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Sample records for sellafield nuclear plant

  1. Sellafield: the nuclear legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Sir D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns Sir Douglas Black's independent inquiry into cancer in young people living near the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant. The inquiry followed a Yorkshire Television documentary on the subject. Childhood cancer and the statistical methodology employed in the report are discussed, as answers to criticisms of the report. Also discussed are the Sellafield discharges and the incidence of childhood leukaemia near Sellafield. (U.K.)

  2. Sellafield - a nuclear licensed site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, Phillipa.

    1987-01-01

    The report is based on the experience gained when visiting the Exhibition Centre at the BNFL Sellafield site and joining the hour-long coach trip round the site. The sights are recorded and a description given of the processes undertaken at Sellafield to reprocess the Magnox fuel and store the spent fuel from AGR reactors. The purpose of the main plant building, and the passage of the spent fuel through the various processes is described. Criticism is made of the safety record at Sellafield and a full and open debate on nuclear power is called for. (UK)

  3. A survey of habits of people living close to the Sellafield nuclear processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, T.H.; Fulker, M.J.; Jones, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    A survey has been carried out of the habits of people living within 3 km of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. The survey included estimates of consumption rates of foodstuffs for a range of ages and of time spent indoors, outdoors and away from home. A high proportion of those interviewed were farmers and they provided additional data on time spent in the various farming activities. A comparison is made of the food consumption rates and generalised values recommended for critical groups by the NRPB and MAFF. (author)

  4. Occupational exposure at the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, A.; Partington, C.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear reprocessing plant at Sellafield employs approximately 6500 people in a wide range of activities involving radioactive materials. The exposure to personnel over the period 1978-1989 is reviewed. Information is presented on collective and average dose exposure which both show significant downward trends. The current annual collective dose for reprocessing operations is 21.4 man Sv and the average whole body exposure 3.7 mSv.y -1 , taking account of both internal and external exposure. The introduction of radiological design targets for new plants and the use of formal ALARP assessments on projects has contributed substantially to the observed reduction in dose uptake. Experience also indicates that significant dose reduction can be achieved by heightening the awareness of both managers and workers of the dose implications of their work and working methods. (author)

  5. Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This small, illustrated, booklet describes Sellafield under the headings: introduction (historical and general); organisation (Windscale Works; Calder Works); Magnox reprocessing (using nuclear fuel in a reactor; transport of fuel; used fuel stored in ponds; decanning of Magnox fuel; separation process; highly-active storage tanks; vitrification); waste disposal; health and safety; Calder Hall; future developments; training young people; community relations. (U.K.)

  6. Father's occupational exposure to radiation and the raised level of childhood leukemia near the Sellafield Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The first indications that childhood leukemia rates may be raised near the Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria, England, came from largely anecdotal evidence in a television program Windscale: The Nuclear Laundry shown during 1983. During subsequent years, various epidemiological studies have investigated the claim in more detail. Geographical analyses of childhood leukemia incidence in the northern region and mortality in England and Wales using routinely available data made the first contribution. As a result, it was confirmed that leukemia rates in the area, particularly the neighboring village of Seascale, were high compared to other districts, although not totally extreme. Cohort studies of children born in Seascale or attending schools in Seascale were carried out to resolve some of the difficulties of interpretation of geographical analysis. Cohort studies indicated that the excess of leukemia was concentrated among children born in Seascale and was not found among those moving in after birth and suggested that any causal factors may be acting before birth or very early in life. A case-control study of leukemia (and lymphoma) among young people in West Cumbria has examined potentially important individual factors in detail. The study demonstrated a relationship between the raised incidence of leukemia in children and father's recorded external radiation dose during work at Sellafield before his child's conception. The association can effectively explain statistically the observed geographical excess

  7. Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses a highly publicized accident at Sellafield, involving radioactive pollution, after which a period of continuous adverse media coverage eroded public confidence in the plant and its operators. The author presents alternative recovery strategies attempted before identification of an open information, open door policy as the optimal route to a restored reputation. The success of the new policies is described

  8. Dose reduction and the application of the ALARP principle to occupational exposure at the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.W.; Coates, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents information on the application of the ALARP principle to Dose Reduction at the British Nuclear Fuels plc site at Sellafield in Cumbria. The development of the Operational methods employed to effect dose reductions on existing plants and the impact of stringent targets for new plants is described in addition to discussion of the factors initiating the change and the success of the initiatives. (Author)

  9. Results of case-control study of leukaemia and lymphoma among young people near Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, M.J.; Snee, M.P.; Hall, A.J.; Powell, C.A.; Downes, S.

    1990-01-01

    The raised incidence of leukaemia, particularly, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among children near Sellafield was associated with paternal employment and recorded external dose of whole body penetrating radiation during work at the plant before conception. The association can explain statistically the observed geographical excess. This result suggests an effect of ionising radiation on fathers that may be leukaemogenic in their offspring, though other, less likely, explanations are possible. (author)

  10. An assessment of the radiological significance of consuming wild foods collected near the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulker, M.J.; McKay, K.; Jackson, D.; Leonard, D.R.P.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive monitoring of conventional agricultural produce in the vicinity of the BNFL Sellafield plant is undertaken, by both the operator and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, to determine levels of radioactivity and douses arising to the consumer Monitoring is also undertaken, albeit less extensively, for market garden and domestic produce. By contrast, few data exist with respect to levels of radioactivity in 'wild foods' (e.g. hedgerow fruits, field mushrooms etc.) or associated consumption habits. It has been postulated that such foodstuffs could contribute an appreciable radiation exposure dose to groups of high level consumers, potentially including members of the existing identified critical group for local agricultural produce. This paper assess the actual radiological significance of wild foods collected near Sellafield. (author)

  11. A welcoming approach to winning support [public relations policy at the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, C.G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The public relations policy of British Nuclear Fuels with respect to the Sellafield reprocessing centre is described. Key factors in reassuring the public on the safety of the plant have been the opening of an exhibition centre and a widely advertised open invitation to visit Sellafield together with a commitment to an open information policy and the promotion of understanding through the use of less technical language. An improvement in public confidence in Sellafield is reported. (U.K.)

  12. Transfer of conservative and non-conservative radionuclides from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to the coastal waters of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcmahon, C.A.; Fegan, M.; Wong, J.; Long, S.C.; Mckittrick, L.; Thomas, K.; Rafferty, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland has monitored levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Irish marine environment for over 20 years. While the primary objective of the monitoring programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from the presence of these radionuclides in the marine environment, the programme also aims to assess the geographical distribution and temporal variations of the radionuclides. The programme involves the routine sampling of and testing for radioactivity in fish, shellfish, seaweed, sediments and seawater. The data generated in the course of this programme, as well as in a separate study of changing plutonium isotopic ratios in Fucus vesiculosus from the west coast of Ireland, are used in this paper to estimate transport times from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to the western Irish Sea and from the Irish Sea to the west coast of Ireland. The results obtained are discussed in the paper and the transfer times estimated for particle-reactive radionuclides (plutonium isotopes) compared with those obtained for more conservative radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 99 Tc). Transfer factors (calculated as the ratio between observed concentrations in the environment and an average discharge rate τ years earlier, where τ is the transport time) are also presented. (author)

  13. Decontamination and Decommissioning Experience at a Sellafield Uranium Purification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosser, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Built in the 1950's, this plant was originally designed to purify depleted uranyl nitrate solution arising from reprocessing operations at the Primary Separation and Head End Plant (Fig. 1). The facility was used for various purposes throughout its life cycle such as research, development and trial based processes. Test rigs were operated in the building from the 1970's until 1984 to support development of the process and equipment now used at Sellafield's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP). The extensive decommissioning program for this facility began over 15 years ago. Many challenges have been overcome throughout this program such as decommissioning the four main process cells, which were very highly alpha contaminated. The cells contained vessels and pipeline systems that were contaminated to such levels that workers had to use pressurized suits to enter the cells. Since decommissioning at Sellafield was in its infancy, this project has trialed various decontamination/decommissioning methods and techniques in order to progress the project, and this has provided valuable learning for other decommissioning projects. The project has included characterization, decontamination, dismantling, waste handling, and is now ready for demolition during late 2005, early 2006. This will be the first major facility within the historic Separation Area at Sellafield to be demolished down to base slab level. The lessons learnt from this project will directly benefit numerous decommissioning projects as the cleanup at Sellafield continues. (authors)

  14. Provision of NDA instrumentation for the control of operations on plutonium finishing and waste plants at the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, K.R.; Orr, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    On BNFL's Sellafield site a significant number of major plants are involved in the handling, processing and storage of plutonium in various forms including nitrate, oxide and mixed oxide (MOX). Other plants in operation or under construction treat and prepare for storage, plutonium bearing wastes in the form of plutonium contaminated materials -- PCM (transuranic waste -- TRU) or low level waste. Concurrently, a number of old plutonium handling plants are being decommissioned. The safety and cost effectiveness of these widely varying operations has been ensured by the development and installation of a wide range of special radiometric instrumentation. These systems based on a range of neutron counting and high resolution gamma spectrometric techniques -- singly or in combination -- enable BNFL to maintain a detailed and comprehensive picture of the disposition of plutonium within each plant and across the site. This paper describes an overview of the range of plant and paper prove waste measurement systems in this context, highlighting the specific roles of the Plutonium Inventory Measurement System (PIMS) for real time accountancy and the Decommissioning In-Situ Plutonium Inventory Monitor (DISPIM) for material control during decommissioning

  15. Winning Public Confidence in Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    BNF operates the nuclear fuel reprocessing and waste management centre of Sellafield in North West England. It is the largest nuclear site in Britain and perhaps the most famous nuclear plant in Western Europe. It is famous largely because it has long been the target of anti-nuclear interests. Well organised, well funded and well informed anti-nuclear organisations, notably including Green peace and Friends of the Earth, have made propaganda capital based on a number of controversial claims: - that by importing spent nuclear fuel from overseas for reprocessing at Sellafield, BNFL was turning Britain into a nuclear dustbin for the world. That discharges of low level radioactivity from Sellafield cause unacceptable nuclear pollution and endanger health, that the radioactivity in store in various forms on site at Sellafield, for which no permanent disposal routes are yet available, are a danger to the public and constantly threaten a major nuclear accident

  16. Methods and basic data of case-control study of leukaemia and lymphona among young people near Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, M.J.; Hall, A.J.; Snee, M.P.; Downes, S.; Powell, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The methods and basic data of a case-control study of leukaemia and lymphoma among young people near Sellafield are examined for reliability. Fifty-two cases of leukaemia, 22 of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 23 of Hodgkins disease occurring in people born in the area and diagnosed there in 1950-85 under the age of 25, and 1001 controls matched for sex and date of birth taken from the same birth registers were used in the study. (author)

  17. Design and development of effluent treatment plants for the Sellafield reprocessing factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, M.

    1989-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been carried out at Sellafield since the early 1950s. The storage of fuel in water filled ponds prior to reprocessing and the reprocessing operation itself results in the generation of a number of radioactive liquid effluents. The highly active liquors are stored in stainless steel tanks and will, with the commissioning of the Windscale Vitrification Plant, be converted into glass for long term storage and disposal. The medium and low active liquors are, after appropriate treatment, discharged to sea well below the Authorised Limits which are set by the appropriate Regulatory Bodies. Since 1960 these have been the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Even though the discharges have been well below the limits set, BNFL have for many years adopted a policy of reducing the levels of activity still further. Considerable progress has already been made, by changing reprocessing operations regimes but more importantly by the development and construction of specialised effluent treatment plants. Further reductions are, however, planned. Two major effluent treatment plants form the main basis of BNFL's policy to reduce activity discharges from Sellafield. The first, the Site Ion Exchange Effluent Plant, to treat storage pond water was brought into operation in 1985. The second, the enhanced Actinide Removal Plant to treat medium and low active effluents, is programmed to operate in 1992. (author)

  18. Possible toxic effects from the nuclear reprocessing at Sellafield and Cap de la Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.; Coeytaux, X.; Faid, Y.B.; Marignac, Y.; Rouy, E.; Thompson, G.; Fairlie, I.; Lowry, D.; Sumner, D.

    2001-11-01

    The principal aim of this report is to assist the Committee of Petitions of the European Parliament in its consideration of Petition 393/95 brought by Dr. W. Nachtwey. The Petition expresses concerns about radioactive discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France, and their possible adverse health effects. Six years after the Petition was introduced, the Petitioner main concerns remain relevant. This report concludes that reprocessing discharges are a valid matter for the Committee consideration. It also concludes that, on balance, the Petitioner's concerns over radioactive discharges from Sellafield and La Hague are justified. The report presents evidence and data on: 1) radioactive discharges from the Sellafield and La Hague sites; 2) resulting nuclide concentrations in environmental media including foodstuffs; 3) radiation doses from nuclide discharges to critical groups near the sites; 4) adverse health effects near the two sites; and 5) resulting collective doses from nuclide discharges. The report also examines a number of current issues in radiobiology concerning health effects from exposure to ionising radiation, in particular genetic and in utero effects. In addition, in accordance with contract specifications, the report examines other major factors that might influence future decision-making on reprocessing. It provides information on the legal framework, the operational history of the plants and the economic case for reprocessing compared with available alternatives for spent nuclear fuel management. The report also makes policy-related recommendations that take into account current knowledge and uncertainties in risk assessment and the availability of alternatives to reprocessing in spent fuel management. (authors)

  19. Possible toxic effects from the nuclear reprocessing at Sellafield and Cap de la Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Coeytaux, X.; Faid, Y.B.; Marignac, Y.; Rouy, E. [Wise, 75 - Paris (France); Thompson, G. [IRSS, Cambridge (United States); Fairlie, I.; Lowry, D.; Sumner, D

    2001-11-15

    The principal aim of this report is to assist the Committee of Petitions of the European Parliament in its consideration of Petition 393/95 brought by Dr. W. Nachtwey. The Petition expresses concerns about radioactive discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France, and their possible adverse health effects. Six years after the Petition was introduced, the Petitioner main concerns remain relevant. This report concludes that reprocessing discharges are a valid matter for the Committee consideration. It also concludes that, on balance, the Petitioner's concerns over radioactive discharges from Sellafield and La Hague are justified. The report presents evidence and data on: 1) radioactive discharges from the Sellafield and La Hague sites; 2) resulting nuclide concentrations in environmental media including foodstuffs; 3) radiation doses from nuclide discharges to critical groups near the sites; 4) adverse health effects near the two sites; and 5) resulting collective doses from nuclide discharges. The report also examines a number of current issues in radiobiology concerning health effects from exposure to ionising radiation, in particular genetic and in utero effects. In addition, in accordance with contract specifications, the report examines other major factors that might influence future decision-making on reprocessing. It provides information on the legal framework, the operational history of the plants and the economic case for reprocessing compared with available alternatives for spent nuclear fuel management. The report also makes policy-related recommendations that take into account current knowledge and uncertainties in risk assessment and the availability of alternatives to reprocessing in spent fuel management. (authors)

  20. Criticality safety philosophy for the Sellafield MOX plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edge, Jane; Gulliford, Jim

    2003-01-01

    The Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) has been operational since 2001, blending plutonium dioxide from THORP reprocessing operations, with uranium dioxide to produce Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel elements. In handling the quantities of fuel associated with a commercial fuel fabrication plant, it is necessary to impose criticality controls. Plutonium dioxide (PuO 2 ), uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) and recycled MOX are mixed together in batches. An Engineered Protection System (EPS) prevents the production of MOX powder in excess of 20w/o Pu(fissile)/(Pu+U), achieved through the combination of a weight-based' system and a diverse 'neutron monitoring' radiometric system. The 'neutron monitoring' component of the EPS determines the fissile enrichment of the batch of MOX powder, based on pessimistic isotopic requirements of the PuO 2 feedstock powder. Guaranteeing the maximum MOX enrichment of 20w/o Pu(fissile)/(Pu + U) at an early stage of the fuel manufacturing process enables the criticality safety assessor to demonstrate that normal operations are deterministically safe. This paper describes in detail the EPS at the front end of plant and the engineered and operational protection in downstream areas. In addition plant operational experience in producing the first fuel assemblies is discussed. (author)

  1. Approach to customer qualification of the BNFL Sellafield Mox Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, P.

    2003-01-01

    BNFL started plutonium commissioning of its Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) in December 2001, with the first MOX pellets being produced in May 2002. SMP was designed to manufacture a range of both PWR and BWR fuel types for a number of different customers. During commissioning and early MOX fuel manufacturing BNFL has been demonstrating its ability to both automatically manufacture and inspect MOX fuel to meet the requirements of different customers' specifications and fuel types. The qualification project consisted of common and project specific qualification. Common qualification was carried out to demonstrate BNFL could meet several customers' requirements during the same qualification test. Project specific qualification was carried out for one customer only as the fabrication or inspection equipment was specific to their fuel type. An example is the fuel assembly process. The reasons for BNFL carrying out common qualification were: - Develop a common qualified process to meet different customer specifications. - Minimise future qualifications prior to starting future fuel campaigns. - Ensure BNFL understands and effectively manages different customer requirements in SMP. BNFL has approached qualification of SMP systematically. Firstly the inspection system was qualified, and once completed the inspection system was then used in the qualification of the manufacturing process. (orig.)

  2. How an integrated change programme has accelerated the reduction in high hazard nuclear facilities at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, Angela

    2013-01-01

    For over five decades the Sellafield Site has been central to the UK's nuclear programme. Now operated by Sellafield Ltd, under the management of Parent Body Organisation Nuclear Management Partners (NMP), a consortium of URS Washington Division, AMEC and AREVA is focussed on the decommissioning of historical facilities. When Decommissioning commenced in the late 1980's the site focus at that time was on commercial reprocessing and waste management. Now through the implementation of a company change programme, emphasis has shifted towards accelerated risk and hazard reduction of degraded legacy plants with nuclear inventory whilst ensuring value for money for the customer, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. This paper will describe the management success by the Site owners in delivering a successful change programme. The paper will explain how the site has transitioned to the INPO Standard Nuclear Performance Model (SNPM) and how through the use of a change maturity matrix has contributed to the accelerated reduction in high risk high hazard nuclear facilities. The paper will explain in detail how the Decommissioning Programme Office has facilitated and coordinated the Governance and assured delivery of the change plan and how successful application of visual management has aided the communication of its progress. Finally, the paper will discuss how the Delivery Schedules have proved critical for presenting the change plan to Key Stakeholders, Government Owners and Powerful Regulators. Overall, this paper provides an insight into how a massive change programme is being managed within one of the world's highest regulated industries. (authors)

  3. How an integrated change programme has accelerated the reduction in high hazard nuclear facilities at Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackintosh, Angela [Change Manager, Decommissioning, Sellafield Ltd, Seascale, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    For over five decades the Sellafield Site has been central to the UK's nuclear programme. Now operated by Sellafield Ltd, under the management of Parent Body Organisation Nuclear Management Partners (NMP), a consortium of URS Washington Division, AMEC and AREVA is focussed on the decommissioning of historical facilities. When Decommissioning commenced in the late 1980's the site focus at that time was on commercial reprocessing and waste management. Now through the implementation of a company change programme, emphasis has shifted towards accelerated risk and hazard reduction of degraded legacy plants with nuclear inventory whilst ensuring value for money for the customer, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. This paper will describe the management success by the Site owners in delivering a successful change programme. The paper will explain how the site has transitioned to the INPO Standard Nuclear Performance Model (SNPM) and how through the use of a change maturity matrix has contributed to the accelerated reduction in high risk high hazard nuclear facilities. The paper will explain in detail how the Decommissioning Programme Office has facilitated and coordinated the Governance and assured delivery of the change plan and how successful application of visual management has aided the communication of its progress. Finally, the paper will discuss how the Delivery Schedules have proved critical for presenting the change plan to Key Stakeholders, Government Owners and Powerful Regulators. Overall, this paper provides an insight into how a massive change programme is being managed within one of the world's highest regulated industries. (authors)

  4. The thermal oxide reprocessing plant at Sellafield: three years of active operation in the chemical separation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philips, C.

    1998-01-01

    The Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant at British Nuclear Fuels' Sellafield site started operating in March 1994 with the shearing of its first irradiated fuel. In January 1995 the Chemical Separation part of the plant commenced processing the irradiated fuel feed solution that had been produced in the previous year by the Head End plant. By the Spring of 1998 over 1400 t of irradiated fuel has been reprocessed in Thorp, and the plant is being steadily and successfully ramped up to its normal operating throughput. The performance of the Thorp Chemical Separation Plant has been excellent, with the solvent extraction contactors performing as predicted by the extensive development programme. In particular the uranium-plutonium separation stage, which received intensive development to deal with the effects of the fission product technetium, has given an overall separation performance well in excess of the minimum flowsheet requirement. Decontamination of the uranium and plutonium products from fission products has in general been better than flowsheet requirements and the solvent extraction equipment has operated stably under the automatic controls developed during the R and D programme. Discharges of contaminants to waste streams have generally been in line with, or better than, expectation. This paper compares with flowsheet predictions a range of the key fission product and transuranic decontamination factors achieved in Thorp, shows how waste stream discharges are a small fraction of Sellafield Site discharge limits, demonstrates how uranium - plutonium separation performance has compared with expectation and summarises the overall performance of the Chemical Separation Plant. (author)

  5. Sellafield (release of radioactivity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J; Goodlad, A; Morris, M

    1986-02-06

    A government statement is reported, about the release of plutonium nitrate at the Sellafield site of British Nuclear Fuels plc on 5 February 1986. Matters raised included: details of accident; personnel monitoring; whether radioactive material was released from the site; need for public acceptance of BNFL activities; whether plant should be closed; need to reduce level of radioactive effluent; number of incidents at the plant.

  6. Selling Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, Kirsty.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes a trip to the Sellafield reprocessing plant arranged by BNFL for journalists. The train journey from London and the actual tour round the Sellafield site and visitor centre are described briefly. Several protest groups were encountered on the way but the point made is that in encouraging visitors to the site and explaining what is going on there BNFL is trying to be more open in its dealings with the public in an effort to inform, reassure and lessen mistrust. (UK)

  7. Child leukaemia around Sellafield. Local community reaction to the television documentary 'Windscale - the nuclear laundry'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.; MacGill, S.M.

    1986-03-01

    The survey was made four months after the publication of the Black Report and extended over a random sample of 462 people in six Parish Councils constituting the domain of interest of the inquiry resulting from the television programme concerning the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant; 80% of the sample had seen the programme. (U.K.)

  8. The design of in-cell equipment for nuclear fuel reprocessing plant with special reference to the decanners for Pond 5, Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The in-cave equipment has to meet many demanding criteria, which require not only sound and creative design thinking, but a range of design management techniques to ensure the success of the plant. This paper discusses these in some detail in relation to the decanners for Pond 5. (author)

  9. Sellafield: boom or bombshell?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, J.

    1988-01-01

    Building work at the Sellafield reprocessing plant is reviewed. BNFL is about halfway through its programme to build new plants for reprocessing and storing spent nuclear fuels. Most money is being spent on THORP, the thermal oxide reprocessing plant, but vitrification and encapsulation plants are also being built. All the construction work has provided employment for many workers, many from outside the area but also local labour which has altered the local job market. However, problems are envisaged when the construction programme is complete in 1992 and the number of jobs greatly reduced. Unemployment and economic depression are forecast. (U.K.)

  10. UK public attitudes to the nuclear industry: the effect of the Sellafield visitor centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Rogers, J.

    1993-01-01

    Public support for the nuclear industry appears to be growing in the UK at a time when environmental awareness is also prominent. Perceived advantages from nuclear power range from conservation of scare fossil reserves through to maintaining a worldwide technical competitiveness. Within the UK, the Sellafield Visitors Centre has proved to be a large tourist attraction, as well as successfully presenting information in a form that is easy to understand. (author)

  11. The Sellafield contaminated land and groundwater management project: Characterisation of a complex nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruickshak, Julian

    2012-01-01

    The Sellafield site in North West England is one of the oldest and largest nuclear sites in the world, with a 70 year industrial history of processing and power generation. At certain points in time this industrial activity has affected the quality of land on parts of the site and one of the main tasks for Sellafield Ltd is to understand and control the legacy of ground contamination to ensure protection of the workforce, the public and the environment. Sellafield Ltd has recently completed a multi-million Pound investigation of the most complex part of the site in order to understand the impact of the various known and potential sources of contamination. The constraints of working in a challenging operational environment required both the use of tried and tested approaches and experimentation with innovative techniques. As experience was gained during implementation of the project, the characterisation plan was evolved and adapted to ensure a successful outcome. The presentation will outline the role and importance of characterising land and groundwater at Sellafield, explain how the site investigation strategy and techniques were designed to meet the challenge and describe the performance of the investigation in practice. It will conclude with a summary of how the results will be used to better support ongoing safety and environmental management and to aid the development of strategy and planning for the future. (author)

  12. Government on the spot over Sellafield's reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The 18-year gestation of British Nuclear Fuels' Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) is almost at an end. Only one hurdle seemingly remains - the authorisation to dispose of its wastes. Opponents see this as the last chance to scrap what they regard as an environmental and financial white elephant. BNF's original rationale for THORP has grown increasingly threadbare since it was proposed in the mid-1970s - and the Government may now be forced into a last-minute rethink of the consequences of allowing it to be commissioned. (Author)

  13. Acoustic monitoring to support plant life extension at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, M. de; Hovhanessian, G.

    2015-01-01

    Tensioned steel wires are widely used in civil engineering structures. They can, however, be vulnerable to corrosion. To reduce the probability of corrosion, sophisticated protection systems are used. Extensive inspection and maintenance regimes are also able to be implemented to confirm that the design strength is available over the lifetime of the wires. These regimes include tests to confirm the condition of post-tensioning cables or stay cables, which can verify the overall performance of the structure. This paper presents a technology to detect and locate wire failures in tensioned cables for use on a wide variety of pre-stressed or post tensioned structures, where they have increased confidence in the structures and reduced maintenance costs. This methodology is the continuous acoustic monitoring technology which uses distinctive acoustic characteristics of wire breaks to separate them from other acoustic activity on the structure. With a combination of instrumentation, data acquisition and data management, it is possible to identify a wire break event, as well as to locate the position and time of the failure. Over 10 years' experience of acoustic monitoring for this application with several independent and blind tests, shows that even in noisy environments the acoustic monitoring method is able to identify and locate wire breaks in fully grouted and partially grouted tendons, stay cables and suspension cables. The design (number of sensors and location) is very important to be sure to cover all wires in the structure. This paper explains the principles of the systems and shows them in practice on a case study of a project in a pre-stressed roof structure of an active tank farm at Sellafield site

  14. Developments in safety and operations culture in BNFL's thorp reprocessing plant, Sellafield, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kett, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    One of the best descriptions of Culture is 'how we do things around here'. In a stable organisation it is extremely difficult to change any type of culture, whether it is an operations, customer service or safety culture. To change culture one of two elements are essential. There must be either a significant external pressure felt by all in the organisation or a change in senior management, with authority to set a new direction for the organisation. BNFL had a unique opportunity through the commissioning and operation of the Thorp Reprocessing Plant at Sellafield to shape a new Safety and Operations Culture. Both the key elements for change were present. Thorp was a high profile flagship plant that had attracted multinational investment. It incorporated new technology. The workforce had volunteered to operate the plant. A strong senior management team was specially selected. The plant was being commissioned in an environment where there was significant opposition by 'anti nuclear' groups. It was essential to both BNFL and the wider international nuclear community that Thorp was commissioned and operated safely. A strong operating culture was developed with safety as the corner stone. The culture comprises three key components. Rigorous plant safety case and risk assessments before work commences and modifications to the plant occur; A high level of involvement by all levels of the workforce in both operations and safety matters; Strong supportive leadership which does not allow safety standards to be compromised and encourages open debate on how to improve. During commissioning and early operation of Thorp the robustness of the Safety and Operations Culture was demonstrated. On several occasions, despite intense commercial pressure, operations were halted until the situation was resolved both technically and procedurally. This paper describes how the Safety and Operations Culture was developed. The key factors for success include recruitment, team selection

  15. Diverting activities at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Remote technology is being used to divert a raffinate feed pipe at the Sellafield fuel reprocessing plant in the UK. Extensive use is being made by the contractor of computer graphics and a full-scale mock-up. (author)

  16. How an integrated change programme has accelerated the reduction in high hazard nuclear facilities at Sellafield - 59014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, Angela

    2012-01-01

    For over five decades the Sellafield Site has been central to the UK's nuclear programme. Sellafield Ltd is managed by NMP (Nuclear Management Partners), a consortium of URS, AMEC and AREVA and is focussed on the decommissioning of historical facilities. When the activity of Decommissioning commenced in the late 1980's the site focus at that time was on commercial reprocessing and waste management. Now through the implementation of an integrated company change programme, emphasis has shifted towards accelerated risk and hazard reduction of degraded legacy plants with nuclear inventory whilst ensuring value for money for the customer, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). This paper will describe the management approach that is being taken and the planning tools that are being applied by the Site owners in delivering an integrated change programme across the Decommissioning Directorate. The paper will explain how the management approach to change uses Peer Assist, Rapid Improvement Events, Organisational Review Self Evaluation, Value Stream Analysis and Accelerated Improvement Events as improvement tools. Use of these has enabled down-sizing of the organisation, driven out hundreds of man day efficiencies within the maintenance and asset management areas, improved the management of spares reducing annual costs by Pounds 1000's, improved Commercial practices by fast tracking the preparation of invitations to tender for critical contracts, rolled back radiological control areas and enabled quicker access to the work-face at a reduced cost. This paper will explain in detail how the Decommissioning Directorate Programme Office has implemented planning tools such as governance, identification of opportunities, benefit evaluation and prioritisation and sanction of the optimum improvements and how through the use of a balanced scorecard, delivery of the improvements has been measured ensuring that the targets are met. Finally, the paper will discuss how the

  17. BNFL Sellafield further public consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The main issues raised during the further public consultation on the draft Sellafield authorisations for the discharge of radioactive wastes from the British Nuclear Fuel (BNFL) Sellafield site are outlined. An analysis of the categories and numbers of the 42,500 responses is made. The public consultation was based on five documents; a letter to consultees from the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF); the report by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution and the Inspectorate of MAFF on their earlier consultation exercise; a paper by BNFL on the economic and commercial justification of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP); a statement of the Government's policy on reprocessing and THORP and a document prepared by BNFL on the environmental implication of THORP. (UK)

  18. The development and design of the off-gas treatment system for the thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) at Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, P.I. [British Nuclear Fuels, Sellafield (United Kingdom); Buckley, C.P.; Miller, W.W. [British Nuclear Fuels, Risley (United Kingdom)

    1995-02-01

    British Nuclear Fuels completed construction of its Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield in 1992, at a cost of 1,850M. After Government and Regulatory approval, active commissioning was initiated on 17 January 1994. From the outset, the need to protect the workforce, the public and the environment in general from the plant`s discharges was clearly recognised. The design intent was to limit radiation exposure of members of the general public to As Low as Reasonably Practicable. Furthermore no member of the most highly exposed group should receive an annual dose exceeding 50 microsieverts from either the aerial or marine discharge routes. This paper describes how the design intent has been met with respect to aerial discharges. It outlines the development programme which was undertaken to address the more demanding aspects of the performance specification. This ranged from small-scale experiments with irradiated fuel to inactive pilot plant trials and full-scale plant measurements. The resulting information was then used, with the aid of mathematical models, in the design of an off-gas treatment system which could achieve the overall goal. The principal species requiring treatment in the THORP off-gas system are iodine-129, carbon-14, nitrogen oxides (NOx), fuel dust particles and aerosols containing plutonium or mixed fission products. The paper describes the combination of abatement equipment used in different parts of the plant, including counter-current absorption columns, electrostatic precipitators, dehumidifiers and High Efficiency Particulate Air filters. Because a number of separate off-gas streams are combined before discharge, special depression control systems were developed which have already proved successful during plant commissioning. BNFL is confident that the detailed attention given to the development and design phases of the THORP off-gas system will ensure good performance when the plant moves into fully radioactive operation.

  19. Living with Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macgill, S.M.

    1984-06-01

    Initial findings are reported of a survey of the attitudes towards Sellafield (British Nuclear Fuels) of West Cumbrian people. Reasons for the survey are given. The following aspects were covered: attitude to BNF as a local company; attitudes about radiation levels in areas around BNF plant, as regards health risks to various classes of people; radiation levels in various environments (e.g. on the beaches, in house dust, etc.); comparison with other risks; amount of monitoring of radiation levels; interest in various sources of information about possible radiation risks; reliability of various sources of information; participation of the respondent in meetings, environmental groups, etc.; opportunity to express respondent's views; attitudes to various publicity activities. Variations between attitudes in different towns and villages in the area are discussed. (U.K.)

