WorldWideScience

Sample records for selle kvaliteedile ning

  1. Ettevõtte turgu valitsev seisund ning selle kuritarvitamine / Kristi Poogen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poogen, Kristi

    1997-01-01

    Turgu valitseva ettevõtte mõistest, kaubaturust ja geograafilisest turust ning turgu valitseva seisundi kuritarvitamisest (ebaõiglased hinnad, diskrimineerimine, seosmüük) vastavalt uuele konkurentsiseaduse eelnõule

  2. Uus Euroopa pärimismäärus ning selle koht Eesti rahvusvahelises eraõiguses ja rahvusvahelises tsiviil(kohtu)menetluses / Eve Põtter, Maarja Torga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põtter, Eve

    2013-01-01

    Ülevaade Euroopa pärimismääruse (EL 650/2012) kohaldamisalast ning määruses sisalduvast regulatsioonist. Määruse vahekord Eesti riigisisese õiguse ning Eesti rahvusvaheliste lepingutega, eelkõige nn kolmandate riikidega sõlmitud õigusabilepingutega

  3. Tõrjuv kahjuhüvitis Eesti ja Saksa võlaõiguses mittevaralise kahju hüvitamisel ning selle seos karistusliku kahjuhüvitise kontseptsiooniga / Martin Hirvoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hirvoja, Martin, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Mittevaraliste õiguste kaitsest põhiseaduses ning isikuõiguse võlaõiguslikust mõistest. Karistusliku kahjuhüvitise (punitive damages) mõistest, päritolust ja rollist. Tõrjuvast kahjuhüvitisest Saksa ja Eesti õiguses. Eesti isikuõiguste kaitsest

  4. Sõnumisaladuse kaitse tööandjale kuuluvate sidevahendite kasutamisel ning karistusõiguslik vastutus selle õiguse rikkumisel : [magistritöö] / Olev Kirst ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Jaan Ginter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kirst, Olev

    2012-01-01

    Põhimõistete määratlemisest, sõnumisaladuse kaitse piiridest, sõnumite jälgimise vajadusest ja ulatusest, tööandja sidevahendite jälgimise õiguslikest alustest ja põhimõtetest ning praktikast, karistusõiguslikust vastutusest sõnumisaladuse rikkumisel ja kohtupraktikast (Eesti, Soome, Saksamaa, Venemaa)

  5. Distsiplinaarsest, aporeetilisest ning mittedistsiplinaarsest mõtlemisest / Airi Liimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liimets, Airi, 1959-

    2009-01-01

    Lähtudes Michel Foucault’ mõtetest diskursuse, kõnelevate häälte, filosoofia ja selle alguse kohta, küsib autor, missugusel viisil oleks võimalik mõelda muusikast ja muusikapedagoogikast, ja toob esile kolm mõtlemisviisi ning vaatleb neid teaduse vaatepunktist rõhuasetusega muusikapedagoogikal ja muusikal

  6. Selling the Selling Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Horst, Maja

    2012-01-01

    for social and cultural innovation in themselves, we have examined how actors involved with them try to sell them as such. A crucial challenge for these actors turns out to be the interpretative flexibility of the innovation, since arguments designed to attract one kind of expected user might problematize......This article explores how virtual worlds are rhetorically constructed as obvious, innovative spaces for communication about architecture. It is argued that the marketization of an innovative use of new media platforms happens in early phases of the innovation processes, and the success of new media...... of the communication about the innovation. It is demonstrated that the creation of markets does not begin when innovations such as Virtual Worlds Architecture are settled, but is intertwined with early expectations about their promises and limitations. Rather than seeing virtual worlds as settled and secluded sites...

  7. Diplomaatilise esinduse ja selle personali kaitse vastuvõtjariigis / René Värk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Värk, René, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Diplomaatilise esinduse ja selle personali füüsilise kaitse olemusest ja aspektidest, isikupuutumatusest ning liikumisvabadusest. Hinnang Eesti Moskva suursaatkonna juures 2007. aasta kevadel toimunule

  8. Sotsiaalne kapital ja selle mõõtmine / Väino Kuri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuri, Väino

    2003-01-01

    Sotsiaalse kapitali mõistest ning lähenemisviisidest selle defineerimiseks. Sotsiaalse kapitali mõõtmisest Suurbritannias ja Soomes. Senisest Eesti kogemusest sotsiaalset kapitali puudutavate statistiliste andmete kogumisel. Tabel: Sotsiaalset kapitali iseloomustavad näitajad.

  9. 22. ja 23. II esitatakse Tallinnas Kanuti Gildi saalis ning 25. ja 26. II Tartu Sadamateatris tantsulavastust "Myrrh and Cinnamon"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Koreograafideks on G. Welzman ja R. Haver ning selles kasutatakse nelja eesti helilooja A. Pärdi, M.-M. Lille, L. Sumera ja E.-S. Tüüri muusikat. Eesti gastrollidel esitab muusikat NYYD Ensemble. Lisaks eesti muusikutele on laval ka P. Pärenson

  10. Over short selling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.

    2012-01-01

    Short selling heeft een ietwat dubieuze reputatie. ‘Aandelen verkopen die je niet hebt’, dat wekt al de suggestie dat er iets niet in de haak is. Verschillende toezichthouders en regelgevers leggen snel verbanden tussen short selling en marktmisbruik. ‘Short is moord’ was zelfs de kop boven een

  11. SPIN-selling

    CERN Document Server

    Rackham, Neil

    1995-01-01

    True or false? In selling high-value products or services: "closing" increases your chance of success; it is essential to describe the benefits of your product or service to the customer; objection handling is an important skill; and open questions are more effective than closed questions. All false, says Neil Rackham. He and his team studied more than 35,000 sales calls made by 10,000 sales people in 23 countries over 12 years. Their findings revealed that many of the methods developed for selling low-value goods just don't work for major sales. Rackham went on to introduce his SPIN-selling method, where SPIN describes the whole selling process - Situation questions, Problem questions, Implication questions, Need-payoff questions. SPIN-selling provides you with a set of simple and practical techniques which have been tried in many of today's leading companies with dramatic improvements to their sales performance.

  12. Energiatõhusus ja selle hind / Tõnu Mauring

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mauring, Tõnu, 1968-

    2010-01-01

    Austri arhitekti Georg W. Reinbergi raamatust "Ecological Architecture - Design, Planning, Realization" (2008). Uuringust, mis võttis kokku aastatel 2003-2008 Viini ehitatud elamute valimi andmed ning millest järeldub, et suuremate hoonete puhul võib passiivmaja maksumus olla madalenergiamajadega ühesugune. Vajadusest ehitada Eestis valmis oma näited, leidmaks, kas tõhus energia kasutamine ja inimsõbralik hoone on või ei ole konfliktis selle rajamise hinnaga

  13. PERSONAL SELLING IN MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Personal selling is a major element in the marketing communication program of a business firm. This article describes in a theoretical way the scope and significance of personal selling in marketing, it outlines the stages of the selling process. Personal selling is the most effective marketing communication tool because it allows salespeople to adapt their presentation to each potential or current client. They use their knowledge of the customer’s buying process to choose effective sales strategies. An effective sales presentation is usually the most important element of a sales job. Most well-managed companies want their salespeople to go through the following sequence in making a presentation: locating and qualifying prospects, a pre-approach, the presentation itself, closing the sale and follow-up. Finding the best prospects may be the key step in this sequence, but the close may be the hardest part.

  14. Predatory Short Selling

    OpenAIRE

    Markus K Brunnermeier; Martin Oehmke

    2013-01-01

    Financial institutions may be vulnerable to predatory short selling. When the stock of a financial institution is shorted aggressively, leverage constraints imposed by short-term creditors can force the institution to liquidate long-term investments at fire sale prices. For financial institutions that are sufficiently close to their leverage constraints, predatory short selling equilibria co-exist with no-liquidation equilibria (the vulnerability region) or may even be the unique equilibrium ...

  15. Tähelepanekuid eesti 1930. aastate kultuurielust ja selle uurimisest interdistsiplinaarse kultuuriloo seminari põhjal : [teemal "1930. aastate kultuurielust Eestis" 13. jaanuaril 2003 Eesti Muusikaakadeemias] / Anu Kõlar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõlar, Anu, 1961-

    2003-01-01

    Ka Sirje Oleski ettekandest teemal "Soome ja Eesti 1930. aastatel: omavahelised suhted ja mis on selle taga" ning Ele Süvalepa ettekandest "Poleemika "Arbujate" üle 1930. aastate kirjandussituatsiooni iseloomustajana"

  16. Riikide majandusvabaduse hindamise metoodikad ning majandusvabadus Eestis / Mario Lambing

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lambing, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Heritage Foundationi ja The Wall Street Journali uuringust "Majandusvabaduse indeks" ning Fraseri instituudi poolt koostatavast raportist "Majandusvabadus maailmas". Tabelid: Majandusvabaduse indeksite kajastatavad valdkonnad ning nende väärtused Eestis; Majandusvabaduse edetabelid. Graafik: Eesti hinne ja koht majandusvabaduse indeksites

  17. Laevasõiduvabadus avamerel ning jõu kasutamine : [bakalaureusetöö] / Henrik Praks ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Tõnu Põder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Praks, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise mereõiguse mõiste ja allikad, ajalooline areng, avamerevabadused, laevade riiklik kuuluvus, rahvusvahelised konventsioonid ja laevasõiduvabaduse piirangud, avamere kasutamine sõjalistel eesmärkidel, sõjalise jõu kasutamine merel ning selle lubatavus riikidevahelistes suhetes

  18. Selling digital music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non...

  19. Selling digital music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non...

  20. Distributive Education. Selling. Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, Dave; Comte, Don

    Nineteen lesson plans on selling are presented in this performance-based curriculum unit for distributive education. This unit is self-contained and consists of the following components: introduction (provides overview of unit content and describes why mastery of the objectives is important); performance objectives; pre-assessment instrument…

  1. Venemaalt Saksamaa kaudu Itaaliasse : Rooma õiguse õpetamine ja selle mõjutajad eestikeelses ülikoolis (1919-1940) / Hesi Siimets-Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siimets-Gross, Hesi, 1976-

    2012-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli õppeainest "Rooma õiguse ajalugu" ja selle õppejõududest (Jüri Uluots, Ernst Ein, Leo Leesment) ning õppeainest "Rooma õiguse süsteem" ja selle õppejõududest (Karl Wilhelm von Seeler, David Johann Friedrich Grimm ja Ernst Ein)

  2. Pedagoogiline kultusraamat ja selle järjed / Linda Järve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järve, Linda, 1946-

    2016-01-01

    Anton Makarenkost ja tema kasvatussüsteemist. Tutvustatakse tema raamatuid "Pedagoogiline poeem", mille ilmumisest möödus hiljuti 80 aastat, samuti selle järge "Lipud tornidel" ning sama teemat käsitlevat Frida Vigdorova teost "Tee ellu"

  3. Selling good behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braus, P

    1995-11-01

    Social marketers use the tools of selling to promote good nutrition, regular checkups, and other positive behavior. Instead of preaching, they try to understand and change the complex motivations that lie behind risky activities like smoking and unsafe sex. AIDS prevention is the vanguard of social marketing in the U.S., but the practice is likely to spread for a simple reason: it works.

  4. Säästmisest teoorias ning praktikas / Kristo Reinsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinsalu, Kristo

    2001-01-01

    Säästmise arvutamine ning säästmine Eestis. Diagrammid: säästmiskalduvus, hoiustamine, interessimäärad ning tarbijahinnaindeksi areng, kindlustunde indikaatorid, SKP muutused 1996-2000. Järgneb: Raamatupidamisuudised, nr. 2, 2001, lk. 35-39. Ilmunud ka: Buhgalterskije Novosti, nr. 2, 2001, lk. 25-31

  5. Educators Eye Ning Transition to a Pay Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on a move by the online social-networking site Ning to start charging for its services which has raised worries that new fees could stifle educators' technological collaboration and creativity and touch off similar moves by other companies that provide comparable services heavily used by educators. Ning, which provides a…

  6. with short selling season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutaz Khouja

    2005-01-01

    deciding on the production levels for a product that has a very short selling season. The firm has a full period to produce and meet a lumpy demand which occurs at the end of the period. The product is no longer demanded after the end of the period. A constant production rate which minimizes average unit cost may increase holding costs. Varying the production rate at discrete points in time may increase production costs but may also decrease holding costs. In addition, allowing changes in the production rate enables the incorporation of forecast revisions into the production plan. Therefore, the best production plan depends on the flexibility of the production system and on the holding cost. In this paper, we formulate and solve a model of this production planning problem. Two models are developed to deal with two types of the average unit cost function. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the results of the model.

  7. Selling the brand inside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Colin

    2002-01-01

    When you think of marketing, chances are your mind goes right to your customers--how can you persuade more people to buy whatever it is you sell? But there's another "market" that's equally important: your employees. Author Colin Mitchell argues that executives by and large ignore this critical internal audience when developing and executing branding campaigns. As a result, employees end up undermining the expectations set by the company's advertising--either because they don't understand what the ads have promised or because they don't believe in the brand and feel disengaged or, worse, hostile toward the company. Mitchell offers three principles for executing internal branding campaigns--techniques executives can use to make sure employees understand, embrace, and "live" the brand vision companies are selling to the public. First, he says, companies need to market to employees at times when the company is experiencing a fundamental challenge or change, times when employees are seeking direction and are relatively receptive to new initiatives. Second, companies must link their internal and external marketing campaigns; employees should hear the same messages that are being sent to the market-place. And third, internal branding campaigns should bring the brand alive for employees, creating an emotional connection to the company that transcends any one experience. Internal campaigns should introduce and explain the brand messages in new and attention-grabbing ways and then reinforce those messages by weaving them into the fabric of the company. It is a fact of business, writes Mitchell, that if employees do not care about or understand their company's brands, they will ultimately weaken their organizations. It's up to top executives, he says, to give them a reason to care.

  8. Düsseldorfi koolkond ja selle Baltimaade kunstnikud - kultuuridevahelise suhtluse aspekte / Bettina Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Baumgärtel, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Düsseldofi koolkonnast (1819-1918), selle rahvusvahelisest levikust, Eestist pärit baltisaksa kunstnike Karl Eduard von Gebhardti (1838-1925), Eugéne Gustav Dückeri (1841-1916) ja Alexander Heinrich Gregor von Bochmanni (1850-1930) juhtivast osast ning nende erinevatest maadest, ka eestlastest õpilastest. Ka valitsevatest maalizhanritest ja tolleaegsetest rühmitustest Saksamaal - natsareenlastest ja ühendusest Malkasten

  9. Balti kalleim lao- ning tootmispindade rent on Riias / Kristo Kiviorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiviorg, Kristo

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 21. sept. lk. 12. Tootmis- ja laopindade rent Baltimaades ja Soomes. Vt. samas: Tallinnas lao- ning tootmispinnad poolaastaga kallinenud kuni 37%; Helsingis on kõige rohkem tõusnud C-kvaliteediklassi pinnad; Tartu piirkonnas enamik saadaolevaid pindu keskmises või halvas seisukorras

  10. Leipzigi kirjandusauhind: "Sõda ja rahu" ning filosoofia ja perverssused

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Leipzigi kirjandusmessi auhinna ilukirjanduse kategoorias sai austerlane Clemens J. Setz jutukogu "Die Lieber zur Zeit des Mahlstädter Kindes" ("Armastus Mahlstadti lapse ajal"). Tõlkeauhinna sai Barbara Conradi uue L. Tolstoi "Sõja ja rahu" tõlke eest ning aimekirjanduse ja esseistikaauhind läks Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitungi vastutavale toimetajale Henning Ritterile

  11. Social Networking in Physical Education: Undergraduate Students' Views on Ning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen Balcikanli, Gulfem

    2012-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to investigate physical education undergraduate students' views on the use of social networking, one of the most typical representations of Web 2.0 technologies. In order to do so, the researcher, who was the instructor of the class, entitled "Fair Play Education in Sport", introduced Ning and its educational…

  12. Saurix rõhub kvaliteedile / Peeter Raidla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidla, Peeter, 1955-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti : Desjatiletnije firmõ 2. veebr. lk. 2. AS Saurix Petroleum sai oma püüdluste kinnituseks kaks ISO sertifikaati kvaliteedi- ja keskkonnajuhtimissüsteemi eest. Vt. samas: Salapärase palgamaksja taga on Saurixi omanikud. Diagrammid: Aleksei Tshuletsi käes on lõviosa aktsiatest; Saurix Petroleum prognoosib kasumi langust

  13. Forebyggende fysisk træning til ældre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Termansen, Tina; Scavenius Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer

    Vores fysiske funktionsevne bliver ringere med alderen. Det er en væsentlig årsag til, at ældre har en øget risiko for at komme ud for ulykker på grund af fald. Denne rapport præsenterer resultaterne fra en undersøgelse om faldforebyggende træning til ældre hjemmeboende borgere over 65 år, bosat ...

  14. En EU-strategi for integreret hjemmetræning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    i 3 forskellige EU-lande, 4) Pilotforsøg med TeleRehab som supplement til den direkte hjemmetræning og 5) Sammenfatning af evidensgrundlaget i en MTV efter den danske 4-grenede model.    Baseret på en SWOT-analyse satses der på implementering af forsøgsresultaterne via en meso-strategi, hvor et...

  15. Fysisk træning på psykomotorikuddannelsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flammild, Manja

    2012-01-01

    rolle i sundhedsfremme og forebyggelse, og ønsket er, at viden fra faget kan rettes mod forskellige målgrupper? Problemformuleringen undersøges med fokus på forskellige målgrupper, om end at læringsmålet i fysisk træning primært er rettet mod voksne inden for normalområdet. Der kigges særligt på...

  16. Learning in Advance Selling with Heterogeneous Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova; X. Henry Wang; Chenhang Zeng

    2012-01-01

    The advance selling strategy is implemented when a firm offers consumers the opportunity to order its product in advance of the regular selling season. Advance selling reduces uncertainty for both the firm and the buyer and enables the firm to update its forecast of future demand. The distinctive feature of the present study of advance selling is that we divide consumers into two groups, experienced and inexperienced. Experienced consumers know their valuations of the product in advance, whil...

  17. Selling Renewable Energy in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Shrestha, Sarina Selling Renewable Energy in Nepal Year 2012 Pages 74 This study has been conducted for the CONNECT Project of Laurea University of Applied Sciences. The main research question addressed in the thesis is whether Finnish companies should start a renewable energy business in Nepal. This process involved investigating the current renewable energy business and markets in Nepal. The main objective of this research is to support the growth and sp...

  18. Uncontrolled Selling of Contact Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Sundu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the opticians’ perspective about selling and applying contact lenses (CL in the provincial centre of Mersin. Materials and Methods: Twenty opticians who work in the 4 main districts in the provincial centre of Mersin were included in the study. A questionnaire form which was prepared before was filled out by the participants. Results: Seventy-eight percent of the opticians were selling CL without prescription, whereas 25% also carried out its fitting. Seventyfive percent of the participants did not get any education about contact lenses, while 65% of them were feeling themselves disqualified about CLs. Furthermore, half of the participants did not have enough knowledge about the complications associated with CL usage and 75% of them wanted to receive information about CLs. Conclusion: As a result of the questionnaire, we found out that a significant part of the participants were both selling and fitting contact lenses without prescription. We believe that auditing the opticians is as important as educating the contact lens users. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 102-104

  19. Mööbel-uksed-pööning

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    4. III-3. IV Eesti Rahva Muuseumis näitus "Mööbel-uksed-pööning. Vanad tehnikad ja nende uus elu", mis tutvustab Tartu Kõrgema Kunstikooli mööbliosakonnas restaureeritud vanemat ja uut loodud mööblit. Saab näha ka projekti "12 ust", Maarja Roosi diplomitööd "Pööningul/avaldamata", mis tutvustab Olustvere mõisa ajaloolise mööbli kogu. Toimuvad töötoad ja konverents

  20. Hüvastijätt võltssäraga / Vidas Račlevičs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Račlevičs, Vids

    2013-01-01

    Luksuslikest Vertu telefonidest. Kui seni nimetati Vertusid pigem kõnefunktsiooniga juveelitoodeteks, siis nüüd on keskendutud pigem töökindlusele, tarkvara kvaliteedile ning materjalide vastupidavusele

  1. Short selling and securities lending/borrowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrapović Kenan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the effectiveness of the short selling ban, and questions it with critiques from comparative empirical data. Authors have argued that the ban on short selling hit trading volumes but did not necessarily reduce market volatility. Today market regulators are seeking to rebuild a short selling policy that allows covered short selling while reducing the risk of market abuse. The reinforced framework must include rules and regulations that increase market efficiency, enhance the visibility of short selling to regulators and to investors, improve regulators’ responsiveness to market failures and periods of extreme volatility, and enforce anti-abuse laws consistently and judiciously. Although most regulators have allowed their short sale bans to lapse and seem to be thinking constructively about the form of future regulation, the dust has not settled on the short sale debate. As the events of the year 2010 outline, short selling regulations tend to mirror the capital markets they oversee. The author questions if the capital market in Montenegro is ready to lift the short selling ban and to allow speculative trading again.

  2. Selling science to the public

    CERN Document Server

    Catapano, Paola

    1997-01-01

    Science popularization is ÒtheÓ tool to bridge the gap between society at large and the world of science. Compared to formal science communication Ð science taught in schools Ð informal science communication, made by the TV, the press, Òscience centresÓ and visits to scientific laboratories, has an important advantage: it makes the public meet science in a direct, informal way and on its own terms. The public is given an opportunity to develop a personal relationship with science, according to the needs, interests and abilities of the individual. But selling science is a tough job. The object of the sale is not a consumer good, but rather ideas and concepts that are sometimes so complex and distant from common sense that translating them into a comprehensible language and creating interest in the public without betraying the scientific truth is almost impossible. In the research work conducted for the thesis the importance of adopting a marketing approach in science communication is presented. Any scien...

  3. Numerical modelling of ice floods in the Ning-Meng reach of the Yellow River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Ning-Meng reach of the Yellow River basin is located in the Inner Mongolia region at the Northern part of the Yellow River. Due to the special geographical conditions, the river flow direction is towards the North causing the Ning-Meng reach to freeze up every year in wintertime. Both during the

  4. Töö- ja puhkeajast ning töötasust / Heino Siigur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siigur, Heino, 1930-

    1998-01-01

    Puhkamis-, einetamis- ja lapsetoitmise vaheaegadest, lisatasudest töölähetuses ning õhtu- ja öötöö korral, tööaja ajakava muutmisest ning riigipüha ja ületunnitöö lisatasudest tööaja summeeritud arvestuse korral

  5. Censoring and Selling Film Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Chinen Biesen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Film noir is known for its duplicity. Industry censors considered 1940s noir cinema provocative, salacious and ‘sordid.’ Hollywood studios walked a fine line between appearing to comply with Hays office Production Code censorship while simultaneously pushing the envelope of its moral constraints, then hyping and sensationalizing censorable sex, violence and hard-hitting themes to sell noir films to the public. In fact, studios capitalized on the racy explicit nature of noir pictures in publicity contradicting assurances of censorial compliance. For instance, censor Joseph Breen was “shocked” when MGM purchased James Cain’s The Postman Always Rings Twice. It was banned for a decade. Yet, ten years later as filmmakers adapted hardboiled fiction, Breen assured religious groups it would “not be offensive.” Yet, it was promoted as “torrid,” “too hot to handle” with Lana Turner in a bathing suit finding “Love at Laguna Beach” with hunky John Garfield who clamored, “You must be a she-devil,” suggesting far more sex, skin and “savage boldness” than is shown in the film. Film noir responded to Production Code censorship and other regulatory factors, including Office of War Information Bureau of Motion Pictures restrictions on Hollywood screen depictions of the domestic American home front (or overseas combat front, and Office of Censorship strictures such as a wartime ban on screen gangsters as ‘un-American’ for propaganda purposes in World War II-era noir films centering on criminals. These multiple censorship entities often collided. This regulatory climate catalyzed the development of film noir, a dark cycle of shadowy 1940s-50s crime films that boomed by World War II and evolved over the postwar era. I will investigate extensive primary archival research—including scripts, memos from industry censors, writers, directors, producers, and publicity records—to compare how film noir was censored and sold.

  6. Selling to the moneyed masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paul F; Johnson, Brian A; Breene, R Timothy S

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, the distribution of household incomes has shifted so much that a much larger proportion of consumers now earn significantly higher-than-average incomes--while still falling short of being truly rich. As a result, what used to be a no-man's-land for new product introductions has in many categories become an extremely profitable "new middle ground." How can marketers capitalize on this new territory? The key, say the authors, is to rethink the positioning and design of offerings and the ways they can be brought to market. Take, for instance, how Procter & Gamble redefined the positioning map for tooth-whitening solutions. A decade ago, dental centers were popularizing expensive bleaching techniques that put the price of a professionally brightened smile in the 400 dollars range. At the low end, consumers also had the choice of whitening toothpastes that cost anywhere from 2 dollars to 8 dollars. P&G wisely positioned itself between the two ends, successfully targeting the new mass market with its 35 dollars Whitestrips. In product categories where it's clear the middle ground has already been populated, it's important for companies to design or redesign offerings to compete. An example is the Polo shirt. How do you sell a man yet another one after he's bought every color he wants? Add some features, and call it a golf shirt. Here, marketers have introduced designs based on the concept of "occasional use" in order to stand out. Finally, companies wishing to reach the "almost rich" can change how they go to market. Perhaps no mass retailer has made a stronger bid for the mass affluent than Target Stores, which has pioneered a focus the company itself characterizes as upscale discount. The strategy has made Target an everyday shopping phenomenon among well-heeled urbanites and prosperous professionals.

  7. Facebook marketing for a direct selling company

    OpenAIRE

    Egeberg, Chenette

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to provide recommendations for how the studied company could improve their Facebook marketing activities. The company was the Danish subsidiary of an multinational direct selling company of health and beauty products. The following research questions were devised: 1) What are the constraints and challenges for LR Denmark’s facebook marketing as a subsidiary of a Multinational Corporation and as a Direct Selling Company? 2) How can LR Denmark improve the...

  8. The ethics of selling body parts

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, Samia

    2015-01-01

    Should we be allowed to sell blood, or kidneys? The standard answer is no. A broad consensus in international regulatory documents supports a ban on all forms of sale of organs and human body parts. This consensus has, however, been critiqued and prominent calls made for „ economic rewards to motivate blood donation“ and for regulated markets for human organs. Opposition to selling human organs is usually based on risks of harms for vendors and buyers, the potential for exploitation in an asy...

  9. Viisakus ja selle tajumine tekstiliigiti / Katrin Rikberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rikberg, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Artikkel tutvustab keelesuhtluse viisakuse kultuuriomaseid mõisteid ja nende seoseid asjakohasusega ning keskendub ametlikule viisakusele ja vestluskäitumisele. Küsimustiku abil läbi viidud taju-uuringust, mille eesmärk oli võrrelda tekstide vastuvõtu erinevaid külgi, et saada teada, mida ja miks peetakse eesti kultuuriruumis viisakaks ja asjakohaseks

  10. Sydney ja selle maaliline naabrus / Anneli Ira

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ira, Anneli

    2013-01-01

    Sydney ümbrusesse jäävatest looduslikest vaatamisväärsustest: Royal National Park, Grand Pacific Drive, Sinimäed, Jenola koopad; austraalia köögist, majutuse ning transpordi alaseid nõuandeid jne

  11. Reconsidering Kantian arguments against organ selling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpinar-Şencan, Zümrüt

    2016-03-01

    Referring to Kant's arguments addressing the moral relationship between our bodies and ourselves is quite common in contemporary debate about organ selling, although he does not provide us with any specific arguments related to this debate. It is widely argued that the most promising way to show the moral impermissibility of organ selling is to mount an argument on Kantian grounds. This paper asks whether it is possible to argue coherently against organ selling in a Kantian framework. It will be shown that by mounting the argument on Kantian grounds no compelling argument can be given against sale of organs, either because the arguments apply to donation of organs, too, or the arguments are not convincing for other independent reasons. In the first section, it will be argued that donation and selling are not distinguishable in a Kantian framework, since the concern about commodification of the body and its parts shall be raised by both actions. In the second section, some contemporary accounts inspired by Kant will be presented and discussed separately. It will be argued that the reasons for promoting organ donation while arguing against selling clash with each other in an unconvincing way.

  12. Töö ning pidu Cannes ̀is / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak, 1955-

    1998-01-01

    Meeleoludest Cannes ̀i 51. filmifestivalil ja lühidalt Terry Gilliani filmist "Ratastel Las Vegasesse" ("Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas") ning Roberto Benigni filmist "Elu on ilus" ("La Vita é bella")

  13. Arbitrage without borrowing or short selling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkanen, Mikko; Lukkarinen, Jani

    We show that a trader, who starts with no initial wealth and is not allowed to borrow money or short sell assets, is theoretically able to attain positive wealth by continuous trading, provided that she has perfect foresight of future asset prices, given by a continuous semimartingale. Such an ar......We show that a trader, who starts with no initial wealth and is not allowed to borrow money or short sell assets, is theoretically able to attain positive wealth by continuous trading, provided that she has perfect foresight of future asset prices, given by a continuous semimartingale...

  14. Perceived Organisational Target Selling, Self- Efficacy, Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed reports have shown that different variables account for differences in the psychological wellbeing of bank employees in Nigeria. Based on this premise, the study examined the contributions of perceived organizational target selling, self-efficacy, sexual harassment and job insecurity on psychological wellbeing among ...

  15. Advanced Selling: A Comprehensive Course Sales Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrington-Young, Susan; Castleberry, Stephen B.; Coleman, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive project for the Advanced Selling course that has been tested at three universities is introduced. After selecting an industry and a company, students engage in a complete industry analysis, a company sales analysis, a sales-specific SWOT analysis, complete a ride day with a salesperson in that firm, then present their findings in a…

  16. Go with the Flow: Selling Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boule, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    A librarian may be comfortable with the idea of using a blog, wiki, or other social application with students, but other stakeholders in his or her community may not be so sure. Any technology maverick looking to sell the use of Web-based applications will, at some point, have to make the case. This article presents some of the most common…

  17. CORRUPTION AND POST-CONFLICT PEACEBUILDING: SELLING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    London: Routledge: Taylor and Francis. 2013 Reprint Edition,. 297 pages. ISBN: 0415721563. Corruption and post-conflict peacebuilding: Selling the peace? is a veritable gold mine. Its organisation is intelligent and coherent, and its range and coverage are appropriately encyclopaedic. This volume deals with the ...

  18. Eesti Panga staatus ning selle muutumine seoses euro kasutuselevõtuga : [bakalaureusetöö] / Ursula Laido ; Tartu Ülikooli Õigusinstituut ; juhendaja: Madis Kallion

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laido, Ursula

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Panga ajalugu, õiguslik staatus, juhtimine, ülesanded, pädevus, Euroopa Liit kui Euroopa Majandus- ja Rahaliit, keskpankade süsteem, euro, eurole üleminek ja sellest tulenevad muudatused Eesti Panga jaoks

  19. Dareios I kuninglikust titulatuurist Behistuni raidkirja näitel ning võimalikud Mesopotaamia mõjutused selles / Andreas Johandi, Vladimir Sazonov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johandi, Andreas, 1983-

    2016-01-01

    Dareios I tiitlitest "kuningas", "suurkuningas", "Pärsia kuningas", "kuningate kuningas", "Babüloni kuningas", "kõikide maade kuningas". Dareios I tiitlid erinesid Kyros II ja Kambyses II tiitlitest, samas pärines nende kõigi ametlik titulatuur enamasti Mesopotaamiast

  20. Teadus- ja arendustegevus ning kaalutlusõiguse roll selle rahastamisel : [teadusmagistritöö] / Sille Uusna ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Raul Narits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uusna, Sille

    2007-01-01

    Teadus- ja arendustegevuse olemusest, teaduskorraldus objektiivse õiguse reguleerimise objektina, teaduspoliitika kujundamise meetoditest, haldusorgani kaalutlusõigus teaduskorralduses, teadus- ja arendustegevuse finantseerimine, kaalutlusõiguse osakaal teaduse finantseerimismeetmetes

  1. Keisrikultus Rooma riigis Juliuste-Claudiuste ja 1. Flaviuste dünastia valitsusajal ning selle võimalikud kajastused algkristlikus kirjanduses / Jaan Lahe, Ergo Naab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lahe, Jaan, 1971-

    2014-01-01

    Keisrikultuse tekkimisest. Keisrikultusest üksikute keisrite valitsusajal. Keisrikultuse pühadest, templitest, ohvritest ja preestritest. Keisrikultusest kui religioossest ja sotsiaalsest fenomenist. Keisrikultuse võimalikest kajastustest algkristlikus kirjanduses. Jeesuse ülendamismotiivist Pauluse autentsetes kirjades. Jeesuse ülendamisest ja viimsest vaenlasest. Jeesuse ülendamismotiivist Pauluse koolkonna kirjutistes. Ülendamismotiivist kirjas koloslastele. Jeesusele omistatud Kyrios-tiitli arengujoontest ja võimalikest kontrastidest keisrikultusega

  2. Advance Selling in the Presence of Experienced Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova; X. Hnery Wang; Chenhang Zeng

    2011-01-01

    The advance selling strategy is implemented when a firm offers consumers the opportunity to order its product in advance of the regular selling season. Advance selling reduces uncertainty for both the firm and the buyer and enables the firm to update its forecast of future demand. The distinctive feature of the present theoretical study of advance selling is that we divide consumers into two groups, experienced and inexperienced. Experienced consumers know their valuations of the product in a...

  3. Mustad ja valged oad ning flöödimängijad / Enn Vetemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vetemaa, Enn, 1936-2017

    2003-01-01

    Kirjanik avaldab arvamust selle aasta sündmuste kohta valitsuse poliitika, demokraatia, võrdsuse, kultuurikihi osas, nimetades aasta kultuurishokiks Riigikogu liikme, reformierakondlase Rein Langi esinemist telesaates kultuuripiduri tiitli vastu võtmisel

  4. Identifying the best market to sell: A cost function formulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One of the main objectives of a farmer is to sell his final agricultural produce so as to maximize his profits. While he has several options, in terms of the markets where he can sell his produce, he is faced with a dilemma of identifying a market where he should sell his produce. There are several factors, like. the distance of the ...

  5. Does Wal-Mart Sell Inferior Goods?

    OpenAIRE

    Emek Basker

    2008-01-01

    I estimate the aggregate income elasticity of Wal-Mart's and Target's revenues using quarterly data for 1997-2006. I find that Wal-Mart's revenues increase during bad times, whereas Target's revenues decrease, consistent with Wal-Mart selling "inferior goods" in the technical sense of the term. An upper bound on the aggregate income elasticity of demand for Wal-Mart's wares is -0.5.

  6. Iseseisvuse taastajad ja selle praegused teotajad / Ando Leps

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leps, Ando, 1935-

    2006-01-01

    Autori väitel püütakse kunagi komparteisse kuulunuid kujutada praegu deemonitena ning ei meenutata sõnagagi president Arnold Rüütli tasakaalustavat rolli ning tarka poliitikat nn laulva revolutsiooni ja riigi taastamise ajal. Autor tuletab meelde keerulist olukorda 1980. aastate lõpul ning talle näib, et mõned jõud soovivad kuulutada end vabaduse ainsateks taastajateks, käituda võitjatena ning mõista "kohut" oma tollaste partnerite üle

  7. Chen Ning Yang’s New Contributions After He Returned to Where He Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bang-Fen

    2018-01-01

    Chen Ning Yang returned to Tsinghua University as a full professor in 2003. Regarding the fact that very few people know what Professor Yang has contributed to science and to China after his return, in this article new contributions of Chen Ning Yang are introduced as far as the author knows, including his leading role in China’s sciences, the research in statistical physics, the role in cultivating gifted students, his research in history of science, and all other aspects relating to China’s developments.

  8. Does organ selling violate human dignity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpinar-Şencan, Zümrüt; Baumann, Holger; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2017-11-01

    Shortages in the number of donated organs after death and the growing number of end-stage organ failure patients on waiting lists call for looking at alternatives to increase the number of organs that could be used for transplantation purposes. One option that has led to a legal and ethical debate is to have regulated markets in human organs. Opponents of a market in human organs offer different arguments that are mostly founded on contingent factors that can be adjusted. However, some authors have asked the question whether we still have a reason to believe that there is something wrong with offering human organs for sale for transplantation purposes, even if the circumstances under which the practice takes place are improved. One prominent argument regarding this appeals to the notion of human dignity. It is argued that organ selling violates human dignity. This paper presents a systematic discussion of dignity-based arguments in the organ selling debate, and then develops a social account of dignity. It is argued that allowing the practice of organ selling inherently runs the risk of promoting the notion that some persons have less worth than others and that persons have a price, which is incompatible with dignity. The approach is defended against possible objections and it is shown that it can capture the notion that autonomy is linked to human dignity in important ways, while dignity at the same time can constrain the autonomous choices of persons with regards to certain practices.

  9. Advance Selling with Dual Marketing Efforts in A Newsvendor Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongyan Jenny

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of E-commerce, advance selling has become a common practice in the retailing industry. In this paper, we look into a joint optimization problem of multiple and dynamic marketing decisions when advance selling is applied. It is assumed that a retailer sells a product...... with a short selling season. Thiscan be a perishable or deteriorating item. The retailer launches advance selling before the stock actually arrives at the market in order to extend the selling season. Thereby, the retailer increases the awareness of the potential consumers to the new product. The dual...... marketing efforts of advertising and price discounting are employed during the entire selling season. We first model and analyze the dynamic demand generating process based on an extension of Bass’ Model. The marketing decision problem is modeled as a deterministic Markov decision-making process. A dynamic...

  10. Assessment of absorption of four lignan constituents of JingNing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study small intestinal absorption of schisadrol A, schisandrol B, schizandrin A and schisandrin B in JingNing particles using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP). Methods: Absorption rate constant (Ka) and apparent permeability (Papp) of the drugs at different concentrations in various parts of rat small ...

  11. Terase- ning rõiva- ja tekstiilitoodete kvootide rakendamine Euroopa Liidus / Koidu Talli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talli, Koidu

    2003-01-01

    Euroopa Liit rakendab teatud kolmandatest riikidest pärit teatud tööstustoodete impordile kvantitatiivseid piiranguid (kvoote) ning nn järelevalvet (surveillance), mis seisneb topeltkontrolli süsteemi rakendamises. Vastavatest lepingutest ja EL määrustest

  12. Auditorisk rytmestøttet gangtræning efter erhvervet hjerneskade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Søren Vester

    2016-01-01

    Patienter med erhvervet hjerneskade, Parkinsons sygdom og andre neurologiske sygdomme har ofte behov for genoptræning af gangfunktionen. I artiklen beskrives, hvordan man med en smartphone og apps kan finde musik i det rigtige tempo, så den kan benyttes til at træne patienternes gangfunktion. Hvis...

  13. Hjemmebaseret fysisk træning for voksne patienter med kronisk hjertesvigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Malene; Klenske, Frederikke; Støier, Louise

    Formålet med denne kliniske retningslinje er at undersøge, hvorvidt der er evidens for at hjemmebaseret træning har en gavnlig effekt på det fysiske funktionsniveau og/eller livskvaliteten hos voksne patienter med kronisk hjertesvigt NYHA klasse II-III og dermed kan anbefales til denne...

  14. Sell side recommendations during booms and busts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian W. Kretzmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study documents that the information content and the information processing of stock recommendations differ fundamentally between expansions and recessions. The initial market reaction to all recommendations is stronger in recessions, but “Buy” recommendations do not have long-term investment value. We find that in recessions sell side analysts are too optimistic about the stocks they recommend to buy, while investors initially overreact to these recommended stocks. In expansions, no such contradicting pattern exists. We also document that analysts favor “glamour” over “value” stocks irrespective of the state of the economy.

  15. IS IT DIRECT SELLING A TYPE OF DIRECT MARKETING? ARGUMENTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA BOBÂLCĂ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct selling, as a type of relationship marketing, facilitates the construction of a customized relation between the company and its clients and assures a long term collaboration between the two parts. For a direct selling company, direct marketing is a powerfull tool used to build strong relationships with the clients. There are more viewpoints regarding the relation between direct selling and direct marketing. The purpose of the research is to investigate the relation between direct selling through salesmen and/or catalogues and direct marketing. The objectives are: (1 to synthetize the approaches regarding the direct selling through salesmen and/or catalogues as a type of direct marketing; (2 to present and to argue the researcher’s own viewpoint. We consider that direct selling is a component of direct marketing.

  16. Trænings- og habiliteringstilbud til børn og unge med handicap - et vidensoverblik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Rikke Eline; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    Der er i dag ikke et aktuelt billede af gode trænings- og habiliteringstilbud, som iværksættes i og udenfor de specialiserede tilbud til børn og unge med betydelige funktionsnedsættelser. Foreliggende projekt tilbyder et vidensoverblik over ikke-hjemmebaserede trænings og habiliteringsindsatser, ...

