audience and modify their program accordingly. In a period from the late 1990s to 2007, the same artists have switched from pop to rock to folk music, using different languages and different costumes, performing as Asian or European artists. comparing these strategies, one can see how Sakha musicians use cultural stereotypes of foreign audiences for economic purposes.

  11. Organ markets and human dignity: on selling your body and soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempsey, W E

    2000-08-01

    This article addresses the ethics of selling transplantable organs. I examine and refute the claim that Catholic teaching would permit and even encourage an organ market. The acceptance of organ transplantation by the Church and even its praise of organ donors should not distract us from the quite explicit Church teaching that condemns an organ market. I offer some reasons why the Church should continue to disapprove of an organ market. The recent commercial turn in medicine can blind us to the problem of an organ market. In addition, the reliance on the gift image in organ transplantation raises difficulties of its own. What is needed is a fuller appreciation of the fact that the human person is essentially embodied with all its parts, and not merely an autonomous being that possesses organs as properties to sell. I support this vision of the embodied human person by appealing to the writings of Immanuel Kant.

  12. To give or sell human gametes - the interplay between pragmatics, policy and ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, K

    2000-01-01

    The ever-growing acceptance and use of assisted human reproduction techniques has caused demand for "donated" sperm and eggs to outstrip supply. Medical professionals and others argue that monetary reward is the only way to recruit sufficient numbers of "donors". Is this a clash between pragmatics and policy/ethics? Where monetary payments are the norm, alternative recruitment strategies used successfully elsewhere may not have been considered, nor the negative consequences of commercialism on all participants thought through. Considerations leading some countries to ban the buying and selling of sperm, eggs and embryos are outlined and a case made that the collective welfare of all involved parties be the primary consideration in this, at times heated, debate. Key Words: Gametes • gifting • selling • ethics • policy PMID:10860215

  13. Sequential selling and information dissemination in the presence of network effects

    OpenAIRE

    Junjie Zhou; Ying-Ju Chen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how a seller sells a product/service with a positive consumption externality, and customers are uncertain about the product's/service's value. Because early adopters learn this value, we consider the customers' intrinsic signaling incentives and positive feedback effects. Anticipating this, the seller commits to provide price discounts to the followers, and charges the leader a high price. Thus, the profit-maximizing pricing features the cream skimming strategy. We a...

  14. Limitations of the KISS principle and a strong organizational society: a rejoinder to Wollebaek and Selle

    OpenAIRE

    Geys, Benny

    2012-01-01

    This is the author’s final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article In their discussion of my article, Dag Wollebaek and Per Selle agree with my central point that changes in the institutional and socio-political context are likely to affect the engagement-values relation over time, and that more theoretical and empirical research is required to better understand the underlying connections. They then highlight a number of weaknesses in my empirical analysis. First, they criticise t...

  15. An overview of the key routes to the best selling 5-membered ring heterocyclic pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikzad Nikbin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a comprehensive overview on selected synthetic routes towards commercial drug compounds as published in both journal and patent literature. Owing to the vast number of potential structures, we have concentrated only on those drugs containing five-membered heterocycles and focused principally on the assembly of the heterocyclic core. In order to target the most representative chemical entities the examples discussed have been selected from the top 200 best selling drugs of recent years.

  16. Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ruán-Soto, Felipe; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling pro...

  17. Determinants of sell-side financial analysts’ use of non-financial information

    OpenAIRE

    LYBAERT, Nadine; ORENS, Raf

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to research the context within which sell-side financial analysts make decisions to use corporate non-financial information. Prior research has demonstrated that financial analysts take into account non-financial information in their analyses of firms, but knowledge is scarce about what determines their use of this information. Based on a survey conducted among Belgian financial analysts, we observe a significant negative association between the financial analysts' use of non-...

  18. Düsseldorfi koolkond ja selle Baltimaade kunstnikud - kultuuridevahelise suhtluse aspekte / Bettina Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Baumgärtel, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Düsseldofi koolkonnast (1819-1918), selle rahvusvahelisest levikust, Eestist pärit baltisaksa kunstnike Karl Eduard von Gebhardti (1838-1925), Eugéne Gustav Dückeri (1841-1916) ja Alexander Heinrich Gregor von Bochmanni (1850-1930) juhtivast osast ning nende erinevatest maadest, ka eestlastest õpilastest. Ka valitsevatest maalizhanritest ja tolleaegsetest rühmitustest Saksamaal - natsareenlastest ja ühendusest Malkasten

  19. Internet Advertising and the Generalized Second Price Auction: Selling Billions of Dollars Worth of Keywords

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the "generalized second price" auction (GSP), a new mechanism which is used by search engines to sell online advertising that most Internet users encounter daily. GSP is tailored to its unique environment, and neither the mechanism nor the environment have previously been studied in the mechanism design literature. Although GSP looks similar to the Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG) mechanism, its properties are very different. In particular, unlike the VCG mechanism, GSP generally do...

  20. Children's understanding of the selling versus persuasive intent of junk food advertising: implications for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Owen B J; Patterson, Lisa J; Donovan, Robert J; Ewing, Michael T; Roberts, Clare M

    2011-03-01

    Evidence suggests that until 8 years of age most children are cognitively incapable of appreciating the commercial purpose of television advertising and are particularly vulnerable to its persuasive techniques. After this age most children begin to describe the 'selling' intent of advertising and it is widely assumed this equips them with sufficient cognitive defences to protect against advertisers' persuasion attempts. However, much of the previous literature has been criticised for failing to differentiate between children's awareness of 'selling' versus 'persuasive' intent, the latter representing a more sophisticated understanding and superior cognitive defence. Unfortunately there is little literature to suggest at what age awareness of 'persuasive intent' emerges; our aim was to address this important issue. Children (n = 594) were recruited from each grade from Pre-primary (4-5 years) to Grade 7 (11-12 years) from ten primary schools in Perth, Western Australia and exposed to a McDonald's television advertisement. Understanding the purpose of television advertising was assessed both nonverbally (picture indication) and verbally (small discussion groups of 3-4), with particular distinction made between selling versus persuasive intent. Consistent with previous literature, a majority of children described the 'selling' intent of television advertising by 7-8 years both nonverbally and verbally, increasing to 90% by 11-12 years. Awareness of 'persuasive' intent emerged slowly as a function of age but even by our oldest age-group was only 40%. Vulnerability to television advertising may persist until children are far older than previously thought. These findings have important implications regarding the debate surrounding regulation of junk food (and other) advertising aimed at children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Overhead Costs Apportionment on Selling Price Determination in Malaysian Automobile Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dandago, Kabiru Isa; Zaidi, Zulaikha Rabitah; Amir, Aliana Shazma Amir Binti

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of overhead cost apportionment on selling price determination in the Malaysian automobile manufacturing industry. Specifically, the study looks at the treatment of overhead costs apportionment from the perspective of the profit making effort of automobile manufacturing firms. The methodology used is interview with staff of one automobile manufacturing company in Malaysia taken as a case study: that is Naza Automotive Manufacturing Sdn. Bhd. The findings o...

  2. Selling a gun to a stranger without a background check: acceptable behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Azrael, Deborah; Miller, Matthew

    2017-06-24

    One way that guns get into the wrong hands is via gun sales without a background check. While the large majority of Americans support laws requiring universal background checks, no prior study has assessed whether Americans think it is acceptable behaviour to sell a gun to a stranger without a background check, whether or not there is a law against it. We sponsored a nationally representative survey of over 3900 American adults, oversampling gun owners, using an online panel provided by the survey firm Growth for Knowledge. Over 72% of American adults agree or strongly agree with the statement that 'whether it is legal or not, it is NOT acceptable to sell a gun to a stranger without a background check' and 11% disagree or strongly disagree. Subgroups less likely to agree are young adults, men, conservatives, those with less than a high school education and gun owners. Reducing the number of guns sold without a background check could help reduce the flow of guns to felons. Changes in normative attitudes and behaviours, as well as changes in law, could help accomplish this goal. Most Americans, including gun owners, believe selling a gun to a stranger without a background check is not acceptable behaviour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Uncertain Reasoning for Detection of Selling Stolen Goods in Online Auctions Using Contextual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Beranek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design of a decision support system for detection of fraudulent behavior of selling stolen goods in online auctions. In this system, each seller is associated with a type of certification, namely “proper seller,” “suspect seller,” and “selling stolen goods.” The certification level is determined on the basis of a seller’s behaviors and especially on the basis of contextual information whose origin is outside online auctions portals. In this paper, we focus on representing knowledge about sellers in online auctions, the influence of additional information available from other Internet source, and reasoning on bidders’ trustworthiness under uncertainties using Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. To demonstrate the practicability of our approach, we performed a case study using real auction data from Czech auction portal Aukro. The analysis results show that our approach can be used to detect selling stolen goods. By applying Dempster-Shafer theory to combine multiple sources of evidence for the detection of this fraudulent behavior, the proposed approach can reduce the number of false positive results in comparison to approaches using a single source of evidence.

  4. Market Exclusivity Time for Top Selling Originator Drugs in Canada: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel

    2017-09-01

    This study looks at market exclusivity time for the top selling originator drugs in Canada. Total sales for drugs without competition were also calculated. A list of the top selling originator drugs by dollar sales from 2009 to 2015 inclusive, except for 2010, was compiled along with their annual sales. Health Canada databases were used to extract the following information: generic name, date of Notice of Compliance (NOC, date of marketing authorization), whether the product was a small molecule drug or a biologic, and date of NOC for a generic or biosimilar. Market exclusivity time was calculated in days for drugs. A total of 121 drugs were identified. There were 96 small molecule drugs (63 with a generic competitor and 33 with no generic competitor) and 25 biologics (none with a biosimilar competitor). The 63 drugs with a competitor had a mean market exclusivity time of 4478 days (12.3 years) (95% CI 4159-4798). The 58 drugs without competition had total annual sales of Can$8.59 billion and were on the market for a median of 5357 days (14.7 years) (interquartile range 3291-6679) as of January 31, 2017. Top selling originator drugs in Canada have a considerably longer period of market exclusivity than the 8 to 10 years that the research-based pharmaceutical industry claims. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Island Smart Eco-Cities: Innovation, Secessionary Enclaves, and the Selling of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Governments and developers around the globe are exploiting the benefits of island spatiality to sell urban sustainability. Many new-build smart cities, eco-cities, and sustainable cities (‘smart eco-cities’ are constructed on small islands or otherwise bounded from surrounding urban space. Island spatiality presents benefits for selling smart eco-cities as role models of sustainable innovation: ease of creating value, ease of measuring sustainability, and ease of communicating success. These benefits, however, are all largely illusory, contributing primarily to the appearance of sustainability for the sake of economic profit. The great innovation of island smart-cities is frequently an innovation in the selling of sustainability. By monetising the environment through ecosystem services, incentivising largely symbolic ‘green’ projects and architecture, drawing attention away from unsustainable practices elsewhere, and exacerbating social inequality, island smart eco-cities may be making the world less sustainable. They may also be unreproducible by design and lead to a global devaluing of genuinely sustainable but non-iconic urban development. Island smart eco-cities increasingly serve as secessionary enclaves for a global elite, privileging corporate over public interests and spearheading an invidious argument of sustainable development by deregulation.

  6. The Stickiness of Selling, General, and Administrative Costs in the Indonesian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Armanto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Selling, general and administration costs are the main components in the Income Statement. A large number of permanent staff in sales and marketing department will make the company dominated by the fixed costs. This fact could lead to sticky cost behavior. In addition, role of the manager can also cause the cost stickiness. When the company’s revenue decreases, manager may delay to decrease the cost or not even decrease cost at all. The objective of the study is to determine whether cost stickiness of selling, general and administrative in the Indonesian listed companies. This study applied log-linear data panel regression with 3605 firm years that is listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange (BEI from 1993 – 2013. This study finds that selling, general, and administrative costs are sticky only for the manufacturing companies. Furthermore, the results show that adjustment of sales, general, and administrative costs delayed by the manager when revenue decreases, yet the cost stickiness will be reduced in the next period.

  7. Paradigma muutus 1970-ndate aastate Lääne kunstis ja selle kajastus eesti kunstielus = The Change of Paradigm in the Western Art of the 1970s and its Reflection in the Estonian Art World / Jaak Kangilaski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangilaski, Jaak, 1939-

    1998-01-01

    Nõukogude võimu ideoloogilisest arengust, eesti kunsti suundumustest okupatsiooni ajal ئ ametlik, rahvuslik-konservatiivne (30.-te ideaalidele toetuv) ja avangardistlik suund ئ ning muutustest eesti kunstis seoses 1970. aastatel lääne kunstis toimunud paradigmade vahetumisega, suhetest vene avangardkunstiga

  8. Selling Mankind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl, Poul

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of World War II, UNESCO promoted a new approach to the writing of world history in an attempt to support UN peacekeeping through "mental engineering" in the service of peace. The first task was to launch an authoritative world history without particular geographical orientations...

  9. Selling Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, Kirsty.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes a trip to the Sellafield reprocessing plant arranged by BNFL for journalists. The train journey from London and the actual tour round the Sellafield site and visitor centre are described briefly. Several protest groups were encountered on the way but the point made is that in encouraging visitors to the site and explaining what is going on there BNFL is trying to be more open in its dealings with the public in an effort to inform, reassure and lessen mistrust. (UK)

  10. A Rising E-Channel Tide Lifts All Boats? The Impact of Manufacturer Multichannel Encroachment on Traditional Selling and Leasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizing and managing channels of distribution is an important marketing task. Due to the emergence of electronic commerce on the Internet, e-channel distribution systems have been adopted by many manufacturers. However, academic and anecdotal evidence both point to the pressures arising from this new e-channel manufacturing environment. Question marks therefore remain on how the addition of this e-channel affects the traditional marketing strategies of leasing and selling. We set up several two-period dual-channel models in which a manufacturer sells a durable product through both a manufacturer-owned e-channel and an independent reseller (leaser who adopts selling (leasing to consumers. Our main results indicate that, direct selling cost aside, product durability plays an important role in shaping the strategies of all members. With either marketing strategy, the additional expansion of an e-channel territory may secure Pareto gains, in which all members benefit.

  11. 40 CFR 1068.435 - May I sell engines/equipment from a family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS Selective Enforcement Auditing § 1068.435 May I sell engines/equipment from a family with a... of equipment you produce and show it complies with emission standards that apply. (b) We...

  12. 41 CFR 102-38.125 - May we sell personal property at fixed prices to State agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Sales Process Negotiated Sales § 102-38.125 May we sell personal...

  13. PENERAPAN PERSONAL SELLING DALAM MEMASARKAN PRODUK PEMBIAYAAN MURABAHAH PADA PT. BANK PEMBIAYAAN RAKYAT SYARIAH MITRA HARMONI KOTA MALANG

    OpenAIRE

    Fani Firmansyah, Dian Nailiyah

    2013-01-01

    Recently, many sharia financial institutes stand, either banks general or banks people of islamic finance. PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City as a new sharia financial institute is demanded to be able to compete to other financial institute, so that the marketting strategy  is needed fully. Personal selling is one of marketting method of producttion in order to be able to be pervaded by market. PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City markets payment product of murabahah by using the personal selling...

  14. PENGARUH KUALITAS PRODUK DAN PERSONAL SELLING TERHADAP KEPUASAN PELANGGAN PADA MAJALAH INFO BEKASI (STUDI KASUS PT. SIBK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rizan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the purpose of this research are: 1 To know the description of product quality, personal selling and customer satisfaction on client of Info Bekasi Magazine. 2 To know the influence of quality product towards customer satisfaction on client of Info Bekasi Magazine. 3 To know the influence of quality product towards customer satisfaction on client of Info Bekasi Magazine. 4 To know the influence of quality product and personal selling simultaneously towards customer satisfaction on client Info Bekasi Magazine. The method implemented in this research are descriptive explanatory and causal. This research is taken 100 client of Info Bekasi Magazine after their interact with personal selling used field pricing system while data was collected by using questionnaire and processed using SPSS 20. The result shows that partially quality product has a positive and significant impact toward customer satisfaction. Then, partially personal selling also has a positive and significant impact toward customer satisfaction. Simultaneously, quality product and personal selling have a positive and significant impact toward customer satisfaction. The empirical findings indicate that to create and improve the customer satisfaction, Info Bekasi Magazine need to consider quality product and personal selling because those factors shown to affect the level of job loyalty.

  15. SELLING SHARES OF STATE OWNED ENTERPRISES – METHODS APPLIED IN PRIVATIZATION PROCESS AND OPEN ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Čulinović Herc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in the EU Member States, as well as in the Republic of Croatia, show an increase in the sale of shares of state owned enterprises. In this paper authors sought to investigate permissive and available techniques of selling those shares. The dilemma is how to achieve the best selling price by choosing one of the prescribed methods without being in breach of the rules concerning state aid and free movement of capital. Moreover, since many state owned enterprises are playing vital role in the Croatian economy, the question arises how to protect national interests and in the same time stay in line with principles of free movement of capital and state aid rules. The Croatian law provides seven methods of selling the shares. When selecting the method, in order to be in compliance with state aid rules, it is necessary to take into account Market Economy Vendor Principle as spelled out in the Guidance Paper adopted by the Commission. Although this Guidance Paper does not represent an official position of the Commission on the issue, its importance is highlighted in the Commission’s decisions and court practices in the European Union. As far as principle of the free movement of capital is concerned, the question arises, whether some permissible exceptions as to it could be a source to protect national interest in companies that are of strategic interest. The paper gives an overview of the recent acquisition of Alstom by General Electric in which France protected its national strategic interests by issuing special decree in which it evokes the application of the permissive exceptions to the principle of the free movement of capital. Although the case is still “in the monitoring of the Commission”, authors explore viability of that method in the Republic of Croatia.

  16. The Debtor’s Property Selling in the Cross-Border Insolvency Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sproge Daiga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The title of this research is “The debtor’s property selling in the cross-border insolvency proceedings”. The insolvency proceeding gets the cross-border status also in case, if a debtor is an owner of the property outside of the main interests’ centre, namely, in another country. Therefore, there are many problematic cases when insolvency administrator (also called insolvency practitioner defines the real estate in this other country and has to make a decision concerning the methods of selling the real estate in accordance with the law of the Member State in which territory the insolvency proceedings have been started. At the same time, the administrator shall provide that the property is sold in particular with regard to procedures for the realization of assets defined in the legislation of that country, where such real estate has been located. The article’s aim is to give a view of the features of the sale of the property in the insolvency proceedings and to define the possible lack and improvements in the cross-border insolvency concerning the selling of a debtor’s property. The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union has adopted Regulation (EU 2015/848 of 20 May 2015 on Insolvency proceedings, which shall apply from 26 June 2017, with some exceptions Despite the regulation of the cross-border insolvency has been improved, the procedure of the property disposal is still incomplete in the cross-border insolvency proceedings. Within the study the following research methods are applied: the analytical method, comparative method, sociological method and descriptive method. The predicted value of the research is theoretical and also practical. The research should be useful for the insolvency proceedings administrators, the companies and the banks, other experts involved in the cross-border insolvency proceedings, as well as for students to improve their theoretical knowledge about the cross-border insolvency.

  17. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF UNIQUE SELLING PROPOSITION ON CONSUMER PURCHASING DECISIONS IN HOTELS

    OpenAIRE

    Ng'Ang'A, Diana

    2017-01-01

    The hospitality Industry is comprised of individual hotels in which each one of them differs in the way that they position their products and services with the intention of catering for the advancing present day consumer needs. It is hence important for hospitality businesses to possess a unique selling proposition. The objective of this study is to determine the importance of the 4 P’s of marketing mix in consumer purchasing decision. The 4 P’s concept is a tool used in modern marketing ...

  18. Optimal selling rules for monetary invariant criteria: tracking the maximum of a portfolio with negative drift

    OpenAIRE

    Elie, Romuald; Espinosa, Gilles-Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Considering a positive portfolio diffusion $X$ with negative drift, we investigate optimal stopping problems of the form $$ \\inf_\\theta \\Esp{f\\left(\\frac{X_\\theta}{\\Sup_{s\\in[0,\\tau]}{X_s}}\\right)}\\;,$$ where $f$ is a non-increasing function, $\\tau$ is the next random time where the portfolio $X$ crosses zero and $\\theta$ is any stopping time smaller than $\\tau$. Hereby, our motivation is the obtention of an optimal selling strategy minimizing the relative distance between the liquidation val...

  19. It sells the fuse business to Buddha Co.; Huzujigyo wo butsusha ni baikyaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Japan energy was announced with that it agreed by selling fuse business unit of U.S.A. Corporation GA-TEC of the full amount fund in major electronic component manufacturer and Carbonrolein of France on eighth. The sale amount is about 1 hundred million 4300 It is (about 170000000 yen) ten thousand dollar, and the business is transferred by the end August. GA-TEC allocates the most part of the sale income for the payback of the debt, and the finance constitution is strengthened. (translated by NEDO)

  20. Extreme anthropogenic erosion: Topsoil Selling in the Mekong Delta and consequences for soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Susanne; Sebesvari, Zita; Vien, Duong Minh; Kruse, Jens; Guong, Vo Thi; Amelung, Wulf

    2017-04-01

    Increasing urbanization and industrialization leads to increasing demands for construction material, especially in low income countries. For this purpose topsoil is sometimes removed and used as construction material. Topsoil Selling is practiced around the world from America, Europe and Africa to Asia. In the Mekong Delta, Vietnam farmers physically remove the upper 10-40 cm of their paddy fields and sell it to contractors (= Topsoil Selling, TSS). The excavated material is used for road construction or brick production and therefore the most fertile part of the paddy soil is irrecoverably lost. The temporal effects of topsoil removal on soil quality are not yet fully understood. We hypothesized that after soil removal, soil quality and yield potential are significantly lower compared to the original topsoil. To test this hypothesis, we sampled two chronosequences in two different provinces of the Mekong Delta. The provinces are Sóc Trăng (Control, 1, 2, 3, 8 years after TSS) and Trà Vinh (Control, 3, 5, 8 years after TSS). The sampling areas differ in texture and cultivation practice: clayey-loamy vs. sandy-loamy and double vs. triple rice cropping. For each year of the chronosequence, 4 field sites were investigated. We sampled the Ap, Bg1, and Bg2 horizon up to 40 cm depth as composite samples from 6 to 8 cores per field. Soil organic carbon (Corg) stocks at TSS sites were up to 20 t/ha lower than at Control sites (Control: 50 t/ha) in Sóc Trăng and up to 15 t/ha lower in Tra Vinh (Control: 30 t/ha). Especially the Bg horizons revealed a continuous decline in Corg with time after soil removal. Analysis of available nutrients (Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu) determined by the Mehlich3-Method are still ongoing. Preliminary results, however, suggest that there is not sustainable loss of these elements after selling, but that initial risk of losses are reverted under prolonged management. Phosphorus fractionation according to the Hedley method indicate

  1. Selling the Space Telescope - The interpenetration of science, technology, and politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to the politics of initiating the Space Telescope program and to the manner in which the coalition, or working consensus, for the Telescope was assembled, in particular, the role played by astronomers. It is contended that what ensued was a case study in the influence of government patronage on a large-scale scientific and technological program. It is concluded that while a politically feasible Space Telescope did result, in the selling process the Telescope had been both oversold and underfunded.

  2. Women and men with intellectual disabilities who sell or trade sex: voices from the professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuosmanen, Jari; Starke, Mikaela

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of women and men with intellectual disabilities (ID) selling or exchanging sexual services is poorly understood. In this study, the authors explored the knowledge and perceptions of this phenomenon shared by professionals working in the field. Focus group discussions demonstrated broad familiarity with the phenomenon. Different motives and contributing factors were identified for the behavior, blurring the boundary line between free choice and exploitation. Two distinct discourses emerged from the interviews based on the assumed "rationality" of the sex transaction and its rewards: Those with ID who traded sexual favors were presented as either conscious and autonomous agents or unaware and exploited victims.

  3. Book review: Pradeep, A.K.: "The buying brain: secrets for selling to the subconscious mind"

    OpenAIRE

    Neven Kružljak

    2011-01-01

    Knjiga The Buying Brain: Secrets for Selling to the Subconscious Mind objavljena je 2010. godine, a izdavač je John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, USA. Djelo sadrži 231 stranicu podijeljenu u 18 poglavlja poredanih tako da čitatelja postupno uvode u područje neuromarketinga. Autor započinje predstavljajući trenutačnu problematiku u istraživanju tržišta i otkrivanju želja potrošača, nastavlja opisom neuromarketinških tehnologija, strukturom i osnovnim funkcijama mozga. Slijede savjet...

  4. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING METHOD IN DETERMINING SELLING PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhtarudin Muhtarudin

    2017-08-01

    -Based Costing method. After applying the latter cost determining the method there turned out to be a significant difference in the shoe production cost resulted from the inaccurate price calculation in the former method, as here a selling price is fixed by marking-up efforts aiming to cover the production cost. Determining a selling price in this way causes the selling price to be too low; thus it cannot optimize the profit. Keywords: Activity-Based Costing; Production Cost; Selling Price

  5. Tulemuslikkuse ja organisatsioonikultuuri vahelised seosed Eesti keskkoolides / Anne Aidla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aidla, Anne, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Autor järeldab uuringu tulemustele tuginedes, et kõrge tulemuslikkusega koolides on töötajad ülesande orientatsiooni hinnangutes optimistlikumad, keskmise tulemuslikkuse puhul aga pessimistlikumad. Tabel

  6. Selling space colonization and immortality: A psychosocial, anthropological critique of the rush to colonize Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodian, Rayna Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Extensive media coverage regarding the proposal to send four people to Mars by 2025 has exploded recently. Private enterprise has taken the reins to venture into space, which has typically only been reserved for government agencies. I argue, that with this new direction comes less regulation, raising questions regarding the ethics of sending people into outer space to colonize Mars within a decade. Marketers selling colonization to the public include perspectives such as biological drives, species survival, inclusiveness and utopian ideals. I challenge these narratives by suggesting that much of our desire to colonize space within the next decade is motivated by ego, money and romanticism. More specifically, I will examine the roles that fear and stories of immortality play within selling space and how those stories are marketed. I am passionate about space and hope that one day humanity will colonize other worlds, but the rush to settle is dangerous and careless. I assert that humanity should first gain more experience and knowledge before colonizing outer space, using this research to mitigate the risk to astronauts and proceed with careful consideration for the lives of potential astronauts.

  7. Selling and buying sex: a longitudinal study of risk and protective factors in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E

    2012-06-01

    Engaging in trading sex is associated with many co-occurring problems, including elevated risk for sexually transmitted infections. Various dimensions of social support from parents, schools, and mentors may be protective against sex trading and may ameliorate the impact of risk factors. This study analyzes data from respondents to Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) who had not participated in sex trading for money or drugs in Wave I so that risk and protective factors for first initiations of selling or buying sex could be examined longitudinally. About 2% of the study sample began selling sex and about 2% began buying sex between Wave I and Wave III. The respondent's sex, race/ethnicity, history of sexual abuse, shoplifting, marijuana use, and experiences of homelessness or running away were significant predictors of trading sex (p feeling part of school was associated with lower buying of sex even after controlling for demographics and risk factors (p buying sex. Promoting school connectedness may advance public health goals.

  8. Motivations for Selling Ecstasy among Young Adults in the Electronic Dance Music Club Culture in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Lysa S; Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P; Surratt, Hilary L; Pechansky, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    This article describes data on the motivations for selling ecstasy among young adults in the electronic dance music (EDM) club culture in Brazil. Individual interviews were conducted with 20 individuals recruited for their involvement in the EDM club scene. Eligible participants were aged 18-39 and reported ecstasy and/or LSD use one or more times in the past 90 days. Exclusion criteria included current treatment for drug/alcohol problems and cognitive impairment or clinically evident psychiatric disorder. Mean age was 22.92 (SD 2.77), 60% were male, 45% reported 12 or more years of education, 50% did not have a primary partner, 50% were living alone, and all had friends who also used ecstasy. Three main themes emerged: (1) "easy" transition from ecstasy user to seller; (2) desire to achieve popularity and fame; and (3) need to sell ecstasy to maintain the high cost of EDM club scene participation. This is one of the first studies of ecstasy sellers in Brazil. The results demonstrate the ease with which the participants transition from ecstasy user to seller. Given the potential health and social dangers associated with ecstasy use, public health campaigns to prevent ecstasy use and policy initiatives to limit the ecstasy supply are warranted.

  9. Sex and the media: three decades of best-selling books and major motion pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, P R; Mechanic, M B

    1983-06-01

    The expression of sexuality in best-selling novels and major motion pictures was examined. There are two reasons that such stimuli merit systematic analysis. First and foremost is the finding that best-selling novels and major motion pictures exist as a primary source of sexual information. Of equal importance, however, is the need to examine such stimuli for myths and fallacies. The novels and films analyzed in the present study were selected from the last years of three consecutive decades: 1959, 1969, and 1979. Inclusion in this study was based on ranking in either a best-seller list (i.e., books) or a rental-receipts list (i.e., movies). The use of such criteria serves the dual purpose of allowing for the examination of stimuli that are accessible to large masses of people and at the same time allowing for the examination of sexually relevant stimuli. The results are discussed in terms of historical changes (over the three decades) and manifest themes (i.e., general characteristics or consistent themes). An additional section was included to address the broader implications of the present findings and to suggest alternatives.

  10. The Role Of Cross Selling In SME Banking: An Analysis From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Karadag

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-lending activities in SME financing is a phenomenon whose significance has recently been recognized. Provision of different products and services to companies is becoming an important profit center for banks serving SMEs and the supply side of SME financing has been experiencing a shift towards fee-based products and services, mainly due to the risks and challenges associated with SME lending. Despite these important developments in the industry, there are a limited number of studies that focus on the bank activities related with cross-selling to SMEs. This paper aims to address this gap in the literature, by investigating the role of cross selling in SME banking by analyzing the major business models and strategies both at international and local contexts. The study targets to make important contributions to SME finance and in particular SME banking literature, as it highlights the changing market structure in the supply-side of SME banking and pinpoints how best practices in international banking system can form examples for banks that prioritize growth in SME segment.   

  11. Data Warehouse, Data Mining Dan Konsep Cross-Selling Pada Analisis Penjualan Produk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Miranda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about designing and implementing data warehousing and data mining, along with their roles in supporting decision-making related to sales product analysis in cross-selling concept of PT XYZ. The database the company used is not supporting data analysis and decision-making. Therefore, it made a data warehousing design that could be used to keep data in a huge amount and could give report and answer from user’s questions in ad hoc. The method is used to design and implement data warehousing and data mining which consists of literature study, company problem analysis, and data warehousing design, and testing result. The writing results are a data warehousing design and data mining and also the implementation of cross-selling concept to analysis the sales, purchases, and customers’ cancellation data. The data could be showed and analyzed from some point of views that could help managers to analyse and acknowledge more information. 