  20. The development and design of the off-gas treatment system for the thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, P.I.; Buckley, C.P.; Miller, W.W.

    1995-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels completed construction of its Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield in 1992, at a cost of 1,850M. After Government and Regulatory approval, active commissioning was initiated on 17 January 1994. From the outset, the need to protect the workforce, the public and the environment in general from the plant's discharges was clearly recognised. The design intent was to limit radiation exposure of members of the general public to As Low as Reasonably Practicable. Furthermore no member of the most highly exposed group should receive an annual dose exceeding 50 microsieverts from either the aerial or marine discharge routes. This paper describes how the design intent has been met with respect to aerial discharges. It outlines the development programme which was undertaken to address the more demanding aspects of the performance specification. This ranged from small-scale experiments with irradiated fuel to inactive pilot plant trials and full-scale plant measurements. The resulting information was then used, with the aid of mathematical models, in the design of an off-gas treatment system which could achieve the overall goal. The principal species requiring treatment in the THORP off-gas system are iodine-129, carbon-14, nitrogen oxides (NOx), fuel dust particles and aerosols containing plutonium or mixed fission products. The paper describes the combination of abatement equipment used in different parts of the plant, including counter-current absorption columns, electrostatic precipitators, dehumidifiers and High Efficiency Particulate Air filters. Because a number of separate off-gas streams are combined before discharge, special depression control systems were developed which have already proved successful during plant commissioning. BNFL is confident that the detailed attention given to the development and design phases of the THORP off-gas system will ensure good performance when the plant moves into fully radioactive operation

  1. New Sellafield study poses a puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingman, S.

    1993-01-01

    Three years ago, an epidemiological study rocked the nuclear industry by suggesting a link between exposure to radiation among men and leukemia in their children. The study, by the late British epidemiologist Martin Gardner, focused on workers at the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant in northwest England and had profound implications for the nuclear industry: If a causal link between exposure and cancer could be proven, occupational exposure limits to radiation would have to be tightened and British Nuclear Fuels, the operator of Sellafield, might be open to litigation from the affected children and their relatives. A new study by Britain's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) found only fragile evidence that long-term cumulative exposure to radiation by fathers before conception of their children was linked to an increased risk of the child developing leukemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma. But in Seascale, 3 kilometers south of Sellafield, the rate of leukemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma among children whose fathers worked in Sellafield and lived in Seascale when they were born was about 14 times the national average. The findings remain uncertain as to cause of the cancers

  2. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-01-01

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted

  3. Childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma near large rural construction sites, with a comparison with Sellafield nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinlen, L.J.; Dickson, M.; Stiller, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether population mixing produced by large, non-nuclear construction projects in rural areas is associated with an increase in childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A study was undertaken of the incidence of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among children living near large construction projects in Britain since 1945, situated more than 20 km from a population centre, involving a workforce of more than 1000, and built over three or more calendar years. A 37% excess of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma at 0-14 years of age was recorded during construction and the following calendar year. The excesses were greater at times when construction workers and operating staff overlapped (72%), particularly in areas of relatively high social class. For several sites the excesses were similar to or greater than that near the nuclear site of Sellafield (67%), which is distinctive in its large workforce with many construction workers. Seascale, near Sellafield, with a ninefold increase had an unusually high proportion of residents in social class I. The findings support the infection hypothesis and reinforce the view that the excess of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma near Sellafield has a similar explanation. (author)

  4. Germline minisatellite mutations in workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawn, E Janet; Curwen, Gillian B; Rees, Gwen S; Jonas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Germline minisatellite mutation rates were investigated in male workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility. DNA samples from 160 families with 255 offspring were analysed for mutations at eight hypervariable minisatellite loci (B6.7, CEB1, CEB15, CEB25, CEB36, MS1, MS31, MS32) by Southern hybridisation. No significant difference was observed between the paternal mutation rate of 5.0% (37 mutations in 736 alleles) for control fathers with a mean preconceptional testicular dose of 9 mSv and that of 5.8% (66 in 1137 alleles) for exposed fathers with a mean preconceptional testicular dose of 194 mSv. Subgrouping the exposed fathers into two dose groups with means of 111 mSv and 274 mSv revealed paternal mutation rates of 6.0% (32 mutations in 536 alleles) and 5.7% (34 mutations in 601 alleles), respectively, neither of which was significantly different in comparisons with the rate for the control fathers. Maternal mutation rates of 1.6% (12 mutations in 742 alleles) for the partners of control fathers and 1.7% (19 mutations in 1133 alleles) for partners of exposed fathers were not significantly different. This study provides evidence that paternal preconceptional occupational radiation exposure does not increase the germline minisatellite mutation rate and therefore refutes suggestions that such exposure could result in a destabilisation of the germline that can be passed on to future generations. (paper)

  5. Measurement of artificial radionuclides in whole diets around the BNF plc reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondon, K.J.; Walters, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food has conducted a duplicate diet study around the BNF reprocessing plant of Sellafield in Cumbria. Samples were collected from adults and children. The results of analyses for a number of artificial radionuclides are reported; dose calculations using actual food intakes have also been made. Samples were obtained in both winter (phase 1) and summer (phase 11), between which times the Chernobyl accident occurred, making site-specific dose assessment from caesium isotopes difficult in summer samples. Control diets were collected from a coastal area in Lancashire. Average annual doses based on pre-Chernobyl sampling ranged from 2 μSv in control children to 14 μSv in study adults. This range increased to 9-50 μSv in the second phase of the study. Maximum individual doses were 86 μSv in phase 1 and 102 μ in phase 11, these being well within the government's target dose for members of the public. (author)

  6. Geoelectrical monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage to support high-hazard nuclear decommissioning at the Sellafield Site, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuras, Oliver, E-mail: oku@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Paul B.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Oxby, Lucy S. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Uhlemann, Sebastian [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); ETH-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Geophysics, Sonneggstr. 5, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Chambers, Jonathan E. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Binley, Andrew [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Graham, James [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Smith, Nicholas T. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Williamson Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Atherton, Nick [Sellafield Ltd, Albion Square, Swingpump Lane, Whitehaven CA28 7NE (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    A full-scale field experiment applying 4D (3D time-lapse) cross-borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to the monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage was undertaken at a legacy nuclear waste silo at the Sellafield Site, UK. The experiment constituted the first application of geoelectrical monitoring in support of decommissioning work at a UK nuclear licensed site. Images of resistivity changes occurring since a baseline date prior to the simulated leaks revealed likely preferential pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the vadose zone and upper groundwater system. Geophysical evidence was found to be compatible with historic contamination detected in permeable facies in sediment cores retrieved from the ERT boreholes. Results indicate that laterally discontinuous till units forming localized hydraulic barriers substantially affect flow patterns and contaminant transport in the shallow subsurface at Sellafield. We conclude that only geophysical imaging of the kind presented here has the potential to provide the detailed spatial and temporal information at the (sub-)meter scale needed to reduce the uncertainty in models of subsurface processes at nuclear sites. - Graphical abstract: 3D fractional resistivity change (resistivity change Δρ divided by baseline resistivity ρ{sub 0}) image showing results of Stage 1 silo liquor simulant injection. The black line delineates the preferential flow path; green cylinders show regions of historic contamination found in sediment cores from ERT boreholes. - Highlights: • 4D geoelectrical monitoring at Sellafield detected and tracked simulated silo leaks. • ERT revealed likely pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the subsurface. • The method can reduce uncertainty in subsurface process models at nuclear sites. • Has been applied in this form at a UK nuclear licensed site for the first time • Study demonstrates value of 4D geophysics for nuclear decommissioning.

  7. Computer-based training at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartmell, A.; Evans, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL) operate the United Kingdom's spent-fuel receipt, storage, and reprocessing complex at Sellafield. Spent fuel from graphite-moderated CO 2 -cooled Magnox reactors has been reprocessed at Sellafield for 22 yr. Spent fuel from light water and advanced gas reactors is stored pending reprocessing in the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant currently being constructed. The range of knowledge and skills needed for plant operation, construction, and commissioning represents a formidable training requirement. In addition, employees need to be acquainted with company practices and procedures. Computer-based training (CBT) is expected to play a significant role in this process. In this paper, current applications of CBT to the filed of nuclear criticality safety are described and plans for the immediate future are outlined

  8. The reduction of radioactive discharges from Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsley, D.M.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines the continuing efforts of British Nuclear Fuels to reduce the levels of discharges from the Sellafield site. Emphasis is placed on two plants: the Site Ion Exchange Effluent Plant (SIXEP), commissioned in 1985 and the Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant (EARP), programmed to be commissioned in 1991. The content matter deals with process and engineering concepts developed to solve problems peculiar to the nuclear industry but will be of interest to any organization faced with the processing, control and containment of hazardous media. (author)

  9. 137Cs uptake by sheep grazing tidally-inundated and inland pastures near the Sellafield reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Field investigations into the transfer of 137 Cs from pasture to sheep tissues have been made at two contrasting sites in west Cumbria, close to the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield. These were a saltmarsh bordering on the Esk estuary in 1982 and inland pastures close to the perimeter of the works in 1984. 137 Cs concentrations of sampled vegetation from the saltmarsh were generally two orders of magnitude greater than from the inland pasture due to its inundation with 137 Cs associated with silt. The relatively high 137 Cs content of soil/silt compared to that of vegetation at each site meant that soil contamination of vegetation sometimes accounted for a substantial proportion of its 137 Cs activity (up to 99% on the saltmarsh and 67% on the inland pastures). Considerable seasonal changes occurred in the extent of 137 Cs contamination on the inland pastures, with late winter and early spring levels being up to 20-fold higher than those of the summer. 137 Cs concentrations in tissues of lambs from the saltmarsh were consistently higher than for ewes; this was not true for sheep from the inland pastures. 137 Cs concentrations in kidney were found to be higher than in all other tissues, both in the study flocks and in one of the controls. Transfer coefficients (calculated by dividing the 137 Cs concentration of fresh tissue by the daily intake of 137 Cs) were significantly (P 137 Cs activity due to soil/silt contamination was removed from the estimates of daily intake leaving 137 Cs associated with the vegetation only to contribute to the transfer coefficients. Further studies are required to determine the availability of 137 Cs associated with soil/silt particles which are ingested by animals. (author)

  10. The selling of Sellafield (the public image)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, David.

    1986-01-01

    The advertising campaign planned to restore the public image of Sellafield is discussed. Two aspects of the Sellafield site are being promoted especially, the first is that the discharges of long life radioactivity are being reduced. The second is the 'site accessibility' of Sellafield -BNFL is trying to encourage visitors to see for themselves what goes on at Sellafield. There is evidence that this will allay the fears and suspicions of the public. It is suggested, however, that providing information about nuclear power may be counter-productive as the concept of nuclear disaster may receive greater attention. The Sellafield site is difficult to promote whilst it continues to suffer leaks and it is suggested that the only way to promote Sellafield successfully may be by appealing to nationalism as the French have done in their nuclear campaign. (U.K.)

  11. Geoelectrical monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage to support high-hazard nuclear decommissioning at the Sellafield Site, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuras, Oliver; Wilkinson, Paul B; Meldrum, Philip I; Oxby, Lucy S; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Chambers, Jonathan E; Binley, Andrew; Graham, James; Smith, Nicholas T; Atherton, Nick

    2016-10-01

    A full-scale field experiment applying 4D (3D time-lapse) cross-borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to the monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage was undertaken at a legacy nuclear waste silo at the Sellafield Site, UK. The experiment constituted the first application of geoelectrical monitoring in support of decommissioning work at a UK nuclear licensed site. Images of resistivity changes occurring since a baseline date prior to the simulated leaks revealed likely preferential pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the vadose zone and upper groundwater system. Geophysical evidence was found to be compatible with historic contamination detected in permeable facies in sediment cores retrieved from the ERT boreholes. Results indicate that laterally discontinuous till units forming localized hydraulic barriers substantially affect flow patterns and contaminant transport in the shallow subsurface at Sellafield. We conclude that only geophysical imaging of the kind presented here has the potential to provide the detailed spatial and temporal information at the (sub-)meter scale needed to reduce the uncertainty in models of subsurface processes at nuclear sites. Copyright © 2016 British Geological Survey, NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Training of health physics services staff at the Sellafield Works of British Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagg, B.

    This paper describes the qualifications required and the training of health physics non-industrial and industrial staff who provide a radiological protection service to the Sellafield site. The training offered may consist of formal group instruction, programmed learning using written texts, videotape lectures, and on-the-job training by line management. Experience has shown that formal oral and practical instruction to small groups is the most effective form of training when supplemented by on-the-job training

  13. 'Goody, goody, we're going to Sellafield'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Bob

    1993-01-01

    In the early eighties British Nuclear Fuels' Sellafield plant was hit by two events. An unscheduled release of radioactivity onto the beaches near Sellafield attracted headline news, although it subsequently became clear that the risk of any resulting harm to the public was extremely remote. There was inevitably a great deal of adverse publicity. Local tourism levels were said to have fallen during the next twelve months, and there were many calls for Sellafield's operations to be restricted or stopped. Something clearly had to be done. And so much has been done that during the last seven years, Sellafield, Britain's largest nuclear fuel recycling plant and the country's largest nuclear facility, has become a major tourist attraction. This rather strange development began in 1984 with a major review of our PR strategy. Alternative strategies were researched as a result of which a strategy was developed to help build credibility through an open door/open information policy and inviting the public to visit Sellafield and see for themselves. As a part of the strategy a public relations programme, including a major national advertising campaign on television and in the press, began in 1986 and has played a major part in developing visitor numbers to Sellafield ever since. From 29,000 in 1985, to 65,000 in 1986, to 104,000 in 1987. In fact the number of visitors increased so dramatically in 1987 that the company decided to replace the overrun exhibition centre with a new 5 million pound Visitors Centre which, opened in 1988, has over the years become the flagship for our open door/open information strategy

  14. 'Goody, goody, we're going to Sellafield'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Bob [British Nuclear Fuels pic, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1993-07-01

    In the early eighties British Nuclear Fuels' Sellafield plant was hit by two events. An unscheduled release of radioactivity onto the beaches near Sellafield attracted headline news, although it subsequently became clear that the risk of any resulting harm to the public was extremely remote. There was inevitably a great deal of adverse publicity. Local tourism levels were said to have fallen during the next twelve months, and there were many calls for Sellafield's operations to be restricted or stopped. Something clearly had to be done. And so much has been done that during the last seven years, Sellafield, Britain's largest nuclear fuel recycling plant and the country's largest nuclear facility, has become a major tourist attraction. This rather strange development began in 1984 with a major review of our PR strategy. Alternative strategies were researched as a result of which a strategy was developed to help build credibility through an open door/open information policy and inviting the public to visit Sellafield and see for themselves. As a part of the strategy a public relations programme, including a major national advertising campaign on television and in the press, began in 1986 and has played a major part in developing visitor numbers to Sellafield ever since. From 29,000 in 1985, to 65,000 in 1986, to 104,000 in 1987. In fact the number of visitors increased so dramatically in 1987 that the company decided to replace the overrun exhibition centre with a new 5 million pound Visitors Centre which, opened in 1988, has over the years become the flagship for our open door/open information strategy.

  15. Being open at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Philippa.

    1986-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent fuel at Sellafield is explained briefly stage by stage. The origin of the spent fuels which are reprocessed there is given and the procedures for the different types of spent fuel are explained. The new fuel handling plant is described. Also the site ion-exchange effluent plant (SIXEP), which is designed to reduce the amount of radioactivity in water discharged into the Irish Sea, is mentioned. The work at BNFL on vitrification and the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) are also mentioned. The public are able to look round the exhibition centre and see for themselves the plant and operations as described in this article. (U.K.)

  16. Drypac-ing waste away at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Sellafield Drypac Plant (SDP) is designed to treat intermediate level wastes stored on the Sellafield site in the UK. SDP is a key component in the overall strategy of encapsulating ILW for future disposal in an underground repository. Civil work on the plant has started and it is scheduled to begin active operations in 2002. (UK)

  17. British Nuclear Fuels plc's effluent plant services building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.

    1990-01-01

    The new Effluent Plant Services building (EPSB) on the Sellafield Nine Acre Site was built by Costain Engineering Limited for British Nuclear Fuels Limited. The EPSB is dedicated to a new generation of nuclear waste treatment plants, aimed at reducing discharges into the Irish Sea and other environmental impacts by removing actinides from liquid effluents and decontaminating waste solvents. This article describes the design, construction and operation of the plant. (UK)

  18. The role of advertising in promoting Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Bob [BNFL (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-01

    During the last two and half years, British Nuclear Fuels havevspent approaching 9 million pounds on advertising, expenditure designed to increase the public's acceptance of nuclear power and BNFL's operations in particular. That money has been spent against a difficult background, the campaign having started just seven weeks after the Chernobyl disaster, although the strategy, was developed before Chernobyl changed so many people's attitude towards nuclear power. Sellafield was seen by many in the nuclear industry, and not only in Britain, as a major problem, and the public, judging by opinion research conducted at the time, shared that view. Research showed: Most people Saw BNFL as an environmental polluter and a danger to health; Sellafield was aeon as a dangerous place at which to work or near which to live; BNFL was seen as secretive and dishonest. One of the major argument for using advertising as the focal point of any major campaign is that, unlike press relations, it can be controlled. This was particularly important, as the press coverage was already bad, and something dramatic had to be done to change the situation. At first, we considered two fairly obvious strategies. To try and explain the benefits of nuclear power and BNFL's role, and secondly to explain the risks and put them into the context of other everyday risks. The campaign started in June 1986, with colour advertisements in magazines and newspaper supplements. Attached to the advertisement were invitation cards, with nine million printed. This was followed by a 50 second TV advertisement, broadcast nationally. Our aim to make the campaign newsworthy certainly worked. With the help of a public relations exercise, the TV ad was shown on a wide range of news programmes, and many newspaper articles were written about this new approach to selling nuclear power to the public. People started to visit Sellafield in ever increasing numbers. The biggest surprise was at the end of 1987, when Sellafield

  19. The role of advertising in promoting Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, Bob

    1989-01-01

    During the last two and half years, British Nuclear Fuels havevspent approaching 9 million pounds on advertising, expenditure designed to increase the public's acceptance of nuclear power and BNFL's operations in particular. That money has been spent against a difficult background, the campaign having started just seven weeks after the Chernobyl disaster, although the strategy, was developed before Chernobyl changed so many people's attitude towards nuclear power. Sellafield was seen by many in the nuclear industry, and not only in Britain, as a major problem, and the public, judging by opinion research conducted at the time, shared that view. Research showed: Most people Saw BNFL as an environmental polluter and a danger to health; Sellafield was aeon as a dangerous place at which to work or near which to live; BNFL was seen as secretive and dishonest. One of the major argument for using advertising as the focal point of any major campaign is that, unlike press relations, it can be controlled. This was particularly important, as the press coverage was already bad, and something dramatic had to be done to change the situation. At first, we considered two fairly obvious strategies. To try and explain the benefits of nuclear power and BNFL's role, and secondly to explain the risks and put them into the context of other everyday risks. The campaign started in June 1986, with colour advertisements in magazines and newspaper supplements. Attached to the advertisement were invitation cards, with nine million printed. This was followed by a 50 second TV advertisement, broadcast nationally. Our aim to make the campaign newsworthy certainly worked. With the help of a public relations exercise, the TV ad was shown on a wide range of news programmes, and many newspaper articles were written about this new approach to selling nuclear power to the public. People started to visit Sellafield in ever increasing numbers. The biggest surprise was at the end of 1987, when Sellafield

  20. Disaggregation of collective dose-a worked example based on future discharges from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing site, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S R; Lambers, B; Stevens, A

    2004-01-01

    Collective dose has long been advocated as an important measure of the detriment associated with practices that involve the use of radioactivity. Application of collective dose in the context of worker protection is relatively straightforward, whereas its application in the context of discharges to the environment can yield radically different conclusions depending upon the population groups and integration times that are considered. The computer program PC-CREAM98 has been used to provide an indicative disaggregation into individual dose bands of the collective dose due to potential future radioactive discharges from the nuclear fuel reprocessing site at Sellafield in the UK. Two alternative discharge scenarios are considered, which represent a 'stop reprocessing early, minimum discharge' scenario and a 'reprocessing beyond current contracts' scenario. For aerial discharges, collective dose at individual effective dose rates exceeding 0.015 μSv y -1 is only incurred within the UK, and at effective dose rates exceeding 1.5 μSv y -1 is only incurred within about 20 km of Sellafield. The geographical distribution of collective dose from liquid discharges is harder to assess, but it appears that collective dose incurred outside the UK is at levels of individual effective dose rate below 1.5 μSv y -1 , with the majority being incurred at rates of 0.002 μSv y -1 or less. In multi-attribute utility analyses, the view taken on the radiological detriment to be attributed to the two discharge scenarios will depend critically on the weight or monetary value ascribed to collective doses incurred within the differing bands of individual dose rate

  1. Radioactive lobsters put squeeze on Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-11-01

    British Nuclear Fuels is facing a new controversy over its Sellafield Works in Cumbria. Levels of the radioactive isotope technetium-99 in lobsters close to the works have risen 40-fold since 1993 -and now far exceed EC standards for contamination of food after a nuclear accident. Radioactive doses to local seafood consumers have been rising steeply since BNFL commissioned a new enhanced actinide removal plant (EARP) in 1994. The Environment Agency has now asked BNFL to consider ways of reducing technetium-99 discharges from the plant - but the company is also under pressure to maintain throughput to meet the safety concerns of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) and avoid disrupting the reprocessing of spent Magnox reactor fuel. (UK).

  2. Radioactive lobsters put squeeze on Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels is facing a new controversy over its Sellafield Works in Cumbria. Levels of the radioactive isotope technetium-99 in lobsters close to the works have risen 40-fold since 1993 -and now far exceed EC standards for contamination of food after a nuclear accident. Radioactive doses to local seafood consumers have been rising steeply since BNFL commissioned a new enhanced actinide removal plant (EARP) in 1994. The Environment Agency has now asked BNFL to consider ways of reducing technetium-99 discharges from the plant - but the company is also under pressure to maintain throughput to meet the safety concerns of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) and avoid disrupting the reprocessing of spent Magnox reactor fuel. (UK)

  3. An incident leading to contamination of the beaches near to the British Nuclear Fuels Limited Windscale and Calder Works, Sellafield November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report falls into the sections: executive summary; the inquiry; background to Sellafield operations (history; statutory control); the incident in the reprocessing plant (B205) (plant description; plant procedure; lead up to the incident; detection of the incident; conclusions concerning the incident); the effect on operations in the effluent treatment plant and sea discharge plant (B242/B241) (plant description; plant procedure; events in B242/B241 following the incident in B205; conclusions concerning operations in B242/B241); the effect on operations in the medium active liquid storage plant (B211) (plant description; events in B211 following transfer of waste from B242/B241; conclusions concerning the transfer of waste to B211); environmental aspects (description of events; conclusions concerning environmental aspects); compliance with the liquid waste disposal authorisation; conclusions and recommendations. (U.K.)

  4. Radioactive discharges from Sellafield (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This study of low-level liquid radioactive discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd Sellafield site into the eastern basin of the Irish Sea, prepared on the basis of existing publications and documents, reviews chemical forms and rate of discharges, physical oceanography, sediment distribution and fisheries of the Irish Sea, behaviour of radionuclides in seawater, association with sedimentary materials, accumulation of radionuclides by biological materials, environmental monitoring, surveillance and assessment of radiation exposure of the public and impact on the environment

  5. Preparation for commissioning of nuclear plant with reference to British Nuclear Fuels Plc fuel handling plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The new Fuel Handling Plant at British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield is part of a Pound 550M complex which provides facilities for the receipt, storage and mechanical preparation of both Magnox and A.G.R. fuel. The plant is very large and complex with considerable use of computer based process control systems, providing for physical and nuclear safety. The preparation of such plant for active commissioning necessitates a great many physical checks and technical evaluations in support of its safety case. This paper describes arrangements for plant commissioning checks, against the regulatory framework and explains the physical preparations necessary for their timely accomplishment. (author)

  6. Preparation for commissioning of nuclear plant with reference to British Nuclear Fuels Plc fuel handling plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, D.

    1987-01-01

    The new Fuel Handing Plant at British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield is part of a Pound 550M complex which provides facilities for the receipt, storage and mechanical preparation of both magnox and A.G.R. fuel. The plant is very large and complex with considerable use of computer based process control systems, providing for physical and nuclear safety. The preparation of such plant for ''active'' commissioning necessitates a great many physical checks and technical evaluations in support of its safety case. This paper describes arrangements for plant commissioning checks, against the regulatory framework and explains the physical preparations necessary for their timely accomplishment. (author)

  7. Roll up, roll up and see a Sellafield exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Virginia.

    1986-01-01

    Since July 1986 a commercial advertising campaign has been encouraging people to visit the BNFL plant at Sellafield to find out for themselves what goes on there. As a result it is now a flourishing tourist attraction. Casual visitors can visit the Ehibition Centre and go on a bus tour of the site lasting an hour. Pre-booked visitors can go on a five hour tour which looks at the processes in detail. The object is to open up the site so that people can be better informed and can make up their minds about the merits or otherwise of Sellafield, and nuclear power in general, with a knowledge of the facts. (UK)

  8. Current meter observations near the Sellafield pipeline, 1984-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.R.; Norris, S.

    1988-01-01

    Low-level liquid radioactive wastes are discharged into the north-east Irish Sea, under authorization, from the Sellafield reprocessing plant run by British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL). The effluent contains a range of radionuclides including caesium-137. The discharges are monitored and assessed by the Aquatic Environment Protection Division which is part of the Ministry of agriculture, Food and Fisheries. The results from the Sellafield current meter mooring in the Irish Sea from December 1983 to December 1986 are presented. The aim was to assess long-term tidal and residual current conditions under a variety of wind and current combinations as part of the assessment of the distribution of discharged radionuclides. The instrumentation is described briefly. Periods of data loss (due to meter failure or loss) and the data processing are explained. The results of the current metering are presented. (U.K.)

  9. The Safety Assessment of Long term Interim Storage at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchan, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    The Sellafield site comprises a wide range of nuclear facilities, including operating facilities associated with the Magnox reprocessing programme, the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) and a range of waste treatment plants. The operational life of some of the site facilities currently extends to 2120, requiring the retrieval, treatment, consolidation and safe extended storage of a variety of radioactive materials. Sellafield has utilised its existing safety assessment processes to inform and prioritise studies into beyond design basis events and resilience evaluation required following Fukushima by UK regulators and industry bodies such as WANO. There are significant differences between NPPs, for which the ENSREG 'stress tests' were originally intended, and the Sellafield site which is instead centered around two reprocessing facilities (Magnox and THORP), with a supporting infrastructure of waste processing and storage facilities, coupled with a legacy of high hazard older facilities. In the former case the consequences of a catastrophic failure are promptly realised, leading to significant problems such as fuel failure / meltdown in AGRs and LWRs respectively in the event of complete loss of cooling. At Sellafield, the processes are carried out at comparatively low temperatures and pressures with relatively low rates of change following any loss of cooling. Instead the consequences of catastrophic failure at Sellafield are more directly related to the very large inventories of radioactive materials, including high level liquid wastes and unprocessed fuels, present in specific plants and to the condition of the ageing assets, holding legacy wastes. The paper will consider how a number of analysis techniques have been used to establish a safety case for fault and accident conditions, i.e. design basis analysis (DBA), probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) and severe accident analysis (SAA) DBA is focused on the key safety measures for those initiating faults

  10. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Setting the scenario - potential hazards of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.J.; McPhail, N.

    1989-01-01

    The range of nuclear fuel cycle services provided by the various plants belonging to BNFL throughout the UK are described. The Sellafield Reprocessing Plant as the site which has the greatest potential for radiological hazard is then considered in more detail. In particular the safety cycle designed to prevent radiological accidents at Sellafield, emergency planning, the consequences of a major accident at Sellafield and the medical arrangements in the event of an accident are all discussed. (UK)

  12. Irish and Scandinavian objection to Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, Leif

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with the objection of Ireland and the Scandinavian countries to the radioactive emissions from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. This contamination follows the sea currents northward and radioactive material from this plant has been found in seaweed and crustaceans along the coast of Norway. The concentration in lobster from the Irish Sea is much higher than in Norwegian crustaceans and above the action limit set by the EU for the radioactive isotope Technetium 99 in the event of a new atomic accident. British authorities have refused to stop the pollution and even plan to start production of MOX fuel at Sellafield. They say new purification techniques will be developed within three or five years. For Norway, the opposition against Sellafield is a priority

  13. The development of quality assurance systems for radioactive waste at BNFL Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    BNFL reprocesses spent fuel as Sellafield, in West Cumbria, where it is a site licence requirement for formal QA arrangements to be established in respect of nuclear safety related plant. The forms of radioactive waste which are generated on site: HLW, ILW and LLW are made up of arisings which can be solid, liquid or gaseous. This paper discusses how implementation of the company's QA policy has been achieved by formally documenting and establishing the controls needed to manage plant, processes and people

  14. Safeguards By Design - As applied to the Sellafield Product and Residue Store (SPRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chare, Peter; Lahogue, Yves; Schwalbach, Peter; Smejkal, Andreas; Patel, Bharat [European Commission, Directorate-General for Energy, Directorate E - Nuclear Safeguards, Euroforum, Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2011-12-15

    Sellafield Product and Residue Store (SPRS) is a new facility that has been constructed on the site of Sellafield. The design work started in early 2001 and active commissioning commenced with the introduction of the first nuclear material which arrived in the building early 2011. The store has been designed for the long term storage of Plutonium product (PuO2) from Thorp and Magnox, MOX residue powder from Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) as well as pellet, powder or granular PuO2 residues from the older stores on the Sellafield site. This paper describes the application of Safeguards By Design commencing at the early design stage based upon the Safeguards Approach to be applied by DG ENER at the Sellafield Product and Residue Store (SPRS). The approach had been developed based upon the requirements for implementing Commission Regulation 302(2005) and the technical measures to be implemented in order to meet Article 77(a) of the Euratom Treaty. In order to meet these requirements a close dialogue was established between the different interested parties and the design team for the installation of instrumentation with associated cabling in order to implement the agreed safeguards measures. Early contacts at the design stage facilitated the inclusion of installed safeguards supplied instrumentation into the overall design and facility construction. The equipment and cabling supplied by Euratom was incorporated into the planning and construction phases. This ensured that upon plant completion the safeguards tools were commissioned and ready for the verification of the first nuclear material to be introduced into SPRS. Detailed discussions at the early stages of the design phase raised the profile of nuclear material safeguards and made certain that the necessary instrumentation infrastructure was incorporated into the plant infrastructure.

  15. BNFL Sellafield: post audit progress, December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The report of the safety audit at the Sellafield site was published in December 1986. In this, the Health and Safety Executive required British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) to make improvements to the site and safety cases have had to be produced. These have now to be assessed by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. BNFL has undertaken programmes of maintenance, refurbishment and replacement of equipment. Much of this work was done in the shut-down maintenance period in the spring and summer. However, more work is needed to bring plants up a condition suitable for operating for the next ten years. BNFL have also started to decontaminate and decommission disused, contaminated, plants. This will generate a large amount of radioactive waste. BNFL have to build plants to containerise and encapsulate the waste prior to disposal. Waste disposal sites to complete the clean-up process are needed. The improvements to the engineering plants, to written procedures and to training, are reported. Changed attitudes are also noted. (U.K.)

  16. Cases of leukaemia in the Sellafield area: the ''Sir Douglas Black'' report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, M.; Jammet, H.