  17. Järgsilpide "o" ja "u" varieerumine ning traditsioonid vanas kirjakeeles / Külli Prillop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prillop, Külli

    2009-01-01

    Kirjeldatakse, mida võib vanade tekstide põhjal oletada "o" ja "u" vaheldumisest ja selle põhjustest, kasutades eelkõige Georg Mülleri jutluste tekste. Selgitatakse ka probleeme vana kirjakeele tekstide põhjal keelemuutuste kohta järelduste tegemisel

  18. 1,65 miljardi dollari eest edevust ning näpatud saateid / Kalle Kose

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kose, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    Interneti sotsiaalvõrgustikust YouTube ja selle liitumisest Google'iga. Vt. ka: Intervjuu kasutajaga : "YouTube'i pärast on jäänud nii mõndagi tegemata." Aktsiakaupleja Oliver Peek räägib YouTube'i kasutamisest teleri asendajana. Diagramm: Videovahetuse keskkondade turuosad. Graafik: Videovahetuskeskkondade turuosa kasv USA-s

  19. Fysisk aktivitet og træning til patienter i hæmodialysebehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dè Hòra, Nette Solskov; Brincks, Ulrikke Kodal; Steffensen, Ida Toftlund

    træningskonceptet blandt patienter i HD og personale. Fysisk funktionsevne (evnen og kapaciteten til at udføre hverdagslivets aktiviteter) er alvorligt reducerede hos patienter med kronisk nyresvigt, og studier har påvist en reduktion på 50 % af den forventede kapacitet ved start på dialyse behandling. Fysisk...... informere og støtte alle patienter med kronisk nyresvigt i at gennemføre fysisk træning. På trods af evidens for effekten af fysisk træning og aktivitet for patienter med kronisk nyresvigt i dialyse, er det kun indført i enkelte danske dialyseafdelinger. Projektet er designet inden for det britiske Medical...

  20. Styrketräning för barn och ungdomar med cerebral pares : Litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Svenfelt, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Sammandrag: Styrketräning för barn är ett ämne som under lång tid har varit tabubelagt och något som alltid väcker tankar hos folk. Efter att man på senare år fått mera kunskap om ämnet håller det på att ändra lite. Styrketräning har visat sig ha en rad positiva effekter hos både friska barn och barn och ungdomar med cerebral pares, cp. Cp sägs vara den vanligaste orsaken till rörelsehinder hos barn. Det mest karaktäristiska hos barn med cp är mer eller mindre nedsatt muskelkontroll. ...

  1. Athena konverentsi- ja kultuurikeskus ning restoran Volga = Athena Conference and Cultural Centre and Volga Restaurant

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Athena konverentsi- ja kultuurikeskuse ning restorani Volga sisekujundusest (Tartus Küütri 1 asuva Athena kinohoone renoveerimine). Sisearhitekt: Aivar Roosaar. Restaureeriti ka muinsuskaitse alla kuuluvad Ferdi Sannamehe neoklassitsistlikud stukkreljeefid kinosaali seintel ja Peet Areni maalid restorani vitraažlaega keldrisaali nishshides. A. Roosaarest, tema tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse, vahekorruse ja pööningu plaan, värv. välisvaade, 15 sisevaadet, foto A. Roosaarest

  2. Modeling switching behaviour of direct selling customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Msweli-Mbanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The direct selling industry suffers a high turnover rate of salespeople, resulting in high costs of training new salespeople. Further costs are incurred when broken relationships with customers cause them to switch from one product supplier to another. This study identifies twelve factors that drive the switching behaviour of direct sales customers and examines the extent to which these factors influence switching. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the validity of these factors. The factors were represented in a model that posits that an interpersonal relationship between a direct sales person and a customer moderates the relationship between switching behaviour and loyalty. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model. The author then discusses the empirical findings and their managerial implications, providing further avenues for research.

  3. Selling Participation to Audiences in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Huang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Media globalization is facilitated by the development of new technologies within a framework of digitization and convergence. Contemporary new media provide networks through which the mingling of media occurs, shaping a “multi-mediacy” age, and a connecting of mediated/mediating venues in a condition of “immediacy”. Additionally, the business of communication has evolved from being the “communication of business” to the “business of business”. Multi-mediacy and immediacy have generated new avenues of profit from media. The paper will draw on Chitty’s theorization on web transactional venues to discuss new ways of farming of revenue from media. Media revenues have in the past and today been drawn from licence fees, media subscriptions and advertising. Today, media networks also sell “participation” to audiences directly by charging for text message voting/gaming, or sell a range of products and services through web-venue based commerce. This paper will undertake case studies to examine the increasing trend of “direct audience payment for participation”. The case studies that will be used are (A the intervention of Chinese Service Providers in reality TV shows and (B E-commerce on the Internet. Monternet (mo[bile I]nternet and Linktone are investigated as Service Providers (SPs and the consumer-to-consumer (C2C website www.taobao.com is studied compared with Eachnet (eBay in China. The paper will also investigate the influences of “direct audience payment for participation” on the quality of media products and communication flow between media and audience and generally discuss the consequences of the “direct audience payment for participation” from the perspective of communication ethics.

  4. To Sell or Not to Sell? Behavior of Shareholders During Price Collapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Bertrand M.

    It is a common belief that the behavior of shareholders depends upon the direction of price fluctuations: if prices increase they buy, if prices decrease they sell. That belief, however, is more based on ``common sense'' than on facts. In this paper, we present evidence for a specific class of shareholders which shows that the actual behavior of shareholders can be markedly different. For instance, they may continue to buy despite a prolonged fall in prices or they may sell even though prices climb. A closer analysis shows that a substantial proportion of investors are more influenced by the ``general social climate'' than by actual price changes. The percentage of speculative investors who optimize their portfolio on a monthly basis can be estimated and turns out to be about 5 to 10%. The results presented in this paper can be of usefulness in order to test the assumptions or the results of market simulations and models.

  5. Selling and Sales Management in Nigeria | Johnson | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of selling in the twentieth century parallel the growth of modern marketing. Sales management has become a more professionally and customer oriented endeavour in line with the philosophy of the marketing concept. The focus of selling in advanced economies has shifted to and increased emphasis on ...

  6. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.4 Selling visual information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve the...

  7. Real-Time Adaptation of Influence Strategies in Online Selling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Parvinen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time adjustments in online selling are becoming increasingly common. In this paper we describe a novel method of real-time adaptation, and introduce influence strategies as a useful level of analysis for personalization of online selling. The proposed method incorporates three perspectives on

  8. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See 412...

  9. A Study On Direct Selling Through Multi Level Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, F. Mary

    2012-09-01

    Direct selling is a multi-level marketing in which the sales force is compensated not only for the sales they make but also for the sales done through their recruit. This recruited sales force is referred to as the participants who can provide multiple levels of compensation.A person's job would be to recruit others to sell their product, and in return, receive a percentage of their sales. The next person's job then is to recruit people even more so below them, and receive a percentage of their sales. Other terms for Multi-level marketing include network marketing and referral marketing. Commonly, the salespeople are expected to sell products directly to consumers by means of relationship through referrals marketing. Some people use direct selling as a synonym for MLM, although MLM is only one type of direct selling

  10. Effekt af postoperativ træning af patienter med lumbal diskusprotese

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Marijke de Koning

    2010-01-01

    Design: Et randomiseret kontrolleret forsøg. Formål: At undersøge om der er forskel mellem effekt af postoperativ vejledning og effekt af postoperativ vejledning + fysioterapeut-ledet træning af patienter med 1-2 lumbale diskusproteser, målt på smerte og funktion, 3 måneder postoperativt i forhold til præoperativt. Baggrund: Operation med indsættelse af diskusprotese til patienter med non-specifikke kroniske lænderygsmerter har været en anvendt behandlingsmodalitet i Europa s...

  11. Cryptococcose neuroméningée et tuberculose osseuse chez un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les auteurs rapportent un cas de cryptococcose neuroméningée (CNM) chez un patient de 39 ans, non infecté par le VIH suivi pour une tuberculose de hanche. Le tableau clinique était celui d'une méningite subaiguë. Le diagnostic a été possible grâce à la mise en évidence de cryptocoques dans le LCR. L'évolution a été ...

  12. Investeerija märksõnad : USA ning tervishoiu- ja IT-sektor / Uwe Zöllner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zöllner, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    USA elanike tarbimise mõjust globaalsele majandusruumile. Aktsiainvesteeringuid plaanides tasuks silmas pidada tervishoiu- ja infotehnoloogiasektori ettevõtteid ning vaadata USA poole. Lisa: Hiina eksport võrreldes riigisisese tarbimisega

  13. Traditional Chinese Medicine Shuang Shen Ning Xin Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Preserving of Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the potential cardioprotective effects of Shuang Shen Ning Xin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Wistar rats were treated with trimetazidine (10 mg/kg/day, ig, Shuang Shen Ning Xin (22.5, 45 mg/kg/day, ig, or saline for 5 consecutive days. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 40 min and reperfusion for 120 min on the last day of administration. It is found that Shuang Shen Ning Xin pretreatment markedly decreased infarct size and serum LDH levels, and this observed protection was associated with reduced myocardial oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In addition, further studies on mitochondrial function showed that rats treated with Shuang Shen Ning Xin displayed decreased mitochondrial swelling and cytosolic cytochrome c levels, which were accompanied by a preservation of complex I activities and inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition. In conclusion, the mitochondrial protective effect of Shuang Shen Ning Xin could be a new mechanism, by which Shuang Shen Ning Xin attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  14. Insaiderlus Eesti finantssektoris ja selle tõkestamine / Mart Sõrg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõrg, Mart, 1943-

    2003-01-01

    Insaiderluse all mõistetakse avalikustamata siseteabe ärakasutamist väärtpaberitega kauplemisel. Eestis seostatakse insaiderluse mõistega eelkõige pangandus- ja muud finantssektorit ja selle töötajaid

  15. Selling Online by European Enterprises – Multivariate Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Žmuk

    2015-02-01

    have a statistically significant impact on the share of enterprises that sell online. This means that these two factors together have a crucial role in determining the ICT development level in European enterprises.

  16. Determinants of salesperson performance in selling new products

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoor, Ayesha; Manzoor, Kiran

    2017-01-01

    Salesperson performance is essential to commercialise and sell a new product in the market. It is significant to investigate determinants that affect salesperson performance while selling new products. Theories of reasoned action and perceived behavioural control were examined, which in turn shed light on different factors including attitude, self-efficacy, subjective norms, product and customer knowledge. Using the quantitative approach and survey method, the study attempted to obtain a clea...

  17. Selling Online by European Enterprises – Multivariate Analysis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Žmuk, Berislav

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to describe and analyse possible impacts on selling online by enterprises as the main variable under consideration in the study, in selected European countries using five selected independent variables that represent the information and communication technology (ICT) and the economic development level. Data for 31 European countries were analysed. The paper presents recent trends in European enterprises in using online selling as one of many Internet services. Three groups of ...

  18. Gang Membership, Drug Selling, and Violence in Neighborhood Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellair, Paul E; McNulty, Thomas L

    2009-12-01

    A prominent perspective in the gang literature suggests that gang member involvement in drug selling does not necessarily increase violent behavior. In addition it is unclear from previous research whether neighborhood disadvantage strengthens that relationship. We address those issues by testing hypotheses regarding the confluence of neighborhood disadvantage, gang membership, drug selling, and violent behavior. A three-level hierarchical model is estimated from the first five waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, matched with block-group characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census. Results indicate that (1) gang members who sell drugs are significantly more violent than gang members that don't sell drugs and drug sellers that don't belong to gangs; (2) drug sellers that don't belong to gangs and gang members who don't sell drugs engage in comparable levels of violence; and (3) an increase in neighborhood disadvantaged intensifies the effect of gang membership on violence, especially among gang members that sell drugs.

  19. Media och Multitasking : En studie om utbildningspodcast och träning

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Rickard; Weinz, Axel

    2017-01-01

    I och med ny medieteknik samt en allt mer uppkopplad och stressad värld har det blivit vanligare med multitasking. Tidigare forskning visar att 90 procent av befolkningen multitaskar någon gång varje dag. Detta trots att multitasking visats leda till både stress och försämrad prestationsförmåga i de aktiviteter man arbetar med, särskilt i samband med inlärning. Samtidigt har tidigare forskning visat att träning förbättrar flera funktioner i hjärnan kopplat till inlärning. I denna studie under...

  20. The Social Construction of Successful Practical Selling - A study of how sales persons at CR Ltd construct selling as successful

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Catharina

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I discuss how the sales persons, at a computer retailing company, understand themselves as successful in interaction with their customers. The discussion introduces earlier research about success and successful selling, which also reveals the notion as socially constructed. The purpose has been to reveal how the sales person socially constructs, interprets and enact successful practical selling as well as competition in their every day practice. The discussion about the sales pe...

  1. Postnatal ovarian development and its relationship with steroid hormone receptors in JiNing Grey goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, YunZhi; Wang, ShuYing; Bai, Shu; Huang, LiBo; Hou, YanMeng

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we examined the ovarian development and its relationship with steroid hormone receptors levels and the precocious puberty in JiNing Gray goats by using optical microscopy, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting. We found that in the ovaries of neonatal kids, high level of receptors for estrogen (ERα and ERβ) and progesterone (PR) and their mRNA were observed along with growing follicles. From 0 to 30 days of age, the weight and volume of ovaries increased significantly and the boundary between the inner and outer cortex disappeared, while the expression of ERα, ERβ and PR and their mRNA decreased sharply. When 60 days old, the animals began to ovulate; the expression of ERα, ERβ and PR and their mRNA significantly increased, and the animals reached puberty. On day 90, the animals manifested sexual maturity with biggest mature follicles 6.18mm in diameter, the expression of ERβ and PR protein and their mRNA was maintained at a high level, with decreased expression of ERα and its mRNA. Before puberty, the expression of ovarian ERα (prepubertal dominant receptor) and it's mRNA was significantly higher than that of ERβ (dominant receptor after sexual maturity). The results showed that JiNing Grey goats' ovaries had fast development and early maturation, and ERα, ERβ and PR protein and mRNA expression in the ovary had distinct specificity for time and space, which may be closely related to the strain's progenitive characteristics. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Kliniske retningslinjer for træning af aerob kapacitet og muskelstyrke til patienter med reumatoid artrit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birgit Tine; Læssøe, Uffe; Kjær, Thomas

    -intensitets træning af patienter med reumatoid artrit. Evidensen forsikkerhed og effekt af høj-intensitetstræning af patienter med reumatoid artrit i funktionsklasse III er CENTER FOR KLINISKE RETNINGSLINJER- CLEARINGHOUSESide 2uklar. Der bør derfor tages ekstra forholdsregler i forbindelse med træningen af disse......Baggrund: Patienter med reumatoid artrit har en forhøjet risiko for udviklingen af cardio-vaskulære lidelser (CVD) ogtidlig død. Inflammation, smerter og generel træthed resulterer i nedsat muskelstyrke og lavt fysiskfunktions- og aktivitetsniveau hos mange af disse patienter, hvilket yderligere...... III, i primær eller sekundær sektoren. Intervention/er: Kortvarig land- eller vandbaseret højintensitets træning af aerob kapacitet, kortvarig eller længerevarendeland-baseret høj-intensitets træning af aerob kapacitet i kombination med muskelstyrke træning oglængerevarende land-baseret høj...

  3. Young women selling sex online - narratives on regulating feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women's life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women's perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: "Entering - adverse life experiences"; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. "Immersion - using the body as a tool for regulating feelings"; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. "Exiting - change or die"; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting.

  4. Young women selling sex online – narratives on regulating feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting. PMID:25733944

  5. 30 CFR 206.102 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length contract? 206.102 Section 206.102 Mineral Resources... Federal Oil § 206.102 How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm... seller under the arm's-length contract, less applicable allowances determined under §§ 206.110 or 206.111...

  6. Lähetuste kord ja selles tehtud muudatused / Madis Uusorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uusorg, Madis

    2005-01-01

    Töö- ja ametilähetutuste üldpõhimõtetest ning lähetusi reguleerivate määruste muudatusest Vabariigi Valitsuse 2005. a 7. juuli määrusega nr 155. Lisatud tabel: tulu- ja sotsiaalmaksuvabalt makstav päevaraha ja kulude hüvitamine

  7. A Big Boy : Tema lugu ja selle loojad / Raigo Kollom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kollom, Raigo, 1936-

    2010-01-01

    Hinnatud ratsahobuste A Big Boy ja A Pikachu de Muze'i Eestisse ostmise loost Belgia hobusekasvataja Joris de Brabanderi kasvandusest ning A Big Boy põlvnemisest ja saavutusest kuni müügini Athina Onassis-Mirandale 2009. aastal

  8. Rahvusvaheline koostöö robotiehitamise tudengiprojektides / Raivo Sell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sell, Raivo, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Artikkel annab ülevaate robotiehitamise koostööprojektist Rootsi Kuningliku Tehnikaülikooliga, mida on edukalt praktiseeritud alates 2002. aastast. Kajastatud on projekti eripärad ja tulemused ning kokkuvõte tudengite arvamustest mehhatroonikaprojekti kohta

  9. Goldin ja Katz meeste ning naiste palgalõhest / Claudia Goldin, Lawrence Katz ; toimetanud Steven D. Levitt, Stephen Dubner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldin, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Harvardi ülikooli tööturu uurimisele spetsialiseerunud majandusteadlased ning meeste ja naiste palgalõhe teema spetsialistid Claudia Goldin ja Lawrence Katz vastavad küsimustele, mis puudutavad võrdse haridusega meeste ja naiste tegelikku palgaerinevust, palgalõhet meeste ja naiste vahel siis, kui mitte arvestada tööaega, naiste suutlikkust pidada palgaläbirääkimisi ning tegevusalasi, kuhu peaksid mehed ja naised pürgima või mida vältima

  10. Sociologist as a Service Provider. Using Psychology to Support Selling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Е Aimautova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article helms the reader to the results of the sociological services market observation. A basic selling scheme is outlined with the components of interactions space as well as the set of "must-have" psychological skills and competencies essential for the seller highlighted as factors of high priority. The principal stages of the selling process are identified. The notion of "offeror" who meets the desires of the client purchasing sociological services is introduced. The prominent role of psychological selling techniques is emphasized in the guidelines to be abided by the sociologist in order to prevent potential misunderstandings and conflicts as well as to establish new contacts and keep old ties with the client after making a deal.

  11. Book selling and e-books in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Maceviciute; Birgitta Wallin; Kersti Nilsson

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the understanding of the book-selling situation as Swedish booksellers see it. It pursues the answers to the following questions: 1. What are the perceptions of Swedish booksellers of the impact of e-books on their business? 2. What drivers are important for Swedish booksellers for adopting and developing e-book sales through their own sales channels? 3. What do they perceive as barriers to e-book selling through their own channels? The authors ha...

  12. Young women selling sex online – narratives on regulating feelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonsson LS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Linda S Jonsson,1 Carl Göran Svedin,1 Margareta Hydén2 1Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden Abstract: The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9. Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help

  13. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction suppresses osteoclastogenesis via increasing dehydroepiandrosterone to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Yuyan; Qiu, Xuemin; Xu, Yingping; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction (BSNXD), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to prevent and treat age-related diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) for decades. This study sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms of BSNXD in terms of receptor activation of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro because of the critical roles of bone resorption in the development and progression of osteoporosis. In mice, serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and 17-β-estradiol (E2) were evaluated with an enzyme immunoassay kit after ovariectomy. Levels of DHEA and DHEAS increased significantly following administration of BSNXD while the level of E2 did not. In addition, tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase staining showed that DHEA profoundly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro in a dose-dependent manner via estrogen receptor α (ERα) but not via estrogen receptor β or androgen receptors. Cytotoxicity was not detected in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. These data suggest that BSNXD prevents PMO by increasing DHEA via the ERαpathway to suppress osteoclastogenesis.

  14. Maakondlikud infopäevad: uut Euroopa Liidu rahastusest ning abiprogrammidest ettevõtte arenguks ja ekspordi edendamiseks / Peter Garnischeff

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gornischeff, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Oktoobris ja novembris toimuvatel seminaridel tutvustatakse heaks kiidetud Euroopa 2010. aasta strateegiat, noorte ettevõtjate Erasmus-programmi ning räägitakse uutest ettevõtjale mõeldud teenustest EL-is. Seminare korraldab Euroopa Komisjoni Eesti Esindus koostöös Eesti Kaubandus-Tööstuskojaga

  15. Rahvuslus, multikultuurilisus ja liberaalne lähenemine enamuse-vähemuse suhetes ning meedias / Ragne Kõuts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõuts, Ragne, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Rahvussuhteid legitimeerivate ideestike teoreetilisest käsitlusest ning nende ideestike esinemisest Eesti avalikus arvamuses. Allikana on kasutatud 1999.-2002. a. korraldatud uuringu "Integratsiooniprotsesside meediamonitooring" käigus kogutud materjali. Tabel: Riikluse tõlgendusmallide põhielemendid Eesti ajakirjanduses

  16. "Rohgem ei tiija mina teile kirjuda." Kirjavormelid ning peresuhete kajastused Jakob Ploomi sõjakirjades / Andreas Kalkun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalkun, Andreas, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Sõjaaegse kirjakultuuri levimisest Võrumaalt pärit nekrut Jakob Ploomi 26 isikliku kirja põhjal, millest näeb, mismoodi paistis Suur sõda rohujuuretasandilt ning seda, mismoodi talupojad jõudsid sõja poolt peale sunnitud vajadusest tingituna suulisest maailmast kirjakultuuri

  17. What is the Outcome of Selling in Business Relationships?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2013-01-01

    to their customers and develop structural bonds. The inherent complexities of business relationships pose a major challenge for selling as such relationships can be considered an extra task for sales executives to deal with – and an extra investment for firms that try to develop business with new customers...

  18. Identifying the best market to sell: A cost function formulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While there is not much literature directly related how to identify the best place to sell a com- modity to maximize profits, we review some of the related academic literature. It should be noted that almost all the work in this area is related to hedging, which unfortunately is not an option for the marginalized Indian farmer.

  19. Availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Jason P; Marlowe, Douglas B; Forman, Robert F

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin, a powerful hallucinogen contained in Psilocybe mushrooms. Over a 25-month period beginning in March 2003, eight searches were conducted in Google using the term "psilocybin spores." In each search the first 100 nonsponsored links obtained were scored by two independent raters according to standardized criteria to determine whether they offered to sell psilocybin or psilocybin spores. No attempts were made to procure the products offered for sale in order to ascertain whether the marketed psilocybin was in fact "genuine" or "counterfeit." Of the 800 links examined, 58% led to websites offering to sell psilocybin spores. Additionally, evidence that whole Psilocybe mushrooms are offered for sale online was obtained. Psilocybin and psilocybin spores were found to be widely available for sale over the Internet. Online purchase of psilocybin may facilitate illicit use of this potent psychoactive substance. Additional studies are needed to assess whether websites offering to sell psilocybin and psilocybin spores actually deliver their products as advertised.

  20. Adaptive Selling and Organizational Characteristics: Suggestions For Future Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vink (Jaap); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper the relationship between adaptive selling and organizational behavior is analysed. Specifically, it is discovered that adaptive behavior is a multifaceted concept which is not linearly related to the organizational characteristics in the way it was operationalized in a

  1. 48 CFR 1631.205-75 - Selling costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Selling costs. 1631.205-75 Section 1631.205-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL... advertising costs’, and The Federal Employees Health Benefits Handbook for Personnel and Payroll Offices...

  2. Elijah Watt Sells Award: A Study of Previous Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Susan; Pinto, Joann; Romero, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of winners of the Elijah Watt Sells award. We ask them about the determinants of their success, which might be useful to other students preparing for the CPA exam. The winners graduated from different universities, not necessarily the ones ranked top, and almost all of them participated in a review…

  3. Optimal strategy for selling on group-buying website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to help business marketers with offline channels to make decisions on whether to sell through Group-buying (GB websites and how to set online price with the coordination of maximum deal size on GB websites. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the deal structure of GB websites especially for the service fee and minimum deal size limit required by GB websites, advertising effect of selling on GB websites, and interaction between online and offline markets, an analytical model is built to derive optimal online price and maximum deal size for sellers selling through GB website. This paper aims to answer four research questions: (1 How to make a decision on maximum deal size with coordination of the deal price? (2 Will selling on GB websites always be better than staying with offline channel only? (3 What kind of products is more appropriate to sell on GB website? (4How could GB website operator induce sellers to offer deep discount in GB deals? Findings and Originality/value: This paper obtains optimal strategies for sellers selling on GB website and finds that: Even if a seller has sufficient capacity, he/she may still set a maximum deal size on the GB deal to take advantage of Advertisement with Limited Availability (ALA effect; Selling through GB website may not bring a higher profit than selling only through offline channel when a GB site only has a small consumer base and/or if there is a big overlap between the online and offline markets; Low margin products are more suitable for being sold online with ALA strategies (LP-ALA or HP-ALA than high margin ones; A GB site operator could set a small minimum deal size to induce deep discounts from the sellers selling through GB deals. Research limitations/implications: The present study assumed that the demand function is determinate and linear. It will be interesting to study how stochastic demand and a more general demand function affect the optimal

  4. Antidiarrheal properties of different extracts of Chinese herbal medicine formula Bao-Xie-Ning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wu, Xin-lin; Chen, Yuling; Tang, Zhi; Xu, Yue-hong; Jiang, Jian-min; Gu, Yue-yu; Chen, Jian-ping; Yang, De-po; Wang, Dong-mei

    2013-03-01

    Bao-Xie-Ning (BXN), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formula composed of Fructus Evodiae, Flos Caryophylli and Cortex Cinnamomi, and used for the treatment of infant diarrheal illness, was subject to systematic assessment for its putative multiple pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacological antidiarrheal mechanisms. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric/mass spectrometry was developed and validated for identification and quantification of the main constituents in different extracts of BXN. Male Kunming mice weighing 20 to 25 g were used for detecting the antidiarrheal activity of the extracts. Ethanolic extract (EE), volatile oil extract (VOE), and aqueous extract (AE) of BXN were respectively subjected to pharmacodynamic and pharmacological comparison in assessing antidiarrheal effects with senna-induced diarrhea, castor oil-induced diarrhea, acetic acid-induced writhing assay, and isolated duodenum test. The highest yields of three detected components of BXN, rutaecarpine, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde were observed in EE. EE showed the most remarkable antidiarrheal activity in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners in both senna- and castor oil-induced diarrhea models, and presented dose-dependent analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced algesthesia model. In addition, EE extract of BXN also exhibited strong antimobility action on the intestine and strongest depression on spontaneous contraction of isolated duodenum. Ethanol extraction is an efficient method to extract the active constituents of BXN. BXN extract demonstrated multiple pharmacological activities affecting the main mechanisms of diarrhea, which validated BXN's usage in the comprehensive clinical treatment of diarrhea.

  5. Personal selling constructs and measures: Emic versus etic approaches to cross-national research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Herché (Joel); M.J. Swenson (Michael); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling

  6. Olla teadlane või mitte olla? : Tulevaste õpetajate käsitused teadusest, teadlastest ning endast teadlasena / Meri-Liis Laherand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laherand, Meri-Liis, 1951-

    2009-01-01

    Mõiste "õpetaja kui uurija" kajastab ootust, et õpetaja peaks suutma olla ka oma töö uurija ning vajab seetõttu teaduslikku mõtlemisviisi. Eesti õpetajakoolituse üliõpilaste käsitlusi teadusest ja teadlastest ning iseendast teadlasena. Uuritavateks olid Tallinna Ülikooli õpetajakoolituse teise kursuse üliõpilased

  7. Võrdseid võimalusi ja õppimist soodustav koolijuhtimine ning koolide autonoomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos Hatzopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Artikkel põhineb koolijuhtimise Euroopa võrgustiku (EPNoSL raames tehtud tööl, eelkõige 21 Euroopa riigi koolijuhtimise strateegiate süvauuringul ja aruteludel, mis toimuvad EPNoSLi veebiseminaridel, riikide õpikodades ja vastastikuse õppe üritustel, millest võtavad osa mitmes ELi riigis koolijuhtimisega seotud huvirühmad (sh Euroopa, riikliku ja kohaliku tasandi poliitikakujundajad, koolijuhid, õpetajad ja teised haridustöötajad, õppejõud, lapsevanemad ja õpilased. EPNoSL on Euroopas tegutsevast 42 institutsioonist koosnev võrgustik, mille eesmärk on parandada Euroopa koolide juhtimist nii poliitilisel kui ka praktilisel tasandil. Artiklis käsitletakse koolide autonoomia küsimust Euroopa koolijuhtimise strateegiate kujundamise kontekstis. Koolide autonoomiat peetakse tervikliku koolijuhtimise poliitika väljatöötamise oluliseks eeltingimuseks. Artikkel tugineb kõnealuse projekti raames välja töötatud laiaulatuslikule koolijuhtimise strateegia kujundamise raamistikule ja sellel on kaks põhieesmärki. Esiteks püütakse artiklis näidata, et selle asemel et otsida koolide autonoomia puhul ühte, kõigile sobivat lahendust, tuleks keskenduda konkreetset olukorda arvestavale strateegiale, mille eesmärk on saavutada kindlaksmääratud õpitulemused ja võrdsed võimalused. Teiseks on artiklis kirjeldatud seitset koolide autonoomia põhisuunda, mida on võimalik kohandada Euroopa eripalgeliste haridussüsteemidega.  Full text

  8. EXAMINATION OF THE RELEVANCE OF PERSONAL SELLING IN MARKETING ACTIVITIES: A DESCRIPTIVE METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Adesoga, Adefulu

    2016-01-01

    The paper examined the relevance of personal selling in selected Bottling Companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. Survey research method was adopted. The study population was the staff in marketing positions of selected companies. Questionnaire was administered on selected samples while weighted mean was used to determine the relevance of personal selling. The study revealed that personal selling accentuated relationship building, foster creative selling, and represented the company well to the cu...

  9. Book selling and e-books in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maceviciute

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of the understanding of the book-selling situation as Swedish booksellers see it. It pursues the answers to the following questions: 1. What are the perceptions of Swedish booksellers of the impact of e-books on their business? 2. What drivers are important for Swedish booksellers for adopting and developing e-book sales through their own sales channels? 3. What do they perceive as barriers to e-book selling through their own channels? The authors have employed the analysis of the secondary statistical data and a survey of Swedish booksellers to answer their questions. The results of the investigation have shown that the Swedish booksellers do not feel their bookshops, or business in general, are threatened by e-books. The opinions on e-books do not differ between the few selling e-books and others who do not offer this product. The reasons for selling e-books are well-functioning routines and personal interest in the product. The reasons for not selling the books are the lack of demand and technical resources as well as contractual agreements with e-book publishers or vendors. So, technical resources for e-book sales, routines, and contracts with publishers are the main premises for this activity. The biggest barriers to e-book sales are: a the price as one can see not only in the answers of the booksellers, but also in the drop of sales obviously related to the rise of prices during 2014; b lack of demand from customers who do not enquire about e-books in bookshops. This leads to the belief that e-books will be sold mostly online either directly from publishers and authors or through online booksellers. However, an equal number of booksellers believe that physical bookshops will be selling printed books and e-books in the future. The future of e-books seems to be quite secure and non-threatening to printed books from the point of view of booksellers. The growth of e-book sales is quite slow and the respondents

  10. "Jag har typ en tallinje i huvudet" : Elevers upplevelse av träning med applikationen Vektor

    OpenAIRE

    Åbonde, Lena; Strömbom, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur elever i behov av särskilt stöd i matematik beskriver sin upplevelse av träning med applikationen Vektor och om de uttrycker någon förändring av sina grundläggande strategier efter träning. Flera forskare är överens om att arbeta med hjälp av digitala verktyg får effekter på elever både när det gäller kunskap och motivation. Vad det är som gör att de blir motiverade och lär sig mer och om effekterna sitter i, finns det delade meningar om. Åtta ele...

  11. A Framework for Personalized Dynamic Cross-Selling in E-Commerce Retailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timalsina, Arun Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Cross-selling and product bundling are prevalent strategies in the retail sector. Instead of static bundling offers, i.e. giving the same offer to everyone, personalized dynamic cross-selling generates targeted bundle offers and can help maximize revenues and profits. In resolving the two basic problems of dynamic cross-selling, which involves…

  12. "!Chalinas a 20 Pesos!": Economic Ideas Developed through Children's Strategies for Successful Selling in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitabkhan, Yasmin Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the economic ideas of indigenous Triqui children between the ages of 5-15 who sell artisanal goods in Oaxaca, Mexico. I report findings from two studies that investigated (1) sellers' strategies for successfully selling goods, and (2) children's economic ideas linked to their selling strategies. In…

  13. Personal selling constructs and measures: Emic versus etic approaches to cross-national research

    OpenAIRE

    Herché, Joel; Swenson, Michael; Verbeke, Willem

    1996-01-01

    textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling (ADAPTS) and customer-oriented selling (SOCO).

  14. Betydningen af ”Virtuel Genoptræning” for motivation og fastholdelse af træning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Finn Riiskjær; Jakobsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    , at helbredet bliver dårligere, og at der ikke er supervision, når genoptræningsforløbet er afsluttet og træningsudstyret hentet. Specifikt i forhold til Virtuel Genoptræning virker det motiverende, at der er feedback og en opfølgning på træningen, samt at borgerne kan tilpasse træningen til egne rutiner...

  15. Internet Selling Expansion Inhibitors: A Mixed Method Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research based on providing five questions has tried to identify and prioritize the main and sub inhibitors of internet selling boosting in Iran. A mixed method research (QUAN has been used in this research. In the qualitative phase, individual in-depth interviews have been done with seven e-shop managers. In this phase, 45 detailed inhibitors have been detected. These 45 inhibitors have been categorized in nine sub categories and four main categories. In the quantitative phase a 51-items questionnaires has been designed including six demographical and 45 specialized questions. Findings of the quantitative phase reveal that the main obstacles include legal, cultural, infrastructural and managerial inhibitors. In addition, sub category inhibitors include legal, governmental, telecommunication, society, human resource, transportation, financial and customer related.     Keywords: e-selling, Iran, Inhibitors, Mixed method.

  16. ANALYSIS OF A DIRECT SELLING NETWORK FOR AGRIFOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Placido Rapisarda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sicily has become a food and wine area of great interest. However, conflicts within the supply chains have caused the selling process to become long and complex to the disadvantage of farmers, thereby leading to an information asymmetry between producers and consumers.In order to meet the new needs of the agrifood sector, we developed a theoretical model of organized direct selling that goes beyond regional boundaries, which is an alternative model to farmers’ markets and that helps to promote the creation of a network among the operators of Sicilian agrifood supply chains. The aims of this study was to verify the potential of the proposed theoretical model based on a SWOT analysis, which was achieved by collecting data from interviews with the producers involved in the Sicilian agrifood supply chains, and with the main stakeholders involved.

  17. Men and boys selling sex in the Bradford district

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, P.; Rivers, I.

    2002-01-01

    This report provides a summary of key findings from a study commissioned by Yorkshire MESMAC exploring the experiences and needs of men and boys who are involved in selling sex in the Bradford district. This study consisted of three related projects outlined below. Project A: Survey of Agencies in the Bradford Area The first author conducted an interviewbased survey of 31 representatives from 21 local statutory and voluntary sector agencies exploring their perceptions of the issue of m...

  18. Adoption levels and information sources of "brood and sell" poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption levels and information sources of "brood and sell" poultry operators. MO Onu, MC Madukwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Agro-Science Vol. 3(1) 2002: 63-67. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/as.v3i1.1505 · AJOL African ...

  19. Top-selling childbirth advice books: a discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Holly Powell; Nardini, Katrina; McLeod-Waldo, Rebecca; Ennis, Linda

    2009-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that one-third of women receive information about pregnancy and childbirth through books. Messages about what characteristics are normal (or expected) in childbirth are disseminated in a variety of ways, including popular childbirth education books, but little study of them has been conducted. The purpose of this investigation is to address that gap by examining the discussions about childbirth in the 10 top-selling books in the United States. Discourse analysis (relating to the public, personal, and political discussions about a specific phenomenon) was used to study 10 best-selling United States childbirth advice books marketed to childbearing women during the first week of November 2007. Book styles ranged from clinical descriptions of pregnancy and birth primarily offering reassurance, self-help information, and danger signs to more folksy and humorous commentaries. Presentation of scientific evidence to support recommendations was uneven and at times inaccurate. Five focal areas of discourse included body image, labor and birth, pain, power and control, and life preparation for motherhood. Top-selling books shine an interesting light on the current state of United States maternity practices. Women and health professionals should assess them carefully and engage with each other about their recommendations and implications for childbirth.

  20. Evaluation of root-knot nematode disease control and plant growth promotion potential of biofertilizer Ning shield on Trichosanthes kirilowii in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Hao; Xie, Ping; Li, Ke; Xie, Yue-Sheng; Chen, Liu-Jun; Wang, Jin-Suo; Xu, Quan; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2017-11-11

    Biofertilizer Ning shield was composed of different strains of plant growth promotion bacteria. In this study, the plant growth promotion and root-knot nematode disease control potential on Trichosanthes kirilowii in the field were evaluated. The application of Ning shield significantly reduced the diseases severity caused by Meloidogyne incognita, the biocontrol efficacy could reached up to 51.08%. Ning shield could also promote the growth of T. kirilowii in the field by increasing seedling emergence, height and the root weight. The results showed that the Ning shield could enhance the production yield up to 36.26%. Ning shield could also promote the plant growth by increasing the contents of available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter, and increasing the contents of leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment. Moreover, Ning shield could efficiently enhance the medicinal compositions of Trichosanthes, referring to the polysaccharides and trichosanthin. Therefore, Ning shield is a promising biofertilizer, which can offer beneficial effects to T. kirilowii growers, including the plant growth promotion, the biological control of root-knot disease and enhancement of the yield and the medicinal quality. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Motoorika areng eelkoolieas ning selle mõju õpiedukusele esimeses klassis = The development of motor at preschool age and its influence on academic achievement in their first form : I koht magistritööde kategoorias / Kristi Heilman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heilman, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    Uuringu ülesandeks oli välja selgitada koolieelikute liigutusoskuste tase sõltuvalt liikumistundide arvust lasteaia õppenädalas ja püüda välja selgitada liikumisoskuste mõju lapse õpiedukusele esimeses klassis

  2. Süüteovahendi konfiskeerimise eesmärk ja õiguslik olemus ning selle põhiseaduslik õigustus. Riigikohtu üldkogu otsus asjas 3-1-1-37-07 / Andres Parmas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parmas, Andres, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Riigikohtu lahendist 3-1-1-37-07 (Toomas Tiiki kaitsja vandeadvokaadi abi Anti Aasmaa kassatsioon Viru Ringkonnakohtu 22. märtsi 2007. a kohtuotsuse peale kriminaalasjas Toomas Tiiki süüdistuses KarS § 424 järgi)

  3. Lepingulise esindaja õigus ütluste andmisest keelduda tsiviilkohtumenetluses ning selle õiguse seos konfidentsiaalsuskohustusega : [magistritöö] / Jako Laanemägi ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Andreas Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanemägi, Jako

    2010-01-01

    Ütluste andmisest tsiviilprotsessis, advokaadi osast, õigusnõustaja rollist, prokuristist e. menetlusosalise lepingulisest esindajast kohtumenetluses, notari osast, muu isiku rollist (nt. patendivolinik)

  4. Töö problemaatikast nüüdisajal / Mare Merimaa, Enno Oidermaa, Merle Tambur, Tiia-Edith Tammeleht ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Psühholoogiline vägivald töökohal / Merle Tambur. Desünkronoos töö kontekstis / Maria Teiverlaur. Kohtunike töökoormus ja selle mõju kohtulahendi kvaliteedile / Mare Merimaa. Streigitont Eesti tööturul / Tiia-Edith Tammeleht. Ehitusnõuete rikkumisest tulev haldus- ja kriminaalvastutus / Enno Oidermaa

  5. Kohalduva õiguse ja selle sisu kindlakstegemine rahvusvahelistes eraõiguslikes vaidlustes / Maarja Torga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Torga, Maarja, 1984-

    2014-01-01

    Ülevaate sellest, kuidas peaks Eesti kohtutes toimuma kohalduva õiguse ning kohalduva välisriigi õiguse sisu kindlakstegemine. Kohalduva õiguse määramist reguleerivate õigusaktide (rahvusvaheliste lepingute, Euroopa Liidu määruste ning riigisiseste õigusaktide) omavahelisest vahekorrast

  6. Højintens intervaltræning inducerer moderat forbedring i cirkulerende diabetes-relaterede inflammatoriske cytokiner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Mette; Madsen, Søren Møller; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2017-01-01

    Det er alment kendt, at motion forbedrer den metaboliske tilstand og mindsker risikoen for udvikling af præ-diabetes til type 2-diabetes. En væsentlig gevinst af regelmæssig motion menes at være via systemiske anti-inflammatoriske effekter, der formentlig skyldes en reduktion af fedtvævet. Hver g...... afklaret. Vi ønskede derfor at undersøge påvirkningen af højintens intervaltræning (HIIT) på cirkulerende inflammatoriske cytokiner hos patienter med type 2-diabetes.1-3...