  12. PENERAPAN PERSONAL SELLING DALAM MEMASARKAN PRODUK PEMBIAYAAN MURABAHAH PADA PT. BANK PEMBIAYAAN RAKYAT SYARIAH MITRA HARMONI KOTA MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Firmansyah, Dian Nailiyah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many sharia financial institutes stand, either banks general or banks people of islamic finance. PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City as a new sharia financial institute is demanded to be able to compete to other financial institute, so that the marketting strategy  is needed fully. Personal selling is one of marketting method of producttion in order to be able to be pervaded by market. PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City markets payment product of murabahah by using the personal selling, can stand even more develope. This research it conducted to know how the application of personal selling in marketing murabahah  payment product in PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City. The kind of this research is method qualitative approach descriptive, the researcher describes how processes or steps personal selling conducted PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City, the technique of data collecttion uses the observation, interview and documentation. Method data analysis that researcher use is method data analysis descriptive. The research result shows that proses or step personal selling which is held in PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City is Prospecting Approach, Preapproach, Approach, Presentation, Handling Objection, Closing and follow up. Handling Objection which is held PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City is sales person continue closing sale without asked reservation prospective customers and do not dig the hidden reservation then use the reservation as an opportunity to provide more information and change the mind be a reason to buy.

  13. Consumer Preferences, Product Characteristics, and Potentially Allergenic Ingredients in Best-selling Moisturizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Kwa, Michael; Lohman, Mary E; Evers-Meltzer, Rachel; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2017-11-01

    Because moisturizer use is critical for the prevention and treatment of numerous dermatological conditions, patients frequently request product recommendations from dermatologists. To determine the product performance characteristics and ingredients of best-selling moisturizers. This cohort study involved publicly available data of the top 100 best-selling whole-body moisturizing products at 3 major online retailers (Amazon, Target, and Walmart). Products marketed for use on a specific body part (eg, face, hands, eyelids) were excluded. Pairwise comparisons of median price per ounce on the basis of marketing claims (eg, dermatologist recommended, fragrance free, hypoallergenic) and presence of ingredients represented in the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) series were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. The effect of vehicle type (eg, ointment, lotion, cream, butter) was assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Cross-reactors and botanicals for fragrances were derived from the American Contact Dermatitis Society's Contact Allergen Management Program database. A total of 174 unique best-selling moisturizer products were identified, constituting 109 713 reviews as of August 2016. The median price per ounce was $0.59 (range, $0.10-$9.51 per ounce) with a wide range (9400%). The most popular vehicles were lotions (102 [59%]), followed by creams (22 [13%]), oils (21 [12%]), butters (14 [8%]), and ointments (3 [2%]). Only 12% (n = 21) of best-selling moisturizer products were free of NACDG allergens. The 3 most common allergens were fragrance mix (n = 87), paraben mix (n = 75), and tocopherol (n = 74). Products with the claim "dermatologist recommended" had higher median price per ounce ($0.79; interquartile range [IQR], $0.56-$1.27) than products without the claim ($0.59; IQR, $0.34-$0.92). Products with the claim "phthalate free" had higher median price per ounce ($1.38; IQR, $0.86-$1.63) than products without the claim ($0.59; IQR

  14. IMPLEMENTASI PERSONAL SELLING OLEH AGENT DAN DOWNLINE PT MELILEA INTERNASIONAL INDONESIA CABANG KOTA BEKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALDI MATTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brands and products compete with each other to gain market share. The right marketing communication and promotion strategy is one way to win the competition. The main characteristic of this personal selling strategy is the direct interaction between the salesperson and the potential customers, present and instantly know about the advantages and characteristics of products marketed to potential customers. One of the companies that implement this strategy as the main promotional activity is PT. International Melilea Indonesia as a distributor of Melilea organic products. The business and marketing systems run by agents and Melilea's downlines are Multi Level Marketing (MLM so that meeting with customers is an obligation in personal sales activities. This study was conducted to find out how the implementation of personal selling activities undertaken by agent and Melilea Distributor in Bekasi branch. This research uses qualitative approach with descriptive type. The method used is a case study to conduct in-depth interviews to informants. Implementation of personal selling activities of PT. Melilea Indonesia International in this case Melilea agent and downline at Bekasi branch is done through five stages: prospecting, approaching, service, interactive media, and consumer care.   Merk dan produk saling bersaing satu sama lain untuk mendapatkan pangsa pasar. Strategi komunikasi dan promosi pemasaran yang tepat sebagai salah satu cara untuk memenangkan persaingan. Ciri utama dari strategi penjualan personal ini adalah interaksi langsung antara wiraniaga dengan calon konsumen, hadir dan langsung mengetahui tentang kelebihan dan karakteristik produk yang dipasarkan ke calon konsumen. Salah satu perusahaan yang menerapkan strategi ini sebagai kegiatan promosi utama adalah PT. International Melilea Indonesia sebagai distributor produk organik Melilea. Sistem bisnis dan pemasaran yang dijalankan oleh agen dan downline Melilea adalah Multi Level Marketing

  15. Vendas de bebidas alcóolicas: questões (IMpertinentes Selling alcoholic beverages: (IMpertinent questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Cátia Vieira Basílio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a disponibilidade e o acesso à bebida alcoólica num bairro da cidade de Vitória/ES. Os dados foram obtidos através de pesquisa de campo na região selecionada utilizando a observação simples e a entrevista através da aplicação de questionários numa amostra de 10% dos estabelecimentos encontrados. Os pontos de venda funcionam 7 dias por semana; 68,8% vendem a credito e a um preço médio de R$ 0,41 (a dose de cachaça. 93,8% dos entrevistados não solicitam documento de identidade ao cliente antes de lhe vender bebidas. A relação entre número de moradias e número de pontos de venda foi de 3:1. A alta concentração de estabelecimentos que vendem bebidas alcoólicas no bairro aponta para a necessidade de pensar o entorno (regiões vizinhas da mesma. Estas regiões envolvem áreas marginalizadas onde ocorre tráfico de drogas, fazendo da região estudada uma área importante para o comércio, pela facilidade de acesso aos outros bairros adjacentes da cidade.The objective of this study is to analyse the availability and access to alcoholic beverages in a neighbour-hood in the city of Vitória/ES. Data was obtained by means of field research using simple observation method and the application of questionnaires in a sample of 10% of the establishments encountered in the region. These establishments are open seven days a week; 68,8% of these markets sell on credit and at a medium price of R$ 0,41 (one dose of "cachaça". 93,8% of the sellers who were interviewed doesn't check the identity cards of their clients before selling them the alcoholic beverages. The relation between the number of houses and establishments was 3:1. The high concentration of establishments which sell alcoholic beverages in the neighbourhood brings up the necessity to think about the neighbouring regions. These regions include marginalized areas where there is drug trafficking, making the studied region an important commercial

  16. Strategi Komunikasi Persuasif Personal Selling dalam Meningkatkan Nasabah pada Produk Asuransi Umum di PT. Jasaraharja Putera Cabang Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Evawani Elysa; Firdaus, Yanie Pratiwi

    2016-01-01

    Insurance is a product or service that is visible and there is no clarity of goods, therefore, the general public does not trust the insurance with a variety of things, such as a lack of confidence in the insurance, especially the old and procedures that are considered difficult to process a claim if a loss, and the rate high. PT. Jasaraharja Putera Branch Pekanbaru selling face to face (personal selling) with the aim to explain about the products offered. This study aims to determine the app...

  17. Comparing the 2000 and 2005 factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, T R; Barham, B L

    2007-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine how factors affecting the selling price of feeder calves changed from 2000 to 2005 and to examine the perception that discounts narrow or even disappear as calf supplies decrease and selling prices increase. Data from weekly Arkansas livestock auctions were collected from January 1 to December 31 in 2000 and 2005. Data included calf sex, breed type, color, muscle score, horn status, frame score, fill, condition, health, and BW. Mean selling prices for 2000 and 2005 were $92.91 +/- 15.05 and $118.32 +/- 15.13 (mean +/- SD; $/45.45 kg), respectively. Individual price observations were subtracted from the respective annual means and became the dependent variable. The selling prices for feeder calves sold in groups of 2 to 5 calves and in groups of >/= 6 calves were greater in 2005 than 2000 (P Brahman (P Brahman Cross, Charolais, Charolais x Limousin, Hereford x Limousin, Limousin, Limousin x one-fourth Brahman, Longhorn, Saler and Simmental. Yellow-white face, black-white face, black, and gray feeder calves received an increase in selling price from 2000 to 2005 (P < 0.001). Although fewer horned feeder calves were sold in 2005 (P < 0.01), they received greater discounts in 2005 than 2000 (-$2.86 +/- 0.16 and -$0.51 +/- 0.09; P < 0.001). In 2005, large-framed feeder calves did not receive the premium detected in 2000, but medium-framed feeder calves in 2005 received a greater selling price compared with 2000. Feeder calves with a muscle score of 1 received a greater premium in 2005 compared with 2000 ($2.58 +/- 0.06 and $0.02 +/- 0.09, respectively; P < 0.001). Feeder calves with a muscle score of 2 were discounted in both years, but the discount in 2005 was not as great as in 2000 (P < 0.001). Full and tanked feeder calves received greater discounts in 2005 than in 2000 (P < 0.001). Discounts for fleshy and fat feeder calves were greater in 2005 than in 2000. Most factors affecting the selling price of Arkansas feeder

  18. Perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among U.S. high school seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among a large nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Methods Data come from Monitoring the Future (2007–2011), an annual cross-sectional survey of U.S. high school seniors. Students reported neighborhood illicit drug selling, friend drug disapproval towards marijuana and cocaine use, and past 12-month and past 30-day illicit drug use (N = 10,050). Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to explain use of 1) just marijuana, 2) one illicit drug other than marijuana, and 3) more than one illicit drug other than marijuana, compared to “no use”. Results Report of neighborhood illicit drug selling was associated with lower friend disapproval of marijuana and cocaine; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were less likely to report their friends strongly disapproved of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.49) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no disapproval. Perception of neighborhood illicit drug selling was also associated with past-year drug use and past-month drug use; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were more likely to report 30-day use of more than one illicit drug (AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 7.47, 16.52) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no 30-day use of illicit drugs. Conclusions Perceived neighborhood drug selling was associated with lower peer disapproval and more illicit drug use among a population-based nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Policy interventions to reduce “open” (visible) neighborhood drug selling (e.g., problem-oriented policing and modifications to the physical environment such as installing and monitoring surveillance cameras) may

  19. Book review: Pradeep, A.K.: "The buying brain: secrets for selling to the subconscious mind"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Kružljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Knjiga The Buying Brain: Secrets for Selling to the Subconscious Mind objavljena je 2010. godine, a izdavač je John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, USA. Djelo sadrži 231 stranicu podijeljenu u 18 poglavlja poredanih tako da čitatelja postupno uvode u područje neuromarketinga. Autor započinje predstavljajući trenutačnu problematiku u istraživanju tržišta i otkrivanju želja potrošača, nastavlja opisom neuromarketinških tehnologija, strukturom i osnovnim funkcijama mozga. Slijede savjeti o učinkovitom upravljanju markom, dizajniranju proizvoda te organiziranju prodajnog prostora, potkrijepljeni autorovim saznanjima iz provedenih istraživanja.

  20. Stellar performance: top honor for Tesco - new generation of mechanical muscle sells like hot cakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    1997-01-01

    Tesco Corporation, a Calgary-based oil field equipment supply company, was recently awarded the 1997 Canada Export Award. The award was for top performance in selling, leasing and maintaining (all in one package) a top drive unit. The unit rotates drills up from rig floors to the top of the pipe strings that drive the drill bits into the earth. There are currently some 130 Tesco machines in action despite heavy competition from industry giant Varco and others. Tesco is also developing new product lines for the rapidly developing 'underbalanced drilling' market, and is testing a new concept for simultaneous drilling and casing of wells. If this concept works out as expected, Tesco will have the market all to itself, at least until competitors catch up

  1. Stellar performance: top honor for Tesco - new generation of mechanical muscle sells like hot cakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    1997-10-06

    Tesco Corporation, a Calgary-based oil field equipment supply company, was recently awarded the 1997 Canada Export Award. The award was for top performance in selling, leasing and maintaining (all in one package) a top drive unit. The unit rotates drills up from rig floors to the top of the pipe strings that drive the drill bits into the earth. There are currently some 130 Tesco machines in action despite heavy competition from industry giant Varco and others. Tesco is also developing new product lines for the rapidly developing `underbalanced drilling` market, and is testing a new concept for simultaneous drilling and casing of wells. If this concept works out as expected, Tesco will have the market all to itself, at least until competitors catch up.

  2. Optimal selling price and energy procurement strategies for a retailer in an electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatami, A.R.; Seifi, H.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    In an electricity market, the retailer sets up contracts with the wholesale side for purchasing electricity and with the customers for its selling. This paper proposes a mathematical method based on mixed-integer stochastic programming to determine the optimal sale price of electricity to customers and the electricity procurement policy of a retailer for a specified period. The retailer has multiple choices for electricity procurement, such as spot market, forward contracts, call options and self-production. Risk is considered and modeled by conditional value-at-risk methodology. Also, the competition between retailers is modeled using a market share function. A case study is illustrated to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method. (author)

  3. Implementing relational marketing in a coffee selling company in Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Cruz Estrada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to propose a relationship marketing process in a coffee selling company in Baja California as a case study. First, relationship marketing is conceptualized and its contribution to the creation of value in organizations is analyzed; moreover, empirical studies from various authors, who point out the influence of this process on customer satisfaction, are included. 149 surveys were conducted in order to obtain the correlation between the guarantee to offer a product or service and value generation by delivering tangible and intangible elements for customer satisfaction. This proposal belongs to the company where the research was carried out; it can be adapted to organizations which offer a service and are in the situation studied.

  4. Analisis Penerapan Value Creation Selling dalam Strategi Pemasaran Perusahaan Jasa Logistik: Studi Kasus di PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A company is a market-oriented when the culture of value creation superior customer systematically and comprehensively implemented on company concerned. Value can be defined as the ratio of benefit to cost, where customers expect a rate of return equal or exceed the costs they incurred to obtain the products they bought. From the case studies conducted on PT XYZ, then, in getting the project tender delivery of goods geophysical equipment for the Brunei Loon project, it has been implemented value selling creation, which includes three main components, ie customer portraits, the proposed value, and benefits to customers or total value of ownership. Overall, the efficiency given value is about 20% compared to its closest competitor, the safety shipping and on time, as well as the positive benefits of the profit margin, cash flow, return on investment, brand equity, market share and customers.

  5. Violence and sex in television programs do not sell products in advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J

    2005-09-01

    Adults (N = 336) 18 to 54 years old watched a television program containing violence, sex, both violence and sex, or no violence and sex. Programs were shown in a comfortable room containing padded chairs and tasty snacks. Each program contained the same 12 ads. Embedding an ad in a program containing violence or sex reduced (a) viewers' likelihood of remembering the advertised brand, (b) their interest in buying that brand, and (c) their likelihood of selecting a coupon for that brand. These effects occurred for males and females of all ages, regardless of whether they liked programs containing violence and sex. These results show that violence and sex in television programs do not sell products in advertisements.

  6. The prevalence and cost of unapproved uses of top-selling orphan drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron S Kesselheim

    Full Text Available The Orphan Drug Act encourages drug development for rare conditions. However, some orphan drugs become top sellers for unclear reasons. We sought to evaluate the extent and cost of approved and unapproved uses of orphan drugs with the highest unit sales.We assessed prescription patterns for four top-selling orphan drugs: lidocaine patch (Lidoderm approved for post-herpetic neuralgia, modafinil (Provigil approved for narcolepsy, cinacalcet (Sensipar approved for hypercalcemia of parathyroid carcinoma, and imatinib (Gleevec approved for chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. We pooled patient-specific diagnosis and prescription data from two large US state pharmaceutical benefit programs for the elderly. We analyzed the number of new and total patients using each drug and patterns of reimbursement for approved and unapproved uses. For lidocaine patch, we subcategorized approved prescriptions into two subtypes of unapproved uses: neuropathic pain, for which some evidence of efficacy exists, and non-neuropathic pain.We found that prescriptions for lidocaine patch, modafinil, and cinacalcet associated with non-orphan diagnoses rose at substantially higher rates (average monthly increases in number of patients of 14.6, 1.45, and 1.58 than prescriptions associated with their orphan diagnoses (3.12, 0.24, and 0.03, respectively (p75%. Increases in lidocaine patch use for non-neuropathic pain far exceeded neuropathic pain (10.2 vs. 3.6 patients, p<0.001.In our sample, three of four top-selling orphan drugs were used more commonly for non-orphan indications. These orphan drugs treated common clinical symptoms (pain and fatigue or laboratory abnormalities. We should continue to monitor orphan drug use after approval to identify products that come to be widely used for non-FDA approved indications, particularly those without adequate evidence of efficacy.

  7. SELLING CANANG SARI (As an Alternative of Effort in Informal Sector to overcome household economics problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Nilakusmawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Decrease in family income represent an impact of economic pressures, as an effect of economic crisis. Other side, the existing problems that extension of the job opportunity in the urban area with existence of development in the various sector do not absorb entire labour force which is progressively growing larger its amount.Economic problem force woman of lower economic class to involved take part in earning for increase family income by working beyond domestic sectors. Involvement of woman in labor market trigered by family’s economic problems, besides existence of the job opportunity factor. Alternative effort being carried out is by selling canang.Increasing of urban community activities in Denpasar City makes them have no time to make banten or canang. To find an easier way to overcome this situation, many people tend to buy canang/banten which is ready to use, also more practical and spent less time than the time spent when they make by themselves . This phenomenon gives a chance to canang sellers to get income additional. In the difficult condition of the economics problem, many woman have to take part to overcome economic problems which they face. One of the alternative is involved into labour market, and involve in trade is one of the choice. Because of the existence of opportunity as explained above, many women overcome their economic problems and try to give contribution to their family income by selling the canang.Phenomenon more and more canang sellers which are spread alongside the road side in Denpasar City shown that the informal sector have a great role to maintaining and also improving household economics. The effort as the canang seller can represent an alternative of effort in informal sector to overcome economics problem in the household level. Roles of woman as a subject of this informal sector, have a big contribution in maintaining household economics.

  8. A distributed algorithm for demand-side management: Selling back to the grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Milad; Khalili, Azam; Rastegarnia, Amir; Zandi, Sajad; Bazzi, Wael M

    2017-11-01

    Demand side energy consumption scheduling is a well-known issue in the smart grid research area. However, there is lack of a comprehensive method to manage the demand side and consumer behavior in order to obtain an optimum solution. The method needs to address several aspects, including the scale-free requirement and distributed nature of the problem, consideration of renewable resources, allowing consumers to sell electricity back to the main grid, and adaptivity to a local change in the solution point. In addition, the model should allow compensation to consumers and ensurance of certain satisfaction levels. To tackle these issues, this paper proposes a novel autonomous demand side management technique which minimizes consumer utility costs and maximizes consumer comfort levels in a fully distributed manner. The technique uses a new logarithmic cost function and allows consumers to sell excess electricity (e.g. from renewable resources) back to the grid in order to reduce their electric utility bill. To develop the proposed scheme, we first formulate the problem as a constrained convex minimization problem. Then, it is converted to an unconstrained version using the segmentation-based penalty method. At each consumer location, we deploy an adaptive diffusion approach to obtain the solution in a distributed fashion. The use of adaptive diffusion makes it possible for consumers to find the optimum energy consumption schedule with a small number of information exchanges. Moreover, the proposed method is able to track drifts resulting from changes in the price parameters and consumer preferences. Simulations and numerical results show that our framework can reduce the total load demand peaks, lower the consumer utility bill, and improve the consumer comfort level.

  9. A distributed algorithm for demand-side management: Selling back to the grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Latifi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Demand side energy consumption scheduling is a well-known issue in the smart grid research area. However, there is lack of a comprehensive method to manage the demand side and consumer behavior in order to obtain an optimum solution. The method needs to address several aspects, including the scale-free requirement and distributed nature of the problem, consideration of renewable resources, allowing consumers to sell electricity back to the main grid, and adaptivity to a local change in the solution point. In addition, the model should allow compensation to consumers and ensurance of certain satisfaction levels. To tackle these issues, this paper proposes a novel autonomous demand side management technique which minimizes consumer utility costs and maximizes consumer comfort levels in a fully distributed manner. The technique uses a new logarithmic cost function and allows consumers to sell excess electricity (e.g. from renewable resources back to the grid in order to reduce their electric utility bill. To develop the proposed scheme, we first formulate the problem as a constrained convex minimization problem. Then, it is converted to an unconstrained version using the segmentation-based penalty method. At each consumer location, we deploy an adaptive diffusion approach to obtain the solution in a distributed fashion. The use of adaptive diffusion makes it possible for consumers to find the optimum energy consumption schedule with a small number of information exchanges. Moreover, the proposed method is able to track drifts resulting from changes in the price parameters and consumer preferences. Simulations and numerical results show that our framework can reduce the total load demand peaks, lower the consumer utility bill, and improve the consumer comfort level. Keywords: Energy, Systems engineering, Electrical engineering

  10. Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garibay-Orijel Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby. Methods We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Results Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. Conclusion The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic.

  11. Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruán-Soto, Felipe; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2006-01-05

    More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby). We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques) comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic.

  12. Selling androgenic anabolic steroids by the pound: identification and analysis of popular websites on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, F G; Lombardo, S; Cosentino, M

    2011-12-01

    Internet websites offering androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) were identified and available products were examined. Keywords for the website search were: "anabolic steroids," "anabolic steroids buy," "anabolic steroid purchase." The first 10 websites offering AAS in the first 10 pages of results were considered. At least two AAS-containing products per website were selected. Thirty AAS-selling websites were identified, mainly located in the United States (46.7%) and Europe (30%). Most websites sold other anabolic/ergogenic products (clenbuterol, 76.7%; GH/IGF, 60.0%; thyroid hormones, 46.7%; erythropoietin, 30.0%; insulin, 20.0%) or products for AAS-related adverse effects (mainly: estrogen antagonists, 63.3%; products for erectile dysfunction, 56.7%; 5α-reductase inhibitors, 33.3%; anti-acne products, 33.3%). AAS were sold as medicines (69.6%) or as dietary supplements (30.4%). AAS in medicines were mainly: nandronole (20.4%), methandrostenolone (18.4%), and testosterone (12.2%). Dietary supplements contained mainly DHEA and included several fake compounds. Manufacturers were declared for 97.9% of medicines and 66.7% of dietary supplements; however, several manufacturers were not found on the Internet. Described benefits were usually few adverse effects and no estrogenicity. Toxicity was seldom reported and presented as mild. Recommended doses were two-fourfold higher than current medical recommendations. In conclusion, misleading information and deceiving practices were common findings on AAS-selling websites, indicating their deleterious potential for public health. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Key Senator Scrutinizes Pharmacy 340B Selling Practices: Federal Office in Charge of Drug Discounts Begins to Feel the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlas, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Upselling takes place when a safety-net hospital increases its profits by selling discounted drugs to privately insured patients at full price. Senator Charles Grassley is on the case to increase transparency and to curtail the misuse of 340B purchases.

  14. 13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ... Debenture, SBA may cause each NMVC Company to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions that include, but...

  15. Gender Differences in Personal Selling Ethics Evaluations: Do They Exist and What Does Their Existence Mean for Teaching Sales Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…

  16. Negotiating the city: Exploring the intersecting vulnerabilities of non-national migrant mothers who sell sex in Johannesburg, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Becky; Vearey, Jo; Nencel, L.S.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the intersecting vulnerabilities of non-national migrant mothers who sell sex in Johannesburg, South Africa – one of the most unequal cities in the world. Migrants who struggle to access the benefits of the city live and work in precarious peripheral spaces where they

  17. The innovation effect of user design: Exploring consumers' innovation perceptions of firms selling products designed by users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schreier (Martin); C. Fuchs (Christoph); D.W. Dahl (Darren)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe authors study consumer perceptions of firms that sell products designed by users. In contrast with the traditional design mode, in which professional designers employed by firms handle the design task, common design by users involves the firm's user community in creating new product

  18. The Effects of Task Clarification, Visual Prompts, and Graphic Feedback on Customer Greeting and Up-Selling in a Restaurant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, James; Wilder, David A.; Fixsen, Amanda; Hess, Erica; Rost, Kristen; Curran, Ryan; Zonneveld, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    An intervention consisting of task clarification, visual prompts, and graphic feedback was evaluated to increase customer greeting and up-selling in a restaurant. A combination multiple baseline and reversal design was used to evaluate intervention effects. Although all interventions improved performance over baseline, the delivery of graphic…

  19. 40 CFR 1042.330 - Selling engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with a suspended certificate of conformity. 1042.330 Section 1042.330 Protection of Environment... engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity. You may sell engines that you produce after we suspend the engine family's certificate of conformity under § 1042.315 only if one of the...

  20. Manifest Meanings: The Selling (Not Telling) of American Indian History and the Case of "The Black Horse Ledger"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gercken, Becca

    2010-01-01

    What is the value or perceived necessity--for an Indian or for a white man--of changing Northern Cheyenne history? How are a reader's conclusions affected by her perception of the race of the person altering that history? Why is it acceptable to sell but not tell American Indian history? An examination of the visual and discursive rhetoric of "The…

  1. 25 CFR 309.9 - When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Indian arts and crafts? 309.9 Section 309.9 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.9 When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts? A non-Indian can make and sell products in the style of...

  2. 41 CFR 302-12.7 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a residence for which I and/or a... 12-USE OF A RELOCATION SERVICES COMPANY Employee's Use of a Relocation Services Company § 302-12.7 What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a residence...

  3. Venemaalt Saksamaa kaudu Itaaliasse : Rooma õiguse õpetamine ja selle mõjutajad eestikeelses ülikoolis (1919-1940) / Hesi Siimets-Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siimets-Gross, Hesi, 1976-

    2012-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli õppeainest "Rooma õiguse ajalugu" ja selle õppejõududest (Jüri Uluots, Ernst Ein, Leo Leesment) ning õppeainest "Rooma õiguse süsteem" ja selle õppejõududest (Karl Wilhelm von Seeler, David Johann Friedrich Grimm ja Ernst Ein)

  4. Tahe lepinguõiguses ja selle roll lepingute sõlmimisel : [bakalaureusetöö] / Tiina Pappel ; Õigusinstituut ; juhendaja: Margus Kingisepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pappel, Tiina

    1999-01-01

    Tahte olemus ja selle käsitlus lepinguteooria arengus, tahet käsitlevad lepinguteooriad, tahteavaldus, tahteavalduse siduvus ja ulatus, tahte mittevastavus tahteavaldusele ja selle tagajärjed.Vt. ka Õigusinstituudi toimetised (1999) nr. 2, lk. 8-9

  5. State sells oil and gas shares in Norway - Statoil to stock exchange list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimpanpaeae, M.

    2001-01-01

    After several months debate the government of Norway has decided to sell parts of the national oil-company Staoil as well as state-owned gas and oil shares. The government has stated that in the first stage it would be possible to privatize 20% of the Statoil. The market value of Staoil in summer 1999 was estimated to 120 billion NOK and the value has been estimated to increase ever since. The same proposal includes selling 20% of the national oil and gas shares SDOEE. 15 % would be sold to Statoil before listing the company into the stock exchange and the rest to Norsk Hydro and other national and international companies. The remaining share, the value of which is about 500 billion NOK, will become a part of a new state-owned company. The oil and energy ministry of Norway has estimated that the market value of SDOEE is about 600 billion NOK. Advisory committee decided to increase the share to be sold of SDOEE to 21.5%, the share of other companies being 6.5%. SDOEE was grounded in 1985. Since then a part of the oil and gas income of Statoil has gone into the balances of Statoil and another part directly to the state. Statoil has been responsible for the oil and gas sales of SDOEE. SDOEE's gas and oil reserves have been estimated to be about 9.8 billion barrels, 35% of which is oil and the rest natural gas. A new independent state owned company will be founded for transport of natural gas as a part of the change process. Oil companies and other energy companies will deliver the natural gas also in the future. In addition to the national arrangements, the EU's gas market directive will lead to changes in the Norwegian gas sales. As a part of the European Economic Area Norway will put the EU's gas markets directive into force without any transition period. The directive will decrease the price of natural gas and hence the income of Norway from natural gas is estimated to decrease significantly. At the moment the sales company GFU is responsible for organizing the

  6. Rae vallajuhte kahtlustatakse korruptsioonis / Kärt Anvelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anvelt, Kärt, 1973-

    2010-01-01

    Rae vallavanemat Veigo Gutmanni ja abivallavanemat Meelis Kasemaad kahtlustatakse selles, et osaledes Lehmja külas asuvate kinnistute detailplaneeringutega seotud otsustusprotsessides, varjasid nad oma varalisi huve seoses nimetatud kinnistutega

  7. Orjastaja kirjutab talle sobivat ajalugu / Alfred Käärmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärmann, Alfred, 1922-2010

    2002-01-01

    Venemaa versioon "ajaloolisest tõest" seoses Baltikumi lülitamisega NSVLi koosseisu ja sellele järgnevate sündmustega. Tekstilõigud on võetud Igor Põhhalovi artiklist ajalehe Spetznaz Rossii selle aasta numbrist

  8. Maakondlik omavalitsusliit kohaliku omavalitsuse reformi kontekstis : [magistritöö] / Tõnis Roots ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Vallo Olle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roots, Tõnis

    2010-01-01

    KOV süsteemi reformimist tingivatest teguritest, põhiseaduslikest tingimustest, maakondlike omavalitsusliitude õiguslikust staatusest ja pädevusest kehtivas õiguskorras ja selle muudatustest seoses kohalike omavalitsuste reformiga

  9. Nefteeksportnõi potentsial Severo-Zapada / Juri Hromov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hromov, Juri

    2003-01-01

    Autor analüüsib Loode-Venemaa naftatootmise ja -ekspordi infrastruktuuri ning selle muutusi seoses plaaniga loobuda Balti riikide sadamate teenuste kasutamisest, ehitades naftajuhtmed Soome lahte ja Murmanski piirkonda

  10. Giorgione "Magav Venus" : inimene ja pildiruum / Linnar Priimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priimägi, Linnar, 1954-

    2001-01-01

    Giorgione'i maali "Magav Veenus" (1508/10) analüüs, mõjud ja seosed hilisemate Venustega kunstiajaloos ; Leonardo da Vinci "Mona Lisa" (1503/06) pilgu lahtimõtestamine ; kurtisanikultuur ja selle kajastamine maalikunstis.