    1984-01-01

    The report of this Advisory Group was published in the summer of 1984. Its conclusions can be summarised as follows: 1. Epidemiological surveys, although still incomplete, show that the incidence of cases of leukaemia and deaths caused by leukaemia in persons under 25 years of age is ''unusual'' in the village of Seascale and the Millom rural district. However, they are not unique and the same phenomenon can be found in comparable population groups located far away from any nuclear plants. 2. Taking all children born Seascale since 1950 who lived in the village up until 1980, their equivalent dose in the red marrow of the bone caused by Sellafield nuclear waste and the Windscale reactor fire of 1957 is only 13% of the equivalent dose due to background radiation. 3. The excessive leukaemia mortality rate at Seascale cannot be explained by radioactive waste. For this, a factor of 40 to 400 would be necessary. However, since doubts remain with respect to Sellafield nuclear waste, it must be temporarily concluded that the hypothesis of a connexion between the proximity of the nuclear plant and the excessive leukaemia rate cannot be fully eliminated. But neither can it be easily proven. The advisory Group recommendations are relating to: the surveys to be carried on; the inspection to be improved around the Sellafield plant; the incumbent regulations to be taken into consideration [fr

  17. Radiation and Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, David.

    1986-01-01

    Journalist's lay account of a visit to Sellafield's medical services department. Topics mentioned are personal air samplers, pre-employment scanning, preventative health assessment (smoking habits, coronary care haemoccult scanning, well woman clinics are included), whole body monitors, and cancer compensation schemes. (U.K.)

  18. Sellafield repository design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1997, UK Nirex Ltd carried out a programme of investigations to evaluate the potential of a site adjacent to the BNFL Sellafield works to host a deep repository for the United Kingdom's intermediate-level and certain low-level radioactive waste. The programme of investigations was wound down following the decision in March 1997 to uphold the rejection of the Company's planning application for the Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF), an underground laboratory which would have allowed further investigations to confirm whether or not the site would be suitable. Since that time, the Company's efforts in relation to the Sellafield site have been directed towards documenting and publishing the work carried out. The design concept for a repository at Sellafield was developed in parallel with the site investigations through an iterative process as knowledge of the site and understanding of the repository system performance increased. This report documents the Sellafield repository design concept as it had been developed, from initial design considerations in 1991 up to the point when the RCF planning application was rejected. It shows, from the context of a project at that particular site, how much information and experience has been gained that will be applicable to the development of a deep waste repository at other potential sites

  19. The discharges from Sellafield how big a risk for the Irish population?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O` Flaherty, T [Radiological Protection Inst. of Ireland (Ireland)

    1996-10-01

    The site operated by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) at Sellafield in Cumbria was established just after World War II to produce plutonium for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. Plutonium was obtained by extracting it from nuclear fuel which had been irradiated in an early type of nuclear reactor. This procedure was the forerunner of what ultimately became the main commercial activity at Sellafield, the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel to recover re-usable uranium and plutonium An unavoidable consequence of nuclear fuel reprocessing is the necessity to discharge from the site very large volumes of low-level radioactive waste in liquid form. In the case of Sellafield this waste is discharged into the Irish Sea. Due to a plant malfunction the rates of discharge greatly increased in the mid-1970s, and became a matter of serious concern to the people of Ireland and to successive Irish Governments. In more recent years the rates of discharge have fallen again to lower levels, but this has not diminished concern in Ireland to any significant degree. This paper summarises the results of Irish monitoring of radioactivity levels in the Irish Sea which has been in progress since the late 1970s. From these results it quantifies the radiation doses received by people in Ireland in consequence of the discharges from Sellafield, and estimates the degree of risk of increased cancer levels in the Irish population as a result. The RPII`s monitoring programme has been expanded since 1993 in the light of the bringing into operation of the new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp) and now includes the monitoring of gaseous discharges to the atmosphere. The paper includes some initial results of this expanded programme.

  20. Sellafield visitor centre: techniques for bringing technology to the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.

    1993-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc undertakes a full range of fuel cycle services and is committed to an open-door policy in explaining its operations of the public; for which its Visitor's Centre at Sellafield is the flagship. The existing Centre was opened in 1988 and replaced an earlier, smaller, facility. In total, more than 1 000 000 visitors have been welcomed to Sellafield and the Site is now recognized as the largest tourist attraction in the region. This creates a high level of responsibility to the local area, to which Sellafield responds through its many community and education based projects. (author)

  1. Sellafield and the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1994-01-01

    One aspect of reprocessing, deliberately incorporated into the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the right of Nuclear Weapon States (NWSs) to use civilian nuclear materials, including plutonium, in their weapons programmes. Evidence has slowly emerged over the past few years that the UK has diverted nuclear material, of UK and foreign origin, from civil to military programmes. The most immediate threat is the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP). Unless its foreign customers have made special arrangements, the UK could use their plutonium in its nuclear weapons. This link between civil and military plutonium is examined. (author)

  2. Alkaline Fe(III) reduction by a novel alkali-tolerant Serratia sp. isolated from surface sediments close to Sellafield nuclear facility, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Clare L; Morris, Katherine; Boothman, Christopher; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2012-02-01

    Extensive denitrification resulted in a dramatic increase in pH (from 6.8 to 9.5) in nitrate-impacted, acetate-amended sediment microcosms containing sediment representative of the Sellafield nuclear facility, UK. Denitrification was followed by Fe(III) reduction, indicating the presence of alkali-tolerant, metal-reducing bacteria. A close relative (99% 16S rRNA gene sequence homology) to Serratia liquefaciens dominated progressive enrichment cultures containing Fe(III)-citrate as the sole electron acceptor at pH 9 and was isolated aerobically using solid media. The optimum growth conditions for this facultatively anaerobic Serratia species were investigated, and it was capable of metabolizing a wide range of electron acceptors including oxygen, nitrate, FeGel, Fe-NTA and Fe-citrate and electron donors including acetate, lactate, formate, ethanol, glucose, glycerol and yeast extract at an optimum pH of c. 6.5 at 20 °C. The alkali tolerance of this strain extends the pH range of highly adaptable Fe(III)-reducing Serratia species from mildly acidic pH values associated with acid mine drainage conditions to alkali conditions representative of subsurface sediments stimulated for extensive denitrification and metal reduction. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Safety audit of BNFL Sellafield 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The BNFL Sellafield site involved is the complex of buildings concerned with reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from the UK Magnox reactors. It includes facilities for the receipt and storage underwater of spent fuel from the power stations, the subsequent chemical separation of re-usable elements of uranium and plutonium from the radioactive waste, storage of the more radioactive of these wastes on the site and discharge to sea or atmosphere, or disposal at the nearby Drigg site of those wastes which are of very low-radioactive content. The audit (conducted in 1986) was undertaken to establish the physical state of the plant, to investigate the management policies and priorities and the supporting advisory structure and to determine the cause and severity of incidents (eg leaks) by a comprehensive study of those occuring since 1979. Some buildings have been studied in more detail than others. Volume 1 of the audit report covers details of how the audit was planned and carried out, the engineering audit, a review of procedures, an analysis of incidents, the findings as to the actions that need to be taken by BNFL, a general summary and the conclusions. Volume 2 contains more technical and detailed papers relating to the inspection on which the judgements presented in Volume 1 are based. (U.K.)

  4. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulova, T.Ch.

    1976-01-01

    The textbook focuses on the technology and the operating characteristics of nuclear power plants equiped with pressurized water or boiling water reactors, which are in operation all over the world at present. The following topics are dealt with in relation to the complete plant and to economics: distribution and consumption of electric and thermal energy, types and equipment of nuclear power plants, chemical processes and material balance, economical characteristics concerning heat and energy, regenerative preheating of feed water, degassing and condenser systems, water supply, evaporators, district heating systems, steam generating systems and turbines, coolant loops and pipes, plant siting, ventilation and decontamination systems, reactor operation and management, heat transfer including its calculation, design of reactor buildings, and nuclear power plants with gas or sodium cooled reactors. Numerous technical data of modern Soviet nuclear power plants are included. The book is of interest to graduate and post-graduate students in the field of nuclear engineering as well as to nuclear engineers

  5. Nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described

  6. Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patodi, Anuj; Parashar, Abhishek; Samadhiya, Akshay K.; Ray, Saheli; Dey, Mitun; Singh, K.K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Recycle Board (NRB), Tarapur proposes to set up an 'Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant' at Tarapur. This will be located in the premises of BARC facilities. The project location is at coastal town of Tarapur, 130 Km north of Mumbai. Project area cover of INRP is around 80 hectares. The plant will be designed to process spent fuel received from Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). This is the first large scale integrated plant of the country. INRP will process spent fuel obtained from indigenous nuclear power plants and perform left over nuclear waste disposal

  7. BNFL's progress in addressing the findings of the ''Safety audit of BNFL Sellafield 1986''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    An audit of the British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) Sellafield site, and in particular the reprocessing plant, was carried out by the United Kingdom Nuclear Installations Inspectorate in the first half of 1986 following a series of incidents. The outcome was a set of requirements on BNFL to bring about significant improvements in many procedural and engineering aspects. Details of BNFL's response are given in this report. Areas where BNFL needs to continue to focus attention in the future are identified, but an overall satisfactory response to the audit findings is recorded. (UK)

  8. Radiological protection challenges at B.N.G. Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallard, R.; Anderson, B.; Hutton, E.

    2006-01-01

    The UK Nuclear Industry is in the midst of a period of intense change with the formation of a national body to manage the clean up of Nuclear facilities. Previous owners of nuclear sites have become contractors and the emphasis has switched from production facilities for power or reprocessing to decommissioning and clean up. Many of the older facilities were not designed for decommissioning and now require attention to reduce risks. Sellafield represents a microcosm of the industry with operating and production facilities, waste storage facilities and plants awaiting or undergoing decommissioning. The experience already gained in decommissioning of redundant facilities over the last decade is being used to develop an accelerated response to clean up of the past. The major challenge is to accommodate the changes whilst monitoring and improving Radiological standards and performance. This paper describes a number of issues to which the site must be managed to ensure that the current Radiological performance is maintained and improved. The dose control arrangements for some 6000 radiation workers on the site requires a change in approach as we move towards localised project based systems with an increasingly mobile workforce. Work is proceeding to introduce a new generation of short term dose control equipment with an emphasis on safety culture and management responsibilities for dose control. The achievement and demonstration of ALARP in these circumstances, is being reviewed in situations where timescale, overall risk to public and workforce and exposure to non radiological hazards are factors. Clean up requires more attention to clearance of materials and this aspect has an increasing profile to recognize the need to balance risk and expenditure. The paper will review the current Radiological Protection challenges to the changing Nuclear Industry using the Sellafield site as the prime example and will discuss achievements and areas where further work is necessary

  9. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  10. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

  11. The application of research and technology in the Highly Active Liquor storage and treatment facilities at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    At the Sellafield nuclear site, Highly Active Liquor (HAL) produced from Magnox and Oxide reprocessing operations is evaporated and interim stored in the Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) complex prior to vitrification in one of three Waste Vitrification Plant (WVP) processing lines. These plants are integral to the current commercial activities at Sellafield and also in safely discharging liabilities in the future. The management and operation of HALES and WVP are subject to significant regulatory and public scrutiny and there is the requirement to deliver a reduction in the HAL volumes stored in HALES in accordance with a regulator imposed HAL stock reduction specification. In delivering the required reduction BNFL has faced a number of technical and operational challenges which have resulted in the development and execution of significant programmes of research and development and technical and engineering projects. The key challenges faced are briefly presented. (author)

  12. The new duty of care for nuclear power plant operators in Sec. 9a subpara. 2a AtG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posser, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The new stipulation in Sec. 9a subpara. 2a AtG - pursuant to which operators of nuclear power plants are no longer entitled to use the interim storage facility in Gorleben for radioactive waste stemming from the reprocessing plants in Sellafield and La Hague, but have to establish further capacities in their own facilities for spent nuclear fuels at the site of the power plants - is illegal under constitutional law. It imposes an unproportional burden on the plant operators as well as on GNS, and infringes property rights without pursuing a legitimate purpose. (orig.)

  13. Irish and Scandinavian objection to Sellafield; Norden protesterer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Leif

    2001-07-01

    The article deals with the objection of Ireland and the Scandinavian countries to the radioactive emissions from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. This contamination follows the sea currents northward and radioactive material from this plant has been found in seaweed and crustaceans along the coast of Norway. The concentration in lobster from the Irish Sea is much higher than in Norwegian crustaceans and above the action limit set by the EU for the radioactive isotope Technetium 99 in the event of a new atomic accident. British authorities have refused to stop the pollution and even plan to start production of MOX fuel at Sellafield. They say new purification techniques will be developed within three or five years. For Norway, the opposition against Sellafield is a priority.

  14. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  16. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  17. Future analytical provision - Relocation of Sellafield Ltd Analytical Services Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, B.

    2015-01-01

    Sellafield Ltd Analytical Services provide an essential view on the environmental, safety, process and high hazard risk reduction performances by analysis of samples. It is the largest and most complex analytical services laboratory in Europe, with 150 laboratories (55 operational) and 350 staff (including 180 analysts). Sellafield Ltd Analytical Services Main Laboratory is in need of replacement. This is due to the age of the facility and changes to work streams. This relocation is an opportunity to -) design and commission bespoke MA (Medium-Active) cells, -) modify HA (High-Active) cell design to facilitate an in-cell laboratory, -) develop non-destructive techniques, -) open light building for better worker morale. The option chosen was to move the activities to the NNL Central laboratory (NNLCL) that is based at Sellafield and is the UK's flagship nuclear research and development facility. This poster gives a time schedule

  18. Nuclear power plants maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plants maintenance now appears as an important factor contributing to the competitivity of nuclea energy. The articles published in this issue describe the way maintenance has been organized in France and how it led to an actual industrial activity developing and providing products and services. An information note about Georges Besse uranium enrichment plant (Eurodif) recalls that maintenance has become a main data not only for power plants but for all nuclear industry installations. (The second part of this dossier will be published in the next issue: vol. 1 January-February 1989) [fr

  19. KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, F.; Hummel, R.; Oelmann, K.

    1986-01-01

    The KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is a real time engineering simulator based on the KWU computer programs used in plant transient analysis and licensing. The primary goal is to promote the understanding of the technical and physical processes of a nuclear power plant at an on-site training facility. Thus the KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is available with comparable low costs right at the time when technical questions or training needs arise. This has been achieved by (1) application of the transient code NLOOP; (2) unrestricted operator interaction including all simulator functions; (3) using the mainframe computer Control Data Cyber 176 in the KWU computing center; (4) four color graphic displays controlled by a dedicated graphic computer, no control room equipment; and (5) coupling of computers by telecommunication via telephone

  20. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  1. Nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    Action at the international level will assume greater importance as the number of nuclear power plants increases, especially in the more densely populated parts of the world. Predictions of growth made prior to October 1973 [9] indicated that, by 1980, 14% of the electricity would be supplied by nuclear plants and by the year 2000 this figure would be about 50%. This will make the topic of international co-operation and standards of even greater importance. The IAEA has long been active in providing assistance to Member States in the siting design and operation of nuclear reactors. These activities have been pursued through advisory missions, the publication of codes of practice, guide books, technical reports and in arranging meetings to promote information exchange. During the early development of nuclear power, there was no well-established body of experience which would allow formulation of internationally acceptable safety criteria, except in a few special cases. Hence, nuclear power plant safety and reliability matters often received an ad hoc approach which necessarily entailed a lack of consistency in the criteria used and in the levels of safety required. It is clear that the continuation of an ad hoc approach to safety will prove inadequate in the context of a world-wide nuclear power industry, and the international trade which this implies. As in several other fields, the establishment of internationally acceptable safety standards and appropriate guides for use by regulatory bodies, utilities, designers and constructors, is becoming a necessity. The IAEA is presently planning the development of a comprehensive set of basic requirements for nuclear power plant safety, and the associated reliability requirements, which would be internationally acceptable, and could serve as a standard frame of reference for nuclear plant safety and reliability analyses

  2. Nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear power industry's addressing of life extension is a natural trend in the maturation of this technology after 20 years of commercial operation. With increasing emphasis on how plants are operated, and less on how to build them, attention is turning on to maximizing the use of these substantial investments. The first studies of life extension were conducted in the period from 1978 and 1982. These were motivated by the initiation, by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), of studies to support decommissioning rulemaking. The basic conclusions of those early studies that life extension is feasible and worth pursuing have not been changed by the much more extensive investigations that have since been conducted. From an engineering perspective, life extension for nuclear plants is fundamentally the same as for fossil plants

  3. Benchmarking Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakic, I.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main tasks an owner have is to keep its business competitive on the market while delivering its product. Being owner of nuclear power plant bear the same (or even more complex and stern) responsibility due to safety risks and costs. In the past, nuclear power plant managements could (partly) ignore profit or it was simply expected and to some degree assured through the various regulatory processes governing electricity rate design. It is obvious now that, with the deregulation, utility privatization and competitive electricity market, key measure of success used at nuclear power plants must include traditional metrics of successful business (return on investment, earnings and revenue generation) as well as those of plant performance, safety and reliability. In order to analyze business performance of (specific) nuclear power plant, benchmarking, as one of the well-established concept and usual method was used. Domain was conservatively designed, with well-adjusted framework, but results have still limited application due to many differences, gaps and uncertainties. (author).

  4. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  5. Nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of Nuclear Power Plant Analyzers in USA is described. There are two different types of Analyzers under development in USA, the forst in Idaho and Los Alamos national Lab, the second in brookhaven National lab. That one is described in detail. The computer hardware and the mathematical models of the reactor vessel thermalhydraulics are described. (author)

  6. Nuclear plant scram reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegle, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Utility Management and Human Resources Committee (NUMARC) is a confederation of all 55 utilities with nuclear plants either in operation or under construction. NUMARC was formed in April 1984 by senior nuclear executives with hundreds of man-years of plant experience to improve (plant) performance and resolve NRC concerns. NUMARC has adopted 10 commitments in the areas of management, training, staffing and performance. One of these commitments is to strive to reduce automatic trips to 3 per year per unit for calendar year 1985 for plants in commercial operation greater than 3 years (with greater than 25% capacity factor). This goal applies to any unplanned automatic protection system trips at any time when the reactor is critical. Each utility has committed to develop methods to thoroughly evaluate all unplanned automatic trips to identify the root causes and formulate plans to correct the root causes thus reducing future unplanned scrams. As part of this program, the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) collects and evaluates information on automatic reactor trips. It publishes the results of these evaluations to aid the industry to identify root causes and corrective actions

  7. Nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, P.A.; Bhatt, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the next 10 years, nuclear plant license renewal is expected to become a significant issue. Recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies have shown license renewal to be technically and economically feasible. Filing an application for license renewal with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) entails verifying that the systems, structures, and components essential for safety will continue to perform their safety functions throughout the license renewal period. This paper discusses the current proposed requirements for this verification and the current industry knowledge regarding age-related degradation of structures. Elements of a license renewal program incorporating NRC requirements and industry knowledge including a schedule are presented. Degradation mechanisms for structural components, their significance to nuclear plant structures, and industry-suggested age-related degradation management options are also reviewed

  8. Nuclear plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The four-member New York Power Pool Panel concluded that, for a number of reasons, no nuclear power plant in New York State is prone to the type of accident that occurred at Three Mile Island (TMI). The Panel further concluded that changes in operating practices, both regulatory and voluntary, and heightened sensitivity to reactor-core-cooling requirements will substantially reduce the chances for another such accident anywhere. Panel members found that New York State utilities have taken a responsible attitude with regard to requirements set forth by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a result of the TMI accident. In a cover letter that accompanied the report to Federal and New York state officials, New York Power Pool Executive Committee Chairman Francis E. Drake, Jr. expressed hope that the report will alleviate public fears of nuclear reactors and promote wider acceptance of nuclear energy as an economic and safe means of power production. 17 references

  9. Nuclear plants - military hostages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramberg, B.

    1986-01-01

    Recent events suggest that nuclear reactors could make tempting military or terrorist targets. Despite the care with which most reactors are built, studies document their vulnerability to willful destruction through disruption of coolant mechanisms both inside and outside the containment building. In addition to reactors, such nuclear support facilities as fuel fabrication, reprocessing, and waste storage installations may be attractive military targets. A nuclear bomb which exploded in the vicinity of a reactor could increase its lethal effects by one-third. The implications of this is vulnerability for Middle East stability as well as to other volatile regions. The author suggests several avenues for controlling the dangers: international law, military and civil defense, facility siting, increasing plant safety, and the international management of nuclear energy. 21 references

  10. Pulsed nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear power plant. This power plant consists of: 1.) a cavity; 2.) a detonatable nuclear device in a central region of the cavity; 3.) a working fluid inside of the cavity; 4.) a method to denote a nuclear device inside of the cavity; 5.) a mechanical projection from an interior wall of the cavity for recoiling to absorb a shock wave produced by the detonation of the nuclear device and thereby protecting the cavity from damage. A plurality of segments defines a shell within the cavity and a plurality of shock absorbers, each connecting a corresponding segment to a corresponding location on the wall of the cavity. Each of these shock absorbers regulate the recoil action of the segments; and 6.) means for permitting controlled extraction of a quantity of hot gases from the cavity produced by the vaporization of the working fluid upon detonation of the nuclear device. A method of generating power is also described. This method consists of: 1.) introducing a quantity of water in an underground cavity; 2.) heating the water in the cavity to form saturated steam; 3.) detonating a nuclear device at a central location inside the cavity; 4.) recoiling plate-like elements inside the cavity away from the central location in a mechanically regulated and controlled manner to absorb a shock wave produced by the nuclear device detonation and thereby protect the underground cavity against damage; 5.) extracting a quantity of superheated steam produced by the detonation of the nuclear device; and 6.) Converting the energy in the extracted superheated steam into electrical power

  11. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities

  12. Nuclear Plant Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, C.P.; Turner, M.R.; Spore, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities

  13. Ardennes nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    The SENA nuclear power plant continued to operate, as before, at authorized rated power, namely 905MWth during the first half year and 950MWth during the second half year. Net energy production:2028GWh; hours phased to the line: 7534H; availability factor: 84%; utilization factor: 84%; total shutdowns:19; number of scrams:10; cost per KWh: 4,35 French centimes. Overall, the plant is performing very satisfactory. Over the last three years net production has been 5900GWh, corresponding to in average utilization factor of 83%

  14. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.; Rineisky, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The invention is aimed at designing a nuclear power plant with a heat transfer system which permits an accelerated fuel regeneration maintaining relatively high initial steam values and efficiency of the steam power circuit. In case of a plant with three circuits the secondary cooling circuit includes a steam generator with preheater, evaporator, steam superheater and intermediate steam superheater. At the heat supply side the latter is connected with its inlet to the outlet of the evaporator and with its outlet to the low-temperature side of the secondary circuit

  15. Applicability of Learning From Experience to Sellafield Post-Operation Clean Out and Decommissioning Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ytournel, Bertrand; Clement, Gilles; Macpherson, Ian; Dunlop, Alister

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear cycle facilities, such as recycling plants, over the world differ in their design and operation history. Transferability of Learning From Experience (LFE), Best Practices and Decommissioning tools and techniques may not appear as relevant as it would be for a fleet of reactors. Moreover Regulatory, Economic and Social Drivers may differ from one country to another. Technical Drivers being comparable, AREVA and Sellafield Ltd (SL) have conducted various benchmarks and technical peer reviews to consider LFE from AREVA's Post-Operation Clean Out (POCO) and Decommissioning projects (such as UP2-400 on the La Hague site) and those performed for customers (such as CEA's UP1 on the Marcoule site). The intention is that Sellafield can benefit from AREVA experience and incorporate some recommendations in their own programmes. These reviews highlighted not only that investigation tools and methods as well as Decommissioning techniques are fully transferable, but also that strategic, technical and organizational key recommendations are applicable. 1. End-state definition (for each programme step) has a strong impact on POCO and Decommissioning scenarios. 2. A waste-driven strategy is essential for the overall programme cost and schedule management, and it avoids detrimental activities and short-term decisions made under pressure that may have negative impacts on the Programme. 3. Safety issues associated with POCO and decommissioning programmes are different from the commercial operations environment. 4. An extensive characterization plan (with physical and radiological surveys and active sampling) is essential to underpin the final POCO / decommissioning scenario and build a plant configuration baseline that will be updated as the decommissioning progresses. 5. Transition from operations to decommissioning requires a major change in culture; the organization must adapt to the new decommissioning environment. 6. Securing specific competencies, resources and

  16. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisaka, Tatsuyoshi; Kamahara, Hisato; Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent corrosion stress cracks in structural materials in a BWR type nuclear power plant by decreasing the oxygen concentration in the reactor coolants. Constitution: A hydrogen injector is connected between the condensator and a condensate clean up system of a nuclear power plant. The injector is incorporated with hydrogenated compounds formed from metal hydrides, for example, of alloys such as lanthanum-nickel alloy, iron titanium alloy, vanadium, palladium, magnesium-copper alloy, magnesium-nickel alloy and the like. Even if the pressure of hydrogen obtained from a hydrogen bomb or by way of water electrolysis is changed, the hydrogen can always be injected into a reactor coolant at a pressure equal to the equilibrium dissociation pressure for metal hydride by introducing the hydrogen into the hydrogen injector. (Seki, T.)

  17. The implications of plant design on the life-time costs for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macphee, D.S.; Hexter, B.C.; Young, M.P.; Wilson, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    Utilising the experience gained during many years of design and project management of nuclear plant, BNFL is now approaching the final stages of the construction and commissioning of the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) in the UK. The paper uses the SMP project to highlight the benefits of these experiences, in particular addressing the implications of the approach to plant design on life time costs. In addition to providing BNFL with a state of the art, commercial scale MOX fuel fabrication facility, the construction of this 120 tHM/yr facility, which is currently in the advanced stages of commissioning, represents a significant demonstration of the design and project management skills of BNFL Engineering Ltd. As well as meeting the main process requirements, the plant design incorporates the highest standards of safety, together with input from the future plant operators and potential customers. As befits a commercial scale plutonium handling facility, SMP also incorporates material accountancy and security provisions that will meet all international requirements. Design, construction and commissioning of this complex and highly automated plant, has benefited from a totally integrated approach to design and documentation that considers not only project implementation but also overall lifetime costs. In addition, project management techniques, developed over many years of major project construction at Sellafield, have been utilised in order to ensure successful project implementation against a background of significant technical challenge and 'fast track' timescales. (author)

  18. Third generation nuclear plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Bertrand

    2012-05-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, a new generation of Light Water Reactors has been designed and is being built. Third generation nuclear plants are equipped with dedicated systems to insure that if the worst accident were to occur, i.e. total core meltdown, no matter how low the probability of such occurrence, radioactive releases in the environment would be minimal. This article describes the EPR, representative of this "Generation III" and a few of its competitors on the world market.

  19. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Laurer, E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a quick-acting valve on the main-steam pipe of a nuclear power plant. The engineering design of the valve is to be improved. To the main valve disc, a piston-operated auxiliary valve disc is to be assigned closing a section of the area of the main valve disc. This way it is avoided that the drive of the main valve disc has to carry out different movements. 15 sub-claims. (UWI) [de

  20. Allen diesel standby sets at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, G.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the extension and improvement plans for the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd reprocessing facilities at Sellafield, three Allen diesel engines have been installed for essential standby duty. They are 16-cylinder V-form engines with a continuous rating of 2,832 bhp and drive a 2000kW 11,000 volt 3 phase 50Hz salient pole synchronous alternator at 750r/min. They are arranged for running in parallel and with the public electricity mains supply and are also controlled to operate as standby in the event of mains failure. To prevent radioactive contamination from the atmosphere, primary and secondary air filtration has been supplied for each engine. Other operational facilities and safeguards are mentioned and the cooling system described. (U.K.)

  1. The Role of the Sellafield Ltd Centres of Expertise in Engaging with the Science, Environment and Technology Supply Chain and University Sector to Support Site Operations and Decommissioning in the UK Nuclear Industry - 13018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Ed [Uranium and Reactive Metals Centre of Expertise Lead, Technical Directorate, Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Connor, Donna [Technical Capability Manager, Technical Directorate, Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Keighley, Debbie [Head of Profession, Technical Directorate, Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The development and maintenance of the broad range of the highly technical skills required for safe and successful management of nuclear sites is of vital importance during routine operations, decommissioning and waste treatment activities.. In order to maintain a core team of technical experts, across all of the disciplines required for these tasks, the approach which has been taken by the Sellafield Ltd has been the formation of twenty five Centres of Expertise (CoE), each covering key aspects of the technical skills required for nuclear site operations. Links with the Specialist University Departments: The CoE leads are also responsible for establishing formal links with university departments with specialist skills and facilities relevant to their CoE areas. The objective of these links is to allow these very specialist capabilities within the university sector to be more effectively utilized by the nuclear industry, which benefits both sectors. In addition to the utilization of specialist skills, the university links are providing an important introduction to the nuclear industry for students and researchers. This is designed to develop the pipeline of potential staff, who will be required in the future by both the academic and industrial sectors. (authors)

  2. The Role of the Sellafield Ltd Centres of Expertise in Engaging with the Science, Environment and Technology Supply Chain and University Sector to Support Site Operations and Decommissioning in the UK Nuclear Industry - 13018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, Ed; Connor, Donna; Keighley, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    The development and maintenance of the broad range of the highly technical skills required for safe and successful management of nuclear sites is of vital importance during routine operations, decommissioning and waste treatment activities.. In order to maintain a core team of technical experts, across all of the disciplines required for these tasks, the approach which has been taken by the Sellafield Ltd has been the formation of twenty five Centres of Expertise (CoE), each covering key aspects of the technical skills required for nuclear site operations. Links with the Specialist University Departments: The CoE leads are also responsible for establishing formal links with university departments with specialist skills and facilities relevant to their CoE areas. The objective of these links is to allow these very specialist capabilities within the university sector to be more effectively utilized by the nuclear industry, which benefits both sectors. In addition to the utilization of specialist skills, the university links are providing an important introduction to the nuclear industry for students and researchers. This is designed to develop the pipeline of potential staff, who will be required in the future by both the academic and industrial sectors. (authors)

  3. On nuclear power plant uprating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S. Allen; Bailey, James V.; Maginnis, Stephen T.

    2004-01-01

    Power uprating for commercial nuclear power plants has become increasingly attractive because of pragmatic reasons. It provides quick return on investment and competitive financial benefits, while involving low risks regarding plant safety and public objection. This paper briefly discussed nuclear plant uprating guidelines, scope for design basis analysis and engineering evaluation, and presented the Salem nuclear power plant uprating study for illustration purposes. A cost and benefit evaluation of the Salem power uprating was also included. (author)

  4. Nuclear Power Plant 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Again this year, our magazine presents the details of the conference on Spanish nuclear power plant operation held in February and that was devoted to 1996 operating results. The Protocol for Establishment of a New Electrical Sector Regulation that was signed last December will undoubtedly represent a new challenge for the nuclear industry. By clearing stating that current standards of quality and safety should be maintained or even increased if possible, the Protocol will force the Sector to improve its productivity, which is already high as demonstrated by the results of the last few years described during this conference and by recent sectorial economic studies. Generation of a nuclear kWh that can compete with other types of power plants is the new challenge for the Sector's professionals, who do not fear the new liberalization policies and approaching competition. Lower inflation and the resulting lower interest rates, apart from being representative indices of our economy's marked improvement, will be very helpful in facing this challenge. (Author)

  5. Sellafield waste radionuclides in Irish sea intertidal and salt marsh sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, A B; Scott, R D

    1993-09-01

    Low level liquid radioactive waste discharges from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in north west England had generated environmental inventories of about 3 × 10(16) Bq of(137)Cs, 6.8 × 10(14) Bq of(239,240)Pu and 8.9 × 10(14) Bq of(241)Am by 1990. Most of the(239,240)Pu and(241)Am and about 10% of the(137)Cs has been retained in a deposit of fine marine sediment close to the discharge point. The quantities of radionuclides discharged annually from Sellafield decreased by two orders of magnitude from the mid-1970s to 1990 but estimated critical group internal and external exposure decreased by less than one order of magnitude over this period. This indicates that during the period of reduced discharges, radionuclides already in the environment from previous releases continued to contribute to the critical group exposure and highlights the need to understand processes controlling the environmental distribution of the radionuclides.Redistribution of the contaminated marine sediment is potentially of major significance in this context, in particular if it results in transport of radionuclides to intertidal areas, where contact with the human population is relatively likely.A review is presented of published work relating to Sellafield waste radionuclides in Irish Sea sediments. Data on temporal and spatial trends in radionuclide concentrations and activity ratios are collated from a number of sources to show that the dominant mechanism of radionuclide supply to intertidal areas is by redistribution of the contaminated marine sediment. The implications of this mechanism of supply for trends in critical group radiation exposure are considered.