  7. Social context of needle selling in Baltimore, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkin, Carl A; Davey, Melissa A; Hua, Wei

    2006-01-01

    Although much of the debate surrounding the distribution of sterile syringes to injection drug users (IDUs) has focused on needle exchange programs (NEPs), IDUs acquire their syringes from three major sources: NEPs, pharmacies, and secondary exchangers or needle sellers. The purpose of the present study is to examine types and frequencies of social interactions among drug injectors who sell needles, most of which come from NEPs, compared with individuals who do not sell needles. Specifically, we compared engagement in drug-related behaviors, roles in the drug economy, and social network membership. Data were collected as part of the SHIELD study, an HIV prevention intervention targeted at drug users and their social networks (n=910) from February 2001 through September 2003 in Baltimore, Maryland (USA). In this sample, 56 participants reported selling needles. Needle sellers had higher levels of engagement in drug-related social interactions, including using drugs with others, giving or receiving drugs from others, and buying drugs with other users. Participants who sold needles had a significantly higher number of roles in the drug economy. Also, they had more social network members who were injectors, with whom they talked about risky drug behaviors, gave needles to, and shared cookers and bleach with. Compared with nonselling injectors, needle sellers engage in HIV risk-related behaviors, such as injecting daily and sharing injection equipment, more frequently. The study's findings may be useful to determine whether secondary exchangers should be targeted for HIV prevention activities both to reduce their own risk and to diffuse risk reduction information throughout the drug using community.

  8. Pääsküla sõjaväeobjekti jääkreostus ning piirkonna edasise kasutamise perspektiivid / Triin Uudeväli, Anto Raukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uudeväli, Triin

    2004-01-01

    Pääskülas asunud NL-i raketijuhtimisekeskuse ja sideväeosa poolt tekitatud keskkonnareostuse hindamisest, likvideerimisest ning ettepanekutest territooriumi edasiseks kasutamiseks. Kaart. Skeem. Fotod

  9. Time dependent optimal switching controls in online selling models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cohen, Albert [MICHIGAN STATE UNIV

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to incorporate dishonesty in online selling via a stochastic optimal control problem. In our framework, the seller wishes to maximize her average wealth level W at a fixed time T of her choosing. The corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann (HJB) equation is analyzed for a basic case. For more general models, the admissible control set is restricted to a jump process that switches between extreme values. We propose a new approach, where the optimal control problem is reduced to a multivariable optimization problem.

  10. The quality of information on websites selling St. John's wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakor, Vijeta; Leach, Matthew J; Gillham, David; Esterman, Adrian

    2011-06-01

    Health consumers are increasingly using the Internet to access information about health care, to self-diagnose, and to purchase medication. The use of the Internet to purchase herbal products is of particular interest because of the high level of consumer expenditure on herbal medicines, and the misperception by some consumers that herbal products are natural, and thus absent of any contraindications, drug interactions and adverse effects. It is possible that consumers may purchase herbal medicines via the Internet without consulting health professionals and therefore, use these medicines in an unsafe manner. To examine the quality of e-commerce websites that sell herbal products; specifically, websites where St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) can be purchased. Cross-sectional survey of 54 selected websites, including online pharmacies, online health food stores and manufacturers of herbal medicines. A modified version of the DISCERN instrument was used to assess the quality of websites. The majority of websites rated poorly with a concerning lack of information about the interaction between hypericum and warfarin, anti-depressants and oral contraceptives. Most sites also failed to provide sufficient information about the contraindications and adverse effects of hypericum treatment. The results of this study strongly support the need for improved consumer education about herbal medicine, as well as the application of more stringent standards to websites that sell medications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EOQ model for perishable products with price-dependent demand, pre and post discounted selling price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhi, G.; Karthikeyan, K.

    2017-11-01

    In this article we introduce an economic order quantity model for perishable products like vegetables, fruits, milk, flowers, meat, etc.,with price-dependent demand, pre and post discounted selling price. Here we consider the demand is depending on selling price and deterioration rate is constant. Here we developed mathematical model to determine optimal discounton the unit selling price to maximize total profit. Numerical examples are given for illustrated.

  12. Negative Entrenchment Effect of Business Group Conglomerates on Selling and Purchasing Related Party Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Dayinta Ayuningtyas; Vera Diyanty

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to explain the negative entrenchment effect arised from selling and purchasing related party transactions on business group conglomerates. This study is using 322 firm-year data of firms listed at Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2012-2013 period.This research provides evidence that the ownership by business conglomerates strengthened the negative entrenchment effect in both total of selling-purchasing related party transactions and selling-purchasing related party transactions whi...

  13. Emotional Intelligence – Sales Performance Relationship: A Mediating Role of Adaptive Selling Behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wisker Zazli Lily; Poulis Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    ...). Data were collected from 281 sales people in the financial industries in Malaysia via the WLEIS emotional intelligence scale and ADAPTS adaptive selling behaviour scale, and were quantitatively...

  14. 9 CFR 201.61 - Market agencies selling or purchasing livestock on commission; relationships with dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.61 Market agencies selling...

  15. Selling digital art in bulk through prepaid URLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John S

    2007-01-01

    Suppose a major donor anywhere in the world could sponsor tens of thousands (or any number) of copies of a song, video, or any other digital "content"--letting tens of thousands of people in social networks just click to download free, with no registration ever, instantly paying the artists or a cause by the act of free downloading itself. And each sponsor can deliver a message to the thousands of anonymous end users who download from his or her contribution. We show how independent artists could market globally at no expense if people care about their work--offering an alternative to corporate monoculture. Or they could donate their digital art to an organization that sells it this way to raise funds.

  16. The speakers' bureau system: a form of peer selling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lynette; Herder, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In the speakers' bureau system, physicians are recruited and trained by pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device companies to deliver information about products to other physicians, in exchange for a fee. Using publicly available disclosures, we assessed the thesis that speakers' bureau involvement is not a feature of academic medicine in Canada, by estimating the prevalence of participation in speakers' bureaus among Canadian faculty in one medical specialty, cardiology. We analyzed the relevant features of an actual contract made public by the physician addressee and applied the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) guidelines on physician-industry relations to participation in a speakers' bureau. We argue that speakers' bureau participation constitutes a form of peer selling that should be understood to contravene the prohibition on product endorsement in the CMA Code of Ethics. Academic medical institutions, in conjunction with regulatory colleges, should continue and strengthen their policies to address participation in speakers' bureaus.

  17. Selling health data: de-identification, privacy, and speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie

    2015-07-01

    Two court cases that involve selling prescription data for pharmaceutical marketing affect biomedical informatics, patient and clinician privacy, and regulation. Sorrell v. IMS Health Inc. et al. in the United States and R v. Department of Health, Ex Parte Source Informatics Ltd. in the United Kingdom concern privacy and health data protection, data de-identification and reidentification, drug detailing (marketing), commercial benefit from the required disclosure of personal information, clinician privacy and the duty of confidentiality, beneficial and unsavory uses of health data, regulating health technologies, and considering data as speech. Individuals should, at the very least, be aware of how data about them are collected and used. Taking account of how those data are used is needed so societal norms and law evolve ethically as new technologies affect health data privacy and protection.

  18. Tahtluse vormid ning nende eristamine teoorias ja praktikas : [bakalaureusetöö] / Mattias Jõgi ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Anneli Soo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    Tahtlusest Ameerika Ühendriikides ja mandri-Euroopas, tahtluse vormidest Eestis 1935. a. kriminaalseadustiku ja 1961. a. kriminaalkoodeksi järgi, tahtluse vormide eristamisest ja esinemisest kehtivas karistusseadustikus, kelmusest ja selle erikoosseisudest, kohtuotsustes tahtluse vormide eristamisest

  19. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation of...

  20. Kontribusi Penggunaan Personal Selling Dalam Kegiatan Komunikasi Pemasaran Pada Era Pemasaran Masa Kini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suherman Kusniadji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s marketing era, consumers seem to have known about marketed products and no longer need explanation from a salesperson. The interaction between company and target consumers can be marketed through new media such as email, Facebook, WA, Instagram, and other forms. Such situations need to be in-depth researched in terms of whether personal selling contribution is still needed in marketing communication activities. Considering the uniqueness and personal selling advantages turns out that personal selling is an important partner that can not be replaced by other forms of marketing communications even if there is exposure to new media to promote products. The specialty of personal selling lies in its ability to interact directly to improvise the sales process through person to person communication. Dalam era pemasaran masa kini nampaknya konsumen dianggap sudah mengetahui tentang produk yang dipasarkan dan tidak memerlukan lagi penjelasan dari seorang wiraniaga. Interaksi perusahaan dengan pembeli sasaran dapat dilakukan melalui media baru seperti email, facebook, WA, instagram dan bentuk lainnya. Situasi demikianlah yang memerlukan kajian mendalam dalam kaitannya bagaimana peran personal selling dalam kegiatan komunikasi pemasaran di era digital? Memperhatikan keunikan dan kelebihan personal selling ternyata personal selling merupakan mitra penting yang tidak dapat tergantikan oleh bentuk komunikasi pemasaran lainnya sekalipun ada terpaan media baru untuk mempromosikan produk. Keistimewaan personal selling terletak pada kemampuannya untuk berinteraksi secara langsung untuk mengimprovisasi proses penjualan melalui komunikasi person to person.

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Profitability in Brood-and-Sell and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared the profitability of brood-and-sell and brood-and-finish broiler enterprises in Abia State of Nigeria. Data collected using structured questionnaire and interview schedules from 70 poultry farmers made up of 35 brood-and-sell and 35 brood-and-finish broiler farmers were analyzed using multiple ...

  2. E-selling: A new avenue of research for service design and online engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvinen, P.; Oinas-Kukkonen, H.; Kaptein, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    E-selling is an activity that is distinct from e-commerce, e-marketing and e-retailing. E-selling is conceptualized to be computer–human dialog characterized by the digital spatio-temporal locus, the psychology of online persuasion, and complex perceptions of value. This definition warrants that

  3. E-selling : A new avenue of research for service design and online engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvinen, Petri; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Kaptein, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    E-selling is an activity that is distinct from e-commerce, e-marketing and e-retailing. E-selling is conceptualized to be computer–human dialog characterized by the digital spatio-temporal locus, the psychology of online persuasion, and complex perceptions of value. This definition warrants that

  4. Hard Sell: Advertising, Affluence and Transatlantic Relations, c. 1951–1969

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Sean Nixon: Hard Sell. Advertising, Affluence and Transatlantic Relations, c. 1951–1969. (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2013 xv. 2012 pp., ISBN 978-0-7190-8537-6)......Book review of: Sean Nixon: Hard Sell. Advertising, Affluence and Transatlantic Relations, c. 1951–1969. (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2013 xv. 2012 pp., ISBN 978-0-7190-8537-6)...

  5. Kodanikuõpetus kui õppeaine ja selle sisu kujundavad faktorid / Edgar Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krull, Edgar

    2001-01-01

    Kodanikuõpetuse korraldusest ja sisust eri riikides, toetudes CICE4 (Childrens̀ Identity and Citizenship in Europe) andmebaasidele, mis sisaldavad informatsiooni õpilaste identiteeditaju ja kodanikuteadvuse, kodanikuõpetuse ainekavade ning õpetajakoolituse panuse kohta õpetajate ettevalmistamisel kodanikuõpetuseks

  6. Factors Associated With American Indian and White Adolescent Drug Selling in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2015-06-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the correlates of adolescent drug selling in America, with most of these studies focusing on urban settings. The present study examines the risk and protective factors associated with drug selling among American Indian and white adolescents residing in a rural Northwestern state in the United States. Using survey data collected in 2010-2012, we conduct logistic regression analyses exploring the correlates of drug selling (n=568). Generally, we found support for prior explanations of drug selling, but identified some important race-specific differences. Specifically, we found that stress exposure was a risk factor for American Indians, but not whites. Conversely, academic achievement served as a protective factor for white adolescents but not American Indians. Our findings suggest that the race gap in rural drug selling can be explained by considering differences in social bonds, stress exposure, and exposure to substance using family and friends.

  7. Brugbar peer feedback: instruktion og træning før vi slipper de studerende løs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Helle; Heger, Stine

    Studerende kan være medskabere af undervisning i akademisk skrivning, når de modtager og giver feedback til hinandens ufærdige akademiske tekster. Det ser vi i et udviklingsprojekt, hvor vi afprøver kollektive vejledningsformater. Vi har dog erfaret: 1. at studerende mangler træning i at give og...... modtage feedback 2. at den manglende træning kan stå i vejen for realiseringen af læringspotentialet ved peer feedback....

  8. Aprender inglés utilizando una red social: Explorando el uso de la red Ning por parte de estudiantes de segunda lengua

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrejas Peñuelas, Ana Belén

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo describe un estudio piloto llevado a cabo con estudiantes de Inglés 5 (nivel B+) en la Universidad de Valencia, la cual incorporó una red social para estudiar inglés fuera del horario lectivo. La herramienta seleccionada fue la web Ning, porque se centraba en el grupo y ofrecía toda una serie de herramientas interesantes – blogs, chats and foros de discusión – que tenían potencial para el aprendizaje del inglés. Los resultados indican que el uso del Ning en combinación con el co...

  9. 12 CFR 617.7620 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? 617.7620 Section 617.7620 Banks and... What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? System institutions electing to sell or lease acquired agricultural real estate or a...

  10. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it must...

  11. Selling antimicrobials without prescription - Far beyond an administrative problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinovart, Maria C; Figueras, Albert; Llor, Carles

    2016-11-17

    Selling antibiotics without prescription is common in many countries; beyond the administrative restrictions, this practice is a risk for patients and society. The aim of the study was to evaluate the information provided by the staff of the pharmacy to a simulated patient requesting an antibiotic. A prospective study was carried out in January 2013 - February 2014 in the Health Region of Tarragona, in which a mystery shopper visited 220 pharmacies requesting an antibiotic to be sold. The actress was not asked about allergies in 73.9% of cases and never was asked about possible pregnancy. Recommendation to see a doctor was observed in 36.1% of cases. When antibiotics were not sold, the explanation provided by the staff was reasoned only in 9.9% of the cases. It is necessary and urgent to improve the training of pharmacists in dispensing antibiotics but also strengthen basic health knowledge among the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Assembling cyavanaprāsh, Ayurveda's best-selling medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    The paper discusses the many forms and representations of cyavanaprāsh, Ayurveda's best-selling medicine, already mentioned in Caraka's Compendium (c. 200 CE). The medicine's compositions, applications, and meanings, change over time and from locality to locality. Cyavanaprāsh is, for example, a patriotic formula, a booster of the immune system, a modern geriatric drug, and one of the elements in canonical Ayurvedic treatments. In the beginning of the 19th century cyavanaprāsh was a patriotic formula for fortifying Indian bodies and the nascent Indian nation. Nowadays the medicine is a Fast Moving Consumer Good (FMCG) and a money maker for Dabur India Ltd., the world largest Ayurvedic manufacturer. Instead of vitalising the nation its consumption now promises to make urban middle class consumers effectively modern. Branding and modern science must make Dabur Chyawanprash attractive in the eyes of these consumers. Ayurveda and cyavanaprāsh are also part of a global counter culture marked by neo-Orientalism and Ayurvedic medicines as facilitators of spirituality. The marketing of cyavanaprāsh by India's largest Ayurvedic manufacturer is used as a case study for discussing the proliferation of Ayurvedic brands and its critics. The imaging of Ayurvedic brands such as Dabur Chyawanprash threatens to obscure the fact that Ayurveda represents a unique way of looking upon health, disease and the human body. The proliferation of brands also makes Ayurvedic medicines more expensive and puts pressure on the natural environment as the main supplier of Ayurvedic ingredients.

  13. ON PRICE CHOICE AT SELLING OF INFORMATION RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Ivanova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of the pricing policy determination in the company, selling information resource at the market. The problem of the optimal price determination for an information resource is solved depending on the time for the case when the seller-company has no competitors in the market, the market is saturated, and buyers are not able to further spread of the resource. Conditions for the optimal choice of information resource price have been obtained; the maximum possible income of the company has been calculated for linear demand function, and conditions, determining the duration and volume of sales, providing the maximum of average income of the company, have been obtained as well. The problem of optimal price choice is solved by macrosystem approach that has made it possible to reduce it to the isoperimetric kind. It is shown that the optimal price dependence on time for a linear demand function should provide a linearly increasing rate of sales. Conditions have been derived under which the sales proceedings for an information resource are positive, relationship is determined between volume of sales and timeline at which the average income during the sales reaches its maximum. The results are given in dimensionless form, thereby reducing the number of independent parameters. These results are usable for the pricing analysis of software and other information products.

  14. Urania in the Marketplace: Using Telescopes to Sell Consumer Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2018-01-01

    For well over a century the iconic image of the astronomical telescope has been widely used to promote distinctly non-astronomical consumer goods. One of the most famous of early examples is the 1893 Chicago newspaper advertisement for Kirk’s Soap, which was inspired by the opening of the Yerkes Observatory. But such usage was not limited to periodicals. Advertising trade cards had become popular at the end of the 17th century in Europe, notably in Paris and London. In a time prior to the introduction of formal systems of street address numbering, they served as both advertisement and map, directing consumers to the merchants' stores. In many cases, attention was drawn to the product by picturing it as a heavenly body to be observed telescopically! In the 20th century trade cards gave way to the modern business card, and manufacturers began to increasingly rely on magazine and newspaper (and radio and television) advertising. But the telescope remains an evocative image! In modern advertising we see it used to sell an incredible variety of consumer goods: candy, coffee, cigarettes, whiskey, foodstuffs, clothing; the list is endless! Examples of these, along with earlier Victorian-era usages, are presented. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  15. ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE ON CUSTOMER LOYALTY FOR DIRECT SELLING COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia BOBALCA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to investigate Romanian direct sellers’ perceptions on customers’ loyalty. The research objectives are: (1 to identify the direct sellers’ perceptions on the concept of loyalty; (2 to identify the main loyalty techniques that direct sellers use in their work with the clients; (3 to frame the portrait of a loyal customer. As a research method, we used qualitative research based on depth interviews. It is an exploratory and instrumental research, the results being used for building a questionnaire for a future survey. The investigated population is represented by direct selling women, with ages beteeen 19 and 30 years. For direct sellers, loyalty is an attitude and also a behavior, it means buying from the same company, from the same seller and preferring the products of the company. The main loyalty techniques that direct sellers use in their work with the clients are: promotional actions, personalization the relation with the client and offering stimulants. The loyal customer is the one who buys companies’ products every month or at least quarterly, spends a monthly amount of 100 Ron on these products, works with the same seller, pays on time for the order, doesn’t look only after promotions, loves the products, recommends the company to others, doesn’t return the order, wants to buy more products from the company and trusts its products.

  16. Selling or telling? A theory of ruin value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2011-01-01

    Selling or telling? : A theory of ruin value  Abstract: To what extent can tourism be described as an agent of peace? Can war and conflict be reconciled through tourism? Why is the children's memorial in Hiroshima so important and why is the Holocaust memorial in Berlin a reconciliating...... will explore four tracks of this doomsday vision: in fiction, facts and in the world of tourism. 1. The architect who, as Faust, sold his soul for immortality and the consequences thereof. 2. The artist who creates a personal vision of our fear and anxiety. 3. A comparative analysis of a group of mainstream...... into why the ruin and the memorial are fundamental parts of our cultural heritage, and why the image of the apocalypse in tourism and the new game and film media are important and brings us closer together.                                            Keywords: Post apocalypse, art and hell, death cults...

  17. USING CHILDREN TO SELL: CHILDHOOD AND ADVERTISING OF CONSUMER MAGAZINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Deporte Andrade

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present society, also identified as a "consumer society" (Bauman, 2008, people, irrespective of gender, age, social and financial conditions, are all called for consumption. In this article we turn to the childhood and approached one of the faces of their insertion into the society of consumers, trying to show how children are used to sell. As a frame of theoretical reference we adopt, among others, the writings of Zygmunt Bauman, Juliet Schor and Robert Bocock, dealing with contemporary versions of consumption. Analyzing weekly magazines of large circulation, we discuss how productive it is for the economic market the alliance between childhood and consumption and we argue that this use of children in publicity contributes for a new conception of childhood: the childhood of consumption. An erotized childhood, always wanting more and never feeling satisfied, focused in acquiring and showing off. This is the childhood that is coming to school with new interests, preferences and behavior, deserving our entire attention. Key-words: contemporary childhood, childhood and consumption, consumer society, advertising, magazines.

  18. European experience of regulating distance selling of medicines for Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Hrekov, Yevhen; Hrekova, Maryna

    Some countries have already tried and tested mechanisms of regulating distance sales as form of distribution of medicines that have been used more or less effectively for a fairly long time. Herewith, so far, the approach of the competent authorities of some countries including Ukraine can be called prevailing in quantitative terms under which the official prohibition on distance sales of medicines is set. The aim of this study is a detailed examination of the nature of the prohibition of the medicines distance selling in Ukraine, namely the an analysis of advantages and disadvantages of this form of distribution of medicines and identification of appropriate ways for gradual repeal of the prohibition in terms of regulatory reform in Ukraine in the sphere of circulation of medicines due to the process of adaptation of statutory regulation in this area to the EU legislation. This study is based on Ukrainian regulation acts, Council Directives 97/7/EC, 2000/31/EC, 2001/83/EC, scientific works and opinions of progressiveminded people in this sphere. Such methods as dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive have been used in the article. Reception of the described experience of regulation in EU will allow a further review of the principles of regulation in Ukraine in the sphere of medicines with a shift in the main emphasis in the direction of ensuring adequate consumer rights in this area and preventing the risks of patients' and public health.

  19. Ou Ning: Bishan Commune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Ning

    detaljerigt samarbejde med en arkitekt og to designere om utopiens boformer og tøjdesigns, en tragikomisk gennemgang af Kinas selvudråbte kejsere efter 1949 m.m.. Man mærker en afstand til Mao-æraen såvel som til tiden efter Mao og op til i dag – hverken kommunismen eller den nuværende hyperkapitalistiske...

  20. Inimväärikust alandava kohtlemise kriteeriumid ning nende rakendamine kinnipidamistingimuste hindamisel. Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtu ja Riigikohtu halduskolleegiumi seisukohad / Carolin Toomingas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toomingas, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    Inimväärikusest, inimväärikust alandavast kohtlemisest ja karistamise keelust ning väärikuse alandamisest kui riigi vastu suunatud nõude alusest. Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtu praktika ja Euroopa inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konventsiooni tähtsusest Eesti kohtute töös. Sisaldab asjakohast kohtupraktikat

  1. Preference for art: similarity, statistics, and selling price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Daniel J.; Friedenberg, Jay D.; McCandless, Cyrus H.; Rockmore, Daniel N.

    2010-02-01

    preference, one might expect "free markets" to value art in proportion to its aesthetic appeal, at least to some extent. To assess the role of value, a further test of preference was performed on a separate set of paintings recently sold at auction. Results showed that the selling price of these works showed no correlation with preference, while basic statistics were significantly correlated with preference. We conclude that selling price, which could be seen as a proxy for a painting's "value," is not predictive of preference, while shared preferences may to some extent be predictable based on image statistics. We also suggest that contextual and semantic factors play an important role in preference given that image content appears to lead to greater divergence between similarity and preference ratings for representational works, and especially for artwork that prominently depicts faces. The present paper paves the way for a more complete understanding of the relationship between shared human preferences and image statistical regularities, and it outlines the basic geometry of perceptual spaces for artwork.

  2. The influence of information & communication technology on the selling activities of the professional sales representative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A.P. Drotsky

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of information and communication technology (ICT has become a reality in selling in the South African pharmaceutical industry. Low awareness levels exist in the pharmaceutical industry about how the effective use of ICT can contribute to client services and productivity. The effectiveness of ICT in selling depends on the way it is managed and implemented by management and accepted by the salespeople and clients, on how effectively it is applied, and on the influence, it has on the salesperson. A descriptive research design was used to determine whether the introduction of ICT into the selling process has influenced the professional sales representatives' activities in a positive way. The results of this study clearly indicate that pharmaceutical sales representatives, both those appointed before the introduction of ICT and those appointed there after, are not positive about the introduction of ICT into the selling process.

  3. Negative Entrenchment Effect of Business Group Conglomerates on Selling and Purchasing Related Party Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayinta Ayuningtyas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explain the negative entrenchment effect arised from selling and purchasing related party transactions on business group conglomerates. This study is using 322 firm-year data of firms listed at Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2012-2013 period.This research provides evidence that the ownership by business conglomerates strengthened the negative entrenchment effect in both total of selling-purchasing related party transactions and selling-purchasing related party transactions which come from operating activities. Thus, from the result, it can be presumed that there might be a possibility of agency conflict arised from selling-purchasing related party transactions when a firm is part of business conglomerates.

  4. Power points: how to design and deliver presentations that sizzle and sell

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mills, Harry

    2007-01-01

    ... Flow and Direction Sell the Sizzle Starting Strongly Making Your Point Finishing in Style Bridging with Transitions Tried and Proven Organizational Patterns Use a Persuasive Structure to Add Cohere...

  5. "Without the Internet, I never would have sold sex": Young Women Selling Sex Online

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonsson, Linda; Svedin, Carl-Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    .... This study aimed to examine what role the Internet and the use of smartphones play in young women selling sex online, focusing on the method of contact and the characteristics of the communication...

  6. Research on service strategy of electricity selling company under the reform of electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhuhan; Meng, Shiyu; Dou, Jinyue; Zeng, Ming; Sun, Chenjun

    2017-10-01

    The opening of the sale side of electricity market is an important goal of the new round of power system reform in China, and it is necessary to speed up the establishment and development of the electricity selling companies to achieve this goal. First of all, this paper defines the key problems, which are needed to be solved in the establishment of the sale side market, such as demand side response, optimization of users' power consumption mode, profit mode of electricity selling companies and fair competition in the market. On this basis, this paper analyzes the business of electricity selling company, from the aspects of the transition of business ideas, improving the energy efficiency level, providing integrated energy solutions and innovating business management mode; and then, the service strategies of electricity selling companies are put forward.

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF PERSONAL SELLING PT BANK TABUNGAN NEGARA (PERSERO, TBK IN PROMOTING PROGRAM SUPER UNTUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Eva Natalya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Appearing many types of bank proves that business of banking is growing up rapidly and and competing to compile society’s found. Therefore, each bank does the best promotion in order to get the attention and trust from society. PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero, Tbk is using personal selling in promoting Program Super Untung in 2014, this research focuses on monitoring the process of implementation personal selling in Program Super Untung done by PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero,Tbk.This research aims to monitor the implementation of personal selling done by PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero,Tbk to promote Program Super Untung by using personal selling process method from Churchill,. Method applied in this research is descriptive qualitative with design of study case and technic of collecting data done by interviewing and compiling documents from the company related with the research. The result of this research discussed about implementation of personal selling done by PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero,Tbk in 2014. The steps of personal selling are prospecting for customer, opening the relationship, qualifiying the prospect, presenting the sales message, closing the sales, until servicing the account. This research concludes that personal selling has view steps, every steps have relationship and will influence the other steps. Every steps have substantial points that can influence the success of personal selling, i.e. good communication between seller and candidate of customer.  Muncul banyak jenis bank membuktikan bahwa bisnis perbankan berkembang pesat dan dan bersaing untuk menyusun masyarakat yang ditemukan. Oleh karena itu, setiap bank melakukan promosi terbaik agar mendapat perhatian dan kepercayaan dari masyarakat. PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero, Tbk menggunakan penjualan pribadi dalam mempromosikan Program Super Untung pada tahun 2014, penelitian ini berfokus pada pemantauan proses implementasi personal selling di Program Super Untung

  8. Emotional Intelligence – Sales Performance Relationship: A Mediating Role of Adaptive Selling Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Wisker Zazli Lily; Poulis Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of emotional intelligence on sales performance. We posited that the impact of emotional intelligence (EI) on sales performance was mediated by adaptive selling behaviour (ASB). Data were collected from 281 sales people in the financial industries in Malaysia via the WLEIS emotional intelligence scale and ADAPTS adaptive selling behaviour scale, and were quantitatively analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM). Results were in keeping with the mod...

  9. Pengaruh Personal Selling dan Promosi Penjualan terhadap Peningkatan Volume Penjualan Produk MLM Sm di Karanganyar

    OpenAIRE

    PUJIANI, DEWI

    2014-01-01

    This research there were some formulation of the problem among others: (1) is there any influence partially or simultaneous personal selling and the sales volume of SM MLM product in Karanganyar? (2) between personal selling and sales promotion where does that have an effect on increased sales volumes SM MLM product in Karanganyar? The company will finance the cost of promotions in accordance with the budget determined by the company. Measurements of the variables in this study using a Likert...

  10. Ethical responsibilities of pharmacists when selling complementary medicines: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Popattia, Amber; Winch, Sarah; La Caze, Adam

    2018-01-08

    The widespread sale of complementary medicines in community pharmacy raises important questions regarding the responsibilities of pharmacists when selling complementary medicines. This study reviews the academic literature that explores a pharmacist's responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Embase, PubMed, Cinahl, PsycINFO and Philosopher's index databases were searched for articles written in English and published between 1995 and 2017. Empirical studies discussing pharmacists' practices or perceptions, consumers' expectations and normative studies discussing ethical perspectives or proposing ethical frameworks related to pharmacists' responsibilities in selling complementary medicines were included in the review. Fifty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies discussing the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines had an empirical focus. Pharmacists and consumers identified counselling and ensuring safe use of complementary medicines as the primary responsibilities of pharmacists. No formal ethical framework is explicitly employed to describe the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines. To the degree any ethical framework is employed, a number of papers implicitly rely on principlism. The studies discussing the ethical perspectives of selling complementary medicines mainly describe the ethical conflict between a pharmacist's business and health professional role. No attempt is made to provide guidance on appropriate ways to resolve the conflict. There is a lack of explicit normative advice in the existing literature regarding the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines. This review identifies the need to develop a detailed practice-specific ethical framework to guide pharmacists regarding their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Isolates of Liao ning virus from wild-caught mosquitoes in the Xinjiang province of China in 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjun Lv

    Full Text Available Liao ning virus (LNV is related to Banna virus, a known human-pathogen present in south-east Asia. Both viruses belong to the genus Seadornavirus, family Reoviridae. LNV causes lethal haemorrhage in experimentally infected mice. Twenty seven isolates of LNV were made from mosquitoes collected in different locations within the Xinjiang province of north-western China during 2005. These mosquitoes were caught in the accommodation of human patients with febrile manifestations, or in animal barns where sheep represent the main livestock species. The regions where LNV was isolated are affected by seasonal encephalitis, but are free of Japanese encephalitis (JE. Genome segment 10 (Seg-10 (encoding cell-attachment and serotype-determining protein VP10 and Seg-12 (encoding non-structural protein VP12 were sequenced for multiple LNV isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed a less homogenous Seg-10 gene pool, as compared to segment 12. However, all of these isolates appear to belong to LNV type-1. These data suggest a relatively recent introduction of LNV into Xinjiang province, with substitution rates for LNV Seg-10 and Seg-12, respectively, of 2.29×10(-4 and 1.57×10(-4 substitutions/nt/year. These substitution rates are similar to those estimated for other dsRNA viruses. Our data indicate that the history of LNV is characterized by a lack of demographic fluctuations. However, a decline in the LNV population in the late 1980s-early 1990s, was indicated by data for both Seg-10 and Seg-12. Data also suggest a beginning of an expansion in the late 1990s as inferred from Seg-12 skyline plot.

  12. E-commerce: Buying and Selling through Internet in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Jusuf Qarkaxhija

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Before internet was invented, there were invented numerous networks that helped American businesses in multiple savings. First of, they didn’t spend money on buying printers or scanners for the computers they possessed, meaning that the money spent before on buying hundreds of them, now was saved and used to buy a few of printers and scanners. How was this done? This worked by binding the entire computers of a floor to a single network. Second, the factor mostly taken into account is the energy saving and various abuses. Imagine the enormous amount of electricity that hundreds of printers and scanners would spend  and how much energy tens of them would spend, moreover  just think about how much these devices would be used in offices, where nobody is looking, for personal interests. American business, as the most creative one and the strongest was bothered by only one thing . This was the misuse of secret corporation information. These abuses occurred when the data had to be printed and transferred to corporate subsidiaries around the world. During the transfer the data could also be lost or damaged (intentionally or unintentionally and then the corporation would suffer losses (the data were transferred via floppy discs, or they were printed in hard copies. The solution for these problems came from the US military that had invented the internet earlier and after having consumed it for its own needs, decided to put it up for American businesses. The internet has developed its own services such as : www, ftp, e-mail, and buying and selling though internet (e-commerce. Nowadays, information exchanges with corporate branches are not made roughly, but electronically in real time. Additionally, this made it possible for a new category of web designers to be created and they created a powerful web-site through which some businesses created virtual shops and they started earning more money than they used to, in their physical stores. This American

  13. Andmete väljastamine sideettevõtjate poolt jälitus- ja julgeolekuasutustele ning teistele selleks õigustatud isikutele : [bakalaureusetöö] / Kati Ambo-Vaher ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Andres Vutt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ambo-Vaher, Kati

    2007-01-01

    Andmete väljastamise põhiseaduslikud piirangud ja isikuandmete kaitse, sideettevõtjate poolt andmete väljastamine jälitus- ja julgeolekuasutustele ning teistele selleks õigustatud isikutele, logifailide ja päringute säilitamise kohustus ning järelevalve, andmete väljastamisega kaasnevate kulude hüvitamine

  14. 2. XII möödus 20 aastat Adamson-Ericu muuseumi avamisest Eesti Kunstimuuseumi filiaalina ning 35 aastat Adamson-Ericu (1902-1968) surmast

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Muuseumi ajaloost, põhikogust, Adamson-Ericu teoste põhiekspositsioonist, kunstinäitustest. 3. XII tutvustab Kersti Koll Adamson-Ericu ja läti kunstniku Ludolfs Libertsi näitust. 5. XII ekspositsioonis ringkäik "Meistri töövõtetest ning erinevatest materjalidest restauraatori pilgu läbi" Alar Nurkse juhtimisel, ekskursioon Ülle Kruusi juhtimisel. 10. XII algab projekti "Avatud muuseum" raames haridusprogramm "Noor kunstidetektiiv"

  15. En sammenlignende undersøgelse af praktikforløb og færdighedstræning i tre videregående uddannelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jette; Mørcke, Anne Mette; Raun Thomsen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Praktikforløb i videregående uddannelser er blevet et politisk indsatsområde, og der er i sundhedsuddannelserne også et internationalt forskningsfokus på emnet. I denne artikel vil vi beskrive og sammenligne rammerne for praktikforløb og færdighedstræning på idræts-, læge- og sygeplejerskeuddanne...

  16. India on edukas selles, milles Hiina ei ole. Ja vastupidi / Ülle Pihlak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pihlak, Ülle

    2010-01-01

    India majanduskasvu põhjustest ja tööstusharudest, kus areng on olnud kiirem: autotööstus, ravimitööstus, tarkvaraarendus. Lühidalt ka India riiklikust innovatsiooni toetamise süsteemist ning uudsetest haridus- ja majandusprogrammidest vaesuse vähendamiseks. Hiina ja India ärikeskkonna võrdlus

  17. Implementation of fuzzy logic to determining selling price of products in a local corporate chain store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiana, S. P. D.

    2017-12-01

    Corporate chain store is one type of retail industries companies that are developing growing rapidly in Indonesia. The competition between retail companies is very tight, so retailer companies should evaluate its performance continuously in order to survive. The selling price of products is one of the essential attributes and gets attention of many consumers where it’s used to evaluate the performance of the industry. This research aimed to determine optimal selling price of product with considering cost factors, namely purchase price of the product from supplier, holding costs, and transportation costs. Fuzzy logic approach is used in data processing with MATLAB software. Fuzzy logic is selected to solve the problem because this method can consider complexities factors. The result is a model of determination of the optimal selling price by considering three cost factors as inputs in the model. Calculating MAPE and model prediction ability for some products are used as validation and verification where the average value is 0.0525 for MAPE and 94.75% for prediction ability. The conclusion is this model can predict the selling price of up to 94.75%, so it can be used as tools for the corporate chain store in particular to determine the optimal selling price for its products.

  18. Design of an ARM-based Automatic Rice-Selling Machine for Cafeterias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Kang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To address the problems of low selling efficiency, poor sanitation conditions, labor-intensive requirement, and quick rice cooling speed in manual rice selling in cafeterias, especially in colleges and secondary schools, this paper presented an Advanced RISC Machines (ARM microprocessor-based rice-selling machine for cafeterias. The machines consisted of a funnel-shaped rice bin, a thermal insulation box, and a conveying and scattering mechanism. Moreover, this machine exerts fuzzy control over stepper motor rpm, and the motor drives the conveyor belt with a scraper to scatter rice, deliver it, and keep it warm. Apart from an external 4*4 keyboard, a point of sale (POS machine, an ARM process and a pressure sensor, the machine is also equipped with card swiping and weighting mechanisms to achieve functions of card swiping payment and precise measurement, respectively. In addition, detection of the right amount of rice and the alarm function are achieved using an ultrasonic sensor and a beeper, respectively. The presence of the rice container on the rice outlet is detected by an optoelectronic switch. Results show that this rice-selling machine achieves precise measurement, quick card swiping, fast rice selling, stable operation, and good rice heat preservation. Therefore, the mechanical design enables the machine to achieve its goals.

  19. Male sex workers who sell sex to men also engage in anal intercourse with women: evidence from Mombasa, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Mannava; Scott Geibel; Nzioki King'ola; Marleen Temmerman; Stanley Luchters

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior. Design: Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Methods: Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was us...

  20. 24 CFR 100.60 - Unlawful refusal to sell or rent or to negotiate for the sale or rental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful refusal to sell or rent or... Discriminatory Housing Practices § 100.60 Unlawful refusal to sell or rent or to negotiate for the sale or rental. (a) It shall be unlawful for a person to refuse to sell or rent a dwelling to a person who has made a...

  1. Businesswomen, dabblers, revivalists or conmen? : representation of selling and salespeople within academic, network marketing practitioner and media discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen-Ylikoski, Elina

    2006-01-01

    Representation of selling and salespeople within academic, network marketing practitioner and media discourses In this study, my purpose is to explore conflicting representations of selling and especially network marketing (NM). My first objective is to identify the fundamental features of sales discourses within academic and practitioner communities. The second objective is to understand in what ways the combination and contestation of these discourses produce ambiguous images of selling and...

  2. Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtu lahendid asjades Kolk ja Kislõi vs Eesti ning Kononov vs Läti - sarnasused, vastuolud ning Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtu argumentide põhistatus : [bakalaureusetöö] / Martin Häidberg ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; j

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Häidberg, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Võrdlevast kirjeldusest Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtu seisukohtades. Sõjakuritegudest ja inimsusevastastest kuritegudest ning konventsioonist aegumistähtaegade kohaldamatuse kohta, inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konventsiooni artikli 7 rikkumisest ja EIÕK põhjendustest, otsuste kriitikast, põhistatusest ja vastuoludest teiste lahenditega

  3. Real Time Business Analytics for Buying or Selling Transaction on Commodity Warehouse Receipt System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djatna, Taufik; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Hairiyah, Nina; Marimin

    2017-10-01

    The requirement for smooth information such as buying and selling is essential for commodity warehouse receipt system such as dried seaweed and their stakeholders to transact for an operational transaction. Transactions of buying or selling a commodity warehouse receipt system are a risky process due to the fluctuations in dynamic commodity prices. An integrated system to determine the condition of the real time was needed to make a decision-making transaction by the owner or prospective buyer. The primary motivation of this study is to propose computational methods to trace market tendency for either buying or selling processes. The empirical results reveal that feature selection gain ratio and k-NN outperforms other forecasting models, implying that the proposed approach is a promising alternative to the stock market tendency of warehouse receipt document exploration with accurate level rate is 95.03%.

  4. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Rowe, Hillary L.; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency. PMID:24954999

  5. The Prevalence of Phosphorus Containing Food Additives in Top Selling Foods in Grocery Stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Janeen B.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. Design The labels of 2394 best selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Setting Northeast Ohio Main outcome measures Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content Results 44% of the best selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread & baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 gm more than matched non-additive containing foods (p=.03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared to meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Conclusion Phosphorus additives are common in best selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. PMID:23402914

  6. The prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in top-selling foods in grocery stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Janeen B; Sullivan, Catherine M; Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best-selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top-selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. The labels of 2394 best-selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best-selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created, and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content. Forty-four percent of the best-selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread and baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive-containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 g more than matched nonadditive-containing foods (P = .03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared with meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Phosphorus additives are common in best-selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Who stops selling? A systematic analysis of ex-tobacco retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feletto, Eleonora; Burton, Suzan; Williams, Kelly; Fry, Rae; Sutton, Clare; Bagus, Lachlan; Egger, Sam

    2016-03-09

    There is evidence that wide distribution of cigarettes contributes to smoking, and multiple commentators have called for a review of tobacco retailing. This study analyses retailers who stop selling cigarettes, why they do so, and discusses the implications for tobacco control. An audit of tobacco retailers in the Australian state of NSW was used to identify retailers who had stopped selling tobacco, and they were then compared with current retailers to determine how many, and what types of outlets stop selling tobacco. Attempts were made to contact and interview all former tobacco retailers identified in three audited regions. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 ex-tobacco retailers, or 31% of the subset of ex-tobacco retailers. Low-volume outlet types were over-represented as a proportion of retailers exiting the market, and some had resumed selling within 18 months of the audit. Low profits were often cited as a contributor to stopping; however, in all but one case, the decision to stop selling was also influenced by a significant change in business circumstances-either legislative or other business changes. Few retailers stop selling tobacco while continuing in the same business, and those who stop disproportionately represent retailer types with low sales volume. The results suggest that legislative changes provide a window where retailers could be prompted to exit the market. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Uncertain Reasoning for Detection of Selling Stolen Goods in Online Auctions Using Contextual Information

    OpenAIRE

    Beranek, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the design of a decision support system for detection of fraudulent behavior of selling stolen goods in online auctions. In this system, each seller is associated with a type of certification, namely “proper seller,” “suspect seller,” and “selling stolen goods.” The certification level is determined on the basis of a seller’s behaviors and especially on the basis of contextual information whose origin is outside online auctions portals. In this paper, we focus on represent...