  11. The Baltic States and Moscow's 9 May Commemoration : Analysing Memory Politics in Europe / Eva-Clarita Onken

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Onken, Eva-Clarita

    2007-01-01

    Mälu roll kaasaegse Euroopa poliitikas, selle mõju riikidevahelistele kahepoolsetele suhetele ja Euroopa Liidu poliitikale seoses 2005. aasta 9. mail Moskvas toimunud Teise maailmasõja 60. aastapäeva pidustustega

  12. Women who sell sex in a Ugandan trading town: life histories, survival strategies and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysels, Marjolein; Pool, Robert; Nnalusiba, Betty

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the background of commercial sex workers in Africa. This study investigated how women in a trading town on the trans-Africa highway in southwest Uganda become involved in commercial sex work, which factors contribute to their economic success or lack of success, and what effect life trajectories and economic success have on negotiating power and risk behaviour. Over the course of two years detailed life histories of 34 women were collected through recording open, in-depth interviews, the collection of sexual and income and expenditure diaries, visits to the women's native villages, and participant observation. The women share similar disadvantaged backgrounds and this has played a role in their move into commercial sex. They have divergent experiences, however, in their utilisation of opportunities and in the level of success they achieve. They have developed different life styles and a variety of ways of dealing with sexual relationships. Three groups of women were identified: (1) women who work in the back-street bars, have no capital of their own and are almost entirely dependent on selling sex for their livelihood; (2) waitresses in the bars along the main road who engage in a more institutionalised kind of commercial sex, often mediated by middlemen and (3) the more successful entrepreneurs who earn money from their own bars as well as from commercial sex. The three groups had different risk profiles. Due partly to their financial independence from men, women in the latter group have taken control of sexual relationships and can negotiate good sexual deals for themselves, both financially and in terms of safe sex. The poorer women were more vulnerable and less able to negotiate safer sex. A disadvantaged background and restricted access to economic resources are the major reasons for women gravitating to commercial sex work. Various aspects of personality play a role in utilising income from commercial sex to set up an economic basis that

  13. Selling medical travel to US patient-consumers: the cultural appeal of website marketing messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobo, Elisa J; Herlihy, Elizabeth; Bicker, Mary

    2011-04-01

    More US-based patients than ever are travelling abroad for medical or dental services. Beyond financial incentives, what cultural factors have supported this trend? Because of their interest in selling medical travel, medical travel agencies (MTAs) have vested interests in this question. To find out how they are answering it, an ethnographic content analysis of MTA websites was undertaken. Beyond themes promoting a 'worry-free experience' of 'legitimate services', themes linking healthcare consumerism to culturally specific identity ideals and self-creation/representation processes predominated. Themes relating to the demonstration of social position, savvy expression of good consumer judgment, and achievement of libertarian ideals figured highly. However, various inconsistencies (including an appeal to tourism in some but not other situations) suggested that medical travel involves, for the US-based consumer, a complex act of juggling context-specific self-identity desires and expectations in relation to healthcare. The potential impact of prevailing discourses on 'self-construction-in-practice' was explored. Findings enhance understanding of the care seeking process as experienced within the context of globalized, mass-mediated healthcare consumerism. They also point to the need for finer-grained distinctions than the global gloss 'medical travel' offers.

  14. SOHIO (Standard Oil Co. , Ohio) to sell Prudhoe gas to Northern Natural Gas Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-20

    Sohio has agreed to sell Vertical Bar3: 2 trillion cu ft of its Prudhoe Bay gas to Northern Natural Gas Co. for delivery at a rate of 170 million cu ft/day when the proposed Alaska Highway gas pipeline is completed. With the exception of approx. 4 trillion cu ft of Sohio's reserves committed to Columbia Gas System Inc., the agreement accounts for the sale of all the 26.5-27 trillion cu ft of Prudhoe Bay reserves. The contract, which is subject to approval of the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, allows Alaska to take its one-eighth royalty share of the gas in kind or cash. Columbia Gas is the only firm planning to purchase Prudhoe Bay gas that is not participating as an equity owner in the pipeline project. According to a Columbia spokesman, it is still uncertain whether the proposed gas pipeline will be built; and the fact that Columbia has not yet signed a final agreement with Sohio does not indicate any decreasing interest in Prudhoe Bay gas.

  15. Semántica categórica para subexponenciales en SELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ernesto Ramírez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La semántica categórica ha permitido establecer de forma pre- cisa y formal el significado de los términos y conectivos de distintas lógicas. En particular, los trabajos de distintos autores empezando por de Paiva y Hyland [3] han permitido abordar desde el enfoque categórico la semántica de la lógica lineal, tanto clásica como intuicionista. Uno de los aspectos más relevantes consiste en intentar dar una interpretación categórica al operador exponencial !. Mellies [11] y Bierman [4] finalmente han mostrado que esta interpretación corresponde a un composición entre adjuntos monoidales. Con la aparición de SELL, ahora se cuenta con una familia de subexponenciales ajustados dentro de una estructura de preorden. Lo que se pretende en este trabajo es obtener una interpretación categórica para esta familia de subex- ponenciales, inspirados en la misma noción de adjuntos monoidales, pero que respete la estructura de preorden asignada para la familia de exponenciales.

  16. When sex doesn't sell: using sexualized images of women reduces support for ethical campaigns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bongiorno

    Full Text Available Images of scantily clad women are used by advertisers to make products more attractive to men. This "sex sells" approach is increasingly employed to promote ethical causes, most prominently by the animal-rights organization PETA. Yet sexualized images can dehumanize women, leaving an unresolved paradox--is it effective to advertise an ethical cause using unethical means? In Study 1, a sample of Australian male undergraduates (N = 82 viewed PETA advertisements containing either sexualized or non-sexualized images of women. Intentions to support the ethical organization were reduced for those exposed to the sexualized advertising, and this was explained by their dehumanization of the sexualized women, and not by increased arousal. Study 2 used a mixed-gender community sample from the United States (N = 280, replicating this finding and extending it by showing that behaviors helpful to the ethical cause diminished after viewing the sexualized advertisements, which was again mediated by the dehumanization of the women depicted. Alternative explanations relating to the reduced credibility of the sexualized women and their objectification were not supported. When promoting ethical causes, organizations may benefit from using advertising strategies that do not dehumanize women.

  17. Medico-legal aspects of congenital heart diseases in buying and selling of pets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Passantino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The veterinarian should be able to assess congenital and inherited malformations such as heart defects because they may be object of legal disputes. In this study, the authors report some cases of congenital heart defects in pets (dogs and cats to clarify whether or not they may be considered a redhibitory defect. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 medical records of pets referred with suspected congenital heart disease were examined. All patients aged between 3 and 24 months underwent clinical examination, chest X-ray examination, electrocardiogram, and echocardiography and angiocardiography when necessary. Results: Congenital heart diseases or associated cardiac malformations were confirmed. Considering the above congenital diseases as redhibitory defect and the rights of the owners from a strictly legal viewpoint, 9 owners demanded an estimatory action and 11 a redhibitory action; 1 owner decided to demand the reimbursement of veterinary expenses because the animal died; 7 owners took no legal action but requested surgical intervention. Conclusions: Until more appropriate and detailed legislation on the buying and selling of pet animals is put in place; the authors propose to include in the contract a temporal extension of the guarantee relating to congenital heart disease, which can often become evident later.

  18. Sharing and selling of prescription medications in a college student sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Laura M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of prescription medication diversion among college students; to compare classes of medications with respect to the likelihood of diversion; to document the most common methods of diversion; and to examine the characteristics of students who diverted medications. Method A cross-sectional analysis of personal interview data collected between August 2006 and August 2007 as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. The cohort of students, who were between the ages 17 and 19 at study onset, attended a large public university in the mid-Atlantic region. Information was gathered regarding a wide variety of variables, including demographics, diversion of medically prescribed drugs, illicit drug use, and childhood conduct problems. Results Among 483 students prescribed a medication, 35.8% diverted a medication at least once in their lifetime. The most commonly diverted medication classes were prescription ADHD medication, with a 61.7% diversion rate, and prescription analgesics (35.1% diversion rate). Sharing was the most common method of diversion, with 33.6% of students sharing their medication(s) and 9.3% selling in their lifetime. Comparative analyses revealed that prescription medication diverters had used more illicit drugs in the past year and had more childhood conduct problems than non-diverters. Conclusions If confirmed, these findings have important clinical implications for improved physician-patient communication and vigilance regarding prescribing analgesic and stimulant medications for young adults. PMID:20331930

  19. Open pit mining profit maximization considering selling stage and waste rehabilitation cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttaqin, B. I. A.; Rosyidi, C. N.

    2017-11-01

    In open pit mining activities, determination of the cut-off grade becomes crucial for the company since the cut-off grade affects how much profit will be earned for the mining company. In this study, we developed a cut-off grade determination mode for the open pit mining industry considering the cost of mining, waste removal (rehabilitation) cost, processing cost, fixed cost, and selling stage cost. The main goal of this study is to develop a model of cut-off grade determination to get the maximum total profit. Secondly, this study is also developed to observe the model of sensitivity based on changes in the cost components. The optimization results show that the models can help mining company managers to determine the optimal cut-off grade and also estimate how much profit that can be earned by the mining company. To illustrate the application of the models, a numerical example and a set of sensitivity analysis are presented. From the results of sensitivity analysis, we conclude that the changes in the sales price greatly affects the optimal cut-off value and the total profit.

  20. When sex doesn't sell: using sexualized images of women reduces support for ethical campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, Renata; Bain, Paul G; Haslam, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Images of scantily clad women are used by advertisers to make products more attractive to men. This "sex sells" approach is increasingly employed to promote ethical causes, most prominently by the animal-rights organization PETA. Yet sexualized images can dehumanize women, leaving an unresolved paradox--is it effective to advertise an ethical cause using unethical means? In Study 1, a sample of Australian male undergraduates (N = 82) viewed PETA advertisements containing either sexualized or non-sexualized images of women. Intentions to support the ethical organization were reduced for those exposed to the sexualized advertising, and this was explained by their dehumanization of the sexualized women, and not by increased arousal. Study 2 used a mixed-gender community sample from the United States (N = 280), replicating this finding and extending it by showing that behaviors helpful to the ethical cause diminished after viewing the sexualized advertisements, which was again mediated by the dehumanization of the women depicted. Alternative explanations relating to the reduced credibility of the sexualized women and their objectification were not supported. When promoting ethical causes, organizations may benefit from using advertising strategies that do not dehumanize women.

  1. EFFECTIVENESS OF RISK MANAGEMENT IN DIRECTLY RAW MILK SELLING AT “E. AVANZI” CENTER OF PISA UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rindi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors show the results about the effectiveness verification of prevention measures adopted in raw milk directly selling at “E. Avanzi” Centre of Pisa University. The good hygienic practices applied during production, storage and selling phases demonstrated to guarantee, in raw milk, conditions complying to hygienic criteria provided for the current regulation in Tuscany. The effectiveness verification about risk communication, carried out interviewing a sample of buyers, shows as, beside a predominant attitude towards attention to potential hygienic risks, overstay areas of reduced awareness about food risk and the ways to manage prevention. Authors hope for, in this context, such as in other similar productions, the approach yet launched towards continuous improvement of good hygienic practices adopted by businesses, could be extended to risk communication, with the aim to promote conscious and responsable choices of consumer.

  2. Pengaruh Personal Selling Dan Brand Activation Terhadap Purchase Intention Konsumen Pada Produk Santan Bubuk Sasa PT Sasa Inti Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Sukmana, Devina Florencia

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh dari Personal Selling dan Brand Activation terhadap Purchase Intention konsumen pada produk santan bubuk sasa PT. SASA Inti di SurabayaMetode yang akan digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode penelitian kuantitatif dengan menggunakan Regresi Linier Berganda. Penelitian ini akan menggunakan 100 kuisioner yang akan disebarkan kepada responden untuk memenuhi data penelitian terhadap Purchase Intention produk SASA. Menurut hasil penelitian ...

  3. An observational study of compliance with North Dakota's smoke-free law among retail stores that sell electronic smoking devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Miller, Donald R

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine were compliant with North Dakota's smoke-free law. During June 2015, retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine (n=16), but not legally required to be licensed to sell tobacco products, were assessed for compliance with North Dakota's smoke-free law by observing for smoking or e-smoking, or evidence of such, in prohibited areas and for the presence of required no-smoking signs. Use of e-cigarettes, or evidence of use, was observed inside 8 (50%) stores required to be smoke-free. On the basis of all indicators of compliance assessed, compliance with the state's smoke-free law was low, with only 6% and 44% of stores compliant with all indoor and outdoor requirements, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first U.S. study assessing retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine for compliance with the smoke-free law. The use of e-cigarettes, or evidence of use, occurred in the stores where it is prohibited by law. Overall compliance with the smoke-free law was low. These stores should be licensed by the state, as are other tobacco retailers, because this may assist in education, enforcement and compliance with the law and increase public health protection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. The Effect of Red Background Color on Willingness-to-Pay: The Moderating Role of Selling Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Bagchi; Amar Cheema

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigate the effect of red backgrounds on willingness-to-pay in auctions and negotiations. Data from eBay auctions and the lab show that a red (vs. blue) background elicits higher bid jumps. By contrast, red (vs. blue) backgrounds decrease price offers in negotiations. An investigation of the underlying process reveals that red color induces aggression through arousal. In addition, the selling mechanism-auction or negotiation-alters the effect of color by focusing individuals o...

  5. Male sex workers who sell sex to men also engage in anal intercourse with women: evidence from Mombasa, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Mannava

    Full Text Available To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior.Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya.Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse.From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days - of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one's own children, and lower education.We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.

  6. Buying and selling "loosies" in Baltimore: the informal exchange of cigarettes in the community context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine Clegg; Stillman, Frances; Bone, Lee; Yancey, Norman; Price, Emmanuel; Belin, Precilla; Kromm, Elizabeth Edsall

    2007-07-01

    Since the release of the first Surgeon General's report, the proportion of adult smokers in the U.S. has been reduced by half (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2004). This success has not, however, been equally felt across all social strata. Recent survey data from Baltimore show considerably elevated smoking rates within urban, African-American communities. Of particular concern was that in some communities, over half of the young adults (18-24 years old) smoke cigarettes. As yet, there has been little focus on understanding or preventing cigarette smoking among young adults, particularly for those seeking entry into the workforce rather than being engaged in higher education. In this paper, we explore community factors contributing to high young adult smoking prevalence. Our analysis is based on data from four focus groups conducted in 2004 as part of a community-based participatory research project with two urban education and job training organizations. The focus group data reflect the experiences and opinions of 28 young adult program participants (23 smokers and 5 nonsmokers). The data highlight a normalized practice of buying and selling single cigarettes ("loosies") within the community, with participants describing buying loose cigarettes as a preferred acquisition practice. We apply theories of informal economy and suggest that this alternative purchasing option may influence the smoking behavior of these young adults. We argue that public health efforts need to more closely consider the impact of community structures on program implementation. Overlooking key community characteristics such as the availability of single cigarettes may serve to intensify health disparities.

  7. West Kootenay Power Ltd. : Application to sell its hydroelectric generation assets : Decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostergaard, P.; Bradley, P.G.; Clemenhagen, B.L.

    2001-01-01

    An investor-owned electric utility providing wholesale and retail service in the West Kootenay and South Okanagan regions of British Columbia, West Kootenay Power Ltd. (WKP) sought the approval from the British Columbia Utilities Commission to sell the four hydroelectric power plants and related facilities to Kootenay River Power Corporation (KRP), and for the purchase by WKP of the output of these plants under a 60-year power purchase agreement. The four hydroelectric plants have a combined rated capacity of approximately 214 MW. Most of the energy and capacity needs of WKP are met via power purchase contracts and agreements, as winter peak loads approach 700 MW. As a result of share purchases, KRP would be 50 per cent owned by each of a provincial Crown Corporation, Columbia Power Corporation (CPC) and a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Columbia Basin Trust (CBT), CBT Energy Inc., if the transactions are allowed to proceed. Three principal agreements are of interest: the Asset Transfer Agreement (ATA), the Share Purchase Agreement (SPA), and the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA). During the review process, two main issues warranted special consideration: the treatment of the proceeds of the sale of assets, and the statutory parameters used by the Commission for the adjudication of the Application. The Application was submitted March 22, 2001, and the public hearing process began May 29, 2001. This Application is unique, in that it contains three agreements that would each require a separate review, but WKP requested that the agreements be considered in their aggregate. The Commission complied, and decided to deny the Application. Unless the terms of the sale are restructured, the transfer of assets to Kootenay River Power Corporation will not be approved by the Commission. Within one month of the date of this decision, WKP is to notify the Commission of its intentions, since it had signified that it would not proceed with the sale unless WKP shareholder receives 100

  8. Tähelepanekuid eesti 1930. aastate kultuurielust ja selle uurimisest interdistsiplinaarse kultuuriloo seminari põhjal : [teemal "1930. aastate kultuurielust Eestis" 13. jaanuaril 2003 Eesti Muusikaakadeemias] / Anu Kõlar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõlar, Anu, 1961-

    2003-01-01

    Ka Sirje Oleski ettekandest teemal "Soome ja Eesti 1930. aastatel: omavahelised suhted ja mis on selle taga" ning Ele Süvalepa ettekandest "Poleemika "Arbujate" üle 1930. aastate kirjandussituatsiooni iseloomustajana"

  9. 30 CFR 206.53 - How do I determine value for oil that I or my affiliate do(es) not sell under an arm's-length...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... affiliate do(es) not sell under an arm's-length contract? 206.53 Section 206.53 Mineral Resources MINERALS....53 How do I determine value for oil that I or my affiliate do(es) not sell under an arm's-length contract? (a) The unit value of your oil not sold under an arm's-length contract is the volume-weighted...

  10. Quality of online pharmacies and websites selling prescription drugs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orizio, Grazia; Merla, Anna; Schulz, Peter J; Gelatti, Umberto

    2011-09-30

    Online pharmacies are companies that sell pharmaceutical preparations, including prescription-only drugs, on the Internet. Very little is known about this phenomenon because many online pharmacies operate from remote countries, where legal bases and business practices are largely inaccessible to international research. The aim of the study was to perform an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the scientific literature focusing on the broader picture of online pharmacies by scanning several scientific and institutional databases, with no publication time limits. We searched 4 electronic databases up to January 2011 and the gray literature on the Internet using the Google search engine and its tool Google Scholar. We also investigated the official websites of institutional agencies (World Health Organization, and US and European centers for disease control and drug regulation authorities). We focused specifically on online pharmacies offering prescription-only drugs. We decided to analyze and report only articles with original data, in order to review all the available data regarding online pharmacies and their usage. We selected 193 relevant articles: 76 articles with original data, and 117 articles without original data (editorials, regulation articles, or the like) including 5 reviews. The articles with original data cover samples of online pharmacies in 47 cases, online drug purchases in 13, consumer characteristics in 15, and case reports on adverse effects of online drugs in 12. The studies show that random samples with no specific limits to prescription requirements found that at least some websites sold drugs without a prescription and that an online questionnaire was a frequent tool to replace prescription. Data about geographical characteristics show that this information can be concealed in many websites. The analysis of drug offer showed that online a consumer can get virtually everything. Regarding quality of drugs, researchers very often found

  11. Kritički prikaz: Pradeep, A.K.: "The buying brain: secrets for selling to the subconscious mind"

    OpenAIRE

    Kružljak, Neven

    2012-01-01

    Knjiga The Buying Brain: Secrets for Selling to the Subconscious Mind objavljena je 2010. godine, a izdavač je John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, USA. Djelo sadrži 231 stranicu podijeljenu u 18 poglavlja poredanih tako da čitatelja postupno uvode u područje neuromarketinga. Autor započinje predstavljajući trenutačnu problematiku u istraživanju tržišta i otkrivanju želja potrošača, nastavlja opisom neuromarketinških tehnologija, strukturom i osnovnim funkcijama mozga. Slijede savjet...

  12. Social-ecological factors associated with selling sex among men who have sex with men in Jamaica: results from a cross-sectional tablet-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Kenny, Kathleen S.; Levermore, Kandasi; Jones, Nicolette; Baral, Stefan D.; Wang, Ying; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) experience social marginalization and criminalization that increase HIV vulnerability by constraining access to HIV prevention and care. People who sell sex also experience criminalization, rights violations, and violence, which elevate HIV exposure. MSM who sell sex may experience intersectional stigma and intensified social marginalization, yet have largely been overlooked in epidemiological and social HIV research. In Jamaica, where same sex practices and sex work are criminalized, scant research has investigated sex selling among MSM, including associations with HIV vulnerability. Objective: We aimed to examine social ecological factors associated with selling sex among MSM in Jamaica, including exchanging sex for money, shelter, food, transportation, or drugs/alcohol (past 12 months). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a peer-driven sample of MSM in Kingston, Ocho Rios, and Montego Bay. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate intrapersonal/individual, interpersonal/social, and structural factors associated with selling sex. Results: Among 556 MSM, one-third (n = 182; 32.7%) reported selling sex. In the final multivariable model, correlates of selling sex included: individual/intrapersonal (lower safer sex self-efficacy [AOR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.94]), interpersonal/social (concurrent partnerships [AOR: 5.52, 95% CI: 1.56, 19.53], a higher need for social support [AOR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.12], lifetime forced sex [AOR: 2.74, 95% 1.65, 4.55]) and structural-level factors (sexual stigma [AOR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.15], food insecurity [AOR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.41, 4.02], housing insecurity [AOR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.16, 3.26], no regular healthcare provider [AOR: 2.72, 95% CI: 1.60, 4.64]). Conclusions: This study highlights social ecological correlates of selling sex among MSM in Jamaica, in particular elevated stigma and economic insecurity. Findings

  13. Tarımsal Sellülozlu Atık Maddeler ve Biyolojik Parçalanma Yoluyla Bunlardan Faydalanma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hilmi Pamir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sellüloz, dünyamızda miktarı en çok bulunan maddelerden biri olarak en önemli bir potansiyel enerji kaynağını teşkil etmektedir. Yeni bilgilerin ve yöntemlerin gelişmesiyle, sellülozun içinde sakladığı enerjiden ekonomik olarak çeşitli alanlarda yararlanmak mümkün olmaktadır. Örneğin sellüloz miktarı, giderek azalan petrol v.b. fosil kaynaklı ham maddelerin yerine geçebilecek sıvı yakıt, protein ve bir çok kimyasal maddelerin üretimini içeren faydalanma alanlarında kullanılabilir. Bu amaçlar için kullanılacak atık sellülozlu maddelerin çeşitleri çok olmakla beraber, ön planda ekonomik koşullar bunların sayısını tayin etmektedir. Bunların toplanması ve sevkiyatı karşılaşılan ilk sorundur. Diğer taraftan kullanma biçimlerinin kendine özgü özellikleri kullanılacak maddelerin karakteristik ve bileşimleri üzerinde durulmasını da icab ettirir. Örneğin enzimatik dönüşüm ile glikoz elde olunacaksa, sellüloz nispeten saf bir madde halinde olmalıdır. Sellülozdtan protein üretimi söz konusu olduğu zaman, daha az olmakla beraber sellülozlu maddenin kalitesinin yüksek olması prosesin seyrine olumlu etki yapar. Hayvan yemi üretimi için de sellülozlu maddenin bileşim ve temizliği biyolojik dönüşüm için gerekli olmayabilir. Keza atık sellülozlu maddelerin hayvan yemine dönüştürülmesinde kullanılan yöntemler ya fiziksel yahut biyolojik olabilir. Kuşkusuz, konumuz olan biyolojik parçalanma ancak bu prosese elverişli olan maddeler için kullanılabilir.

  14. Fiscal and policy implications of selling pipe tobacco for roll-your-own cigarettes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Daniel S; Tynan, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO) and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as "dual purpose" or "dual use" pipe tobacco. Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. Marketing pipe tobacco as "dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements.

  15. Sales with Privately Made Deed Over The Object Under Hak Tanggungan Based on The Authorization to Sell in Banking Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Budi Purwaningsih

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The extension of credit contain a risk that must be covered by the bank, because the credit is given now and pay later. To minimize the risk of loans, the bank will ask the debtor to provide collateral as a source of repayment of the debt if the debtor default or breach of the contract. According to Article 1131 Civil Code (KUH Perdata, all assets of a debtor, either moving or fixed objects, both existing and new will exist in the future, a guarantee for all debts of the engagement. This means that by itself or in order to pass laws providing collateral by a debtor to any creditor for all debtor's property. Sales with Privately Made Deed over the object in the hak tanggungan banking practices may be more effective and efficient both in terms of time and costs for the settlement of non-performing loans. But in practice, occurs some offense prescribed procedure leading to doubts about the legality aspect of sales with privately made deed over the object under hak tanggungan based on the authorization to sell in banking practice. How To Cite: Purwaningsih, S. (2014. Sales with Privately Made Deed Over The Object Under Hak Tanggungan Based on The Authorization to Sell in Banking Practice. Rechtsidee, 1(2, 191-204. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i2.100

  16. The Dynamic Environment of Crypto Markets: The Lifespan of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS and Vendors Selling NPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elle Wadsworth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has played a major role in the distribution of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS, and crypto markets are increasingly used for the anonymous sale of drugs, including NPS. This study explores the availability of individual NPS and vendors on the crypto markets and considers whether crypto markets are a reliable platform for the sale of NPS. Data was collected from 22 crypto markets that were accessed through the hidden web using the Onion Router (Tor. Data collection took place bimonthly from October 2015 to October 2016 as part of the CASSANDRA (Computer Assisted Solutions for Studying the Availability aNd DistRibution of novel psychoActive substances project. In seven snapshots over 12 months, 808 unique vendors were found selling 256 unique NPS. The total number of individual NPS and vendors increased across the data collection period (increase of 93.6% and 71.6%, respectively. Only 24% (n = 61 of the total number of NPS and 4% (n = 31 of vendors appeared in every snapshot over the 12 months, whereas 21% (n = 54 of NPS and 45% (n = 365 of vendors only appeared once throughout the data collection. The individual NPS and vendors did not remain the same over the 12 months. However, the availability of NPS and vendors selling NPS grew. NPS consistently available on crypto markets could indicate popular substances.

  17. Fiscal and policy implications of selling pipe tobacco for roll-your-own cigarettes in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as "dual purpose" or "dual use" pipe tobacco. METHODS: Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. RESULTS: Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. CONCLUSIONS: Marketing pipe tobacco as "dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements.

  18. Generic structure and promotional elements in best-selling online book blurbs: a cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Önder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the generic structure and promotional elements of the online fiction blurbs accompanying the 95 best-selling books from Amazon United Kingdom and Okuoku Turkey (1999-2011, a company that sells books online that are written in Turkish or translated into Turkish, and adds to the growing number of investigations into this genre (Kathpalia, 1997; Bhatia, 2004; Cacchiani, 2007; Gea-Valor, 2007; Gesuato, 2007; Basturkmen, 2009. Based on the findings, a two-level schematic structure (moves and steps is proposed for the blurbs following Swales (1990. The findings suggest that Amazon UK book blurbs have a six-move schematic structure: complimenting the author, book description, justifying the book by establishing a niche, book promotion, author’s background and author’s website/blog being the second, fourth and fifth obligatory moves. However, Okuoku book blurbs feature a five-move schematic structure with complimenting the author, book description, involving the reader in the text, book promotion and author’s background, the second and fourth being obligatory. Analysis of promotional elements in the corpora reveals that online fiction book blurbs employ the art of advertising through the use of favorable expressions (Bhatia, 2005 and innovative uses of rhetorical strategies to persuade the reader to read the book.

  19. TEAM SELLING AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN THE MISSION CRITICAL SECTOR: A CASE STUDY OF EYP MISSION CRITICAL FACILITIES INC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. CRADER

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationships between selling teams (STs and customer satisfaction within the mission critical power design industry. The literature indicates that STs, which are considered a state of the art sales model, deserved further research. The SERVQUAL survey was used to measure customer satisfaction with EYP Mission Critical’s most strategic customers. The difference in customer satisfaction for customers serviced by STs and traditional sales personnel were compared. The investigation found support indicating that a ST approach had a positive relationship to increased customer satisfaction levels. Based on the results of the study, it is recommended that sales leaders within the specialized service industry consider a ST approach when formulating future revenue growth and relationship strategy.

  20. Sell by auction instead of giving away. A solution for the atomic conflict; Versteigern statt verschenken. Eine Loesung des Atomstreits?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Energieoekonomie und Angewandte Oekonometrie; Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI), Essen (Germany). Kompetenzbereich Umwelt und Ressourcen; Haucap, Justus [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany); Schmidt, Christoph M. [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI), Essen (Germany); Bochum Univ. (Germany). Energieoekonomie und Angewandte Oekonometrie

    2010-05-15

    Controversial as it may be, an extension of the limited operating permits granted to German nuclear power plants could benefit all interests involved: climate protection, security of supply and the efficiency of power production. Public acceptance of the contemplated extension is poor, but this need not be so. An intelligently organised auction could make it possible to sell permit extensions such that the additional profit made by electricity producers would largely be skimmed off and public revenue maximised. If the nuclear power dividend thus earned were to be wisely invested by the political leadership for society's future prosperity, the present nuclear power conflict could be transformed into a sustainable nuclear power consensus, for the benefit of the environment, consumers and the energy-dependent sectors of the economy.

  1. Tough sell : forgetting and forgiving are not on the financial service sector's oil and gas investment agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, A.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the recovery from the year-long low on the oil-price cycle was presented, with special emphasis on the growth potential within the petroleum sector. Although the mood was optimistic at this year's Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers' annual Oil and Gas Investment Symposium, scrutiny from analysts and investors was severe. In today's dynamic market investors are less loyal and companies can no longer ride out the lows. When companies fell short of high investor expectations, they were faced with plunging stocks when investors left. This forced firms to sell assets or to merge with other, more solvent companies. It was noted that the oil and gas industry is among the best of any industrial sector in quality and standardization of disclosure. The advantage of this is that a high degree of disclosure reduces uncertainty which could benefit stock prices. 2 figs

  2. Buyouts & ventures. Selling ... or selling out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, H; Hudson, T; Cain, J E; Carr, S L; Zacharias, D

    1996-06-05

    Charity begins at home, yet across the country hometown not-for-profit hospitals are forming joint partnerships with investor-owned systems. In some of these cases no foundation is created to continue the hospital's good deeds. In this special report, Hospitals & Health Networks looks at the issues and asks, "Do these joint ventures need more public scrutiny?"

  3. Pesticide regulation, utilization, and retailers' selling practices in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies: current situation and needed changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Lexley M; Boysielal, Kim; Siung-Chang, Avril

    2007-08-01

    To explore pesticide regulation in Trinidad and Tobago, and to ascertain pesticide utilization and retailers' selling practices on Trinidad, which is the larger of twin islands that constitute the republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Between February and June 2005, agrochemical retailers in Trinidad were surveyed about the most frequently sold pesticides and their knowledge and practices of pesticide sale. The Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board of the Ministry of Health informed on legislature. Of 107 actively trading licensed pesticide outlets, 97 participated (91% response rate) in the survey. Currently only 2.9% (21) of 720 registered products from four chemical classes are frequently utilized. Paraquat, methomyl, and alpha-cypermethrin (respective trade names are Gramoxone, Lannate, and Fastac) from World Health Organization (WHO) Hazard Classes I and II, and glyphosate isopropylamine (Swiper, Class U) are the most frequently purchased pesticides. Pet shops constitute 39.2% (38) of retail shops selling pesticides. No regulations guide pesticide sale to agriculturists, and children may purchase them. Inadequate human and technical resources render legislative controls ineffective and disciplinary action against offenders is weak. Extensive governmental resources are employed in legislative procedures and product approval for the very low, 2.9% utilization rate, negatively impacting on monitoring pesticide sales. The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) does not liaise with the Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board or provide educational interventions for the community. As a result of this survey, it was possible to develop the first database to include the chemical, brand, and colloquial names of pesticides used in Trinidad and Tobago; WHO classification of approved pesticides; manufacturers; packaging; and antidotes and their availability for use by the Board and health professionals in Trinidad. Urgent critical evaluation of legislation regarding pesticide

  4. Tamoxifen from Failed Contraceptive Pill to Best-Selling Breast Cancer Medicine: A Case-Study in Pharmaceutical Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, Viviane M

    2017-01-01

    Today, tamoxifen is one of the world's best-selling hormonal breast cancer drugs. However, it was not always so. Compound ICI 46,474 (as it was first known) was synthesized in 1962 within a project to develop a contraceptive pill in the pharmaceutical laboratories of ICI (now part of AstraZeneca). Although designed to act as an anti-estrogen, the compound stimulated, rather than suppressed ovulation in women. This, and the fact that it could not be patented in the USA, its largest potential market, meant that ICI nearly stopped the project. It was saved partly because the team's leader, Arthur Walpole, threatened to resign, and pressed on with another project: to develop tamoxifen as a treatment for breast cancer. Even then, its market appeared small, because at first it was mainly used as a palliative treatment for advanced breast cancer. An important turning point in tamoxifen's journey from orphan drug to best-selling medicine occurred in the 1980s, when clinical trials showed that it was also useful as an adjuvant to surgery and chemotherapy in the early stages of the disease. Later, trials demonstrated that it could prevent its occurrence or re-occurrence in women at high risk of breast cancer. Thus, it became the first preventive for any cancer, helping to establish the broader principles of chemoprevention, and extending the market for tamoxifen and similar drugs further still. Using tamoxifen as a case study, this paper discusses the limits of the rational approach to drug design, the role of human actors, and the series of feedback loops between bench and bedside that underpins pharmaceutical innovation. The paper also highlights the complex evaluation and management of risk that are involved in all therapies, but more especially perhaps in life-threatening and emotion-laden diseases like cancer.