  6. Siting nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellin, J.; Joskow, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The first edition of this journal is devoted to the policies and problems of siting nuclear power plants and the question of how far commercial reactors should be placed from urban areas. The article is divided into four major siting issues: policies, risk evaluation, accident consequences, and economic and physical constraints. One concern is how to treat currently operating reactors and those under construction that were established under less-stringent criteria if siting is to be used as a way to limit the consequences of accidents. Mehanical cost-benefit analyses are not as appropriate as the systematic use of empirical observations in assessing the values involved. Stricter siting rules are justified because (1) opposition because of safety is growing: (2) remote siting will make the industry more stable; (3) the conflict is eliminated between regulatory policies and the probability basis for nuclear insurance; and (4) joint ownership of utilities and power-pooling are increasing. 227 references, 7 tables

  7. Successful public relations for a better public acceptance - a case study on Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, C.; Prestwood, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Sellafield story is not unique but it can be used as one example of what can be achieved in a community close to a nuclear site. Over the past 12 years BNFL staff at Sellafield have worked diligently to win public acceptance in the local community around Sellafield. It has been an excellent example of teamwork, involving the workforce and the local community. It has taken a great deal of effort and finance and painstaking attention to even the most trivial issues to gain the publics' trust. Today, Sellafield and its activities underpin the economy of West Cumbria. The site employs just under 7000 people directly with a further 1500 in contracting roles

  8. Successful public relations for a better public acceptance - a case study on Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, C. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley (United Kingdom); Prestwood, J. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The Sellafield story is not unique but it can be used as one example of what can be achieved in a community close to a nuclear site. Over the past 12 years BNFL staff at Sellafield have worked diligently to win public acceptance in the local community around Sellafield. It has been an excellent example of teamwork, involving the workforce and the local community. It has taken a great deal of effort and finance and painstaking attention to even the most trivial issues to gain the publics` trust. Today, Sellafield and its activities underpin the economy of West Cumbria. The site employs just under 7000 people directly with a further 1500 in contracting roles.

  9. Nuclear power plant disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of a nuclear power plant disaster is small but not excluded: in its event, assistance to the affected population mainly depends on local practitioners. Already existing diseases have to be diagnosed and treated; moreover, these physicians are responsible for the early detection of those individuals exposed to radiation doses high enough to induce acute illness. Here we present the pathogenesis, clinical development and possible diagnostic and therapeutical problems related to acute radiation-induced diseases. The differentiation of persons according to therapy need and prognosis is done on the sole base of the clinical evidence and the peripheral blood count. (orig.) [de

  10. Nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Laurer, E.

    1977-01-01

    The invention is concerned with a quick-closing valve on the main-steam pipe of a nuclear reactor plant. The quick-closing valve serves as isolating valve and as safety valve permitting depressurization in case of an accident. For normal operation a tube-shaped gate valve is provided as valve disc, enclosing an auxiliary valve disc to be used in case of accidents and which is opened at increased pressure to provide a smaller flow cross-section. The design features are described in detail. (RW) [de

  11. Garigliano nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    During the period under review, the Garigliano power station produced 1,028,77 million kWh with a utilization factor of 73,41% and an availability factor of 85,64%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to a shutdown of about one and half months owing to lack of staff at the plant. The reasons for nonavailability (14.36%) break down as follows: nuclear reasons 11,49%; conventional reasons 2,81%; other reasons 0,06%. During the period under review, no fuel replacements took place. The plant functioned throughout with a single reactor reticulation pump and resulting maximum available capacity of 150 MWe gross. After the month of August, the plant was operated at levels slightly below the maximum available capacity in order to lengthen the fuel cycle. The total number of outages during the period under review was 11. Since the plant was brought into commercial operation, it has produced 9.226 million kWh

  12. Nuclear power plant emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The guide sets forth detailed requirements on how the licensee of a nuclear power plant shall plan, implement and maintain emergency response arrangements. The guide is also applied to nuclear material and nuclear waste transport in situations referred to in guide YVL 6.5. Requirements on physical protection are presented in a separate guide of Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK)

  13. Nuclear power plant operator licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The guide applies to the nuclear power plant operator licensing procedure referred to the section 128 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. The licensing procedure applies to shift supervisors and those operators of the shift teams of nuclear power plant units who manipulate the controls of nuclear power plants systems in the main control room. The qualification requirements presented in the guide also apply to nuclear safety engineers who work in the main control room and provide support to the shift supervisors, operation engineers who are the immediate superiors of shift supervisors, heads of the operational planning units and simulator instructors. The operator licensing procedure for other nuclear facilities are decided case by case. The requirements for the basic education, work experience and the initial, refresher and complementary training of nuclear power plant operating personnel are presented in the YVL guide 1.7. (2 refs.)

  14. Images of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Katsuhisa; Misumi, Jyuji; Yamada, Akira; Sakurai, Yukihiro; Seki, Fumiyasu; Shinohara, Hirofumi; Misumi, Emiko; Kinjou, Akira; Kubo, Tomonori.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to check and see, using Hayashi's quantification method III, whether or not the respondents differed in their images of a nuclear power plant, depending on their demographic variables particularly occupations. In our simple tabulation, we compared subject groups of nuclear power plant employees with general citizens, nurses and students in terms of their images of a nuclear power plant. The results were that while the nuclear power plant employees were high in their evaluations of facts about a nuclear power plant and in their positive images of a nuclear power plant, general citizens, nurses and students were overwhelmingly high in their negative images of a nuclear power plant. In our analysis on category score by means of the quantification method III, the first correlation axis was the dimension of 'safety'-'danger' and the second correlation axis was the dimension of 'subjectivity'-'objectivity', and that the first quadrant was the area of 'safety-subjectivity', the second quadrant was the area of 'danger-subjectivity', the third quadrant as the area of 'danger-objectivity', and the forth quadrant was the area of 'safety-objectivity'. In our analysis of sample score, 16 occupation groups was compared. As a result, it was found that the 16 occupation groups' images of a nuclear power plant were, in the order of favorableness, (1) section chiefs in charge, maintenance subsection chiefs, maintenance foremen, (2) field leaders from subcontractors, (3) maintenance section members, operation section members, (4) employees of those subcontractors, (5) general citizens, nurses and students. On the 'safety-danger' dimension, nuclear power plant workers on the one hand and general citizens, nurses and students on the other were clearly divided in terms of their images of a nuclear power plant. Nuclear power plant workers were concentrated in the area of 'safety' and general citizens, nurses and students in the area of 'danger'. (J.P.N.)

  15. Wuergassen nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The decision of the Federal Court of Administration concerns an application for immediate decommissioning of a nuclear power plant (Wuergassen reactor): The repeal of the permit granted. The decision dismisses the appeal for non-admission lodged by the plaintiffs against the ruling of the Higher Court of Administration (OVG) of North-Rhine Westphalia of December 19th 1988 (File no. 21 AK 8/88). As to the matter in dispute, the Federal Court of Administration confirms the opinion of the Higher Court of Administration. As to the headnotes, reference can be made to that decision. Federal Court of Administration, decision of April 5th 1989 - 7 B 47.89. Lower instance: OVG NW, Az.: 21 AK 8/88. (orig./RST) [de

  16. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruma, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    In the first embodiment of the present invention, elements less activated by neutrons are used as reactor core structural materials placed under high neutron irradiation. In the second embodiment of the present invention, materials less activated by neutrons when corrosive materials intrude to a reactor core are used as structural materials constituting portions where corrosion products are generated. In the third embodiment, chemical species comprising elements less activated by neutrons are used as chemical species to be added to reactor water with an aim of controlling water quality. A nuclear power plant causing less radioactivity can be provided by using structural materials comprising a group of specific elements hardly forming radioactivity by activation of neutrons or by controlling isotope ratios. (N.H.)

  17. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is described which includes a steam generator supplied via an input inlet with feedwater heated by reactor coolant to generate steam, the steam being conducted to a steam engine having a high pressure stage to which the steam is supplied, and which exhausts the steam through a reheater to a low pressure stage. The reheater is a heat exchanger requiring a supply of hot fluid. To avoid the extra load that would be placed on the steam generator by using a portion of its steam output as such heating fluid, a portion of the water in the steam generator is removed and passed through the reheater, this water having received at least adequate heating in the steam generator to make the reheater effective, but not at the time of its removal being in a boiling condition

  18. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyokawa, Teruyuki; Soman, Yoshindo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To constitute a heat exchanger as one unit by integrating primary and secondary coolant circuits with secondary coolant circuit and steam circuit into a single primary circuit and steam circuit. Constitution: A nuclear power plant comprises a nuclear reactor vessel, primary coolant pipeways and a leakage detection system, in which a dual-pipe type heat exchanger is connected to the primary circuit pipeway. The heat conduction tube of the heat exchanger has a dual pipe structure, in which the inside of the inner tube is connected to the primary circuit pipeway, the outside of the outer tube is connected to steam circuit pipeway and a fluid channel is disposed between the inner and outer tubes and the fluid channel is connected to the inside of an expansion tank for intermediate heat medium. The leak detection system is disposed to the intermediate heat medium expansion tank. Sodium as the intermediate heat medium is introduced from the intermediate portion (between the inner and outer tubes) by way of inermediate heat medium pipeways to the intermediate heat medium expansion tank and, further, to the intermediate portion for recycling. (Kawakami, Y.)

  19. A numerical simulation of 129I in the atmosphere emitted from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Masato; Suzuki, Takashi; Nagai, Haruyasu; Togawa, Orihiko

    2010-01-01

    A global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, is applied to investigate the behavior of 129 I emitted from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in Europe (Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France). The result of numerical simulation for more than fifty-year period from the 1950s is validated by comparison with measurements of 129 I around the world and analyzed to clarify the characteristic of the distributions of concentration and deposition of 129 I. The modeled concentrations of 129 I in precipitation in Europe and the United States and inventories in the seawater around Japan and the Gulf of Mexico are in the same order as measurements. the emitted 129 I to the atmosphere is distributed all over the Northern Hemisphere due mainly to the prevailing westerlies and can be an important source of supply of artificial 129 I for the seawater remote from the point source such as a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. (author)

  20. Perspectives of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, Gy.

    2001-01-01

    In several countries the construction of nuclear power plants has been stopped, and in some counties several plants have been decommissioned or are planned to. Therefore, the question arises: have nuclear power plants any future? According to the author, the question should be reformulated: can mankind survive without nuclear power? To examine this challenge, the global power demand and its trends are analyzed. According to the results, traditional energy sources cannot be adequate to supply power. Therefore, a reconsideration of nuclear power should be imminent. The economic, environmental attractions are discussed as opposite to the lack of social support. (R.P.)

  1. Owners of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  2. Development of a Systematic Approach to Post-Operation Clean Out at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macpherson, Ian; Dunlop, Alister

    2016-01-01

    Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) relates to the activities undertaken directly after commercial operations cease to remove residual activity and facilitate decommissioning of a nuclear facility. Historically the transition of Sellafield facilities has proved sub-optimal resulting in loss of critical plant knowledge, additional cost and protracted delivery timelines. The move from reprocessing in Magnox and Thorp to POCO is a significant transition facing the site, with a large number of diverse facilities scheduled to cease operations over the next 15 years. In order to ensure that the facilities are dealt with in a consistent manner, that supports both Site and Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) strategies, the POCO programme has been established across the Sellafield Operations Division. Primary aims of the POCO programme are: - Risk and Hazard Reduction; - Enabling redeployment of resource and capability; - Life-cycle cost reduction; - Enhanced Reputation. Transition preparations will cover process, organisation, technology and information. Knowledge is a key output of POCO: the creation of records of the plant configuration and status to enable and support the safe and effective eventual decommissioning of the plant. The consistent approach that has been developed will: - Ensure the smooth transition from operations into POCO, and then into surveillance and maintenance. - Maximise the potential of facilities to support other site activities prior to POCO. - Optimise the facility schedules within the overall POCO programme, to ensure timely decoupling. - Define and manage the resource demands and capabilities prior to and during POCO. - Provide a baseline configuration for each facility at the end of the POCO phase. - Encourage and enable knowledge management to ensure that subsequent decommissioning activities are informed and supported. - Look for opportunities to progress housekeeping and co-processing activities so as to reduce inventory and make best

  3. Ventilation design for containment and the effects on energy consumption at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doig, R.; Scattergood, B.; Standring, T.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear reprocessing plants are designed to contain some radioactive process, minimise the risk of loss of containment and to limit the discharge of material to the environment. The physical containment systems, provided by the building and process vessels, are generally insufficient measures on their own to safeguard against release of contamination. This passive' containment must be enhanced by an active' containment - the ventilation system. The ventilation system is designed to provide a depression gradient so that air flows from areas of lesser to greater contamination potential and thereby limit the possibility of migration of contamination. The ventilation design is dominated by the extract system, which is used to create the differential pressures required to obtain the desired depression gradient. The resultant, contaminated, exhaust air requires considerable clean-up equipment to treat it prior to discharge to atmosphere. Within the nuclear industry, safety has always been paramount and will continue to be so, however, in recent years additional requirements have grown in importance and one of these has been energy conservation. At the same time, pressure has increased from the industry regulators to reduce discharges to atmosphere. A case study has been carried out on an existing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria, to review energy consumption and potential savings. This review was based on operational experience and evolution in containment and ventilation design which have occurred in intervening years. Completed in 1984, at a capital cost in excess of Pound 300m, the Fuel Handling Plant (FHP) at Sellafield, has one of the largest heating and ventilation systems in Europe. Costing approximately Pound 11m, the various ventilation systems comprise some 27 individual sub-systems using 58 fans, some 1,000 dampers and approximately 10 miles of ductwork spread over three buildings (integrated to form one whole). (UK)

  4. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  5. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This small folder presents a digest of some useful information concerning the nuclear power plants worldwide and the situation of nuclear industry at the end of 1997: power production of nuclear origin, distribution of reactor types, number of installed units, evolution and prediction of reactor orders, connections to the grid and decommissioning, worldwide development of nuclear power, evolution of power production of nuclear origin, the installed power per reactor type, market shares and exports of the main nuclear engineering companies, power plants constructions and orders situation, evolution of reactors performances during the last 10 years, know-how and development of nuclear safety, the remarkable facts of 1997, the future of nuclear power and the energy policy trends. (J.S.)

  6. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1991-07-01

    This report indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies. The report includes all plants operating, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review, but does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. Part 1 of the report lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants or licensees and percentage ownership. Part 2 lists applicants or licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part 1 also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OLS)

  7. Nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Hidehiro; Oya, Takashi

    1996-11-05

    The present invention provides a highly safe light water-cooled type nuclear power plant capable of reducing radiation dose by suppressing deposition of activated corrosion products by a simple constitution. Namely, equipments and pipelines for fluid such as pumps at least in one of fluid systems such as a condensate cleanup system are constituted by a material containing metal species such as Zn having an effect of suppressing deposition of radioactivity. Alternatively, the surface of these equipments and pipelines for fluids on which water passes is formed by a coating layer comprising a material containing a metal having a radiation deposition suppressing effect. As a result, radioactivity deposited on the equipments and pipelines for fluids is reduced. In addition, since the method described above may be applied only at least to a portion of the members constituting at least one of the systems for fluids, it is economical. Accordingly, radiation dose upon inspection of equipments and pipelines for fluids can be reduced simply and reliably. (I.S.)

  8. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Hidehiro; Oya, Takashi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly safe light water-cooled type nuclear power plant capable of reducing radiation dose by suppressing deposition of activated corrosion products by a simple constitution. Namely, equipments and pipelines for fluid such as pumps at least in one of fluid systems such as a condensate cleanup system are constituted by a material containing metal species such as Zn having an effect of suppressing deposition of radioactivity. Alternatively, the surface of these equipments and pipelines for fluids on which water passes is formed by a coating layer comprising a material containing a metal having a radiation deposition suppressing effect. As a result, radioactivity deposited on the equipments and pipelines for fluids is reduced. In addition, since the method described above may be applied only at least to a portion of the members constituting at least one of the systems for fluids, it is economical. Accordingly, radiation dose upon inspection of equipments and pipelines for fluids can be reduced simply and reliably. (I.S.)

  9. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Susumu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to prevent the degradation in the quality of condensated water in a case where sea water leakage should occur in a steam condenser of a BWR type nuclear power plant. Constitution: Increase in the ion concentration in condensated water is detected by an ion concentration detector and the leaking factor of sea water is calculated in a leaking factor calculator. If the sea water leaking factor exceeds a predetermined value, a leak generation signal is sent from a judging device to a reactor power control device to reduce the reactor power. At ehe same tiem, the leak generation signal is also sent to a steam condenser selection and isolation device to interrupt the sea water pump of a specified steam condenser based on the signal from the ion concentration detector, as well as close the inlet and outlet valves while open vent and drain valves to thereby forcively discharge the sea water in the cooling water pipes. This can keep the condensate desalting device from ion breaking and prevent the degradation in the quality of the reactor water. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideo.

    1997-01-01

    In an underground-type nuclear power plant, groups of containing cavities comprising a plurality of containing cavities connected in series laterally by way of partition walls are disposed in parallel underground. Controlled communication tunnels for communicating the containing cavities belonging to a control region to each other, and non-controlled communication tunnels for communicating containing cavities belonging to a non-controlled area to each other are disposed underground. A controlled corridor tunnel and a non-controlled corridor tunnel extended so as to surround the containing cavity groups are disposed underground, and the containing cavities belonging to the controlled area are connected to the controlled corridor tunnel respectively, and the containing cavities belonging to the non-controlled area are connected to the non-controlled corridor tunnel respectively. The excavating amount of earth and sand upon construction can be reduced by disposing the containing cavity groups comprising a plurality of containing cavities connected in series laterally. The time and the cost for the construction can be reduced, and various excellent effects can be provided. (N.H.)

  11. Public regulation of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtheret, M.; Cormis, de

    1980-01-01

    The construction and operation of nuclear plants are subject to a complex system of governmental administration. The authors list the various governmental authorisations and rules applicable to these plants. In the first part, they describe the national regulations which relate specifically to nuclear plants, and emphasize the provisions which are intended to ensure the safety of the installations and the protection of the public against ionizing radiation. However, while the safety of nuclear plants is a major concern of the authorities, other interests are also protected. This is accomplished by various laws or regulations which apply to nuclear plants as well as other industrial installations. The duties which these texts, and the administrative practice based thereon, impose on Electricite de France are covered in the second part [fr

  12. Nuclear power plant diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, K.; Volavy, J.

    1982-01-01

    Basic information is presented on diagnostic systems used at nuclear power plants with PWR reactors. They include systems used at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in the USSR, at the Nord power plant in the GDR, the system developed at the Hungarian VEIKI institute, the system used at the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice in Czechoslovakia and systems of the Rockwell International company used in US nuclear power plants. These diagnostic systems are basically founded on monitoring vibrations and noise, loose parts, pressure pulsations, neutron noise, coolant leaks and acoustic emissions. The Rockwell International system represents a complex unit whose advantage is the on-line evaluation of signals which gives certain instructions for the given situation directly to the operator. The other described systems process signals using similar methods. Digitized signals only serve off-line computer analyses. (Z.M.)

  13. Nuclear power plant V-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear power plant Bohunice V -1 is briefly described. This NPP consists from two reactor units. Their main time characteristics are (Reactor Unit 1, Reactor Unit 2): beginning of construction - 24 April 1972; first controlled reactor power - 27 November 1978, 15 March 1980; connection to the grid - 17 December 1978, 26 March 1980; commercial operation - 1 April 1980, 7 January 1981. This leaflet contains: NPP V-1 construction; Major technological equipment (Primary circuit: Nuclear reactor [WWER 440 V230 type reactor];Steam generator; Reactor Coolant Pumps; Primary Circuit Auxiliary Systems. Secondary circuit: Turbine generators, Nuclear power plant electrical equipment; power plant control) and technical data

  14. The new duty of care for nuclear power plant operators in Sec. 9a subpara. 2a AtG; Zur neuen Sorgepflicht der Kraftwerksbetreiber gem. paragraph 9a Abs. 2a AtG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posser, Herbert [Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    The new stipulation in Sec. 9a subpara. 2a AtG - pursuant to which operators of nuclear power plants are no longer entitled to use the interim storage facility in Gorleben for radioactive waste stemming from the reprocessing plants in Sellafield and La Hague, but have to establish further capacities in their own facilities for spent nuclear fuels at the site of the power plants - is illegal under constitutional law. It imposes an unproportional burden on the plant operators as well as on GNS, and infringes property rights without pursuing a legitimate purpose. (orig.)

  15. Man and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    According to the Inst. fuer Unfallforschung/TUeV Rheinland, Koeln, the interpretation of empirical data gained from the operation of nuclear power plants at home and abroad during the period 1967-1975 has shown that about 38% of all reactor accidents were caused by human failures. These occured either during the design and construction, the commissioning, the reconditioning or the operation of the plants. This very fact stresses human responsibility for the safety of nuclear power plants, in spite of those plants being automated to a high degree and devices. (orig.) [de

  16. Radiochemistry in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Radiochemistry is employed in nuclear power plants not as an end in itself but, among other things, as a main prerequisite of optimum radiation protection. Radiochemical monitoring of various loops provides important information about sources of radioactivity, activity distribution in the plant and its changes. In the light of these analytical findings, plant crews are able to take measures having a positive effect on radiation levels in the plant. The example of a BWR plant is used to show, among other things, how radiochemical analyses helped to reduce radiation levels in a plant and, as a consequence, to decrease clearly radiation exposure of the personnel despite higher workloads. (orig.)

  17. Incineration of contaminated oil from Sellafield - 16246

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, Craig; Cassidy, Helen; Stenmark, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Studsvik have been incinerating Low Level Waste (LLW) at its licensed facility in Sweden since the mid-1970's. This process not only enables the volume of waste to be significantly reduced but also produces an inert residue suitable for final disposal. The facility has historically incinerated only solid dry LLW, however in 2008 an authorisation was obtained to permit the routine incineration of LLW contaminated oil at the facility. Prior to obtaining the authorisation to incinerate oils and other organic liquids - both from clean-up activities on the Studsvik site and on a commercial basis - a development program was established. The primary aims of this were to identify the optimum process set-up for the incinerator and also to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the appropriate environmental and radiological parameters would be maintained throughout the new process. The final phase of the development program was to incinerate a larger campaign of contaminated oil from the nuclear industry. A suitable accumulation of oil was identified on the Sellafield site in Cumbria and a commercial contract was established to incinerate approximately 40 tonnes of oil from the site. The inventory of oil chosen for the trial incineration represented a significant challenge to the incineration facility as it had been generated from various facilities on-site and had degraded significantly following years of storage. In order to transport the contaminated oil from the Sellafield site in the UK to the Studsvik facility in Sweden several challenges had to be overcome. These included characterisation, packaging and international transportation (under a Transfrontier Shipment (TFS) authorisation) for one of the first transports of liquid radioactive wastes outside the UK. The incineration commenced in late 2007 and was successfully completed in early 2008. The total volume reduction achieved was greater than 97%, with the resultant ash packaged and returned to the UK (for

  18. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  19. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraiwa, Takanori; Watanabe, Atsuo; Miyasawa, Tatsuo

    1984-01-01

    Demand for robots in nuclear power plants is increasing of late in order to reduce workers' exposure to radiations. Especially, owing to the progress of microelectronics and robotics, earnest desire is growing for the advent of intellecturized robots that perform indeterminate and complicated security work. Herein represented are the robots recently developed for nuclear power plants and the review of the present status of robotics. (author)

  20. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraiwa, Takanori; Watanabe, Atsuo; Miyasawa, Tatsuo

    1984-10-01

    Demand for robots in nuclear power plants is increasing of late in order to reduce workers' exposure to radiations. Especially, owing to the progress of microelectronics and robotics, earnest desire is growing for the advent of intellecturized robots that perform indeterminate and complicated security work. Herein represented are the robots recently developed for nuclear power plants and the review of the present status of robotics.

  1. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollradt, J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the main questions of decommissioning of nuclear power plants will be given in the sight of German utilities (VDEW-Working group 'Stillegung'). The main topics are: 1) Definitions of decommissioning, entombment, removal and combinations of such alternatives; 2) Radioactive inventory (build up and decay); 3) Experience up to now; 4) Possibilities to dismantle are given by possibility to repair nuclear power plants; 5) Estimated costs, waste, occupational radiation dose; 6) German concept of decommissioning. (orig./HK) [de

  2. Organizing nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, H.W.; Rekittke, K.

    1987-01-01

    With the preliminary culmination in the convoy plants of the high standard of engineered safeguards in German nuclear power plants developed over the past twenty years, the interest of operators has now increasingly turned to problems which had not been in the focus of attention before. One of these problems is the organization of nuclear power plant operation. In order to enlarge the basis of knowledge, which is documented also in the rules published by the Kerntechnischer Ausschuss (Nuclear Technology Committee), the German Federal Minister of the Interior has commissioned a study of the organizational structures of nuclear power plants. The findings of that study are covered in the article. Two representative nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany were selected for the study, one of them a single-unit plant run by an independent operating company in the form of a private company under German law (GmbH), the other a dual-unit plant operated as a dependent unit of a utility. The two enterprises have different structures of organization. (orig.) [de

  3. Partner of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribi, M.; Lauer, F.; Pauli, W.; Ruzek, W.

    1992-01-01

    Sulzer, the Swiss technology group, is a supplier of components and systems for nuclear power plants. Important parts of Swiss nuclear power stations, such as containments, reactor pressure vessels, primary pipings, are made in Winterthur. Sulzer Thermtec AG and some divisions of Sulzer Innotec focus their activities on servicing and backfitting nuclear power plants. The European market enjoys priority. New types of valves or systems are developed as economic solutions meeting more stringent criteria imposed by public authorities or arising from operating conditions. (orig.) [de

  4. Operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, G.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook gives a systematic introduction into the operational and maintenance activities in nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. Subjects: (1) Setup and operational behaviour of power reactors, (2) setup of nuclear power plants, (3) radiation protection and nuclear safety, (4) nuclear fuel, (5) constructional layout of nuclear power plants, (6) management, and (7) maintenance. 158 figs., 56 tabs

  5. Scoping assessment of groundwater doses to biota at the Sellafield site, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.; Gleizon, P.; Coleman, I.A.; Watts, S.J.; Batlle, L.V.; Smith, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    In the current climate of investigating the impact of discharges from the nuclear industry on non-human biota, much attention has been given to biota in marine and terrestrial environments in receipt of authorised discharges of liquid and gaseous effluent. Relatively little attention to date has been given to the exposure of biota to groundwater containing man-made radio-nuclides. This area of interest is growing especially in the field of nuclear waste repositories. A scoping assessment has been performed here to determine the impacts due to radiological contamination on organisms living within or coming into contact with groundwater at the Sellafield site, UK. The following potential exposure routes to biota were identified: 1) Organisms living within groundwater; 2) Groundwater discharges to the surface at beach springs (i.e. emerging above the low water line; 3) Groundwater discharges to nearby surface water bodies (e.g. rivers); 4) Groundwater discharges directly to the Irish Sea.. In order to evaluate impacts on organisms living within, contacting or ingesting groundwater, it was necessary to determine the activity concentration of radio-nuclides in the groundwater. For time periods up to 2120, modeling of contaminant release from in-ground inventories and transport in groundwater was carried out for this scoping study using a relatively simple assessment methodology with the MONDRIAN modeling suite. Screening assessments of radiological impacts upon wildlife have been performed for liquid discharges to groundwater from the Sellafield Ltd reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria. Impacts have been considered for biota at sites within reach of the groundwater flow network. Most calculated total weighted absorbed doses appear to be of no radiological significance whatsoever in relation to the new Environment Agency freshwater ecosystem trigger level (40 microGy h -1 ), thereby obviating the need to conduct further investigations. The one exception to this is

  6. Loviisa nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkholm, K.; Nurmilaukas, P.; Tiihonen, O.; Haenninen, M.; Puska, E.

    1992-12-01

    The APROS Simulation Environment has been developed since 1986 by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). It provides tools, solution algorithms and process components for use in different simulation systems for design, analysis and training purposes. One of its main nuclear applications is the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant Analyzer (LPA). The Loviisa Plant Analyzer includes all the important plant components both in the primary and in the secondary circuits. In addition, all the main control systems, the protection system and the high voltage electrical systems are included. (orig.)

  7. Building of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takashi.

    1997-01-01

    A first nuclear plant and a second nuclear power plant are disposed in adjacent with each other in a building for a nuclear reactor. A reactor container is disposed in each of the plants, and each reactor container is surrounded by a second containing facility. A repairing chamber capable of communicating with the secondary containing facilities for both of the secondary containing facilities is disposed being in contact with the second containing facility of each plant for repairing control rod driving mechanisms or reactor incorporated-type recycling pumps. Namely, the repairing chamber is in adjacent with the reactor containers of both plants, and situated between both of the plants as a repairing chamber to be used in common for both plants. Air tight inlet/exit doors are formed to the inlets/exits of both plants of the repairing chamber. Space for the repairing chamber can be reduced to about one half compared with a case where the repairing chamber is formed independently on each plant. (I.N.)

  8. TVA's nuclear power plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews TVA's nuclear power plant design and construction experience in terms of schedule and capital costs. The completed plant in commercial operation at Browns Ferry and six additional plants currently under construction represent the nation's largest single commitment to nuclear power and an ultimate investment of $12 billion by 1986. The presentation is made in three separate phases. Phase one will recapitulate the status of the nuclear power industry in 1966 and set forth the assumptions used for estimating capital costs and projecting project schedules for the first TVA units. Phase two describes what happened to the program in the hectic early 1979's in terms of expansion of scope (particularly for safety features), the dramatic increase in regulatory requirements, vendor problems, stretchout of project schedules, and unprecedented inflation. Phase three addresses the assumptions used today in estimating schedules and plant costs for the next ten-year period

  9. Nuclear plant simulation using the Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.; Laats, E.T.; Wagner, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA), a state-of-the-art computerized safety analysis and engineering tool, was employed to simulate nuclear plant response to an abnormal transient during a training exercise at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in Washington, DC. Information relative to plant status was taken from a computer animated color graphics display depicting the course of the transient and was transmitted to the NRC Operations Center in a manner identical to that employed during an actual event. Recommendations from the Operations Center were implemented during on-line, interactive execution of the RELAP5 reactor systems code through the NPA allowing a degree of flexibility in training exercises not realized previously. When the debriefing was conducted, the RELAP5 calculations were replayed by way of the color graphics display, adding a new dimension to the debriefing and greatly enhancing the critique of the exercise

  10. Statement of nuclear incidents at nuclear installations: first quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    As a requirement of the 1974 Health and Safety at Work Act, the United Kingdom Health and Safety Inspectorate is required to publish reports of nuclear incidents at nuclear installations. This report covers the period 1st January to 31st March 1994. Two incidents are reported for Dungeness A Power Station, one at the Amersham International building on site at Harwell Laboratory, one at AEA Technology's Windscale Plant and one at British Nuclear Fuels Limited's Sellafield site. (UK)

  11. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of the ALARA principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed through a variety of dose reduction techniques. Initiatives by the ICRP, NCRP, NRC, INPO, EPRI, and BNL ALARA Center have all contributed to a heightened interest and emphasis on dose reduction. The NCRP has formed Scientific Committee 46-9 which is developing a report on ALARA at Nuclear Power Plants. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction ($/person-Sv), quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report

  12. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the background information for statistics and analysis developed by NUKEM in its monthly Market Report on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The assessments in this Special Report are based on the continuous review of individual nuclear power plant projects. This Special Report begins with tables summarizing a variety of nuclear power generating capacity statistics for 1990. It continues with a brief review of the year's major events regarding each country's nuclear power program. The standard NUKEM Market Report tables on nuclear plant capacity are given on pages 24 and 25. Owing to space limitations, the first year shown is 1988. Please refer to previous Special Reports for data covering earlier years. Detailed tables for each country list all existing plants as well as those expected by NUKEM to be in commercial operation by the end of 2005. An Appendix containing a list of abbreviations can be found starting on page 56. Only nuclear power plants intended for civilian use are included in this Special Report. Reactor lifetimes are assumed to be 35 years for all light water reactors and 30 years for all other reactor types, unless other data or definite decommissioning dates have been published by the operators. (orig./UA) [de

  13. Medium-size nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelweith, L.; Lavergne, J.C.; Martinot, G.; Weiss, A.