  9. Emotional Intelligence – Sales Performance Relationship: A Mediating Role of Adaptive Selling Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisker Zazli Lily

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the impact of emotional intelligence on sales performance. We posited that the impact of emotional intelligence (EI on sales performance was mediated by adaptive selling behaviour (ASB. Data were collected from 281 sales people in the financial industries in Malaysia via the WLEIS emotional intelligence scale and ADAPTS adaptive selling behaviour scale, and were quantitatively analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM. Results were in keeping with the model. Three domains of EI were not found to impact sales performance directly but through ASB. Theoretical implications and managerial ramifications were also discussed.

  10. Rice field test applied by the granular fertilizer made of silicate and oyster sell powder

    OpenAIRE

    森本, 正則; 守本, 信一; 宮本, 信彦; 立木, 陽子; 大黒, 撤平; 樋口, 喜三; 駒井, 功一郎

    2009-01-01

    [Synopsis] The granular fertilizer made of silicate and oyster sell powder was evaluated the efficacy by application for rice production in the paddy field experiment. The fertilizer was formulated oyster sell powder and silicate using granulator during spray a lignin solution as binder to ingredient powder. Finally, the granular fertilizer contents 1~2% water, 40% CaO, 3% SiO_2 and the particle size is 1~2 mm. The experimental setting was along with conventional rice production in Nara Pref....

  11. 41 CFR 102-38.125 - May we sell personal property at fixed prices to State agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Sales Process Negotiated Sales § 102-38.125 May we sell personal... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May we sell personal...

  12. 9 CFR 201.56 - Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment. 201.56 Section 201.56 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... openly, at the highest available bid, and in such a manner as to best promote the interest of each...

  13. 9 CFR 205.104 - Registration of buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent-minimum information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Registration of buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent-minimum information. 205.104 Section 205.104 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN... registrant is interested; and (3) If registrant is interested only in such product or products produced or...

  14. Eesti kunst-epos "Lembitu". Selle tuum ja tähendus / Juhan Kurrik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurrik, Juhan

    2003-01-01

    Ilmus esmakordselt: Kurrik, J. Kolm suurt lugu : Eesti ja Saksa rahva-eposed "Kalevipoeg" ja "Nibelungid" : Nende sisu ja võrdlemine. Eesti kunst-epos "Lembitu" : Selle tuum ja tähendus. Tartu, 1886. (Eesti Kirjameeste Seltsi Toimetused ; 75)

  15. Cross-selling through database marketing : a mixed data factor analyzer for data augmentation and prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamakura, W.A.; Wedel, M.; de Rosa, F.; Mazzon, J.A.

    An important aspect of the new orientation on customer relationship marketing is the use of customer transaction databases for the cross-selling of new services and products. In this study, we propose a mixed data factor analyzer that combines information from a survey with data from the customer

  16. Acquisition Pattern Analyses for Recognising Cross-Sell Opportunities in the Financial Services Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, L.; Kuijlen, A.A.A.

    2001-01-01

    In previously published papers it was shown that consumers often acquire financial products in the same order. Knowledge on such acquisition patterns is useful for marketing purposes. This study aims to define optimal utilisation of the acquisition pattern approach for cross-sell purposes. The

  17. A legal and empirical investigation into the direct selling industry’s advocacy in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokaji-Nagy, Orsolya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is made up of legal and empirical research into the direct selling industry’s advocacy in the European Union. In the context of the European pluralistic democracy or, somewhat pejoratively, the Brussels “lobbyocracy”, the thesis intends to increase lobbying transparency by mapping

  18. Application of the Shortened Version of the SOCO Scale in a Personal Selling Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Jeff W.

    2014-01-01

    The original SOCO Scale was reduced to 10 items by Thomas, Soutar, and Ryan (2001). The author conducted a pretest and a posttest in his Personal Selling class during the Fall 2009 semester. Significant differences by gender, student sales experience and family member in the sales field were identified. The author once again pretested the…

  19. Consultative selling in financial services : An observational study of the mortgage mediation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhallen, Theo M.m.; Greve, Harriette; Frambach, Ruud Th

    1997-01-01

    Notes that the literature on personal selling and advising on services stresses the importance of analysing the actual client-adviser interaction process. Explores this process of interaction in a mortgage setting by observing 42 conversations between advisers and 26 clients. The exact content and

  20. Salespeople's Renqing Orientation, Self-esteem, and Selling Behaviors: An Empirical Study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Hong; Chi, Shu-Cheng Steve; Hu, Hsiu-Hua

    2009-06-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate how salespeople's renqing orientation and self-esteem jointly affect their selling behavior. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Data were obtained from a survey of salespeople from 17 pharmaceutical and consumer-goods companies in Taiwan (n = 216). FINDINGS: Salespeople's renqing orientation (i.e., their propensity to adhere to the accepted norm of reciprocity) compensates the negative effect of self-esteem on their selling behaviors, such as adaptive selling and hard work. IMPLICATIONS: Our study results underscore the critical role of the character trait of renqing orientation in a culture emphasizing a norm of reciprocity. Therefore, it would be useful to consider a strategy of recruiting salespeople with either a high self-esteem or a combination of high renqing orientation and low self-esteem. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The existing literature of industrial/organizational psychology and marketing primarily relies on constructs that are derived from Western cultural contexts. However, the present paper extended these literatures by investigating the possible joint effects of self-esteem with a trait originated from the Chinese culture on salespeople's selling behaviors.

  1. Selling the "Electrical Dream" in the 1920s: A Case Study in the Manipulation of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Andrew

    To illustrate the relevance of critical communication history and theory to media ethics, this paper examines a crucial episode in the history of public relations: the American electrical industry's cooperative advertising and public relations efforts in the 1920s to sell the "electrical idea" to consumers. The paper first enumerates…

  2. Determinants of the place of sell and price of kale for Kiambu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salasya, B.D.S.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Kale is a major source of cash for many households in Kenya. A study of households in Kiambu district revealed that kale made the highest contribution to household income among the crops. The farmers of Kiambu sell their kale either in Nairobi, at farm gate, or at the local market and fetch

  3. Integrated planning in supply chains with buy-side and sell-side ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we develop a quadratic programming model for partner selection and planning in integrated supply chain networks embedded with both sell-side and buy-side electronic marketplaces. Such a scenario arises in several practical applications. In particular, we consider a contract manufacturer who procures ...

  4. Best-Selling Books Advising Parents about Gender: A Feminist Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafchick, Jennifer L.; Schindler Zimmerman, Toni; Haddock, Shelley A.; Banning, James H.

    2005-01-01

    To determine how gender in parenting was addressed, a content analysis was conducted on the six best-selling self-help books (1997-2002) that provide general parenting advice. A feminist perspective was used to code gendered meaning units in the six books. Findings were that 82% of the implicit gender messages across all books were stereotypical,…

  5. Selling and buying sex: a longitudinal study of risk and protective factors in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E

    2012-06-01

    Engaging in trading sex is associated with many co-occurring problems, including elevated risk for sexually transmitted infections. Various dimensions of social support from parents, schools, and mentors may be protective against sex trading and may ameliorate the impact of risk factors. This study analyzes data from respondents to Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) who had not participated in sex trading for money or drugs in Wave I so that risk and protective factors for first initiations of selling or buying sex could be examined longitudinally. About 2% of the study sample began selling sex and about 2% began buying sex between Wave I and Wave III. The respondent's sex, race/ethnicity, history of sexual abuse, shoplifting, marijuana use, and experiences of homelessness or running away were significant predictors of trading sex (p selling of sex, and feeling part of school was associated with lower buying of sex even after controlling for demographics and risk factors (p selling and buying sex. Promoting school connectedness may advance public health goals.

  6. Gender analysis of the butchery and meat selling industry in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the drudgery in the industry. The different religions and cultures should encourage women to engage in all the aspects of the industry, hence, increasing their income-earning abilities. Keywords: Gender analysis, butchery, meat selling industry. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences Vol 3(1) 2005: 51-58 ...

  7. The Personal Selling Ethics Scale: Revisions and Expansions for Teaching Sales Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The field of sales draws a large number of marketing graduates. Sales curricula used within today's marketing programs should include rigorous discussions of sales ethics. The Personal Selling Ethics Scale (PSE) provides an analytical tool for assessing and discussing students' ethical sales sensitivities. However, since the scale fails to address…

  8. The Local Food Grower's Behavior during Planning, Growing, Harvesting, and Selling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumirakiza, J. Dominique

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the behavior of the local food grower during the market-related decision-making process. The relevant behavior is manifested during the planning, growing, and harvesting and selling phases of the agricultural business cycle. The local food grower faces a set of market alternatives from which, if applying a…

  9. What are we downloading for our children? : Best-selling children's apps in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    The present article provides an overview of the best-selling apps for the age range of 0-8 years old under various categories, including ‘Kids’, ‘Books’, ‘Educational games’, ‘Family games’ and ‘Word games’ in the two major application stores (Google Play and iTunes App Store) in four economically

  10. Don't Sell Tobacco to Minors: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-07-08

    This podcast helps raise retailers awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations. Under the new regulations, retailers can not sell cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to anyone younger 18.  Created: 7/8/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 7/8/2010.

  11. Selling the War Abroad: West African Initiatives and the making of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies in British war propaganda during the Second World have focussed mainly on the efforts made at “selling the war at home.” In many of these studies war propaganda in the colonies is seen simply as extensions of the discourses produced in the metroples of Europe. Imperial propaganda was essentially the ...

  12. Authentic Writing Using Online Resources: Selling Our Words in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Dawn

    2001-01-01

    Describes two projects undertaken with the author's high school English classes in which students chose writing they wished to share with their own community, and then published it, in one case selling their class anthology to selected businesses around town. Describes the increase in enthusiasm for writing and care and professionalism caused by…

  13. Mystery shopping and alcohol sales: do supermarkets and liquor stores sell alcohol to underage customers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Prinsen, Sander

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Dutch national policy regarding alcohol and youth relies on retailers’ willingness to refuse to sell alcohol to underage customers. This study examined unobtrusively whether supermarkets and liquor stores do indeed comply with the legal age restrictions for alcohol sales. - Methods: A

  14. 41 CFR 102-38.155 - What is an offer to sell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an offer to sell? 102-38.155 Section 102-38.155 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY...

  15. 41 CFR 102-38.160 - What must be included in the offer to sell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must be included in the offer to sell? 102-38.160 Section 102-38.160 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE...

  16. 41 CFR 102-38.75 - How may we sell personal property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How may we sell personal property? 102-38.75 Section 102-38.75 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY...

  17. Sex selling and autism spectrum disorder : Impaired capacity, free enterprise, or sexual victimization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.T.; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Sexual behavior is a complex phenomenon. While appetitive and linked to reproduction, it also has a strong hedonic component to it. Like other human behaviors, it is dimensional and, although it may fall along a continuum of normality, it may also deviate in a variety of directions. Selling and

  18. Effect of national recommendation on sweet selling as an intervention for a healthier school environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Jaakko; Rytkönen, Tatu; Kankaanpää, Rami; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Lahti, Satu

    2015-02-01

    In 2007, the Finnish National Board of Education (FNBE) and the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) gave a national recommendation that Finnish upper comprehensive schools should not sell sweet products. The aim was to find out how the national recommendation changed the schools' selling of sweet products. This longitudinal survey was conducted in Finnish upper comprehensive school classes 7-9 (13-15-year-old pupils) in 2007 and 2010. All the schools (N=970) were invited to answer the questionnaire and 237 schools answered in both years (response rate 24%). The questionnaires contained questions concerning the selling of sweet and healthy products and school policy on sweet selling guidelines. Of the nine items in the questionnaire, three weighted sum scores were formed for oral health promotion: Exposure, enabling and policy (higher score indicating better actions). These sum scores were also trichotomized. Statistical significances of the changes were analyzed using nonparametric Wilcoxon's test, McNemar's test, and McNemar-Bowker's test. Schools had decreased exposure of pupils to sweet products (psweet products, candies and soft drinks had decreased (psweet products had not changed (p=0.665). Schools tended to improve their exposure and policy status (psweet products among adolescents. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  19. Application of Contemporary Literature to Enhance Interpersonal Skills and Ethical Decision Making in Professional Selling Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Educators and marketing professionals agree that course-work must address interpersonal communication skills and ethical decision making in addition to traditional business functions and skills. This article describes an innovative approach to teaching the professional selling course in which students enhance their competency in these areas…

  20. Cross-Cultural Selling: Examining the Importance of Cultural Intelligence in Sales Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpechitre, Duleep; Baker, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Cross-cultural selling has become an important factor in sales education. In the current competitive business graduate market, students who enter the workforce in frontline customer service positions are expected to perform sales at a higher level. Students that have acquired an education in sales during their undergraduate program have been found…

  1. The Problems of Bulk-Selling Yams in Harvest and Poverty of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple percentages and frequency tables were used in analyzing the data. Results from this study show that poor storage facilities, poor marketing strategy, problem of income and culture of the people account for the bulk-selling of yams in the study area. The study recommends that there is need for the provision of modern ...

  2. Uimastite mõju Eesti koolinoorte isiksuse arengule ning nende kuritegelikule käitumisele : [bakalaureusetöö] / Vaike Kargu ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Silvia Kaugia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kargu, Vaike

    2010-01-01

    Legaalsetest uimastitest ja nende esmatarbimise east Eestis, Eesti koolinoorte seas enamkasutatavatest illegaalsetest uimastitest ning nende mõjust koolinoorte käitumisele, sotsiaalõiguslikest tagajärgedest, alaealiste kuritegevusest, ennetustegevusest

  3. Joobes mootorsõiduki juhtide karistamine ning ennetusmeetmed Eestis, Rootsis, Soomes ja Venemaal : [magistritöö] / August Käära ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Silvia Kaugia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käära, August

    2011-01-01

    Alkoholi- ja narkojoobe ning -sõltuvuse olemusest ja joobe õigustamise sotsiaalsetest teooriatest, karistamise alustest mootorsõiduki joobes juhtimise eest, sotsiaalprogrammidest - nende analüüsist ja ennetusmeetmetest

  4. Director läks ja küsis : Milliste omadustega töötajaid te tahate tööle võtta ning millised inimesed teile ei sobi? / Janika Kuusik, Anni Pikk, Merike Jaamul... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Elioni personalijuht Janika Kuusik, TNT Eesti personalispetsialist Anni Pikk, Eesti Posti personalijuht Merike Jaamul, advokaadibüroo Sorainen personalijuht Kristiina Härms ning Webmedia personalijuht Kairi Pauskar vastavad küsimusele, milliseid inimesi nad eelistavad palgata

  5. Noored tšillivad metsas ja kaubamajas ning õpivad hästi : Tartu kireva nooruse hulgast leiab tegijaid mudellendureid, olümpiavõitjaid, diskoreid ja tuntud breikareid / Vilja Kohler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kohler, Vilja, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Tublidest õpilastest ja mitmekülgsete huvidega noortest, diskoritest Gerli Terasmaast ja Rait Pritsust, breikaritest Parkev Akopjanist, Aleksei Kakkost ja Artur Potapovist, bioloogiaolümpiaadide võitjast Mark Gimbutasest ning mudellenduritest Martin Meisalust ja Janar Sellist

  6. Tallinnasse Rävala pst. 19 kavandatava Tallinna Muusikakeskkooli, Tallinna Balletikooli ning G. Otsa nimelise muusikakooli ühise õppehoone arhitektuurikonkurss = Architectural Competition for the Joint School Building of Tallinn Music-Specialised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusepp, Raivo

    2003-01-01

    I preemia - Andres Siim, Krister Ausing, II - Marika Lõoke, III - Maia Tüür, Andres Sevtshuk, Gabriel Evangelisti, ostupreemiad: Armin Valter, Vilen Künnapu ning Siiri Vallner, Katrin Koov, Veronika Valk

  7. Euroopa Keskpanga rahapoliitika strateegia pärast selle täpsustamist 2003. aasta mais / Jean-Claude Trichet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trichet, Jean-Claude, 1942-

    2004-01-01

    Autor teeb ülevaate Euroopa Keskpanga rahapoliitika strateegia ajaloost, strateegia elementidest ning Euroopa ees seisvatest ülesannetest majanduskasvu potentsiaali ja fiskaalpoliitika usaldusväärsuse tõstmiseks

  8. Õigus võrdsele kohtlemisele õigusriigis, selle õiguse printsiibid ja kohaldamispraktika Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtus / Rait Maruste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maruste, Rait, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Võrdse kohtlemise õiguslikust regulatsioonist ning jaotavast ja menetluslikust õigusest. Võrdse kohtlemise nõude käsitlusest, printsiipidest ja kohtupraktikast. Artikli tekst põhineb võrdse kohtlemise sotsiaalfoorumil Tallinnas 30. nov. 2007 peetud ettekandel

  9. Ümberkujundava juhtimise karismaatiline aspekt ja selle tõhusus / Kulno Türk, Gerda Mihhailova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Türk, Kulno, 1954-

    2004-01-01

    Autorite arvates ei tohi vastandada klassikalist juhtimist eestvedamisele ning juhi ja liidri rollid on mõlemad olulised organisatsiooni edukuse eeldused. Edukas juht peab kasutama tasakaalustatult erinevaid juhtimisstiile. Skeem

  10. Kaitsealade moodustamise põhimõtted Euroopa looduskaitseõiguses ja selle siseriiklik järelevalve / Evelin Lopman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lopman, Evelin

    2007-01-01

    Kaitsealade moodustamise põhimõtetest vastavalt EL linnudirektiivile (79/409/EMÜ) ja loodusdirektiivile (92/43/EMÜ) lähtudes Euroopa Kohtu praktikast ning riiklikust järelevalvest kaitsealade moodustamise üle

  11. Uurida või mitte uurida, selles on küsimus ... / Heli Müristaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müristaja, Heli

    2011-01-01

    MTÜ Eesti Turismihariduse Liidu 25.-26. mail toimunud turismiettevõtjate, -õpetajate ja -õppurite ühisseminarist, kus arutati , millist rolli kannavad uuringud kvaliteetsete ja jätkusuutlike turismitoodete ja -teenuste arendamisel. Välisesinejateks olid Tony Harrison Glasgow Caledonia Ülikooli Moffat Centre for Travel & Tourism Business Development vanemkonsultant Šotimaalt ja Soomest Eva Holmberg ning Kaija Lindroth Haaga-Kelia Porvoo üksusest

  12. Sul on miljoni dollari idee? Nemad aitavad sul selle rahaks teha / Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veenre, Tanel, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti kultuurivahendajatest, nende nappusest. Kultuurikorraldusest, loomest ja ettevõtlusest, kultuuriturundusest, loomemajandusest, mänedžeri ja looja koostööst, kultuuri ekspordist. Kultuurikorraldajate koolitusest Tartu Ülikoolis ning Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemias. Arvamust avaldavad galerist Olga Temnikova, Eesti Disainerite Liidu esimees Ilona Gurjanova, kontserdikorraldaja Helen Sildna, Ville Jehe disainibüroost Keha3, Von Krahli Teatri projektijuht Elo-Liis Parmas, moekorraldaja Merilyn Kesküla jt.

  13. Patterns and correlates of illicit drug selling among youth in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmedani B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael G Vaughn1, Jeffrey J Shook2, Brian E Perron3, Arnelyn Abdon4, Brian Ahmedani51School of Social Work, School of Public Health and Department of Public Policy Studies, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO USA; 2School of Social Work, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA USA; 3School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI USA; 4School of Economics, University of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines; 5Henry Ford Health System, Detroit MI, USAPurpose: Despite the high rates of drug selling among youth in juvenile justice and youth residing in disadvantage neighborhoods, relatively little is known about the patterns of illicit drug selling among youth in the general population.Methods: Using the public-use data file from the adolescent sample (N = 17 842 in the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH, this study employed multiple logistic regression to compare the behavioral, parental involvement, and prevention experiences of youth who sold and did not sell illicit drugs in the past year.Results: Findings from a series of logistic regression models indicated youth who sold drugs were far more likely to use a wide variety of drugs and engage in delinquent acts. Drug-selling youth were significantly less likely to report having a parent involved in their life and have someone to talk to about serious problems but were more likely to report exposure to drug prevention programming.Conclusion: Selling of drugs by youth appears to be a byproduct of substance abuse and deviance proneness, and the prevention programs these youth experience are likely a result of mandated exposure derived from contact with the criminal justice system. Assuming no major drug supply side reductions, policies, and practices associated with increasing drug abuse treatment, parental involvement and supervision, and school engagement are suggested.Keywords: drug distribution, prevention, adolescent risk, youth experiences, parental

  14. Airport mobile marketing as a channel to promote cross-selling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Florido-Benítez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the airport mobile marketing and what elements have had a positive or negative influence in cross-selling via an airport app.  Design/methodology: For this analysis, a survey was conducted to users that use the Schiphol Amsterdam Airport app. A total of 103 questionnaires were analyzed using structural equation modeling.  Findings: This study found that security/control factor supplied by the mobile marketing tool to passengers at the airport, it has been demonstrated that it favours an increase in cross-selling. in addition, if an airport is perceived to have a good brand image, it will have a positive effect in cross-selling.  Originality/value: This paper is the first research that examines the impact of mobile marketing in airports. Smelling multiple products and services to the same client before, during, and post consumption  is a marketing technique that intends to (1 satisfy a client’s need and (2 increase a company’s profit by using cross-selling and other complementary services. Airline companies are experts in carrying out this activity, and airports have found that mobile applications are the perfect tool to increase their commercial profits. Offering complementary products and services is a very lucrative business, and a mobile device or smartphone are -- and will become -- the ideal medium to meet users’ demands as well as to improve the passenger experience.  Keywords: mobile marketing, cross-selling, information, security-control, image-perception, satisfaction, WOM

  15. Styrket færdighedstræning eller afsporende forstyrrelse? Digitalisering af undervisning i øvelseslaboratorier på professionsuddannelserne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Nielsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available I arbejdet med tilegnelse af praktiske færdigheder i professionsuddannelser, er værdien af digitalisering omdiskuteret. Der hersker således uenighed om digitalisering blot medfører passiv iagttagelse af udførelsen af færdigheder, eller om digitalisering kan medvirke til at styrke de studerendes viden- og færdighedstilegnelse. Artiklen diskuterer, ud fra to cases fra et forskningsprojekt ved bioanalytikeruddannelsen på [Professionshøjskole], hvorledes videomateriale kan understøtte færdighedstræning i undervisningen på uddannelsesinstitutionen og i den kliniske undervisning. De to cases er forskellige i forhold til både setting og tilgang. I den ene case anvendes underviserproduceret videomateriale som understøttelse af de studerendes arbejde i øvelseslaboratoriet; i den anden case fokuseres på de studerendes egen-produktion af video som led i færdighedstræning i forhold til blodprøvetagning. Begge cases illustrerer både potentialet for design af nye didaktiske rum og vigtigheden af at stille sig de grundlæggende didaktiske spørgsmål om Hvorfor?, Hvad? og Hvordan?, ved implementering af digitaliserede tilgange i færdighedstræningen på professionsuddannelser.

  16. Testeerimisvabadus ja selle piiramine Eesti territooriumil viimase 150 aasta jooksul : [bakalaureusetöö] / Tiia Ein ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Urve Liin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ein, Tiia

    2006-01-01

    Testeerimisvabaduse mõiste ja areng, selle piiramine, testeerimisvabaduse piiramisest Eesti alal (Eesti talurahvaseadus, Balti Eraseadus, tsiviilseadustiku eelnõu kavad, nõukogude õigus, Eesti kehtiv õigus ja selle reformikava)

  17. HIV, STI prevalence and risk behaviours among women selling sex in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Shakila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 340 million cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs were estimated to have occurred worldwide in 1995. Previous studies have shown that the presence of other concomitant STIs increases the likelihood of HIV transmission. The first national study of STIs conducted in Pakistan in 2004 revealed a high burden of STIs among women selling sex. The HIV epidemic in Pakistan has thus far followed the "Asian epidemic model". Earlier studies among women selling sex have shown a low prevalence of HIV coupled with a low level of knowledge about AIDS. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV and STIs, and assess knowledge and risk behaviours related to HIV/STI, among women selling sex in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods A total of 730 participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling. The participants were women selling sex in three areas (referred to as "A", "B", and "C" of Lahore. A structured questionnaire addressing demographic information, sexual life history, sexual contacts, and knowledge and practices related to HIV/STI prevention was administered by face-to-face interview. Biological samples were obtained from all participants and tested for HIV, Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Pearson's chi-square and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed to test associations between potential risk factors and specified diagnosed infections. Results The prevalence of HIV infection was 0.7%, T pallidum 4.5%, N gonorrhoeae 7.5%, C trachomatis 7.7% and T vaginalis 5.1%. The participants had been selling sex for a median period of seven years and had a median of three clients per day. Sixty five percent of the participants reported that they "Always use condom". The median fee per sexual contact was Rs. 250 (3 Euro. Compared to Areas A and C, women selling sex in Area B had a significantly higher risk of chlamydial

  18. 41 CFR 302-15.9 - Must I repay property management expenses my agency paid under this part if I elect to sell my...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management expenses my agency paid under this part if I elect to sell my former residence in the United... property management expenses my agency paid under this part if I elect to sell my former residence in the... property management expenses paid by your agency if you elect to sell your former residence in the United...

  19. Organ markets and human dignity: on selling your body and soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempsey, W E

    2000-08-01

    This article addresses the ethics of selling transplantable organs. I examine and refute the claim that Catholic teaching would permit and even encourage an organ market. The acceptance of organ transplantation by the Church and even its praise of organ donors should not distract us from the quite explicit Church teaching that condemns an organ market. I offer some reasons why the Church should continue to disapprove of an organ market. The recent commercial turn in medicine can blind us to the problem of an organ market. In addition, the reliance on the gift image in organ transplantation raises difficulties of its own. What is needed is a fuller appreciation of the fact that the human person is essentially embodied with all its parts, and not merely an autonomous being that possesses organs as properties to sell. I support this vision of the embodied human person by appealing to the writings of Immanuel Kant.

  20. Sakha Music: Selling 'Exotic' Europeanness in Asia and Asianness in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I compare strategies to sell Sakha music in different countries over a ten-year period with a particular emphasis on 2005–2007. due the fact that local income from performing and selling albums is not sufficient for living the artists from the republic of Sakha are trying to perform as much abroad as possible. When touring abroad, the music and performances have changed over time depending on the region. Sakha artists attempt to respond to the expectations of the audience and modify their program accordingly. In a period from the late 1990s to 2007, the same artists have switched from pop to rock to folk music, using different languages and different costumes, performing as Asian or European artists. comparing these strategies, one can see how Sakha musicians use cultural stereotypes of foreign audiences for economic purposes.

  1. Children's understanding of the selling versus persuasive intent of junk food advertising: implications for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Owen B J; Patterson, Lisa J; Donovan, Robert J; Ewing, Michael T; Roberts, Clare M

    2011-03-01

    Evidence suggests that until 8 years of age most children are cognitively incapable of appreciating the commercial purpose of television advertising and are particularly vulnerable to its persuasive techniques. After this age most children begin to describe the 'selling' intent of advertising and it is widely assumed this equips them with sufficient cognitive defences to protect against advertisers' persuasion attempts. However, much of the previous literature has been criticised for failing to differentiate between children's awareness of 'selling' versus 'persuasive' intent, the latter representing a more sophisticated understanding and superior cognitive defence. Unfortunately there is little literature to suggest at what age awareness of 'persuasive intent' emerges; our aim was to address this important issue. Children (n = 594) were recruited from each grade from Pre-primary (4-5 years) to Grade 7 (11-12 years) from ten primary schools in Perth, Western Australia and exposed to a McDonald's television advertisement. Understanding the purpose of television advertising was assessed both nonverbally (picture indication) and verbally (small discussion groups of 3-4), with particular distinction made between selling versus persuasive intent. Consistent with previous literature, a majority of children described the 'selling' intent of television advertising by 7-8 years both nonverbally and verbally, increasing to 90% by 11-12 years. Awareness of 'persuasive' intent emerged slowly as a function of age but even by our oldest age-group was only 40%. Vulnerability to television advertising may persist until children are far older than previously thought. These findings have important implications regarding the debate surrounding regulation of junk food (and other) advertising aimed at children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The use of intellectual capital information by sell-side analysts in company valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Abhayawansa, Subhash; Aleksanyan, Mark; Bahtsevangolou, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of intellectual capital information (ICI) in sell-side analysts’ fundamental analysis and valuation of companies. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews, it penetrates the black box of analysts’ valuation decision-making by identifying and conceptualising the mechanisms and rationales by which ICI is integrated within their valuation decision processes. We find that capital market participants are not ambivalent to ICI, and ICI is used: (1) to form analysts...

  3. An overview of the key routes to the best selling 5-membered ring heterocyclic pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikzad Nikbin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a comprehensive overview on selected synthetic routes towards commercial drug compounds as published in both journal and patent literature. Owing to the vast number of potential structures, we have concentrated only on those drugs containing five-membered heterocycles and focused principally on the assembly of the heterocyclic core. In order to target the most representative chemical entities the examples discussed have been selected from the top 200 best selling drugs of recent years.

  4. Photovoltaics. Regulations, test reports, consultancy and selling; Photovoltaik. Normen und Vorschriften, Testberichte, Beratung und Verkauf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoecklhuber, Andreas; Lueders, Roland (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The annual book on photovoltaics is a further information and operation agent for the fascinating area of photovoltaics. This book contains the following contributions: (a) The photovoltaics market and its boundary conditions; (b) Regulations; (c) Planning and design; (d) Assembly and installation; (e) Service and monitoring; (f) Operation and safety; (g) Law and insurance; (h) Consultancy and selling; (i) Dictionary of the most important terms from the photovoltaics; (j) Exhibitions and advanced training.

  5. Impact of Overhead Costs Apportionment on Selling Price Determination in Malaysian Automobile Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dandago, Kabiru Isa; Zaidi, Zulaikha Rabitah; Amir, Aliana Shazma Amir Binti

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of overhead cost apportionment on selling price determination in the Malaysian automobile manufacturing industry. Specifically, the study looks at the treatment of overhead costs apportionment from the perspective of the profit making effort of automobile manufacturing firms. The methodology used is interview with staff of one automobile manufacturing company in Malaysia taken as a case study: that is Naza Automotive Manufacturing Sdn. Bhd. The findings o...

  6. Investigating Shareholder Social Activism From an Issue-Selling Perspective—Issues, Strategies, and Success

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Building on the logic of issue selling, my dissertation explores the micro-processes of shareholder social activism through which shareholders interact with targeted firms and also addresses which micro-processes could affect the effectiveness and the success of shareholder social activism. To do this, my dissertation develops a theory with respect to the approaches of linguistically framing the contents of and of presenting shareholder social activism. Based on a qualitative (descriptive) an...

  7. Cross Selling Strategies and Employees Stress: A Study of Commercial Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Sonia; Bhatia, Dr. B S

    2014-01-01

    In modern competitive times every industry juggles to expand their income potentials, the Indian banking industry is also on the same ladder of growth and diversification. The declining net interest margins have forced the Indian Banks to look forward for alternative sources of income. And the key to diversification is to offer array of different products to existing customers. Cross selling plays a pivotal role for success in the financial and banking services market. Banks are shifting from...

  8. Toward a model of issue-selling by subsidiary managers in multinational organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Ling; Steven W Floyd; David C Baldridge

    2005-01-01

    In multinational organizations, local market responsiveness is critical to the development of effective strategies. This responsiveness is expected to occur in part as the result of upward influence from local subsidiary managers, who represent the local culture and shift relevant priorities accordingly. Issue-selling – defined as directing top management's attention to particular issues and helping them understand such issues – is one important way in which subsidiary managers pursue upward ...

  9. Keunggulan Bersaing ; Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi dan Dampaknya pada Kinerja Selling-In

    OpenAIRE

    Kadarningsih, Ana

    2013-01-01

    There is fenomenal gap that amount of Indosat€™s outlets have increase 41,76% in year 2007 until 2008, but Net Profit Margin have decrease 18,66 % in year 2008. Also there is research gap that competitive advantage have influence on performance sales, other research result selling-in performance have influense on competitive advantage. The purpose of this research is to test the influences of outlet quality services, differentiation, company reputation, outlet quality relationship, environmen...

  10. Tang-Luo-Ning, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Inhibits Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Apoptosis of Schwann Cells under High Glucose Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tang-Luo-Ning (TLN has a definite effect in the clinical treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. Schwann cells (SCs apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress is one of the main pathogeneses of DPN. This study investigates whether TLN can inhibit SCs apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress-induced apoptosis. Our previous researches have demonstrated that TLN could increase the expression of ER stress marker protein GRP78 and inhibited the expression of apoptosis marker protein CHOP in ER stress. In this study, the results showed that TLN attenuated apoptosis by decreasing Ca2+ level in SCs and maintaining ER morphology. TLN could decrease downstream proteins of CHOP including GADD34 and Ero1α, while it increased P-eIF2α and decreased the upstream proteins of CHOP including P-IRE1α/IRE1α and XBP-1, thereby reducing ER stress-induced apoptosis.

  11. Selling a gun to a stranger without a background check: acceptable behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Azrael, Deborah; Miller, Matthew

    2017-06-24

    One way that guns get into the wrong hands is via gun sales without a background check. While the large majority of Americans support laws requiring universal background checks, no prior study has assessed whether Americans think it is acceptable behaviour to sell a gun to a stranger without a background check, whether or not there is a law against it. We sponsored a nationally representative survey of over 3900 American adults, oversampling gun owners, using an online panel provided by the survey firm Growth for Knowledge. Over 72% of American adults agree or strongly agree with the statement that 'whether it is legal or not, it is NOT acceptable to sell a gun to a stranger without a background check' and 11% disagree or strongly disagree. Subgroups less likely to agree are young adults, men, conservatives, those with less than a high school education and gun owners. Reducing the number of guns sold without a background check could help reduce the flow of guns to felons. Changes in normative attitudes and behaviours, as well as changes in law, could help accomplish this goal. Most Americans, including gun owners, believe selling a gun to a stranger without a background check is not acceptable behaviour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The Stickiness of Selling, General, and Administrative Costs in the Indonesian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Armanto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Selling, general and administration costs are the main components in the Income Statement. A large number of permanent staff in sales and marketing department will make the company dominated by the fixed costs. This fact could lead to sticky cost behavior. In addition, role of the manager can also cause the cost stickiness. When the company’s revenue decreases, manager may delay to decrease the cost or not even decrease cost at all. The objective of the study is to determine whether cost stickiness of selling, general and administrative in the Indonesian listed companies. This study applied log-linear data panel regression with 3605 firm years that is listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange (BEI from 1993 – 2013. This study finds that selling, general, and administrative costs are sticky only for the manufacturing companies. Furthermore, the results show that adjustment of sales, general, and administrative costs delayed by the manager when revenue decreases, yet the cost stickiness will be reduced in the next period.

  13. SPIN SELLING CONCEPT & ITS APPLICATION IN THE BUSINESS PERFORMANCE OF SACHET PRODUCT IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Hossain SOHEL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is lower middle income oriented country (LMIC in South Asia where sachet product has become more popular than other scaling products. SPIN selling is an approach of consultative selling or presenting an offer to the potential clients considering their pain-points using a powerful questioning process. This study attempts to find out the reasons of gaining popularity of sachet product in Bangladesh. SPIN Selling concept is the age-old concept used in this respect. A sample size of 120 was collected from the salespeople of 15 different companies that are co-integrated sachet product in their product line. A self-administered questionnaire is applied for data collection and This study reveals hat the existence of the applicability of SPIN concept in a moderate format in Bangladesh. The findings of the study postulate that in Bangladesh, sachet product is introduced as follower product and it will be helpful for the marketing executives, R&D officers or decision makers of concerned firms in re-considering their strategic thinking aiming to gain sustainable competitive advantage in the product market of Bangladesh for sachet product.

  14. Market Exclusivity Time for Top Selling Originator Drugs in Canada: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel

    2017-09-01

    This study looks at market exclusivity time for the top selling originator drugs in Canada. Total sales for drugs without competition were also calculated. A list of the top selling originator drugs by dollar sales from 2009 to 2015 inclusive, except for 2010, was compiled along with their annual sales. Health Canada databases were used to extract the following information: generic name, date of Notice of Compliance (NOC, date of marketing authorization), whether the product was a small molecule drug or a biologic, and date of NOC for a generic or biosimilar. Market exclusivity time was calculated in days for drugs. A total of 121 drugs were identified. There were 96 small molecule drugs (63 with a generic competitor and 33 with no generic competitor) and 25 biologics (none with a biosimilar competitor). The 63 drugs with a competitor had a mean market exclusivity time of 4478 days (12.3 years) (95% CI 4159-4798). The 58 drugs without competition had total annual sales of Can$8.59 billion and were on the market for a median of 5357 days (14.7 years) (interquartile range 3291-6679) as of January 31, 2017. Top selling originator drugs in Canada have a considerably longer period of market exclusivity than the 8 to 10 years that the research-based pharmaceutical industry claims. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Uncertain Reasoning for Detection of Selling Stolen Goods in Online Auctions Using Contextual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Beranek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design of a decision support system for detection of fraudulent behavior of selling stolen goods in online auctions. In this system, each seller is associated with a type of certification, namely “proper seller,” “suspect seller,” and “selling stolen goods.” The certification level is determined on the basis of a seller’s behaviors and especially on the basis of contextual information whose origin is outside online auctions portals. In this paper, we focus on representing knowledge about sellers in online auctions, the influence of additional information available from other Internet source, and reasoning on bidders’ trustworthiness under uncertainties using Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. To demonstrate the practicability of our approach, we performed a case study using real auction data from Czech auction portal Aukro. The analysis results show that our approach can be used to detect selling stolen goods. By applying Dempster-Shafer theory to combine multiple sources of evidence for the detection of this fraudulent behavior, the proposed approach can reduce the number of false positive results in comparison to approaches using a single source of evidence.

  16. Island Smart Eco-Cities: Innovation, Secessionary Enclaves, and the Selling of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Governments and developers around the globe are exploiting the benefits of island spatiality to sell urban sustainability. Many new-build smart cities, eco-cities, and sustainable cities (‘smart eco-cities’ are constructed on small islands or otherwise bounded from surrounding urban space. Island spatiality presents benefits for selling smart eco-cities as role models of sustainable innovation: ease of creating value, ease of measuring sustainability, and ease of communicating success. These benefits, however, are all largely illusory, contributing primarily to the appearance of sustainability for the sake of economic profit. The great innovation of island smart-cities is frequently an innovation in the selling of sustainability. By monetising the environment through ecosystem services, incentivising largely symbolic ‘green’ projects and architecture, drawing attention away from unsustainable practices elsewhere, and exacerbating social inequality, island smart eco-cities may be making the world less sustainable. They may also be unreproducible by design and lead to a global devaluing of genuinely sustainable but non-iconic urban development. Island smart eco-cities increasingly serve as secessionary enclaves for a global elite, privileging corporate over public interests and spearheading an invidious argument of sustainable development by deregulation.

  17. Õiguspärane sundvõõrandamine rahvusvahelises õiguses ning maagaasiseaduse ja majandustegevuse seadustiku üldosa seaduse muutmise seaduse eelnõus : [magistritöö] / Kristjan Kotkas ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Maarja Torga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotkas, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    Sundvõõrandamisest ja selle lubatavusest rahvusvahelises õiguses, eelnõus toodud meetmete analüüsist rahvusvahelise õiguse taustal, õiguspärase sundvõõrandamise tingimuste olemasolust eelnõus

  18. Male sex workers who sell sex to men also engage in anal intercourse with women: evidence from Mombasa, Kenya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mannava, Priya; Geibel, Scott; King'ola, Nzioki; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior...

  19. A Rising E-Channel Tide Lifts All Boats? The Impact of Manufacturer Multichannel Encroachment on Traditional Selling and Leasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizing and managing channels of distribution is an important marketing task. Due to the emergence of electronic commerce on the Internet, e-channel distribution systems have been adopted by many manufacturers. However, academic and anecdotal evidence both point to the pressures arising from this new e-channel manufacturing environment. Question marks therefore remain on how the addition of this e-channel affects the traditional marketing strategies of leasing and selling. We set up several two-period dual-channel models in which a manufacturer sells a durable product through both a manufacturer-owned e-channel and an independent reseller (leaser who adopts selling (leasing to consumers. Our main results indicate that, direct selling cost aside, product durability plays an important role in shaping the strategies of all members. With either marketing strategy, the additional expansion of an e-channel territory may secure Pareto gains, in which all members benefit.