  5. 25 CFR 309.7 - How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Indian labor when selling, offering, or displaying art and craft work for sale? 309.7 Section 309.7 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS..., or displaying art and craft work for sale? The Indian Arts and Crafts Act is a truth-in-marketing law...

  6. Do sex and violence sell? A meta-analytic review of the effects of sexual and violent media and ad content on memory, attitudes, and buying intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lull, R.B.; Bushman, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that sex and violence sell. However, we predicted that sex and violence would have the opposite effect. We based our predictions on the evolution and emotional arousal theoretical framework, which states that people are evolutionarily predisposed to attend to emotionally

  7. 41 CFR 302-11.8 - Must I sell a residence at the old official station to be eligible to purchase a residence at the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must I sell a residence at the old official station to be eligible to purchase a residence at the new official station? 302... RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 11-ALLOWANCES FOR EXPENSES INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH...

  8. 40 CFR 1048.340 - When may EPA revoke my certificate under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again? 1048.340 Section 1048.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.340 When may EPA revoke my...

  9. 40 CFR 1045.340 - When may EPA revoke my certificate under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again? 1045.340 Section 1045.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.340 When may EPA...

  10. 12 CFR 550.350 - May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of a fiduciary account if I have an interest in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... assets of a fiduciary account for which you have investment discretion to yourself or any of your... assets. (iii) The transaction is permitted under 12 CFR 9.18(b)(8)(iii) for defaulted fixed-income... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of a...

  11. New Zealand tobacco retailers' attitudes to selling tobacco, point-of-sale display bans and other tobacco control measures: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaine, Richard; Russell, Marie; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2014-06-20

    We aimed to explore New Zealand tobacco retailers' views on selling tobacco, the forthcoming 2012 point of sale display ban and two other potential tobacco control interventions in the retail setting: compulsory sales of nicotine replacement therapy and licensing of tobacco retailers. We carried out in-depth interviews with 18 retailers from a variety of store types where tobacco was sold. Stores were selected from a range of locations with varying levels of deprivation. We used thematic analysis to analyse the data. All but four of the retailers were ambivalent about selling tobacco, would rather not sell it, or fell back on a business imperative for justification. Only one retailer was explicitly unconcerned about selling tobacco products. Most participants had few or no concerns about the removal of point-of-sale displays. Issues which were raised were mainly practical and logistical issues with the removal of displays. Only three thought sales would definitely be reduced. The majority of the retailers were not opposed to a possible requirement that nicotine replacement therapy products be made available wherever tobacco products are sold. Ten supported a licensing or registration scheme for tobacco retailers, and only three were opposed. We found widespread ambivalence about selling tobacco. There was considerable support for the licensing of tobacco retailers and other potential tobacco control measures. The retailers' attitudes about potential financial costs and security issues from a tobacco display ban were at odds with the tobacco industry predictions and the views of retailers' organisations. Some retailers appear to be potential allies for tobacco control. This is in contrast to retailer organisations, which may be out of step with many of their members in their strong opposition to retail tobacco control interventions.

  12. Sexual and reproductive health risks amongst female adolescents who use amphetamine-type stimulants and sell sex: a qualitative inquiry in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Dong; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Chai, Jia-Jia; Luo, Jian; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley

    2015-10-16

    China, as other Southeast Asian countries, has witnessed an increased use in amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) amongst urban youth. Amongst female adolescents who both sell sex and use ATS, risk behaviours are compounded resulting in even poorer health outcomes. However, limited knowledge exists on ATS use patterns and ATS-related risk behaviours, particularly in this context. This research aimed to improve the understanding of these issues amongst female adolescents who use ATS and sell sex, and to inform future programming. This study utilised monthly focus group discussions (four in total) with the same study participants in Yunnan, China. From within a drug-treatment programme, female adolescents who reported both a history of drug use and selling sex were purposively enrolled in the study. Participating adolescent females were aged 17-19 years and were all internal-migrants with low literacy. All reported polydrug use (mainly methamphetamine and heroin, whereas ecstasy and ketamine have been infrequently employed). Being less informed about risks of drug use and lack of sexual and reproductive health knowledge seemed to contribute to problematic drug use, rough and prolonged sexual intercourse, inconsistent condom use and ineffective contraceptive practice. For their income, participants largely relied on selling sex, which was frequently coupled with drug sharing services to clients. However, despite the practices, women did not self-identify as sex workers, and therefore did not think that existing intervention services targeting female sex workers were relevant to them. Moreover, criminalization and stigmatisation of drug use and selling sex impeded their access to care services. Current harm reduction and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention services are unlikely to address the demand of female adolescents engaged in drug use and commercial sex. Our findings highlight that a comprehensive and coordinated harm reduction and sexual and

  13. Process analysis of superheated steam pre-treatment of wheat straw and its relative effect on ethanol selling price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Barchyn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing bioethanol operations rely on starch-based substrates, which have been criticized for their need to displace food crops in order to be produced. As an alternative to these first generation biofuels, the use of agricultural residues is being considered to create more environmentally-benign second generation, or cellulosic biofuels. Recalcitrance of these substrates to fermentation requires extensive pre-treatment processes, which often consume more energy than can be extracted from the ethanol that they produce, so one of the priorities in developing cellulosic ethanol is an effective and efficient pre-treatment method. This study examines the use of superheated steam (SS as a process medium by which wheat straw lignocellulosic material is pre-treated. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, it was found that 47% of the total glucose could be liberated from the substrate, and the optimal conditions for pre-treatment were 15 min in hot water (193 kPa, 119˚C followed by 2 min in SS. Furthermore, a preliminary relative economic analysis showed that the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP was comparable to that obtained from steam explosion, a similar process, while energy consumption was 22% less. The conclusion of the study is that SS treatment stands to be a competitive pre-treatment technology to steam explosion.

  14. The quality of information on the internet relating to top-selling dietary supplements in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudischova, L; Straznicka, J; Pokladnikova, J; Jahodar, L

    2018-02-01

    Background The purchase of dietary supplements (DS) via the Internet is increasing worldwide as well as in the Czech Republic. Objective The aim of the study is to evaluate the quality of information on DS available on the Internet. Setting Czech websites related to dietary supplements. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving the analysis of information placed on the websites related to the 100 top-selling DS in the Czech Republic in 2014, according to IMS Health data. Main outcome measure The following criteria were evaluated: contact for the manufacturer, recommended dosage, information on active substances as well as overall composition, permitted health claims, % of the daily reference intake value (DRIV) for vitamins and minerals, link for online counseling, pregnancy/breastfeeding, allergy information, contraindications, adverse reactions, and supplement-drug interactions (some criteria were evaluated from both points of view). Results A total of 199 web domains and 850 websites were evaluated. From the regulatory point of view, all the criteria were fulfilled by 11.3% of websites. Almost 9% of the websites reported information referring to the treatment, cure, or prevention of a disease. From the clinical point of view, all the criteria were only met by one website. Conclusions The quality of information related to DS available on the Internet in the Czech Republic is quite low. The consumers should consult a specialist when using DS purchased online.

  15. Does the financial analysts' usage of non-financial information influence the analysts' forecast accuracy? Some evidence from the Belgian sell-side financial analyst

    OpenAIRE

    ORENS, Raf; LYBAERT, Nadine

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether the use of non-financial information by sell-side financial analysts influences the accuracy of analysts' forecasts. The research findings, based on a survey of Belgian financial analysts, suggest that financial analysts who use more forward-looking information and more internal-structure information offer more accurate forecasts. Furthermore, the listed Belgian firms examined in this study have improved their non-financial information reporting over time. However...

  16. Sexual and reproductive health risks amongst female adolescents who use amphetamine-type stimulants and sell sex: a qualitative inquiry in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xudong; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Chai, Jia-Jia; Luo, Jian; Temmerman, Marleen; Lüchters, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Background: China, as other Southeast Asian countries, has witnessed an increased use in amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) amongst urban youth. Amongst female adolescents who both sell sex and use ATS, risk behaviours are compounded resulting in even poorer health outcomes. However, limited knowledge exists on ATS use patterns and ATS-related risk behaviours, particularly in this context. This research aimed to improve the understanding of these issues amongst female adolescents who use ATS a...

  17. Adolescents selling sex: exposure to abuse, mental health, self-harm behaviour and the need for help and support--a study of a Swedish national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Frida; Fredlund, Cecilia; Svedin, Carl Göran; Priebe, Gisela; Wadsby, Marie

    2013-04-01

    Selling sex is not uncommon among adolescents and we need to increase our knowledge of how this affects them. The aim of this study was to investigate adolescents who sell sex regarding sexual, mental and physical abuse, mental health as estimated by using the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 (HSCL-25), self-harm behaviour and the adolescents' experience of receiving help and support. The study was carried out on a national representative sample of adolescents (mean age 18.3 years) in Swedish high schools in the final year of their 3-year programme. The study had 3498 participants and a response rate of 60.4%. Of the adolescents, 1.5% stated that they had sold sexual services. The selling of sex was associated with a history of sexual, mental and physical abuse. Poorer mental health and a higher degree of self-harm behaviour were reported among the adolescents who had sold sex. Help and support was sought to a greater extent by adolescents who had sold sex but these adolescents were not as satisfied with this help and support as the other adolescents. Adolescents that sell sex are a group especially exposed to sexual, mental and physical abuse. They have poorer mental health and engage in more self-harm behaviour than other adolescents. They are in need of more help and support than other adolescents and it is reasonable to assert that more resources, research and attention should be directed to this group to provide better help and support in the future.

  18. Patent licensing and selling to China as a strategy of technology transfer in a New Era: A perspective of European firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; Meijer, Elise; Duysters, Geert

    2010-01-01

    International technology transfer enables firms in developed countries to exploit the value of their technological innovations, and provides firms in developing countries with access to technological and organizational knowledge. This study aims to present a timely description of the experience...... the primary concern despite the recently adaption of the new Patent Law in China; (4) EU firms are most interested in selling obsolete technologies and licensing state-of-art technologies to China....

  19. Financial Knudsen number: Breakdown of continuous price dynamics and asymmetric buy-and-sell structures confirmed by high-precision order-book information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Takayasu, Hideki; Sornette, Didier; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-10-01

    We generalize the description of the dynamics of the order book of financial markets in terms of a Brownian particle embedded in a fluid of incoming, exiting, and annihilating particles by presenting a model of the velocity on each side (buy and sell) independently. The improved model builds on the time-averaged number of particles in the inner layer and its change per unit time, where the inner layer is revealed by the correlations between price velocity and change in the number of particles (limit orders). This allows us to introduce the Knudsen number of the financial Brownian particle motion and its asymmetric version (on the buy and sell sides). Not being considered previously, the asymmetric Knudsen numbers are crucial in finance in order to detect asymmetric price changes. The Knudsen numbers allows us to characterize the conditions for the market dynamics to be correctly described by a continuous stochastic process. Not questioned until now for large liquid markets such as the USD-JPY and EUR-USD exchange rates, we show that there are regimes when the Knudsen numbers are so high that discrete particle effects dominate, such as during market stresses and crashes. We document the presence of imbalances of particles depletion rates on the buy and sell sides that are associated with high Knudsen numbers and violent directional price changes. This indicator can detect the direction of the price motion at the early stage while the usual volatility risk measure is blind to the price direction.

  20. Statistical properties of short-selling and margin-trading activities and their impacts on returns in the Chinese stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Gao, Yao

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the collective behaviors of short-selling and margin-trading between Chinese stocks and their impacts on the co-movements of stock returns by cross-correlation and partial correlation analyses. We find that the collective behaviors of margin-trading are largely attributed to the index cohesive force, while those of short-selling are mainly due to some direct interactions between stocks. Interestingly, the dominant role the finance industry plays in the collective behaviors of short-selling could make it more important in affecting the co-movement structure of stock returns by strengthening its relationship with the market index. By detecting the volume-return and volume-volatility relationships, we find that the investors of the two leverage activities are positively triggered by individual stock volatility first, and next, at the return level, margin-buyers show trend-following properties, while short-sellers are probably informative traders who trade on the information impulse of specific firms. However, the return predictability of the two leverage trading activities and their impacts on stock volatility are not significant. Moreover, both tails of the cumulative distributions of the two leverage trading activities are found following the stretched exponential law better than the power-law.

  1. Buying and Selling “Loosies” in Baltimore: The Informal Exchange of Cigarettes in the Community Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Frances; Bone, Lee; Yancey, Norman; Price, Emmanuel; Belin, Precilla; Kromm, Elizabeth Edsall

    2007-01-01

    Since the release of the first Surgeon General’s report, the proportion of adult smokers in the U.S. has been reduced by half (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2004). This success has not, however, been equally felt across all social strata. Recent survey data from Baltimore show considerably elevated smoking rates within urban, African-American communities. Of particular concern was that in some communities, over half of the young adults (18–24 years old) smoke cigarettes. As yet, there has been little focus on understanding or preventing cigarette smoking among young adults, particularly for those seeking entry into the workforce rather than being engaged in higher education. In this paper, we explore community factors contributing to high young adult smoking prevalence. Our analysis is based on data from four focus groups conducted in 2004 as part of a community-based participatory research project with two urban education and job training organizations. The focus group data reflect the experiences and opinions of 28 young adult program participants (23 smokers and 5 nonsmokers). The data highlight a normalized practice of buying and selling single cigarettes (“loosies”) within the community, with participants describing buying loose cigarettes as a preferred acquisition practice. We apply theories of informal economy and suggest that this alternative purchasing option may influence the smoking behavior of these young adults. We argue that public health efforts need to more closely consider the impact of community structures on program implementation. Overlooking key community characteristics such as the availability of single cigarettes may serve to intensify health disparities. PMID:17431795

  2. Assessment of Medical Students’ Posture When Using the Existing Best-Selling Laptop Tables Using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mojtaba jafarvand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: Improper posture while working is one of the most important risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Regarding this, the aim of this study was to assess the posture of students studying at Qazvin University of Medical Sciences when using the existing best-selling laptop tables using rapid upper limb assessment (RULA method. Methods: This analytic, cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 male and female dormitory students in 2017. The study population was selected through stratified random sampling technique. The participants’ postures in two different work stations (tables number one and two were evaluated by means of RULA method. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16 using the independent sample t-test and ANOVA test. Results: According to the results, 36% and 46% of the students obtained scores of 3 and 4, respectively in case of table number one. Furthermore, regarding table number two, scores 3 and 4 were recorded for 48% and 44% of the participants, respectively. Therefore, tables number one and two were found to have 82% and 92% of level two corrective measure, respectively. In addition, a significant relationship was obtained between the demographic variables and RULA score (P<0.05. Conclusion: As the findings of the present study indicated, table number one was a better case than table number two for fitting with different body structures since it allowed for the adjustment of the height and inclination of the work surface. However, corrective measures were necessary for both tables to provide the users with comfort, convenience, health, and productivity when using these laptop tables.

  3. Selling brand MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, T

    1999-08-01

    Health care is more than local, of course: It's personal. Recognizing the connections between doctors and patients as a potent form of brand loyalty, health systems are looking for ways to leverage those bonds--and encourage new ones--with special marketing campaigns.

  4. Sex Sells, Blackness too?

    OpenAIRE

    Béthune, Christian; Bouyahia, Malek; Carsalade, Pierre; Carsalade, Pierre; Cohen, Jim; Freitas, Franck; Guibert, Gérôme; Gumplowicz, Philippe; Hainaut, Bérenger; Hill Collins, Patricia; Koch, Diane; Lallemand, Jean-Paul; Martin, Denis-Constant; Maschio, Laura; Parent, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Depuis les années 1990, les cultures populaires noires jouissent d’une reconnaissance artistique et commerciale sans précédent. Quelles places occupent les représentations de l’Autre, du corps, des femmes et de la « race » dans ces productions culturelles hautement médiatisées ? Plongeant sans détour dans le chaudron du hip hop et du dancehall mainstream pour aborder des questions scientifiques d’actualité (études postcoloniales, études sur le genre…), ce numéro de Volume ! entend apporter s...

  5. How to sell Macau

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Arquitectura, apresentada ao Departamento de Arquitectura da F. C. T. da Univ. de Coimbra. Since the official establishment of the Macao Special Administrative Region [MSAR] in 1999, which meant its handover to the People's Republic of China [PRC], this territory has been in delirious transformation. The liberalization of the gambling industry and the consequent proliferation of casinos and luxury hotels, as well as the recent inscription of i...

  6. Suhtlusruum ja selle modelleerimine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Koit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available "Communicative space and its modeling" Communication between people can take various forms depending on a lot of circumstances – participants’ individual characteristics, their social roles, subject of conversation, etc. The paper introduces a work in progress on modelling one aspect of natural human communication – communicative space. Communicative space is a mental space where a communication participant places himself/herself with respect to other ones and where (she is ‘moving’ during a communication event. Communicative space can be characterized by different features, e.g., (social closeness of a communication participant with the partner, collaboration, politeness, etc. These features of communication can be conveyed by language use as well as by different nonverbal means (body movement, facial expressions, etc.. The values +1, 0, and –1 are used for the coordinates in communicative space. Examples of human-human dialogues – both everyday and institutional – demonstrate how participants pass different points in communicative space during a conversation. The further aim is to include such a model of communicative space in an experimental system for modelling conversational agents in order to make interaction with the system more human-like.

  7. Selling your sol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canough, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    At almost every solar energy conference there is a session called Marketing Solar. Most of these had nothing to do with what the rest of the business world calls marketing. For example, at a conference last year, the Marketing Solar session was a series of presentations about demo projects. Most solar energy people are still talking about payback. While it is nice to be able to claim that something will save you money that is only one reason people are interested in or buy a certain product. And it's not the number one reason. Time after time marketing experts will show you surveys of customers where price was not the top consideration at all. People do not buy luxury automobiles because they are cheap. They don't buy hot tubs for payback. What does it take to get someone to buy a solar energy system. To what do you have to appeal? What techniques make a sale? The author discusses the answers to these questions based on his experience

  8. Ukraine's hard sell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogle, Sally.

    1997-01-01

    Since Ukraine broke away from Russia in 1991, the Ukrainian gas industry has been experiencing substantial difficulties. Almost all (95%) of Russia's gas exports to Europe pass through Ukraine's transmission system because of its geographical position. As gas demand in Western Europe grows, Russian propaganda aimed at destroying confidence in the technical competence, reliability and honesty of the Ukraine's gas industry is likely to lead to greater problems. The industry needs to achieve a financial boost and change its public image to restore confidence that contracts will be honoured, and the country itself is a desirable place to do business. (UK)

  9. Managing to Sell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John W.

    The third in a series of subject presentation in the field of administrative management for use by educators and businessmen who teach management courses is offered. The point is made that the concept of an educational program in small-business administrative management involves the investigation of a series of topics stemming from basic…

  10. Reforming Intelligence: Selling Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    collection and analysis, reduce the force structure in terms of people and collection tools, and rewire the organization chart as an inexpensive way to...not necessarily the individuals at the top of the organization chart . Understanding the process and who controls the process is the key to

  11. Creative Designs Sell Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Alyce

    1991-01-01

    Discusses six essential elements in the design of an advertisement: sales pitch, major headline, minor headline, company statistics, artwork or photograph, and white space. Offers five exercises for the classroom or staff. (SR)

  12. Selling cultural heritage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the value of cultural and archaeological heritage through a focus on multinational corporations (MNCs) across industries and their involvement with cultural heritage. Research to date has focused mainly on industries where MNCs have a direct impact on cultural or archaeological

  13. Selling Myths Revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The true measure of the success of any business is the bottom line—sales minus cost of sales. That’s about as bare-bones as you can get when looking at it. Managing the cost of sales is an analytical process. It’s pretty much black and white. Managing sales, however, is a different matter.

  14. Georges Frédéric Parrot' prantsuse nimest, päritolust ja retoorikast: rektori tervituskõne keisrile ja selle lausumiskontekstid / Marge Käsper, Epi Tohvri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käsper, Marge, 1973-

    2015-01-01

    G. F. Parrot' nimest. G. F. Parrot' päritolu sotsiaalkogukondlikust rollist ja selle retoorikast. Aleksander I kasvatusest ja valgustuse retoorikast. Keiser Aleksander I-le sügavat mõju avaldanud kõnest

  15. Hormone Replacement Therapy advertising: sense and nonsense on the web pages of the best-selling pharmaceuticals in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantero María

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The balance of the benefits and risks of long term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT have been a matter of debate for decades. In Europe, HRT requires medical prescription and its advertising is only permitted when aimed at health professionals (direct to consumer advertising is allowed in some non European countries. The objective of this study is to analyse the appropriateness and quality of Internet advertising about HRT in Spain. Methods A search was carried out on the Internet (January 2009 using the eight best-selling HRT drugs in Spain. The brand name of each drug was entered into Google's search engine. The web sites appearing on the first page of results and the corresponding companies were analysed using the European Code of Good Practice as the reference point. Results Five corporate web pages: none of them included bibliographic references or measures to ensure that the advertising was only accessible by health professionals. Regarding non-corporate web pages (n = 27: 41% did not include the company name or address, 44% made no distinction between patient and health professional information, 7% contained bibliographic references, 26% provided unspecific information for the use of HRT for osteoporosis and 19% included menstrual cycle regulation or boosting feminity as an indication. Two online pharmacies sold HRT drugs which could be bought online in Spain, did not include the name or contact details of the registered company, nor did they stipulate the need for a medical prescription or differentiate between patient and health professional information. Conclusions Even though pharmaceutical companies have committed themselves to compliance with codes of good practice, deficiencies were observed regarding the identification, information and promotion of HRT medications on their web pages. Unaffected by legislation, non-corporate web pages are an ideal place for indirect HRT advertising, but they often contain

  16. Hormone Replacement Therapy advertising: sense and nonsense on the web pages of the best-selling pharmaceuticals in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The balance of the benefits and risks of long term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been a matter of debate for decades. In Europe, HRT requires medical prescription and its advertising is only permitted when aimed at health professionals (direct to consumer advertising is allowed in some non European countries). The objective of this study is to analyse the appropriateness and quality of Internet advertising about HRT in Spain. Methods A search was carried out on the Internet (January 2009) using the eight best-selling HRT drugs in Spain. The brand name of each drug was entered into Google's search engine. The web sites appearing on the first page of results and the corresponding companies were analysed using the European Code of Good Practice as the reference point. Results Five corporate web pages: none of them included bibliographic references or measures to ensure that the advertising was only accessible by health professionals. Regarding non-corporate web pages (n = 27): 41% did not include the company name or address, 44% made no distinction between patient and health professional information, 7% contained bibliographic references, 26% provided unspecific information for the use of HRT for osteoporosis and 19% included menstrual cycle regulation or boosting feminity as an indication. Two online pharmacies sold HRT drugs which could be bought online in Spain, did not include the name or contact details of the registered company, nor did they stipulate the need for a medical prescription or differentiate between patient and health professional information. Conclusions Even though pharmaceutical companies have committed themselves to compliance with codes of good practice, deficiencies were observed regarding the identification, information and promotion of HRT medications on their web pages. Unaffected by legislation, non-corporate web pages are an ideal place for indirect HRT advertising, but they often contain misleading information

  17. Hormone replacement therapy advertising: sense and nonsense on the web pages of the best-selling pharmaceuticals in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilet-Rosell, Elisa; Martín Llaguno, Marta; Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2010-03-16

    The balance of the benefits and risks of long term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been a matter of debate for decades. In Europe, HRT requires medical prescription and its advertising is only permitted when aimed at health professionals (direct to consumer advertising is allowed in some non European countries). The objective of this study is to analyse the appropriateness and quality of Internet advertising about HRT in Spain. A search was carried out on the Internet (January 2009) using the eight best-selling HRT drugs in Spain. The brand name of each drug was entered into Google's search engine. The web sites appearing on the first page of results and the corresponding companies were analysed using the European Code of Good Practice as the reference point. Five corporate web pages: none of them included bibliographic references or measures to ensure that the advertising was only accessible by health professionals. Regarding non-corporate web pages (n = 27): 41% did not include the company name or address, 44% made no distinction between patient and health professional information, 7% contained bibliographic references, 26% provided unspecific information for the use of HRT for osteoporosis and 19% included menstrual cycle regulation or boosting feminity as an indication. Two online pharmacies sold HRT drugs which could be bought online in Spain, did not include the name or contact details of the registered company, nor did they stipulate the need for a medical prescription or differentiate between patient and health professional information. Even though pharmaceutical companies have committed themselves to compliance with codes of good practice, deficiencies were observed regarding the identification, information and promotion of HRT medications on their web pages. Unaffected by legislation, non-corporate web pages are an ideal place for indirect HRT advertising, but they often contain misleading information. HRT can be bought online from Spain

  18. Quali-quantitative analysis of best selling drugs from pharmacy, street market and traditional herbal medicine: a pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Bellotti, Pasquale; Minutillo, Adele; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Pacifici, Roberta

    2015-02-01

    A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250 mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r(2)≥ 0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Present Status of Displaying Pharmaceutical Products for Sale on Flea Market Applications for Smartphones and the Responses to Illicit Selling by Service Providers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Takeuchi, Tomoe; Fukushima, Noriko

    2017-12-01

     In Japan, a pharmacy or drug store license is required for selling pharmaceutical products. However, civilians without a pharmacy or drug store license are displaying pharmaceutical products for sale on a flea market application, which is illegal dealing. This study discussed the modality for implementing countermeasures for the illicit selling of pharmaceutical products. We extracted pharmaceutical products displayed for sale on three flea market applications (Mercari, Rakuma, Fril) on one day. One hundred and eighty-one pharmaceutical products were displayed (49 on Mercari, 86 on Rakuma, and 46 on Fril). There were 6.1% (11/181) domestically prescribed drugs, 69.1% (125/181) domestic OTC drugs, 23.8% (43/181) foreign-made prescribed drugs, and 1.1% (2/181) foreign-made OTC drugs. The seller could display the product for sale without confirming whether it is prohibited. We alerted the service providers of this illicit selling at flea markets at three different instances. The pharmaceutical product displays were deleted by the service providers at a rate of 55.1% (27/49) for Mercari and 51.2% (44/86) for Rakuma. The average number of drugs that were displayed for sale by each seller was 1.4 and the average number of total products that were displayed for sale by each seller was 100. The seller could have unintentionally displayed the pharmaceutical products for sale, without the knowledge that it is illegal. The service providers of flea market applications should create mechanisms to alert the sellers that displaying pharmaceutical products for sale is an illicit act and regulate these violations.