    1977-01-01

    CEA (TECHNICATOME) has developed a range of pressurized water reactors of the type ''CAS compact'' which are adapted to civil ship propulsion, or to electric power production, combined possibly with heat production, up to outputs equivalent to 125 MWe. Nuclear plants equipped with these reactors are suitable to medium-size electric networks. Among the possible realizations, two types of plants are mentioned as examples: 1) Floating electron-nuclear plants; and 2) Combined electric power and desalting plants. The report describes the design characteristics of the different parts of a 125 MWe unit floating electro-nuclear plant: nuclear steam system CAS 3 G, power generating plant, floating platform for the whole plant. The report gives attention to the different possibilities according to site conditions (the plant can be kept floating, in a natural or artificial basin, it can be put aground, ...) and to safety and environment factors. Such unit can be used in places where there is a growing demand in electric power and fresh water. The report describes how the reactor, the power generating plant and multiflash distillation units of an electric power-desalting plant can be combined: choice of the ratio water output/electric power output, thermal cycle combination, choice of the gain ratio, according to economic considerations, and to desired goal of water output. The report analyses also some technical options, such as: choice of the extraction point of steam used as heat supply of the desalting station (bleeding a condensation turbine, or recovering steam at the exhaust of a backpressure turbine), design making the system safe. Lastly, economic considerations are dealt with: combining the production of fresh water and electric power provides usually a much better energy balance and a lower cost for both products. Examples are given of some types of installations which combine medium-size reactors with fresh water stations yielding from 10000 to 120000 m 3 per day

  14. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1979-12-01

    The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of December 1, 1979. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and envionmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of antitrust license conditions and hearings, altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified

  15. Nuclear waste: facts, fears, and attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Eiser, J.R.; Spears, R.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the effects of a TV documentary about the safety of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant in the Northwest of England on public attitudes. In a study of 805 respondents (average age 47.8 yrs) to questionnaires from 4 districts in the Southwest of England, the attitudes and beliefs of

  16. British Nuclear Fuels - a dirty business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyard, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactive discharges from British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield, Cumbria, reprocessing plant to the sea are discussed. Statements that have been made by various individuals and groups about the contamination of the sea, the coast and places inland, and the biological effects of plutonium and americium, are discussed in detail. Particular stress is placed on statements about increased incidence of cancers. (U.K.)

  17. Management of overexposed individuals at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, A.W.; Tagg, B.; Binks, K.; Goodwin, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews of the health of Sellafield employees, including the mortality experience of 10,157 occupationally exposed workers and a cohort of 542 who have received cumulative whole body external doses greater than 500 mSv to the end of 1983 show that, to date, mortality due to cancer is generally lower than the average for England and Wale s. This shows that even at Sellafield, where the highest individual and total routine whole body external radiation exposures in the UK have occurred, there is unlikely to be enough data to ever define precisely the radiation risks associated with occupational whole body radiation exposure and implies that the radiological protection procedures and managerial practices employed at Sellafield may have been successful overall. The impact of a recent report on the effects of preconceptual parental occupational whole body radiation exposure on the health of their children is also discussed. (Author)

  18. Latina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    In the period under review, the Latina power plant produced 1009,07 million kWh with a utilization factor of 72% and an availability factor of 80,51%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to the shutdown of the plant owing to trade union strife. The reasons for non-availability (19,49%) were almost all related to the functioning of the conventional part and the general servicing of the plant (18 September-28 October). During the shutdown for maintenance, an inspection of the steel members and parts of the core stabilizing structure was made in order to check for the familiar oxidation phenomena caused by CO 2 ; the results of the inspection were all satisfactory. Operation of the plant during 1974 was marked by numerous power cutbacks as a result of outages of the steam-raising units (leaks from the manifolds) and main turbines (inspection and repairs to the LP rotors). Since it was first brought into commercial operation, the plant has produced 13,4 thousand million kWh

  19. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashgari, Farbod.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is about maintenance of nuclear power plants. In part one, the outage management of nuclear power plants has described. Meaning of the outage and objectives of outage management is given in introduction. The necessity of a long-term outage strategy is shown in chapter one. The main parts of an outage are as follows: Planning; Preparation; Execution, Each of them and also post-outage review have been explained in the followed chapters. Part two deals with technical details of main primary components of nuclear power plant type WWER. After an introduction about WWER reactors, in each chapter first the general and detailed description of main primary components has given and then their maintenance schedules and procedures. Chapter about reactor and steam generator is related to both types of WWER-440 and WWER-1000, but chapter about reactor coolant pump has specified to WWER-1000 to be more in details.(author)

  20. HSE investigation of leukaemia and other cancers in the children of male workers at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents two findings of the U.K. Health and Safety Executive study group responsible for examining the conclusions of the Gardner Report that ''the raised incidence of leukaemia particularly, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, among children near Sellafield was associated with paternal employment and recorded external dose of whole body penetrating radiation during work at the plant before conception''. The HSE report is divided into three:- the Case-only study and the Radiation Dose study, concerned with the 11 case fathers who had worked at Sellafield. The third part, the Case-control study, is an epidemiological study which seeks to identify all cancer cases diagnosed before the age of 25, where the children concerned had been born in West Cumbria to fathers who were Sellafield employees. The search included the whole country from January 1980 to September 1989. (UK)

  1. The regulation of technetium-99 discharges at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayall, A.

    2002-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent Magnox fuel at BNFL Sellafield produces a liquid waste concentrate containing technetium-99 and other, more radiotoxic, radionuclides such as plutonium and americium. The concentrate is known as medium active concentrate (MAC). Prior to 1981, MAC was discharged to sea untreated after several years' storage, during which short-lived radionuclides underwent radioactive decay. In the early 1980s, discharges of MAC were suspended and it was retained in storage tanks, pending the construction of a plant to remove the radionuclides of greatest radiological concern (these did not include technetium- 99). The Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant started operation in 1994 and began to clear the backlog of stored waste MAC, as well as current arisings from Magnox reprocessing. As a consequence technetium-99 was once more discharged to sea. Subsequently, concentrations of this radionuclide in the marine environment increased. In particular, there was a significant increase in the concentration of technetium-99 in lobster in the Irish Sea. An increase in technetium-99 has also been detected at locations far distant from Sellafield, e.g. in Scandinavian coastal waters, albeit at very low concentrations. This dispersal of technetium- 99 throughout the Irish Sea and further afield has therefore caused concern, although the radiological impact is low. This paper examines the nature and source of the technetium-99 in sea discharges at Sellafield and the levels of past and current discharges as well as their impact. It goes on to describe the Environment Agency's recent proposals on the future regulation of technetium-99 discharges and how these should lead to substantial reductions in not only technetium-99 discharges, but also of other radionuclides such as caesium-137 and strontium-90. (author)

  2. Space nuclear reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Ranken, W.A.; Koenig, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for electrical and propulsion power for space are expected to increase dramatically in the 1980s. Nuclear power is probably the only source for some deep space missions and a major competitor for many orbital missions, especially those at geosynchronous orbit. Because of the potential requirements, a technology program on space nuclear power plant components has been initiated by the Department of Energy. The missions that are foreseen, the current power plant concept, the technology program plan, and early key results are described

  3. Pumps in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that pumps play an important role in nuclear plant operation. For instance, reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) should provide adequate cooling for reactor core in both normal operation and transient or accident conditions. Pumps such as Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) pump in the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) play a crucial role during an accident, and their reliability is of paramount importance. Some key issues involved with pumps in nuclear plant system include the performance of RCP under two-phase flow conditions, piping vibration due to pump operating in two-phase flows, and reliability of LPSI pumps

  4. Nuclear power plant V-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear power plant Bohunice V -2 is briefly described. This NPP consists from two reactor units. Their main time characteristics are (Reactor Unit 1, Reactor Unit 2): beginning of construction - December 1976; first controlled reactor power - 7 August 1984, 2 August 1985; connection to the grid - 20 August 1984, 9 August 1985; commercial operation - 14 February 1985, 18 December 1985. This leaflet contains: NPP V-2 construction; Major technological equipment [WWER 440 V230 type reactor; Nuclear Power plant operation safety (Safety barriers; Safety systems [Active safety systems, Passive safety systems]); Centralized heat supply system; Scheme of Bohunice V-2 NPP and technical data

  5. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1979-01-01

    The reactor pressure vessel consists of two parts. A cylindrical lower part with a hemispherical steel roof is placed at some distance within an equally shaped pressure vessel of concrete. Both vessels are standing on a common bottom plate. The interspace is kept at subpressure. It serves to contain ring galleries, elevator shafts, and power plant components. (GL) [de

  6. Nuclear plant undergrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Bastidas, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Under Section 25524.3 of the Public Resources Code, the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC) was directed to study ''the necessity for '' and the effectiveness and economic feasibility of undergrounding and berm containment of nuclear reactors. The author discusses the basis for the study, the Sargent and Lundy (S and L) involvement in the study, and the final conclusions reached by S and L

  7. Challenges for new nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    In the past 20 years, numerous new nuclear plant designs have been introduced in the hope of generating a mixture of features and benefits that generated enough enthusiasm amongst the utility industry decision makers to move forward with a new nuclear generation. Not only has there not been enough enthusiasm, there has been little interest in building new plants with advanced features, especially in the U.S. Compounding this predicament are the changing paradigms to which a new plant would be measured. The near hiatus on new plant orders is the clear cause of the significant consolidation in the nuclear industry. Regardless whether the disappearance of old-line nuclear companies is over or not, some paradigms for new generation designs are unmovable, while others are still under discussion as to their role in future plant designs. This paper will address those design goals that Westinghouse deems already having earned the rank of exemplar, and those still open to debate. Because it is my hope that this paper will lead to a fruitful discussion period, I will provide a list of what I feel are the champion design requirements, and those I consider the contenders. (author)

  8. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Ryoichi; Kimura, Motohiko; Abe, Akira

    1993-01-01

    A continuing need exists for automatic or remote-controlled machines or robots which can perform inspection and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants. Toshiba has developed several types of monofunctional and multi- functional robots for such purposes over the past 20 years, some of which have already been used in actual plants. This paper describes new multifunctional robots for inspection and maintenance. An inspection robot has been applied in an actual plant for two years for performance testing. Maintenance robots for grinding tasks have also been developed, which can be easily teleoperated by the operator using automatic control. These new robots are expected to be applied to actual inspection and maintenance work in nuclear power plants. (author)

  9. Submarine nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enohara, Masami; Araragi, Fujio.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a ballast tank, and nuclear power facilities within the containment shell of a pressure resistance structure and a maintenance operator's entrance and a transmission cable cut-off device at the outer part of the containment shell, whereby after the construction, the shell is towed, and installed by self-submerging, and it can be refloated for repairs by its own strength. Constitution: Within a containment shell having a ballast tank and a pressure resisting structure, there are provided nuclear power facilities including a nuclear power generating chamber, a maintenance operator's living room and the like. Furthermore, a maintenance operator's entrance and exit device and a transmission cable cut-off device are provided within the shell, whereby when it is towed to a predetermined a area after the construction, it submerges by its own strength and when any repair inspection is necessary, it can float up by its own strength, and can be towed to a repair dock or the like. (Yoshihara, H.)

  10. Worldwide nuclear-plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrey, J.; Thomas, S.

    1980-01-01

    The authors compare the performance of different reactor systems to identify the determinants of plant performance, to examine the evidence of technological maturation, and to discover the principal causes of outage or unavailability. In the light of the findings, they discuss the implications for the UK regarding reactor choice and technology development. They make no judgements about the relative merits of nuclear and fossil-fuel plants, or about safety. (author)

  11. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friske, A.; Thiele, D.

    1988-01-01

    The IAEA classification of decommissioning stages is outlined. The international development hitherto observed in decommissioning of nuclear reactors and nuclear power stations is presented. The dismantling, cutting and decontamination methods used in the decommissioning process are mentioned. The radioactive wastes from decommissioning are characterized, the state of the art of their treatment and disposal is given. The radiation burdens and the decommissioning cost in a decommissioning process are estimated. Finally, some evaluation of the trends in the decommissioning process of nuclear power plants is given. 54 refs. (author)

  12. Nuclear power plant diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollo, E.; Siklossy, P.

    1982-01-01

    The cooling circuit vibration diagnostic system of the Block 1 of the Paks nuclear power station is described. The automatic online vibration monitoring system consisting presently of 42 acceleration sensors and 9 pressure fluctuation sensors, which could be extended, performs both global and local inspection of the primary cooling circuit and its components. The offline data processing system evaluates the data for failure mode analysis. The software under development will be appropriate for partial preliminary identification of failure reasons during their initial phases. The installation experiences and the preliminary results during the hot operational testing of Block 1 are presented. (Sz.J.)

  13. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This 2003 version of Elecnuc contents information, data and charts on the nuclear power plants in the world and general information on the national perspectives concerning the electric power industry. The following topics are presented: 2002 highlights; characteristics of main reactor types and on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; the worldwide status of nuclear power plants on 2002/12/3; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the Grid by reactor type groups; nuclear power plants under construction; capacity of the nuclear power plants on the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear plants by country at the end 2002; performance indicator of french PWR units; trends of the generation indicator worldwide from 1960 to 2002; 2002 cumulative Load Factor by owners; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by countries; status of license renewal applications in Usa; nuclear power plants under construction; Shutdown nuclear power plants; exported nuclear power plants by type; exported nuclear power plants by countries; nuclear power plants under construction or order; steam generator replacements; recycling of Plutonium in LWR; projects of MOX fuel use in reactors; electricity needs of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, United Kingdom; electricity indicators of the five countries. (A.L.B.)

  14. Nuclear plant aging research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, has established the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program in its Division of Engineering Technology. Principal contractors for this program include Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The program goals are: to identify and characterize time-dependent degradation (aging) of nuclear plant safety-related electrical and mechanical components which could lead to loss of safety function; to identify and recommend methods for detecting and trending aging effects prior to loss of safety function so that timely maintenance can be implemented; and to recommend maintenance practices for mitigating the effects of aging. Research activities include prioritization of system and component aging in nuclear plants, characterization of aging degradation of specific components including identification of functional indicators useful for trending degradation, and testing of practical methods and devices for measuring the functional indicators. Aging assessments have been completed on electric motors, snubbers, motor-operated valves, and check valves. Testing of trending methods and devices for motor-operated valves and check valves is in progress

  15. Underwater nuclear power plant structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, S.; Toll, H.V.

    1982-01-01

    A structure for an underwater nuclear power generating plant comprising a triangular platform formed of tubular leg and truss members upon which are attached one or more large spherical pressure vessels and one or more small cylindrical auxiliary pressure vessels. (author)

  16. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yoko; Kato, Naoyoshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the reducing speed of nuclear reactor water level after the water level has reached a turbine trip level to trip the turbine thereby preventing cooling systems or the likes from undesired operation upon separation caused by the reduction of the reactor water level to a low water level before the water level control is switched to the manual control. Constitution: Two feedwater pumps arranged in parallel are operated in usual operation to feedwater to a BWR type reactor. If a trouble should occur in a feedwater controller to increase the feedwater rate and the reactor water level, one of the feedwater pumps is tripped by a signal from a feedwater pump trip device. Then, when the trip level is reached again the remaining pump is tripped. In this way, the sudden decrease in the feedwater rate and the reactor water level can be prevented. (Yoshino, Y.)

  17. Seismic technology of nuclear fuel cycle facilities: A view of BNFL's approach and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, I.R.

    2001-01-01

    The approach BNFL employs in the seismic qualification of its nuclear fuel cycle facilities is described in this paper. The overall seismic qualification process from design to installation and commissioning is considered. The approach for new facilities, such as the Sellafield Mixed Oxide Fuel Plant and Windscale Vitrification Plant Line 3 currently under construction, is examined. (author)

  18. The Sellafield repository project information programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curd, P J [United Kingdom Nirex Limited (United Kingdom)

    1993-07-01

    The Sellafield Repository Project Information programme has been guided by formal research and by feedback through members of the team. Progress has been made and a significant majority of local people support the project and feel it will benefit the area. (author)

  19. The Sellafield repository project information programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curd, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Sellafield Repository Project Information programme has been guided by formal research and by feedback through members of the team. Progress has been made and a significant majority of local people support the project and feel it will benefit the area. (author)

  20. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a constitution capable of previously and reliably preventing radioactivity from releasing into the atmosphere upon occurrence of main steam pipe rupture accidents in a main steam tunnel chamber. Constitution: The outer circumference at the penetration portion of a nuclear reactor container is tightly closed and the main steam tunnel chamber has a tightly closed vessel structure, which is cooled by a local cooler during normal operation. The main steam tunnel chamber is in communication with a pressure control chamber by way of a release line and a releaf valve is disposed at the midway of the release line. Upon occurrence of rupture accident to the main steam pipes in the main steam tunnel chamber, while steams are issued from the ruptured portion, they are discharged through the release line to the suppression chamber and condensated. As a result, excess pressure in the main steam tunnel can be prevented and when the rupture accident is detected, the main steam isolation valve is closed rapidly to interrupt the steam feeding, whereby the steam released from the ruptured pipeways is stopped to avoid the radioactivity release to the atmosphere. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Passive Nuclear Plants Program (UPDATE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimeno, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    The light water passive plants program (PCNP), today Advanced Nuclear Power Plants Program (PCNA), was constituted in order to reach the goals of the Spanish Electrical Sector in the field of advanced nuclear power plants, optimize the efforts of all Spanish initiatives, and increase joint presence in international projects. The last update of this program, featured in revision 5th of the Program Report, reflects the consolidation of the Spanish sector's presence in International programs of the advanced power plants on the basis of the practically concluded American ALWR program. Since the beginning of the program , the PCNP relies on financing from the Electrical sector, Ocide, SEPI-Endesa, Westinghouse, General Electric, as well as from the industrial cooperators, Initec, UTE (Initec- Empresarios Agrupados), Ciemat, Enusa, Ensa and Tecnatom. The program is made up of the following projects, already concluded: - EPRI's Advanced Light Water Plants Certification Project - Westinghouse's AP600 Project - General Electric's SBWR Project (presently paralyzed) and ABWR project Currently, the following project are under development, at different degrees of advance: - EPP project (European Passive Plant) - EBWR project (European Advanced Boiling Water Reactor)

  2. Relative costs to nuclear plants: international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-03-01

    This work approaches the relative costs to nuclear plants in the Brazil. It also presents the calculation methods and its hypothesis to determinate the costs, and the nacional experience in costs of investment, operating and maintenance of the nuclear plants

  3. Cooling water recipients for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, F.-E.; Saetre, H.J.

    1971-10-01

    The hydrographical and hydrological conditions at 17 prospective nuclear power plant sites in the Oslofjord district are evaluated with respect to their suitability as recipients for thermal discharges from nuclear power plants. No comparative evaluations are made. (JIW)

  4. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inami, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Minoru.

    1995-01-01

    In a condensate cleanup system and a reactor water cleanup system of a BWR-type reactor, in which primary coolants flow, there is disposed a filtering and desalting device using hollow thread membrane filter and ion exchange resin for a condensate cleanup system, and using a high temperature filter made of a metal, a metal oxide or ceramics as a filtering material and a precoat filter made of a powdery ion exchange resin as a filtering material for a reactor water cleanup system. This can completely remove cruds generated in the condensate system. Since the reactor water cleanup system comprises the powdery resin precoat-type filtering and desalting device and the high temperature filter using ceramics, ionic impurities such as radioactive materials can be removed. Accordingly, cruds are not carried into the inside of the reactor, and since the radioactive concentration in the reactor water is reduced, radiation exposure upon periodical inspection can be minimized almost to zero, to attain a clean plant. (T.M.)

  5. Advanced nuclear plant control complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarola, K.; Jamison, S.; Manazir, R.M.; Rescorl, R.L.; Harmon, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel in the control room. A separate data processing system, which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board. The discrete indicator and alarm system and the data processing system receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accidental conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof. (author)

  6. Docommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essmann, J.

    1981-01-01

    The German utilities operating nuclear power plants have long concerned themselves with aspects of decommissioning and for this purpose an engineering company was given a contract to study the entire spectrum of decommissioning. The results of this study have been available in autumn 1980 and it is possible to discuss all the aspects of decommissioning on a new basis. Following these results no change in the design concept of LWR nuclear power plants in operation or under construction is necessary because the techniques, necessary for decommissioning, are fully available today. The technical feasibility of decommissioning for power plants of Biblis A and KRB type has been shown in detail. The calculations of the quantity of waste produced during removal of a nuclear power plant could be confirmed and it could be determined with high procedure. The radiation dose to the decommissioning personnel is in the range of the radiation protection regulations and is in the same range as the radiation dose to the personnel within a yearly inservice inspection. (AF)

  7. Fire prevention in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayla, J.P.; Jacquet-Francillon, J.; Matarozzo, F.

    2014-01-01

    About 80 fire starts are reported in EDF nuclear power plants every year but only 3 or 4 turn into a real fire and none has, so far, has led to a major safety failure of a nuclear plant. A new regulation has been implemented in july 2014 that strengthens the concept of defense in depth, proposes an approach that is proportionate to the stakes and risks, this proportionality means that the requirements for a power reactor are not the same as for a nuclear laboratory, and imposes an obligation or result rather than of means. The second article deals with the fire that broke out in the waste silo number 130 at La Hague plant in january 1981. The investigation showed that the flammability of the silo content had been underestimated. The third article presents the consequences of the fire that broke out in a power transformer at the Cattenom plant in june 2013. The fire was rapidly brought under control thanks to the immediate triggering of the emergency plan. The article details also the feedback experience of this event. (A.C.)

  8. SECURE nuclear district heating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson; Hannus, M.

    1978-01-01

    The role foreseen for the SECURE (Safe Environmentally Clean Urban REactor) nuclear district heating plant is to provide the baseload heating needs of primarily the larger and medium size urban centers that are outside the range of waste heat supply from conventional nuclear power stations. The rationale of the SECURE concept is that the simplicity in design and the inherent safety advantages due to the use of low temperatures and pressures should make such reactors economically feasible in much smaller unit sizes than nuclear power reactors and should make their urban location possible. It is felt that the present design should be safe enough to make urban underground location possible without restriction according to any criteria based on actual risk evaluation. From the environmental point of view, this is a municipal heat supply plant with negligible pollution. Waste heat is negligible, gaseous radioactivity release is negligible, and there is no liquid radwaste release. Economic comparisons show that the SECURE plant is competitive with current fossil-fueled alternatives. Expected future increase in energy raw material prices will lead to additional energy cost advantages to the SECURE plant

  9. Atucha I nuclear power plant transients analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano, J.; Schivo, M.

    1987-01-01

    A program for the transients simulation thermohydraulic calculation without loss of coolant (KWU-ENACE development) to evaluate Atucha I nuclear power plant behaviour is used. The program includes systems simulation and nuclear power plants control bonds with real parameters. The calculation results show a good agreement with the output 'protocol' of various transients of the nuclear power plant, keeping the error, in general, lesser than ± 10% from the variation of the nuclear power plant's state variables. (Author)

  10. Safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeberlein, K.

    1987-01-01

    In nuclear power plants large amounts of radioactive fission products ensue from the fission of uranium. In order to protect the environment, the radioactive material is confined in multiple 'activity barriers' (crystal matrix of the fuel, fuel cladding, coolant boundary, safety containment, reactor building). These barriers are protected by applying a defense-in-depth concept (high quality requirements, protection systems which recognize and terminate operational incidents, safety systems to cope with accidents). In spite of a favorable safety record of German nuclear power plants it is obvious - and became most evident by the Chernobyl accident - that absolute safety is not achievable. At Chernobyl, however, design disadvantages of that reactor type (like positive reactivity feedback of coolant voiding, missing safety containment) played an important role in accident initiation and progression. Such features of the Russian 'graphite-moderated pressure tube boiling water reactor' are different from those of light water reactors operating in western countries. The essential steps of the waste management of the nuclear fuel cycle ('Entsorgung') are the interim storage, the shipment, and the reprocessing of the spent fuel and the final repository of radioactive waste. Reprocessing means the separation of fossil material (uranium, plutonium) from radioactive waste. Legal requirements for radiological protection of the environment, which are identical for nuclear power plants and reprocessing plant, are complied with by means of comprehensive filter systems. Safety problems of a reprocessing plant are eased considerably by the fact that system pressures, process temperatures and energy densities are low. In order to confine the radioactive waste from the biosphere for a very long period of time, it is to be discarded after appropriate treatment into the deep geological underground of salt domes. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Fighting fires in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantom, L.F.; Weldon, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    Since the Browns Ferry incident, the specter of fires at nuclear plants has been the focus of attention by NRC, the utilities, and the public. There are sophisticated hardware and software available - in the form of fire-protection systems and equipment and training and fire-protection programs. Potential fire losses at nuclear faclities can be staggering. Thus, it behooves all those involved to maximize fire-protection security while simultaneously minimizing the chance of human error, which cancels out the effectiveness of the most up-to-date protective systems and devices

  12. Use of Pilot Plants for Developing Used Nuclear Fuel Recycling Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Chris; Arm, Stuart [EnergySolutions LLC (United States); Banfield, Zara; Jeapes, Andrew; Taylor, Richard [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    EnergySolutions and its teaming partners are working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop processes, equipment and facilities for recycling used nuclear fuel (UNF). Recycling significantly reduces the volume of wastes that ultimately will be consigned to the National Geologic Repository, enables the re-use in new fuel of the valuable uranium and plutonium in the UNF, and allows the long-lived minor actinides to be treated separately so they do not become long term heat emitters in the Repository. A major requirement of any new UNF recycling facility is that pure plutonium is not separated anywhere in the process, so as to reduce the nuclear proliferation attractiveness of the facility. EnergySolutions and its team partner the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) have developed the NUEX process to achieve this and to handle appropriately the treatment of other species such as krypton, tritium, neptunium and technetium. NUEX is based on existing successful commercial UNF recycling processes deployed in the UK, France and imminently in Japan, but with a range of modifications to the flowsheet to keep some uranium with the plutonium at all times and to minimize aerial and liquid radioactive discharges. NNL's long-term experience in developing the recycling and associated facilities at the Sellafield site in the UK, and its current duties to support technically the operation of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield provides essential input to the design of the US NUEX-based facility. Development work for THORP and other first-of-kind nuclear plants employed miniature scale fully radioactive through large scale inactive pilot plants. The sequence of development work that we have found most successful is to (i) perform initial process development at small (typically 1/5000) scale in gloveboxes using trace active materials, (ii) demonstrate the processes at the same small scale with actual irradiated fuel in hot cells and (iii

  13. QA programs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    As an overview of quality assurance programs in nuclear power plants, the energy picture as it appears today is reviewed. Nuclear power plants and their operations are described and an attempt is made to place in proper perspective the alleged ''threats'' inherent in nuclear power. Finally, the quality assurance programs being used in the nuclear industry are described

  14. 4. Nuclear power plant component failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power plant component failures are dealt with in relation to reliability in nuclear power engineering. The topics treated include classification of failures, analysis of their causes and impacts, nuclear power plant failure data acquisition and processing, interdependent failures, and human factor reliability in nuclear power engineering. (P.A.). 8 figs., 7 tabs., 23 refs

  15. Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, J. M.; Sanchez, J. T.

    2002-01-01

    With this article about the Maintenance in nuclear power plants we will try to give to see the importance of this kind of installations but the problems found by the clients and contractors to face it, and some possible solutions to improve it. It is necessary to understand this problem like something inner to the installation and must be considerate like a benefit for the same. Of course, there must be adequate Sevices Companies in direct relation with the installation that take the responsibility of assuming and understanding the correct fulfillment of the fixed milestones to get the optimal working of the whole plant systems. (Author)

  16. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1997 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1997; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; forecasts; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  17. Nuclear power plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorive, P.; Berthe, J.; Lafaille, J.P.; Eussen, G.

    1998-01-01

    Several definitions can be given to the design life of a nuclear power plant just as they can be attributed to the design life of an industrial installation: the book-keeping life which is the duration of the provision for depreciation of the plant, the licensed life which corresponds to the duration for which the plant license has been granted and beyond which a new license should be granted by the safety authorities, the design life which corresponds to the duration specified for ageing and fatigue calculations in the design of some selected components during the plant design phase, the technical life which is the duration of effective technical operation and finally the economic life corresponding to the duration of profitable operation of the plant compared with other means of electricity production. Plant life management refers to the measures taken to cope with the combination of licensed, design, technical and economical life. They can include repairs and replacements of components which have arrived to the end of their life due to known degradation processes such as fatigue, embrittlement, corrosion, wear, erosion, thermal ageing. In all cases however, it is of great importance to plan the intervention so as to minimise the economic impact. Predictive maintenance is used together with in-service inspection programs to fulfil this goal. The paper will go over the methodologies adopted in Belgium in all aspects of electrical, mechanical and civil equipment for managing plant life. (author)

  18. Expert robots in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.; DeVries, K.R.; Martin, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Expert robots enhance a safety and operations in nuclear plants. E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, is developing expert mobile robots for deployment in nuclear applications at the Savannah River Plant. Knowledge-based expert systems are being evaluated to simplify operator control, to assist in navigation and manipulation functions, and to analyze sensory information. Development work using two research vehicles is underway to demonstrate semiautonomous, intelligence, expert robot system operation in process areas. A description of the mechanical equipment, control systems, and operating modes is presented, including the integration of onboard sensors. A control hierarchy that uses modest computational methods is being used to allow mobile robots to autonomously navigate and perform tasks in known environments without the need for large computer systems

  19. Expert robots in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.; DeVries, K.R.; Martin, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Expert robots will enhance safety and operations in nuclear plants. E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, is developing expert mobile robots for deployment in nuclear applications at the Savannah River Plant. Knowledge-based expert systems are being evaluated to simplify operator control, to assist in navigation and manipulation functions, and to analyze sensory information. Development work using two research vehicles is underway to demonstrate semiautonomous, intelligent, expert robot system operation in process areas. A description of the mechanical equipment, control systems, and operating modes is presented, including the integration of onboard sensors. A control hierarchy that uses modest computational methods is being used to allow mobile robots to autonomously navigate and perform tasks in known environments without the need for large computer systems

  20. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 edition of the Elecnuc booklet summarizes in tables all numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the PRIS database managed by the IAEA. The following aspects are reviewed: 2004 highlights; main characteristics of reactor types; map of the French nuclear power plants on 2005/01/01; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 2004; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by reactor-type group; nuclear power plants under construction on 2004; evolution of nuclear power plant capacities connected to the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2004; performance indicator of PWR units in France; trend of the generation indicator worldwide; 2004 load factor by owners; units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2004; status of licence renewal applications in USA; nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2004; shutdown reactors; exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; exported nuclear power plants under construction or order; exported and national nuclear capacity under construction or order; recycling of plutonium in LWR; Mox licence plant projects; Appendix - historical development; acronyms, glossary

  1. Nuclear power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Penteado Filho, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    The question of nuclear power plants is analysed in details. The fundamental principles of reactors are described as well as the problems of safety involved with the reactor operation and the quantity and type of radioactive released to the environment. It shows that the amount of radioactive is very long. The reactor accidents has occurred, as three mile island, are also analysed. (M.I.A.)