  20. Kuidas hinnata suure panusega testide hindajaid

    OpenAIRE

    Hille Pajupuu

    2007-01-01

    Suure panusega testide (ingl high-stakes test) osatähtsuse kasv toob kaasa vajaduse pöörata rohkem tähelepanu testi subjektiivhinnatavate osade hindamise kvaliteedile. Kasutatavate lihtsate statistiliste meetodite puhul võib jääda märkamata palju valestihindamisi juhul, kui hindajate arv on suur ning nende koolitus nõrk. Artikkel tutvustab meetodit, mille abil saab kindlaks teha valesti hinnanud hindajad ning nende hinnatud tööd õigeaegselt ümber hinnata. Meetod on mõeldud kasutamiseks kaheko...

  1. PENGARUH KUALITAS PRODUK DAN PERSONAL SELLING TERHADAP KEPUASAN PELANGGAN PADA MAJALAH INFO BEKASI (STUDI KASUS PT. SIBK)

    OpenAIRE

    Rizan, Mohammad; Anjarestu, Yogha

    2017-01-01

    Generally, the purpose of this research are: 1) To know the description of product quality, personal selling and customer satisfaction on client of Info Bekasi Magazine. 2) To know the influence of quality product towards customer satisfaction on client of Info Bekasi Magazine. 3) To know the influence of quality product towards customer satisfaction on client of Info Bekasi Magazine. 4) To know the influence of quality product and personal selling simultaneously towards customer satisfaction...

  2. Penerapan Personal Selling dalam Memasarkan Produk Pembiayaan Murabahah pada PT. Bank Pembiayaan Rakyat Syariah Mitra Harmoni Kota Malang

    OpenAIRE

    Dian Nailiyah, Fani Firmansyah

    2013-01-01

    Recently, many sharia financial institutes stand, either banks general or banks people of islamic finance. PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City as a new sharia financial institute is demanded to be able to compete to other financial institute, so that the marketting strategy is needed fully. Personal selling is one of marketting method of producttion in order to be able to be pervaded by market. PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City markets payment product of murabahah by using the personal selling...

  3. PENERAPAN PERSONAL SELLING DALAM MEMASARKAN PRODUK PEMBIAYAAN MURABAHAH PADA PT. BANK PEMBIAYAAN RAKYAT SYARIAH MITRA HARMONI KOTA MALANG

    OpenAIRE

    Fani Firmansyah, Dian Nailiyah

    2013-01-01

    Recently, many sharia financial institutes stand, either banks general or banks people of islamic finance. PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City as a new sharia financial institute is demanded to be able to compete to other financial institute, so that the marketting strategy  is needed fully. Personal selling is one of marketting method of producttion in order to be able to be pervaded by market. PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City markets payment product of murabahah by using the personal selling...

  4. Selling Mankind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl, Poul

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of World War II, UNESCO promoted a new approach to the writing of world history in an attempt to support UN peacekeeping through "mental engineering" in the service of peace. The first task was to launch an authoritative world history without particular geographical orientations...

  5. PENGARUH KUALITAS PRODUK DAN PERSONAL SELLING TERHADAP KEPUASAN PELANGGAN PADA MAJALAH INFO BEKASI (STUDI KASUS PT. SIBK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rizan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the purpose of this research are: 1 To know the description of product quality, personal selling and customer satisfaction on client of Info Bekasi Magazine. 2 To know the influence of quality product towards customer satisfaction on client of Info Bekasi Magazine. 3 To know the influence of quality product towards customer satisfaction on client of Info Bekasi Magazine. 4 To know the influence of quality product and personal selling simultaneously towards customer satisfaction on client Info Bekasi Magazine. The method implemented in this research are descriptive explanatory and causal. This research is taken 100 client of Info Bekasi Magazine after their interact with personal selling used field pricing system while data was collected by using questionnaire and processed using SPSS 20. The result shows that partially quality product has a positive and significant impact toward customer satisfaction. Then, partially personal selling also has a positive and significant impact toward customer satisfaction. Simultaneously, quality product and personal selling have a positive and significant impact toward customer satisfaction. The empirical findings indicate that to create and improve the customer satisfaction, Info Bekasi Magazine need to consider quality product and personal selling because those factors shown to affect the level of job loyalty.

  6. En sammenlignende undersøgelse af praktikforløb og færdighedstræning i tre videregående uddannelser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mette Mørcke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Praktikforløb i videregående uddannelser er blevet et politisk indsatsområde, og der er i sundhedsuddannelserne også et internationalt forskningsfokus på emnet. I denne artikel vil vi beskrive og sammenligne rammerne for praktikforløb og færdighedstræning på idræts-, læge- og sygeplejerskeuddannelsen. Artiklen tager afsæt i Heggens skelnen mellem begreberne professionsidentitet og professionel identitet. Den studerendes opfattelse af sig selv som professionsudøver må ud fra dette afsæt udvikles via tilegnelse af både en særlig videnskabelig funderet teoretisk viden, særlig praktisk ekspertise, samt en særlig etisk og social forpligtelse til at arbejde for medborgernes bedste. I den konkrete sammenligning af idræts-, læge- og syge-plejerskeuddannelserne konkluderes, at både færdighedstræning og praktik vægtes højt, men at både omfang, struktur, placering og læringsmål varierer betydeligt. Det må have væsensforskellige konsekvenser for de studerendes tilegnelse af viden, færdigheder og holdninger og dermed for deres professionelle identitetsudvikling. Vi kan ikke afgøre om professionsidentitetsforståelsen er årsag eller virkning, men der ser ud til at være et samspil mellem uddannelsernes undervisningsformer og professionsidentitet.   In this paper we describe and compare workplace learning and skills training in medicine, nursing and sports science education. The paper builds on Heggen’s concepts concerning the identity of a profession versus a personal professional identity. Based on this, a student’s perception of herself as a professional develops from learning a particular scientific knowledge-base, a particular set of practical skills and a particular ethical and social obligation to work for the community. We concluded that all three educations studied attach great importance to workplace learning and skills training, but the extent, the structure, the timing and the learning outcomes differ

  7. Interpretive versus noninterpretive content in top-selling radiology textbooks: what are we teaching medical students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Emily M; Vella, Maya; Straus, Christopher M; Phelps, Andrew; Naeger, David M

    2015-04-01

    There are little data as to whether appropriate, cost effective, and safe ordering of imaging examinations are adequately taught in US medical school curricula. We sought to determine the proportion of noninterpretive content (such as appropriate ordering) versus interpretive content (such as reading a chest x-ray) in the top-selling medical student radiology textbooks. We performed an online search to identify a ranked list of the six top-selling general radiology textbooks for medical students. Each textbook was reviewed including content in the text, tables, images, figures, appendices, practice questions, question explanations, and glossaries. Individual pages of text and individual images were semiquantitatively scored on a six-level scale as to the percentage of material that was interpretive versus noninterpretive. The predominant imaging modality addressed in each was also recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. All six books had more interpretive content. On average, 1.4 pages of text focused on interpretation for every one page focused on noninterpretive content. Seventeen images/figures were dedicated to interpretive skills for every one focused on noninterpretive skills. In all books, the largest proportion of text and image content was dedicated to plain films (51.2%), with computed tomography (CT) a distant second (16%). The content on radiographs (3.1:1) and CT (1.6:1) was more interpretive than not. The current six top-selling medical student radiology textbooks contain a preponderance of material teaching image interpretation compared to material teaching noninterpretive skills, such as appropriate imaging examination selection, rational utilization, and patient safety. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF UNIQUE SELLING PROPOSITION ON CONSUMER PURCHASING DECISIONS IN HOTELS

    OpenAIRE

    Ng'Ang'A, Diana

    2017-01-01

    The hospitality Industry is comprised of individual hotels in which each one of them differs in the way that they position their products and services with the intention of catering for the advancing present day consumer needs. It is hence important for hospitality businesses to possess a unique selling proposition. The objective of this study is to determine the importance of the 4 P’s of marketing mix in consumer purchasing decision. The 4 P’s concept is a tool used in modern marketing ...

  9. Extreme anthropogenic erosion: Topsoil Selling in the Mekong Delta and consequences for soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Susanne; Sebesvari, Zita; Vien, Duong Minh; Kruse, Jens; Guong, Vo Thi; Amelung, Wulf

    2017-04-01

    Increasing urbanization and industrialization leads to increasing demands for construction material, especially in low income countries. For this purpose topsoil is sometimes removed and used as construction material. Topsoil Selling is practiced around the world from America, Europe and Africa to Asia. In the Mekong Delta, Vietnam farmers physically remove the upper 10-40 cm of their paddy fields and sell it to contractors (= Topsoil Selling, TSS). The excavated material is used for road construction or brick production and therefore the most fertile part of the paddy soil is irrecoverably lost. The temporal effects of topsoil removal on soil quality are not yet fully understood. We hypothesized that after soil removal, soil quality and yield potential are significantly lower compared to the original topsoil. To test this hypothesis, we sampled two chronosequences in two different provinces of the Mekong Delta. The provinces are Sóc Trăng (Control, 1, 2, 3, 8 years after TSS) and Trà Vinh (Control, 3, 5, 8 years after TSS). The sampling areas differ in texture and cultivation practice: clayey-loamy vs. sandy-loamy and double vs. triple rice cropping. For each year of the chronosequence, 4 field sites were investigated. We sampled the Ap, Bg1, and Bg2 horizon up to 40 cm depth as composite samples from 6 to 8 cores per field. Soil organic carbon (Corg) stocks at TSS sites were up to 20 t/ha lower than at Control sites (Control: 50 t/ha) in Sóc Trăng and up to 15 t/ha lower in Tra Vinh (Control: 30 t/ha). Especially the Bg horizons revealed a continuous decline in Corg with time after soil removal. Analysis of available nutrients (Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu) determined by the Mehlich3-Method are still ongoing. Preliminary results, however, suggest that there is not sustainable loss of these elements after selling, but that initial risk of losses are reverted under prolonged management. Phosphorus fractionation according to the Hedley method indicate

  10. Collaborative Lea(r)ning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob S.

    articles, exploring this field and contributing to theory and practice. In an article collection based thesis, the articles are usually summarised and discussed in part one of such a thesis. The present thesis is not following this model. Instead we explore, analyse and discuss the results presented...... in the eight articles from a new perspective. More specifically, we explore two research questions “Which factors enable/disable learning in a collaborative improvement setting and how?” and “To what extent and how does learning affect collaborative improvement performance?”...

  11. Uue aja ning formaadi biennaalid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Phaidron Press Ltd. väljaandena ilmunud raamatus "Fresh Cream. Contemporary Art in Culture" on kümne kuraatori valitud saja 1990-ndate kunsti mõjutanud kunstniku seas Jaan Toomik (Viktor Misiano valik). Raamatu võrdlus 1998. a. ilmunud "Cream'iga". 1998. a. ja 2000. a. kuraatorid, võtmekirjutajad

  12. Eesti riigi esindamine Euroopa Liidu Kohtus - Eestit puudutavate ja võimalike ees ootavate vaidluste ning Eesti seiuskohtade juriidiline analüüs : [magistritöö] / Katri Bagirov ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Julia Laffranque

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bagirov, Katri

    2010-01-01

    Eesti riigi esindamisest ELi Kohtus, esindamise korrast ja eelmenetlusest. Eesti edukusest Euroopa Liidu õiguse ülevõtmisel ning mõjutamisel ja kujundamisel, analüüsist läbi kohtupraktika. Eesti riigi esindamisega seotud probleemide juriidilisest analüüsist

  13. Kujunemine omatehtud alkoholi valmistajaks ja levitajaks ning õigustused nendele tegevustele = Becoming a maker and distributor of homebrew alcohol and justifications for such activities : III koht bakalaureusetööde kategoorias / Cristo Pajust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajust, Cristo

    2009-01-01

    Bakalaureusetöös selgitati, kuidas kujunetakse omatehtud alkoholi valmistajaks ja levitajaks ning millised on seda ühiskonnas illegaalsena määratletud tegevust neutraliseerivad argumendid tegevuse õigustamisel enesele ja teistele. Töö lähtus sotsiaalse õppimise teooriast ja neutraliseerimisteooriast

  14. PENERAPAN PERSONAL SELLING DALAM MEMASARKAN PRODUK PEMBIAYAAN MURABAHAH PADA PT. BANK PEMBIAYAAN RAKYAT SYARIAH MITRA HARMONI KOTA MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Firmansyah, Dian Nailiyah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many sharia financial institutes stand, either banks general or banks people of islamic finance. PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City as a new sharia financial institute is demanded to be able to compete to other financial institute, so that the marketting strategy  is needed fully. Personal selling is one of marketting method of producttion in order to be able to be pervaded by market. PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City markets payment product of murabahah by using the personal selling, can stand even more develope. This research it conducted to know how the application of personal selling in marketing murabahah  payment product in PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City. The kind of this research is method qualitative approach descriptive, the researcher describes how processes or steps personal selling conducted PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City, the technique of data collecttion uses the observation, interview and documentation. Method data analysis that researcher use is method data analysis descriptive. The research result shows that proses or step personal selling which is held in PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City is Prospecting Approach, Preapproach, Approach, Presentation, Handling Objection, Closing and follow up. Handling Objection which is held PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City is sales person continue closing sale without asked reservation prospective customers and do not dig the hidden reservation then use the reservation as an opportunity to provide more information and change the mind be a reason to buy.

  15. Motivations for Selling Ecstasy among Young Adults in the Electronic Dance Music Club Culture in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Lysa S; Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P; Surratt, Hilary L; Pechansky, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    This article describes data on the motivations for selling ecstasy among young adults in the electronic dance music (EDM) club culture in Brazil. Individual interviews were conducted with 20 individuals recruited for their involvement in the EDM club scene. Eligible participants were aged 18-39 and reported ecstasy and/or LSD use one or more times in the past 90 days. Exclusion criteria included current treatment for drug/alcohol problems and cognitive impairment or clinically evident psychiatric disorder. Mean age was 22.92 (SD 2.77), 60% were male, 45% reported 12 or more years of education, 50% did not have a primary partner, 50% were living alone, and all had friends who also used ecstasy. Three main themes emerged: (1) "easy" transition from ecstasy user to seller; (2) desire to achieve popularity and fame; and (3) need to sell ecstasy to maintain the high cost of EDM club scene participation. This is one of the first studies of ecstasy sellers in Brazil. The results demonstrate the ease with which the participants transition from ecstasy user to seller. Given the potential health and social dangers associated with ecstasy use, public health campaigns to prevent ecstasy use and policy initiatives to limit the ecstasy supply are warranted.

  16. Selling space colonization and immortality: A psychosocial, anthropological critique of the rush to colonize Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodian, Rayna Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Extensive media coverage regarding the proposal to send four people to Mars by 2025 has exploded recently. Private enterprise has taken the reins to venture into space, which has typically only been reserved for government agencies. I argue, that with this new direction comes less regulation, raising questions regarding the ethics of sending people into outer space to colonize Mars within a decade. Marketers selling colonization to the public include perspectives such as biological drives, species survival, inclusiveness and utopian ideals. I challenge these narratives by suggesting that much of our desire to colonize space within the next decade is motivated by ego, money and romanticism. More specifically, I will examine the roles that fear and stories of immortality play within selling space and how those stories are marketed. I am passionate about space and hope that one day humanity will colonize other worlds, but the rush to settle is dangerous and careless. I assert that humanity should first gain more experience and knowledge before colonizing outer space, using this research to mitigate the risk to astronauts and proceed with careful consideration for the lives of potential astronauts.

  17. Data Warehouse, Data Mining Dan Konsep Cross-Selling Pada Analisis Penjualan Produk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Miranda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about designing and implementing data warehousing and data mining, along with their roles in supporting decision-making related to sales product analysis in cross-selling concept of PT XYZ. The database the company used is not supporting data analysis and decision-making. Therefore, it made a data warehousing design that could be used to keep data in a huge amount and could give report and answer from user’s questions in ad hoc. The method is used to design and implement data warehousing and data mining which consists of literature study, company problem analysis, and data warehousing design, and testing result. The writing results are a data warehousing design and data mining and also the implementation of cross-selling concept to analysis the sales, purchases, and customers’ cancellation data. The data could be showed and analyzed from some point of views that could help managers to analyse and acknowledge more information. 

  18. A Content Analysis of Unique Selling Propositions of Tobacco Print Ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Shen, Megan; Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Carpenter, Amanda; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2017-03-01

    We describe the unique selling propositions (USPs) (propositions used to convince customers to use a particular brand/product by focusing on the unique benefit) of print tobacco ads. A qualitative content analysis was conducted of print tobacco ads (N = 171) selected from August 2012 to August 2013 for cigarettes, moist snuff, e-cigarettes, cigars, and snus to determine the content and themes of USPs for tobacco ads. Cigarette ad USP themes focused on portraying the product as attractive; moist snuff ads focused on portraying product as masculine; cigar ads focused on selling a "high end product;" and new and emerging tobacco products (e-cigarette, snus) focused on directly comparing these products to cigarettes. Whereas traditional tobacco product ads used USPs focused on themes of enjoyment and pleasure (eg, attractive for cigarettes, "high end product" for cigars), new and emerging tobacco product ads offered the unique benefit (USP) of their product being a better and "safer" alternative to traditional tobacco products. Snuff's USPs focused nearly exclusively on the masculinity of their products. Our results provide targets for potential tobacco regulatory actions that could be implemented to reduce demand for tobacco products by reducing their perceived unique benefits.

  19. A Content Analysis of Unique Selling Propositions of Tobacco Print Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Megan Johnson; Banerjee, Smita C.; Greene, Kathryn; Carpenter, Amanda; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The present study described the unique selling propositions (USPs) (propositions used to convince customers to use a particular brand/product by focusing on the unique benefit) of print tobacco ads. Methods A qualitative content analysis was conducted of print tobacco ads (N = 171) selected from August 2012-August 2013 for cigarettes, moist snuff, e-cigarettes, cigars, and snus to determine the content and themes of USPs for tobacco ads. Results Cigarette ad USP themes focused on portraying the product as attractive; moist snuff ads focused on portraying product as masculine; cigar ads focused on selling a “high end product;” and new and emerging tobacco products (e-cigarette, snus) focused on directly comparing these products to cigarettes. Conclusions Whereas traditional tobacco product ads used USPs focused on themes of enjoyment and pleasure (eg, attractive for cigarettes, “high end product” for cigars), new and emerging tobacco product ads offered the unique benefit (USP) of their product being a better and “safer” alternative to traditional tobacco products. Snuff’s USPs focused nearly exclusively on the masculinity of their products. Results of this study provide targets for potential tobacco regulatory actions that could be implemented to reduce demand for tobacco products by reducing their perceived unique benefits. PMID:28452697

  20. SELLING, DELIVERY AND TRADE MARKETING – AN OPERATIONAL TRIDENT OF THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the way in which a distribution system can be made operational in FMCG, starting from the interaction between three components of the system: selling, delivery and trade marketing. On this basis, I have categorized the improvement opportunities of each component, using the appropriate key performance indicators (KPIs of the system objectives. The optimal configuration of instruments and successful interaction of these components, improve the distribution system contribution to company performance. A specific system, defined for solving marketing problems, must be designed according to this purpose, and in this regard, all the significant elements and relationships must be subordinate to the objective by which it will achieve the desired solution. Business objectives achievement can be measured as effectiveness - the degree to which objectives were achieved, or as efficiency - the degree to which objectives have been achieved in the available resources. For evaluating the effectiveness with which an operative marketing system turns its sources into necessary results to solve a problem, it requires certain criteria to measure performance. These three elements: selling, delivery and trade marketing, are a trident of distribution which can lead to an optimal approach of market opportunities.

  1. Consumer Preferences, Product Characteristics, and Potentially Allergenic Ingredients in Best-selling Moisturizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Kwa, Michael; Lohman, Mary E; Evers-Meltzer, Rachel; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2017-11-01

    Because moisturizer use is critical for the prevention and treatment of numerous dermatological conditions, patients frequently request product recommendations from dermatologists. To determine the product performance characteristics and ingredients of best-selling moisturizers. This cohort study involved publicly available data of the top 100 best-selling whole-body moisturizing products at 3 major online retailers (Amazon, Target, and Walmart). Products marketed for use on a specific body part (eg, face, hands, eyelids) were excluded. Pairwise comparisons of median price per ounce on the basis of marketing claims (eg, dermatologist recommended, fragrance free, hypoallergenic) and presence of ingredients represented in the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) series were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. The effect of vehicle type (eg, ointment, lotion, cream, butter) was assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Cross-reactors and botanicals for fragrances were derived from the American Contact Dermatitis Society's Contact Allergen Management Program database. A total of 174 unique best-selling moisturizer products were identified, constituting 109 713 reviews as of August 2016. The median price per ounce was $0.59 (range, $0.10-$9.51 per ounce) with a wide range (9400%). The most popular vehicles were lotions (102 [59%]), followed by creams (22 [13%]), oils (21 [12%]), butters (14 [8%]), and ointments (3 [2%]). Only 12% (n = 21) of best-selling moisturizer products were free of NACDG allergens. The 3 most common allergens were fragrance mix (n = 87), paraben mix (n = 75), and tocopherol (n = 74). Products with the claim "dermatologist recommended" had higher median price per ounce ($0.79; interquartile range [IQR], $0.56-$1.27) than products without the claim ($0.59; IQR, $0.34-$0.92). Products with the claim "phthalate free" had higher median price per ounce ($1.38; IQR, $0.86-$1.63) than products without the claim ($0.59; IQR

  2. Structural factors influencing patterns of drug selling and use and HIV risk in the San Salvador metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2010-06-01

    This article explores differences in the social context in which crack sales and use and HIV risk take place in seven low-income communities in San Salvador, and structural factors that may influence these differences. The organization of drug selling varied among the communities on a number of dimensions including: whether drug sales were open or closed systems; the type of drug-selling site; and the participation of drug users in drug-distribution roles. Drug-use sites also varied according to whether crack was used in private, semiprivate, or public spaces, and whether individuals used drugs alone or with other drug users. Three patterns of drug use and selling were identified based on the dimensions outlined above. Structural factors that influenced these patterns included the geographic location of the communities, their physical layout, gang involvement in drug sales, and police surveillance. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are explored for each pattern.

  3. “GETTING HIGH AND GETTING BY”: DIMENSIONS OF DRUG SELLING BEHAVIORS AMONG AMERICAN MEXICAN GANG MEMBERS IN SOUTH TEXAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members’drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and Ballers. Major findings include the following: (1) many gang members are user/sellers and are not profit-oriented dealers, (2) gangs commonly do extend “protection” to drug-selling members, and (3) proximity to Mexican drug markets, adult prison gangs, and criminal family members may play important roles in whether these gang members have access and the profit potential to actually deal drugs. This research contributes to our complex intersections between gangs, drug using, and drug selling. PMID:21218191

  4. Ravi rahastamise lepingu sõlmimise menetluse regulatsiooni ja selle alusel Eesti Haigekassa poolt välja kujundatud halduspraktika kitsaskohad ning nende ületamise võimalused : [magistritöö] / Alle-Riin Nõgols ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõgols, Alle-Riin

    2012-01-01

    Ravi rahastamise lepingu olemusest ja sõlmimiseks läbiviidavast haldusmenetlusest, Eesti Haigekassa õiguslikust seisundist EL konkurentsiõiguse tähenduses, tervishoiuteenuse osutajate võrdse kohtlemise võimalustest ravi rahastamise lepingute sõlmimise protsessis

  5. IMPLEMENTASI PERSONAL SELLING OLEH AGENT DAN DOWNLINE PT MELILEA INTERNASIONAL INDONESIA CABANG KOTA BEKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALDI MATTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brands and products compete with each other to gain market share. The right marketing communication and promotion strategy is one way to win the competition. The main characteristic of this personal selling strategy is the direct interaction between the salesperson and the potential customers, present and instantly know about the advantages and characteristics of products marketed to potential customers. One of the companies that implement this strategy as the main promotional activity is PT. International Melilea Indonesia as a distributor of Melilea organic products. The business and marketing systems run by agents and Melilea's downlines are Multi Level Marketing (MLM so that meeting with customers is an obligation in personal sales activities. This study was conducted to find out how the implementation of personal selling activities undertaken by agent and Melilea Distributor in Bekasi branch. This research uses qualitative approach with descriptive type. The method used is a case study to conduct in-depth interviews to informants. Implementation of personal selling activities of PT. Melilea Indonesia International in this case Melilea agent and downline at Bekasi branch is done through five stages: prospecting, approaching, service, interactive media, and consumer care.   Merk dan produk saling bersaing satu sama lain untuk mendapatkan pangsa pasar. Strategi komunikasi dan promosi pemasaran yang tepat sebagai salah satu cara untuk memenangkan persaingan. Ciri utama dari strategi penjualan personal ini adalah interaksi langsung antara wiraniaga dengan calon konsumen, hadir dan langsung mengetahui tentang kelebihan dan karakteristik produk yang dipasarkan ke calon konsumen. Salah satu perusahaan yang menerapkan strategi ini sebagai kegiatan promosi utama adalah PT. International Melilea Indonesia sebagai distributor produk organik Melilea. Sistem bisnis dan pemasaran yang dijalankan oleh agen dan downline Melilea adalah Multi Level Marketing

  6. Vendas de bebidas alcóolicas: questões (IMpertinentes Selling alcoholic beverages: (IMpertinent questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Cátia Vieira Basílio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a disponibilidade e o acesso à bebida alcoólica num bairro da cidade de Vitória/ES. Os dados foram obtidos através de pesquisa de campo na região selecionada utilizando a observação simples e a entrevista através da aplicação de questionários numa amostra de 10% dos estabelecimentos encontrados. Os pontos de venda funcionam 7 dias por semana; 68,8% vendem a credito e a um preço médio de R$ 0,41 (a dose de cachaça. 93,8% dos entrevistados não solicitam documento de identidade ao cliente antes de lhe vender bebidas. A relação entre número de moradias e número de pontos de venda foi de 3:1. A alta concentração de estabelecimentos que vendem bebidas alcoólicas no bairro aponta para a necessidade de pensar o entorno (regiões vizinhas da mesma. Estas regiões envolvem áreas marginalizadas onde ocorre tráfico de drogas, fazendo da região estudada uma área importante para o comércio, pela facilidade de acesso aos outros bairros adjacentes da cidade.The objective of this study is to analyse the availability and access to alcoholic beverages in a neighbour-hood in the city of Vitória/ES. Data was obtained by means of field research using simple observation method and the application of questionnaires in a sample of 10% of the establishments encountered in the region. These establishments are open seven days a week; 68,8% of these markets sell on credit and at a medium price of R$ 0,41 (one dose of "cachaça". 93,8% of the sellers who were interviewed doesn't check the identity cards of their clients before selling them the alcoholic beverages. The relation between the number of houses and establishments was 3:1. The high concentration of establishments which sell alcoholic beverages in the neighbourhood brings up the necessity to think about the neighbouring regions. These regions include marginalized areas where there is drug trafficking, making the studied region an important commercial

  7. Book review: Pradeep, A.K.: "The buying brain: secrets for selling to the subconscious mind"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Kružljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Knjiga The Buying Brain: Secrets for Selling to the Subconscious Mind objavljena je 2010. godine, a izdavač je John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, USA. Djelo sadrži 231 stranicu podijeljenu u 18 poglavlja poredanih tako da čitatelja postupno uvode u područje neuromarketinga. Autor započinje predstavljajući trenutačnu problematiku u istraživanju tržišta i otkrivanju želja potrošača, nastavlja opisom neuromarketinških tehnologija, strukturom i osnovnim funkcijama mozga. Slijede savjeti o učinkovitom upravljanju markom, dizajniranju proizvoda te organiziranju prodajnog prostora, potkrijepljeni autorovim saznanjima iz provedenih istraživanja.

  8. Implementing relational marketing in a coffee selling company in Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Cruz Estrada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to propose a relationship marketing process in a coffee selling company in Baja California as a case study. First, relationship marketing is conceptualized and its contribution to the creation of value in organizations is analyzed; moreover, empirical studies from various authors, who point out the influence of this process on customer satisfaction, are included. 149 surveys were conducted in order to obtain the correlation between the guarantee to offer a product or service and value generation by delivering tangible and intangible elements for customer satisfaction. This proposal belongs to the company where the research was carried out; it can be adapted to organizations which offer a service and are in the situation studied.

  9. Stellar performance: top honor for Tesco - new generation of mechanical muscle sells like hot cakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    1997-10-06

    Tesco Corporation, a Calgary-based oil field equipment supply company, was recently awarded the 1997 Canada Export Award. The award was for top performance in selling, leasing and maintaining (all in one package) a top drive unit. The unit rotates drills up from rig floors to the top of the pipe strings that drive the drill bits into the earth. There are currently some 130 Tesco machines in action despite heavy competition from industry giant Varco and others. Tesco is also developing new product lines for the rapidly developing `underbalanced drilling` market, and is testing a new concept for simultaneous drilling and casing of wells. If this concept works out as expected, Tesco will have the market all to itself, at least until competitors catch up.

  10. The Making of a Best-Selling Book on Reproduction: Lennart Nilsson's A Child Is Born.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jülich, Solveig

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the 1965 first edition of Swedish photographer Lennart Nilsson's Ett barn blir till (A Child Is Born) by placing the book back in the historical context in which it was produced, marketed, and reviewed. In particular it shows how medicine and the media in Sweden were intertwined in the process of incorporating Nilsson's photographs of aborted embryos and fetuses into a best-selling book on the origin and development of human life. Nilsson's work is related to other books in the same genre as well as the popular picture magazines of the time, in order to highlight how it aspired to offer something new. It is argued that a number of commercial and other interests were involved and that an immense effort went into not only making and promoting the book but also trying to control the meaning of the images.

  11. Selling bits and pieces of humans to make babies: The gift of the magi revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, C B

    1999-06-01

    Reproductive medicine, a sector of a health care system increasingly captured by the demands of the marketplace, is enmeshed in a drive to sell certain human bits and pieces, such as gametes, cells, fetal eggs, and fetal ovaries, for reproductive purposes. The ethical objection raised by Kant and Radin to the sale of human organs - that this is incompatible with human dignity and worth - also applies to these sales. Moreover, such sales nullify the reproductive paradigm, irretrievably replacing it with a manufacturing paradigm. This represents a change in kind, not just of degree, in the way that we view our capacity to generate children and destroys our concept of reproduction as an essentially human activity. In the face of a struggle to retain those common ethical values at the foundation of reproductive medicine, this form of commodification of the human body should be viewed as ethically unacceptable.

  12. 'No willpower required'. The slimming industry and the right to sell dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beaufort, Inez; Vandamme, Sofie

    2008-03-01

    Many products to lose weight are presented on the market. The products are advertised with two 'arguments': the health-argument: obesity and overweight are dangerous for your health, and the beauty argument: obesity and overweight make you ugly. The authors raise ethical questions with regard to the promises made and discuss the following arguments: the exploitation of vulnerable persons who are told they are unhealthy and ugly, the stigmatization of obese people as lazy and without willpower, and the harm some treatments may cause. They argue that raising the health argument should be analyzed very critically as obese people are vulnerable and susceptible to all kind of promises. With regard to the beauty argument, they argue that 'selling dreams' is perhaps less problematic as people are not as susceptible and vulnerable with regard to promises on beauty and therefore less likely to be seduced by such promises. People should be empowered to be very critical of (advertisements for) slimming products.

  13. Analisis Penerapan Value Creation Selling dalam Strategi Pemasaran Perusahaan Jasa Logistik: Studi Kasus di PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A company is a market-oriented when the culture of value creation superior customer systematically and comprehensively implemented on company concerned. Value can be defined as the ratio of benefit to cost, where customers expect a rate of return equal or exceed the costs they incurred to obtain the products they bought. From the case studies conducted on PT XYZ, then, in getting the project tender delivery of goods geophysical equipment for the Brunei Loon project, it has been implemented value selling creation, which includes three main components, ie customer portraits, the proposed value, and benefits to customers or total value of ownership. Overall, the efficiency given value is about 20% compared to its closest competitor, the safety shipping and on time, as well as the positive benefits of the profit margin, cash flow, return on investment, brand equity, market share and customers.

  14. Selling the Arc of Crisis: Promoting Foreign Policy Change during the Carter Presidency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Vinha Luis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Carter Administration came to Office seeking to continue a policy of détente. However, the Administration’s policy vis-à-vis the Soviets became more assertive throughout the Presidency, culminating in the Carter Doctrine. The current paper applies a conceptual framework for “issue selling” to argue that a more assertive foreign policy was being promoted by the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and his NSC staff since the early days of the Carter Presidency. By applying an assortment of issue selling strategies, Zbigniew Brzezinski and the NSC staff were able to exploit the communicative interactions amongst the political leadership to continuously promote a more forceful US policy towards the Soviets. By being able to interpret and define the problem representation facing the Administration, the APNSA was able initiate and continuously promote a wholesale policy transformation leading to the development of the Carter Doctrine.

  15. Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garibay-Orijel Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby. Methods We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Results Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. Conclusion The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic.

  16. Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruán-Soto, Felipe; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2006-01-05

    More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby). We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques) comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic.

  17. SELLING CANANG SARI (As an Alternative of Effort in Informal Sector to overcome household economics problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Nilakusmawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Decrease in family income represent an impact of economic pressures, as an effect of economic crisis. Other side, the existing problems that extension of the job opportunity in the urban area with existence of development in the various sector do not absorb entire labour force which is progressively growing larger its amount.Economic problem force woman of lower economic class to involved take part in earning for increase family income by working beyond domestic sectors. Involvement of woman in labor market trigered by family’s economic problems, besides existence of the job opportunity factor. Alternative effort being carried out is by selling canang.Increasing of urban community activities in Denpasar City makes them have no time to make banten or canang. To find an easier way to overcome this situation, many people tend to buy canang/banten which is ready to use, also more practical and spent less time than the time spent when they make by themselves . This phenomenon gives a chance to canang sellers to get income additional. In the difficult condition of the economics problem, many woman have to take part to overcome economic problems which they face. One of the alternative is involved into labour market, and involve in trade is one of the choice. Because of the existence of opportunity as explained above, many women overcome their economic problems and try to give contribution to their family income by selling the canang.Phenomenon more and more canang sellers which are spread alongside the road side in Denpasar City shown that the informal sector have a great role to maintaining and also improving household economics. The effort as the canang seller can represent an alternative of effort in informal sector to overcome economics problem in the household level. Roles of woman as a subject of this informal sector, have a big contribution in maintaining household economics.

  18. Selling androgenic anabolic steroids by the pound: identification and analysis of popular websites on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, F G; Lombardo, S; Cosentino, M

    2011-12-01

    Internet websites offering androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) were identified and available products were examined. Keywords for the website search were: "anabolic steroids," "anabolic steroids buy," "anabolic steroid purchase." The first 10 websites offering AAS in the first 10 pages of results were considered. At least two AAS-containing products per website were selected. Thirty AAS-selling websites were identified, mainly located in the United States (46.7%) and Europe (30%). Most websites sold other anabolic/ergogenic products (clenbuterol, 76.7%; GH/IGF, 60.0%; thyroid hormones, 46.7%; erythropoietin, 30.0%; insulin, 20.0%) or products for AAS-related adverse effects (mainly: estrogen antagonists, 63.3%; products for erectile dysfunction, 56.7%; 5α-reductase inhibitors, 33.3%; anti-acne products, 33.3%). AAS were sold as medicines (69.6%) or as dietary supplements (30.4%). AAS in medicines were mainly: nandronole (20.4%), methandrostenolone (18.4%), and testosterone (12.2%). Dietary supplements contained mainly DHEA and included several fake compounds. Manufacturers were declared for 97.9% of medicines and 66.7% of dietary supplements; however, several manufacturers were not found on the Internet. Described benefits were usually few adverse effects and no estrogenicity. Toxicity was seldom reported and presented as mild. Recommended doses were two-fourfold higher than current medical recommendations. In conclusion, misleading information and deceiving practices were common findings on AAS-selling websites, indicating their deleterious potential for public health. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. A distributed algorithm for demand-side management: Selling back to the grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Milad; Khalili, Azam; Rastegarnia, Amir; Zandi, Sajad; Bazzi, Wael M

    2017-11-01

    Demand side energy consumption scheduling is a well-known issue in the smart grid research area. However, there is lack of a comprehensive method to manage the demand side and consumer behavior in order to obtain an optimum solution. The method needs to address several aspects, including the scale-free requirement and distributed nature of the problem, consideration of renewable resources, allowing consumers to sell electricity back to the main grid, and adaptivity to a local change in the solution point. In addition, the model should allow compensation to consumers and ensurance of certain satisfaction levels. To tackle these issues, this paper proposes a novel autonomous demand side management technique which minimizes consumer utility costs and maximizes consumer comfort levels in a fully distributed manner. The technique uses a new logarithmic cost function and allows consumers to sell excess electricity (e.g. from renewable resources) back to the grid in order to reduce their electric utility bill. To develop the proposed scheme, we first formulate the problem as a constrained convex minimization problem. Then, it is converted to an unconstrained version using the segmentation-based penalty method. At each consumer location, we deploy an adaptive diffusion approach to obtain the solution in a distributed fashion. The use of adaptive diffusion makes it possible for consumers to find the optimum energy consumption schedule with a small number of information exchanges. Moreover, the proposed method is able to track drifts resulting from changes in the price parameters and consumer preferences. Simulations and numerical results show that our framework can reduce the total load demand peaks, lower the consumer utility bill, and improve the consumer comfort level.

  20. The prevalence and cost of unapproved uses of top-selling orphan drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron S Kesselheim

    Full Text Available The Orphan Drug Act encourages drug development for rare conditions. However, some orphan drugs become top sellers for unclear reasons. We sought to evaluate the extent and cost of approved and unapproved uses of orphan drugs with the highest unit sales.We assessed prescription patterns for four top-selling orphan drugs: lidocaine patch (Lidoderm approved for post-herpetic neuralgia, modafinil (Provigil approved for narcolepsy, cinacalcet (Sensipar approved for hypercalcemia of parathyroid carcinoma, and imatinib (Gleevec approved for chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. We pooled patient-specific diagnosis and prescription data from two large US state pharmaceutical benefit programs for the elderly. We analyzed the number of new and total patients using each drug and patterns of reimbursement for approved and unapproved uses. For lidocaine patch, we subcategorized approved prescriptions into two subtypes of unapproved uses: neuropathic pain, for which some evidence of efficacy exists, and non-neuropathic pain.We found that prescriptions for lidocaine patch, modafinil, and cinacalcet associated with non-orphan diagnoses rose at substantially higher rates (average monthly increases in number of patients of 14.6, 1.45, and 1.58 than prescriptions associated with their orphan diagnoses (3.12, 0.24, and 0.03, respectively (p75%. Increases in lidocaine patch use for non-neuropathic pain far exceeded neuropathic pain (10.2 vs. 3.6 patients, p<0.001.In our sample, three of four top-selling orphan drugs were used more commonly for non-orphan indications. These orphan drugs treated common clinical symptoms (pain and fatigue or laboratory abnormalities. We should continue to monitor orphan drug use after approval to identify products that come to be widely used for non-FDA approved indications, particularly those without adequate evidence of efficacy.

  1. Kust leida naissoost meest? / Ramo Pener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pener, Ramo

    2016-01-01

    Mõistest Gender Mainstreaming ning selle hukutava maailmavaate tagamaadest. Adekvaatse identiteedi kujunemise kaasaaitamisel on oluline aidata kaasa soorollide kujunemisele, selgitamisele ning toetamisele

  2. 25 CFR 309.9 - When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Indian arts and crafts? 309.9 Section 309.9 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.9 When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts? A non-Indian can make and sell products in the style of...

  3. Tahe lepinguõiguses ja selle roll lepingute sõlmimisel : [bakalaureusetöö] / Tiina Pappel ; Õigusinstituut ; juhendaja: Margus Kingisepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pappel, Tiina

    1999-01-01

    Tahte olemus ja selle käsitlus lepinguteooria arengus, tahet käsitlevad lepinguteooriad, tahteavaldus, tahteavalduse siduvus ja ulatus, tahte mittevastavus tahteavaldusele ja selle tagajärjed.Vt. ka Õigusinstituudi toimetised (1999) nr. 2, lk. 8-9

  4. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? No. Section 636 of Public Law 104-52 prohibits the sale of tobacco products in vending...

  5. Negotiating the city: Exploring the intersecting vulnerabilities of non-national migrant mothers who sell sex in Johannesburg, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Becky; Vearey, Jo; Nencel, L.S.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the intersecting vulnerabilities of non-national migrant mothers who sell sex in Johannesburg, South Africa – one of the most unequal cities in the world. Migrants who struggle to access the benefits of the city live and work in precarious peripheral spaces where they

  6. Negotiating the city: : Exploring the intersecting vulnerabilities of non-national migrant mothers who sell sex in Johannesburg, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Becky; Vearey, Jo; Nencel, L.S.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the intersecting vulnerabilities of non-national migrant mothers who sell sex in Johannesburg, South Africa – one of the most unequal cities in the world. Migrants who struggle to access the benefits of the city live and work in precarious peripheral spaces where they

  7. Key Senator Scrutinizes Pharmacy 340B Selling Practices: Federal Office in Charge of Drug Discounts Begins to Feel the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlas, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Upselling takes place when a safety-net hospital increases its profits by selling discounted drugs to privately insured patients at full price. Senator Charles Grassley is on the case to increase transparency and to curtail the misuse of 340B purchases.