  20. Ruumikogemised ja -kogemused ning nende seosed ja väljendused / Mari Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Uurimuses vaadeldakse ruumi kui inimest kujundavat faktorit keskendudes tajumuslikule ruumikäsitlusele, samuti inimese ja ruumi vastastikuseid mõjusid, mängu ja kunsti kui inimese ruumikogemuste väljendusi, kirjeldatakse oma isiklikke ruumikogemusi. Lisadena kuuel päeval tehtud 18 "Vaatlust trammis" ja praktilise tööna valminud seinamaalingu "Trammisõit marsruudil avalik-isiklik-avalik" ülevaade

  1. Vabariigi Presidendi avaldus Riigikogule seoses valitsuse koosseisu uuendamisega 11. jaanuaril 1994 / Lennart Meri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meri, Lennart, 1929-2006

    1994-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Rahva Hääl, 12. jaan., lk. 2 ; Päevaleht, 12. jaan., lk. 6 ; Hommikuleht, 12. jaan. lk. 5 ; Vaba Eesti Sõna = Free Estonian Word, 20. jaan., lk. 3, pealk.: President kõneles Riigikogule ja eesti rahvale

  2. Lugemisoskuse ja -motivatsiooni seosed õpetajate kasvatusstiilidega esimeses klassis / Piret Soodla, Eve Kikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soodla, Piret, 1973-

    2014-01-01

    Esimeste klasside õpilaste ja nende õpetajate seas läbi viidud pikiuuringust, mille eesmärgiks oli analüüsida, kas ja kuidas erinevad õpilaste lugemisoskus ja motivatsioon kolme tüüpi kasvatusstiiliga õpetajate klassides

  3. President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese avaldus seoses sündmustega Gruusias / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Vt. samas: President Ilves sõitis Thbilisisse. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves sõitis koos Poola riigipea Lech Kaczynski, Leedu riigipea Valdas Adamkuse, Ukraina riigipea Viktor Jushtshenko ning Läti peaministri Ivars Godmanisega Gruusiasse. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Gruusias 12.-13.08.2008. Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 13. aug, lk. 2

  4. Mõnedest küsimustest seoses kohaliku omavalitsuse korralduse seaduse uue redaktsiooniga / Vallo Olle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olle, Vallo, 1966-

    1998-01-01

    Omavalitsusüksuse õigusaktidest, volikogu koosseisust ja pädevusest, vallavanema, linnapea jt. valla- või linnametnike ülesannetest, kohalikust eelarvest ja maksudest, omavalitsusüksuste koostööst, välissuhetest ja suhetest riigiorganitega vastavalt uuele kohaliku omavalitsuse korralduse seaduse eelnõule

  5. J. Laidoneri komisjoni raportite kriitikast ja retseptsioonist seoses kindrali tegevusega Iraagis. I-II / Tanno Tilgar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tilgar, Tanno, 1971-

    2011-01-01

    Suurbritannia ja Türgi poliitilistest vastuoludest 1925. aasta septembris, brittide initsiatiivist kristlaste deportatsiooni uurimiseks. Kaldealastest, nende suhetest türklaste ja kurdidega 1925. aasta septembri deportatsiooni kontekstis. Laidoneri komisjoni tegevuse taustast. Poliitiliste otsustajate ja uurijate arvamustest komisjoni aruannete kohta. Põhi- ja lisaraporti käsitlustest ja nende usaldusväärsusest. Piirikülade külastustest J. Laidoner poolt. Raporti osade ja nende kohta esitatud kriitiliste väidete analüüs. Kindlate (Iraagi) külade okupeerimisest Türgi militaarpostide ja patrullide poolt. Briti lennuväe lendudest üle nn. Brüsseli liini. Kristlaste deporteerimisest

  6. Eneserefleksiooni seosed sotsiaalse toimetulekuga ühe- ja mitmekeelsete õpilaste hulgas / Grete Arro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arro, Grete, 1982-

    2014-01-01

    Mitte-eesti populatsiooniga piirkondade põhikoolides läbi viidud pikiuuringust, milles keskendutakse eneserefleksioonivõime, ühe- ja mitmekeelsuse ning sotsiaalse ja psühholoogilise kohanemise näitajate vahelistele seostele

  7. Makrotasandi sotsiaalkapitali seosed majanduse jätkusuutliku arenguga / Agne Nettan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nettan, Agne

    2006-01-01

    Jätkusuutlikkuse ja sotsiaalkapitali mõõtmisest, jätkusuutliku säästmise määra ja sotsiaalkapitali näitajate seoste modelleerimisest, sotsiaalkapitali suurendamisest jätkusuutlikkuse toetamiseks. Tabelid

  8. Keskkonnaministril pole plaani naftareostusega seoses tagasi astuda / Martin Hanson, Kadi Heinsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Martin, 1984-

    2006-01-01

    Ministrite kommentaare naftareostust puudutava info edastamise kohta. Vt. samas: Piret Reiljan: Top Tankers Inc. polnud midagi kuulnud oma laevaga juhtunud õnnetusest. Lisa: Õnnetusest laeval tuli teade reedel. Sündmuste kronoloogia

  9. Avaliku sektori juhtimine seoses ühiskonna ja majandusega / Taivo-Ahti Adamson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adamson, Taivo-Ahti, 1963-

    2002-01-01

    Bibliogr. lk. 18-19. - Kokkuvõte ingl. k. lk. 19-20. Eesti riigi edukus sõltub sellest, kuidas suudetakse käsitleda ühiskonda kui tervikut kohalike elanike heaolu ja riigi elanike integreeritusest tulenevalt

  10. Sõjafilmide ideoloogia muutumisest (seoses sisulise väljenduse ja vormiliste vahendite muutumisega) / Martin Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Martin, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    Sõjafilmide ideoloogilisest tasandist. Tähelepanekuid ja märkusi nelja filmi põhjal: "Casablanca" (rezh. Michael Curtiz, 1942), "Iwo Jima liivad" (rezh. Allan Dwan, 1949), "Reamees Ryani päästmine" (rezh. Steven Spielberg, 1998), "Vaenlane väravas" (rezh. Jean-Jacques Annaud, 2001)

  11. Segadus mõistetes seoses avaliku võimu ülesannetega / Nele Parrest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parrest, Nele, 1978-

    2014-01-01

    Terminoloogilistest probleemidest avaliku võimu ülesannete määratlemisel ja võimalikest lahendustest neis süsteemi loomiseks. Mõistete kasutamisest ja korrastamise vajadusest kehtiva õiguse ja kohtupraktika põhjal. Mõisted "avalik ülesanne" ja "avalik teenus"

  12. Põhjusliku seose loogikast ja epistemoloogiast / Georg Henrik von Wright ; tõlk. Bruno Mölder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wright, Georg Henrik von

    2001-01-01

    Formaalloogika kasutusvõimalustest põhjuslike seoste loomuse selgitamisel, formaalanalüüsis kasutatud mõistete epistemoloogilistest alustest, põhjuslikkuse ja põhjuslike kategooriate asend teadusfilosoofias. Tõlke allikas: On the Logic and Epistemology of the Causal Relation, 1973

  13. Interjööri kujunduse ja moekunsti seosed ja vastasmõjud / Jane Kukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kukk, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Teoreetilise uurimuse eesmärgiks oli vaadelda disaini laiemalt, kõrvutades moe- ja interjööridisaini, looduskeskkonna, sotsiaalpoliitilise ja kultuuriruumi mõjutusi sellele ning jõudes järeldusele, et kõik disaini valdkonnad on tänu disainimise protsessi samale mudelile sarnased, on omavahel seotud ja võivad üksteist mõjutada, eriti tingimustes, kus moetööstus on laiendanud oma tegevust interjööri valdkonda, soovides luua terviklikku elustiili paketti tänapäeva tarbimisühiskonnas

  14. Saarte juurdepääsetavuse ja majandusarengu seosed / Enno Lend

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lend, Enno

    2005-01-01

    Lisaks transpordiühenduse nüüdisajastamisele tuleb Saaremaa ja Hiiumaa ettevõtete konkurentsivõime säilitamiseks ning tõstmiseks autori arvates tegeleda ka tehnoloogia- ja personaliinnovatsiooniga. Kaart. Skeemid. Diagrammid. Tabelid

  15. The author training manual develop marketable ideas, craft books that sell, become the author publishers want, and self-publish effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Anyone can publish a book and become an ""author,"" but if you want to become a successful author with a profitable publishing career, you need a clear, step-by-step guide to help you develop book ideas that sell. In The Author Training Manual, expert editor and book coach Nina Amir reveals the exact process successful authors have used to create business plans and proposals for their books and teaches you how to view your ideas through the eyes of acquisitions editors and literary agents. Whether you write fiction or nonfiction, plan to traditionally publish or self-publish, The Author Tra

  16. Algorithme de recherche de point-selle de lagrangien non strictement convexe. Application a l'optimisation des investissements pour un réseau electrique.

    OpenAIRE

    Balducchi, Jean-François

    1982-01-01

    Étude de l'optimisation des capacités de transport des lignes du réseau électrique national, de façon à minimiser la somme des couts de production électrique et des couts d'investissement des lignes de transport électrique. Formulation du problème d'optimisation stochastique, approches primale et duale, résolution des problèmes de minimax par l'approche duale, recherche de point selle dans le cas d'un lagrangien non strictement convexe, application au problème EDF.; No summary

  17. Leuconostoc gasicomitatum is the dominating lactic acid bacterium in retail modified-atmosphere-packaged marinated broiler meat strips on sell-by day

    OpenAIRE

    Susiluoto, Tuija; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, Johanna

    2002-01-01

    http://www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/01681605 Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in retail, modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP), marinated broiler meat strips on sell-by day were mainly identified as Leuconostoc gasicomitatum. A total of 32 packages, 3 to 5 packages of 7 differently marinated broiler meat products, were studied at the end of the producer-defined shelf life (at 6ºC, 7 to 9 days depending on the manufacturer). Prior to the microbiological analyses, appearance and smell of the product ...

  18. Consumer Attitude Toward the Issue of Selling Beef Mixed with Boar Meat (Sus sucrofa and the Intention to Purchase of Meat Consumers in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Guntoro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research was aimed to explain the relationship between cognitive, affective and conative combined into the attitude components with the intention to purchase against the issue of mixed beef and boar meatselling in Yogyakarta. The sample of location was at Beringharjo market in which the issues of selling beef and boar meat was established. The research used survey method with interview and questionnaire whose validity and reliability had been proven. The sample of respondents was 80 buyers selected by purposive sampling method. The data were statistically tabulated and analyzed using Chi-square and Phi analyses. The results showed that most of the attitude components i.e. cognitive, affective and conative were classified in favorable category implying that the respondents were responsive and active to look for the information regarding the issue. There was dependent relationship between attitude of the respondents toward the mixed beef and boar meat selling and the intention to purchase it with weak relationship (Phi coefficient of 0.354. It was concluded that consumers’ attitude on the issue of circulation of beefmix with boar meat was to behave more consciously about the truth of the issue and to be worried about the mixed meat. Key Words: consumer’s attitude, purchasing intention, meat consumer Animal Production 13(3:173-179 (2011

  19. Brazilian Cinema: A Comparative Study between Fundraising Through Mechanisms of Public Incentive versus the Selling Revenue on the Brazilian Box Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio Alaiola Nogueira Dos Santos Júnior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Responsible for maintaining active the actual cinematographic production, the politics of incentive to cinema do not guarantee an equal state of recourse capture for all the movies produced in the country as well as provoke discussion which relate production quality to volume capture, in which has taken to the creation of the common sense that says that movies which present elevated recourse fund must present best-selling results. Therefore, this study has the objective of analyzing the relation between the recourse volume captured from the mechanisms of public incentive and the selling volume on the Brazilian box offices. Due to that, descriptive research was made, with documentary character and quantitative approach. The data used in this study is related to information towards fundraising and income about the box office of 666 brazilian movies released between 1995 and 2012, while the statistical analysis used was the 'Spearman correlation' coefficient. The results showed that there is a strong positive correlation between the two variablesanalyzed, revealing a trend of movies with high fundraising are the ones that register the highest grossing box office. Data analysis also revealed that there is a concentration of both incentive funds (61% as income at the box office (75% in films with volume greater uptake of R $ 3 million.

  20. Classifying neighbourhoods by level of access to stores selling fresh fruit and vegetables and groceries: identifying problematic areas in the city of Gatineau, Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Adrian C; Apparicio, Philippe; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil

    2012-11-06

    Physical access to stores selling groceries, fresh fruit and vegetables (FV) is essential for urban dwellers. In Canadian cities where low-density development practices are common, social and material deprivation may be compounded by poor geographic access to healthy food. This case study examines access to food stores selling fresh FV in Gatineau, Quebec, to identify areas where poor access is coincident with high deprivation. Food retailers were identified using two secondary sources and each store was visited to establish the total surface area devoted to the sale of fresh FV. Four population-weighted accessibility measures were then calculated for each dissemination area (DA) using road network distances. A deprivation index was created using variables from the 2006 Statistics Canada census, also at the scale of the DA. Finally, six classes of accessibility to a healthy diet were constructed using a k-means classification procedure. These were mapped and superimposed over high deprivation areas. Overall, deprivation is positively correlated with better accessibility. However, more than 18,000 residents (7.5% of the population) live in high deprivation areas characterized by large distances to the nearest retail food store (means of 1.4 km or greater) and virtually no access to fresh FV within walking distance (radius of 1 km). In this research, we identified areas where poor geographic access may introduce an additional constraint for residents already dealing with the challenges of limited financial and social resources. Our results may help guide local food security policies and initiatives.

  1. AN ENTROPIC ORDER QUANTITY MODEL WITH FUZZY HOLDING COST AND FUZZY DISPOSAL COST FOR PERISHABLE ITEMS UNDER TWO COMPONENT DEMAND AND DISCOUNTED SELLING PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Tripathy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new type of replenishment policy is suggested in an entropy order quantity model for a perishable product possessing fuzzy holding cost and fuzzy disposal cost. This model represents an appropriate combination of two component demand with discounted selling price, particularly over a finite time horizon. Its main aim lies in the need for an entropic cost of the cycle time is a key feature of specific perishable product like fruits, vegetables, food stuffs, fishes etc. To handle this multiplicity of objectives in a pragmatic approach, entropic ordering quantity model with discounted selling price during pre and post deterioration of perishable items to optimize its payoff is proposed. It has been imperative to demonstrate this model by analysis, which reveals some important characteristics of discounted structure. Furthermore, numerical experiments are conducted to evaluate the difference between the crisp and fuzzy cases in EOQ and EnOQ separately. This paper explores the economy of investing in economics of lot sizing in Fuzzy EOQ, Crisp EOQ and Crisp EnOQ models. The proposed paper reveals itself as a pragmatic alternative to other approaches based on two component demand function with very sound theoretical underpinnings but with few possibilities of actually being put into practice. The results indicate that this can become a good model and can be replicated by researchers in neighbourhood of its possible extensions.

  2. Why California retailers stop selling tobacco products, and what their customers and employees think about it when they do: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2011-11-08

    In California, some 40,000 retailers sell tobacco products. Tobacco's ubiquitousness in retail settings normalizes use and cues smoking urges among former smokers and those attempting cessation. Thus, limiting the number of retailers is regarded as key to ending the tobacco epidemic. In the past decade, independent pharmacies and local grocery chains in California and elsewhere have voluntarily abandoned tobacco sales. No previous studies have examined the reasons for this emerging phenomenon. We sought to learn what motivated retailers to discontinue tobacco sales and what employees and customers thought about their decision. We conducted case studies of seven California retailers (three grocery stores, four pharmacies) that had voluntarily ceased tobacco sales within the past 7 years. We interviewed owners, managers, and employees, conducted consumer focus groups, unobtrusively observed businesses and the surrounding environment, and examined any media coverage of each retailer's decision. We analyzed data using qualitative content analysis. For independent pharmacies, the only reason given for the decision to end tobacco sales was that tobacco caused disease and death. Grocers listed health among several factors, including regulatory pressures and wanting to be seen as "making a difference." Media coverage of stores' new policies was limited, and only three retailers alerted customers. Management reported few or no customer complaints and supportive or indifferent employees. Pharmacy employees were pleased to no longer be selling a deadly product. Grocery store management saw the decision to end tobacco sales as enhancing the stores' image and consistent with their inventory of healthy foods. Focus group participants (smokers and nonsmokers) were largely unaware that retailers had stopped selling tobacco; however, almost all supported the decision, viewing it as promoting public health. Many said knowing this made them more likely to shop at the store. Most

  3. Why California retailers stop selling tobacco products, and what their customers and employees think about it when they do: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In California, some 40, 000 retailers sell tobacco products. Tobacco's ubiquitousness in retail settings normalizes use and cues smoking urges among former smokers and those attempting cessation. Thus, limiting the number of retailers is regarded as key to ending the tobacco epidemic. In the past decade, independent pharmacies and local grocery chains in California and elsewhere have voluntarily abandoned tobacco sales. No previous studies have examined the reasons for this emerging phenomenon. We sought to learn what motivated retailers to discontinue tobacco sales and what employees and customers thought about their decision. Methods We conducted case studies of seven California retailers (three grocery stores, four pharmacies that had voluntarily ceased tobacco sales within the past 7 years. We interviewed owners, managers, and employees, conducted consumer focus groups, unobtrusively observed businesses and the surrounding environment, and examined any media coverage of each retailer's decision. We analyzed data using qualitative content analysis. Results For independent pharmacies, the only reason given for the decision to end tobacco sales was that tobacco caused disease and death. Grocers listed health among several factors, including regulatory pressures and wanting to be seen as "making a difference." Media coverage of stores' new policies was limited, and only three retailers alerted customers. Management reported few or no customer complaints and supportive or indifferent employees. Pharmacy employees were pleased to no longer be selling a deadly product. Grocery store management saw the decision to end tobacco sales as enhancing the stores' image and consistent with their inventory of healthy foods. Focus group participants (smokers and nonsmokers were largely unaware that retailers had stopped selling tobacco; however, almost all supported the decision, viewing it as promoting public health. Many said knowing

  4. Gnawing Pains, Festering Ulcers, and Nightmare Suffering: Selling Leprosy as a Humanitarian Cause in the British Empire, c. 1890-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsathorn, Kathleen

    2012-12-01

    When British attention was drawn to the issue of leprosy in the Empire, humanitarian organisations rose to take on responsibility for the 'fight against leprosy'. In an effort to fundraise for a distant cause at a time when hundreds of charities competed for the financial support of British citizens, fundraisers developed propaganda to set leprosy apart from all other humanitarian causes. They drew on leprosy's relationship with Christianity, its debilitating symptoms, and the supposed vulnerability of leprosy sufferers in order to mobilise Britain's sense of humanitarian, Christian, and patriotic duty. This article traces the emergence of leprosy as a popular imperial humanitarian cause in modern Britain and analyses the narratives of religion, suffering, and disease that they created and employed in order to fuel their growth and sell leprosy as a British humanitarian cause.

  5. How to sell a condom? The impact of demand creation tools on male and female condom sales in resource limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Windmeijer, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Despite condoms being cheap and effective in preventing HIV, there remains an 8billion shortfall in condom use in risky sex-acts. Social marketing organisations apply private sector marketing approaches to sell public health products. This paper investigates the impact of marketing tools, including promotion and pricing, on demand for male and female condoms in 52 countries between 1997 and 2009. A static model differentiates drivers of demand between products, while a dynamic panel data estimator estimates their short- and long-run impacts. Products are not equally affected: female condoms are not affected by advertising, but highly affected by interpersonal communication and HIV prevalence. Price and promotion have significant short- and long-run effects, with female condoms far more sensitive to price than male condoms. The design of optimal distribution strategies for new and existing HIV prevention technologies must consider both product and target population characteristics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Description of attempts to obtain approval for selling medications at ordinary Brazilian establishments after the introduction of the Real Economic Stabilization Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges de Melo, Eduardo; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Mânica, Graciele Cristiane More

    2007-01-01

    Although not legal, the practice of selling medications through unlicensed outlets such as stores and supermarkets has long been common in Brazil. Introducing the Real Economic Stabilization Plan, Provisional Measure 592/94 allowed the sale of non-prescription medications (anodynes) in such establishments. However, this item was suppressed when this Provisional Measure was enacted as Law N masculine 9,069/95. Since then, other attempts have been made to establish this type of trade in medications, forbidden in 2004 through a decision handed down by the Superior Court of Justice. Nevertheless, this unlawful trade in medications still continues. Due to the scarcity of publications on this specific issue, this paper offers an updated overview for druggists, pharmacists, academics and researchers, describing the events that took place between 1994 and 2006.

  7. Insolvenzrecht als Tätigkeitsausübungsregel / Peter Kindler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kindler, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Euroopa Kohtu lahendist, mis puudutab kohtuvaidlust seoses nõudega hüvitada väljamaksed, mis võlgnikuks oleva äriühingu juhataja tegi pärast selle äriühingu maksejõuetuks muutumist. Vt. ka lk. 155-157

  8. Islandizatsija Estonii / Karmo Tüür

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tüür, Karmo

    2008-01-01

    Autor pakub seoses Islandi kriisiga võtta kasutusele uus poliitiline termin - islandiseerumine. Selle terminiga tähistataks segastel asjaoludel finantsraskustesse sattunud riigile abi andmist hämara mainega riigi poolt. Artikli lõpus esitab autor küsimuse - kas Eesti islandiseerub?

  9. Islandiseerumine / Karmo Tüür

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tüür, Karmo

    2008-01-01

    Autor pakub seoses Islandi kriisiga võtta kasutusele uus poliitiline termin - islandiseerumine. Selle terminiga tähistataks segastel asjaoludel finantsraskustesse sattunud riigile abi andmist hämara mainega riigi poolt. Artikli lõpus esitab autor küsimuse - kas Eesti islandiseerub?

  10. Golosa manezhnogo Peterburga / Galina Balashova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balashova, Galina

    2004-01-01

    Peterburi kaasaegsest kunstist seoses kunstiteadlase Larissa Skobkina kureeritud näitusega Tallinna Vene saatkonna galeriis. Tutvustatakse underground-kunstnikke Anatoli Basinit, Vjatsheslav Mihhailovit, Valeri Lukkat, Vladimir Vidermani, Gleb Bogomolovit, Gennadi Ustjugovit, Natalja Zhilinat, rühmitust Mitki ja selle liikmeid Vladimir Shinkarjovi, Aleksandr Florenskit, Olga Florenskajat ning Peterburi fotokoolkonda esindavat Andrei Tshezhinit

  11. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  12. Sise- ja rahvusvaheline tasakaal / Ragnar Nurkse ; tõlk. Aet Ringborg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurkse, Ragnar

    2004-01-01

    Keynesi majandusteooriast, rahvatulu ja väliskaubanduse seose multiplikaatoranalüüsist, tööhõivepoliitikast avatud majanduses ja selle rahvusvahelisest koordineerimisest, majanduslikust natsionalismist, rahvusvahelisest valuutapoliitikast ja multilateraalsest kaubandusest. Vt. ka: Kalev Kukk. Kes oli ja on Ragnar Nurkse? Ülevaade eesti soost majandusteadlase Ragnar Nurkse (1907-1959) elukäigust

  13. State sells oil and gas shares in Norway - Statoil to stock exchange list; Norjan valtio myy oeljy- ja kaasuosuuksiaan - Statoil poerssiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimpanpaeae, M.

    2001-07-01

    After several months debate the government of Norway has decided to sell parts of the national oil-company Staoil as well as state-owned gas and oil shares. The government has stated that in the first stage it would be possible to privatize 20% of the Statoil. The market value of Staoil in summer 1999 was estimated to 120 billion NOK and the value has been estimated to increase ever since. The same proposal includes selling 20% of the national oil and gas shares SDOEE. 15 % would be sold to Statoil before listing the company into the stock exchange and the rest to Norsk Hydro and other national and international companies. The remaining share, the value of which is about 500 billion NOK, will become a part of a new state-owned company. The oil and energy ministry of Norway has estimated that the market value of SDOEE is about 600 billion NOK. Advisory committee decided to increase the share to be sold of SDOEE to 21.5%, the share of other companies being 6.5%. SDOEE was grounded in 1985. Since then a part of the oil and gas income of Statoil has gone into the balances of Statoil and another part directly to the state. Statoil has been responsible for the oil and gas sales of SDOEE. SDOEE's gas and oil reserves have been estimated to be about 9.8 billion barrels, 35% of which is oil and the rest natural gas. A new independent state owned company will be founded for transport of natural gas as a part of the change process. Oil companies and other energy companies will deliver the natural gas also in the future. In addition to the national arrangements, the EU's gas market directive will lead to changes in the Norwegian gas sales. As a part of the European Economic Area Norway will put the EU's gas markets directive into force without any transition period. The directive will decrease the price of natural gas and hence the income of Norway from natural gas is estimated to decrease significantly. At the moment the sales company GFU is responsible for

  14. Smart Growth and the Challenge of Nimby: Multifamily Dwellings and their Association with Single-Family House Selling Prices in Tallahasse, Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huston GIBSON

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Citizens protest development when they consider it undesirable. One type of development commonly perceived as undesirable by single-family home owners is proximate multifamily housing, often considered a cause of property devaluation. This study assesses multifamily housing, by typology, and its monetary association with proximate single-family housing prices. The research design is a cross-sectional study using multivariate regression. The unit of analysis is the detached single-family dwelling. The study population is a sample taken from all arms-length owner-occupied, primary residence, detached single-family property transactions recorded in Tallahassee-Leon County, Florida, USA, during 2008. The key findings show no statistically significant negative associations between multifamily housing and single-family property selling prices in the sample; in fact, the two were positively correlated. These findings address single-family homeowner concerns about proximate multifamily housing and should bolster the political feasibility of Smart Growth policy, which recommends denser urban infill.

  15. A Decision-Making Model for Deterring Food Vendors from Selling Harmless Low-Quality Foods as High-Quality Foods to Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For certain types of foods, food vendors often label low-quality foods that are harmless to human health as foods of excellent quality and sell these falsely labeled products to consumers. Because this type of food poses no harm to human health, when public health units discover their act of false labeling or food adulteration, vendors are only penalized with a fine rather than having them assume criminal liability. Upon discovering vendors act of falsely labeling food, public health units typically punish the involved parties according to the extent of false labeling. Such static protective measure is ineffective. Instead, the extent of punishment should be based not only on the extent of false labeling, but also on the frequency of food sampling as well as the number of samples obtained for food inspections. Only through this dynamic approach can food adulteration or false labeling be effectively prevented. Adopting the standpoint of the public sector in food safety management, this study developed a mathematical model that facilitates discussion on the aforementioned problems. Furthermore, we discussed how the supply-demand environmental factors of the food market are influenced by the administrative means that the public health units have used to prevent food false labeling.

  16. Improved ethanol yield and reduced minimum ethanol selling price (MESP by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 2 Techno-economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ling

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our companion paper discussed the yield benefits achieved by integrating deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing with low acid and low temperature pretreatment. To evaluate the impact of the modified process on the economic feasibility, a techno-economic analysis (TEA was performed based on the experimental data presented in the companion paper. Results The cost benefits of dilute acid pretreatment technology combined with the process alternatives of deacetylation, mechanical refining, and pretreated solids washing were evaluated using cost benefit analysis within a conceptual modeling framework. Control cases were pretreated at much lower acid loadings and temperatures than used those in the NREL 2011 design case, resulting in much lower annual ethanol production. Therefore, the minimum ethanol selling prices (MESP of the control cases were $0.41-$0.77 higher than the $2.15/gallon MESP of the design case. This increment is highly dependent on the carbohydrate content in the corn stover. However, if pretreatment was employed with either deacetylation or mechanical refining, the MESPs were reduced by $0.23-$0.30/gallon. Combing both steps could lower the MESP further by $0.44 ~ $0.54. Washing of the pretreated solids could also greatly improve the final ethanol yields. However, the large capital cost of the solid–liquid separation unit negatively influences the process economics. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed to study the effect of the cost of the pretreatment reactor and the energy input for mechanical refining. A 50% cost reduction in the pretreatment reactor cost reduced the MESP of the entire conversion process by $0.11-$0.14/gallon, while a 10-fold increase in energy input for mechanical refining will increase the MESP by $0.07/gallon. Conclusion Deacetylation and mechanical refining process options combined with low acid, low severity pretreatments show improvements in ethanol yields and

  17. Getting shops to voluntarily stop selling cheap, strong beers and ciders: a time-series analysis evaluating impacts on alcohol availability and purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliakas, T; Lock, K; Jones, A; Aalders, S; Egan, M

    2018-02-13

    'Reducing the Strength' (RtS) is a public health initiative encouraging retailers to voluntarily stop selling cheap, strong beers/ciders (≥6.5% alcohol by volume). This study evaluates the impact of RtS initiatives on alcohol availability and purchasing in three English counties with a combined population of 3.62 million people. We used a multiple baseline time-series design to examine retail data over 29 months from a supermarket chain that experienced a two-wave, area-based role out of RtS: initially 54 stores (W1), then another 77 stores (W2). We measured impacts on units of alcohol sold (primary outcome: beers/ciders; secondary outcome: all alcoholic products), economic impacts on alcohol sales and substitution effects. We observed a non-significant W1 increase (+3.7%, 95% CI: -11.2, 21.0) and W2 decrease (-6.8%, 95% CI: -20.5, 9.4) in the primary outcome. We observed a significant W2 decrease in units sold across all alcohol products (-10.5%, 95% CI: -19.2, -0.9). The direction of effect between waves was inconsistent for all outcomes, including alcohol sales, with no evidence of substitution effects. In the UK, voluntary RtS initiatives appear to have little or no impact on reducing alcohol availability and purchase from the broader population of supermarket customers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Examination and comparative study of the Ascension of The Prophet of Islam In The View Of Michael Sells And Anne-mari e Shamil with Inter- Religious Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Azadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael Sells, American scholar of Quran,about the Ascension (Mi,raj of the prophet (PBUH focuses on three issues: First, the Mi,raj term is not used in the Quran and the ascension of the explanation is not enough. second, Mohammad is no different from the miracle of the Quran is the miracle of God,he is not anything else, Quran states. Third, Ascension of the prophet (PBUH has been in sleep and dream.According to him, the discussion about the layers of the subject is based mainly on the evidence of Quran.In this case, only limited information can be found in the Asra chapter (sooreh of the Quran.In addition, he has tried to make the Ascension event from Jewish traditions and the effects Bvdaysm.actually the orientalist`s goal is to prove the absence of ascension of the prophet(PBUH.  In contrast, Anne-marie Shamil stayes that prophet`s ascension derived from the first verse of Asra sura and believes that two processes(horizontal and verticalfor prophet happened.and unlike Michael,he knows mi,raj from the God miracles.Anne-Marie because her sufficient the Sunni sources is doubt with belief in the physical and spiritual ascension,in some of her votes,such as; visible or not visible in the ascension of God by the prophet.Despite the fundamental criticism that some elements of the theory of two Orientalists arrived,positive points are observed in their ideas.in this article we have tried to express the views of the Orientalists, then to review their ideas considered

  19. Sell Out With Me Tonight”: Popular Music, Commercialization and Commodification in Vineland, The Crying of Lot 49, and V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George William Twigg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Particularly drawing on the theory of Jacques Attali and Horkheimer and Adorno, this article considers popular music in Pynchon’s novels as more than simply a ‘soundtrack’ to the plot.  Much attention has been paid to Pynchon’s original songs, but not to the manner of their dissemination; therefore, this article examines the role of the popular musician in the production of consumer culture, focusing on McClintic Sphere ('V.', The Paranoids ('Lot 49', and Billy Barf and the Vomitones ('Vineland'.  Pynchon depicts a modern ‘culture industry’ in which recording artists, voluntarily or not, ape their forbears, but in which the idea that live performance is liberating whereas recording is constraining, is problematized.  The article explores Sphere’s struggles to become successful in the face of live audiences that constantly compare him to Charlie Parker rather than assessing his music on its own merits, and the twin inspirational and coercive ‘moulding’ forces he experiences during the recording process that represents the only chance for musicians to disseminate their music widely and find a properly appreciative public.  Similarly, the disjunction between the Paranoids’ deviant lyrics and behaviour, and their thoroughly generic sub-Beatles musical texture, which adheres to the tropes of recorded music (one song ‘fades out’ even when played live! is discussed; they too are caught in an excluded middle between transgression and conformity, as are the Vomitones, who in one live performance suppress their rebellious ‘punk’ aesthetic when they gain employment performing Italian ballads at a Mafia wedding.  Ultimately this article argues that popular music is equally moulded by live audiences and by recording bosses and that its absorption into networks of capital is inevitable, so musicians, given the chance, may as well ‘sell out’, and hope to balance commercial success with at least a modicum of creative control.

  20. Do Sex and Violence Sell? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of Sexual and Violent Media and Ad Content on Memory, Attitudes, and Buying Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, Robert B; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-09-01

    It is commonly assumed that sex and violence sell. However, we predicted that sex and violence would have the opposite effect. We based our predictions on the evolution and emotional arousal theoretical framework, which states that people are evolutionarily predisposed to attend to emotionally arousing cues such as sex and violence. Thus, sexual and violent cues demand more cognitive resources than nonsexual and nonviolent cues. Using this framework, we meta-analyzed the effects of sexual media, violent media, sexual ads, and violent ads on the advertising outcomes of brand memory, brand attitudes, and buying intentions. The meta-analysis included 53 experiments involving 8,489 participants. Analyses found that brands advertised in violent media content were remembered less often, evaluated less favorably, and less likely to be purchased than brands advertised in nonviolent, nonsexual media. Brands advertised using sexual ads were evaluated less favorably than brands advertised using nonviolent, nonsexual ads. There were no significant effects of sexual media on memory or buying intentions. There were no significant effects of sexual or violent ads on memory or buying intentions. As intensity of sexual ad content increased, memory, attitudes, and buying intentions decreased. When media content and ad content were congruent (e.g., violent ad in a violent program), memory improved and buying intentions increased. Violence and sex never helped and often hurt ad effectiveness. These results support the evolution and emotional arousal framework. Thus, advertisers should consider the effects of media content, ad content, content intensity, and congruity to design and place more effective ads. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Qualitative and quantitative combined nonlinear dynamics model and its application in analysis of price, supply–demand ratio and selling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Dingju

    2016-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative combined nonlinear dynamics model proposed in this paper fill the gap in nonlinear dynamics model in terms of qualitative and quantitative combined methods, allowing the qualitative model and quantitative model to perfectly combine and overcome their weaknesses by learning from each other. These two types of models use their strengths to make up for the other’s deficiencies. The qualitative and quantitative combined models can surmount the weakness that the qualitative model cannot be applied and verified in a quantitative manner, and the high costs and long time of multiple construction as well as verification of the quantitative model. The combined model is more practical and efficient, which is of great significance for nonlinear dynamics. The qualitative and quantitative combined modeling and model analytical method raised in this paper is not only applied to nonlinear dynamics, but can be adopted and drawn on in the modeling and model analysis of other fields. Additionally, the analytical method of qualitative and quantitative combined nonlinear dynamics model proposed in this paper can satisfactorily resolve the problems with the price system’s existing nonlinear dynamics model analytical method. The three-dimensional dynamics model of price, supply–demand ratio and selling rate established in this paper make estimates about the best commodity prices using the model results, thereby providing a theoretical basis for the government’s macro-control of price. Meanwhile, this model also offer theoretical guidance to how to enhance people’s purchasing power and consumption levels through price regulation and hence to improve people’s living standards.