  2. Operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, P.

    1988-04-01

    The textbook for training nuclear power plant personnel is centred on the most important aspects of operating modes of WWER-440 reactors. Attention is devoted to the steady state operation of the unit, shutdown, overhaul with refuelling, physical and power start-up. Also given are the regulations of shift operation and the duties of individual categories of personnel during the shift and during the change of shifts. (Z.M.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. BNFL Sellafield assessment of public radiation exposure due to liquid effluents from fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Individual (critical group) doses resulting from liquid discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) Sellafield Works have been derived in a form normalised to unit radionuclide discharge rates. This has been done for the purpose of providing a basis for predicting doses in the event of nuclear fuel from a future Sizewell 'B' power station being reprocessed. These doses would have to be reviewed in the light of prevailing circumstances at the time when the actual discharges are known. (author)

  4. Nuclear power plants - Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This International Standard defines principles for the establishment and implementation of quality assurance programmes during all phases of design, procurement, fabrication, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance and decommissioning of structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants. These principles apply to activities affecting the quality of items, such as designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, testing, commissioning, operating, inspecting, maintaining, repairing, refuelling and modifying and eventually decommissioning. The manner in which the principles described in this document will be implemented in different organizations involved in a specific nuclear power project will depend on regulatory and contractual requirements, the form of management applied to a nuclear power project, and the nature and scope of the work to be performed by different organizations

  5. Exploiting nuclear plants in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Lionel

    2011-02-01

    This document outlines that the French fleet of 58 reactors is only 25 year old in average, and that nuclear safety is strongly regulated, and notably relies on improved indicators and on a decennial re-assessment. It outlines that nuclear energy is a response to energy challenges and that it is therefore relevant to operate the nuclear fleet beyond the initially foreseen lifetime (40 years). Due to maintenance and renewal activities, plants are supposed to be safer and more efficient. To guarantee an always safer and more efficient operation in time, five actions are highlighted: decennial controls, installation and equipment modifications, control and anticipation of installation and equipment wear, competencies and ability renewal, better knowledge of techniques and technologies

  6. Community attitudes toward nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1982-01-01

    Among the many effects of the accident at Three Mile Island are impacts upon other communities that currently host nuclear-power reactors. Because studies on communities' reactions not immediately available, this chapter reviews existing studies and speculates about possible effects. The patterns and variations in impacts on and responses of nuclear host communities have been the subject of studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) since 1972. This essay presents results from four post-licensing studies of host communities - Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Waterford, Connecticut (PL-1), and Brunswick, North Carolina, and Appling-Toombs counties, Georgia (PL-2) - along with case study and attitude survey information from two additional communities in which reactors are under construction: Hartsville, Tennessee, and Cherokee County, South Carolina. Differences and similarities between the sites have been assessed in terms of differences in input and social structure; factors affecting the generally favorable attitudes toward local nuclear plants are discussed

  7. Nuclear plant analyzer desktop workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1983 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) commissioned the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA). The NPA was envisioned as a graphical aid to assist reactor safety analysts in comprehending the results of thermal-hydraulic code calculations. The development was to proceed in three distinct phases culminating in a desktop reactor safety workstation. The desktop NPA is now complete. The desktop NPA is a microcomputer based reactor transient simulation, visualization and analysis tool developed at INEL to assist an analyst in evaluating the transient behavior of nuclear power plants by means of graphic displays. The NPA desktop workstation integrates advanced reactor simulation codes with online computer graphics allowing reactor plant transient simulation and graphical presentation of results. The graphics software, written exclusively in ANSI standard C and FORTRAN 77 and implemented over the UNIX/X-windows operating environment, is modular and is designed to interface to the NRC's suite of advanced thermal-hydraulic codes to the extent allowed by that code. Currently, full, interactive, desktop NPA capabilities are realized only with RELAP5

  8. Occupational dose control in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorsson, C.; Lochard, J.; Benedittini, M.; Baum, J.; Khan, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Reduction in occupational exposure at nuclear power plants is desirable not only in the interest of the health and safety of plant personnel, but also because it enhances the safety and reliability of the plants. This report summarises the current trends of doses to workers at nuclear power plants and the achievements and developments regarding methods for their reduction

  9. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  10. Nuclear plant life cycle costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Life cycle costs of nuclear power plants in the United States are discussed. The author argues that these costs have been mishandled or neglected. Decommissioning costs have escalated, e.g. from $328 per unit in 1991 to $370 in 1993 for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, though they still only amount to less than 0.1 cent per kWh. Waste management has been complicated in the U.S. by the decision to abandon civilian reprocessing; by the year 2000, roughly 30 U.S. nuclear power units will have filled their storage pools; dry storage has been delayed, and will be an expense not originally envisaged. Some examples of costs of major component replacement are provided. No single component has caused as much operational disruption and financial penalties as the steam generator. Operation and maintenance costs have increased steadily, and now amount to more than 70% of production costs. A strategic plan by the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (of U.S. utilities) will ensure that the ability to correctly operate and maintain a nuclear power plant is built into the original design. 6 figs

  11. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-01-01

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented

  12. Nuclear power in crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, Andrew.; Pepper, David.

    1987-01-01

    Six themes run through this book: nuclear decision making and democratic accountability, nuclear bias and a narrow-based energy policy, scientific discredit and popular expertise, fusing science with social values, managerial competence and the geography of nuclear power. These are covered in thirteen chapters (all indexed separately) grouped into four parts -the political and planning context, nuclear waste, risk and impact - the social dimension and the future of nuclear power. It considers aspects in France, the United States and the United Kingdom with particular references to the Sizewell-B inquiry and the Sellafield reprocessing plant. (UK)

  13. The selection and performance of the natural zeolite clinoptilolite in British Nuclear Fuels' site ion exchange effluent plant, SIXEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, S.G.; Berghauser, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    SIXEP has been conducted by British Nuclear Fuels plc at its Sellafield reprocessing site as part of its committment to reduce radioactive discharges to the Irish Sea. An extensive development program identified the natural ion exchange mineral clinoptilolite, from a particular deposit in California now owned by Tenneco Specialty Minerals, as the most suitable for use in SIXEP to extract caesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel storage pond water. Close cooperation with the supplier in a Quality Assurance scheme ensured the supply of a fully-characterised, high grade ion exchanger. Since SIXEP commenced treating pond water on 28 May 1985, the plant has performed well, exceeding the design expectation in terms of discharge reduction and availability

  14. Overview of the management of solid low level radioactive waste at Sellafield and Drigg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Rob [British Nuclear Fuels, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Hagger, Richard C. [BNFL, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Low level radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the United Kingdom in ner-surface facilities for over 40 years. This has mainly been at the Drigg disposal site on the Cumbrian coast, some six kilometres to the south of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site. The Drigg site also receives waste from a wide range of sources including nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, isotope manufacturing sites, universities, general industry and cleanup of historically contaminated sites. Disposals until the late 1980s were solely by tipping essentially loose wastes into excavated trenches. More recently, trench disposals have been phased out in preference to emplacement of containerised, conditioned wastes in concrete vaults. This paper is principally from the perspective of a disposal facility operator. Firstly the regulatory framework to low level waste disposal is outlined. This is then followed by a review of practices and projects associated with the Sellafield and Drigg sits and also some of the supporting technical work.

  15. Sellafield Site (including Drigg) emergency scheme manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This Scheme defines the organisation and procedures available should there be an accident at the Sellafield Site which results in, or may result in, the release of radioactive material, or the generation of a high radiation field, which might present a hazard to employees and/or the general public. Several categories of emergencies on the Sellafield Site are mentioned; a building emergency which is confined to one building, a Site emergency standby when the effects of a building emergency go outside that building, a Site emergency alert (District Emergency Standby) when a release of activity affects Site operations and could have serious Site effects and a District Emergency Alert when a radioactivity release may interfere with the normal activity of the General Public. A Drigg Emergency Standby situation would operate similarly at the Drigg Site. The detailed arrangements and responsibilities of appointed personnel are set out in this manual. (UK)

  16. Sellafield site (including Drigg) emergency scheme manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This Emergency Scheme defines the organisation and procedures available should there be an accident at the Sellafield Site which results in, or may result in, the release of radioactive material, or the generation of a high radiation field, which might present a hazard to employees and/or the general public. This manual covers the general principles of the total emergency scheme and those detailed procedures which are not specific to any single department. (U.K.)

  17. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2002 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 65 electric power companies and other nuclear organizations in 28 countries and regions around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities; and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  18. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2007/2008 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from electric power companies and other nuclear organizations around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 18 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; effect of the Niigata-ken chuetsu-oki earthquake; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  19. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2003 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 81 electric power companies and other nuclear organizations in 33 countries and regions around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities; and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  20. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migaud, D.; Hutin, J.P.; Jouette, I.; Eymond, P.; Devie, P.; Cudelou, C.; Magnier, S.; Frydman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This document gathers different articles concerning the maintenance of the French nuclear power plants. The first article analyses the impact of the recent law on the energetic transition that sets the share of nuclear power at 50% of the electricity produced by 2025. A consequence may be the decommissioning of 17 to 20 reactors by 2025 and the huge maintenance program called 'Grand Carenage' whose aim is to extend operating life over 40 years will have to be re-considered in order to avoid useless expenses. The second article shows that in 2015 the French nuclear reactor fleet got very good results in terms of availability and safety. There were 49 scheduled outages and among them some ended ahead of time. The third article describes the specificities of the maintenance of a nuclear power plant, for instance the redundancy of some systems implies that maintenance has to deal with systems that have never functioned but must be ready to operate at any moment. Another specificity is the complexity of a nuclear power plant that implies an essential phase of preparation for maintenance operations. Because of safety requirements any maintenance operation has to be controlled, checked and may provide feedback. The fourth article presents the 'Grand Carenage' maintenance program that involves the following operations: the replacement of steam generators, the re-tubing of condensers, the replacement of the filtering drums used for cooling water, the testing of the reactor building, the hydraulic test of the primary circuit and the inspection of the reactor vessel. The fifth article focuses on the organization of the work-site for maintenance operations and the example of the Belleville-sur-Loire is described in the sixth article. Important maintenance operations like 'Grand Carenage' requires a strong collaboration with a network of specialized enterprises and as no reactor (except Flamanville EPR) is being built in France, maintenance

  1. Nuclear Plant Integrated Outage Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstberger, C. R.; Coulehan, R. J.; Tench, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of an emerging concept for improving nuclear plant outage performance - integrated outage management. The paper begins with an explanation of what the concept encompasses, including a scope definition of the service and descriptions of the organization structure, various team functions, and vendor/customer relationships. The evolvement of traditional base scope services to the integrated outage concept is addressed and includes discussions on changing customer needs, shared risks, and a partnership approach to outages. Experiences with concept implementation from a single service in 1984 to the current volume of integrated outage management presented in this paper. We at Westinghouse believe that the operators of nuclear power plants will continue to be aggressively challenged in the next decade to improve the operating and financial performance of their units. More and more customers in the U. S. are looking towards integrated outage as the way to meet these challenges of the 1990s, an arrangement that is best implemented through a long-term partnering with a single-source supplier of high quality nuclear and turbine generator outage services. This availability, and other important parameters

  2. Simulators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancarani, A.; Zanobetti, D.

    1983-01-01

    The different types of simulator for nuclear power plants depend on the kind of programme and the degree of representation to be achieved, which in turn determines the functions to duplicate. Different degrees correspond to different simulators and hence to different choices in the functions. Training of nuclear power plant operators takes advantage of the contribution of simulators of various degrees of complexity and fidelity. Reduced scope simulators are best for understanding basic phenomena; replica simulators are best used for formal qualification and requalification of personnel, while modular mini simulators of single parts of a plant are best for replay and assessment of malfunctions. Another category consists of simulators for the development of assistance during operation, with the inclusion of disturbance and alarm analysis. The only existing standard on simulators is, at present, the one adopted in the United States. This is too stringent and is never complied with by present simulators. A description of possible advantages of a European standard is therefore offered: it rests on methods of measurement of basic simulator characteristics such as fidelity in values and time. (author)

  3. Advanced plant design recommendations from Cook Nuclear Plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    A project in the American Electric Power Service Corporation to review operating and maintenance experience at Cook Nuclear Plant to identify recommendations for advanced nuclear plant design is described. Recommendations so gathered in the areas of plant fluid systems, instrument and control, testing and surveillance provisions, plant layout of equipment, provisions to enhance effective maintenance, ventilation systems, radiological protection, and construction, are presented accordingly. An example for a design review checklist for effective plant operations and maintenance is suggested

  4. Nuclear power plant V-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this leaflet the short history of commissioning of Bohunice V-2 NPP is reviewed (beginning of construction December 1976; First controlled reactor power, Reactor Unit 1 (RU1): 7 August 1984, Reactor Unit 2 (RU2): 2 August 1985; Connection to the grid: RU1 20 August 1984, RU2 9 August 1985; Commercial operation: RU1 14 February 1985, RU2 18 December 1985. The scheme of the nuclear reactor WWER 440/V213 is depicted. The major technological equipment are described. Principles of nuclear power plant operation safety (safety barriers, active and passive safety systems, centralized heat supply system, as well as technical data of the Bohunice V-2 NPP are presented

  5. Nuclear power plant V-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this leaflet the short history of commissioning of Bohunice V-1 NPP is reviewed (beginning of construction 24 April 1972; First controlled reactor power, Reactor Unit 1 (RU1): 27 November 1978, Reactor Unit 2 (RU2): 15 March 1980; Connection to the grid: RU1 17 December 1978, RU2 26 March 1980; Commercial operation: RU1 1 April 1980, RU2 7 January 1981. The scheme of the nuclear reactor WWER 440/V230 is depicted. The major technological equipment (primary circuit, nuclear reactor, steam generators, reactor coolant pumps, primary circuit auxiliary systems, secondary circuit, turbine generators, NPP electrical equipment, and power plant control) are described. Technical data of the Bohunice V-1 NPP are presented

  6. Slovak Electric, plc, Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this popular scientific brochure a brief description of construction scheme of Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant is presented. Electricity generation in a nuclear power plant is described. Instrumentation and control system as well as nuclear safety principles applied on the NPP are presented

  7. Nuclear power plants in populated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachsmann, F.

    1973-01-01

    The article first deals with the permanently increasing demand for electical power. Considering the ever growing energy demand which can no longer be covered by conventional power plants, it has become necessary to set up nuclear power plants of larger range. The author presents in a survey the basic function of nuclear power plants as well as the resulting risks and safety measures. The author concludes that according to present knowledge there is no more need to erect nuclear power plants outside densely populated urban areas but there is now the possibility of erecting nuclear power plants in densely populated areas. (orig./LH) [de

  8. Design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    The criteria of design and safety, applied internationally to systems and components of PWR type reactors, are described. The main criteria of the design analysed are: thermohydraulic optimization; optimized arrangement of buildings and components; low costs of energy generation; high level of standardization; application of specific safety criteria for nuclear power plants. The safety criteria aim to: assure the safe reactor shutdown; remove the residual heat and; avoid the release of radioactive elements for environment. Some exemples of safety criteria are given for Angra-2 and Angra-3 reactors. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Off-shore nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.

    1980-01-01

    In order to avoid losses of energy and seawater pollution an off-shore nuclear power plant is coupled with a power plant which utilizes the temperature difference between seawater and hot reactor cooling water. According to the invention the power plant has a working media loop which is separated from the nuclear power plant. The apparative equipment and the operational characteristics of the power plant are the subject of the patent. (UWI) [de

  10. Nuclear power. Volume 1. Nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DESIGN is intended to be used as a working reference book for management, engineers and designers, and as a graduate-level text for engineering students. The book is designed to combine theory with practical nuclear power engineering and design experience, and to give the reader an up-to-date view of the status of nuclear power and a basic understanding of how nuclear power plants function. Volume 1 contains the following chapters; (1) nuclear reactor theory; (2) nuclear reactor design; (3) types of nuclear power plants; (4) licensing requirements; (5) shielding and personnel exposure; (6) containment and structural design; (7) main steam and turbine cycles; (8) plant electrical system; (9) plant instrumentation and control systems; (10) radioactive waste disposal (waste management) and (11) conclusion

  11. Nuclear power plant operation 2016. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2017-05-15

    A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2016, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in a further issue.

  12. Environmental survey around EDF nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.

    1992-01-01

    Description of various types of environmental test carried out under the responsibility of the Operator of nuclear power plants in France, with taking Fessenheim nuclear power plant as an example: permanent monitoring of radioactivity, periodic radioecological assessments, main results of measurements taken, showing that there are no detectable effects of the plant on the environment, policy of openness by publication of these results

  13. Remote Decommissioning Experiences at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownridge, M.

    2006-01-01

    British Nuclear Group has demonstrated through delivery of significant decommissioning projects the ability to effectively deploy innovative remote decommissioning technologies and deliver cost effective solutions. This has been achieved through deployment and development of off-the-shelf technologies and design of bespoke equipment. For example, the worlds first fully remotely operated Brokk was successfully deployed to enable fully remote dismantling, packaging and export of waste during the decommissioning of a pilot reprocessing facility. British Nuclear Group has also successfully implemented remote decommissioning systems to enable the decommissioning of significant challenges, including dismantling of a Caesium Extraction Facility, Windscale Pile Chimney and retrieval of Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) from storage cells. The challenge for the future is to continue to innovate through utilization of the supply chain and deploy off-the-shelf technologies which have been demonstrated in other industry sectors, thus reducing implementation schedules, cost and maintenance. (authors)

  14. Commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    The commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning is presented as a step in the commercialization of nuclear energy. Opportunities for technology application advances are identified. Utility planning needs are presented

  15. TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiba, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Norio

    1990-01-01

    TOSHIBA aims to secure safety, increase reliability and improve efficiency through the engineering for nuclear power plant using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant consists of numbers of sub-systems which had been integrated centering around the Nuclear Power Plant Engineering Data Base (PDBMS) and covers all stage of engineering for nuclear power plant from project management, design, manufacturing, construction to operating plant service and preventive maintenance as it were 'Plant Life-Cycle CAE System'. In recent years, TOSHIBA has been devoting to extend the system for integrated intelligent CAE system with state-of-the-art computer technologies such as computer graphics and artificial intelligence. This paper shows the outline of CAE system for nuclear power plant in TOSHIBA. (author)

  16. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-06-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear and radiation safety, which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The reports also include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors

  17. Safety culture in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weihe, G. von; Pamme, H.

    2003-01-01

    Experience shows that German nuclear power plants have always been operated reliably and safely. Over the years, the safety level in these plants has been raised considerably so that they can stand any comparison with other countries. This is confirmed by the two reports published by the Federal Ministry for the Environment on the nuclear safety convention. Behind this, there must obviously stand countless appropriate 'good practices' and a safety management system in nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  18. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-03-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear and radiation safety, which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The reports also include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors

  19. HVDC transmission from nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yukio; Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Taniguchi, Haruto; Ueda, Kiyotaka

    1980-01-01

    HVDC transmission directly from a nuclear power plant is expected as one of the bulk power transmission systems from distant power generating area. Successively from the analysis of HVDC transmission from BWR-type nuclear power plant, this report discusses dynamic response characteristics of HVDC transmission (double poles, two circuits) from PWR type nuclear power plant due to dc-line faults (DC-1LG, 2LG) and ac-line faults (3LG) near inverter station. (author)

  20. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  1. Summary of nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Saburo

    1973-01-01

    Various conditions for the construction of nuclear power plants in Japan without natural resources were investigated. Expansion of the sites of plants, change of reactor vessels, standardization of nuclear power plants, possiblity of the reduction of construction period, approaching of nuclear power plants to consuming cities, and group construction were studied. Evaluation points were safety and economy. Previous sites of nuclear power plants were mostly on plane ground or cut and enlarge sites. Proposals for underground or offshore plants have been made. The underground plants were made at several places in Europe, and the ocean plant is now approved in U.S.A. as a plant on a man-made island. Vessels for containing nuclear reactors are the last barriers to the leakage of radioactive substance. At the initial period, the vessels were made of steel, which were surrounded by shielding material. Those were dry well type containers. Then, vessel type changed to pressure-suppression type wet containers. Now, it tends to concrete (PC or RC) type containers. There is the policy on the standardization of nuclear power plants by U.S.A.E.C. in recent remarkable activity. The merit and effect of the standardization were studied, and are presented in this paper. Cost of the construction of nuclear power plants is expensive, and interest of money is large. Then, the reduction of construction period is an important problem. The situations of plants approaching to consuming cities in various countries were studied. Idea of group construction is described. (Kato, T.)

  2. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  3. Basic safety principles for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1989-01-01

    To ensure the safety operation of nuclear power plant, one should strictly adhere to the implelmentation of safety codes and the establishment of nuclear safety code system, as well as the applicable basic safety principles of nuclear power plants. This article briefly introduce the importance of nuclear codes and its economic benefits and the implementation of basic safety principles to be accumulated in practice for many years by various countries

  4. Qualification of nuclear power plant operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    With the ultimate aim of reducing the possibility of human error in nuclear power plant operations, the Guidebook discusses the organizational aspects, the staffing requirements, the educational systems and qualifications, the competence requirements, the ways to establish, preserve and verify competence, the specific aspects of personnel management and training for nuclear power plant operations, and finally the particular situations and difficulties to be overcome by utilities starting their first nuclear power plant. An important aspect presented in the Guidebook is the experience in training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel in various countries: Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States of America

  5. The operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1992-01-01

    The duties to be performed in managing the operation of a nuclear power plant are highly diverse, as will be explained in this contribution by the examples of the Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Station. The excellent safety record and the high availabilities of German nuclear power plants demonstrate that their operators have adopted the right approaches. Systematic evaluation of the operating experience accumulated inhouse and in other plants is of great significance in removing weak spots and improving operation. The manifold and complex activities in the structure of organization and of activities in a nuclear power plant require a high degree of division of labor. (orig.) [de

  6. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-02-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. The annual maintenance outages of the Loviisa plant units were held during the report period. All events during this quarter are classified as Level hero (Below Scale) on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were below authorised limits. Only small amounts of radioactive substances originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  7. Emergency control centers for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Guidance is provided for the development and implementation of emergency control centers for nuclear power plants, including nuclear plant control room, nuclear plant company headquarters, emergency control center, and nuclear plant alternate emergency control center. Requirements and recommendations are presented for the mission, communications, instrumentation and equipment associated with each type of control center. Decisional aids, manning requirements and resources are also given; the decision aids cover both the accident assessment and protective action areas. Both normal and alternate means of communications are considered. Off-site emergency control centers, although not covered in the strict sense by this standard, are considered in an appendix

  8. Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants

  9. Nuclear accidents and safety measures of domestic nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zurong; Che Shuwei; Pan Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the design standards for the safety of nuclear and radiation in nuclear power plants, the three accidents in the history of nuclear power are analyzed. And the main factors for these accidents are found out, that is, human factors and unpredicted natural calamity. By combining the design and operation parameters of domestic nuclear plants, the same accidents are studied and some necessary preventive schemes are put forward. In the security operation technology of domestic nuclear power plants nowadays, accidents caused by human factors can by prevented completely. But the safety standards have to be reconsidered for the unpredicted neutral disasters. How to reduce the hazard of nuclear radiation and leakage to the level that can be accepted by the government and public when accidents occur under extreme conditions during construction and operation of nuclear power plants must be considered adequately. (authors)

  10. Large nuclear steam turbine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urushidani, Haruo; Moriya, Shin-ichi; Tsuji, Kunio; Fujita, Isao; Ebata, Sakae; Nagai, Yoji.

    1986-01-01

    The technical development of the large capacity steam turbines for ABWR plants was partially completed, and that in progress is expected to be completed soon. In this report, the outline of those new technologies is described. As the technologies for increasing the capacity and heightening the efficiency, 52 in long blades and moisture separating heaters are explained. Besides, in the large bore butterfly valves developed for making the layout compact, the effect of thermal efficiency rise due to the reduction of pressure loss can be expected. As the new technology on the system side, the simplification of the turbine system and the effect of heightening the thermal efficiency by high pressure and low pressure drain pumping-up method based on the recent improvement of feed water quality are discussed. As for nuclear steam turbines, the actual records of performance of 1100 MW class, the largest output at present, have been obtained, and as a next large capacity machine, the development of a steam turbine of 1300 MWe class for an ABWR plant is in progress. It can be expected that by the introduction of those new technologies, the plants having high economical efficiency are realized. (Kako, I.)

  11. Waste from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The report presents proposals for organizing and financing of the treatment and deposition of spent fuel and radioactive waste. Decommissioning of plants is taken into consideration. The proposals refer to a program of twelve reactors. A relatively complete model for the handling of radioactive waste in Sweden is at hand. The cost for the years 1980 to 2000 is estimated at approx 1040 million SKr. Also the expense to dispose of the rest of the waste is calculated up to the year 2060, when the waste is planned to be put into final deposit. The state must have substantial influence over the organization which should be closely connected to the nuclear industry. Three different types of organization are discussed, namely (i) a company along with a newly created authority, (ii) a company along with the existing Nuclear Power Inspectorate or (iii) a company along with a board of experts. The proposals for financing the cost of handling nuclear waste are given in chief outlines. The nuclear industry should reserve means to special funds. The allocations are calculated to 1.4 oere per delivered kWh up to and including the year 1980. The accumulated allocations for 1979 should thus amount to 1310 million SKr. The charge for supervision and for certain research and development is recommended to be 0.1 oere per kWh which corresponds to approx 23 million SKr for 1980. The funds should be assured by binding agreements which must be approved by the state. The amounts are given in the monetary value of the year 1979. (G.B.)

  12. Data retrieval techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozzi, G.L.; Dahl, C.C.; Gross, R.S.; Voeller, J.G. III

    1995-01-01

    Data retrieval, processing retrieved data, and maintaining the plant documentation system to reflect the as-built condition of the plant are challenging tasks for most existing nuclear facilities. The information management systems available when these facilities were designed and constructed are archaic by today's standards. Today's plant documentation systems generally include hard copy drawings and text, drawings in various CAD formats, handwritten information, and incompatible databases. These existing plant documentation systems perpetuate inefficiency for the plant technical staff in the performance of their daily activities. This paper discusses data retrieval techniques and tools available to nuclear facilities to minimize the impacts of the existing plant documentation system on plant technical staff productivity

  13. Commissioning of the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, P.M.; Rolf, F.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant Angra 2, located at Itaorna Beach-Angra dos Reis is the first plant of the Brazilian-German Agreement to be commissioned. The Nuclear Power Plant is a pressurized water reactor rated at 3765 Mw thermal/1325 Mw electrical. For commissioning purpose the plant is divided into 110 systems. Plant commissioning objective is to demonstrate the safe and correct operation of each plan component, system and of the whole plant in agreement with design conditions, licensing requirements and contractual obligations. This work gives a description of plant commissioning objectives, activities their time sequence, and documentation. (Author) [pt

  14. Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.

    1980-01-01

    The multidisciplinary aspects of the activities involved in the nuclear power plant (NPP) licensing, are presented. The activities of CNEN's technical staff in the licensing of Angra-1 and Angra-2 power plants are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  15. Development of nuclear power plant Risk Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoming; Sun Jinlong; Ma Chao; Wang Lin; Gu Xiaohui; Bao Zhenli; Qu Yong; Zheng Hao

    2014-01-01

    Risk Monitor is a tool to monitor the real-time risk of a nuclear power plant for risk management and comprehensive decision-making, which has been widely used all over the world. The nuclear power plant Risk Monitor applies the real-time risk model with low-complicacy that could reflect the plant's actual configuration, automatically reads the plant's configuration information from the engineering system through the developed interface, and efficiently analyzes the plant's risk Dy the intelligent parallel-computing method in order to provide the risk basement for the safety management of nuclear power plant. This paper generally introduces the background, architecture, functions and key technical features of a nuclear power plant Risk Monitor, and validates the risk result, which could well reflect the plant's risk information and has a significant practical value. (authors)

  16. Factual biosphere database for Sellafield and the surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, M A [ANS Consultants Ltd., Epsom (United Kingdom)

    1991-12-01

    This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Sellafield region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Sellafield area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author).

  17. Factual biosphere database for Sellafield and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, M.A.

    1991-12-01

    This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Sellafield region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Sellafield area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

  18. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Environmental Assessment... Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (NUREG-1437...

  19. A comparison between the risks of childhood leukaemia from parental exposure to radiation in the Sellafield workforce and those displayed among the Japanese bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    The cases of childhood leukaemia found near the Sellafield plant and those observed in the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors are analysed using a relative risk model. The leukaemia relative risk coefficients for total paternal (whole-body) pre-conception exposure for the Sellafield children are found to be about 50 to 80 times higher than the (gonadal) coefficients applying to the offspring of the bomb survivors. This difference is statistically significant, and in particular the risk coefficients for the Sellafield cohort are significantly positive, unlike those for the Japanese. If the assumption is made that the excess relative risk estimated from the Sellafield data lasts for the whole of the life of the offspring, the apparent population leukaemia risk to the first-generation offspring (for an England and Wales population) would be between 4% Sv -1 and 5% Sv -1 . (author)

  20. Nuclear power plant operating experience, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports issued annually that summarize the operating experience of U.S. nuclear power plants in commercial operation. Power generation statistics, plant outages, reportable occurrences, fuel element performance, occupational radiation exposure and radioactive effluents for each plant are presented. Summary highlights of these areas are discussed. The report includes 1976 data from 55 plants--23 boiling water reactor plants and 32 pressurized water reactor plants

  1. Radiation and stillbirths in Sellafield workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In The Lancet (23 October 1999), Dr Louise Parker and colleagues from the Departments of Child Health and Statistics, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, report the findings of a new study on stillbirths among offspring of male radiation workers at Sellafield. By linking the birth registration and stillbirth records in Cumbria from 1950 to 1989 to the database of workers at Sellafield, Dr Parker's team examined the stillbirth risk according to the father's exposure to radiation before conception of the child. From the birth documents of 248 097 livebirths and 3715 stillbirths, the team identified 130 stillbirths and 9078 livebirths to wives and partners of male radiation workers employed at Sellafield. Lifetime exposure, and that in the 90 days before conception, was derived from annual-exposure summaries for each worker. Exposures recorded on individual film badges for the fathers of each stillborn child and for four matched controls were also examined. The researchers found that although, as a group, babies of radiation workers were not more likely to be stillborn than babies of other Cumbrian fathers, there was an increased risk of stillbirth with increasing exposure of a father to external radiation. Although confounding factors also associated with stillbirth, such as whether the mother smoked, cannot be completely excluded, the researchers state that 'extensive checks confirmed that the statistical models were a good fit to the data and there was no statistical evidence of unmeasured factors'. However, the researchers are cautious in drawing any conclusions regarding causality. In the Commentary given in The Lancet, Hazel Inskip from the University of Southampton advises that the possible risk of stillbirth should be kept in perspective, and comments that 'there is no obvious mechanism for the association', but does concede that 'the greater increase in risk for stillbirths with neural-tube defects is at least focused on a more specific disorder

  2. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-09-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear safety and radiation protection which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Safety-enhancing modifications at the nuclear power plants and issues relating to the use of nuclear energy which are of general interest are also reported. The reports include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the first quarter of 1993, a primary feedwater system pipe break occurred at Loviisa 2, in a section of piping after a feedwater pump. The break was erosion-corrosion induced. Repairs and inspections interrupted power generation for seven days. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as a level 2 incident. Other events in the first quarter of 1993 had no bearing on nuclear safety and radiation protection

  3. Hydrogeological testing in the Sellafield area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    A summary of the hydrogeological test methodologies employed in the Sellafield geological investigations is provided in order that an objective appraisal of the quality of the data can be formed. A brief presentation of some of these data illustrates the corroborative nature of different test and measurement methodologies and provides a preliminary view of the results obtained. The programme of hydrogeological testing is an evolving one and methodologies are developing as work proceeds and targets become more clearly defined. As the testing is focused on relatively low permeability rocks at depth, the approach to testing differs slightly from conventional hydrogeological well testing and makes extensive use of oilfield technology. (author)

  4. Unjustifiable exposures: Sellafield radioactive contamination of the rivers Lune and Wyre, Lancashire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, Paul; Green Patrick.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of radioactive contamination along the banks of the rivers Lune and Wyre in Lancashire, due to legally permitted discharges from Sellafield Reprocessing Plant, demonstrate that communities, such as houseboat dwellers living in the area are receiving over half the recommended site specific dose limit. Exposures are based on gamma dose rates and it is recommended that the limit is reduced from 500 uSv per year to 200 uSv per year. (UK)

  5. Analysis and radiological assessment of survey results and samples from the beaches around Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Fry, F.A.