  8. The innovation effect of user design: Exploring consumers' innovation perceptions of firms selling products designed by users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schreier (Martin); C. Fuchs (Christoph); D.W. Dahl (Darren)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe authors study consumer perceptions of firms that sell products designed by users. In contrast with the traditional design mode, in which professional designers employed by firms handle the design task, common design by users involves the firm's user community in creating new product

  9. 13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... appoint a Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the... Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ... Debenture, SBA may cause each NMVC Company to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions that include, but...

  10. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial markets..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs... the performance of the Selling Agent, Poolers, CRA, and the Trustee. (iv) Perform such other functions...

  11. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for... Participating Securities. (iii) Monitor the performance of the Selling Agent, Poolers, CRA, and the Trustee. (iv...

  12. Integrated Online Software for Libraries: An Overview of Today's Best-Selling IOLS. Options from the U.S. Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibbarelli, Pamela

    1996-01-01

    Profiles the top-selling IOLS (integrated online library systems) software for libraries based on sales figures reported in the 1996 "Library Journal" annual survey of the library automation marketplace. Highlights include microcomputer-based systems and minicomputer-based systems, system components, MARC formats, and market sectors.…

  13. Do street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthful diet? The case of Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, A.M.; Hartog, den A.P.; Mwadime, R.K.; Staveren, van W.A.; Foeken, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined whether street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthful diet. It was hypothesized that vendors sold only low-cost food groups to enable the buyer to afford the food while the vendor also made a profit. A structured questionnaire was administered to 580

  14. The Effects of Task Clarification, Visual Prompts, and Graphic Feedback on Customer Greeting and Up-Selling in a Restaurant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, James; Wilder, David A.; Fixsen, Amanda; Hess, Erica; Rost, Kristen; Curran, Ryan; Zonneveld, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    An intervention consisting of task clarification, visual prompts, and graphic feedback was evaluated to increase customer greeting and up-selling in a restaurant. A combination multiple baseline and reversal design was used to evaluate intervention effects. Although all interventions improved performance over baseline, the delivery of graphic…

  15. 41 CFR 102-38.165 - Are the terms and conditions in the offer to sell binding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Sales Process Offer to Sell § 102-38.165 Are the terms and conditions... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are the terms and...

  16. Gender Differences in Personal Selling Ethics Evaluations: Do They Exist and What Does Their Existence Mean for Teaching Sales Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…

  17. 40 CFR 1042.330 - Selling engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with a suspended certificate of conformity. 1042.330 Section 1042.330 Protection of Environment... engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity. You may sell engines that you produce after we suspend the engine family's certificate of conformity under § 1042.315 only if one of the...

  18. Atteinte cérébro-méningée multiple révélant une Tuberculose multifocale chez un immunocompétent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulahri, Tarik; Taous, Abdellah; Berri, Maha Aït; Traibi, Imane; Rouimi, Abdelhadi

    2016-01-01

    La Tuberculose constitue un problème de santé publique au Maroc. L’atteinte du système nerveux central est néanmoins rare, survenant dans un contexte de tuberculose multifocale ou miliaire tuberculeuse. Cependant elle peut être un mode de révélation même chez un sujet immunocompétent. Nous rapportons le cas d’un homme de 30 ans qui avait présenté un trouble du langage évoluant dans un contexte d’altération de l’état général avec à l’examen clinique une aphasie motrice de type Broca, un syndrome pyramidal latéralisé à droite et des adénopathies latéro-cérvicales. la sérologie HIV était négative. L’IRM cérébrale: montrait des lésions associant des tuberculomes intracrâniens multiple et une image de méningo-encéphalite. La TDM thoracique montrait de multiples micronodules pulmonaires, une image cavitaire à paroi épaissie et DDB du fowler droit et du culmen. La biopsie des ganglions lymphatiques révélait la présence de granulome typique de tuberculose. Le diagnostic de tuberculose multifocale fut retenu et le patient fut mis sous traitement anti-bacillaire associé à une corticothérapie avec une bonne évolution clinico-radiologique. Cette observation est particulière par l’aspect et le siège des lésions tuberculeuse retrouvées à l’imagerie cérébrale, par l’absence d’immunodéficience, par la bonne évolution sous traitement et souligne l’intérêt de rechercher activement par un bilan exhaustif une infection tuberculeuse extra-cérébrale associée devant toute lésion cérébro-méningée évocatrice de tuberculose. PMID:28293347

  19. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of ovariectomized mice without affecting the serum estrogen concentration or uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ling Wang,1,2,* Xue-Min Qiu,1,2,* Yu-Yan Gui,1,2 Ying-Ping Xu,1,2 Hans-Jürgen Gober,3 Da-Jin Li1 1Laboratory for Reproductive Immunology, Hospital and Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IBS, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmacy, Wagner Jauregg Hospital and Children’s Hospital, Linz, Austria *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction (BSNXD, a traditional Chinese medicinal composition, has been used as a remedy for postmenopausal osteoporosis, but its effects on bone metabolism and the uterus have not been reported.Purpose: We aimed to determine the respective effects of BSNXD on the bones and the uterus of ovariectomized (OVX mice to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this herbal formula.Materials and methods: Postmenopausal osteoporosis animal models that were generated by ovariectomy were treated with BSNXD. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to analyze the bone mineral density, and histomorphometric analysis was performed to measure the parameters related to bone metabolism. Calcein labeling was performed to detect bone formation. The uteruses from the mice were weighed, and the histomorphometry was analyzed. Drug-derived serum was prepared to assess the 17-β-estradiol concentration via enzyme immunoassay.Results: BSNXD administration ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of OVX mice, as evidenced by an increase in the bone mineral density and bone volume; these effects could not be abolished by the administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. Moreover, BSNXD had no effect on the serum estrogen concentration or uterus.Conclusion: These results suggest that BSNXD has ameliorating effects on bone loss due to estrogen deprivation without affecting the peripheral blood estrogen concentration or the uterus in OVX mice. Keywords

  20. Natuke privaatsusest ja mõnevõrra enam selle jälitustegevuslikust riivest isikuandmeid töötleva Eesti avaliku võimu poolt / Eerik Kergandberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kergandberg, Eerik, 1953-

    2005-01-01

    Artikkel on koostatud õiguskantsleri 2005. aasta teaduskonverentsi ettekande alusel ning keskendub eeskätt isikuandmete töötlemise tulemina privaatsust riivavale riiklikule tegevusele - jälitustegevusele ja sellega seotud aktuaalsematele probleemidele

  1. Lennart Meri : poliitiku ülesanne on tajuda õiglustunnet ja märgata selle signaale / Lennart Meri ; interv. Urmas Klaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meri, Lennart, 1929-2006

    2002-01-01

    Intervjuu endise presidendi Lennart Meriga Eesti liitumisest EL-iga, tööst Euroopa Konvendis, uuest poliitikast ning Res Publicast, sündimusest, kodakondsuspoliitikast, vabadussambast, maksusüsteemist, sotsiaalsest õiglusest

  2. Giver specifik fodtræning og indlæg en yderligere effekt sammenlignet med et standard knæfokuseret træningsforløb for patienter med patellofemoral smertesyndrom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten; Andreasen, Jane; Christensen, Marianne

    . Kort og lang opfølgning blev udført efter hhv. fire og tolv måneder. Forskelle i KOOS smertescore fra baseline til opfølgning, blev testet både indenfor og mellem grupperne. Resultater: Der var en signifikant større effekt ved at supplere standard behandling med fodtræning og indlæg, sammenlignet med...... standard behandling alene både ved fire måneders follow op. Der var ingen signifikant reduktion i smerterne for de tyve patienter inkluderet i kontrolgruppen. Effekten var stadig tilstede efter tolv måneder i interventionsgruppen. Konklusion: En kombination af indlæg med svang støtte og fodtræning giver en...

  3. Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Design Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. Setting England 2014-15. Population Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Interventions Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45p, and 50p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Main outcome measures Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers’ expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. Results The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers’ mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health—saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23 700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. Conclusions The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at

  4. Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Alan; Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S

    2014-09-30

    To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. England 2014-15. Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45 p, and 50 p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers' expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45 p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers' mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45 p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health-saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45 p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23,700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at expected levels between 40 p and 50 p per unit, is estimated to have an approximately 40-50 times

  5. Karistusõiguslik hädakaitse ja hädaseisund põhiõiguste piiramise alusena koolides ning nende suhestumine 1. jaanuaril 2016 jõustuva lastekaitseseaduse § 24 lõikega 3 / Anneli Soo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soo, Anneli, 1984-

    2015-01-01

    Analüüs 1. jaanuaril 2016 jõustuva LaKS § 24 lõike 3 tähendusest teo õigusvastasust välistava asjaoluna ning kas see harmoneerub karistusõiguse dogmaatikaga hädakaitse ja hädaseisundi valdkonnas. Füüsilise vägivalla kasutamisest hädakaitse ja hädaseisundi olukorras koolis, vastavast kohtupraktikast

  6. Medico-legal aspects of congenital heart diseases in buying and selling of pets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Passantino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The veterinarian should be able to assess congenital and inherited malformations such as heart defects because they may be object of legal disputes. In this study, the authors report some cases of congenital heart defects in pets (dogs and cats to clarify whether or not they may be considered a redhibitory defect. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 medical records of pets referred with suspected congenital heart disease were examined. All patients aged between 3 and 24 months underwent clinical examination, chest X-ray examination, electrocardiogram, and echocardiography and angiocardiography when necessary. Results: Congenital heart diseases or associated cardiac malformations were confirmed. Considering the above congenital diseases as redhibitory defect and the rights of the owners from a strictly legal viewpoint, 9 owners demanded an estimatory action and 11 a redhibitory action; 1 owner decided to demand the reimbursement of veterinary expenses because the animal died; 7 owners took no legal action but requested surgical intervention. Conclusions: Until more appropriate and detailed legislation on the buying and selling of pet animals is put in place; the authors propose to include in the contract a temporal extension of the guarantee relating to congenital heart disease, which can often become evident later.

  7. Open pit mining profit maximization considering selling stage and waste rehabilitation cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttaqin, B. I. A.; Rosyidi, C. N.

    2017-11-01

    In open pit mining activities, determination of the cut-off grade becomes crucial for the company since the cut-off grade affects how much profit will be earned for the mining company. In this study, we developed a cut-off grade determination mode for the open pit mining industry considering the cost of mining, waste removal (rehabilitation) cost, processing cost, fixed cost, and selling stage cost. The main goal of this study is to develop a model of cut-off grade determination to get the maximum total profit. Secondly, this study is also developed to observe the model of sensitivity based on changes in the cost components. The optimization results show that the models can help mining company managers to determine the optimal cut-off grade and also estimate how much profit that can be earned by the mining company. To illustrate the application of the models, a numerical example and a set of sensitivity analysis are presented. From the results of sensitivity analysis, we conclude that the changes in the sales price greatly affects the optimal cut-off value and the total profit.

  8. SOHIO (Standard Oil Co. , Ohio) to sell Prudhoe gas to Northern Natural Gas Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-20

    Sohio has agreed to sell Vertical Bar3: 2 trillion cu ft of its Prudhoe Bay gas to Northern Natural Gas Co. for delivery at a rate of 170 million cu ft/day when the proposed Alaska Highway gas pipeline is completed. With the exception of approx. 4 trillion cu ft of Sohio's reserves committed to Columbia Gas System Inc., the agreement accounts for the sale of all the 26.5-27 trillion cu ft of Prudhoe Bay reserves. The contract, which is subject to approval of the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, allows Alaska to take its one-eighth royalty share of the gas in kind or cash. Columbia Gas is the only firm planning to purchase Prudhoe Bay gas that is not participating as an equity owner in the pipeline project. According to a Columbia spokesman, it is still uncertain whether the proposed gas pipeline will be built; and the fact that Columbia has not yet signed a final agreement with Sohio does not indicate any decreasing interest in Prudhoe Bay gas.

  9. Buying on margin, selling short in an agent-based market model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Li, Honggang

    2013-09-01

    Credit trading, or leverage trading, which includes buying on margin and selling short, plays an important role in financial markets, where agents tend to increase their leverages for increased profits. This paper presents an agent-based asset market model to study the effect of the permissive leverage level on traders’ wealth and overall market indicators. In this model, heterogeneous agents can assume fundamental value-converging expectations or trend-persistence expectations, and their effective demands of assets depend both on demand willingness and wealth constraints, where leverage can relieve the wealth constraints to some extent. The asset market price is determined by a market maker, who watches the market excess demand, and is influenced by noise factors. By simulations, we examine market results for different leverage ratios. At the individual level, we focus on how the leverage ratio influences agents’ wealth accumulation. At the market level, we focus on how the leverage ratio influences changes in the asset price, volatility, and trading volume. Qualitatively, our model provides some meaningful results supported by empirical facts. More importantly, we find a continuous phase transition as we increase the leverage threshold, which may provide a further prospective of credit trading.

  10. When sex doesn't sell: using sexualized images of women reduces support for ethical campaigns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bongiorno

    Full Text Available Images of scantily clad women are used by advertisers to make products more attractive to men. This "sex sells" approach is increasingly employed to promote ethical causes, most prominently by the animal-rights organization PETA. Yet sexualized images can dehumanize women, leaving an unresolved paradox--is it effective to advertise an ethical cause using unethical means? In Study 1, a sample of Australian male undergraduates (N = 82 viewed PETA advertisements containing either sexualized or non-sexualized images of women. Intentions to support the ethical organization were reduced for those exposed to the sexualized advertising, and this was explained by their dehumanization of the sexualized women, and not by increased arousal. Study 2 used a mixed-gender community sample from the United States (N = 280, replicating this finding and extending it by showing that behaviors helpful to the ethical cause diminished after viewing the sexualized advertisements, which was again mediated by the dehumanization of the women depicted. Alternative explanations relating to the reduced credibility of the sexualized women and their objectification were not supported. When promoting ethical causes, organizations may benefit from using advertising strategies that do not dehumanize women.

  11. Selling medical travel to US patient-consumers: the cultural appeal of website marketing messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobo, Elisa J; Herlihy, Elizabeth; Bicker, Mary

    2011-04-01

    More US-based patients than ever are travelling abroad for medical or dental services. Beyond financial incentives, what cultural factors have supported this trend? Because of their interest in selling medical travel, medical travel agencies (MTAs) have vested interests in this question. To find out how they are answering it, an ethnographic content analysis of MTA websites was undertaken. Beyond themes promoting a 'worry-free experience' of 'legitimate services', themes linking healthcare consumerism to culturally specific identity ideals and self-creation/representation processes predominated. Themes relating to the demonstration of social position, savvy expression of good consumer judgment, and achievement of libertarian ideals figured highly. However, various inconsistencies (including an appeal to tourism in some but not other situations) suggested that medical travel involves, for the US-based consumer, a complex act of juggling context-specific self-identity desires and expectations in relation to healthcare. The potential impact of prevailing discourses on 'self-construction-in-practice' was explored. Findings enhance understanding of the care seeking process as experienced within the context of globalized, mass-mediated healthcare consumerism. They also point to the need for finer-grained distinctions than the global gloss 'medical travel' offers.

  12. When sex doesn't sell: using sexualized images of women reduces support for ethical campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, Renata; Bain, Paul G; Haslam, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Images of scantily clad women are used by advertisers to make products more attractive to men. This "sex sells" approach is increasingly employed to promote ethical causes, most prominently by the animal-rights organization PETA. Yet sexualized images can dehumanize women, leaving an unresolved paradox--is it effective to advertise an ethical cause using unethical means? In Study 1, a sample of Australian male undergraduates (N = 82) viewed PETA advertisements containing either sexualized or non-sexualized images of women. Intentions to support the ethical organization were reduced for those exposed to the sexualized advertising, and this was explained by their dehumanization of the sexualized women, and not by increased arousal. Study 2 used a mixed-gender community sample from the United States (N = 280), replicating this finding and extending it by showing that behaviors helpful to the ethical cause diminished after viewing the sexualized advertisements, which was again mediated by the dehumanization of the women depicted. Alternative explanations relating to the reduced credibility of the sexualized women and their objectification were not supported. When promoting ethical causes, organizations may benefit from using advertising strategies that do not dehumanize women.

  13. Pope Francis and Joseph Selling: A New Approach to Mercy in Catholic Sexual Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Catherine O’Reilly-Gindhart

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the Apostolic Exhortation of Amoris Laetitia in May 2016 and Apostolic Letter Misericordia et Misera in November 2016, Pope Francis has stirred a new discussion on mercy and the role of mercy in certain matters of sexual ethics including divorced, remarried, and cohabiting couples. During the same year, moral theologian Joseph A. Selling published a revolutionary book which provides a new vision of virtues and examines how people consider and arrive at ethical judgements. This article examines Pope Francis’s understanding of mercy using Selling’s method of the “virtuous trapezium” as a way to actively illustrate Pope Francis’s new approach to matters concerning Catholic sexuality. In matters of human sexuality, the Catholic moral tradition has focused for years on an act-centered morality, but Selling’s method instead considers the goals of ethical living before making an ethical judgment. This article contributes to the current discussion in theological ethics concerning Pope Francis’s recent pronouncements on mercy and Catholic sexual ethics, as well as brings into conversation Selling’s new method and approach to understanding virtue.

  14. Valge Laeva hukk : Estonia katastroof meie peas = The wreck of the White ship : on the catastrophe of the Estonia / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    "Estonia" katasroofist ja meedia osast selle kajastamisel, Juhan Leinbergist ja maltsvetlusest ning "valge laeva" kui priiuse laeva ja lootuse kujundist Eesti kultuuris ning selle tähendusest eestlaste teadvuses

  15. The social dynamics of selling sex in Mombasa, Kenya: a qualitative study contextualizing high risk sexual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampanda, Karen M

    2013-06-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa have one of the highest HIV seroprevelance rates of any population. Effective safe sex interventions are urgently needed to stop the transmission of HIV during commercial sex. Despite widespread education, counselling, and condom distribution interventions among FSWs, unprotected sexual intercourse remains a large behavioural challenge. Research on this topic has been limited primarily to establishing the frequency of high risk sexual behaviour without a comprehensive analysis of the social environment creating these factors, especially gender inequality. Through qualitative indepth interviews and focus group discussions with FSWs, this article contextualizes the selling of sex in one large urban city of Kenya. The results of this study indicate that FSWs will never be able to enforce safe sex among male clients in such settings without structural interventions that address gendered socioeconomic power imbalances. Policy implications based on these findings include re-evaluating laws against the selling of sex and prioritizing female education and economic opportunities.

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF RISK MANAGEMENT IN DIRECTLY RAW MILK SELLING AT “E. AVANZI” CENTER OF PISA UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rindi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors show the results about the effectiveness verification of prevention measures adopted in raw milk directly selling at “E. Avanzi” Centre of Pisa University. The good hygienic practices applied during production, storage and selling phases demonstrated to guarantee, in raw milk, conditions complying to hygienic criteria provided for the current regulation in Tuscany. The effectiveness verification about risk communication, carried out interviewing a sample of buyers, shows as, beside a predominant attitude towards attention to potential hygienic risks, overstay areas of reduced awareness about food risk and the ways to manage prevention. Authors hope for, in this context, such as in other similar productions, the approach yet launched towards continuous improvement of good hygienic practices adopted by businesses, could be extended to risk communication, with the aim to promote conscious and responsable choices of consumer.

  17. Male sex workers who sell sex to men also engage in anal intercourse with women: evidence from Mombasa, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannava, Priya; Geibel, Scott; King'ola, Nzioki; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior. Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse. From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days - of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one's own children, and lower education. We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.

  18. An observational study of compliance with North Dakota's smoke-free law among retail stores that sell electronic smoking devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Miller, Donald R

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine were compliant with North Dakota's smoke-free law. During June 2015, retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine (n=16), but not legally required to be licensed to sell tobacco products, were assessed for compliance with North Dakota's smoke-free law by observing for smoking or e-smoking, or evidence of such, in prohibited areas and for the presence of required no-smoking signs. Use of e-cigarettes, or evidence of use, was observed inside 8 (50%) stores required to be smoke-free. On the basis of all indicators of compliance assessed, compliance with the state's smoke-free law was low, with only 6% and 44% of stores compliant with all indoor and outdoor requirements, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first U.S. study assessing retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine for compliance with the smoke-free law. The use of e-cigarettes, or evidence of use, occurred in the stores where it is prohibited by law. Overall compliance with the smoke-free law was low. These stores should be licensed by the state, as are other tobacco retailers, because this may assist in education, enforcement and compliance with the law and increase public health protection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Male sex workers who sell sex to men also engage in anal intercourse with women: evidence from Mombasa, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Mannava

    Full Text Available To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior.Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya.Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse.From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days - of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one's own children, and lower education.We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.

  20. Rice field test applied by the granular fertilizer made of silicate and oyster sell powder. Part II

    OpenAIRE

    森本, 正則; 守本, 信一; 宮本, 信彦; 立木, 陽子; 長谷川, 正; 増田, 昇義; 樋口, 喜三; 駒井, 功一郎

    2010-01-01

    [Synopsis] The granular fertilizer made of silicate and oyster sell powder was evaluated the efficacy by application for rice production in the paddy field experiment again. The fertilizer was made by same procedure along with previously reported. The experimental setting was along with conventional rice production in Nara Pref. Japan. The rice plant growth applied by the fertilizer application was slightly better than control plant growth. The 10% 37.5 kg/10a application in transplanting fie...

  1. Do street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthful diet? The case of Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Alice Mboganie; den Hartog, Adel P; Mwadime, Robert K N; van Staveren, Wija A; Foeken, Dick W J

    2002-03-01

    This study examined whether street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthful diet. It was hypothesized that vendors sold only low-cost food groups to enable the buyer to afford the food while the vendor also made a profit. A structured questionnaire was administered to 580 vendors in three selected locations. Data included product names, ingredients, methods of preparation, and the sex of the vendor. A little more than half of the vendors (53%) sold food of only one group; 44% sold cereals. Overall, 36% of vendors, mostly men, sold only carbohydrate products. The percentage of vendors selling foods of more than one group was higher in the working area (53%) than in the slum area (43%, p street vendors sell foods of only one group, women vendors are capable of supplying a sufficient variety of food groups that consumers can afford. It appears that consumer purchasing power dictates the food groups provided by vendors, especially cereal-based-foods. A policy on micronutrient fortification of cereal flours and fats used in popular street food preparation needs to be considered. This could be coupled with consumer and vendor education programs focusing on the importance of healthful diets.

  2. Selling and Smooth-Talking: Effects of Interviewer Impression Management from a Signaling Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmy, Annika; Kleinmann, Martin; Melchers, Klaus G; Götz, Martin

    2017-01-01

    risks and chances in selling and smooth-talking toward applicants.

  3. The prevalence and cost of unapproved uses of top-selling orphan drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Myers, Jessica A; Solomon, Daniel H; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Levin, Raisa; Avorn, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The Orphan Drug Act encourages drug development for rare conditions. However, some orphan drugs become top sellers for unclear reasons. We sought to evaluate the extent and cost of approved and unapproved uses of orphan drugs with the highest unit sales. We assessed prescription patterns for four top-selling orphan drugs: lidocaine patch (Lidoderm) approved for post-herpetic neuralgia, modafinil (Provigil) approved for narcolepsy, cinacalcet (Sensipar) approved for hypercalcemia of parathyroid carcinoma, and imatinib (Gleevec) approved for chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. We pooled patient-specific diagnosis and prescription data from two large US state pharmaceutical benefit programs for the elderly. We analyzed the number of new and total patients using each drug and patterns of reimbursement for approved and unapproved uses. For lidocaine patch, we subcategorized approved prescriptions into two subtypes of unapproved uses: neuropathic pain, for which some evidence of efficacy exists, and non-neuropathic pain. We found that prescriptions for lidocaine patch, modafinil, and cinacalcet associated with non-orphan diagnoses rose at substantially higher rates (average monthly increases in number of patients of 14.6, 1.45, and 1.58) than prescriptions associated with their orphan diagnoses (3.12, 0.24, and 0.03, respectively (p75%). Increases in lidocaine patch use for non-neuropathic pain far exceeded neuropathic pain (10.2 vs. 3.6 patients, porphan drugs were used more commonly for non-orphan indications. These orphan drugs treated common clinical symptoms (pain and fatigue) or laboratory abnormalities. We should continue to monitor orphan drug use after approval to identify products that come to be widely used for non-FDA approved indications, particularly those without adequate evidence of efficacy.

  4. Itaallane Giulietto Chiesa - 9/11 tabulõhkuja / Ivari Vee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vee, Ivari

    2008-01-01

    Itaalia publitsist ja politoloog ning Europarlamendi saadik Giulietto Chiesa kohtus Tallinnas ajakirjanike ja teiste huvilistega ning tutvustas oma raamatut "Zero" ning selle ainetel valminud filmi "9/11. Uurimine nullist"

  5. Quality of online pharmacies and websites selling prescription drugs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orizio, Grazia; Merla, Anna; Schulz, Peter J; Gelatti, Umberto

    2011-09-30

    Online pharmacies are companies that sell pharmaceutical preparations, including prescription-only drugs, on the Internet. Very little is known about this phenomenon because many online pharmacies operate from remote countries, where legal bases and business practices are largely inaccessible to international research. The aim of the study was to perform an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the scientific literature focusing on the broader picture of online pharmacies by scanning several scientific and institutional databases, with no publication time limits. We searched 4 electronic databases up to January 2011 and the gray literature on the Internet using the Google search engine and its tool Google Scholar. We also investigated the official websites of institutional agencies (World Health Organization, and US and European centers for disease control and drug regulation authorities). We focused specifically on online pharmacies offering prescription-only drugs. We decided to analyze and report only articles with original data, in order to review all the available data regarding online pharmacies and their usage. We selected 193 relevant articles: 76 articles with original data, and 117 articles without original data (editorials, regulation articles, or the like) including 5 reviews. The articles with original data cover samples of online pharmacies in 47 cases, online drug purchases in 13, consumer characteristics in 15, and case reports on adverse effects of online drugs in 12. The studies show that random samples with no specific limits to prescription requirements found that at least some websites sold drugs without a prescription and that an online questionnaire was a frequent tool to replace prescription. Data about geographical characteristics show that this information can be concealed in many websites. The analysis of drug offer showed that online a consumer can get virtually everything. Regarding quality of drugs, researchers very often found

  6. Semi-empirical lake level (SELL) model for mapping lake water depths from partially clouded satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, N.; Senay, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    Information on the variability in surface water is critical to understand the impact of climate change and global water cycle. Surface water features such as lakes, or reservoirs can affect local weather and regional climate. Hence, there is a widespread demand for accurate and quantitative global observations of surface water variability. Satellite imagery provides a direct way to monitor variations in surface water. However, estimating accurate surface area from satellite imagery can be a problem due to clouds. Hence, the use of optical imagery for operational implementation has been a challenge for monitoring variations in surface water. In this research, a semi-empirical lake level (SELL) model is developed to derive lake/reservoir water levels from partially covered satellite imagery. SRTM elevation combined with bathymetry was used to derive the relationships between lake depth vs. surface area and shore line (L). Using these relationships, lake level/depth (D) was estimated from the surface area (A) and/or shore line (L) delineated from Landsat and MODIS data. The SELL model was applied on Lake Turkana, one of the rift valley lakes in East Africa. First, Lake Turkana water levels were delineated using cloud-free or partially clouded Landsat and MODIS imagery over 1993-2009 and 2002-2009 time periods respectively. Historic lake depths were derived using 1972-1992 Landsat imagery. Lake depths delineated using this approach were validated using TOPEX/Poseidon/Jason satellite altimetry data. It was found that lake depths derived using SELL model matched reasonably well with the satellite altimetry data. The approach presented in this research can be used to (a) simulate lake water level variations in data scarce regions (b) increase the frequency of observation in regions where cloud cover is a problem (c) operationally monitor lake water levels in ungauged basins (d) derive historic lake level information using satellite data.

  7. "Buy-It-Now" or "Sell-It-Now" Auctions: Effects of Changing Bargaining Power in Sequential Trading Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Grebe, Tim; Ivanova-Stenzel, Radosveta; Kröger, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    We study experimentally the effect of bargaining power in two sequential mechanisms that offer the possibility to trade at a fixed price before an auction. In the “Buy-It-Now” format, the seller has the bargaining power and offers a price prior to the auction; whereas in the “Sell-It-Now” format, it is the buyer. Both formats are extensively used in online and offline markets. Despite very different strategic implications for buyers and sellers, results from our experiment suggest...

  8. A website to sell digital images online : an initial step towards the vast e-commerce world

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thy

    2014-01-01

    E-commerce happens everywhere from developed countries to developing ones, and is becoming an essential part of business nowadays. This Bachelor’s thesis is about developing an e-commerce website in English in the Wordpress platform to sell digital images under royalty-free license. This website serves a personal business purpose and all images on sale are fully legal and they are taken personally by the owner of the website. There are two theoretical parts inside the thesis. The first...

  9. Ene-Liis Semper: selle aasta puhkepäevad võib ühe käe sõrmedel kokku lugeda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Semper, Ene-Liis, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna kultuuripealinna projekti panustanud Ene-Liis Semper võtab 2011. aasta sündmused kokku ja selgitab, kuidas jõudsid publiku ette suurlavastused "The Rise and Fall of Estonia", "Three Kingdoms", Põhuteater ning isikunäitus Kumus

  10. Rahvatantsuharrastus paguluseestlaste hulgas ja selle roll eestluse säilimisel / Iivi Zajedova, Eha Rüütel, Angela Arraste, Kalev Järvela

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Artikkel toetub Saksamaal pagulaseestlaste hulgas läbi viidud uurimusele, mille eesmärgiks oli intervjuude kaudu saada pagulaseestlaste kogemuslik tagasivaade eesti rahvatantsurühmade tekkimisele ja arengule ning seda mõjutanud teguritele Saksamaa Liitvabariigis pärast Teist maailmasõda

  11. Social-ecological factors associated with selling sex among men who have sex with men in Jamaica: results from a cross-sectional tablet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Kenny, Kathleen S; Levermore, Kandasi; Jones, Nicolette; Baral, Stefan D; Wang, Ying; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A

    2018-01-01

    Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) experience social marginalization and criminalization that increase HIV vulnerability by constraining access to HIV prevention and care. People who sell sex also experience criminalization, rights violations, and violence, which elevate HIV exposure. MSM who sell sex may experience intersectional stigma and intensified social marginalization, yet have largely been overlooked in epidemiological and social HIV research. In Jamaica, where same sex practices and sex work are criminalized, scant research has investigated sex selling among MSM, including associations with HIV vulnerability. We aimed to examine social ecological factors associated with selling sex among MSM in Jamaica, including exchanging sex for money, shelter, food, transportation, or drugs/alcohol (past 12 months). We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a peer-driven sample of MSM in Kingston, Ocho Rios, and Montego Bay. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate intrapersonal/individual, interpersonal/social, and structural factors associated with selling sex. Among 556 MSM, one-third (n = 182; 32.7%) reported selling sex. In the final multivariable model, correlates of selling sex included: individual/intrapersonal (lower safer sex self-efficacy [AOR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.94]), interpersonal/social (concurrent partnerships [AOR: 5.52, 95% CI: 1.56, 19.53], a higher need for social support [AOR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.12], lifetime forced sex [AOR: 2.74, 95% 1.65, 4.55]) and structural-level factors (sexual stigma [AOR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.15], food insecurity [AOR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.41, 4.02], housing insecurity [AOR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.16, 3.26], no regular healthcare provider [AOR: 2.72, 95% CI: 1.60, 4.64]). This study highlights social ecological correlates of selling sex among MSM in Jamaica, in particular elevated stigma and economic insecurity. Findings suggest that MSM in Jamaica who sell sex experience intensified

  12. Decision of the National People's Congress (NPC) Standing Committee on Strict Punishment for Criminals Who Abduct, Sell, and Kidnap Women and Children [4 September 1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-05

    This document contains the text of a 1991 Chinese amended law which seeks to punish criminals who abduct and sell women and children. The law assigns a prison sentence of 3-10 years and a fine for the abduction and sale of women and children. When circumstances are deemed especially serious, the penalty is increased to death and confiscation of property. Such circumstances include being the ringleader of a group which abducts and sells women and children, abducting and selling three or more women or children, raping abducted women, inducing or forcing women to prostitution, causing serious injury or death to abducted women and children or their relatives, and selling women and children outside of the territory. A 10-year sentence is to be imposed for the use of force, threats, or narcotics to kidnap women and children to sell them. Those who buy abducted women or children are also to be punished unless they fail to obstruct the women from returning to their home, fail to abuse the children, or fail to obstruct the children from saving themselves.

  13. Sales with Privately Made Deed Over The Object Under Hak Tanggungan Based on The Authorization to Sell in Banking Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Budi Purwaningsih

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The extension of credit contain a risk that must be covered by the bank, because the credit is given now and pay later. To minimize the risk of loans, the bank will ask the debtor to provide collateral as a source of repayment of the debt if the debtor default or breach of the contract. According to Article 1131 Civil Code (KUH Perdata, all assets of a debtor, either moving or fixed objects, both existing and new will exist in the future, a guarantee for all debts of the engagement. This means that by itself or in order to pass laws providing collateral by a debtor to any creditor for all debtor's property. Sales with Privately Made Deed over the object in the hak tanggungan banking practices may be more effective and efficient both in terms of time and costs for the settlement of non-performing loans. But in practice, occurs some offense prescribed procedure leading to doubts about the legality aspect of sales with privately made deed over the object under hak tanggungan based on the authorization to sell in banking practice. How To Cite: Purwaningsih, S. (2014. Sales with Privately Made Deed Over The Object Under Hak Tanggungan Based on The Authorization to Sell in Banking Practice. Rechtsidee, 1(2, 191-204. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i2.100

  14. Fiscal and policy implications of selling pipe tobacco for roll-your-own cigarettes in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as "dual purpose" or "dual use" pipe tobacco. METHODS: Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. RESULTS: Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. CONCLUSIONS: Marketing pipe tobacco as "dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements.

  15. Fiscal and policy implications of selling pipe tobacco for roll-your-own cigarettes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Daniel S; Tynan, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO) and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as "dual purpose" or "dual use" pipe tobacco. Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. Marketing pipe tobacco as "dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements.

  16. Cost accounting selling price formation: a case study in an industry of pneumatic suspensions of Caxias do Sul-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Carina Pistore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the contributions of cost accounting in the sale price formation in a pneumatic suspension industry. They present as main guiding authors of this study, Crepaldi (2009 and Martins (2003. This study is characterized as an exploratory research with a qualitative and quantitative approach, using the methodological approach of case study. Still, it uses the interview technique with experts in the field, with the director and an employee of the company. Data analysis is based on documentary research and content analysis. We present further calculations of labor cost, selling price formation and demonstration of profitability, based on information obtained in the company, to answer the research problem and propose the intervention proposal. This study aims to present a proposal for improvements in forming selling price, seeking to improve performance, reduce costs, save income developing new controls, in order to make it more competitive company studied. The proposed intervention is that the company create new cost centers, use costing methods, assessment criteria and form your price based on the markup taking into account the market price.

  17. Generic structure and promotional elements in best-selling online book blurbs: a cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Önder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the generic structure and promotional elements of the online fiction blurbs accompanying the 95 best-selling books from Amazon United Kingdom and Okuoku Turkey (1999-2011, a company that sells books online that are written in Turkish or translated into Turkish, and adds to the growing number of investigations into this genre (Kathpalia, 1997; Bhatia, 2004; Cacchiani, 2007; Gea-Valor, 2007; Gesuato, 2007; Basturkmen, 2009. Based on the findings, a two-level schematic structure (moves and steps is proposed for the blurbs following Swales (1990. The findings suggest that Amazon UK book blurbs have a six-move schematic structure: complimenting the author, book description, justifying the book by establishing a niche, book promotion, author’s background and author’s website/blog being the second, fourth and fifth obligatory moves. However, Okuoku book blurbs feature a five-move schematic structure with complimenting the author, book description, involving the reader in the text, book promotion and author’s background, the second and fourth being obligatory. Analysis of promotional elements in the corpora reveals that online fiction book blurbs employ the art of advertising through the use of favorable expressions (Bhatia, 2005 and innovative uses of rhetorical strategies to persuade the reader to read the book.

  18. The pricing of trees: A study of hold-ups, holdouts, buy-outs and sell-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WD Reekie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on transactions cost analysis, price and auction theory, and competition authority findings in order to answer some questions on the structure and trading patterns of the South African forestry industry. Does a forestry firm linked contractually to supply an adjacent sawmill customer, form part of a bilateral monopoly?  For competition policy what are the relevant markets each party sells into or buys from?  Can either firm opportunistically hold-up the other in price revisions?  Or, where contracts have no effective terminal date, can one party hold out against offers of contract buyout?  If one party is a state agency are there rights of eminent domain?  If the state agency is due to be privatised can the method of sale, for example a simultaneous ascending auction, resolve some of the dilemmas?

  19. Tamoxifen from Failed Contraceptive Pill to Best-Selling Breast Cancer Medicine: A Case-Study in Pharmaceutical Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane M. Quirke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, tamoxifen is one of the world's best-selling hormonal breast cancer drugs. However, it was not always so. Compound ICI 46,474 (as it was first known was synthesized in 1962 within a project to develop a contraceptive pill in the pharmaceutical laboratories of ICI (now part of AstraZeneca. Although designed to act as an anti-estrogen, the compound stimulated, rather than suppressed ovulation in women. This, and the fact that it could not be patented in the USA, its largest potential market, meant that ICI nearly stopped the project. It was saved partly because the team's leader, Arthur Walpole, threatened to resign, and pressed on with another project: to develop tamoxifen as a treatment for breast cancer. Even then, its market appeared small, because at first it was mainly used as a palliative treatment for advanced breast cancer. An important turning point in tamoxifen's journey from orphan drug to best-selling medicine occurred in the 1980s, when clinical trials showed that it was also useful as an adjuvant to surgery and chemotherapy in the early stages of the disease. Later, trials demonstrated that it could prevent its occurrence or re-occurrence in women at high risk of breast cancer. Thus, it became the first preventive for any cancer, helping to establish the broader principles of chemoprevention, and extending the market for tamoxifen and similar drugs further still. Using tamoxifen as a case study, this paper discusses the limits of the rational approach to drug design, the role of human actors, and the series of feedback loops between bench and bedside that underpins pharmaceutical innovation. The paper also highlights the complex evaluation and management of risk that are involved in all therapies, but more especially perhaps in life-threatening and emotion-laden diseases like cancer.

  20. Buyouts & ventures. Selling ... or selling out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, H; Hudson, T; Cain, J E; Carr, S L; Zacharias, D

    1996-06-05

    Charity begins at home, yet across the country hometown not-for-profit hospitals are forming joint partnerships with investor-owned systems. In some of these cases no foundation is created to continue the hospital's good deeds. In this special report, Hospitals & Health Networks looks at the issues and asks, "Do these joint ventures need more public scrutiny?"

  1. 25 CFR 309.7 - How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Indian labor when selling, offering, or displaying art and craft work for sale? 309.7 Section 309.7 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS..., or displaying art and craft work for sale? The Indian Arts and Crafts Act is a truth-in-marketing law...

  2. 30 CFR 206.355 - How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to a purchaser for direct use? If you sell geothermal resources produced from Class I, II, or III leases at arm's length to a purchaser for direct use, then the royalty on the geothermal resource is the... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal...

  3. 41 CFR 102-39.55 - When should I offer property I am exchanging or selling under the exchange/sale authority to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When should I offer property I am exchanging or selling under the exchange/sale authority to other Federal agencies or State...

  4. Do sex and violence sell? A meta-analytic review of the effects of sexual and violent media and ad content on memory, attitudes, and buying intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lull, R.B.; Bushman, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that sex and violence sell. However, we predicted that sex and violence would have the opposite effect. We based our predictions on the evolution and emotional arousal theoretical framework, which states that people are evolutionarily predisposed to attend to emotionally

  5. Arhailisest ja sekundaarsest kirjast ning kultuurimuutustest

    OpenAIRE

    Art Leete

    1998-01-01

    he article connects sensing the landscape and orienting with the notion of a kind of 'sign', 'writing' or 'language'. The connection is formed by an extremly wide and generalised interpretation of these notions. The primary or archaic writing is culture specific communicative manipulating with environmental differences. Its usage is based on the expected heterogenity, asymmetry and discrreteness principle of space. Secondary writing is a consensual, traditionally levelled strategy to store an...