  2. How to sell safer sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overs, C

    1991-09-01

    Social and economic factors determine the extent of the sex industry in societies. Despite AIDS, the sex industry will continue to thrive. Accordingly, health promotion strategies aimed at sex workers and their clients should not stem from the belief that the industry should cease to exist. This paper offers advice in developing and implementing programs to promote safer sex among sex workers. The social context is 1 element to consider in planning successful campaigns. Interventions must be combined with well-planned prevention campaigns aimed at entire populations. The opinions and participation of those involved in the industry should also be sought, while worker discussion and action upon other community issues should not be discouraged. Care should be given to target the numerous and diverse sex worker audiences in addition to other persons related to and involved in the industry. Programs should address the main obstacles to practicing safer sex, and attention should be given to ensure the provision of an adequate and regular supply of cheap or free condoms through varied distribution channels. In the area of service provision, sex workers need easy access to social support and health care services from which they are often excluded. Activities conducted around the world include the marketing of safer sex, distributing printed information on HIV and AIDS to clients, training sex workers to pass designated constructive ideas to others involved in the sex industry, referring sex workers to sex businesses supportive of safer sex practices, and developing street theater and cabaret shows in bars.

  3. Teejuht seente maailma / Indrek Sell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sell, Indrek, 1983-

    2014-01-01

    Haavataelik, haavanääts, põdramokad, kübarnarmikud, narmikud, kroonliudik, roostetorik, roosa pess, lillatümak, kuusetaelik, poropoorik, tammetaelik, leht-kobartorik, maksak, tammenahkis, tumepruun taelik, volt-tardnahkis, lõhetümak, limatünnik, roostepruun taelik, sarapuu-ebakorgik, lakkvaabik (läikvaabik), haava-tuletaelik (haava-ebatuletael), õrn narmnahkis (õrnnarmik), korallnarmik (harunev korallnarmik), männi-vahakorgik (männikorgik), juurepruunik, narmastaelik, kährikseen (kährik)

  4. Selling petroleum to the military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscher, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article examines what petroleum products and services the US military buys, the contracts awarded to Asian and European refiners for supplies outside the USA, and military specifications and test methods including the specifications of JP-8 battlefield fuel and the JP-8+100 additive package for military aircraft. The way in which the military buys petroleum products is described, and details are given of the types of military contracts, the bidding on Defense Energy Support Center (DESC) petroleum contracts, the performance of military petroleum contracts, socio-economic programmes, the Prompt Payment Act requiring contractors to be paid promptly, and procedures for claims and disputes

  5. The Selling of the Subliminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Steven

    1984-01-01

    Describes Expandovision, a microcomputer-television connection which enables users to flash brief messages designed to improve their behavior on their television screens. Several incidents where subliminal persuasion has been used on television viewers in the past are recounted, and the effectiveness and dangers of subliminal persuasion are…

  6. "Quality does not sell itself"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Steen, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Food quality is a multidimensional concept comprising both objective and subjective components. Quality as defined from an industry perspective usually relies on different instrumental assessment and on ratings of ‘experts’ which may not necessarily align with consumers’ perception...... of quality. The present paper deals with consumers perceptions of intrinsic quality in coffee from a sensory scientific and behavioural economic perspective. Design/methodology/approach In a blind taste test (N=205), naïve consumers tasted two cups of coffee and decided which they preferred. The two coffees...... varied greatly in their ‘objective’ quality (based on expert grading) and retail value. Consumers were then revealed that one of the cups contained a coffee that was much more expensive than the other, and that they could get a free cup of their preferred coffee if they could correctly identify the most...

  7. Selling cheap sex and seashells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J

    1993-03-01

    Sri Lanka became known as a gay paradise with the advent of tourism in the late 1970s. UNICEF estimates that up to 15,000 boys in Sri Lanka may engage in homosexual prostitution. Nearly 400,000 tourists visited Sri Lanka in 1992, 50,000 of them British. The probable increase of high risk sexual contacts between tourists and Sri Lankan youths worries the government's health department. By early 1993, there were only 22 cases of AIDS and 65 people who tested HIV positive. But the government's chief venereologist says there are around 200,000 cases of sexually transmitted diseases each year, and it is estimated that as many as 2500 Sri Lankans are HIV positive. In a population of 17 million, this figure is small, but it represents an increase of 300% in just over a year. The parallels with nearby Thailand, where HIV spread explosively, are ominous. Unfortunately, cultural taboos make sex education difficult. A UNICEF doctor described the first television commercials about AIDS as ridiculous. Ignorance about AIDS is almost total. Most boy prostitutes have heard of AIDS but few use condoms and none realize that the disease kills. Organizations like Save the Children Fund recognize the magnitude of the problem but admit that reaching the beach boys, who are financially independent, is difficult. In an attempt to attack the problem, 2 social organizations compiled a list of beach boys in Hikkaduwa, the most popular tourist resort, and invited them for counselling and voluntary AIDS testing, but no one showed up.

  8. Hard sell for particle physics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Julian.

    1994-01-01

    With particle physics experimental research becoming ever more expensive, the author considers whether the cost of such research is worthwhile. As costs escalated on the Superconducting Supercollider, the project has now been terminated. Particle physicists must now look for commercial imperatives to justify their work. Many of the important spin-offs from particle physics research are described in order to justify the subject's continued funding, albeit at very high levels, where funds might otherwise be directed to more mundane but very necessary causes such as health care or education. (UK)

  9. Usando crianças para vender: infância e consumo na publicidade de revistas / Using children to sell: childhood and advertising of consumer magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Vorraber Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Na atual sociedade, também identificada como “sociedade de consumidores” (BAUMAN,2008, todas as pessoas, independentemente de condições econômicas, gênero, idade e grupo social, são convocadas a fazer parte das redes de consumo. Neste artigo nos voltamos para a infância e abordamos uma das faces de sua inserção na sociedade de consumidores, procurando mostrar como as crianças vem sendo usadas para vender. Como referencial teórico adotamos, entre outros, os escritos de Zygmunt Bauman, Juliet Schor e Robert Bocock que tratam das versões contemporâneas do consumo e as problematizam. A partir da análise da publicidade em revistas semanais de grande circulação, discutimos o quanto é produtivo para o mercado econômico a aliança entre infância e consumo, e argumentamos que esse uso das crianças na publicidade contribui para uma nova concepção de infância: a infância do consumo. Uma infância erotizada, preocupada em adquirir, em mostrar-se, uma infância insaciável e sempre em movimento. É essa infância que está chegando à escola com novos interesses, preferências e condutas, tornando-se merecedora de toda a nossa atenção.Abstract In the present society, also identified as a "consumer society" (Bauman, 2008, people, irrespective of gender, age, social and financial conditions, are all called for consumption. In this article we turn to the childhood and approached one of the faces of their insertion into the society ofconsumers, trying to show how children are used to sell. As a frame of theoretical reference we adopt, among others, the writings of Zygmunt Bauman, Juliet Schor and Robert Bocock, dealingwith contemporary versions of consumption. Analyzing weekly magazines of large circulation, we discuss how productive it is for the economic market the alliance between childhood and consumption and we argue that this use of children in publicity contributes for a new conception of childhood: the childhood of

  10. Sobre palavras que vendem coisas: o glossário do risco em anúncios de revistas On words that sell things: risk glossaries in media advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane P. Spink

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa entender como a linguagem dos riscos, nas suas diferentes tradições (risco-perigo, risco-probabilidade e risco-aventura, é utilizada para vender produtos em anúncios veiculados em revistas vendidas em bancas. Com esse objetivo, tomamos os anúncios como gêneros de discurso que fazem circular materialidades (artefatos cotidianos passíveis de comercialização (na forma de bens simbólicos e que são necessariamente endereçados a públicos específicos. Foi definida uma amostra de 101 revistas com base nas categorias utilizadas pelo Anuário de Mídia - Revistas. A análise levou em consideração as palavras empregadas nos anúncios, a categoria de produtos e a temática da revista. Conclui-se que, embora os riscos vendam produtos, trata-se mais do controle de riscos potenciais do que de apologia do risco. Mesmo quando os produtos são associados ao risco-aventura, vendem-se, de fato, emoções associadas à experiência do risco que são sustentadas por uma diversidade de estratégias de segurança.The aim of this research was to understand how the discursive traditions (risk as danger; risk as probability and risk as adventure of the language of risk are used in magazine advertisements. Advertisements were defined as genres of discourse that put into circulation materiality (quotidian artifacts that can be commercialized (as symbolic goods and are necessarily addressed to a specific public. A sample of 101 magazines was defined using the categories of the Anuário de Mídia - Revistas. The analysis took into account the words used in the advertisements, the category of goods been advertised and the type of magazine in which they appeared. Although risk does sell products, the focus tends to be on risk control rather than on an apology of risk. Even when products are associated to risk as adventure, what is being sold is the sensation of risk counterbalanced by a diversity of safety strategies.

  11. Improved ethanol yield and reduced Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 1 Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaowen

    2012-08-01

    and mechanical refining. The new process shows improved overall ethanol yields compared to traditional dilute acid pretreatment. The experimental results from this work support the techno-economic analysis and calculation of Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP detailed in our companion paper.

  12. Evaluating the impact of DREAMS on HIV incidence among young women who sell sex: protocol for a non-randomised study in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensen, Bernadette; Hargreaves, James R; Chiyaka, Tarisai; Chabata, Sungai; Mushati, Phillis; Floyd, Sian; Birdthistle, Isolde; Busza, Joanna; Cowan, Frances

    2018-01-31

    "Determined, Resilient, AIDS-free, Mentored and Safe" (DREAMS) is a package of biomedical, social and economic interventions offered to adolescent girls and young women aged 10-24 years with the aim of reducing HIV incidence. In four of the six DREAMS districts in Zimbabwe, DREAMS includes an offer of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (DREAMS+PrEP), alongside interventions to support demand and adherence, to women aged 18-24 who are at highest risk of HIV infection, including young women who sell sex (YWSS). This evaluation study addresses the question: does the delivery of DREAMS+PrEP through various providers reduce HIV incidence among YWSS Zimbabwe? We describe our approach to designing a rigorous study to assess whether DREAMS+PrEP had an impact on HIV incidence. The study design needed to account for the fact that: 1) DREAMS+PrEP was non-randomly allocated; 2) there is no sampling frame for the target population for the evaluation; 3) there are a small number of DREAMS districts (N = 6), and 4) DREAMS+PrEP is being implemented by various providers. The study will use a cohort analysis approach to compare HIV incidence among YWSS in two DREAMS+PrEP districts to HIV incidence among YWSS in non-DREAMS comparison sites. YWSS will be referred to services and recruited into the cohort through a network-based (respondent-driven) recruitment strategy, and followed-up 12- and 24-months after enrolment. Women will be asked to complete a questionnaire and offered HIV testing. Additional complications of this study include identifying comparable populations of YWSS in the DREAMS+PrEP and non-DREAMS comparison sites, and retention of YWSS over the 24-month period. The primary outcome is HIV incidence among YWSS HIV-negative at study enrolment measured by repeat, rapid HIV testing over 24-months. Inference will be based on plausibility that DREAMS+PrEP had an impact on HIV incidence. A process evaluation will be conducted to understand intervention implementation, and

  13. Leuconostoc gasicomitatum is the dominating lactic acid bacterium in retail modified-atmosphere-packaged marinated broiler meat strips on sell-by-day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susiluoto, Tuija; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2003-01-15

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in retail, modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP), marinated broiler meat strips on sell-by-day were mainly identified as Leuconostoc gasicomitatum. A total of 32 packages, three to five packages of seven differently marinated broiler meat products, were studied at the end of the producer-defined shelf life (at 6 degrees C, 7-9 days depending on the manufacturer). Prior to the microbiological analyses, appearance and smell of the product was checked and pH measured. Bacteria were cultured on MRS and Tomato Juice Agar (TJA), Rogosa SL agar (SLA), Plate Count Agar (PCA) and Streptomycin Thallium Acetate Agar (STAA) for the enumeration of LAB, lactobacilli, total bacterial count and Brochothrix thermosphacta, respectively. The average CFU/g of the 32 packages was 2.3 x 10(8) on PCA. The highest bacterial average, 3.1 x 10(8), was recovered on TJA, the corresponding CFU/g averages on MRS and SLA being 2.3 x 10(8) and 1.3 x 10(8), respectively. Despite the high LAB numbers detected, radical spoilage changes such as unpleasant odor, slime production and formation of gas were not seen. B. thermosphacta did not form a significant part of the bacterial population since none of the levels exceeded the spoilage threshold level of 10(5) CFU/g reported in previous studies for this organism. In order to characterize the dominating LAB population, as many as 85, 85 and 88 colonies from MRS, TJA and SLA, respectively, were randomly picked and cultured pure. LAB were identified to species level using a 16 and 23S rDNA HindIiI RFLP (ribotyping) database. Fifty-six of the 170 isolates picked from the non-selective LAB media (MRS and TJA) were identified as L. gasicomitatum, followed by Carnobacterium divergens (41 isolates), Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus subsp. melibiosus (31 isolates) and L. curvatus subsp. curvatus (20 isolates) species. SLA proved not to be completely selective for lactobacilli because the growth of Leuconostoc spp. was not

  14. Esindusorgani liikme käitumise omistamisest eraõiguslikule juriidilisele isikule seoses vastutuse küsimusega / Kalev Saare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saare, Kalev, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    Praktilise õiguselu seisukohalt ühest olulisimast küsimusest, milleks on eraõigusliku juriidilise isiku vastutus. Uus tsiviilseadustiku üldosa seadus tõi kaasa olulisi muudatusi juriidilise isiku õigusliku regulatsiooni osas

  15. Sotsiaalkapitali loome ja rakendamise seosed otseste välisinvesteeringutega Eesti näitel / Tõnu Roolaht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roolaht, Tõnu, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Sotsiaalkapitali kontseptsioonist, otseste välisinvesteeringute sisend-väljund-seostest sotsiaalkapitaliga, Eesti ettevõtetesse tehtud otsestest välisinvesteeringutest sotsiaalkapitali aspektist lähtuvalt

  16. Olematu olemine. Kulešovi efektist seoses Eisensteini juubeliga / Lauri Kärk ; tõlkinud Kaia Sisask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    1998-01-01

    Kieli "Cinachea" festivali raames peetud filmiajaloo seminari (22. aprill 1998) teeside põhjal; lisa : Lev Kulešovi elulugu ja filmograafia, tõlge Ephraim Katzi raamatust "The Film Encyclopedia". New York, 1998

  17. Alexander Theodor von Middendorffi tegevus Liivimaa põllumajanduse edendajana ning tema seosed eesti rahvusliku liikumisega / Erki Tammiksaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammiksaar, Erki, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Middendorffi tegevusest Peterburis Peterburi Vabamajanduse Seltsi presidendina ja II ülevenemaalise põllumajandusnäituse organiseerijana. Middendorffi agraarpoliitilistest veendumustest, tegevusest Liivimaa Üldkasulikus ja ja Ökonoomilises Sotsieteedis, Middendorffi osast Aleksandrikooli probleemi segapuntras. Kuukirjast Eesti Põllomees ja Middendorffi suhetest J. V. Jannseniga

  18. Using geographic information systems to compare the density of stores selling tobacco and alcohol: youth making an argument for increased regulation of the tobacco permitting process in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogneva-Himmelberger, Yelena; Ross, Laurie; Burdick, William; Simpson, Sheryl-Ann

    2010-12-01

    This study is based on a community participatory research (CBPR) partnership between a youth group and a local university to explore whether greater regulation of tobacco permits would reduce the density of tobacco outlets overall, and particularly in low-income, high minority neighbourhoods in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. Applying Geographic Information Systems and regression analyses to neighbourhood demographics and the location of stores selling tobacco and alcohol, the study predicts the density of tobacco outlets as compared to alcohol outlets at the neighborhood block group level and in relation to the location and demographic composition of public schools. This study found that there are more than double the number of stores that sell tobacco as compared to alcohol in the city of Worcester. For every alcohol vendor there was a 41% increase in the estimated number of tobacco vendors, independent of the effect of other variables. The likelihood of having a tobacco outlet located near a school was greater than having an alcohol outlet as the percentage of minority students in schools increases. Based on these findings, the authors conclude that to reduce the impact of tobacco on socially and economically disadvantaged communities, the issuing of tobacco permits requires more regulation and oversight and should take into consideration the density and actual location of other licensees in an area.

  19. Konteinernaja globlizatsija / Mihhail Tuzhikov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuzhikov, Mihhail

    2003-01-01

    Ülevaade Läänemere sadamate konteinervedudest - statistika, tendentsid. Tabelid: Kaubavahetus kontinentide järgi; Kaubavahetus Euroopa ja maailma sadamates; Konteinerveo käive sadamates. Kommenteerivad Sergei Artjomov, Aldis Zieds, Antonio Passaro, Vatslavas Grigalauskas, Stanislav Baiko

  20. Lati pac / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Autor kirjutab rahaturu kriisist ja langemisest ning põhjustest, mis selleni viisid. Majanduses valitsevad tendentsid võivad tekitada olukorra, kus liberaalset demokraatiat viljelevaid ühiskondi võib oodata pööre populismile, arvab ta

  1. Huere Siech! Salapärane "Šveitsi mudel" Eesti maksukaristusõiguses / Lasse Lehis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehis, Lasse, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Karistusseadustiku muudatustest seoses maksupettustega ja vastavast seaduseelnõust (931 SE). Lisatud: karistusseadustik ; väljavõte Tartu Ülikooli finantsõiguse dotsendi dr. iur. Lasse Lehise arvamusest Riigikogu õiguskomisjonile (16. oktoober 2006) ; ettepanekud seaduseelnõu 931 kohta ; karistusseadustiku muudatused on samm tagasi õigusriigi arengus ; karistusseadustiku ja selle muutmisega seonduvate seaduste muutmise seaduse eelnõu (931 SE) II lugemise jätk ; Hirvoja, Martin. Nii aiast kui ka aiaaugust : kommentaar

  2. George Soros : sõda terroriga on kohutav viga / George Soros ; interv. Külli-Riin Tigasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soros, George, 1930-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Infopress 15. dets. nr. 50 lk. 149. Miljardär ja filantroop George Soros vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema raamatus "Ekslikkuse ajastu. Sõda terroriga ja selle tagajärjed" esitatud seisukohti. Ta leiab, et sõjakuulutamine terrorismile oli vale reaktsioon 11. septembri rünnakutele. George W. Bushi kursi muutumine Iraagiga seoses on tulnud liiga hilja. USA peab naasma oma traditsioonilise rolli juurde maailmas ja tegelema inimkonna suurimate probleemidega

  3. Kotkapoja sünd / Vahur Made

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Made, Vahur, 1971-2017

    2008-01-01

    Autor leiab Kosovo iseseisvumisega seoses, et on kujunemas uus rahvusvahelise poliitika arusaam, mille kohaselt sõltub iseseisvumise edukus eelkõige sellest, kes selle taga seisab. Kosovo iseseisvumine on tõenäoliselt edukas, sest seda toetab USA koos EL-i ja NATO-ga. Eesti-poolne Kosovo iseseisvuse tunnustamine tugevdab EL-i välispoliitilist üksmeelt

  4. Adulterio femenino, divorcio y honor en la escena decimonónica española. El debate social en la recepción de El nudo gordiano, de Eugenio Sellés (1842-1926

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Checa Olmos, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of 19th century Spain, discourse on social stability and female subordination —also referred to as «domesticity»— found its place in the theater through the representation of such themes as honor, female adultery, virtue and death. At the same time, theatrical discourse reinforced the current ideology and morality —even psychological and legislative discourse— and sanctioned behavioral models that sought to undermine the prevailing bourgeois social order. As a methodological example, we refer to the work entitled El nudo gordiano, by Eugenio Sellés y Ángel, one of a generation of playwrights born around the decade of the 1840s. The ending proposed by this author, namely, the death of the adulterous wife, occupied the center of all the possible immediate reactions, including responses from spectators, critics and analysts, authors and jurists, etc. For this reason we also discuss the critical reception of this work, taking note of its social and literary repercussions.El artículo muestra cómo en la España de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX el discurso de la estabilidad social y de la sumisión femenina —también llamado de la «domesticidad»— se asienta en el teatro a través de la representación de temas como el honor, el adulterio femenino, la honra y la muerte. Al mismo tiempo, el discurso teatral retroalimenta idénticos discursos ideológicos y morales —incluso psicológicos y legislativos— y sanciona los modelos de conducta que pretenden disolver el orden social burgués imperante. Como ejemplo metodológico se toma la obra El nudo gordiano, de Eugenio Sellés y Ángel, autor perteneciente a una generación de dramaturgos nacidos en torno a la década de 1840. El final propuesto por el autor, la muerte de la esposa adúltera, se situó en el centro de todas las reacciones inmediatas posibles, suscitadas entre espectadores, críticos y analistas, gacetilleros y especialistas, literatos y juristas

  5. Selling violent video game solutions: A look inside the APA's internal notes leading to the creation of the APA's 2005 resolution on violence in video games and interactive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhaver, Allen; Ferguson, Christopher J

    For decades politicians, parent groups, researchers, media outlets, professionals in various fields, and laymen have debated the effects playing violent video games have on children and adolescents. In academia, there also exists a divide as to whether violent video games cause children and adolescents to be aggressive, violent, and even engage in criminal behavior. Given inconsistencies in the data, it may be important to understand the ways and the reasons why professional organizations take a stance on the violent video game effects debate which may reflect greater expressed certitude than data can support. This piece focuses on the American Psychological Association's internal communications leading to the creation of their 2005 Resolution on Violence in Video Games and Interactive Media. These communications reveal that in this case, the APA attempted to "sell" itself as a solution to the perceived violent video game problem. The actions leading to the 2005 resolution are then compared to the actions of the APA's 2013-2015 Task Force on Violent Media. The implications and problems associated with the APA's actions regarding violent video games are addressed and discussed below. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How competitive gas air-conditioning is being offered to domestic users by means of attractive energy selling services?; Une climatisation au gaz concurrentielle pour le marche residentiel via des services de vente d'energie attractifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane, R.; Raventos, M. [Gas Natural, SDG, S.A. (Spain); Naval, J.; Martinez, J.A. [Gas Serviconfort S.A. (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    With the object of responding to the progressive increase in the demand for air-conditioning in the domestic sector with the presentation of gas as a competitive alternative to the electric systems currently available, and in order to avoid not only the loss of this specific market but also of the heating and hot water markets in the new-build residential sector, a new individualized energy selling service has been developed. This new option incorporates the advantages of the individualized and centralized systems of air-conditioning thanks to the utilisation of the medium-size gas air-conditioning systems currently available and to the geNie system as an instrument for totally individualizing the service and offering truly innovative features that will be attractive to the consumer. This new line of activity, implemented by the Serviconfort, a subsidiary company off the Gas Natural Group, has proven its viability both in technological and in service-definition terms in a series of demonstrations with more than 800 clients, which have served to indicate the considerable interest of the new-build residential sector in Spain and the expectations for the potential market over the next few years. (authors)

  7. A pilot study on post-evisceration contamination of broiler carcasses and ready-to-sell livers and intestines (mala with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in a high-throughput South African poultry abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Bartkowiak-Higgo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available To assess post-evisceration contamination of broiler carcasses, 300 samples were randomly selected during routine slaughter in the winter of 2004. The samples originated from 50 chicken carcasses, taken directly after evisceration, as well as 25 samples from ready-to-sell packages of fresh intestines (mala and livers. The samples were taken in batches over a period of 4 weeks to allow randomised sampling from different farms of origin. Conventional culture-based detection methods of Campylobacter spp. usually need 4-6 days to produce a result. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR used for this study took less than 32 hours. The average contamination rates with Campylobacter in both the skin and liver samples were 24 %, and 28%for intestines. Chicken and chicken products, especially livers and intestines, forman integral part of the traditional diet of many Black South Africans, as they are cheap and readily available in bulk and un-chilled for direct distribution, mainly through street vending and other informal retail outlets. This sudy showed that Campylobacter spp. are prevalent in poultry in South Africa. The handling of poultry meat and products contaminated with this organism in households and the potential for cross-contamination of other foods presents a high risk of infection to consumers in South Africa. The study also emphasised the need for further research in this field.

  8. Taha maksimaalset & sa saad selle! / Katri Ristal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ristal, Katri

    2006-01-01

    Bergeni Kunstiülikooli visuaalse kommunikatsiooni õppejõud Michael Hardt viis jaanuaris Eesti Kunstiakadeemias läbi koolituse "SelfMarketing", mille eesmärgiks oli õpetada tudengitele oma ideede müümist

  9. Selling power : marketing energy under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, J.; Hanna, F.

    2001-01-01

    This book discussed the marketing of energy in a deregulated environment. Experience from long distance telephone service providers has shown that historical dominance is not a guarantee for future success. As new brands are introduced and as consumer choice increases, so does the ability to change from one provider to another. Price is only one of the factors prompting that change. Old rules and practices do not bind new competitors who must face the challenge of open competition and must be aware of the ever-changing face of business. It was recommended that the strategic solution would be to build a brand and to develop significant market shares and create effective customer retention programs. This book focused on the elements that energy marketing professionals must use to maintain and increase share without product differentiation. It also explained how energy providers can effectively attract and retain customers over the long term while keeping marketing and service delivery costs down. It was suggested that small players can compete with the growing strength of regional providers by creating new alliances between larger energy conglomerates. The chapters of the book were entitled: (1) Introduction, (2) The Goals of Deregulation, (3) Strategic Marketing Choices, (4) Relationship Marketing, (5) The Role of Customer Service, (6) The Question of Outsourcing, and (7) Final Thoughts and Observations. 24 refs., 3 figs

  10. Organizational Emotional Intelligence and Top Selling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Giorgi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore emotional intelligence in association with effective sales performance. The participants involved in this study were sellers in a home furniture company and completed a new tool measuring emotional intelligence at the beginning of their employment with the company. After four months, their volume of sales was calculated and compared with other results. Briefly, evidence from this study indicates that emotional intelligence skills are relevant in association with job performance, particularly relationship management and self-management. The final results support the main hypothesis. Subsequent implications for sales organizations and researchers are discussed.

  11. CERN Sells its Electronic Document Handling System

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The EDH team. Left to right: Derek Mathieson, Rotislav Titov, Per Gunnar Jonsson, Ivica Dobrovicova, James Purvis. Missing from the photo is Jurgen De Jonghe. In a 1 MCHF deal announced this week, the British company Transacsys bought the rights to CERN's Electronic Document Handling (EDH) system, which has revolutionised the Laboratory's administrative procedures over the last decade. Under the deal, CERN and Transacsys will collaborate on developing EDH over the coming 12 months. CERN will provide manpower and expertise and will retain the rights to use EDH, which will also be available freely to other particle physics laboratories. This development is an excellent example of the active technology transfer policy CERN is currently pursuing. The negotiations were carried out through a fruitful collaboration between AS and ETT Divisions, following the recommendations of the Technology Advisory Board, and with the help of SPL Division. EDH was born in 1991 when John Ferguson and Achille Petrilli of AS Divisi...

  12. Selling wind: Lessons in green niche marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Gregory Edward

    Concern about global warming, energy independence, and threats to oil supply have increased attention on wind and other forms of renewable energy. Yet after more than twenty years, the wind industry remains dependent on government interventions. This research examined the potential of renewable energy credits (RECs) to help wind energy become profitable. Messages used to promote wind and solar energy RECs were compared with those for sustainable building materials. Findings confirm a still immature approach to marketing and sales. None of those interviewed either recognized the value of or had taken action to ensure customer retention nor recognized the role socially conscious and active consumers might play in promoting and helping develop the industry. Recommended actions include continuing research on effective marketing strategies and development of a coordinated industry message.

  13. Selle suve Soojad Saiad / Kati Murutar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murutar, Kati, 1967-

    1995-01-01

    Unt, Lii. Nemad on võitjad. Tln.: Kupar, 1995. Smeljanski,Mihkel; Vlassov, Jüri. Kuldne Trio; Eesti Üliõpilaste Selts : Para-Estonia : Eesti reisijuht. Trt.: EÜSi kirjastus, 1995; Mutt, Mihkel. Inglismaa päevik. Tln.: Kupar, 1995

  14. CERN sells management system to Transacsys

    CERN Multimedia

    Rohde, L

    2001-01-01

    CERN has sold its Internal Transaction Management system to UK company Transacsys for 1 MCHF. The company will market it with Oracle although CERN will continue to work with Transacsys on the future developments (1/2 page).

  15. CERN sells management system to UK's Transacsys

    CERN Multimedia

    Rohde, L

    2001-01-01

    CERN has sold its Internal Transaction Management system to UK company Transacsys for 1 MCHF. The company will market it with Oracle although CERN will continue to work with Transacsys on the future developments (1/2 page).

  16. Gentrifying Water and Selling Jim Crow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett

    2002-01-01

    Explores the gentrification of Washington, D.C.'s Anacostia watershed, tracing the projects of federal and local government to devitalize and demolish living black relationships and institutions while reifying lost, invented, or imagined communities. Explores connections among capital, community, culture, and state power. Examines problems in the…

  17. Selling School: The Marketing of Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMartino, Catherine; Jessen, Sarah Butler

    2018-01-01

    This timely book outlines the growth and development of marketing and branding practices in public education. The authors highlight why these practices have become important across key fields within public education, including leadership and governance, budgeting and finance, strategic initiatives, use of new technology, the role of teachers in…

  18. Rahvastiku haridustase ja selle muutumine / Kersti Eesmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eesmets, Kersti

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Social trends. - Tallinn, 2004, nr. 3, lk. 19-29. Haridus on olnud Eestis traditsiooniliselt kõrgelt väärtustatud, mis peaks looma head eeldused tööjõu paindlikuks rakendamiseks ning vajadusel ka ümberõppeks, leiab autor. Tabelid. Diagrammid. Graafikud

  19. Brussels questions power grid sell-off

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjon palus Leedu majandusministeeriumilt selgitust Lääne-Leedu elektrivõrgufirma Vakaru Skirstomieji Tinklai erastamise kohta. Peaminister Kirkilas kaitseb otsust ühendada kolm energiakompaniid üheks

  20. Regulatiivsus ja selle sisustamise problemaatika / Triinu Rauk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rauk, Triinu, 1988-

    2013-01-01

    Haldustegevuse vormidest. Haldusaktist, haldusakti andmisest keeldumise regulatiivsest olemusest ja tuvastava haldusakti regulatiivsest olemusest. Artikkel põhineb autori 2013. a. Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonnas kaitstud magistritööl "Haldusakti, toimingu ja menetlustoimingu eristamise kriteeriumid ja vaidlustamine halduskohtus"

  1. Kids Sell: Celebrity Kids’ Right to Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Choul Hong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The lives of celebrities are often spotlighted in the media because of their newsworthiness; however, many celebrities argue that their right to privacy is often infringed upon. Concerns about celebrity privacy are not limited to the celebrities themselves and often expand to their children. As a result of their popularity, public interest has pushed paparazzi and journalists to pursue trivial and private details about the lives of both celebrities and their children. This paper investigates conflicting areas where the right to privacy and the right to know collide when dealing with the children of celebrities. In general, the courts have been unsympathetic to celebrity privacy claims, noting their newsworthiness and self-promoted characteristic. Unless the press violates news-gathering ethics or torts, the courts will often rule in favor of the media. However, the story becomes quite different when related to an infringement on the privacy of celebrities’ children. This paper argues that all children have a right to protect their privacy regardless of their parents’ social status. Children of celebrities should not be exempt to principles of privacy just because their parents are a celebrity. Furthermore, they should not be exposed by the media without the voluntary consent of their legal patrons. That is, the right of the media to publish and the newsworthiness of children of celebrities must be restrictedly acknowledged.