    1983-12-01

    After radioactive sea debris had been found on beaches near the BNFL, Sellafield, plant, NRPB was asked by the Department of the Environment to analyse some of the samples collected and to assess the radiological hazard to members of the public. A report is presented containing an analysis of survey reports for the period 19 November - 4 December 1983 and preliminary results of the analysis of all samples received, together with the Board's recommendations. (author)

  6. Dukovany nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Presentation covers recommended safety issues for the Dukovany NPP which have been solved with satisfactory conclusions. Safety issues concerned include: radiation safety; nuclear safety; security; emergency preparedness; health protection at work; fire protection; environmental protection; chemical safety; technical safety. Quality assurance programs at all stages on NPP life time is described. Report includes description of NPP staff training provision, training simulator, emergency operating procedures, emergency preparedness, Year 2000 problem, inspections and life time management. Description of Dukovany Plant Safety Analysis Projects including integrity of the equipment, modernisation, equipment innovation and safety upgrading program show that this approach corresponds to the actual practice applied in EU countries, and fulfilment of current IAEA requirements for safety enhancement of the WWER 440/213 units in the course of MORAWA Equipment Upgrading program

  7. Nuclear power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, U.; Stuermer, W.

    1993-01-01

    Under the influence of the polarization between belief in progress, on the one hand, and the moral rigorism of our society, on the other hand, the risks of modern large technical systems have helped the highest level of technical safety to be attained in Germany. It has been reached especially by opting for maximum quality, maximum utility and reliability, complete documentation, continuous in-service checks during operation and, last but not least, by including man and human fallibility. Our concern should be that this strategy pursued in the Western industrialized countries becomes the rule, at least in its main characteristics, also in the Eastern countries. The hazards associated with reactors in Eastern countries affect us all, and it is especially the safety of those reactors which is causing concern. The experience accumulated with the 417 nuclear power plants now in operation, especially the incidents and accidents, shows that hazard potential management is admissible only with a highly developed safety strategy. (orig.) [de

  8. Nuclear power plant annunciator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1983-08-01

    Analyses of nuclear power plant annunciator systems have uncovered a variety of problems. Many of these problems stem from the fact that the underlying philosophy of annunciator systems have never been elucidated so as to impact the initial annunciator system design. This research determined that the basic philosophy of an annunciator system should be to minimize the potential for system and process deviations to develop into significant hazards. In order to do this the annunciator system should alert the operators to the fact that a system or process deviation exists, inform the operators as to the priority and nature of the deviation, guide the operators' initial responses to the deviation, and confirm whether operators responses corrected the deviation. Annunciator design features were analyzed to determine to what degree they helped the system meet the functional criteria, the priority for implementing specific design features, and the cost and ease of implementing specific design features

  9. BWR type nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kosuke.

    1991-01-01

    In a BWR type nuclear power plant in which reactor water in a reactor pressure vessel can be drained to a waste processing system by way of reactor recycling pipeways and remaining heat removal system pipeways, a pressurized air supply device is disposed for supplying air for pressurizing reactor water to the inside of the reactor pressure vessel by way of an upper head. With such a constitution, since the pressurized air sent from the pressurized air supply device above the reactor pressure vessel for the reactor water discharging pressure upon draining, the water draining pressure is increased compared with a conventional case and, accordingly, the amount of drained water is not reduced even in the latter half of draining. Accordingly, the draining efficiency can be improved and only a relatively short period of time is required till the completion of the draining, which can improve safety and save labors. (T.M.)

  10. Nuclear power plant component protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, E.; Ruf, R.; Dorner, H.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a nuclear power plant installation which includes a concrete biological shield forming a pit in which a reactor pressure vessel is positioned. A steam generator on the outside of the shield is connected with the pressure vessel via coolant pipe lines which extend through the shield, the coolant circulation being provided by a coolant pump which is also on the outside of the shield. To protect these components on the outside of the shield and which are of mainly or substantially cylindrical shape, semicylindrical concrete segments are interfitted around them to form complete outer cylinders which are retained against outward separation radially from the components, by rings of high tensile steel which may be interspaced so closely that they provide, in effect, an outer steel cylinder. The invention is particularly applicable to pressurized-water coolant reactor installations

  11. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  12. The storage of liquid high level waste at BNFL, Sellafield. Addendum to February 2000 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    On 18 February 2000 the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) published a report on the work of its Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NIl) in regulating the storage of liquid high level waste at the BNFL Sellafield site. Within the report NIl gave two undertakings. One was to publish an addendum around 1 year later covering its assessment of the new safety case for the storage plant and the second was to publish a further addendum when progress had been made with options studies for reducing the stocks of liquid high level waste (HLW), also referred to as highly active liquor (HAL), to a buffer level. A progress report was published in February 2001 which included a summary of the assessment of the new safety case and NIl's regulatory action to enforce liquid HLW stock reductions. This addendum provides a more detailed update on the position reached based on consideration of BNFL's responses to the recommendations from the February 2000 HLW report since its publication. It embodies the two addenda referred to above integrated into a single document for publication

  13. 14C emission from Swedish nuclear power plants and its effect on the 14C levels in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, K.; Erlandsson, Bengt; Hellborg, R.; Kiisk, M.; Persson, Per; Mattsson, Soeren; Thornberg, C.; Skog, G.

    2000-02-01

    The radionuclide 14 C is produced in all types of nuclear reactors mainly by neutron induced reactions in oxygen ( 17 O), nitrogen ( 14 N) and carbon ( 13 C). Part of the 14 C created is continuously released during normal operation as airborne effluents in various chemical forms (such as CO 2 , CO and hydrocarbons) to the surroundings. Because of the biological importance of carbon and the long physical half-life of 14 C, it is of interest to measure the releases and their incorporation into living material. The 14 C activity concentrations in annual tree rings and air around two Swedish nuclear power plants (Barsebaeck and Forsmark) as well as the background 14 C activity levels from two reference sites in southern Sweden during 1973-1996 are presented in this report. In order to verify the reliability of the method some investigations have been conducted at two foreign nuclear sites, Sellafield fuel reprocessing plant in England, and Pickering nuclear generating station in Canada, where the releases of 14 C are known to be substantial. Furthermore, results from some measurements in the vicinity of Paldiski submarine training centre in Estonia are presented. The results of the 14 C measurements of air, vegetation and annual tree rings around the two Swedish nuclear power plants show very low enhancements of 14 C, if at all above the uncertainty of the measurements. Even if the accuracy of the measurements of the annual tree rings is rather good (1-2%) the contribution of 14 C from the reactors to the environment is so small that it is difficult to separate it from the prevailing background levels of 14 C . This is the case for all sampling procedures: in air and vegetation as well as in annual tree rings. Only on a few occasions an actual increase is observed. However, although the calculations suffer from rather large uncertainties, the calculated release rate from Barsebaeck is in fair agreement with reported release data. The results of this investigation show

  14. Plant life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzinger, H.; Erve, M.

    1999-01-01

    For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and plant life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize plant operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power plants must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of plant availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern plants, and as plants age they can only remain competitive if a plant operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a plant-wide basis. The significance of aging and plant life management for nuclear power plants becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power plants will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 plants will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power plants and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing plants have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of plant life time to operate the plants at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power plants can be licensed and constructed. (author)

  15. Are atomic power plants saver than nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeglin, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    It is rather impossible to establish nuclear power plants against the resistance of the population. To prevail over this resistance, a clarification of the citizens-initiatives motives which led to it will be necessary. This is to say: It is quite impossible for our population to understand what really heappens in nuclear power plants. They cannot identify themselves with nuclear power plants and thus feel very uncomfortable. As the total population feels the same way it is prepared for solidarity with the citizens-initiatives even if they believe in the necessity of nuclear power plants. Only an information-policy making transparent the social-psychological reasons of the population for being against nuclear power plants could be able to prevail over the resistance. More information about the technical procedures is not sufficient at all. (orig.) [de

  16. Life management plants at nuclear power plants PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, G.

    2014-01-01

    Since in 2009 the CSN published the Safety Instruction IS-22 (1) which established the regulatory framework the Spanish nuclear power plants must meet in regard to Life Management, most of Spanish nuclear plants began a process of convergence of their Life Management Plants to practice 10 CFR 54 (2), which is the current standard of Spanish nuclear industry for Ageing Management, either during the design lifetime of the plant, as well as for Long-Term Operation. This article describe how Life Management Plans are being implemented in Spanish PWR NPP. (Author)

  17. The compact simulator for Tihange nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueben, M.

    1982-01-01

    After an introduction about the simulators for nuclear plants, a description is given of the compact simulator for the Tihange nuclear power plant as well as the simulated circuits and equipments such as the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The extent of simulation, the functions used by the instructor, the use of the simulator, the formation programme and construction planning are described. (AF)

  18. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1994-03-01

    In the third quarter of 1993, all of Finland's four nuclear power plant units were in power operation, with the exception of the annual maintenance outages of the Loviisa units. The load factor average of the plant units was 83.6 %. None of the events which occurred during this annual quarter had any bearing on nuclear or radiation safety. (4 figs., 5 tabs.)

  19. Radiological characterization of nuclear plants under decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincarini, M.

    1989-01-01

    In the present work a description of major problems encountered in qualitative and quantitative radiological characterization of nuclear plants for decommissioning and decontamination purpose is presented. Referring to several nuclear plant classes activation and contamination processes, direct and indirect radiological analysis and some italian significant experience are descripted

  20. Accidents with nuclear power plants, ch. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A recalculation of the consequences of nuclear power plant accidents is presented taking into account different parameters or different quantities than those usually accepted. A case study of a nuclear power plant planned for the Eems-river estuary in the Netherlands is presented

  1. Slovak Electric, plc, Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this popular scientific brochure a brief description of history construction of Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant is presented. The chart of electricity generation in WWER 440/V-213 nuclear power plant is described. Operation and safety improvements at Mochovce NPP as well as environment protection are presented. Basic data of Mochovce NPP are included

  2. Quality assurance in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, M.T. de

    1981-01-01

    The factors related to the licensing procedures of a nuclear power plant (quality assurance and safety analysis) are presented and discussed. The consequences of inadequate attitudes towards these factors are shown and suggestions to assure the safety of nuclear power plants in Brazil are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Medical consequences of a nuclear plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, S.E.; Reizenstein, P.; Stenke, L.

    1987-01-01

    The report gives background information concerning radiation and the biological medical effects and damages caused by radiation. The report also discusses nuclear power plant accidents and efforts from the medical service in the case of a nuclear power plant accident. (L.F.)

  4. HVDC transmission from isorated nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Takasaki, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Tatemi; Hayashi, Toshiyuki

    1985-01-01

    HVDC transmission directly from nuclear power plant is considered as one of the patterns of long distance and large capacity transmission system. This reports considers two route HVDC transmission from PWR type nuclear power plant, and analyzes dynamic response characteristics due to bus fault, main protection failure and etc. using the AC-DC Power System Simulator. (author)

  5. EPRI nuclear power plant decommissioning technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Karen S.; Bushart, Sean P.; Naughton, Michael; McGrath, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is a non-profit research organization that supports the energy industry. The Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning Technology Program conducts research and develops technology for the safe and efficient decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  6. Slovak Electric, plc, Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant in 1998 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Operation and electric power generation; (2) Nuclear and radiation safety; (3) Maintenance and scheduled refuelling out-gages; (4) Investment and WWER units upgrading; (5) Power Plants Personnel; (6) Public relations

  7. Aircraft, ships, spacecraft, nuclear plants and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, M.G.

    1984-05-01

    A few quality assurance programs outside the purview of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were studied to identify features or practices which the NRC could use to enhance its program for assuring quality in the design and construction of nuclear power plants. The programs selected were: the manufacture of large commercial transport aircraft, regulated by the Federal Aviation Administration; US Navy shipbuilding; commercial shipbuilding regulated by the Maritime Administration and the US Coast Guard; Government-owned nuclear plants under the Department of Energy; spacecraft under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and the construction of nuclear power plants in Canada, West Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom

  8. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-09-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost all the time in the first quarter of 1992. The load factor average was 99.8%. All events which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale were level 0/below scale on the Scale. Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site remained well below authorised limits. Only quantities of radioactive material insignificant to radiation exposure, originating from the nuclear power plants, were detected in samples collected in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants

  9. Millstone nuclear power plant emergency system assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmad Khusyairi

    2011-01-01

    U.S.NRC determined an obligation to build a nuclear power plant emergency response organization for both on-site and off-site. Millstone Nuclear Power Plants have 3 nuclear reactors and 2 of 3 still in commercial operation. Reactor unit 1, BWR type has been permanently shut down in 1998, while the two others, units 2 and 3 obtain the extended operating license respectively until 2035 and 2045. As a nuclear installation has the high potential radiological impact, Millstone nuclear power plant emergency response organization must establish both on-site or off-site. Emergency response organization that is formed must involve several state agencies, both state agencies and municipality. They have specific duties and functions in a state of emergency, so that protective measures can be undertaken in accordance with the community that has been planned. Meanwhile, NRC conduct their own independent assessment of nuclear power plant emergencies. (author)

  10. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Assessment of prospective foodchain doses from radioactive discharges from BNFL Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Dada, Z.; Tucker, S.; Webbe-Wood, D.; Mondon, K.; Hunt, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the method used by the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) to assess the potential impact of proposed radioactive discharges from the Sellafield nuclear site on food and determine their acceptability. It explains aspects of a cautious method that has been adopted to reflect the UK government policy and uncertainties related to people's habits with regard to food production and consumption. Two types of ingestion doses are considered in this method: 'possible' and 'probable' doses. The method is specifically applied to Sellafield discharge limits and calculated possible and probable ingestion doses are presented and discussed. Estimated critical group ingestion doses are below the dose limit and constraint set for members of the public. The method may be subject to future amendments to take account of changes in government policy and the outcome of a recent Consultative Exercise on Dose Assessments carried out by FSA. Uncertainties inherent in dose assessments are discussed and quantified wherever possible

  12. Statement of nuclear incidents at nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    Three incidents were reported in April-June 1993. The first was on the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) site at Sellafield and concerned leakage of 0.5 TBq of alpha activity from plutonium contaminated waste stored in a steel drum. This was subsequently double contained and moved so it could be inspected regularly. No contamination of personnel occurred. The second concerned the leakage of thorium liquor from a pipe at the UKAEA's Thorium reprocessing plant at Dounreay. Two temporary repairs were made and no personnel were contaminated. The third was at the Sellafield site where a small quantity (5 mls) of plutonium containing liquor had leaked from a package and released alpha activity. The bags were temporary containment of engineering debris which may have had sharp edges. The bags had been piled up and one of the bags had torn. Recommendations were made following inquiries into each of the incidents to improve procedures and prevent similar incidents occurring. (UK)

  13. Cooling towers of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikyska, L.

    1986-01-01

    The specifications are given of cooling towers of foreign nuclear power plants and a comparison is made with specifications of cooling towers with natural draught in Czechoslovak nuclear power plants. Shortcomings are pointed out in the design of cooling towers of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants which have been derived from conventional power plant design. The main differences are in the adjustment of the towers for winter operation and in the designed spray intensity. The comparison of selected parameters is expressed graphically. (J.B.)

  14. Nuclear power plants and their insurances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schludi, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    From the commencement of building to the time of decommissioning of nuclear power plants, the insurances provide continuous coverage, i.e. for construction, nuclear liability, nuclear energy hazards insurance, fire insurance, machinery insurance. The respective financial security is quantified. (DG) [de

  15. Lifting devices in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The regulation applies to lifts, cranes, winches, rail trolleys, load pick-up equipment and fuel charging machines for LWR reactors, as far as these are employed in plants for the production or fission of nuclear fuels or for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels or for the storage or other uses of nuclear fuels. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  16. Anatomy of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Q.O.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the Q model which attempts to classify arguments for use in the discussion on the pros and cons of nuclear power. The basic principles of nuclear energy production, operation of a nuclear power plant and a comparison with other electric power sources are presented and discussed. (ELC)

  17. Nuclear reactor kinetics and plant control

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Understanding time-dependent behaviors of nuclear reactors and the methods of their control is essential to the operation and safety of nuclear power plants. This book provides graduate students, researchers, and engineers in nuclear engineering comprehensive information on both the fundamental theory of nuclear reactor kinetics and control and the state-of-the-art practice in actual plants, as well as the idea of how to bridge the two. The first part focuses on understanding fundamental nuclear kinetics. It introduces delayed neutrons, fission chain reactions, point kinetics theory, reactivit

  18. Fire prevention in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The causes and frequency of fires at nuclear power plants in various countries are briefly given. Methods are described of fire hazard assessment at nuclear power plants, such as Gretener's method and the probabilistic methods. Approaches to the management of nuclear reactor fire protection in various countries as well as the provisions to secure such protection are dealt with. An overview and the basic characteristics of fire detection and extinguishing systems is presented. (Z.S.). 1 tab

  19. Fire protection at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The guide presents specific requirements for the design and implementation of fire protection arrangements at nuclear power plants and for the documents relating to the fire protection that are to be submitted to STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority). Inspections of the fire protection arrangements to be conducted by STUK during the construction and operation of the power plants are also described in this guide. The guide can also be followed at other nuclear facilities

  20. Knowledge preservation strategies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koruna, S.; Bachmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear industry is currently facing several challenges. An internal threat to the safety and operations of nuclear power plants is the loss of those employees who hold knowledge that is either critical to operations or safety. This report discusses the possibilities to preserve knowledge in nuclear power plants. Dependent on the degree of tacitness two different knowledge preservation strategies can be discerned: personalization and codification. The knowledge preservation activities discussed are valued according to the criteria: cost, immediacy of availability and completeness

  1. Chemistry management system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Katsumi; Maeda, Katsuji

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the chemistry management in the nuclear power plants has been changing from the problem solution to the predictive diagnosis and maintenance. It is important to maintain the integrity of plant operation by an adequate chemistry control. For these reasons, many plant operation data and chemistry analysis data should be collected and treated effectively to evaluate chemistry condition of the nuclear power plants. When some indications of chemistry anomalies occur, quick and effective root cause evaluation and countermeasures should be required. The chemistry management system has been developed as to provide sophisticate chemistry management in the nuclear power plants. This paper introduces the concept and functions of the chemistry management system for the nuclear power plants. (author)

  2. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-08-01

    In the Quarterly Reports on the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants such events and observations are described relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the plants' workers and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in commercial operation during the whole first quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 99.1 %. Failures have been detected in the uppermost spacing lattices of nuclear fuel bundles removed from the Loviisa nuclear reactors. Further investigations into the significance of the failures have been initiated. In this quarter, renewed cooling systems for the instrumentation area were introduced at Loviisa 1. The modifications made in the systems serve to ensure reliable cooling of the area even during the hottest summer months when the possibility exists that the temperature of the automation equipment could rise too high causing malfunctions which could endanger plant safety. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were below prescribed limits in this quarter. Only small amounts of radioactive substances originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  3. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1999 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1999; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; grid connection forecasts; world electric power market; electronuclear owners and share holders in EU, capacity and load factor; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; 1999 gross load factor by operator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  4. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  5. Human factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1980-08-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants

  6. Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Prabir [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Labbe, Pierre [Electricity of France (EDF); Naus, Dan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2013-01-01

    A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

  7. Dosimetry in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lastra B, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    To control the occupationally exposed personnel dose working at the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, two types of dosemeters are used, the thermoluminescent (TLD) which is processed monthly, and the direct reading dosemeter that is electronic and works as daily control of personal dose. In the case of the electronic dosemeters of direct reading conventional, the readings and dose automatic registers and the user identity to which he was assigned to each dosemeter was to carry out the restricted area exit. In activities where the ionizing radiation sources are not fully characterized, it is necessary to relocate the personal dosemeter or assigned auxiliary dosemeters (TLDs and electronics) to determine the dose received by the user to both whole body and in any specific area of it. In jobs more complicated are used a tele dosimetry system where the radiation protection technician can be monitoring the user dose to remote control, the data transmission is by radio. The dosimetry activities are documented in procedures that include dosemeter inventories realization, the equipment and dosemeters calibration, the dosimetry quality control and the discrepancies investigation between the direct reading and TLD systems. TLD dosimetry to have technical expertise in direct and indirect dosimetry and two technicians in TLD dosimetry; electronic dosimetry to have 4 calibration technicians. For the electronic dosemeters are based on a calibrator source of Cesium-137. TLD dosemeters to have an automatic radiator, an automatic reader which can read up to 100 TLD dosemeters per hour and a semiautomatic reader. To keep the equipment under a quality process was development a process of initial entry into service and carried out a periodic verification of the heating cycles. It also has a maintenance contract for the equipment directly with the manufacturer to ensure their proper functioning. The vision in perspective of the dosimetry services of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

  8. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Developmental trends on nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 1999 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 72 electric companies in 31 nations and regions in the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; location of the plants; the plants in the world; and so forth. And, it also has some survey results on the 'Liberalization of electric power markets and nuclear power generation' such as some 70% of respondents in nuclear power for future option, gas-thermal power seen as power source with most to gain from liberalization, merits on nuclear power generation (environmental considerations and supply stability), most commonly voiced concern about new plant orders in poor economy, and so forth. (G.K.)

  9. Effects of nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P.R.; Manweiler, R.W.; Davis, R.R.

    1977-09-01

    The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from a high-altitude nuclear detonation consists of a transient pulse of high intensity electromagnetic fields. These intense fields induce current and voltage transients in electrical conductors. Although most nuclear power plant cables are not directly exposed to these fields, the attenuated EMP fields that propagate into the plant will couple some EMP energy to these cables. The report predicts the probable effects of the EMP transients that could be induced in critical circuits of safety-related systems. It was found that the most likely consequence of EMP for nuclear plants is an unscheduled shutdown. EMP could prolong the shutdown period by the unnecessary actuation of certain safety systems. In general, EMP could be a nuisance to nuclear power plants, but it is not considered a serious threat to plant safety

  10. Seismic reevaluation of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The codes and regulations governing Nuclear Power Plant seismic analysis are continuously becoming more stringent. In addition, design ground accelerations of existing plants must sometimes be increased as a result of discovery of faulting zones or recording of recent earthquakes near the plant location after plant design. These new factors can result in augmented seismic design criteria. Seismic reanalysius of the existing Nuclear Power Plant structures and equipments is necessary to prevent the consequences of newly postulated accidents that could cause undue risk to the health or safety of the public. This paper reviews the developments of seismic analysis as applied to Nuclear Power Plants and the methods used by Westinghouse to requalify existing plants to the most recent safety requirements. (author)

  11. Nuclear plant data systems - some emerging directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.D.; Humphress, G.B.; McCullough, L.D.; Tashjian, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    Significant changes have occurred in recent years in the nuclear power industry to accentuate the need for data systems to support information flow and decision making. Economic conditions resulting in rapid inflation and larger investments in new and existing plants and the need to plan further ahead are primary factors. Government policies concerning environmental control, as well as minimizing risk to the public through increased nuclear safety regulations on operating plants are additional factors. The impact of computer technology on plant data systems, evolution of corporate and plant infrastructures, future plant data, system designs and benefits, and decision making capabilities and data usage support are discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Examining work structure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, M.B.; Boulette, M.D.; Van Cott, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the assessment of the work structure of ten nuclear power plants. Work structure factors are those factors that relate to the way in which work at all levels in a plant is organized, staffed, managed, rewarded, and perceived by plant personnel. Questionnaires given to a cross-section of personnel at the plants were the primary source of data collection. Structured ''critical incident'' interviews were conducted to verify the questionnaire results. The study revealed that a variety of work structure factor problem areas do exist in nuclear power plants. The paper highlights a prioritized set of candidate research themes to be considered in EPRI's Work Structure and Performance Research Program

  13. Surveillance system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeracki, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated surveillance system for nuclear power plant application. The author explores an expanded role for closed circuit television, with remotely located cameras and infrared scanners as the basic elements. The video system, integrated with voice communication, can enhance the safe and efficient operation of the plant, by improving the operator's knowledge of plant conditions. 7 refs

  14. GeoMelt{sup R} ICV{sup TM} Treatment of Sellafield Pond Solids Waste - 13414

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witwer, Keith; Woosley, Steve; Campbell, Brett [Kurion, Inc., GeoMelt Division, 3015 Horn Rapids Road, Richland, Washington (United States); Wong, Martin; Hill, Joanne [AMEC Inc., Birchwood Park, 601 Faraday Street, Birchwood, Warrington, WA3 6GN (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Kurion, Inc., in partnership with AMEC Ltd., is demonstrating its GeoMelt{sup R} In-Container Vitrification (ICV){sup TM} Technology to Sellafield Ltd. (SL). SL is evaluating the proposition of directly converting a container (skip/box/drum) of raw solid ILW into an immobilized waste form using thermal treatment, such that the resulting product is suitable for interim storage at Sellafield and subsequent disposal at a future Geological Disposal Facility. Potential SL feed streams include sludges, ion-exchange media, sand, plutonium contaminated material, concrete, uranium, fuel cladding, soils, metals, and decommissioning wastes. The solid wastes have significant proportions of metallic constituents in the form of containers, plant equipment, structural material and swarf arising from the nuclear operations at Sellafield. GeoMelt's proprietary ICV process was selected for demonstration, with the focus being high and reactive metal wastes arising from solid ILW material. A composite surrogate recipe was used to demonstrate the technology towards treating waste forms of diverse types and shapes, as well as those considered difficult to process; all the while requiring few (if any) pre-treatment activities. Key strategic objectives, along with their success criterion, were established by SL for this testing, namely: 1. Passivate and stabilize the raw waste simulant, as demonstrated by the entire quantity of material being vitrified, 2. Immobilize the radiological and chemo-toxic species, as demonstrated via indicative mass balance using elemental analyses from an array of samples, 3. Production of an inert and durable product as evidenced by transformation of reactive metals to their inert oxide forms and satisfactory leachability results using PCT testing. Two tests were performed using the GeoMelt Demonstration Unit located at AMEC's Birchwood Park Facilities in the UK. Post-melt examination of the first test indicated some of the waste simulant had not

  15. Nuclear power plant containment construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Danisch, R.; Strickroth, E.

    1975-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Containment Construction includes the spherical steel safety enclosure for the reactor and the equipment associated with the reactor and requiring this type of enclosure. This steel enclosure is externally structurally protected against accident by a concrete construction providing a foundation for the steel enclosure and having a cylindrical wall and a hemispherical dome, these parts being dimensioned to form an annular space surrounding the spherical steel enclosure, the latter and the concrete construction heretofore being concentrically arranged with respect to each other. In the disclosed construction the two parts are arranged with their vertical axis horizontally offset from each other so that opposite to the offsetting direction of the concrete construction a relatively large space is formed in the now asymmetrical annular space in which reactor auxiliary equipment not requiring enclosure by the steel containment vessel or safety enclosure, may be located outside of the steel containment vessel and inside of the concrete construction where it is structurally protected by the latter

  16. The design of in-cell crane handling systems for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansford, S.M.; Scott, R.

    1992-01-01

    The reprocessing and waste management facilities at (BNFL's) British Nuclear Fuels Limited's Sellafield site make extensive use of crane handling systems. These range from conventional mechanical handling operations as used generally in industry to high integrity applications through to remote robotic handling operations in radiation environments. This paper describes the design methodologies developed for the design of crane systems for remote handling operations - in-cell crane systems. In most applications the in-cell crane systems are an integral part of the plant process equipment and reliable and safe operations are a key design parameter. Outlined are the techniques developed to achieve high levels of crane system availability for operations in hazardous radiation environments. These techniques are now well established and proven through many years of successful plant operation. A recent application of in-cell crane handling systems design for process duty application is described. The benefits of a systematic design approach and a functionally-based engineering organization are also highlighted. (author)

  17. Nuclear plant life - A business decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joosten, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Regarding the future of the nuclear power option, many scenarios have been put forth over the years. The most commonly accepted projections for installed nuclear capacity show it growing at a rate of about 2% per year throughout the next few decades. These projections appear modes on the surface. However, underlying the projections are critical assumptions and sometimes misconceptions about the lifetimes of existing reactors and how they are determined. The notion of a 40 year plant life is very common. Consequently, many projections start either with the assumption that no plants will be retired in the near terms or with the assumption that each retired plant will be replaced by another nuclear plant after 40 years. Effectively, these assumptions yield future projections for installed capacity that might be characterized as low growth, medium growth and high growth scenarios - or grow, grow, grow. The question remains as to whether or not these assumptions accurately model the driving forces and constraints to nuclear development. After all, there is no scientific basis for believing that all plants, PWRs BWRs, RBMKs, etc., should have the same 40 year life. Most power plant owners purchase the plant for the main reason of supplying electrical power to their consumer. For these owners, electricity production is a day to day commercial activity with various alternatives on how to achieve the prime objective. The decision of which electricity generation alternative to select (gas, coal, nuclear or renewable energy) and how long to operate the plant before replacing it with a new one is essentially a business decision. The paper discusses ageing, the nuclear plant life decision process, the factors which influence the decision and their ramifications regarding the near term growth of nuclear power capacity. The modelling of nuclear plant lifetimes is also discussed. (author). 5 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  18. Nuclear power plant's safety and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    Starting with a comprehensive safety strategy as evolved over the past years and the present legal provisions for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, the risk of the intended operation, of accidents and unforeseen events is discussed. Owing to the excellent safety record of nuclear power plants, main emphasis in discussing accidents is given to the precautionary analysis within the framework of the licensing procedure. In this context, hypothetical accidents are mentioned only as having been utilized for general risk comparisons. The development of a comprehensive risk concept for a completely objective safety assessment of nuclear power plants remains as a final goal. (orig.) [de

  19. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosson, C.

    1989-05-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  20. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, R.; Koponen, H.; Nevander, O.; Paltemaa, R.; Poellaenen, I.; Rannila, P.; Valtonen, K.; Vilkamo, O.

    1988-02-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  1. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimburger, H.

    1988-08-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  2. Fuzzy logic control of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Liangzhong; Guo Renjun; Ma Changwen

    1996-01-01

    The main advantage of the fuzzy logic control is that the method does not require a detailed mathematical model of the object to be controlled. In this paper, the shortcomings and limitations of the model-based method in nuclear power plant control were presented, the theory of the fuzzy logic control was briefly introduced, and the applications of the fuzzy logic control technology in nuclear power plant controls were surveyed. Finally, the problems to be solved by using the fuzzy logic control in nuclear power plants were discussed

  3. Maintenance planning for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattu, R.K.; Cooper, S.E.; Lauderdale, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Maintenance planning for nuclear power plants is similar to that in other industrial plants but it is heavily influenced by regulatory rules, with consequent costs of compliance. Steps by the nuclear industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address that problem include development of guidelines for maintenance of risk-critical equipment, using PRA-based techniques to select a set of equipment that requires maintenance and reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) approaches for determining what maintenance is required. The result of the process is a program designed to ensure effective maintenance of the equipment most critical to plant safety. (author)

  4. Heat supply from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stach, V [Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu CSKAE, Rez (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-05-01

    The current state of world power production and consumption is assessed. Prognoses made for the years 1980 to 2000 show that nuclear energy should replace the major part of fossil fuels not only in the production of power but also in the production of heat. In this respect high-temperature reactors are highly prospective. The question is discussed of the technical and economic parameters of dual-purpose heat and power plants. It is, however, necessary to solve problems arising from the safe siting of nuclear heat and power plants and their environmental impacts. The economic benefits of combined power and heat production by such nuclear plants is evident.

  5. Methods of assessing nuclear power plant risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvarka, P.; Kovacz, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of safety evalution is based on safety criteria -standards or set qualitative values of parameters and indices used in designing nuclear power plants, incorporating demands on the quality of equipment and operation of the plant, its siting and technical means for achieving nuclear safety. The concepts are presented of basic and optimal risk values. Factors are summed up indispensable for the evaluation of the nuclear power plant risk and the present world trend of evaluation based on probability is discussed. (J.C.)

  6. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, R.

    1988-09-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hzard to the personnel or the environment

  7. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tubulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  8. List of the world's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempken, M.