  6. Demokraatia ning loomulikud vajadused / Mihkel Mutt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutt, Mihkel, 1953-

    2006-01-01

    USA arvas, et vabade ja ausate valimistega saab Lähis-Ida riikides kõik korda, kuid nii pole juhtunud. F. Fukuyama väitel ei saa liberaalset demokraatiat importida kultuurikeskkonda, kus on läänest erinevad traditsioonid, demokraatia tekib aegamisi. Palestiina õppetunnist Eestile

  7. New Zealand tobacco retailers' attitudes to selling tobacco, point-of-sale display bans and other tobacco control measures: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaine, Richard; Russell, Marie; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2014-06-20

    We aimed to explore New Zealand tobacco retailers' views on selling tobacco, the forthcoming 2012 point of sale display ban and two other potential tobacco control interventions in the retail setting: compulsory sales of nicotine replacement therapy and licensing of tobacco retailers. We carried out in-depth interviews with 18 retailers from a variety of store types where tobacco was sold. Stores were selected from a range of locations with varying levels of deprivation. We used thematic analysis to analyse the data. All but four of the retailers were ambivalent about selling tobacco, would rather not sell it, or fell back on a business imperative for justification. Only one retailer was explicitly unconcerned about selling tobacco products. Most participants had few or no concerns about the removal of point-of-sale displays. Issues which were raised were mainly practical and logistical issues with the removal of displays. Only three thought sales would definitely be reduced. The majority of the retailers were not opposed to a possible requirement that nicotine replacement therapy products be made available wherever tobacco products are sold. Ten supported a licensing or registration scheme for tobacco retailers, and only three were opposed. We found widespread ambivalence about selling tobacco. There was considerable support for the licensing of tobacco retailers and other potential tobacco control measures. The retailers' attitudes about potential financial costs and security issues from a tobacco display ban were at odds with the tobacco industry predictions and the views of retailers' organisations. Some retailers appear to be potential allies for tobacco control. This is in contrast to retailer organisations, which may be out of step with many of their members in their strong opposition to retail tobacco control interventions.

  8. Chemical profiling of Re-Du-Ning injection by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry through the screening of diagnostic Ions in MS(E mode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Li

    Full Text Available The broad applications and mechanism explorations of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCMPs require a clear understanding of TCMP chemical constituents. In the present study, we describe an efficient and universally applicable analytical approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS with the MS(E ((E denotes collision energy data acquisition mode, which allowed the rapid separation and reliable determination of TCMP chemical constituents. By monitoring diagnostic ions in the high energy function of MS(E, target peaks of analogous compounds in TCMPs could be rapidly screened and identified. "Re-Du-Ning" injection (RDN, a eutherapeutic traditional Chinese medicine injection (TCMI that has been widely used to reduce fever caused by viral infections in clinical practice, was studied as an example. In total, 90 compounds, including five new iridoids and one new sesquiterpene, were identified or tentatively characterized by accurate mass measurements within 5 ppm error. This analysis was accompanied by MS fragmentation and reference standard comparison analyses. Furthermore, the herbal sources of these compounds were unambiguously confirmed by comparing the extracted ion chromatograms (EICs of RDN and ingredient herbal extracts. Our work provides a certain foundation for further studies of RDN. Moreover, the analytical approach developed herein has proven to be generally applicable for profiling the chemical constituents in TCMPs and other complicated mixtures.

  9. Kuidas hinnata suure panusega testide hindajaid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hille Pajupuu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Suure panusega testide (ingl high-stakes test osatähtsuse kasv toob kaasa vajaduse pöörata rohkem tähelepanu testi subjektiivhinnatavate osade hindamise kvaliteedile. Kasutatavate lihtsate statistiliste meetodite puhul võib jääda märkamata palju valestihindamisi juhul, kui hindajate arv on suur ning nende koolitus nõrk. Artikkel tutvustab meetodit, mille abil saab kindlaks teha valesti hinnanud hindajad ning nende hinnatud tööd õigeaegselt ümber hinnata. Meetod on mõeldud kasutamiseks kahekordse hindamise puhul, seda demonstreeritakse eesti keele algtaseme testi rääkimisosa hindamise näitel.

  10. A Morphological, anatomical and caryological study on endemic Pilosella hoppeana subsp. lydia taxa (Bornm. & Zahn Sell & West (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sepet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant samples of Endemic Pilosella hoppeana subsp. lydia (Bornm. & Zahn Sell&West (1975 the taxa were collected in 2013 from the Spil Mountain in Manisa, one of the natural spreading areas. A thick cover was observed on the leaves of the taxon rosette on the base. In the anatomical investigations, the radial transmission in the stem takes up a great deal of space in the bundles compared to the floem elements of the xylem elements. The body covers the epidermis cells of a thick capillary layer with dense fur, and the transmission bundles are generally arranged in a large, small bundle. The leaves are in the bifacial leaf type and accordingly the separation of palisade parenchyma and sponge parenchyma is clearly observed. The abaxial percentage is longer and more intense, and there are stoma cells that are arranged at regular intervals with cover and secretion feathers on both sides. Abdominal abdominal stomata is the upper case. The number of chromosomes was determined as 2x = 2n = 18 in karyological studies performed by Takson and chromosome measurements were made.

  11. A deterministic inventory model for deteriorating items with selling price dependent demand and three-parameter Weibull distributed deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asoke Kumar Bhunia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to develop two inventory models for deteriorating items with variable demand dependent on the selling price and frequency of advertisement of items. In the first model, shortages are not allowed whereas in the second, these are allowed and partially backlogged with a variable rate dependent on the duration of waiting time up to the arrival of next lot. In both models, the deterioration rate follows three-parameter Weibull distribution and the transportation cost is considered explicitly for replenishing the order quantity. This cost is dependent on the lot-size as well as the distance from the source to the destination. The corresponding models have been formulated and solved. Two numerical examples have been considered to illustrate the results and the significant features of the results are discussed. Finally, based on these examples, the effects of different parameters on the initial stock level, shortage level (in case of second model only, cycle length along with the optimal profit have been studied by sensitivity analyses taking one parameter at a time keeping the other parameters as same.

  12. The quality of information on the internet relating to top-selling dietary supplements in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudischova, L; Straznicka, J; Pokladnikova, J; Jahodar, L

    2017-11-24

    Background The purchase of dietary supplements (DS) via the Internet is increasing worldwide as well as in the Czech Republic. Objective The aim of the study is to evaluate the quality of information on DS available on the Internet. Setting Czech websites related to dietary supplements. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving the analysis of information placed on the websites related to the 100 top-selling DS in the Czech Republic in 2014, according to IMS Health data. Main outcome measure The following criteria were evaluated: contact for the manufacturer, recommended dosage, information on active substances as well as overall composition, permitted health claims, % of the daily reference intake value (DRIV) for vitamins and minerals, link for online counseling, pregnancy/breastfeeding, allergy information, contraindications, adverse reactions, and supplement-drug interactions (some criteria were evaluated from both points of view). Results A total of 199 web domains and 850 websites were evaluated. From the regulatory point of view, all the criteria were fulfilled by 11.3% of websites. Almost 9% of the websites reported information referring to the treatment, cure, or prevention of a disease. From the clinical point of view, all the criteria were only met by one website. Conclusions The quality of information related to DS available on the Internet in the Czech Republic is quite low. The consumers should consult a specialist when using DS purchased online.

  13. Process analysis of superheated steam pre-treatment of wheat straw and its relative effect on ethanol selling price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Barchyn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing bioethanol operations rely on starch-based substrates, which have been criticized for their need to displace food crops in order to be produced. As an alternative to these first generation biofuels, the use of agricultural residues is being considered to create more environmentally-benign second generation, or cellulosic biofuels. Recalcitrance of these substrates to fermentation requires extensive pre-treatment processes, which often consume more energy than can be extracted from the ethanol that they produce, so one of the priorities in developing cellulosic ethanol is an effective and efficient pre-treatment method. This study examines the use of superheated steam (SS as a process medium by which wheat straw lignocellulosic material is pre-treated. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, it was found that 47% of the total glucose could be liberated from the substrate, and the optimal conditions for pre-treatment were 15 min in hot water (193 kPa, 119˚C followed by 2 min in SS. Furthermore, a preliminary relative economic analysis showed that the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP was comparable to that obtained from steam explosion, a similar process, while energy consumption was 22% less. The conclusion of the study is that SS treatment stands to be a competitive pre-treatment technology to steam explosion.

  14. Patent licensing and selling to China as a strategy of technology transfer in a New Era: A perspective of European firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; Meijer, Elise; Duysters, Geert

    2010-01-01

    International technology transfer enables firms in developed countries to exploit the value of their technological innovations, and provides firms in developing countries with access to technological and organizational knowledge. This study aims to present a timely description of the experience...... and intentions of EU firms with regard to patent licensing and/or selling to China in this new era. Firms from 12 European countries in various industries were surveyed by an online questionnaire. We found that (1) large and small EU firms are very different with regard to the number of non...... the primary concern despite the recently adaption of the new Patent Law in China; (4) EU firms are most interested in selling obsolete technologies and licensing state-of-art technologies to China....

  15. Selling a service: experiences of peer supporters while promoting exclusive infant feeding in three sites in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkonki Lungiswa L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though it has been shown that peer support to mothers at home helps to increase exclusive breastfeeding, little is known about the experiences of peer supporters themselves and what is required of them to fulfil their day-to-day tasks. Therefore, a community-based randomised control trial using trained "lay" women to support exclusive infant feeding at home was implemented in three different sites across South Africa. The aim of this paper is to describe the experiences of peer supporters who promote exclusive infant feeding. Methods Three focus group discussions were held, in a language of their choice, with peer supporters. These meetings focused on how the peer educators utilised their time in the process of delivering the intervention. Data from the discussions were transcribed, with both verbatim and translated transcripts being used in the analysis. Results Unlike the services provided by mainstream health care, peer supporters had to market their services. They had to negotiate entry into the mother's home and then her life. Furthermore, they had to demonstrate competence and come across as professional and trustworthy. An HIV-positive mother's fear of being stigmatised posed an added burden - subsequent disclosure of her positive status would lead to an increased workload and emotional distress. Peer supporters spent most of their time in the field and had to learn the skill of self-management. Their support-base was enhanced when supervision focused on their working conditions as well as the delivery of their tasks. Despite this, they faced other insurmountable issues, such as mothers being compelled to offer their infants mixed feeding simultaneously due to normative practices and working in the fields postpartum. Conclusion Designers of peer support interventions should consider the skills required for delivering health messages and the skills required for selling a service. Supportive supervision should be

  16. Eri teed tulevikku? : kolmekümneaastaste põlvkonna sissetulekuallikate struktuur ja selle muutused üleminekuperioodil postsotsialistlikes maades / Rein Murakas, Denis Trapido

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murakas, Rein, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Järg nr. 8 lk. 1764-1791. Sissetulekuallikate stabiilsuse ja muutlikkuse probleemist Eestis, Sverdlovski ja Harkovi oblastis Ukrainas, Lätis, Moldovas, Valgevenes ja Tadzhikistanis aastatel 1992-1998. Kasutatud on rahvusvahelise longituudse uurimisprojekti "Põlvkonna eluteed" (PE) andmeid. Tabelid: PE riikide sotsiaal-demograafilised ja arengunäitajad siirdeperioodil; valimi maht regiooni ja PE küsitlusetapi lõikes; analüüsis kasutatud tunnused; PE respondentide kuusissetuleku parameetrid regioonide lõikes (sissetulek USA dollarites); sissetulekuallikate esinemissagedus respondentidel (%) ning keskmine sissetulekuallikate arv

  17. Georges Frédéric Parrot' prantsuse nimest, päritolust ja retoorikast: rektori tervituskõne keisrile ja selle lausumiskontekstid / Marge Käsper, Epi Tohvri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käsper, Marge, 1973-

    2015-01-01

    G. F. Parrot' nimest. G. F. Parrot' päritolu sotsiaalkogukondlikust rollist ja selle retoorikast. Aleksander I kasvatusest ja valgustuse retoorikast. Keiser Aleksander I-le sügavat mõju avaldanud kõnest

  18. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction: inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by abrogation of the RANKL-induced NFATc1 and NF-κB signaling pathways via selective estrogen receptor α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ling Wang,1,2,* Xue-Min Qiu,1,2,* Yu-Yan Gui,1,2 Ying-Ping Xu,1,2 Hans-Jürgen Gober,3 Da-Jin Li11Laboratory for Reproductive Immunology, Hospital and Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IBS, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmacy, Wagner Jauregg Hospital and Children’s Hospital, Wagner Jauregg Weg, Linz, Austria*These authors contributed equally to this workIntroduction: Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction (BSNXD is a traditional Chinese medicinal composition that has been used as a remedy for postmenopausal osteoporosis, but the mechanisms affecting bone metabolism are not fully understood.Purpose: We investigated the molecular mechanism and signaling pathway underlying the effect of BSNXD on osteoclastogenesis.Materials and methods: A postmenopausal osteoporosis animal model generated by ovariectomy was administered BSNXD and drug-derived serum was prepared. An enzyme immunoassay was conducted to measure the 17-β-estradiol (E2 concentration in the drug-derived serum. Bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage precursor cells were treated with drug-derived serum, and tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase staining was conducted to observe osteoclastogenesis. A bone resorption assay was performed to analyze the effect on osteoclastic resorptive function. Real-time PCR, flow cytometry, Western blotting, transfection, and luciferase assays were conducted to explore the related mechanism.Results: E2 was not elevated in BSNXD-derived serum. BSNXD-derived serum suppressed receptor activation of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-activated osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner; this effect could be reversed by estrogen receptor α antagonist methyl-piperidino-pyrazole. The serum suppressed RANKL-induced NF-κB transcription and inhibited the accumulation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1

  19. Selling cultural heritage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the value of cultural and archaeological heritage through a focus on multinational corporations (MNCs) across industries and their involvement with cultural heritage. Research to date has focused mainly on industries where MNCs have a direct impact on cultural or archaeological

  20. Selling the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Gerald R.; Harmon, Gerald R.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains school-aged children would prefer not to study social studies. Presents several strategies to help encourage positive attitudes. Strategies include persuasion, reinforcement, enthusiasm, personalized contact. Stresses that negative attitudes must be changed in order for social studies to achieve its fundamental citizenship goals. (BR)

  1. Selling brand MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, T

    1999-08-01

    Health care is more than local, of course: It's personal. Recognizing the connections between doctors and patients as a potent form of brand loyalty, health systems are looking for ways to leverage those bonds--and encourage new ones--with special marketing campaigns.

  2. Creative Designs Sell Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Alyce

    1991-01-01

    Discusses six essential elements in the design of an advertisement: sales pitch, major headline, minor headline, company statistics, artwork or photograph, and white space. Offers five exercises for the classroom or staff. (SR)

  3. Parallelism as Repetition: A Case Study of Betti Alver’s Elu on alles uus and Jälle ja jälle / Korduse parallelism Betti Alveri luuletustes ”Elu on alles uus“ ning ”Jälle ja jälle”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Mueller

    2016-01-01

    Uurimusel on kaks esmast fookust, mis koonduvad parallelismi katusmõiste alla: peamiselt keelelised kordused (korduvad kõlastruktuurid, sõnaüksused, grammatilised konstruktsioonid ning psühholoogiline ja ruumiline deiksis kui võrreldavate tähendusvariantide raamistik, mis harmoneerub mainitud keeleliste kordustega. Luuletuse ”Elu on alles uus“ analüüs keskendub peamiselt grammatilisele parallelismile ja häälikulistele kordustele. Foneemide kordus (näiteks alg- või lõppriim ilmutab seotud ühtsust, mis kandub üle teistele keelelistele tasanditele, nagu süntaktilised vastavused riimuvate ühikute vahel ja neist sõltuvad tähendusseo­sed. Deiktilised elemendid on luuletuse ”Jälle ja jälle“ oluline komponent, toimides nii isikuliste asesõnade mina ja sina dialoogilise vastasmõjuna (need asesõnad on samuti korduvad ning sageli ka süntaktilises ja grammati­lises vastavuses kui ka vahendina eriliste ruumisuhete loomiseks lüürilise mina füüsilise ja vaimse poeetilise maailma sees. Seega võib nende tähelepanekute abil selgemini jälgida, kuidas keelelistest struktuuridest moodustatakse paralleelseid osiseid, mis omandavad kõrgema poeetise tähenduse, ning mõista, kuidas stiil mängib intuitiivset, kuid asendamatut osa isegi kõige väiksemates poeetilise keele avaldustes.

  4. Hormone Replacement Therapy advertising: sense and nonsense on the web pages of the best-selling pharmaceuticals in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantero María

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The balance of the benefits and risks of long term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT have been a matter of debate for decades. In Europe, HRT requires medical prescription and its advertising is only permitted when aimed at health professionals (direct to consumer advertising is allowed in some non European countries. The objective of this study is to analyse the appropriateness and quality of Internet advertising about HRT in Spain. Methods A search was carried out on the Internet (January 2009 using the eight best-selling HRT drugs in Spain. The brand name of each drug was entered into Google's search engine. The web sites appearing on the first page of results and the corresponding companies were analysed using the European Code of Good Practice as the reference point. Results Five corporate web pages: none of them included bibliographic references or measures to ensure that the advertising was only accessible by health professionals. Regarding non-corporate web pages (n = 27: 41% did not include the company name or address, 44% made no distinction between patient and health professional information, 7% contained bibliographic references, 26% provided unspecific information for the use of HRT for osteoporosis and 19% included menstrual cycle regulation or boosting feminity as an indication. Two online pharmacies sold HRT drugs which could be bought online in Spain, did not include the name or contact details of the registered company, nor did they stipulate the need for a medical prescription or differentiate between patient and health professional information. Conclusions Even though pharmaceutical companies have committed themselves to compliance with codes of good practice, deficiencies were observed regarding the identification, information and promotion of HRT medications on their web pages. Unaffected by legislation, non-corporate web pages are an ideal place for indirect HRT advertising, but they often contain

  5. Hormone replacement therapy advertising: sense and nonsense on the web pages of the best-selling pharmaceuticals in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilet-Rosell, Elisa; Martín Llaguno, Marta; Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2010-03-16

    The balance of the benefits and risks of long term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been a matter of debate for decades. In Europe, HRT requires medical prescription and its advertising is only permitted when aimed at health professionals (direct to consumer advertising is allowed in some non European countries). The objective of this study is to analyse the appropriateness and quality of Internet advertising about HRT in Spain. A search was carried out on the Internet (January 2009) using the eight best-selling HRT drugs in Spain. The brand name of each drug was entered into Google's search engine. The web sites appearing on the first page of results and the corresponding companies were analysed using the European Code of Good Practice as the reference point. Five corporate web pages: none of them included bibliographic references or measures to ensure that the advertising was only accessible by health professionals. Regarding non-corporate web pages (n = 27): 41% did not include the company name or address, 44% made no distinction between patient and health professional information, 7% contained bibliographic references, 26% provided unspecific information for the use of HRT for osteoporosis and 19% included menstrual cycle regulation or boosting feminity as an indication. Two online pharmacies sold HRT drugs which could be bought online in Spain, did not include the name or contact details of the registered company, nor did they stipulate the need for a medical prescription or differentiate between patient and health professional information. Even though pharmaceutical companies have committed themselves to compliance with codes of good practice, deficiencies were observed regarding the identification, information and promotion of HRT medications on their web pages. Unaffected by legislation, non-corporate web pages are an ideal place for indirect HRT advertising, but they often contain misleading information. HRT can be bought online from Spain

  6. Töötajate enesekindlus on juhtide teha / Terje Tiiman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiiman, Terje

    2005-01-01

    Artikkel on refereering R. M. Kanteri ettekandest personalijuhtimise konverentsil Inglismaal ning tema raamatust "Confidence" (London 2004) ning selles käsitletakse töötajate enesekindlust, riskimist, eksimist, vastastikust usaldust. Lisa: Staaride eelistamine rikub koostöö

  7. Loodusteadused ja "Rode Altar lähivaates". Muuseumitund ja töölehed / Martin Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Martin, 1987-

    2014-01-01

    Niguliste muuseumi konserveerimisprojektist, mis keskendub kiriku hiliskeskaegse kappaltari restaureerimisele ning selle raames õpilastele koostatud programmidest, mis ühendavad ajaloo, kunsti ja loodusteadused ning tunniga seotud töölehti

  8. Kurjade bakterite kõrvalmõju / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2012-01-01

    Alessandra Fogli Minnesota ülikoolist ning Laura Veldkamp Sterni ärikoolist kirjeldasid oma uuringus "Germs, social networks and growth" inimkontakti kaudu levivate haiguste esinemissageduse abil ühiskonna sotsiaalset struktuuri ning selle seost tehnoloogiate levimisega

  9. Pakkujate võrdne kohtlemine riigihankemenetlusest kõrvaldamisel ja pakkujate kvalifitseerimisel : [magistritöö] / Piia Kulm ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendajad: Ene Andresen, Veiko Vaske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulm, Piia

    2009-01-01

    Võrdse kohtlemise põhimõtte sisust ja kohaldamisest ning selle põhimõtte järgimise tagamisest riigihangete õiguses, pakkujate kõrvaldamise ja pakkujate kvalifitseerimise etapi erinevustest, pakkujate hankemenetlusest kõrvaldamise ning kvalifitseerimise etapist

  10. Balti riikide raamatukoguhoidjate avaldus pagulastele pakutavate raamatukoguteenuste asjus / inglise keelest tõlkinud Tiina Büttner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Avalduse koostasid Läti, Eesti ja Leedu raamatukoguhoidjate ühingud ning selle võtsid ühehäälselt vastu Balti raamatukoguhoidjate 10. kongressi ning Läti raamatukoguhoidjate 17. konverentsi osalejad Riias 13. oktoobril 2015

  11. Taaskasutusest armastusega / Tiiu Suvi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suvi, Tiiu

    2006-01-01

    Tuuliki Peili loomingulistest rõivastest, mis kannavad silti "Humana Disain" ning on valmistatud peamiselt second-hand materjalist ja Tallinna Taaskasutuskeskuse tekstiilikojast ning selle meistri Pille Kelleri tegemistest

  12. Püsiva tegevuskoha mõiste rahvusvahelistes maksulepingutes ja Eesti tulumaksuseaduses / Aare Kurist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurist, Aare, 1974-

    1998-01-01

    Püsiva tegevuskoha mõistest vastavalt OECD 1992. a. tulu ja kapitali maksustamise mudelkonventsioonile ning selle alusel riikide vahel sõlmitud topeltmaksustamise vältimise ning maksudest hoidumise tõkestamise lepingutele

  13. Polügraafiatesti abil saadud andmete usaldusväärsuse võrdlemine muude tõendite usaldusväärsusega : [bakalaureusetöö] / Ilona Marken-Kruusmägi ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond Tallinnas ; juhendaja: Talis Bachmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marken-Kruusmägi, Ilona, 1988-

    2013-01-01

    Polügraafitesti kirjeldus ning selle abil saadava informatsiooni usaldusväärsuse hindamisest, teiste tõendite tutvustusest ning nende usaldusväärsuse hindamisest, võrdlevast hinnangust, tuleviku suundumistest

  14. Viimsi poolsaare maastikuline mitmekeseisus ja selle muutumine 20. ja 21. sajandil = The diversity and changes of the landscape of the Viimsi Peninsula during the 20th and 21st Century : III koht bakalaureusetööde kategoorias / Karolin Mäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäe, Karolin

    2009-01-01

    Töö eesmärgiks oli iseloomustada Viimsi poolsaare looduslikke ja inimmõjulisi komponente, selgitada välja poolsaare maastikuline mitmekesisus ning tuua välja maakattes esinevad muutused 20. sajandi algusest kuni tänapäevani ning nende seos sotsiaal-majanduslike tingimustega

  15. [Present Status of Displaying Pharmaceutical Products for Sale on Flea Market Applications for Smartphones and the Responses to Illicit Selling by Service Providers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Takeuchi, Tomoe; Fukushima, Noriko

    2017-12-01

     In Japan, a pharmacy or drug store license is required for selling pharmaceutical products. However, civilians without a pharmacy or drug store license are displaying pharmaceutical products for sale on a flea market application, which is illegal dealing. This study discussed the modality for implementing countermeasures for the illicit selling of pharmaceutical products. We extracted pharmaceutical products displayed for sale on three flea market applications (Mercari, Rakuma, Fril) on one day. One hundred and eighty-one pharmaceutical products were displayed (49 on Mercari, 86 on Rakuma, and 46 on Fril). There were 6.1% (11/181) domestically prescribed drugs, 69.1% (125/181) domestic OTC drugs, 23.8% (43/181) foreign-made prescribed drugs, and 1.1% (2/181) foreign-made OTC drugs. The seller could display the product for sale without confirming whether it is prohibited. We alerted the service providers of this illicit selling at flea markets at three different instances. The pharmaceutical product displays were deleted by the service providers at a rate of 55.1% (27/49) for Mercari and 51.2% (44/86) for Rakuma. The average number of drugs that were displayed for sale by each seller was 1.4 and the average number of total products that were displayed for sale by each seller was 100. The seller could have unintentionally displayed the pharmaceutical products for sale, without the knowledge that it is illegal. The service providers of flea market applications should create mechanisms to alert the sellers that displaying pharmaceutical products for sale is an illicit act and regulate these violations.

  16. Quali-quantitative analysis of best selling drugs from pharmacy, street market and traditional herbal medicine: a pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Bellotti, Pasquale; Minutillo, Adele; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Pacifici, Roberta

    2015-02-01

    A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250 mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r(2)≥ 0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Leuconostoc gasicomitatum is the dominating lactic acid bacterium in retail modified-atmosphere-packaged marinated broiler meat strips on sell-by day

    OpenAIRE

    Susiluoto, Tuija; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, Johanna

    2002-01-01

    http://www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/01681605 Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in retail, modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP), marinated broiler meat strips on sell-by day were mainly identified as Leuconostoc gasicomitatum. A total of 32 packages, 3 to 5 packages of 7 differently marinated broiler meat products, were studied at the end of the producer-defined shelf life (at 6ºC, 7 to 9 days depending on the manufacturer). Prior to the microbiological analyses, appearance and smell of the product ...

  18. The author training manual develop marketable ideas, craft books that sell, become the author publishers want, and self-publish effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Anyone can publish a book and become an ""author,"" but if you want to become a successful author with a profitable publishing career, you need a clear, step-by-step guide to help you develop book ideas that sell. In The Author Training Manual, expert editor and book coach Nina Amir reveals the exact process successful authors have used to create business plans and proposals for their books and teaches you how to view your ideas through the eyes of acquisitions editors and literary agents. Whether you write fiction or nonfiction, plan to traditionally publish or self-publish, The Author Tra

  19. Evaluación clínica de alvéolos tratados mediante técnica de selle alveolar con injerto gingival libre

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Molina, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar los cambios dimensionales de los tejidos blandos y duros en alvéolos tratados con la técnica de selle alveolar con injerto gingival libre, ocho semanas después de realizada la exodoncia Materiales y métodos: A cuatro individuos se les realizó exodoncia atraumática de diente premolar superior o inferior con mal pronóstico, al ser un diente no rehabilitable. Durante el momento quirúrgico luego de la extracción, se tomó un injerto gingival libre y se posicionó en la entrada ...

  20. The criminal career of men convicted of rape: evidence from a Norwegian national cohort / Christine Friestad, Torbjørn Skardhamar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Friestad, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Sarnasustest ja erinevustest erineva tausta, kriminaalse ajaloo ja retsidiivsusega kurjategijate seas. Norras läbi viidud uuringust seksuaalkurjategijate ja teiste kurjategijate seas ning selle tulemustest

  1. Konfiskeerimine haldussunnivahendina / Indrek Koolmeister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koolmeister, Indrek, 1949-

    1999-01-01

    Konfiskeerimise olemusest ja objektist, selle kohaldamisest juriidiliste isikute suhtes, konfiskeerimise ulatusest ja täitemenetlusest ning kolmandate isikute õigustest seoses asja konfiskeerimisega

  2. Valeri Iltshenko puhus Vene imele Tallinnas elu sisse / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Veepuhastusseadmeid tootvast ettevõttest Envirolyte Industries ning selle osanikust ja tegevdirektorist Valeri Iltshenkost, Ernst & Youngi aasta ettevõtja konkursi Eesti vooru finalistist. Graafikud, diagrammid

  3. Estonian monetary system : readiness to join the European Monetary Union / Mart Sõrg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõrg, Mart, 1943-

    2004-01-01

    1992. a rahareformi läbiviimise paratamatusest, valuutakomitee ning liberaalse rahapoliitika olulisusest, Eesti valmisolekust eurole üleminekuks ja selle mõjust riigi majanduslikule arengule. Tabelid

  4. Волостное собрание затормозило вопрос Пуртcеского ветропарка / Герли Романович

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Романович, Герли, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Sonda vallavolikogu ei saatnud Purtse tuulepargi rajamise projekti avalikule arutelule ning tagastas selle teemaplaneeringu koostajale OÜ Hendrikson & Ko. Tuulikud planeeris parki püstitada OÜ Raunistal

  5. Segadused mitteresidentide poolt saadud dividendide maksustamisel / Lasse Lehis, Erki Uustalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehis, Lasse, 1972-

    1998-01-01

    Mitteresidentide dividendide tulumaksustamisest ja tuluallikariigi esmaõigusest selle puhul, topeltmaksustamise vältimisest, alakapitalisatsioonist ning intresside ja tulude maksustamise erinevusest

  6. Saksa teadlane koostas Hitleri perekonna genealoogia / Urmas Kiil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiil, Urmas

    2007-01-01

    Saksa genealoog Ralf G. Jahn koostas detailse kroonika Hitleri perekonnast ning avaldas selle raamatuna "Hitlers Familiengeheimniss - Geschichte und Genealogie der Vorfahren und Verwandten von Adolf Hitler"

  7. Provintsist pärit IT-mõtleja / Alexander Galitsky ; interv. Viktoria Korpan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galitsky, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Venemaa tuntumaid info- ja kõrgtehnoloogiavaldkonna spetsialiste infotehnoloogiast ja selle erinevatest võimalustest, tehnoloogia lahendustest ning avastustest, turvaprobleemidest. Lisa: Alexander Galitsky

  8. Maksumaksja raha sihtasutustes / Daniel Vaarik ; interv. Kristi Timmusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarik, Daniel, 1973-

    1999-01-01

    Rahandusministeeriumi nõunik Daniel Vaarik selgitab, kui palju raha erinevatesse sihtasutustesse eraldatakse ning kuidas kontrollitakse selle raha kasutamist. Tabel: 1999. a. riigieelarvest finantseeritavad sihtasutused

  9. Introducing the Internet-based TOEFL test / Epp Kirss, Mare Roes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kirss, Epp

    2013-01-01

    Internetipõhisest rahvusvaheliselt tunnustatud standardiseeritud inglise keele testist, mida nõutakse USA ülikoolidesse kandideerivatelt rahvusvahelistelt üliõpilastelt ning selle õpetamise kogemusest

  10. EIÕK staatus Eesti õigussüsteemis / Rait Maruste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maruste, Rait, 1953-

    1996-01-01

    Euroopa inimõiguste konventsiooni ratifitseerimine Eesti poolt, selle siseriiklik õiguslik siduvus ja reservatsioonid, koht siseriiklikus õigusnormide hierarhias, territoriaalne kehtivus ning kohaldatavus Eesti kohtutes

  11. Diplomaatiline kaitse rahvusvahelises õiguses : olemus, teostamine ja piirangud / Maarja Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Maarja, 1983-

    2007-01-01

    Rahvusvahelises õiguses juurdunud diplomaatilisest instituudist, selle olemusest ja teostamise põhimõtetest ning erireeglitest mitme kodakondsusega isikute rahvusvahelise kaitse puhul. Vatteli fiktsioonist

  12. Lang : raudteeostu leping olgu avalik / Rein Lang ; interv. Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lang, Rein, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Justiitsminister Rein Lang vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad majandusminister Edgar Savisaare tegevust raudtee taasriigistamisel ning Eesti Raudtee ostulepingut, pidades selle lepingu salastamist avaliku teabe seaduse rikkumiseks

  13. Paradigma muutus 1970-ndate aastate Lääne kunstis ja selle kajastus eesti kunstielus = The Change of Paradigm in the Western Art of the 1970s and its Reflection in the Estonian Art World / Jaak Kangilaski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangilaski, Jaak, 1939-

    1998-01-01

    Nõukogude võimu ideoloogilisest arengust, eesti kunsti suundumustest okupatsiooni ajal ئ ametlik, rahvuslik-konservatiivne (30.-te ideaalidele toetuv) ja avangardistlik suund ئ ning muutustest eesti kunstis seoses 1970. aastatel lääne kunstis toimunud paradigmade vahetumisega, suhetest vene avangardkunstiga

  14. Põhiõiguste ja -vabaduste kaitse maksumenetluses : rakendatava uurimispõhimõtte vaheline konflikt või selle puudumine : [magistritöö] / Madis Truber ; Akadeemia Nord, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Rainer Osanik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Truber, Madis

    2005-01-01

    Maksunduse ajalugu, põhimõisted, eripärad võrreldes Venamaa ja Soomega, isiku põhiõiguste ja -vabaduste kaitse maksuõiguse kontekstis, tehingute ja tõendite hindamise alused ning seonduvad põhiõiguste ja -vabadustega seotud probleemid menetluses

  15. How to improve the health of volunteer firefighters / Ryan T. Harding

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Harding, Ryan T.

    2017-01-01

    Vabatahtlike tuletõrjedepoode suureks probleemiks on ülekaalulisus ning selle ennetamiseks võetakse vähe ette. Artiklis on välja toodud miks on tervislik eluviis tuletõrjujate seas parem kui selle puudumine.

  16. "Tallinn Jazz Weekend" tõi kultuuripealinna Euroopa jazzielu korraldajad / Marje Ingel, Joosep Sang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ingel, Marje

    2011-01-01

    Jazziorganisatsioonist Europe Jazz Network ja selle aastakonverentsist Tallinnas ning J. Sang selle raames Von Krahli teatris toimunud Tallinn Jazz Weekendi eesti jazzmuusika showcase-festivalist lühidalt

  17. Süütuse presumptsioon kriminaalmenetluses : [bakalaureusetöö] / Vitali Jarosevitš ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Poigo Nuuma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jarosevitš, Vitali

    2009-01-01

    Kriminaalmenetluse printsiipide mõistest ja selle tähtsusest süütegude uurimisel. Süütuse presumptsiooni käsitlemisest Eestis ja rahvusvahelisel tasandil ning selle tagamisest kriminaalmenetluses

  18. How to improve the health of volunteer firefighters / Ryan T. Harding

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Harding, Ryan T.

    2017-01-01

    Vabatahtlike tuletõrjedepoode suureks probleemiks on ülekaalulisus ning selle ennetamiseks võetakse vähe ette. Artiklis on välja toodud miks on tervislik eluviis tuletõrjujate seas parem kui selle puudumine

  19. Brazilian Cinema: A Comparative Study between Fundraising Through Mechanisms of Public Incentive versus the Selling Revenue on the Brazilian Box Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio Alaiola Nogueira Dos Santos Júnior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Responsible for maintaining active the actual cinematographic production, the politics of incentive to cinema do not guarantee an equal state of recourse capture for all the movies produced in the country as well as provoke discussion which relate production quality to volume capture, in which has taken to the creation of the common sense that says that movies which present elevated recourse fund must present best-selling results. Therefore, this study has the objective of analyzing the relation between the recourse volume captured from the mechanisms of public incentive and the selling volume on the Brazilian box offices. Due to that, descriptive research was made, with documentary character and quantitative approach. The data used in this study is related to information towards fundraising and income about the box office of 666 brazilian movies released between 1995 and 2012, while the statistical analysis used was the 'Spearman correlation' coefficient. The results showed that there is a strong positive correlation between the two variablesanalyzed, revealing a trend of movies with high fundraising are the ones that register the highest grossing box office. Data analysis also revealed that there is a concentration of both incentive funds (61% as income at the box office (75% in films with volume greater uptake of R $ 3 million.

  20. AN ENTROPIC ORDER QUANTITY MODEL WITH FUZZY HOLDING COST AND FUZZY DISPOSAL COST FOR PERISHABLE ITEMS UNDER TWO COMPONENT DEMAND AND DISCOUNTED SELLING PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Tripathy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new type of replenishment policy is suggested in an entropy order quantity model for a perishable product possessing fuzzy holding cost and fuzzy disposal cost. This model represents an appropriate combination of two component demand with discounted selling price, particularly over a finite time horizon. Its main aim lies in the need for an entropic cost of the cycle time is a key feature of specific perishable product like fruits, vegetables, food stuffs, fishes etc. To handle this multiplicity of objectives in a pragmatic approach, entropic ordering quantity model with discounted selling price during pre and post deterioration of perishable items to optimize its payoff is proposed. It has been imperative to demonstrate this model by analysis, which reveals some important characteristics of discounted structure. Furthermore, numerical experiments are conducted to evaluate the difference between the crisp and fuzzy cases in EOQ and EnOQ separately. This paper explores the economy of investing in economics of lot sizing in Fuzzy EOQ, Crisp EOQ and Crisp EnOQ models. The proposed paper reveals itself as a pragmatic alternative to other approaches based on two component demand function with very sound theoretical underpinnings but with few possibilities of actually being put into practice. The results indicate that this can become a good model and can be replicated by researchers in neighbourhood of its possible extensions.

  1. Why California retailers stop selling tobacco products, and what their customers and employees think about it when they do: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In California, some 40, 000 retailers sell tobacco products. Tobacco's ubiquitousness in retail settings normalizes use and cues smoking urges among former smokers and those attempting cessation. Thus, limiting the number of retailers is regarded as key to ending the tobacco epidemic. In the past decade, independent pharmacies and local grocery chains in California and elsewhere have voluntarily abandoned tobacco sales. No previous studies have examined the reasons for this emerging phenomenon. We sought to learn what motivated retailers to discontinue tobacco sales and what employees and customers thought about their decision. Methods We conducted case studies of seven California retailers (three grocery stores, four pharmacies that had voluntarily ceased tobacco sales within the past 7 years. We interviewed owners, managers, and employees, conducted consumer focus groups, unobtrusively observed businesses and the surrounding environment, and examined any media coverage of each retailer's decision. We analyzed data using qualitative content analysis. Results For independent pharmacies, the only reason given for the decision to end tobacco sales was that tobacco caused disease and death. Grocers listed health among several factors, including regulatory pressures and wanting to be seen as "making a difference." Media coverage of stores' new policies was limited, and only three retailers alerted customers. Management reported few or no customer complaints and supportive or indifferent employees. Pharmacy employees were pleased to no longer be selling a deadly product. Grocery store management saw the decision to end tobacco sales as enhancing the stores' image and consistent with their inventory of healthy foods. Focus group participants (smokers and nonsmokers were largely unaware that retailers had stopped selling tobacco; however, almost all supported the decision, viewing it as promoting public health. Many said knowing

  2. Why California retailers stop selling tobacco products, and what their customers and employees think about it when they do: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2011-11-08

    In California, some 40,000 retailers sell tobacco products. Tobacco's ubiquitousness in retail settings normalizes use and cues smoking urges among former smokers and those attempting cessation. Thus, limiting the number of retailers is regarded as key to ending the tobacco epidemic. In the past decade, independent pharmacies and local grocery chains in California and elsewhere have voluntarily abandoned tobacco sales. No previous studies have examined the reasons for this emerging phenomenon. We sought to learn what motivated retailers to discontinue tobacco sales and what employees and customers thought about their decision. We conducted case studies of seven California retailers (three grocery stores, four pharmacies) that had voluntarily ceased tobacco sales within the past 7 years. We interviewed owners, managers, and employees, conducted consumer focus groups, unobtrusively observed businesses and the surrounding environment, and examined any media coverage of each retailer's decision. We analyzed data using qualitative content analysis. For independent pharmacies, the only reason given for the decision to end tobacco sales was that tobacco caused disease and death. Grocers listed health among several factors, including regulatory pressures and wanting to be seen as "making a difference." Media coverage of stores' new policies was limited, and only three retailers alerted customers. Management reported few or no customer complaints and supportive or indifferent employees. Pharmacy employees were pleased to no longer be selling a deadly product. Grocery store management saw the decision to end tobacco sales as enhancing the stores' image and consistent with their inventory of healthy foods. Focus group participants (smokers and nonsmokers) were largely unaware that retailers had stopped selling tobacco; however, almost all supported the decision, viewing it as promoting public health. Many said knowing this made them more likely to shop at the store. Most

  3. Potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy; Effetti della vendita tramite asta dell'energia CIP 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campidoglio, C. [Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale, Milan (Italy). Osservatorio Energia

    2000-12-01

    This paper analyses the potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy. This would both reduce the supply shortage and the prices on the eligible market, increase competition on the contract-for-difference market, indicate a clear price to which regulated energy charges could be indexed, thus extending the auction benefits to the franchise market to avoid the reintroduction of cross-subsidies. [Italian] L'articolo analizza i possibili benefici della vendita tramita asta dell'energia CIP 6. In particolare, l'asta ridurrebbe la scarsita' d'offerta e quindi i pressi sul mercato libero, aumenterebbe la concorrenza nel mercato dei contratti per differenza, fornirebbe un prezzo chiaro a cui indicizzare il prezzo dell'energia in tariffa, estendendo i benefici dell'asta sul mercato vincolato ed evitando la reintroduzione di sussidi incrociati.