  2. "Kas siis selle maa keel..." / Ela Tomson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomson, Ela, 1945-

    2003-01-01

    Tähelepanekuid Brüsselis Euroopa Komisjoni korraldusel toimunud rahvusvaheliselt seminarilt, kus käsitleti vähemuskeelte staatust EL-i liikmes- ja liituvates riikides. Autori sõnul on Euroopas Eesti suhtes varasemast oluliselt rohkem mõistmist

  3. The selling of Sellafield (the public image)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, David.

    1986-01-01

    The advertising campaign planned to restore the public image of Sellafield is discussed. Two aspects of the Sellafield site are being promoted especially, the first is that the discharges of long life radioactivity are being reduced. The second is the 'site accessibility' of Sellafield -BNFL is trying to encourage visitors to see for themselves what goes on at Sellafield. There is evidence that this will allay the fears and suspicions of the public. It is suggested, however, that providing information about nuclear power may be counter-productive as the concept of nuclear disaster may receive greater attention. The Sellafield site is difficult to promote whilst it continues to suffer leaks and it is suggested that the only way to promote Sellafield successfully may be by appealing to nationalism as the French have done in their nuclear campaign. (U.K.)

  4. Korrast ja selle kaitsest / Hanno Pevkur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pevkur, Hanno, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Korrakaitseseaduse eelnõust. Ilmunud ka Hiiu Leht 20. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Vali Uudised 20. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Põhjarannik 20. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Sakala 20. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Elva Postipoiss 21. aprill 2007, lk. 4 ; Koit 24. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Nädaline 24. aprill 2007, lk. 4 ; Oma Saar 26. aprill 2007, lk. 5 ; Valgamaalane 26. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. mai 2007, lk. 19

  5. How to sell services more profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinartz, Werner; Ulaga, Wolfgang

    2008-05-01

    When products become commodities, manufacturing companies may seek to differentiate themselves with value-added services--a potentially profitable strategy. Unfortunately, companies often stumble in the effort. Reinartz and Ulaga conducted in-depth studies of 18 leading companies in a broad variety of product markets to learn what distinguished the successes from the rest. They discovered four steps to developing a profitable services capability. RECOGNIZE THAT YOU ALREADY HAVE A SERVICE COMPANY: You can identify and charge for simple services--as Merck did when it stopped quietly absorbing shipping costs. Switching services from free to fee clarifies their value for managers as well as for customers. INDUSTRIALIZE THE BACK OFFICE: To prevent delivery costs from eating up service-offering margins, build flexible service platforms, closely monitor process costs, and exploit new technologies that enable process innovations. The Swedish bearings manufacturer SKF provided off-site access to an online monitoring tool that could warn of potential failure in customers' machines. CREATE A SERVICE-SAVVY SALES FORCE: Services require longer sales cycles and, often, decisions from high up in a customer's hierarchy; what's more, product salespeople may be inimical to change. Schneider-Electric did a major overhaul of its sales organization and trained its people to switch from cost-plus pricing to value-based pricing. FOCUS ON CUSTOMERS' PROCESSES AND THE OPPORTUNITIES THEY AFFORD FOR NEW SERVICE OFFERINGS: You may need to acquire new capabilities to take advantage of those opportunities: The industrial coatings specialist PPG had to learn how painting robots function after it offered to take over Fiat's Torino paint shop. Services can both lock in customers and help acquire new accounts. They should be developed with care and attention.

  6. Valitsus valib 16 projekti vahel / Selle Mõtsar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mõtsar, Selle, 1972-

    1997-01-01

    Ministeeriumide poolt valitsusele tehtud ettepanekud - laenude võtmiseks aastateks 1997-2000. Rahandusministeeriumi rahvusvahelise koostööosakonna juhataja Agate Daltoni kommentaar. Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 12. märts lk. 7

  7. Viisakus ja selle tajumine tekstiliigiti / Katrin Rikberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rikberg, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Artikkel tutvustab keelesuhtluse viisakuse kultuuriomaseid mõisteid ja nende seoseid asjakohasusega ning keskendub ametlikule viisakusele ja vestluskäitumisele. Küsimustiku abil läbi viidud taju-uuringust, mille eesmärk oli võrrelda tekstide vastuvõtu erinevaid külgi, et saada teada, mida ja miks peetakse eesti kultuuriruumis viisakaks ja asjakohaseks

  8. Selling Energy Design to the Client

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kays, Von

    1977-01-01

    The architect, as a trained, experienced professional, must galvanize others, persuading them of the ultimate importance of reducing energy consumption. The interview process, the actual contract, and writing of the program are phases during which the architect can begin to engender in the client a high priority valuation of energy. (Author/MLF)

  9. Sydney ja selle maaliline naabrus / Anneli Ira

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ira, Anneli

    2013-01-01

    Sydney ümbrusesse jäävatest looduslikest vaatamisväärsustest: Royal National Park, Grand Pacific Drive, Sinimäed, Jenola koopad; austraalia köögist, majutuse ning transpordi alaseid nõuandeid jne

  10. Chinese Summer Schools Sell Quick Credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, Beth; Farrar, Lara

    2013-01-01

    American-style summer programs in China, catering to Chinese-born students, have taken American universities by surprise. They are yet one more player in the complex and often opaque Chinese education industry, an industry in which American colleges are finding themselves increasingly entwined. These programs have become a booming enterprise,…

  11. Täna algusega kell 14 peetakse Tartu Kunstimajas sürrealismiklassiku René Magritte'i näitusega seoses ettekandepäev...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Keskendutakse sürrealismi kui mitmetasandilise nähtuse tekkeloole ja allikatele. Esinevad Frank Lanot ja Hasso Krull. Näidatakse Luis Buųeli 1928. a. valminud filmi "Andaluusia koer", mille loomises osales ka Salvador Dali. Filmi kommenteerib Lauri Kärk

  12. Kus tegijaid, seal nägijaid? Akadeemilise prokrastineerimise õpetajapoolse märkamise seosed õpilaste individuaalsete erinevustega / Kati Aus, Grete Arro, Anna-Liisa Jõgi, Elina Malleus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aus, Kati, 1978-

    2014-01-01

    Aastatel 2007-2012 läbi viidud uuringutest, milles jälgiti seda, kuidas langevad kokku õpilaste hinnangud oma prokrastineerimiskäitumisele ning õpetajate hinnangud samade laste kalduvusele õpitegevustega viimase hetkeni viivitada

  13. Eşcinsel ve biseksüel erkeklerin içselleştirilmiş homofobi düzeyi ve sağlık üzerine etkileri/The internalized homophobia level of the homosexual and bisexual men and its effect on the health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgül Yalçınoğlu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetAmaç: Cinsel yönelimleri sebebiyle eşcinsel bireyler; toplum tarafından dışlanmakta, yaftalanmakta ve ayrımcılığa uğramaktadırlar. Toplumda eşcinsel bireylere karşı geliştirilen önyargı ve ayrımcılığın; eşcinsel bireylerde duygu-durum ve anksiyete bozukluklarını, alkol-madde kötüye kullanımını ve intihar riskini artırdığı öne sürülmektedir. Bu sebeplerden dolayı eşcinsel bireylerin sorunları bir halk sağlığı sorunudur. Bu çalışmanın amacı; gey ve biseksüel erkeklerin içselleştirilmiş homofobi düzeylerini ve ruh sağlığına etkilerini saptamaktır. Yöntem: Tanımlayıcı tipteki bu çalışmaya; Lambdaistanbul Derneğinin yardımı ile kartopu yöntemi ile ulaşılan, 210 eşcinsel/biseksüel erkek dahil edildi. Veriler İstanbul ili Beyoğlu İlçesinde, 21 Nisan - 24 Haziran 2012 tarihleri arasında, bireylere gözlem altında anket uygulanarak elde edildi. Anket; sosyodemografik özellikler, madde kullanımı, cinsel yönelimleri ile ilgili yaşadıkları sorunlar ve intihar davranışlarını kapsamaktaydı. İçselleştirilmiş Homofobi Ölçeği, Beck Depresyon Ölçeği (BDÖ ve Genel Sağlık Anketi-12 (GSA-12 uygulandı. Bulgular: Katılımcıların %21.9’unda içselleştirilmiş homofobi vardı. Ailesi homofobik olan, eşcinselliği günah kabul eden, her gün alkol kullanan bireyler kendi cinsel yönelimlerine karşı homofobik bulundu. Logistik regresyon analizinde; 25 yaş üzerinde içselleştirilmiş homofobi olma olasılığı azalırken, gey bireylerin içselleştirilmiş homofobi yönünden biseksüel bireylerden daha riskli olduğu, eğitimle içselleştirilmiş homofobi riskinin azaldığı görüldü. Sonuç: Eşcinsel erkeklerin yaklaşık beşte birinde içselleştirilmiş homofobi vardır. Toplumsal homofobinin azaltılmasına yönelik halk sağlığı çalışmalarının, eşcinsel bireylerin içselleştirilmiş homofobilerinin azaltılmasına ve buna ba

  14. Selling addictions: Similarities in approaches between Selling addictions: Similarities in approaches between

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bond

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The findings of this study have implications for advancing public health measures for the control of alcohol by confirming the parallels between tobacco and alcohol industry operations and strategies to delay public health advances.

  15. Selling addictions: Similarities in approaches between Selling addictions: Similarities in approaches between

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Bond

    2010-01-01

    The findings of this study have implications for advancing public health measures for the control of alcohol by confirming the parallels between tobacco and alcohol industry operations and strategies to delay public health advances.

  16. Selling Yourself without Selling Out A Leader's Guide to Ethical Self-Promotion

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; McLaughlin, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    High-performing individuals and groups are often not adequately recognized for their contributions. The antidote to being overlooked or underestimated is self-promotion-the act of generating personal visibility in service of your work and career. In this guidebook, we discuss how you can benefit from self-promotion and maintain your integrity and authenticity. We help you reframe common beliefs that get in the way of effective self-promotion, and we provide numerous strategies and activities that can become part of your repertoire.

  17. Sell honestly, never sell your honesty: revenue management and corporate reputation management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xuan Lorna

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the link between corporate reputation and revenue management practice in the hospitality and tourism industries. It seeks answers to two key questions: first, whether or not there is a link between corporate reputation and revenue management, and second, how revenue management practice may affect corporate reputation, and vice versa. More specifically, it examines whether the negative effects of sales-driven RevM practice has had on customers, such as unfair perception, re...

  18. Sell or not to sell - a pastoralist's dilemma: a lesson from the slaughterhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevolotsky, A.

    1986-09-01

    Marketing strategies employed by herders in Piura, a coastal region in northern Peru, are discussed in conjunction with ecological and economic factors. Data from regional slaughterhouses' help in analyzing decisions concerning livestock offtakes and in understanding the rationale behind them. Piura is characterized by sharp weather changes, amplified by the El Nino phenomenon. The variations in precipitation and forage availability strongly affect production, structure, and dynamics of the herds and are therefore a significant component in determining the actual marketing decision strategy. Pure herders adopt an insurance strategy emphasizing a build-up of herds during abundant years in order to compensate for considerable losses caused by frequent droughts. The use of stubble and concentrated feed in coping with droughts is restricted by economic and social factors. Agropastoralists are affected not only by ecological factors but also by labor availability, agricultural cash requirements, and household needs. As a result, these goat keepers practice a capital-manipulation strategy in which goats and kids are used as a form of capital. The paper provides an empirical representation of these two marketing strategies based on slaughterhouses' records and a complementary field survey.

  19. Kinnipeetava taasühiskonnastamine Eestis ja Rootsis : [bakalaureusetöö] / Signe Laanemäe ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Andres Parmas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanemäe, Signe

    2009-01-01

    Vabadusekaotuse olemusest, vangistuse arenguloost, taasühiskonnastamisega seoses esilekerkivatest põhiprobleemidest Eestis ja Rootsis, uutest meetmetest seoses kinnipeetava taasühiskonnastamisega Rootsis

  20. Selling a Story: How to Write a Successful Press Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, E.

    2016-12-01

    Press releases are an important part of communicating new discoveries with the general public. However, if they are confusing or difficult to read then they are unlikely to be picked up by media outlets. This article details how to create a successful press release by addressing a series of points: learning how to identify the audience; writing text that is both eye catching and clear; including multimedia and contact details; getting your press release to the media; and timing.

  1. Rahvusvaheline koostöö robotiehitamise tudengiprojektides / Raivo Sell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sell, Raivo, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Artikkel annab ülevaate robotiehitamise koostööprojektist Rootsi Kuningliku Tehnikaülikooliga, mida on edukalt praktiseeritud alates 2002. aastast. Kajastatud on projekti eripärad ja tulemused ning kokkuvõte tudengite arvamustest mehhatroonikaprojekti kohta

  2. "Creative solutions": selling cigarettes in a smoke-free world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E; Malone, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the development and execution of the "Creative Solutions" Benson & Hedges advertising campaign to understand its social, political, and commercial implications. Methods: Searches of the Philip Morris documents and Legacy Tobacco Documents websites for relevant materials; Lexis/Nexis searches of major news and business publications; and denotative and connotative analyses of the advertising imagery. Results: Philip Morris developed the Creative Solutions campaign in an effort to directly confront the successes of the tobacco control movement in establishing new laws and norms that promoted clean indoor air. The campaign's imagery attempted to help smokers and potential smokers overcome the physical and social downsides of smoking cigarettes by managing risk and resolving internal conflict. The slogans suggested a variety of ways for smokers to respond to restrictions on their habit. The campaign also featured information about the Accommodation Program, Philip Morris's attempt to organise opposition to clean indoor air laws. Conclusion: The campaign was a commercial failure, with little impact on sales of the brand. Philip Morris got some exposure for the Accommodation Program and its anti-regulatory position. The lack of commercial response to the ads suggests that they were unable to successfully resolve the contradictions that smokers were increasingly experiencing and confirms the power of changing social norms to counter tobacco industry tactics. PMID:14985598

  3. Buying and selling CO2 permits improves competitiveness of business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1996-01-01

    Industriens omkostninger i forbindelse med CO2 reduktion varierer stærkt under henholdsvis afgift og tilladelsesmarked. Analysen giver ny indsigt i dette vigtige omkostningsforhold. Resultatet er, at afgiftsløsningen - uden tilbageførsel - vil koste industrien 9 gange så meget som et tilladelsesm...

  4. Urania in the Marketplace: The Selling of Mt. Palomar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    The 200-inch Hale telescope atop Mt. Palomar is one of the most iconic scientific facilities ever constructed. The world's largest optical telescope for over a quarter-century, it served as a symbol of hope for America during the Great Depression and in the post-war years. In 2016 we celebrate the eightieth anniversaries of the completion of the mirror blank, the start of construction of the dome and mounting, and the beginning of astronomical research at Palomar Observatory by Fritz Zwicky (with the 18-inch Schmidt camera).During its construction, and for many years after "first light" in 1949, the Hale telescope was prominently featured in numerous magazine advertisements. Most of these represented companies directly involved in its construction, notably Corning Glass Works, which was justly proud of its magnificent accomplishment. But companies only vaguely linked to the project, or not at all, also co-opted the mystique of "the World's Largest Eye" to promote their goods or services. Surprisingly, in light of the fact that it bore responsibility for fabricating the complex and innovative mounting, the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company appears to have run only a single advertisement (in The National Geographic Magazine) touting its contribution to the project.Examples of magazine advertisements spanning the period 1936 to 1959 are presented.This work was supported by a faculty scholarship grant from Valdosta State University.

  5. Suurepärane! Ma ostan selle! / Vanessa Friedman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Friedman, Vanessa

    2000-01-01

    Liibanoni päritolu, Pariisis elaval Mouna Ayoub'il, kes kulutab aastas kõrgmoele 16 miljonit krooni, on kavas avada oma muuseum. M. Ayoub ostab rõivaid Valentinolt, Diori, Givenchy ja Chaneli moemajadest, Gaultier' ja Versace kauplustest, kübaraid Philip Treacy'lt ja mujalt

  6. Editorial: Selling a sugar tax: the sweet smell of success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Capewell, Simon

    2016-09-01

    This editorial briefly considers the increasing epidemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes, the underlying drivers of junk food and sugary drinks, and the recent scientific and campaigning movements culminating in the UK Chancellor's surprise announcement of a Sugary Drinks Levy. Copyright© 2016 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  7. The social dynamics of selling sex in Mombasa, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    counselling, and condom distribution interventions among FSWs, unprotected sexual intercourse remains a large behavioural challenge. Research on this topic has been limited primarily to establishing the frequency of high risk sexual behaviour without a comprehensive ..... Young men want to have sex but can't pay for it.

  8. Experiences in selling irradiated produce at the retail level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    A background discussion of how marketing groups, in particular, the produce industry, presents their product to the consumer and how they deal with the controversial issues. This will contain information about the current '5 A Day' program in the United States contrasted with the issues that are facing the industry. I will begin with the way we approached the introduction of the irradiation process to our customers. We started with an informal survey in our company's newsletter. The findings indicated a high degree of interest and lack of information. In succeeding newsletters we provided as much information as possible; always careful to present both sides of the issue. During this time the questions and comments we received in the store indicated a growing interest. With the news that Vindicator opened in Florida we arranged for and announced the arrival of product, again through our newsletter. I will then discuss the various merchandising efforts we undertook. (Ie., Taste-samplings, Buy one get one free, a wide variety of product, etc.) (author)

  9. Telling or selling? Experiencing South African cultural heritage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the advent of the experience economy the unique experiential value of cultural heritage products comes to the forefront of cultural tourism development and is the main value proposition for emerging destinations, including South Africa. As South Africa's democracy divedends had paid out by 1998, South African ...

  10. How to Become an Effective Advocate without Selling Your Soul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, George F.

    2014-01-01

    The primary focus of this article is ''advocating for the results of a specific evaluation.'' To some extent, all evaluators are advocates, however the author notes, "there is no great mystery in how to use evaluations for advocacy, especially with respect to influencing policy making within federal and state…

  11. Instrumentational complexity of music genres and why simplicity sells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percino, Gamaliel; Klimek, Peter; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening habits are strongly influenced by two opposing aspects, the desire for variety and the demand for uniformity in music. In this work we quantify these two notions in terms of instrumentation and production technologies that are typically involved in crafting popular music. We assign an 'instrumentational complexity value' to each music style. Styles of low instrumentational complexity tend to have generic instrumentations that can also be found in many other styles. Styles of high complexity, on the other hand, are characterized by a large variety of instruments that can only be found in a small number of other styles. To model these results we propose a simple stochastic model that explicitly takes the capabilities of artists into account. We find empirical evidence that individual styles show dramatic changes in their instrumentational complexity over the last fifty years. 'New wave' or 'disco' quickly climbed towards higher complexity in the 70s and fell back to low complexity levels shortly afterwards, whereas styles like 'folk rock' remained at constant high instrumentational complexity levels. We show that changes in the instrumentational complexity of a style are related to its number of sales and to the number of artists contributing to that style. As a style attracts a growing number of artists, its instrumentational variety usually increases. At the same time the instrumentational uniformity of a style decreases, i.e. a unique stylistic and increasingly complex expression pattern emerges. In contrast, album sales of a given style typically increase with decreasing instrumentational complexity. This can be interpreted as music becoming increasingly formulaic in terms of instrumentation once commercial or mainstream success sets in.

  12. Instrumentational complexity of music genres and why simplicity sells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamaliel Percino

    Full Text Available Listening habits are strongly influenced by two opposing aspects, the desire for variety and the demand for uniformity in music. In this work we quantify these two notions in terms of instrumentation and production technologies that are typically involved in crafting popular music. We assign an 'instrumentational complexity value' to each music style. Styles of low instrumentational complexity tend to have generic instrumentations that can also be found in many other styles. Styles of high complexity, on the other hand, are characterized by a large variety of instruments that can only be found in a small number of other styles. To model these results we propose a simple stochastic model that explicitly takes the capabilities of artists into account. We find empirical evidence that individual styles show dramatic changes in their instrumentational complexity over the last fifty years. 'New wave' or 'disco' quickly climbed towards higher complexity in the 70s and fell back to low complexity levels shortly afterwards, whereas styles like 'folk rock' remained at constant high instrumentational complexity levels. We show that changes in the instrumentational complexity of a style are related to its number of sales and to the number of artists contributing to that style. As a style attracts a growing number of artists, its instrumentational variety usually increases. At the same time the instrumentational uniformity of a style decreases, i.e. a unique stylistic and increasingly complex expression pattern emerges. In contrast, album sales of a given style typically increase with decreasing instrumentational complexity. This can be interpreted as music becoming increasingly formulaic in terms of instrumentation once commercial or mainstream success sets in.

  13. Mapping the process of online buying and selling

    OpenAIRE

    Rakić, Mira; Rakić, Beba

    2012-01-01

    The goal of online business are sales and profit. To achieve the goals, it is necessary to understand the decision making process of leads. Mapping the online purchase process enables understanding of phases of buying and factors that influence the decision to buy. On the other hand, the online sales process mapping enables organisations to monitor the necessary sales and marketing activities related to the conversion of visitors into customers of products.

  14. The Commission Game: An Ethics Activity for Professional Selling Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewicz, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The Commission Game is an experiment-based experiential learning activity designed to elicit students' sincere ethical decision making in an ambiguous sales context. The activity includes multiple relevant stakeholders as well as tangible, shared risk/reward elements. The activity's design encourages students to contemplate their own personal code…

  15. Selling Sentiment: The Commodification of Emotion in Victorian Visual Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Solicari

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that the Victorian sentimental impulse was motivated by the sharing of emotion and the dynamics of communal and interactive feeling. Integral to the popularity of sentiment was its recognition factor by means of established tropes and conventions. Arguably, the same familiarity that made narrative art accessible also made advertising successful and many of the same motifs ran from exhibition watercolours to book illustration to posters. Works of sentiment operated as emotional souvenirs so that material proof of feeling could be easily digested, displayed and revisited. The essay looks closer at the investment of emotion in ephemeral images, such as music-sheet covers, and the ways in which forms of feeling were standardised and reproduced in keeping with a new art-buying public and the possibilities of wider image dissemination. Focusing upon issues raised during the curation of a current exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum ( 'A Show of Emotion: Victorian Sentiment in Prints and Drawings', 7 Dec 2006 – 10 Sep 2007 this essay explores the ways in which the sentimental pervaded nineteenth-century visual culture and how, in the cut-throat commercial world of image production, sentiment became manifest and identifiable if only as a notional phenomenon.

  16. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  17. Buying and selling power in a deregulated energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    The rapid pace at which the restructuring of Ontario's electrical industry is taking place is the focus of this paper. Restructuring began in November 1997, when the government announced in its White Paper the plans to achieve a competitive market in both wholesale and retail sales by the year 2000. This presentation outlines the licensing requirements of the Ontario Energy Board (OEB). The OEB deals with the regulation of both the gas and electricity industries. It is anticipated that the electricity market will evolve in much the same was as the gas market. The OEB is expecting to deal with common issues between the two. Other topics discussed in this presentation include the Market Design Committee's (MDC) recommendations concerning independent market operator rules, market rules, embedded generation, and uniform prices throughout the province during the first 18 months to provide the parties sufficient time to adapt to the new system without having to digest transmission congestion. 3 refs

  18. The Municipal Electrical Utilities' role in buying and selling power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    Ontario's Municipal Electrical Utilities (MEUs) are the front-line providers of electricity services for most of the consumers in Ontario. MEUs serve 2.8 million customers (about 70 per cent of all power sold in Ontario). The new regulatory regime resulting from Ontario's Energy Competition Act (1998) will significantly impact MEUs. The changes aim to consolidate and rationalize the point of sale provision of power to Ontario customers and increase the efficiency of the sector. The Energy Competition Act (1998) creates a competitive electricity marketplace and provides mechanisms for its operation, but it is the MEUs which will bear the risk of market failures. Some of the changes which will be most important to MEUs are: (1) incorporation, (2) default supplier, and (3) oversight by the OEB. It is the author's view that the move towards open markets in electricity is unlikely to enlarge the decision making power of MEUs. On the contrary, the legislative scheme creates a complex regulatory environment wherein the distribution corporation must strictly comply with the OEB's requirements and public policy concerns in exercising its functions. As the MEUs essentially serve as a buffer in the newly opened retail markets, they must find ways to minimize their risk of market failures or spread the cost so as to remain viable commercial entities. They must also devise new information systems prior to the opening of the new market to deal with customer and default consumer pricing, billing and transfer of customers to and from retailers. Municipal utilities will also have to consider restructuring of their own operations, including determining which businesses should be pursued through competitive affiliates

  19. The Selling of SALT: Gazing Too Long into the Abyss

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    strategicanalysts appraising the SALT II treaty than Robert Schumann’s 19th-century advice to music critics attempting to appraise a Beethoven concerto: "The best...discourse upon music is silence." Music is a medium so direct and universal in its impact that no discourse or interpretive statements are required

  20. Saksa natsipartei keelustamine suurendaks selle populaarsust / Jeroen Bult

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bult, Jeroen

    2005-01-01

    Autor selgitab, miks Saksa Natsionaaldemokraatliku Partei täielik keelustamine on rumal idee ja jõuab järeldusele, et keelustamine ei kaota natside partei populaarsuse peapõhjust - sotsiaalmajanduslikke probleeme Ida-Saksamaal. Lisa: Saksa Natsionaaldemokraatlik Partei

  1. "Choice" Sells in Minnesota, but Who Else Will Buy It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Marilee C.

    1989-01-01

    A sweeping parental choice bill passed recently in Minnesota spearheaded parental choice plans recently passed or under consideration in more than a dozen states. Explores the background and pros and cons of parental choice. (MLF)

  2. Prayer Book Catechism: Past its sell-by date?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Potgieter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Book of Common Prayer (BCP is the first introduction to Anglican belief and liturgy for many. More specifically, the Book of Common Prayer of 1662 contains the traditional catechism of the Church of England, enjoining catechumens to receive training and instruction in basic doctrines and Christian living. This takes place in the contexts of the liturgy and the more comprehensive doctrinal statements of the 39 Articles of Religion. Anglican religion traditionally allowed its members to verbalise their faith in both ritual and confession, thus serving the church and not so much life in the world. A revisit of the intentions of the catechism within its historical and prayer book contexts will show that it essentially expresses lasting truths of the Christian faith. In a world increasingly divorced from particular Christian expressions, the Anglican Church needs to rethink its particular use of the catechism for its continued relevance in meeting the questions and challenges Anglicans face daily.

  3. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.

  4. Margus Laanet - erakust mässaja / Erle Selling

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Selling, Erle

    2001-01-01

    Eesti päritolu kunstnikust Margus Laanetist (s. 16. juulil 1965 Väike-Maarjas), kes peab oma kodumaaks Hondurast, elab peamiselt Guatemalas, korraldab näitusi ka teistes Ladina-Ameerika maades. Tema üheksast isiknäitusest (1989-2000), retseptsioonist. Mehhiko kunstiteadlase Karen Reiman Cordero, argentiina kunstiteadlase Laura Malosetti-Costa ja M. Laaneti kommentaarid.

  5. Telling or selling? Experiencing South African cultural heritage tourism products

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovic, Milena; Saayman, Melville

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of the experience economy the unique experiential value of cultural heritage products comes to the forefront of cultural tourism development and is the main value proposition for emerging destinations, including South Africa. As South Africa’s democracy divedends had paid out by 1998, South African Tourism was left with an array of dormant cultural heritage resources (still) unable to turn them into meaningful tourist experiences. The reason is lack of understanding of tourist...

  6. The bioethics and utility of selling kidneys for renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, E; Lipschutz, J M; Bloom, R D; Lipschutz, J H

    2008-06-01

    In the 53 years since kidney transplantation was first performed, this procedure has evolved from a highly speculative biomedical endeavor to a medically viable and often standard course of therapy. Long-term survival is markedly improved among patients who receive a kidney compared with patients who remain on the waiting list for such an organ. As outcomes have improved and more clinical indications have emerged, the number of people awaiting transplantation has grown significantly. In stark contrast to the robust expansion of the waiting list, the number of available deceased donors has remained relatively constant over the last several years. The current mechanism for procuring kidneys relies on voluntary donations by the general public, with the primary motivation being altruism. However, in light of the ever-increasing waiting list, it is the researchers' belief that the current system needs to be revised if supply is ever going to meet demand. In response to this critical organ shortage, different programs have been developed in an attempt to increase organ donation. At present, however, no solution to the problem has emerged. This report begins by outlining the scope of the problem and current legislation governing the procurement of transplantable organs/tissues in the United States. It continues with an overview of different proposals to increase supply. It concludes by exploring some of the controversy surrounding the proposal to increase donation using financial incentives. Though the following discussion certainly has implications for other transplantable organs, this report focuses on kidney transplantation because the waiting list for kidneys is by far the longest of all waiting lists for solid organs; and, as kidney transplant carries the smallest risk to living donors, it is the least ethically problematic.

  7. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California's residential marketplace

  8. 48 CFR 2131.205-38 - Selling costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST... conducting contract negotiations with the Government and for liaison activities involving ongoing contract...

  9. Instrumentational Complexity of Music Genres and Why Simplicity Sells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percino, Gamaliel; Klimek, Peter; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening habits are strongly influenced by two opposing aspects, the desire for variety and the demand for uniformity in music. In this work we quantify these two notions in terms of instrumentation and production technologies that are typically involved in crafting popular music. We assign an ‘instrumentational complexity value’ to each music style. Styles of low instrumentational complexity tend to have generic instrumentations that can also be found in many other styles. Styles of high complexity, on the other hand, are characterized by a large variety of instruments that can only be found in a small number of other styles. To model these results we propose a simple stochastic model that explicitly takes the capabilities of artists into account. We find empirical evidence that individual styles show dramatic changes in their instrumentational complexity over the last fifty years. ‘New wave’ or ‘disco’ quickly climbed towards higher complexity in the 70s and fell back to low complexity levels shortly afterwards, whereas styles like ‘folk rock’ remained at constant high instrumentational complexity levels. We show that changes in the instrumentational complexity of a style are related to its number of sales and to the number of artists contributing to that style. As a style attracts a growing number of artists, its instrumentational variety usually increases. At the same time the instrumentational uniformity of a style decreases, i.e. a unique stylistic and increasingly complex expression pattern emerges. In contrast, album sales of a given style typically increase with decreasing instrumentational complexity. This can be interpreted as music becoming increasingly formulaic in terms of instrumentation once commercial or mainstream success sets in. PMID:25551631

  10. Selling the favela: thoughts and polemics about a tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Freire-Medeiros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of the favela into a tourist attraction, examining how promoters in four different favelas attempted to actually place them in the tourist market. The development of the favela into a tourist destination is seen as part of the so-called reality tours phenomenon and of the global circulation of the favela as a trademark. The methodology included different strategies: long interviews with qualified informants, field observation, and participant observation in different tours. The article concludes with some thoughts on my own research experience on such a polemic field of investigation.

  11. How to sell electricity from eastern Canada to New England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessome, D.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of the natural gas market in the Maritimes. It described market restructuring, market seams and future opportunities. The resource activities of Emera Energy Inc. are based in electricity, midstream and downstream power development, and energy services. The Northeast supply mix includes natural gas pipelines and electric power generation. This presentation included a graph of electricity market demand in the Northeast which outlined generation capacity as well as peak demand for Canada's eastern provinces and the New England states. A history of natural gas exploration and development in Nova Scotia was also included. In December 1999, Nova Scotia received natural gas for the first time when the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP) delivered the first production of natural gas from the Sable Offshore Energy Project. Natural gas is now a bigger part of the province's economy than the fishery. Sable Offshore Energy Tier 2 is underway, as is phase 3 of the M and NP project in the United States to connect to the Boston Hubline. EnCana's Deep Panuke project is currently on hold. Nova Scotia is also considering electricity restructuring for 2005. Recommendations have been made for open transmission access for all market participants, and for transmission tariffs to be compatible with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The government of New Brunswick also introduced a new Electricity Act to restructure NB Power to open electricity markets by 2003, and to be in compliance with FERC Order 888. The market in the New England Power Pool (NEPOOL) was opened to wholesale access in 1999. The New Standard Market Design in the NEPOOL is expected to begin in March 2003 to reflect wholesale power costs more accurately. Trade challenges between Canada and the United States were highlighted with reference to transmission access and capacity. 12 figs

  12. Modernse õpetlase kutsumusest ja selle puudumisest / Hent Kalmo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalmo, Hent, 1979-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Weber, Max. Poliitika kui elukutse ja kutsumus ; Teadus kui elukutse ja kutsumus / tõlkijad: Jaan Isotamm, Henn Käärik, Kaia Sisask. Tallinn : TLU Press, 2010. (Bibliotheca controversiarum)

  13. Kadrioru loss ja selle loo killuke / Aleksandra Murre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murre, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Näitusest "Kadriorg 290. Loss ja tema lugu" Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis. Täienduseks näitusel eksponeeritule katkend lossivalitseja J. von Gerneti (ametis 1831-1846) mälestustest, mis aitab aimu saada Kadrioru uue õitsengu algusest 19. sajandi II veerandil. Ka keiser Nikolai I ja keisrinna Aleksandra Fjodorovna visiidist Tallinna 1833. aastal

  14. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES... to qualifications for hiring; sales training; attendance at sales conferences; method of payment; and...

  15. Knowing what to sell, when, and to whom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Venkatesan, Rajkumar; Reinartz, Werner

    2006-03-01

    Despite an abundance of data, most companies do a poor job of predicting the behavior of their customers. In fact, the authors' research suggests that even companies that take the greatest trouble over their predictions about whether a particular customer will buy a particular product are correct only around 55% of the time--a result that hardly justifies the costs of having a CRM system in the first place. Businesses usually conclude from studies like this that it's impossible to use the past to predict the future, so they revert to the timeworn marketing practice of inundating their customers with offers. But as the authors explain, the reason for the poor predictions is not any basic limitation of CRM systems or the predictive power of past behavior, but rather of the mathematical methods that companies use to interpret the data. The authors have developed a new way of predicting customer behavior, based on the work of the Nobel Prize-winning economist Daniel McFadden, that delivers vastly improved results. Indeed, the methodology increases the odds of successfully predicting a specific purchase by a specific customer at a specific time to about 85%, a number that will have a major impact on any company's marketing ROI. What's more, using this methodology, companies can increase revenues while reducing their frequency of customer contact-evidence that overcommunication with customers may actually damage a company's sales.

  16. Buying and selling oil and gas properties in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothian, E.C.

    1997-01-01

    During the last five years, Saskatchewan has experienced its highest level of activity in the oil and gas industry, in terms of drilling and land acquisition. This study reviewed the unique concerns and issues affecting the acquisition or disposition of oil and gas assets in Saskatchewan. The two separate and distinct land registry systems regarding mines and mineral interests in Saskatchewan, due diligence issues, title and leasehold opinions and their limitations and environmental liabilities issues management were described. Some basic principles of contract law such as registration issues with respect to GOR's, and builder's lien pitfalls, as well as legal issues created by horizontal drilling, and legal issues associated with a Right of First Refusal, were also explained

  17. Eestimaa pikim elamu ja selle "lapsed" / Dmitri Bruns

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bruns, Dmitri, 1929-

    2006-01-01

    Pärnu KEK-i 1970-ndatel kavandatud elamuasumist. Autorid arhitektid Toomas Rein ja Ell Väärtnõu. Ehitustegevuse hingeks ja kaasosaliseks oli Pärnu KEK-i juhataja asetäitja Andres Ringo. Lasteaiast "Trall" (1978, arhitekt T. Rein, supergraafika: Helle ja Taevo Gans, välismänguplatside disain: Sirje Runge)

  18. Effects of Advertising on Advance Selling and Online Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Mingyu

    2012-01-01

    Advertising has been one of the most important marketing variables for both practices and academic literature, and it has been generally known to raise the firm's market share (Ataman, van Heerde, and Mela 2010). However, under the contemporary market environment, advertising's impact may be more complicated. For example, in advance…

  19. SELLING OR SAVING: SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN WORLD HERITAGE SITES

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bolin

    2007-01-01

    The proposed paper will present an exploratory study of World Heritage Sites (WHS) for tourism use. The concept of world heritage was born of the 1972 World Heritage convention. The inscribed sites list is growing rapidly every year, and most World Heritage sites become well-known tourist destinations. This has led to an interest to understand the contemporary use of such sites for tourism purposes, and to examine to what extent they are sustainable in the long term This paper began with...

  20. Critical Thinking as Miracle Tonic: Selling Snake Oil in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.

    This paper proposes that the current interest in critical thinking is based on important conceptual, epistemological, and procedural confusions. It suggests that the attempt to identify a successful critical thinking construct mirrors the search for miracle tonics often peddled by snake oil salesmen as a medicinal cure-all. It goes to suggest that…

  1. Buying and selling power: more dramatic changes on the horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haughey, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    A corporate profile of Engage Energy Inc., was presented. The joint venture between the Coastal Corporation and Westcoast Energy Inc., Engage Energy was the first major Canada/US gas and power marketing partnership. Key products and services are pricing services, risk management services, energy management services, and structured products. Major factors driving retail open access and the trend towards convergence even beyond gas and electricity to include water, telephone, cable TV, home security, Internet access, appliance sale and maintenance were reviewed. The relationship between the deregulated marketplace and price stability, and other gas-electric interface issues were also explored. 11 figs

  2. Creating and selling embryos for "donation": ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert; Sauer, Mark V

    2015-02-01

    The commercial creation and sale of embryos has begun, which poses a series of ethical questions that have received little scholarly attention. Some of the concerns that arise are similar to those posed by the sale of gametes, while other issues differ markedly. Questions emerge, first, regarding the rights of the unborn children and their ability to know their biological parents. Companies that create human embryos de novo may wish to keep gamete providers anonymous. Many of these offspring thus will never learn that their parents are not their biologic parents. Yet, such disclosures, regarding not only one but both of these biologic parents, may be important for these individuals; and a lack of this knowledge may impede their physical and psychological health. Second, questions surface regarding the fees that providers should charge for embryos and whether these amounts should vary based on the traits of 1 or both of the gamete donors. Some prospective parents may seek specific traits in a baby (eg, height or eye/hair coloring), which prompts the creation of embryos from 2 gamete donors who possess these characteristics. Third, ownership of embryos created without an advanced directive by patients poses dilemmas (eg, disposition of any remaining embryos). Fourth, guidelines do not yet exist to limit the number of embryos sold from each pair of gamete donors. Hence, unbeknownst to each other, full siblings could potentially meet, get married, and procreate. This discussion has several critical implications for future practice and professional education and policy. Patients with diseases associated with genetic tests may well ask obstetricians, gynecologists, and other physicians about these techniques and practices. Clinicians can refer such patients to assisted reproductive technology specialists; however, familiarity with the basic aspects of the issues and complexities involved could aid these providers and their patients Several of these issues can be addressed relatively easily through guidelines from professional associations (eg, limiting the number of embryos sold from each pair of gamete donors). Because creation and sales of embryos will likely spread, consideration of appropriate responses is critical to establish standards of care to help the future offspring, and ensure ongoing public trust. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The metaphysics market - selling language as soul | Botha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the third of a series of studies in which prototypical conceptions of language are subversively turned inside out. It has to be read together with the first two, The Metaphysics Market: 1 Merchandizing Language as Matter (= SPIL 20, 1989) and The Metaphysics Market: 2 Billing Language as Behavioural (= SPIL 21, ...

  4. Selling security to the poor | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... Listen to the 5-minute audio clip. Regulation needed in South Africa. Doubell Chamberlain, Cenfri's managing director, describes South Africa's burial societies and the role financial institutions can play in micro-insurance. Policy recommendations to accommodate South Africa's formal and informal sectors ...

  5. Asymmetric Price Transmission and Food Retailers Selling Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Tian

    2007-01-01

    Price transmission from farm to retail is a longstanding and important issue in agricultural marketing. Researchers, producers, and policy makers have been concerned that the transmission of farm price increases to retail may be more quickly and of a greater magnitude than that of farm price decreases.

  6. What is the Outcome of Selling in Business Relationships?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In a B2B context, interactions between buyers and sellers typically involve more than the transaction as firms develop business relationships of different kinds before, during and beyond the transactions. Beyond loosely coupled firms and weak ties, firms often take a relational approach to their ...

  7. Selling My Queer Soul or Queerying Quantitative Research?

    OpenAIRE

    Kath Browne

    2008-01-01

    Sexualities research is increasingly gaining prominence within, and outside, of academia. This paper will use queer understandings to explore the contingent (re)formation of quantitative data, particularly those that seek to gain insights into Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trans populations and lifestyles. I use queer critiques to explore the creation and normalising impulses of quantitative sexualities research and argue that research that addresses 'deviant'/other/(homo)sexualities brings cate...

  8. The selling of a story: Sherlock's Victorian excursion [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rebaza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The BBC's Sherlock (2010– has from its beginning played with canon and audience response. Its alternate universe episode in Victorian England reaches an apex of metatextuality with consideration of its role as both commercial entity and participant in popular culture.

  9. Minister Savisaar appoints advisor, weighs ferry link, sell-offs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi nõunikuks saanud ärimees Oleg Harlamov tekitab probleeme, kuna omab aktsiaid suhtekorraldusfirmas, mis konsulteerib raudtee-ettevõtet Spacecom. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Edgar Savisaare sõnul võib riik müüa oma Esonian Airways'i aktsiad.

  10. Buying and selling green: deregulation and green power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the increasing trend towards deregulation of electricity markets, and the driving forces for liberalisation in the EU and North America. The use of green tariffs offered by utilities to differentiate themselves from competitors and to gain and keep customers is reported, and the situation with regard to green energy within the deregulated electricity markets in Australia, the EU, Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, the UK, Canada and the USA is outlined. Customers switching as a result of green tariffs, the growing role of renewables, and opportunities for the promotion of green tariffs are discussed. (UK)

  11. Identifying the best market to sell: A cost function formulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the usefulness of the formulation on real world data. Keywords. Optimization; commodity price; objective function. 1. Introduction. Science and Technology have always influenced the growth and advancements in all aspects of human advancement. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is being increasingly.

  12. The logistics of selling a destination's tourism product

    OpenAIRE

    Berc Radisic, Branka; Basan, Lorena

    2007-01-01

    Tourism demand is becoming increasingly more discerning. It expects a well-designed and diverse product. This can be achieved with properly organised receiving-tourism facilities and services, and an array of attractions and entertainment events. Parallel to enhancing attractiveness, it is also necessary to strengthen and intensify internal and external marketing to ensure that a destination product and, in particular, its segments will find customers on the market.

  13. Oht ei ole liberalism, vaid selle solkimine / Andres Arrak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arrak, Andres, 1958-2017

    2007-01-01

    Autori arvates on Eestis liberaalne turumajandus ära rikutud kauboikapitalismiga, mis on inimesi võõrandanud vabaturu ideedest. Näiteid riikide valitsuste rollist ja USA edust. Vastukaja Urmas Varblase artiklile 8. veebr. Postimehes

  14. Lähetuste kord ja selles tehtud muudatused / Madis Uusorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uusorg, Madis

    2005-01-01

    Töö- ja ametilähetutuste üldpõhimõtetest ning lähetusi reguleerivate määruste muudatusest Vabariigi Valitsuse 2005. a 7. juuli määrusega nr 155. Lisatud tabel: tulu- ja sotsiaalmaksuvabalt makstav päevaraha ja kulude hüvitamine

  15. Advertising the "New Fun-Tier": Selling Casinos to Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, John L.; Miller, Delthia

    2010-01-01

    There is an absence of research on the commercial advertising of gambling as it relates to casinos. This study examines print, radio, television and point of sale casino ads that aired in Canada. Using quantitative and qualitative methods we analyze a convenience sample of 367 ads that aired or were printed in 2005 and 2006. Our findings indicate…

  16. Selling Your Design: Oral Communication Pedagogy in Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Janne; O'Brien, David

    2005-01-01

    Good design skills are the main focus of assessment practices in design education and are evaluated primarily by drawings and models. In some settings, design studio pedagogy tends to reflect only these content-oriented assessment priorities, with minimal attention paid to the development of oral communication skills. Yet, in many professional…

  17. Kunstikriitiku professionaalne paranoia ja selle ravi / Alvar Loog

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loog, Alvar, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Vastulause raamatu "20. sajandi mõttevoolud" (Tallinn ; Tartu : Tartu Ülikooli kirjastus, 2009) arvustusele: Saar Johannes. 20. sajandi mõttevoolud : kogu talveks lugemist ja magamist. Eesti Päevaleht, 2009, 25. sept., lk. 12-13

  18. Selling and Building Linked Data: Drive Value and Gain Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kristen

    Data inside enterprises is exploding. Routinely key decision makers state, "one of the most valuable assets of our organization is actionable information." Paradoxically, it is often challenging to gather the necessary metrics to build a business case to justify a Linked Data initiative for improved data quality in the face of the well-documented shortcomings of traditional enterprise approaches to data management. Internet standards have matured considerably in the last decade. The number of linked data sets is growing daily and already exceeds well in excess of ten thousand data sets, over 400 of which are published via the US Government at gov as of April 2010. Many of these linked data sets are high quality. Best practices for linking data within the enterprise are increasingly being published in articles, blogs and technical books. One of the pioneering linked enterprise data projects was undertaken by a Fortune 500 company in the early 2000 timeframe. The lessons learned about how to navigate the management and organizational dynamics are relevant today. This chapter outlines the successful strategies for a linked enterprise data initiative, including a consistent metadata management strategy across lines of business, definition and documentation of data ownership and the value of cross-functional teams in the definition, development and deployment of the project.

  19. A Big Boy : Tema lugu ja selle loojad / Raigo Kollom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kollom, Raigo, 1936-

    2010-01-01

    Hinnatud ratsahobuste A Big Boy ja A Pikachu de Muze'i Eestisse ostmise loost Belgia hobusekasvataja Joris de Brabanderi kasvandusest ning A Big Boy põlvnemisest ja saavutusest kuni müügini Athina Onassis-Mirandale 2009. aastal

  20. An Honors Koan: Selling Water by the River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Since Jerry Herron begins his forum essay, "Notes toward an Excellent Marxist-Elitist Honors Admissions Policy," with his anecdotal True Genealogical Confessions, Jeffery Portnoy, writes here that he feels feel obligated to begin in a similar mode. One side of Portnoy's family was in the real estate business in St. Louis, and the other…

  1. Prayer Book Catechism: Past its sell-by date?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-17

    Apr 17, 2014 ... A revisit of the intentions of the catechism within its historical and prayer book contexts will show that it essentially expresses lasting truths of the Christian faith. In a world increasingly divorced from particular Christian expressions, the Anglican Church needs to rethink its particular use of the catechism for its.

  2. Car sharing means more travel with less pollution: Eco-efficient services: Stop selling cars; sell kilometres instead

    OpenAIRE

    Meijkamp, R.; Van Kasteren, J.

    2000-01-01

    The product, or hardware if you will, still lies at the heart of the production and consumption chain, resulting in a significant environmental impact. Basing design on applied value instead of the product itself can offer substantial ecological advantages. Ir. Rens Meijkamp tested the eco-efficient service theory by examining car sharing schemes, commercial ventures which make rental cars available to their customers on a twenty-four hour seven days a week basis, thus providing an alternativ...

  3. Car sharing means more travel with less pollution : Eco-efficient services: Stop selling cars; sell kilometres instead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijkamp, R.; Van Kasteren, J.

    2000-01-01

    The product, or hardware if you will, still lies at the heart of the production and consumption chain, resulting in a significant environmental impact. Basing design on applied value instead of the product itself can offer substantial ecological advantages. Ir. Rens Meijkamp tested the eco-efficient

  4. Ethics in Personal Selling: Investigating Ethical Attitudes of Medical Sales Representatives in Adana Kişisel Satışta Etik: Adana İlindeki Tıbbi Satış Temsilcilerinin Etik Tutumlarının İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen BOZYİĞİT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Personal selling is common in ethics related studies. It can be said that the mostimportant reason for this, is the pressure of achieving the targets or fulfilling quotas, whichcause sales representatives to behave unethically.The purpose of this research is to define ethical attitudes of medical salesrepresentatives and analyze the differences among them in terms of their demographicfeatures in their ethical attitudes. According to the findings; there is no significantdifference among gender, age, work experince and income level. On the other hand, thereare significant differences in the origin of the companies in terms of general ethicalattitudes, sales pressure, sales quotas and the beliefs regarding whether the ethicalproblems will be resolved.Etik konulu araştırmalar içinde kişisel satış yaygındır. Bunun temel nedeninin,hedeflere ulaşma veya kotaları doldurma baskısının, satış temsilcilerini etik olmayandavranışlarda bulunmaya zorlaması olduğu söylenebilmektedir.Bu çalışmanın amacı, tıbbi satış temsilcilerinin kişisel satış süreçlerindeki etiktutumlarını belirlemek ve satış temsilcilerinin demografik özellikleri arasında etik tutumlaraçısından farklılıkları incelemektir. Bulgulara göre; cinsiyet, yaş, iş deneyimi ve gelirdüzeyi grupları arasınd, anlamlı bir fark yoktur. Diğer yandan firmaların menşeine göregenel etik tutumlar, satış baskısı, satış kotaları ve etik sorunların çözüleceğine dair inançaçısından anlamlı farklılıklar vardır.

  5. Läbi raskuste tähtede poole: doktoritööde juhendajate kraadiõpingute kogemused ja nende seosed juhendamispraktikaga / Liina Lepp, Marvi Remmik, Äli Leijen, Mari Karm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Juhendamispraktikat analüüsiva uurimuse eesmärk on kirjeldada Eestis tegutsevate juhendajate kujunemise tausta ning osutada võimalikele seostele nende kraadiõpingute kogemuste ja juhendamispraktika vahel

  6. Tsiviilõiguslikud aspektid seoses rahvusvahelise lapserööviga lapsevanemate poolt : [bakalaureusetöö] / Hanna Kononov ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Kai Härmand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kononov, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Lapseröövi puudutavast õigusloomest rahvusvaheliselt (lapseröövi konventsioon, Brüsseli IIa määrus, ÜRO lapse õiguste konventsioon, vanema kohustuste konventsioon) ja Eesti õiguses (põhiseadus, lastekaitseseadus, perekonnaseadus), lapseröövi juhtumite analüüsist

  7. Eesti Akadeemiline Raamatukogu kuulutab eesti raamatu aasta ürituste sarjas ja seoses eesti nahkehistöökunstnike õpetaja Adele Reindorfi 100. sünniaastapäevaga välja näituskonkursi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Objektiks on Endel Valk-Falgu Adele Reindorfile pühendatud vastne mälestusraamat 'Pärlikee' köidetuna erinevas teostuses. Tähtaeg 1. II 2001. Tööd pannakse välja A. Reindorfi tähtpäevanäitusel veebruaris 2001

  8. Pesticide regulation, utilization, and retailers' selling practices in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies: current situation and needed changes Regulación, utilización y prácticas de venta minorista de los pesticidas en Trinidad y Tobago, Indias Occidentales: situación actual y cambios necesarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexley M. Pinto Pereira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore pesticide regulation in Trinidad and Tobago, and to ascertain pesticide utilization and retailers' selling practices on Trinidad, which is the larger of twin islands that constitute the republic of Trinidad and Tobago. METHODS: Between February and June 2005, agrochemical retailers in Trinidad were surveyed about the most frequently sold pesticides and their knowledge and practices of pesticide sale. The Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board of the Ministry of Health informed on legislature. RESULTS: Of 107 actively trading licensed pesticide outlets, 97 participated (91% response rate in the survey. Currently only 2.9% (21 of 720 registered products from four chemical classes are frequently utilized. Paraquat, methomyl, and alpha-cypermethrin (respective trade names are Gramoxone, Lannate, and Fastac from World Health Organization (WHO Hazard Classes I and II, and glyphosate isopropylamine (Swiper, Class U are the most frequently purchased pesticides. Pet shops constitute 39.2% (38 of retail shops selling pesticides. No regulations guide pesticide sale to agriculturists, and children may purchase them. Inadequate human and technical resources render legislative controls ineffective and disciplinary action against offenders is weak. Extensive governmental resources are employed in legislative procedures and product approval for the very low, 2.9% utilization rate, negatively impacting on monitoring pesticide sales. The Poisons Information Centre (PIC does not liaise with the Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board or provide educational interventions for the community. As a result of this survey, it was possible to develop the first database to include the chemical, brand, and colloquial names of pesticides used in Trinidad and Tobago; WHO classification of approved pesticides; manufacturers; packaging; and antidotes and their availability for use by the Board and health professionals in Trinidad. CONCLUSIONS: Urgent

  9. Nimed, mida pole raiutud marmortahvlile / Riho Ühtegi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ühtegi, Riho, 1964-

    2007-01-01

    Taasasutatud Eesti Kaitseliidu algusaastatest ning inimestest, kes autori arvates olid Kaitseliidu rajamise ja arendamise juures olulised. Kalle Elleri tööst taasasutatud Kaitseliidu esimese juhina ning sel ajal toimunud sündmustest seoses Kaitseliidu ja selle tegevusega. Lisa: Kaitseliidu suurimad aktsioonid Kalle Elleri juhtimise ajal. Järg. nr. 8 lk. 18-21. Lisa: Kaitseliidu suuremad aktsioonid Manivald Kasepõllu juhtimise ajal. Järg. 2008 nr. 1 lk. 18-24. Lisa: Kaitseliidu aktsioonid Harri Hennu juhtimisel. Järg. 2008 nr. 2 lk. lk.17-20. Mees varjust, Lembit Tõns. Järg. 2008 nr. 3 lk. 12-15. Lisa: Juhan Alguse osalusel taasloodud Kaitseliidu üksused. Järg. 2008 nr. 4 lk. 16-19. Lisa: Need 125, kes Kaitseliidu taastamise koosolekul osalesid

  10. Tallinn pokupajet zemlju dlja prokladki shosse Põhjaväil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Seoses Russalkast Ahtri tänavani ulatuva tee-ehitusega seisab linnal ees 16 maaküsimuse lahendamine. Probleemidest seoses väila osaliselt merre ehitamisega. Kommenteerivad Alo Brandt ja Ain Valdmann

  11. Estonia : [2010] / Allan Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikk, Allan, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti poliitika olulisematest sündmustest 2010. aastal, mille hulgas märgitakse skandaale erakondade rahaasjades, korruptsiooni seoses maamüügitehingutega, muutusi valimisseaduses seoses valimistega Euroopa Parlamenti

  12. Välisinvestorite õiguslikke probleeme Eestis : [bakalaureusetöö] / Kristi Lehtis ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Andrus Siibak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtis, Kristi, 1978-

    2000-01-01

    Välisinvestorite probleemid seoses maa omandamisega (kinnisomandi üleandmise piirangud, maa omandamine hoonestusõiguse kaudu, piirangud maareformi seaduses), võrdlus Soome ja Lätiga, välisinvestorite probleemid seoses elamis- ja töölubadega, probleemid seoses äriühingutega, dividendide maksustamisega

  13. Why and how the tobacco industry sells cigarettes to young adults: evidence from industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2002-06-01

    To improve tobacco control campaigns, we analyzed tobacco industry strategies that encourage young adults (aged 18 to 24) to smoke. Initial searches of tobacco industry documents with keywords (e.g., "young adult") were extended by using names, locations, and dates. Approximately 200 relevant documents were found. Transitions from experimentation to addiction, with adult levels of cigarette consumption, may take years. Tobacco marketing solidifies addiction among young adults. Cigarette advertisements encourage regular smoking and increased consumption by integrating smoking into activities and places where young adults' lives change (e.g., leaving home, college, jobs, the military, bars). Tobacco control efforts should include both adults and youths. Life changes are also opportunities to stop occasional smokers' progress to addiction. Clean air policies in workplaces, the military, bars, colleges, and homes can combat tobacco marketing.

  14. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we performed a market trial of off-grid LED lighting products in Maai Mahiu, a rural Kenyan town. Our goals were to assess consumer demand and consumer preferences with respect to off-grid lighting systems and to gain feedback from off-grid lighting users at the point of purchase and after they have used to products for some time.

  15. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder: inventing a disease to sell low libido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixel, Antonie; Yanchar, Elena; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2015-10-01

    Condition branding is a marketing technique in which companies develop conditions concurrently with developing drugs; examples include gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, social anxiety disorder, erectile dysfunction and hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Although it is illegal for pharmaceutical companies to market drugs prior to regulatory approval, there are no restrictions on marketing diseases, and industry seeks to establish a disease state in the minds of clinicians years before an expected drug launch. Continuing medical education (CME) courses are an important part of promotion prior to drug approval and have become a key marketing tool for increasing clinician receptivity to new products. We systematically identified 14 free, internet-based, industry-funded, accredited CME modules on hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women which came out before a new drug, flibanserin, was being considered for regulatory approval in the USA. Common themes in these modules included the following: (1) Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is common, underdiagnosed and can have a profound effect on quality of life. (2) Women may not be aware that they are sick or distressed. (3) Simple questionnaires can assist clinicians in diagnosing the disorder. (4) It is problematic that there are medicines available to treat sexual problems for men but not women. In fact, there is no scientifically established norm for sexual activity, feelings or desire, and there is no evidence that hypoactive sexual desire disorder is a medical condition. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is a typical example of a condition that was sponsored by industry to prepare the market for a specific treatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Intellekt ja selle areng imiku- ja väikelapseeas / Marika Veisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veisson, Marika, 1949-

    1998-01-01

    Kolm ajaloolist lähenemist intellekti uurimisele. Nancy Bayley poolt 1969.a. välja töötatud esimene põhjalikum väikelaste ja imikute intellekti uurimismetoodika - Bayley Imikute Arengu Skaala; psühhomeetriline lähenemine, J. Piaget kognitiivse arengu teooria

  17. From Global Jobs to Safe Spaces: The Diverse Discourses That Sell Multilingual Schooling in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    While much research has demonstrated that English-only rhetoric negatively affects bilingual education for the children of US immigrants, few studies have examined the local negotiations and discourses that shape the development of multilingual programming for English-speaking students. Across the USA, educational leaders and policy-makers today…

  18. Sul on miljoni dollari idee? Nemad aitavad sul selle rahaks teha / Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veenre, Tanel, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti kultuurivahendajatest, nende nappusest. Kultuurikorraldusest, loomest ja ettevõtlusest, kultuuriturundusest, loomemajandusest, mänedžeri ja looja koostööst, kultuuri ekspordist. Kultuurikorraldajate koolitusest Tartu Ülikoolis ning Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemias. Arvamust avaldavad galerist Olga Temnikova, Eesti Disainerite Liidu esimees Ilona Gurjanova, kontserdikorraldaja Helen Sildna, Ville Jehe disainibüroost Keha3, Von Krahli Teatri projektijuht Elo-Liis Parmas, moekorraldaja Merilyn Kesküla jt.

  19. Misconceptions and misunderstandings about nuclear medicine: are we selling our wares properly? (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dure-e-Sabih

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is powerful but unfamiliar if not esoteric modality. This is not taught in medical schools with the result that clinicians usually learn to use this ''on the job word of mouth''. It is thus not surprising that many patients referred for a Nuclear Medicine procedure have less than optimum indication for the test. This ties up Nuclear Medicine resources, causes a financial loss to the patient and the State (Nuclear Medicine is still heavily State subsidized) and delivers a radiation burden to a patient who might not benefit from it. This study was done to assess physicians perception of the usefulness of nuclear Medicine procedures in specific medical conditions. 34 physicians, from both Medical (24) and surgical (10) specialists agreed to participate in this study. There were 6 consultants, 21 post-graduate residents and 7 graduates house officer. They were asked to grade from 1 to 5 (useless to most useful and essential) 46 conditions and 7 types of Nuclear Medicine procedures. The 4398 individual results were average to form 138 group results. These were than compared to our own impression of the usefulness of the procedures on the same scale. Out impression for each condition was then standardized to an arbitrary value of 5 and all responses were than corrected for this value. These results show that there was relative agreement (our score of 5, physician score between 4-6 (- +2%) between our and the physicians understanding of the usefulness of these procedures in only 9 cases out of 46 (19%); with a more liberal criterion of -+25% (score of 3.75-6.25) there was agreement in 16 out of 46 cases (35%). The purpose of the study was not to judge physicians knowledge but to highlight the lack of communication that exist between the Nuclear Medicine community in Multan and the clinical staff. It is our feeling that the situation in the rest of the country might be similar. If that is no there is a tremendous opportunity of saving scarce resources and improving patient care by initiating programmes of communication and constructive interaction between the Nuclear Medicine and Clinical physicians. The responsibility lies entirely on the Nuclear Medicine community to open such channels. (author)

  20. Selling points: What cognitive abilities are tapped by casual video games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniqued, Pauline L; Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W; Basak, Chandramallika; Cosman, Joshua D; Desouza, Shanna; Severson, Joan; Salthouse, Timothy A; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-01-01

    The idea that video games or computer-based applications can improve cognitive function has led to a proliferation of programs claiming to "train the brain." However, there is often little scientific basis in the development of commercial training programs, and many research-based programs yield inconsistent or weak results. In this study, we sought to better understand the nature of cognitive abilities tapped by casual video games and thus reflect on their potential as a training tool. A moderately large sample of participants (n=209) played 20 web-based casual games and performed a battery of cognitive tasks. We used cognitive task analysis and multivariate statistical techniques to characterize the relationships between performance metrics. We validated the cognitive abilities measured in the task battery, examined a task analysis-based categorization of the casual games, and then characterized the relationship between game and task performance. We found that games categorized to tap working memory and reasoning were robustly related to performance on working memory and fluid intelligence tasks, with fluid intelligence best predicting scores on working memory and reasoning games. We discuss these results in the context of overlap in cognitive processes engaged by the cognitive tasks and casual games, and within the context of assessing near and far transfer. While this is not a training study, these findings provide a methodology to assess the validity of using certain games as training and assessment devices for specific cognitive abilities, and shed light on the mixed transfer results in the computer-based training literature. Moreover, the results can inform design of a more theoretically-driven and methodologically-sound cognitive training program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.