  4. East-to-West migration and labour market integration in the Baltic Sea region - history, current trends and potential / Lars Olof Persson, Jörg Neubauer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Persson, Lars Olof

    2001-01-01

    Migratsioon idast läände Läänemeremaades ning selle mõjust olukorrale sealsetel tööturgudel. Sisseränne Rootsi idapoolsetest Läänemere regiooni riikidest ning selle muutustest viimase 10 aasta jooksul. Tabelid ja diagrammid

  5. Tsivilisatsioonide kokkupõrge või liit? / Josep Borrell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Borrell, Josep

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Parlamendi president ütleb, et Euroopa ei ole ega tohigi olla kristlik klubi ning Türgit ei tohi tõrjuda põhjusel, et selle rahvastiku enamuse moodustavad muslimid. EL tugineb universaalsetele väärtustele, nagu demokraatia, õiguskord, inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste tunnustamine ning selle alusel tuleb Türgi sobivust EL-i hinnata

  6. Sõnajalad: meilt pole väljamõistetud sentigi / Oleg Sõnajalg, Andres Sõnajalg ; intervjueerinud Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõnajalg, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    Ettevõtjad Oleg ja Andres Sõnajalg räägivad telekanali TV1 loomisest, selle probleemidest ning müügist, oma firma AS Ämärlärd tegevusest, selle firmaga seotud süüdistustest ning oma teistest tegevustest

  7. Quality defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls sold through livestock auction markets in the Western United States: II. Relative effects on selling price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, J K; Foster, H A; Vanoverbeke, D L; Jensen, K S; Wilson, R L; Glaze, J B; Fife, T E; Gray, C W; Nash, S A; Panting, R R; Rimbey, N R

    2011-05-01

    Relative effects of Beef Quality Assurance (BQA)-related defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls on selling price at auction was evaluated during 2008. The presence and severity of 23 BQA-related traits were determined during sales in Idaho, California, and Utah. Overall, 18,949 unique lots consisting of 23,479 animals were assessed during 125 dairy sales and 79 beef sales. Mean sale price ± SD (per 45.5 kg) for market beef cows, beef bulls, dairy cows, and dairy bulls was $45.15 ± 9.42, $56.30 ± 9.21, $42.23 ± 12.26, and $55.10 ± 9.07, respectively. When combined, all recorded traits explained 36% of the variation in selling price in beef cows, 35% in beef bulls, 61% in dairy cows, and 56% in dairy bulls. Premiums and discounts were determined in comparison with a "par" or "base" animal. Compared with a base BCS 5 beef cow (on a 9-point beef scale), BCS 1 to 4 cows were discounted (P < 0.0001), whereas premiums (P < 0.05) were estimated for BCS 6 to 8. Compared with a base BCS 3.0 dairy cow (on a 5-point dairy scale), more body condition resulted in a premium (P ≤ 0.001), whereas a less-than-desirable BCS of 2.0 or 2.5 was discounted (P < 0.0001). Emaciated or near-emaciated cows (beef BCS 1 or 2; dairy BCS 1.0 or 1.5) were discounted (P < 0.0001). Compared with base cows weighing 545 to 635 kg, lighter BW beef cows were discounted (P < 0.0001), whereas heavier beef cows received (P < 0.05) a premium. Compared with a base dairy cow weighing 636 to 727 kg, lighter BW cows were discounted (P < 0.0001), whereas heavier cows (727 to 909 kg) received a premium (P < 0.01). Beef and dairy cows with any evidence of lameness were discounted (P < 0.0001). Presence of ocular neoplasia in the precancerous stage discounted (P = 0.05) beef cows and discounted (P < 0.01) dairy cows, whereas at the cancerous stage, it discounted (P < 0.0001) all cows. Hide color influenced (P < 0.0001) selling price in beef cattle but had no effect (P = 0.17) in dairy cows. Animals

  8. Uuringu "Eesti eluasemefondi suurpaneelkorterelamute ehitustehniline seisukord ning prognoositav eluiga" lõppraporti kokkuvõte = Отчет исследования "Строительно-техническое состояние и прогноз

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalamees, Targo, 1972-

    2009-01-01

    Kokkuvõte Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli ehitusteaduskonnas 2008. aasta jaanuarist kuni 2009. aasta maini läbi viidud uuringust, milles uuriti suurpaneelkorterelamute kande- ja piirdetarindite üldist olukorda, fassaadbetooni olukorda, välisseinapaneelide niiskusrežiimi, külmasildu, hoonepiirete õhupidavust, sisepiirete helipidavust, soojus- ja niiskuslikku olukorda korterites, ventilatsiooni toimivust, suurpaneelelamute energiatarvet, hoonesiseste tehnokommunikatsioonide olukorda ning renoveerimistööde maksumust ja tehnilis.majanduslikku põhjendatust

  9. Smart Growth and the Challenge of Nimby: Multifamily Dwellings and their Association with Single-Family House Selling Prices in Tallahasse, Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huston GIBSON

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Citizens protest development when they consider it undesirable. One type of development commonly perceived as undesirable by single-family home owners is proximate multifamily housing, often considered a cause of property devaluation. This study assesses multifamily housing, by typology, and its monetary association with proximate single-family housing prices. The research design is a cross-sectional study using multivariate regression. The unit of analysis is the detached single-family dwelling. The study population is a sample taken from all arms-length owner-occupied, primary residence, detached single-family property transactions recorded in Tallahassee-Leon County, Florida, USA, during 2008. The key findings show no statistically significant negative associations between multifamily housing and single-family property selling prices in the sample; in fact, the two were positively correlated. These findings address single-family homeowner concerns about proximate multifamily housing and should bolster the political feasibility of Smart Growth policy, which recommends denser urban infill.

  10. On legal bases and process of accreditation of teaching of law in Estonia (University of Tartu Faculty of Law case) / Kalle Merusk, Raul Narits, Peep Pruks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Merusk, Kalle, 1949-

    1998-01-01

    Õigusharidust andvate õppeasutuste akrediteerimisest; Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonnast ning selle avaliku õiguse ja eraõiguse instituutidest, õppeprogrammist, magistri- ja doktoriõppest ning teadustegevusest. Lisatud andmed 1993.-1998. a. kaitstud teadustööde kohta, õppejõudude osalemise kohta seaduseelnõude ettevalmistamisel ning publikatsioonide kohta

  11. Koolhaas toimetab / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2001-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline kirjastusgrupp Condé Nast, mis annab välja ajakirju Wired, Vogue, Architectural Digest jt., on palganud arhitekt Rem Koolhaasi ning tema kaheksaliikmelise meeskonna nõustama grupi ajakirjade toimetamist ning turustamist. Sügisel avaldab R. Koolhaas monograafia shoppingust ning selle rollist arhitektuuri suunajana.

  12. Eesti vanausuliste ikoonimaali iseärasustest = Особенности староверческой иконописи Эстонии / Mari-Liis Paaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paaver, Mari-Liis

    2011-01-01

    Gavriil Frolovi elust ja loomingust ning tema Raja külas Peipsi ääres rajatud ikoonimaalitöökojast ning seal tegutsenud õpilastest-ikoonimaalijatest, ka selle koolkonna ikoonide filigraansest teostusest, ikonograafilistest ja maalitehnilistest iseärasustest ning erinevustest

  13. Sell Out With Me Tonight”: Popular Music, Commercialization and Commodification in Vineland, The Crying of Lot 49, and V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George William Twigg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Particularly drawing on the theory of Jacques Attali and Horkheimer and Adorno, this article considers popular music in Pynchon’s novels as more than simply a ‘soundtrack’ to the plot.  Much attention has been paid to Pynchon’s original songs, but not to the manner of their dissemination; therefore, this article examines the role of the popular musician in the production of consumer culture, focusing on McClintic Sphere ('V.', The Paranoids ('Lot 49', and Billy Barf and the Vomitones ('Vineland'.  Pynchon depicts a modern ‘culture industry’ in which recording artists, voluntarily or not, ape their forbears, but in which the idea that live performance is liberating whereas recording is constraining, is problematized.  The article explores Sphere’s struggles to become successful in the face of live audiences that constantly compare him to Charlie Parker rather than assessing his music on its own merits, and the twin inspirational and coercive ‘moulding’ forces he experiences during the recording process that represents the only chance for musicians to disseminate their music widely and find a properly appreciative public.  Similarly, the disjunction between the Paranoids’ deviant lyrics and behaviour, and their thoroughly generic sub-Beatles musical texture, which adheres to the tropes of recorded music (one song ‘fades out’ even when played live! is discussed; they too are caught in an excluded middle between transgression and conformity, as are the Vomitones, who in one live performance suppress their rebellious ‘punk’ aesthetic when they gain employment performing Italian ballads at a Mafia wedding.  Ultimately this article argues that popular music is equally moulded by live audiences and by recording bosses and that its absorption into networks of capital is inevitable, so musicians, given the chance, may as well ‘sell out’, and hope to balance commercial success with at least a modicum of creative control.

  14. Do Sex and Violence Sell? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of Sexual and Violent Media and Ad Content on Memory, Attitudes, and Buying Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, Robert B; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-09-01

    It is commonly assumed that sex and violence sell. However, we predicted that sex and violence would have the opposite effect. We based our predictions on the evolution and emotional arousal theoretical framework, which states that people are evolutionarily predisposed to attend to emotionally arousing cues such as sex and violence. Thus, sexual and violent cues demand more cognitive resources than nonsexual and nonviolent cues. Using this framework, we meta-analyzed the effects of sexual media, violent media, sexual ads, and violent ads on the advertising outcomes of brand memory, brand attitudes, and buying intentions. The meta-analysis included 53 experiments involving 8,489 participants. Analyses found that brands advertised in violent media content were remembered less often, evaluated less favorably, and less likely to be purchased than brands advertised in nonviolent, nonsexual media. Brands advertised using sexual ads were evaluated less favorably than brands advertised using nonviolent, nonsexual ads. There were no significant effects of sexual media on memory or buying intentions. There were no significant effects of sexual or violent ads on memory or buying intentions. As intensity of sexual ad content increased, memory, attitudes, and buying intentions decreased. When media content and ad content were congruent (e.g., violent ad in a violent program), memory improved and buying intentions increased. Violence and sex never helped and often hurt ad effectiveness. These results support the evolution and emotional arousal framework. Thus, advertisers should consider the effects of media content, ad content, content intensity, and congruity to design and place more effective ads. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria from modified atmosphere packaged sliced cooked meat products at sell-by date assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenaert, Kris; D'Haene, Klaas; Messens, Kathy; Ruyssen, Tony; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2010-02-01

    The predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota associated with three types of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) sliced cooked meat products (i.e. ham, turkey and chicken) was analyzed at sell-by date using a combination of culturing and molecular population fingerprinting. Likewise routine analyses during industrial MAP production, meat samples were plated on the general heterotrophic Plate Count Agar (PCA) and on the LAB-specific de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) agar under different temperature and atmosphere conditions. Subsequently, community DNA extracts were prepared from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both media and used for PCR targeting the V3 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplicons (PCR-DGGE). Irrespective of aerobic or anaerobic incubation conditions, V3-16S rDNA DGGE fingerprints of culturable fractions from PCA and MRS medium displayed a high level of similarity indicating that LAB constituted the most dominant group in the culturable bacterial community. Comparison of DGGE profiles of fractions grown at 20, 28 or 37 degrees C indicated that part of the culturable community consisted of psychrotrophs. Four DGGE bands were common among cooked ham, turkey and chicken products, suggesting that these represent the microbiota circulating in the plant where all three MAP product types were sliced and packaged. Based on band sequencing and band position analysis using LAB reference strains, these four bands could be assigned to Lactobacillus sakei and/or the closely related Lactobacillus fuchuensis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Carnobacterium divergens and Leuconostoc carnosum. In conclusion, the PCR-DGGE approach described in this study allows to discriminate, identify and monitor core and occasional LAB microbiota of MAP sliced cooked meat products and provides valuable complementary information to the current plating procedures routinely used in industrial plants.

  16. Examination and comparative study of the Ascension of The Prophet of Islam In The View Of Michael Sells And Anne-mari e Shamil with Inter- Religious Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Azadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael Sells, American scholar of Quran,about the Ascension (Mi,raj of the prophet (PBUH focuses on three issues: First, the Mi,raj term is not used in the Quran and the ascension of the explanation is not enough. second, Mohammad is no different from the miracle of the Quran is the miracle of God,he is not anything else, Quran states. Third, Ascension of the prophet (PBUH has been in sleep and dream.According to him, the discussion about the layers of the subject is based mainly on the evidence of Quran.In this case, only limited information can be found in the Asra chapter (sooreh of the Quran.In addition, he has tried to make the Ascension event from Jewish traditions and the effects Bvdaysm.actually the orientalist`s goal is to prove the absence of ascension of the prophet(PBUH.  In contrast, Anne-marie Shamil stayes that prophet`s ascension derived from the first verse of Asra sura and believes that two processes(horizontal and verticalfor prophet happened.and unlike Michael,he knows mi,raj from the God miracles.Anne-Marie because her sufficient the Sunni sources is doubt with belief in the physical and spiritual ascension,in some of her votes,such as; visible or not visible in the ascension of God by the prophet.Despite the fundamental criticism that some elements of the theory of two Orientalists arrived,positive points are observed in their ideas.in this article we have tried to express the views of the Orientalists, then to review their ideas considered

  17. Improved ethanol yield and reduced minimum ethanol selling price (MESP by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 2 Techno-economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ling

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our companion paper discussed the yield benefits achieved by integrating deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing with low acid and low temperature pretreatment. To evaluate the impact of the modified process on the economic feasibility, a techno-economic analysis (TEA was performed based on the experimental data presented in the companion paper. Results The cost benefits of dilute acid pretreatment technology combined with the process alternatives of deacetylation, mechanical refining, and pretreated solids washing were evaluated using cost benefit analysis within a conceptual modeling framework. Control cases were pretreated at much lower acid loadings and temperatures than used those in the NREL 2011 design case, resulting in much lower annual ethanol production. Therefore, the minimum ethanol selling prices (MESP of the control cases were $0.41-$0.77 higher than the $2.15/gallon MESP of the design case. This increment is highly dependent on the carbohydrate content in the corn stover. However, if pretreatment was employed with either deacetylation or mechanical refining, the MESPs were reduced by $0.23-$0.30/gallon. Combing both steps could lower the MESP further by $0.44 ~ $0.54. Washing of the pretreated solids could also greatly improve the final ethanol yields. However, the large capital cost of the solid–liquid separation unit negatively influences the process economics. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed to study the effect of the cost of the pretreatment reactor and the energy input for mechanical refining. A 50% cost reduction in the pretreatment reactor cost reduced the MESP of the entire conversion process by $0.11-$0.14/gallon, while a 10-fold increase in energy input for mechanical refining will increase the MESP by $0.07/gallon. Conclusion Deacetylation and mechanical refining process options combined with low acid, low severity pretreatments show improvements in ethanol yields and

  18. Puhtus ja kord majas ning mõtetes / Ene Vool

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vool, Ene, 1948-

    2007-01-01

    Kalle Rõõmuse projekteeritud inimese bioenergiast lähtuvast eramust, kus raudse järjekindlusega kasutati energeetilisest seisukohast ülimalt inimsõbralikke loodusmaterjale - mida vähem materjale, seda vähem väljamõjusid. Sisearhitekt oli Terje Kivist. Kalle Rõõmuse kommentaar

  19. Šotimaa ning Eesti arhitektuuripoliitika / Veljo Kaasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaasik, Veljo, 1938-

    2005-01-01

    Šotimaal Glasgow's ja Edinburgh'is toimunud Euroopa Arhitektuuripoliitikate Foorumist. Edinburghi ja Glasgow arhitektuuri võrdlus. Inglise arhitekti, Edinburghi planeerimisspetsialisti Terry Farrelli ettekandest

  20. Genoptræning efter brystkræft operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Poulsen, Lise; Høgdal, Nina; Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes

    2011-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after breast cancer surgery are debatable. A national survey in Denmark performed at hospitals and municipal rehabilitation clinics showed considerable variability in post-breast surgery rehabilitation regimens. As hospita...

  1. Defining Moments \\ di-'fi-ning 'mo-mnts \\

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilman, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Children encounter new words every day. Although dictionaries designed for young readers can help students explore and experiment with language, it turns out many mainstream children's dictionaries fail to accurately describe the world in which many students live. The challenges to children's dictionary publishers can be steep. First, there is the…

  2. Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis: defining better approaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hargreaves, A.D. Harries, JR. Kemp, J .H. Kwanjana,. EM. Salaniponi. Abstract. This is a report ... Mr JH Kwanjana; Mr RG Madiwati; Dr N] Hargreaves;. Professor AD Harries; Mr HT Banda; Mr GS Kachisi and Dr ... placed on patients during the diagnostic process, such as ensuring that sputum results are available in timely ...

  3. Hagi ese ja alus ning hagi muutmine kohtupraktikas / Margit Vutt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vutt, Margit, 1968-

    2011-01-01

    Hagi alust ja eset käsitlevast kohtupraktikast. Kohtu selgitamiskohustusest hagi eseme ja aluse õigel määratlemisel. Hagi muutmist reguleerivatest normidest. Artikli aluseks on Riigikohtus 2010. aasta sügisel koostatud kohtupraktika analüüs

  4. Euroopa Majandus- ja Rahaliit ning rahapoliitika maailma kolmes peamises valuutaregioonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Alternative exchange rate regimes in the globalised world : conference dedicated to the 10th anniversary of the re-introduction of the Estonian kroon. - Tallinn. Vestlusringis esinesid Euroopa Keskpanga esindaja Pierre Vander Haegen, Saksa Liidupanga asepresident Jürgen Stark, Keio ülikooli professor Eisuke Sakakibara, USA rahandusministeeriumi atashee Euroopas James G. Wallar

  5. Banaanikasvatuse alused ning tootmispõhine teadus / Andres Taklaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taklaja, Andres, 1947-

    2011-01-01

    Kõrgtehnoloogilise tootmise ja tugevate ülikoolide seosest Silicon Valley näite põhjal ehk teaduspõhisest tootmisest ja tootmispõhisest teadusest, kus suured ettevõtted on tähtsad teaduse tellijad

  6. 8 . TOTAL THRUST ON EARTH-RETAlNING STRUCTURES DUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    application on an earth-retaining structure due to surcharges. The tests .... some operations in the trigonometric functions of. Eq. (9). z•. L Xo-b/2 ..... simplifies to: Substituting for 01 and 02. °t = .I() + b/2 and a2 = .I() - b/2. and noting that the total stress area. A = Ew3 = m3 qH. [see Eq. (12)]. Journal o/EAEA, VoL 16, 1999 ...

  7. Fysisk træning af respiratorbehandlede intensivpatienter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybbro, Karina Løvendahl; Noe, Bodil Bjørnshave

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis for intensive-care patients has improved over the last 20 years. One consequence of critical disease and intensive care can be Intensive Care Unit Acquired Weakness (ICUAW). ICUAW denotes the muscle wasting and weakness, and neurological dysfunction that may arise in respirator-trea...... and systematically evaluate efficacy and procedure with a view to supplementing the existing body of evidence before a definitive recommendation can be presented. Keywords: ICUAW, physical training, mobility therapy, respirator treatment.......-treated patients. Mobility therapy and physical training are expected to prevent and reduce ICUAW. The purpose of the article is to identify the evidence for the effect of mobility therapy and physical training on ICUAW and to discuss the challenges posed by implementation of physical training as an intervention...... for respirator-treated, adult patients. A systematic review found six relevant studies demonstrating some effect of such interventions on e.g. walking distance, functional level, muscle strength and a reduction in length of stay. The studies indicate that early mobility therapy and physical training can...

  8. Viktor Misiano kureerib Mark Raidperet ning Jaan Toomikut

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    27.05-26.08.2007 esitatakse Itaalia kunstikeskuses Pratos näitusel "Progressive Nostalgia" Jaan Toomiku videot "Merikajakas" (2004) ja Mark Raidpere videot "Andrei/Andris" (2006). Loetletud osalejad teistest maadest

  9. Ryder Cup ning rahvusvaheline kogemus teenindusvaldkonnast / Liis Meeras

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meeras, Liis

    2006-01-01

    Iirimaal Dublini lähedal Kildare maakonna provintsis asuvas K-Clubis 22.-24. septembrini toimunud 36. Ryder Cup turniirist, mis on üks prestiizhikaim golfiüritus maailmas. Oma muljetest räägivad üritusel teenindanud turismitudengid TÜ Pärnu kolledzhist

  10. Tu(r)ning weakness to strength: Mechanomutable bioinspired materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    nanoweb membranes for selective water purification ," Nanoscale, Vol. 5, 11801-11807, 2013 • Z. Qin, M.J. Buehler, “Cooperativity governs the size and... water at nanoporous two-dimensional interfaces resists high-speed flow through cooperativity," Vol.15(6), pp. 3939-44, 2015 • T. Al-Mulla, Z. Qin, M.J...aqueous environment. Since the removal of bulk water from the newly synthesized protein hydrogel cannot utilize evaporation, it is possible that the

  11. Quality does not sell itself

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Steen, Ida

    2016-01-01

    the identification task were also significantly more likely to prefer the high quality sample. This tentatively suggests that better sensory expertise is correlated with a preference for higher quality, though future studies are needed to confirm the correctedness of this interpretation. Originality/value This work...

  12. How to sell safer sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overs, C

    1991-09-01

    Social and economic factors determine the extent of the sex industry in societies. Despite AIDS, the sex industry will continue to thrive. Accordingly, health promotion strategies aimed at sex workers and their clients should not stem from the belief that the industry should cease to exist. This paper offers advice in developing and implementing programs to promote safer sex among sex workers. The social context is 1 element to consider in planning successful campaigns. Interventions must be combined with well-planned prevention campaigns aimed at entire populations. The opinions and participation of those involved in the industry should also be sought, while worker discussion and action upon other community issues should not be discouraged. Care should be given to target the numerous and diverse sex worker audiences in addition to other persons related to and involved in the industry. Programs should address the main obstacles to practicing safer sex, and attention should be given to ensure the provision of an adequate and regular supply of cheap or free condoms through varied distribution channels. In the area of service provision, sex workers need easy access to social support and health care services from which they are often excluded. Activities conducted around the world include the marketing of safer sex, distributing printed information on HIV and AIDS to clients, training sex workers to pass designated constructive ideas to others involved in the sex industry, referring sex workers to sex businesses supportive of safer sex practices, and developing street theater and cabaret shows in bars.

  13. Selling ideas, attitudes, and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A

    2010-04-01

    Advertisers are adept at changing our attitudes and purchasing behaviors, but we rarely notice the effects. This plenary talk at the eighth annual Midwest Rural Agricultural Safety and Health Forum, November 2009, focused on the psychology of advertising and how advertising is designed to work outside of our conscious awareness. Several psychological "tricks" are used to influence us, with the goal being to get us to change our behaviors but to think that it was our idea all along. These tricks include using emotional appeals and persuasion techniques that rely on biases in human problem solving. This power can be used for social marketing, the use of these techniques to promote social well-being, rather than simply for commercial purposes. Understanding how advertising works therefore allows us to use this power to effect positive changes in society.

  14. The Selling of Student Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Twenty years ago, a U.S. Senate aide walked into a bank in Maine and saw a sign that read "Take out a student loan today, get a toaster." The aide, concerned that students would be tempted to take out loans they did not need, drafted legislation barring lenders from offering "inducements" to borrow. That language was added to the Higher Education…

  15. Teejuht seente maailma / Indrek Sell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sell, Indrek, 1983-

    2014-01-01

    Haavataelik, haavanääts, põdramokad, kübarnarmikud, narmikud, kroonliudik, roostetorik, roosa pess, lillatümak, kuusetaelik, poropoorik, tammetaelik, leht-kobartorik, maksak, tammenahkis, tumepruun taelik, volt-tardnahkis, lõhetümak, limatünnik, roostepruun taelik, sarapuu-ebakorgik, lakkvaabik (läikvaabik), haava-tuletaelik (haava-ebatuletael), õrn narmnahkis (õrnnarmik), korallnarmik (harunev korallnarmik), männi-vahakorgik (männikorgik), juurepruunik, narmastaelik, kährikseen (kährik)

  16. The art of Selling Art

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Presenting empirical material from the making of the exhibition “This is Not Fiction” at the Milk Wall Gallery in the autumn 2007, I will in this paper introduce some of the themes and characteristics that are central to the notion of art and to the ethnographic study of it.

  17. Evaluating the impact of DREAMS on HIV incidence among young women who sell sex: protocol for a non-randomised study in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensen, Bernadette; Hargreaves, James R; Chiyaka, Tarisai; Chabata, Sungai; Mushati, Phillis; Floyd, Sian; Birdthistle, Isolde; Busza, Joanna; Cowan, Frances

    2018-01-31

    "Determined, Resilient, AIDS-free, Mentored and Safe" (DREAMS) is a package of biomedical, social and economic interventions offered to adolescent girls and young women aged 10-24 years with the aim of reducing HIV incidence. In four of the six DREAMS districts in Zimbabwe, DREAMS includes an offer of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (DREAMS+PrEP), alongside interventions to support demand and adherence, to women aged 18-24 who are at highest risk of HIV infection, including young women who sell sex (YWSS). This evaluation study addresses the question: does the delivery of DREAMS+PrEP through various providers reduce HIV incidence among YWSS Zimbabwe? We describe our approach to designing a rigorous study to assess whether DREAMS+PrEP had an impact on HIV incidence. The study design needed to account for the fact that: 1) DREAMS+PrEP was non-randomly allocated; 2) there is no sampling frame for the target population for the evaluation; 3) there are a small number of DREAMS districts (N = 6), and 4) DREAMS+PrEP is being implemented by various providers. The study will use a cohort analysis approach to compare HIV incidence among YWSS in two DREAMS+PrEP districts to HIV incidence among YWSS in non-DREAMS comparison sites. YWSS will be referred to services and recruited into the cohort through a network-based (respondent-driven) recruitment strategy, and followed-up 12- and 24-months after enrolment. Women will be asked to complete a questionnaire and offered HIV testing. Additional complications of this study include identifying comparable populations of YWSS in the DREAMS+PrEP and non-DREAMS comparison sites, and retention of YWSS over the 24-month period. The primary outcome is HIV incidence among YWSS HIV-negative at study enrolment measured by repeat, rapid HIV testing over 24-months. Inference will be based on plausibility that DREAMS+PrEP had an impact on HIV incidence. A process evaluation will be conducted to understand intervention implementation, and

  18. Improved ethanol yield and reduced Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 1 Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaowen

    2012-08-01

    and mechanical refining. The new process shows improved overall ethanol yields compared to traditional dilute acid pretreatment. The experimental results from this work support the techno-economic analysis and calculation of Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP detailed in our companion paper.

  19. Leuconostoc gasicomitatum is the dominating lactic acid bacterium in retail modified-atmosphere-packaged marinated broiler meat strips on sell-by-day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susiluoto, Tuija; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2003-01-15

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in retail, modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP), marinated broiler meat strips on sell-by-day were mainly identified as Leuconostoc gasicomitatum. A total of 32 packages, three to five packages of seven differently marinated broiler meat products, were studied at the end of the producer-defined shelf life (at 6 degrees C, 7-9 days depending on the manufacturer). Prior to the microbiological analyses, appearance and smell of the product was checked and pH measured. Bacteria were cultured on MRS and Tomato Juice Agar (TJA), Rogosa SL agar (SLA), Plate Count Agar (PCA) and Streptomycin Thallium Acetate Agar (STAA) for the enumeration of LAB, lactobacilli, total bacterial count and Brochothrix thermosphacta, respectively. The average CFU/g of the 32 packages was 2.3 x 10(8) on PCA. The highest bacterial average, 3.1 x 10(8), was recovered on TJA, the corresponding CFU/g averages on MRS and SLA being 2.3 x 10(8) and 1.3 x 10(8), respectively. Despite the high LAB numbers detected, radical spoilage changes such as unpleasant odor, slime production and formation of gas were not seen. B. thermosphacta did not form a significant part of the bacterial population since none of the levels exceeded the spoilage threshold level of 10(5) CFU/g reported in previous studies for this organism. In order to characterize the dominating LAB population, as many as 85, 85 and 88 colonies from MRS, TJA and SLA, respectively, were randomly picked and cultured pure. LAB were identified to species level using a 16 and 23S rDNA HindIiI RFLP (ribotyping) database. Fifty-six of the 170 isolates picked from the non-selective LAB media (MRS and TJA) were identified as L. gasicomitatum, followed by Carnobacterium divergens (41 isolates), Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus subsp. melibiosus (31 isolates) and L. curvatus subsp. curvatus (20 isolates) species. SLA proved not to be completely selective for lactobacilli because the growth of Leuconostoc spp. was not

  20. Sobre palavras que vendem coisas: o glossário do risco em anúncios de revistas On words that sell things: risk glossaries in media advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane P. Spink

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa entender como a linguagem dos riscos, nas suas diferentes tradições (risco-perigo, risco-probabilidade e risco-aventura, é utilizada para vender produtos em anúncios veiculados em revistas vendidas em bancas. Com esse objetivo, tomamos os anúncios como gêneros de discurso que fazem circular materialidades (artefatos cotidianos passíveis de comercialização (na forma de bens simbólicos e que são necessariamente endereçados a públicos específicos. Foi definida uma amostra de 101 revistas com base nas categorias utilizadas pelo Anuário de Mídia - Revistas. A análise levou em consideração as palavras empregadas nos anúncios, a categoria de produtos e a temática da revista. Conclui-se que, embora os riscos vendam produtos, trata-se mais do controle de riscos potenciais do que de apologia do risco. Mesmo quando os produtos são associados ao risco-aventura, vendem-se, de fato, emoções associadas à experiência do risco que são sustentadas por uma diversidade de estratégias de segurança.The aim of this research was to understand how the discursive traditions (risk as danger; risk as probability and risk as adventure of the language of risk are used in magazine advertisements. Advertisements were defined as genres of discourse that put into circulation materiality (quotidian artifacts that can be commercialized (as symbolic goods and are necessarily addressed to a specific public. A sample of 101 magazines was defined using the categories of the Anuário de Mídia - Revistas. The analysis took into account the words used in the advertisements, the category of goods been advertised and the type of magazine in which they appeared. Although risk does sell products, the focus tends to be on risk control rather than on an apology of risk. Even when products are associated to risk as adventure, what is being sold is the sensation of risk counterbalanced by a diversity of safety strategies.

  1. “First, do no harm”: legal guidelines for health programmes affecting adolescents aged 10–17 who sell sex or inject drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Conner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a strong evidence base that the stigma, discrimination and criminalization affecting adolescent key populations (KPs aged 10–17 is intensified due to domestic and international legal constructs that rely on law-enforcement-based interventions dependent upon arrest, pre-trial detention, incarceration and compulsory “rehabilitation” in institutional placement. While there exists evidence and rights-based technical guidelines for interventions among older cohorts, these guidelines have not yet been embraced by international public health actors for fear that international law applies different standards to adolescents aged 10–17 who engage in behaviours such as selling sex or injecting drugs. Discussion: As a matter of international human rights, health, juvenile justice and child protection law, interventions among adolescent KPs aged 10–17 must not involve arrest, prosecution or detention of any kind. It is imperative that interventions not rely on law enforcement, but instead low-threshold, voluntary services, shelter and support, utilizing peer-based outreach as much as possible. These services must be mobile and accessible, and permit alternatives to parental consent for the provision of life-saving support, including HIV testing, treatment and care, needle and syringe programmes, opioid substitution therapy, safe abortions, antiretroviral therapy and gender-affirming care and hormone treatment for transgender adolescents. To ensure enrolment in services, international guidance indicates that informed consent and confidentiality must be ensured, including by waiver of parental consent requirements. To remove the disincentive to health practitioners and researchers to engaging with adolescent KPs aged 10–17 government agencies and ethical review boards are advised to exempt or grant waivers for mandatory reporting. In the event that, in violation of international law and guidance, authorities seek to

  2. Usando crianças para vender: infância e consumo na publicidade de revistas / Using children to sell: childhood and advertising of consumer magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Vorraber Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Na atual sociedade, também identificada como “sociedade de consumidores” (BAUMAN,2008, todas as pessoas, independentemente de condições econômicas, gênero, idade e grupo social, são convocadas a fazer parte das redes de consumo. Neste artigo nos voltamos para a infância e abordamos uma das faces de sua inserção na sociedade de consumidores, procurando mostrar como as crianças vem sendo usadas para vender. Como referencial teórico adotamos, entre outros, os escritos de Zygmunt Bauman, Juliet Schor e Robert Bocock que tratam das versões contemporâneas do consumo e as problematizam. A partir da análise da publicidade em revistas semanais de grande circulação, discutimos o quanto é produtivo para o mercado econômico a aliança entre infância e consumo, e argumentamos que esse uso das crianças na publicidade contribui para uma nova concepção de infância: a infância do consumo. Uma infância erotizada, preocupada em adquirir, em mostrar-se, uma infância insaciável e sempre em movimento. É essa infância que está chegando à escola com novos interesses, preferências e condutas, tornando-se merecedora de toda a nossa atenção.Abstract In the present society, also identified as a "consumer society" (Bauman, 2008, people, irrespective of gender, age, social and financial conditions, are all called for consumption. In this article we turn to the childhood and approached one of the faces of their insertion into the society ofconsumers, trying to show how children are used to sell. As a frame of theoretical reference we adopt, among others, the writings of Zygmunt Bauman, Juliet Schor and Robert Bocock, dealingwith contemporary versions of consumption. Analyzing weekly magazines of large circulation, we discuss how productive it is for the economic market the alliance between childhood and consumption and we argue that this use of children in publicity contributes for a new conception of childhood: the childhood of

  3. "First, do no harm": legal guidelines for health programmes affecting adolescents aged 10-17 who sell sex or inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong evidence base that the stigma, discrimination and criminalization affecting adolescent key populations (KPs) aged 10-17 is intensified due to domestic and international legal constructs that rely on law-enforcement-based interventions dependent upon arrest, pre-trial detention, incarceration and compulsory "rehabilitation" in institutional placement. While there exists evidence and rights-based technical guidelines for interventions among older cohorts, these guidelines have not yet been embraced by international public health actors for fear that international law applies different standards to adolescents aged 10-17 who engage in behaviours such as selling sex or injecting drugs. As a matter of international human rights, health, juvenile justice and child protection law, interventions among adolescent KPs aged 10-17 must not involve arrest, prosecution or detention of any kind. It is imperative that interventions not rely on law enforcement, but instead low-threshold, voluntary services, shelter and support, utilizing peer-based outreach as much as possible. These services must be mobile and accessible, and permit alternatives to parental consent for the provision of life-saving support, including HIV testing, treatment and care, needle and syringe programmes, opioid substitution therapy, safe abortions, antiretroviral therapy and gender-affirming care and hormone treatment for transgender adolescents. To ensure enrolment in services, international guidance indicates that informed consent and confidentiality must be ensured, including by waiver of parental consent requirements. To remove the disincentive to health practitioners and researchers to engaging with adolescent KPs aged 10-17 government agencies and ethical review boards are advised to exempt or grant waivers for mandatory reporting. In the event that, in violation of international law and guidance, authorities seek to involuntarily place adolescent KPs in institutions, they are

  4. Süžeeloome võtete seos üldiste stiilivõtetega / Viktor Šklovski ; tõlkinud Jaan Ross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Šklovski, Viktor, 1893-1984

    2014-01-01

    Artiklis arendatakse mõtet, et kunsti eesmärk on tajuprotsessi aeglustamine, ning selle vahenditena kirjeldatakse nii stiilitasandi parallelisme ja vastandusi kui ka selliseid süžeetasandi võtteid nagu gradatsioon, raamistamine ja pidurdus

  5. Valmistutakse mõõtma miljardi tähe kaugust / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-

    2008-01-01

    Tartu observatooriumi teadlased on ühinenud suure Euroopa kosmoseagentuuri projektiga Gaia. Selle raames hakatakse ülitäpselt kaardistama tähistaevast ning mõõtma miljardi tähe koordinaate ja kaugust

  6. Road of death to remain lethal / Kairi Kurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurm, Kairi

    2005-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi teatel ei rajata Tartu ja Tallinna vahele neljarealist maanteed, kuna selle ehitus oleks kallis. Maanteeameti väitel ei ole olukord Tallinn-Tartu maanteel halb ning hukkunuid pole piisavalt, et oleks vajalik teed laiendada

  7. Küsimus pole MRP-s, vaid agressioonis / Enn Soovik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soovik, Enn, 1933-2010

    2005-01-01

    Autor leiab, et on vajalik esitada Venemaale pretensioon Nõukogude Liidu poolt Eesti vastu 1939/40 toime pandud agressiooni ja selle järelmite suhtes ning mitte laskuda MRP-ga seotud viljatusse vaidlusse

  8. Latvia's European Parliament elections / Daunis Auers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Auers, Daunis

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Parlamendi valimiskampaaniad on Lätis tagasihoidlikud. Selle põhjusteks on, et uue seaduse järgi peavad erakonnad oma valimistele tehtud kulutused deklareerima ning lisaks on huvi valimiste vastu rahva seas väike

  9. EPRA avas 20. tegevushooaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    15. septembril oli EPRA-l külas kogenud briti suhtekorraldaja ja ajalehe The Sun endine toimetaja Stuart Higgins ning Eestis veel katmata ala, õigusala meediaekspert Julian Pike. Selle kohtumisega avas EPRA oma 20. tegevushooaja

  10. Rakenduskõrgkool - kas kutsekool teise nime all? / Anatoli Alop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alop, Anatoli, 1951-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Mereakadeemia akadeemiline prorektor arutleb selle üle, mille poolest erineb rakenduskõrgharidus kutsekeskharidusest ja akadeemilisest haridusest ning kas rakenduskõrgkooli õppejõud peab omama erialase töö kogemust

  11. Omanimetus või õige nimetus? Eestlaste ravimtaimetundmise alustest / Raivo Kalle, Renata Sõukand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalle, Raivo, 1976-

    2011-01-01

    Käsitletakse Eestis kasvavate taimede nimetamise praktika laiemat ajaloolist tausta ja analüüsitakse ravimtaimede omanimetuste asendumist õigete nimetustega ning selle mõju taimepärimuse lähtaluse muutumisele

  12. Eesti raudtee ehituspärandi uurimisest ja kaitsest / Martin Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Martin

    2005-01-01

    2004. a. läbi viidud raudteejaamade inventeerimisest, et saada ülevaade Eesti raudtee ehituspärandist ja selle hetkeseisust ning teha ettepanekud kultuuriväärtusega ehitiste muinsuskaitse alla võtmiseks

  13. Alaealiste kriminaalõigus - lõpuks ka Eesti variant / Jaan Ginter, Jaan Sootak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ginter, Jaan, 1956-

    1998-01-01

    Alaealiste kuritegevusest, vastava kriminaalõiguse kujunemisest, alaealiste kurjategijate käsitlemisest kriminaalkoodeksis, professor Ilmar Rebase koostatud kriminaalseadustiku eelnõus ja alaealiste vastutuse seaduse eelnõudes. Alaealise mõjutusvahendite seadusest ning selle kohaldamise menetlusest

  14. Meningokoki vastu saab end vaktsineerida / Ada Maltseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltseva, Ada, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Vt. ka Linnaleht : Tallinn : na russkom jazõke, Linnaleht : Tartu 16. jaan., lk. 7. Tervisekaitseinspektsiooni avalike suhete juht Iiris Saluri räägib meningokokknakkusest ning selle vastu vaktsineerimisest

  15. Peter Priisalm eelistab juhina meeskonnamängu / Peter Priisalm ; interv. Aive Antsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priisalm, Peter

    2006-01-01

    AS-i Microlink Eesti juhatuse esimehe kohalt lahkunud Peter Priisalm oma tegevusest infotehnoloogiaettevõttes, tagasiastumise põhjustest, karjäärist ja selle planeerimisest ning ettevõtte juhtimisest

  16. Teadmistepõhise ühiskonna võimalikkusest = Chancen einer wissensbasierten Gesellschaft / Jüri Engelbrecht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Engelbrecht, Jüri, 1939-

    2005-01-01

    Autori hinnangul haarab teaduse roll arenenud riikides üldist teadmiste kasvu kui alust heale haridusele, konkurentsivõimelisele majandusele, kultuurile selle laiemas tähenduses ning riigi kodanike teadlikkusele

  17. "Tallinn Treff" - maailma lavade uus põlvkond Tallinnas / Meelis Pai, Vahur Keller, Reeda Toots ; intervjueerinud Margot Visnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pai, Meelis, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    30. maist 6. juunini toimuvast rahvusvahelisest nukuteatrifestivalist "Tallinn Treff" ning selle alafestivalist "Noor vaim" annavad ülevaate festivali peakorraldaja Meelis Pai, kusntiline juht Vahut Keller ja "Noor vaimu" juht Reeda Toots

  18. Majandus, planeet või rahakott? / Margit Keller

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keller, Margit, 1971-

    2009-01-01

    Tarbijast ja tarbimisest kriisiajal. Autor vaatleb, kuidas võistlevad ideoloogiad esitavad end praegu halvasti tundvale tarbijale vastuolulisi ootusi ja nõudmisi ning kas selles olukorras on uueks kvaliteediks ja arenguks potentsiaali

  19. Loovmajanduse kriitika / interv. Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Kiasma nüüdiskunstimuuseumis toimunud seminarist "Critique of Creative Industries". Kiasma direktor Tuula Karjalainen ning professorid Esther Leslie ja Angela McRobbie vastavad küsimustele, mis on seotud loomemajanduse ja selle kriitikaga

  20. Proshtshai, dollar? / Kenneth Rogoff ; tõlk. Irina Sashtshenkova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rogoff, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Autor kirjutab dollari nõrgenemisest ja selle alternatiividest rahvusvahelisel valuutaturul ning euro tugevnemisest. Pankurid ja rahandustegelased peaksid hakkama mõtlema, mida teha siis, kui on aeg dollari toetamine lõpetada