    1984-01-01

    This list published once a year presents, subdivided into countries, data on all nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, or for which a contract has been placed, referring to the following aspects: Year the contract has been placed, name and/or size, owner or operator, design type, manufacturers, net output, first year of commercial operation, and total electricity output up to the data June 30, 1984. Two additional tables present a survey on the world's nuclear power plants, also grouped by countries, and the largest commercially used nuclear power plants of the world. (UA) [de

  9. Safety assessment principles for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The present Safety Assessment Principles result from the revision of those which were drawn up following a recommendation arising from the Sizewell-B enquiry. The principles presented here relate only to nuclear safety; there is a section on risks from normal operation and accident conditions and the standards against which those risks are assessed. A major part of the document deals with the principles that cover the design of nuclear plants. The revised Safety assessment principles are aimed primarily at the safety assessment of new nuclear plants but they will also be used in assessing existing plants. (UK)

  10. Introduction to Exxon nuclear fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Exxon Nuclear low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication plant in Richland, Washington produces fuel assemblies for both pressurized water and boiling water reactors. The Richland plant was the first US bulk-handling facility selected by the IAEA for inspection under the US-IAEA Safeguards Agreement. The plant was under IAEA inspection from March 1981 through October 1983. This text provides a written description of the plant layout, operation and process. The text also includes a one ton-a-day model (or reference) plant which was adapted from the Exxon Nuclear plant. The Model Plant provides a generic example of a low-enriched uranium (LEU) bulk-handling facility. The Model Plant is used to illustrate in a more quantitative way some of the key safeguards requirements for a bulk-handling facility

  11. Who wants nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernie, John; Openshaw, Stanley

    1986-01-01

    The criteria involved in selecting sites for disposal of low and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes are explained. The wastes and the sources are identified and the current procedure for their disposal, at Drigg, next to the Sellafield reprocessing plant, is given. If alternative sites could be found for non-Sellafield-produced wastes the lifetime of the Drigg site could be extended. The sites chosen by NIREX (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) have to be cost effective. Indeed, those identified are conveniently situated and would not incur excessive transport costs. However, more remote sites may have to be chosen, even at greater transport cost, because of public protests. Even this may not be satisfactory because the transportation itself incurs risks. (UK)

  12. Safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, A.

    1993-01-01

    The role and purpose of safety principles for nuclear power plants are discussed. A brief information is presented on safety objectives as given in the INSAG documents. The possible linkage is discussed between the two mentioned elements of nuclear safety and safety culture. Safety culture is a rather new concept and there is more than one interpretation of the definition given by INSAG. The defence in depth is defined by INSAG as a fundamental principle of safety technology of nuclear power. Discussed is the overall strategy for safety measures, and features of nuclear power plants provided by the defence-in-depth concept. (Z.S.) 7 refs

  13. Power generation by nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plays an important role in the world, European (33%) and French (75%) power generation. This article aims at presenting in a synthetic way the main reactor types with their respective advantages with respect to the objectives foreseen (power generation, resources valorization, waste management). It makes a fast review of 50 years of nuclear development, thanks to which the nuclear industry has become one of the safest and less environmentally harmful industry which allows to produce low cost electricity: 1 - simplified description of a nuclear power generation plant: nuclear reactor, heat transfer system, power generation system, interface with the power distribution grid; 2 - first historical developments of nuclear power; 3 - industrial development and experience feedback (1965-1995): water reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu), RBMK, fast neutron reactors, high temperature demonstration reactors, costs of industrial reactors; 4 - service life of nuclear power plants and replacement: technical, regulatory and economical lifetime, problems linked with the replacement; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  14. Seismic review of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, P.I.; Mayes, R.L.; Jones, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    Because of developments in the fields of earthquake and structural engineering over the last two decades, the codes, standards and design criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and other critical structures have changed substantially. As a result, plants designed only a few years ago do not satisfy the requirements for new plants. Accordingly, the Regulatory Agencies are requiring owners of older Nuclear Power Plants to re-qualify the plants seismically, using codes, standards, analytical techniques and knowledge developed in recent years. Seismic review consists of three major phases: establishing the design and performance criteria, re-qualifying the structures, and re-qualifying the equipment. The authors of the paper have been recently involved in the seismic review of existing nuclear power plants in the United States. This paper is a brief summary of their experiences

  15. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  16. The Storage of Power Development and Research Reactor Fuel at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standring, P.N.; Callaghan, A.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    Sellafield Limited has extensive experience of building and operating spent nuclear fuel storage facilities on the Sellafield site. Since the first operation in 1952, a total of six storage facilities have been built in support of reprocessing spent fuel. Currently, four of these facilities are operational and two are undergoing decommissioning activities. Whilst the routine spent fuel operations are primarily associated with managing Magnox, Advanced Gas Reactor and LWR fuel from power generation reactors, management services to other fuel types are offered. Examples of these services include the storage of British naval training reactor fuel; the reprocessing of two skips of aluminium clad uranium metal fuel from Swedish AB SVAFO and the management of fuel from the UK Power Development Programme. The current paper provides an account of the management of the UK's Power Development Programme fuel stored on the Sellafield site. The fuel has been pond stored for up to 42 years and periodic inspection during this time has revealed no significant deterioration of the fuel, particularly that which has been containerised during its storage period. The paper also outlines some of the issues associated with the recovery and transfer of long stored fuel and assessment of the fuel storage can longevity if the material is not reprocessed. (author)

  17. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1990-12-01

    During the second quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. The feedwater pipe rupture at Loviisa 1 and the resulting inspections and repairs at both Loviisa plant units brought about an outage the overall duration of which was 32 days. The annual maintenance outages of the TVO plant units were arranged during the report period and their combined duration was 31.5 days. Nuclear electricity accounted for 35.3% of the total Finnish electricity production during this quarter. The load factor average of the nuclear power plant units was 83.0%. Three events occurred during the report period which are classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale: feedwater pipe rupture at Loviisa 1, control rod withdrawal at TVO I in a test during an outage when the hydraulic scram system was rendered inoperable and erroneous fuel bundle transfers during control rod drives maintenance at TVO II. Other events during this quarter are classified as Level Zero (Below Scale) on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were considerably below authorised limits. Only small amounts of nuclides originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  18. Nuclear power plants: 2009 atw compact statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    At the turn of 2009/2010, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 30 countries of the world. A total of 437 nuclear power plants, which is one plant less than at the 2008/2009 turn, were in operation with an aggregate gross power of approx. 391 GWe and an aggregate net power, respectively, of 371 GWe. The available gross power of nuclear power plants did not changed noticeably from 2008 to the end of 2009. In total 2 nuclear generating units were commissioned in 2009. One NPP started operation in India and one in Japan. Three nuclear generating units in Japan (2) und Lithuania (1) were decomissioned in 2009. 52 nuclear generating units, i.e. 10 plants more than at the end of 2008, with an aggregate gross power of approx. 51 GWe, were under construction in 14 countries end of 2009. New or continued projects are notified from (number of new projects): China (+9), Russia (1), and South Korea (1). Some 84 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning and licensing phases worldwide; on some of them, contracts have already been awarded. Another units are in their preliminary project phases. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear power plants: 2008 atw compact statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    At the turn of 2008/2009, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. A total of 438 nuclear power plants, which is one plant less than at the 2007/2008 turn, were in operation with an aggregate gross power of approx. 393 GWe and an aggregate net power, respectively, of 372 GWe. The available gross power of nuclear power plants didn't changed noticeabely from 2007 to the end of 2008. No nuclear generating unit was commissioned in 2008. One nuclear generating unit in the Slovak Republic was decomissioned in 2008. 42 nuclear generating units, i.e. 10 plants more than at the end of 2007, with an aggregate gross power of approx. 38 GWe, were under construction in 14 countries end of 2008. New or continued projects are notified from (in brackets: number of new projects): Bulgaria (2), China (5), South Korea (2), Russia (1), and the Slovak Republic (2). Some 80 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning and licensing phases worldwide; on some of them, contracts have already been awarded. Another approximately 120 units are in their preliminary project phases. (orig.)

  20. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria. Part 6. The chronology of discharges of caesium-137, plutonium and americium-241 from BNFL Sellafield, as recorded in lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakins, J D; Cambray, R S

    1985-04-01

    A study has been made of the radionuclide content of lake sediments from Cumbria in order to determine the history of discharges of /sup 137/Cs and actinides from the Sellafield works of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). Sediment cores have been taken from Ullswater and Grasmere, which are remote from Sellafield, in order to establish the behaviour of nuclear weapon fallout nuclides. Cores have also been taken from Barfield Tarn, which is 19 km SE of Sellafield but close to the sea, and from Ponsonby and Harnsey Moss Tarns, close to Sellafield. All sediments were analysed for /sup 137/Cs and sup(239+240)Pu. Additional measurements of /sup 238/Pu and /sup 241/Am were made on samples from the closer tarns. The sediment cores were dated by the /sup 210/Pb method and, where appropriate, by the /sup 137/Cs technique also. The amounts of /sup 137/Cs and sup(239+240)Pu in sediments from Barfield Tarn could be accounted for by fallout from nuclear weapons, although the levels of /sup 241/Am were marginally greater. However in Harnsey Moss Tarn the levels of actinides indicated that they were derived mainly from material originally discharged to sea from Sellafield. Sediment from Ponsonby Tarn contained material derived mainly from discharges to atmosphere.

  1. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-12-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO 1 and II were in operation for almost the whole second quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 87.4 %. In consequence of a fire, which broke out in the switchgear building, connections to both external grids were lost and TVO II relied on power supplied by four back-up diesels for 7.5 hrs. The event is classified as Level 2 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. The process of examining the non-leaking fuel bundles removed from the Loviisa nuclear reactors has continued. The examinations have revealed, so far, that the uppermost spacing lattices of the bundles exhibit deformations similar to those detected in the leaking fuel bundles removed from the reactors. This event is classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Other events in this quarter which are classified according to the International Nuclear Event Scale are Level Zero (Below Scale) on the Scale. The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety has assessed the safety of the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants based on the new regulations issued on 14.2.1991 by the Council of State. The safety regulations are much more stringent than those in force when the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants were built. The assessment indicated that the TVO nuclear power plant meets these safety regulations. The Loviisa nuclear power plant meets the requirements with the exception of certain requirements related to the ensuring of safety functions and provision for accidents. At the Loviisa nuclear power plant there are several projects under consideration to enhance safety

  2. Regulatory requirements for desalination plant coupled with nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik; Jo, Jong Chull; Kim, Hho Jung; Song, Jae Myung

    2005-01-01

    A small-to-medium sized reactor has been developed for multi-purposes such as seawater desalination, ship propulsion, and district heating since early 1990s in Korea. Now, the construction of its scaled-down research reactor, equipped with a seawater desalination plant, is planned to demonstrate the safety and performance of the design of the multi-purpose reactor. And the licensing application of the research reactor is expected in the near future. Therefore, a development of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant is necessary for the preparation of the forthcoming licensing review of the research reactor. In this paper, the following contents are presented: the design of the desalination plant, domestic and foreign regulatory requirements relevant to desalination plants, and a draft of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant

  3. Nuclear power plants and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, K [Ceskoslovenska Komise pro Atomovou Energii, Prague

    1978-05-01

    The environmental impacts are compared of conventional coal-fired and oil-fired power plants and of nuclear power plants. The values are compared of SO/sub 2/, NO/sub 2/, ash and soot emissions with /sup 133/Xe and /sup 85/Kr fission products release and the requirement for air for diluting these emissions in the atmosphere is assessed. Also compared are thermal pollution from an oil-fired power plant and from PWR and fast reactor power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that nuclear energy can solve the problem of increasing demand for electric and heat power while reducing negative environmental impacts.

  4. Nuclear power plants and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, K.

    1978-01-01

    The environmental impacts are compared of conventional coal-fired and oil-fired power plants and of nuclear power plants. The values are compared of SO 2 , NO 2 , ash and soot emmisions with 133 Xe and 85 Kr fission products release and the requirement for air for diluting these emissions in the atmosphere is assessed. Also compared are thermal pollution from an oil-fired power plant and from PWR and fast reactor power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that nuclear energy can solve the problem of increasing demand for electric and heat power while reducing negative environmental impacts. (O.K.)

  5. Intelligent operation system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Toshihiko; Fukumoto, Akira; Suto, Osamu; Naito, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power plants consist of many systems and are operated by skillful operators with plenty of knowledge and experience of nuclear plants. Recently, plant automation or computerized operator support systems have come to be utilized, but the synthetic judgment of plant operation and management remains as human roles. Toshiba is of the opinion that the activities (planning, operation and maintenance) should be integrated, and man-machine interface should be human-friendly. We have begun to develop the intelligent operation system aiming at reducing the operator's role within the fundamental judgment through the use of artificial intelligence. (author)

  6. Steam generators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillequin, Jean

    1975-01-01

    The role and the general characteristics of steam generators in nuclear power plants are indicated, and particular types are described according to the coolant nature (carbon dioxide, helium, light water, heavy water, sodium) [fr

  7. Fiber optic applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collette, P.; Kwapien, D.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic technology possesses many desirable attributes for applications in commercial nuclear power plants. The non-electrical nature of fiber optics is an important factor in an industry governed by federal safety regulations such as Class 1E isolation and separation criteria. Immunity from Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), an increasing industry problem area, is another significant characteristic. Because of the extremely wide bandwidth offered, fiber optics better addresses the data acquistion and communication requirements of the complex processes of a nuclear power plant. Potential for fiber optic sensor applications exists within the nuclear industry because their small size and physical flexibility allows access into normally inaccessible areas. They possess high accuracy and allow environmentally sensitive electronics to be remotely located. The purpose of this paper is to explore current applications for fiber optic technology in modern nuclear plants, document examples of present day usage in C-E plants and suggest possible future application areas

  8. Environmental hazards from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockelmann, D.

    1973-04-01

    The article discusses the radiation exposure due to nuclear power stations in normal operation and after reactor incidents. Also mentioned is the radiation exposure to the emissions from fuel reprocessing plants and radioactive waste facilities. (RW/AK) [de

  9. A trend to small nuclear power plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lameira, Fernando Soares

    2000-01-01

    The release of fossil fuel greenhouse gases and the depletion of cheap oil reserves outside the Persic Gulf suggest a promising scenario for the future of nuclear power. But the end of the Cold War, the crisis of the state, axiological questions and globalization may lead to a marked for small power plants. The purpose of this paper is to analyze these factors, since they are not always considered all together in the future scenarios for nuclear power. It is concluded that the current evolutionary trend of nuclear power projects toward big plants may become one of the main barriers for the introduction of new plants in the future. It is suggested that a combination of fission reactors with technologies unavailable in the 1950's, when the design characteristics of the current nuclear power plants were established, could be considered to overcome this barrier. (author)

  10. Risk analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1983-01-01

    The German risk analysis program for nuclear power plants aiming at the man and the environment is presented. An accident consequence model to calculate the radiological impact and the potential health effects is described. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Vital areas at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Vital area analysis of nuclear power plants has been performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Los Alamos National Laboratory from the late 1970's through the present. The Los Alamos Vital Area Study uses a fault-tree modeling technique to identify vital areas and equipment at nuclear power plants to determine their vulnerability. This technique has been applied to all operating plants and approximately one-half of those under construction in the US. All saboteur-induced loss-of-coolant accidents and transients and the systems needed to mitigate them are considered. As a result of this effort, security programs at nuclear power plants now include vulnerability studies that identify targets in a systematic manner, and thus unnecessary protection has been minimized. 1 ref., 8 figs., 1 tab

  12. Design quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Standard contains the requirements for the quality assurance program applicable to the design phase of a nuclear plant, and is applicable to the design of safety-related equipment, systems, and structures, as identified by the owner. 1 fig

  13. ALARA for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of maintaining radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is outlined in connection with nuclear power plant operations. The basis of the concept is reviewed and a specific example of ALARA action is presented. (author)

  14. Design quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    This Standard contains the requirements for the quality assurance program applicable to the design phase of a nuclear plant, and is applicable to the design of safety-related equipment, systems, and structures, as identified by the owner. 1 fig.

  15. Environmental and security challenges of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The world population increase, the acceleration of global requirement for development and the need to expand energy production, have led to the depletion of natural resources. The international efforts are increasing to get clean, safe and economical energy sources . The electricity generated from nuclear energy considers less polluting and high economic competitiveness as well as reliability and efficiency. The nuclear power plants projects face significant challenges, especially after two major accidents, in Chernobyl 1986 and Fukushima 2011 including the fears of radiation effects, nuclear waste management and nuclear proliferation issues, as well as the lack of public acceptance. So those bodies interested in operating nuclear power plants work to increase nuclear safety standards, review the nuclear facilities safety, know the strict application of laws, seek to prove the economic competitiveness, maintain environmental security, assist in the nonproliferation regime and gain public acceptance. This article discusses the most important environmental and security challenges of nuclear power plants. It highlights the importance of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy as a source of sustainable development and environmental security. It also offers a number of recommendations to support the Arab countries trend towards the inclusion of nuclear energy option within their national programs to generate electricity. (author)

  16. Problems facing a first nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, E.

    1986-01-01

    Requirement of nuclear power generation. Reason for considering a nuclear power programme. Decision to 'go nuclear'. Existing antecedents in the country (nuclear research institution, conventional generating plants, other nuclear utilities). - First organizational steps. Feasibility studies. Site selection and power module. Eventual reactor type decision. Site approval. - Pre-purchasing activities. Eventual selection of a consultant. Domestic participation capabilities. Pre-qualification bids. - Definition of contract type and scopes. Turn-key/non-turn-key. Architect Engineer organization. Bidding documentation. Financing. Warranties. Role of the owner. Licensing procedures and regulations. (orig./GL)

  17. Nuclear plant fire incident data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sideris, A.G.; Hockenbury, R.W.; Yeater, M.L.; Vesely, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized nuclear plant fire incident data file was developed by American Nuclear Insurers and was further analyzed by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute with technical and monetary support provided by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Data on 214 fires that occurred at nuclear facilities have been entered in the file. A computer program has been developed to sort the fire incidents according to various parameters. The parametric sorts that are presented in this article are significant since they are the most comprehensive statistics presently available on fires that have occurred at nuclear facilities

  18. Nuclear power plant with several reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishanin, E I; Ilyunin, V G; Kuznetsov, I A; Murogov, V M; Shmelev, A N

    1972-05-10

    A design of a nuclear power plant suggested involves several reactors consequently transmitting heat to a gaseous coolant in the joint thermodynamical circuit. In order to increase the power and the rate of fuel reproduction the low temperature section of the thermodynamical circuit involves a fast nuclear reactor, whereas a thermal nuclear reactor is employed in the high temperature section of the circuit for intermediate heating and for over-heating of the working body. Between the fast nuclear and the thermal nuclear reactors there is a turbine providing for the necessary ratio between pressures in the reactors. Each reactor may employ its own coolant.

  19. Report concerning Zarnowiec nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albinowski, S.; Dakowski, M.; Downarowicz, M.

    1990-01-01

    Report of the Team of the President of the National Atomic Energy Agency regarding Zarnowiec nuclear power plant contains the analysis of situation in Poland in June 1990, the assessment of public opinion, as well as the description of ecological, technical and economical problems. The team's conclusions are given together with the general conclusion to stop the construction of Zarnowiec nuclear power plant. 5 appendixes, 6 enclosures, 1 documents list, 1 tab. (A.S.)

  20. Nuclear power plant pressure vessels. Inservice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The requirements for the planning and reporting of inservice inspections of nuclear power plant pressure vessels are presented. The guide specifically applies to inservice inspections of Safety class 1 and 2 nuclear power plant pressure vessels, piping, pumps and valves plus their supports and reactor pressure vessel internals by non- destructive examination methods (NDE). Inservice inspections according to the Pressure Vessel Degree (549/73) are discussed separately in the guide YVL 3.0. (4 refs.)

  1. Quality assurance organization for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides requirements, recommendations and illustrative examples for structuring, staffing and documenting the organizations that perform activities affecting quality of a nuclear power plant. It also provides guidance on control of organization interfaces, and establishment of lines for direction, communication and co-ordination. The provisions of this Guide are applicable to all organizations participating in any of the constituent areas of activities affecting quality of a nuclear power plant, such as design, manufacture, construction, commissioning and operation

  2. Risk analyses of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehee, J.N.T.; Seebregts, A.J.

    1991-02-01

    Probabilistic risk analyses of nuclear power plants are carried out by systematically analyzing the possible consequences of a broad spectrum of causes of accidents. The risk can be expressed in the probabilities for melt down, radioactive releases, or harmful effects for the environment. Following risk policies for chemical installations as expressed in the mandatory nature of External Safety Reports (EVRs) or, e.g., the publication ''How to deal with risks'', probabilistic risk analyses are required for nuclear power plants

  3. Method of operating a nuclear turbine plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hiraku; Ootawara, Yasuhiko; Imai, Tetsu

    1985-04-25

    A method is presented to prevent the lowering in the reactor feedwater temperature thereby secure necessary amount of steams even in a plant operation under low load. The feedwater temperature of a nuclear reactor is detected at the low load region of the plant and high enthalpy steams are supplied to a high pressure feedwater heater by opening a supply stream extract switching valve. This enables to maintain the feedwater temperature in the nuclear reactor at a constant level.

  4. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, M.

    1983-07-01

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those plants, against the action of earth quarks is described. The instrumentation is based on the nuclear standards and other components used, as well as their general localization is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The accelerometer is described in detail. (Author) [pt

  5. Fire scenarios in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asp, I.B.; MacDougall, E.A.; Hall, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    This report defines a Design Base Fire and looks at 3 major areas of a hypothetical model for a Nuclear Power Plant. In each of these areas a Design Base Fire was developed and explained. In addition, guidance is given for comparing fire conditions of a given Nuclear Power Plant with the model plant described. Since there is such a wide variation in nuclear plant layouts, model areas were chosen for simplicity. The areas were not patterned after any existing plant area; rather several plant layouts were reviewed and a simplified model developed. The developed models considered several types of fires. The fire selected was considered to be the dominant one for the case in point. In general, the dominant fire selected is time dependent and starts at a specific location. After these models were developed, a comparison was drawn between the model and an operating plant for items such as area, cable numbers and weight, tray sizes and lengths. The heat loads of the model plant are summarized by area and compared with those of an actual operating plant. This document is intended to be used as a guide in the evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations and a summarization of one acceptable analytical methodology to accomplish this

  6. Cost savings from extended life nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, L.R. Jr.; Deutsch, T.R.; Schenler, W.W.

    1988-09-01

    This study assesses the costs and benefits of nuclear power plant life extension (NUPLEX) for the overall US under widely varying economic assumptions and compares these with alternative new coal- fired plants (NEWCOAL). It is found that NUPLEX saves future electricity consumers more than 3 cents/-kwh compared with NEWCOAL. The NUPLEX costs and benefits for existing individual US nuclear power plants under base-line, or most likely, assumptions are assessed to determine the effects of the basic plant design and plant age. While benefits vary widely, virtually all units would have a positive benefit from NUPLEX. The study also presents a cost-benefit analysis of the nuclear industry's planned advanced light water reactor (ALWR). It is concluded that ALWR offers electrical power at a substantially lower cost than NEWCOAL. 9 refs., 6 figs

  7. The safety of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Do nuclear power plants present an unjustifiable risk Can there be confidence in their safety The Uranium Institute invited a group of senior safety experts from eight different Western countries operating different types of reactors to provide an authoritative explanation for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application and their implications. The report presents the group's opinion on the level of safety achieved in the Western nuclear power plants with which the authors are directly familiar. Although many of the points made may well also be true for non-Western reactors, the report does not cover them except where specifically stated. It does describe and discuss the causes of the Chernobyl disaster. It does not compare nuclear power with other fuels, nor does it deal with its benefits, since however great the benefits from the peaceful use of nuclear power, and its own advantages over other fuels, they could not compensate for lack of safety. The conclusion reached is that the risk associated with electricity production at nuclear power plants can be kept very low. Proper use of the extensive knowledge available today can guarantee operation of nuclear power plants at very high safety levels, carrying very low risks, both to health and of contamination of the environment: risks that are continually lowered by upgrading existing plants and their operation, and by the design of future power plants. (author).

  8. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-12-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations related to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Safety-enhancing plant modifications and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, and tabulated data on the plants' production and their load factors are also given. At the Loviisa 1 plant unit one of two specially-backed AC busbars was lost during the second quarter of 1993. A ca. 30 minute voltage break caused malfunctions in the plant unit's electrical equipment and rendered inoperable certain components important to safety. The event is rated on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) at level 1. In inspections carried out at TVO II during the annual maintenance outage, the number of cracks detected in control rod structural material was higher than usual. When cracks occur, part of boron carbide, the power regulating medium in control rods, may wash into the reactor water and control rod shutdown capability may be impaired. The event is rated on the INES at level 1. Other events in the second quarter of 1993 had no bearing on nuclear or radiation safety. (4 figs., 5 tabs.)

  9. PWR reactors for BBR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure and functioning of the nuclear steam generator system developed by BBR and its components are described. Auxiliary systems, control and load following behaviour and fuel management are discussed and the main data of PWR given. The brochure closes with a perspective of the future of the Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power plant. (GL) [de

  10. How safe are nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    After naming the countries in which power plants are operated today, the author discusses the attitudes of their governments towards the problem of nuclear safety as well as the question if today's measures are sufficient in developing countries considering the increasing utilization of nuclear energy.

  11. Operation reports of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The requirements aiming to standardize the program of nuclear power plant operation report, required by Brazilian Energy Commission - CNEN - to evaluate the activities related to the nuclear technical safety and to the radiation protection during the units operational phase, are showed. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Automated ultrasonic inspection of nuclear plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.A.; Dolbey, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    For reasons of safety and efficiency, automated systems are used in performing ultrasonic inspection of nuclear components. An automated system designed specifically for the inspection of headers in a nuclear plant is described. In-service inspection results obtained with this system are shown to correlate with pre-service inspection results obtained by manual methods

  13. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  14. MODELLING OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DECOMMISSIONING FINANCING

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bemš, J.; Knápek, J.; Králík, T.; Hejhal, M.; Kubančák, Ján; Vašíček, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 4 (2015), s. 519-522 ISSN 0144-8420 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nuclear power plant * methodology * future decommissioning costs Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.894, year: 2015

  15. Effort on Nuclear Power Plants safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayoto.

    1979-01-01

    Prospects of nuclear power plant on designing, building and operation covering natural safety, technical safety, and emergency safety are discussed. Several problems and their solutions and nuclear energy operation in developing countries especially control and permission are also discussed. (author tr.)

  16. Architecture and aesthetics of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreu, P.

    1977-01-01

    Having first analysed the main aesthetical and architectural problems related to the establishment of nuclear sites, the first results of the description is given of studies undertaken by a group of architects asked by E.D.F. to conceive the main buildings of a nuclear power plant and to imagine their insert in the site [fr

  17. PLCs for nuclear fire control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, Neil

    1990-01-01

    The new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at British Nuclear Fuel's Sellafield site is a very large and complex system. This article describes the computerized control system used for fire damage control in the two main production areas, the head end and the chemical separation segments. Over one thousand fire dampers are controlled by an interlinking system of small computers linked to a main system in the central control room. The choice of hardware and software is also described. (UK)

  18. Nuclear power plant safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.

    1980-01-01

    The Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants states that: 'In discharging its responsibility for public health and safety, the government should ensure that the operational safety of a nuclear reactor is subject to surveillance by a regulatory body independent of the operating organization'. In Brazil this task is being carried out by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear in accordance with the best international practice. (orig./RW)

  19. Engineering development in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, P.

    1979-01-01

    Proceeding from the up-to-now experience in the erection of nuclear power stations, especially of the first and second unit of the Greifswald nuclear power plant, the following essential aspects of the development of constructional engineering are discussed: (1) constructional features and criteria, (2) organizational management, (3) current status and problems in prelimary operations, and (4) possibilities of further expenditure reductions in constructing nuclear power stations

  20. Nuclear power plant construction activity, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Cost estimates, chronological data on construction progress, and the physical characteristics of nuclear units in commercial operation and units in the construction pipeline as of December 31, 1986, are presented. This report, which is updated annually, was prepared to provide an overview of the nuclear power plant construction industry. The report contains information on the status of nuclear generating units, average construction costs and lead-times, and construction milestones for individual reactors

  1. Insurance risk of nuclear power plant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, J.

    1976-01-01

    The limited number of sites available in the Federal Republic of Germany for the erection of nuclear power plants has resulted in the construction of multiple nuclear generating units on a few sites, such as Biblis, Gundremmingen and Neckarwestheim. At a value invested of approximately DM 1,200/kW this corresponds to a property concentration on one site worth DM 2 - 3 billion and more. This raises the question whether a concentration of value of this magnitude does not already exceed the limits of bearable economic risks. The property risk of a nuclear power plant, as that of any other industrial plant, is a function of the property that can be destroyed in a maximum probable loss. Insurance companies subdivide plants into so-called complex areas in which fire damage or nuclear damage could spread. While in some foreign countries twin nuclear power plants are built, where the technical systems of both units are installed in one building without any physical separation, dual unit plants are built in the Federal Republic in which the complexes with a high concentration of valuable property are physically separate building units. As a result of this separation, property insurance companies have no grounds for assessing the risk and hence, the premium different from those of single unit plants. (orig.) [de

  2. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  3. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  4. Comparative studies between nuclear power plants and hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegassi, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper shows the quantitative evolution of the power plants in the main countries of the world. The Brazilian situation is analysed, with emphasys in the technical and economical aspects related to power production by hidroelectric or nuclear power plants. The conclusion is that the electricity produced by hidro power plants becomes not economics when is intended to be produced at large distances from the demand centers. (Author) [pt

  5. Operations quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This standard covers the quality assurance of all activities concerned with the operation and maintenance of plant equipment and systems in CANDU-based nuclear power plants during the operations phase, the period between the completion of commissioning and the start of decommissioning

  6. Nuclear power plant operational data compilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, S.

    1980-01-01

    Electricite de France R and D Division has set up a nuclear power plant operational data compilation system. This data bank, created through American documents allows results about plant operation and operational material behaviour to be given. At present, French units at commercial operation are taken into account. Results obtained after five years of data bank operation are given. (author)

  7. Nuclear power plants of the nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyermann, P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power plants which will be available in the second half of the nineties are introduced. The demands which utilities must put on such a power plant that it covers their needs and meets the necessary acceptance of the public are presented. 8 figs

  8. Drought prompts government to close nuclear plant

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "A nuclear power plant was shut down Sunday because a record drought left insufficient water to cool down the reactor. The plant supplies more than 10 percent of Romania's electricity and closure prompted fears of a price hike" (1/2 page).

  9. The nuclear plants at Dodewaard and Borssele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, M.

    In this writing, the main benefits and drawbacks of the functioning of the Dutch nuclear power plants at Dodewaard and Borssele are discussed. First, an introductory chapter is devoted to the nuclear developments in the Netherlands and Europe after World War II. Next, the economic aspects of the possible dismantlement of the Dodewaard and Borssele plants are considered. The last part deals with some other aspects like nuclear research and industrial activities in the Netherlands and their relation with Borssele and Dodewaard; safety aspects; the waste problem and non-proliferation problems. (G.J.P.)

  10. Quality assurance program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamon, T.H.

    1976-02-01

    The Topical Report presented establishes and provides the basis for the Brown and Root Quality Assurance Program for Nuclear Power Plants from which the Brown and Root Quality Assurance Manual is prepared and implemented. The Quality Assurance Program is implemented by the Brown and Root Power Division during the design, procurement, and construction phases of nuclear power plants. The Brown and Root Quality Assurance Program conforms to the requirements of Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation 10 CFR 50, Appendix B; to approved industry standards such as ANSI N45.2 and ''Daughter Standards''; or to equivalent alternatives as indicated in the appropriate sections of the report

  11. Preinspection of nuclear power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The general plans of the systems affecting the safety of the nuclear power plants are accepted by the Institute of Radiation Protection (IRP) on the basis of the preinspection of the systems. This is the prerequisite of the preinspection of the structures and components belonging to these systems. Exceptionally, when separately agreed, the IRP may perform the preinspection of a separate structure or component, although the preinspection documentation of the whole system, e.g. the nuclear heat generating system, has not been accepted. This guide applies to the nuclear power plant systems that have been defined to be preinspected in the classification document accepted by the IRP

  12. Losses in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abinger, R.

    1982-01-01

    The author illustrates the special features of engineering insurance for nuclear power plants. The shares of the Allianz Versicherungs-AG in the insurance of construction and erection work and in machinery insurance are dealt with. Risk estimation is usually based on statistical analysis of losses. Loss analysis in the conventional sector of nuclear power plants shows typical characteristics of traditional erection and machinery losses. In the nuclear field, however, costs are greatly increased by added safety measures. For this reason, additional cover is allocated and incorporated in premium assessment. Examples from erection and machinery reveal the greater costs involved in handling losses. (orig.) [de

  13. Quality assurance program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamon, T.H.

    1976-06-01

    This topical report establishes and provides the basis for the Brown and Root Quality Assurance Program for Nuclear Power Plants from which the Brown and Root Quality Assurance Manual is prepared and implemented. The Quality Assurance Program is implemented by the Brown and Root Power Division during the design, procurement, and construction phases of nuclear power plants. The Brown and Root Quality Assurance Program conforms to the requirements of Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation 10 CFR 50, Appendix B; to approved industry standards such as ANSI N45.2 and ''Daughter Standards''; or to equivalent alternatives as indicated in the appropriate sections of this report

  14. Dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook

  15. Operation control device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Osamu.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To render the controlling functions of a central control console more centralized by constituting the operation controls for a nuclear power plant with computer systems having substantially independent functions such as those of plant monitor controls, reactor monitor management and CRT display and decreasing interactions between each of the systems. Constitution: An input/output device for the input of process data for a nuclear power plant and indication data for a plant control console is connected to a plant supervisory and control computer system and a display computer system, the plant supervisory control computer system and a reactor and management computer system are connected with a CRT display control device, a printer and a CRT display input/output device, and the display computer system is connected with the CRT display control device and the CRT display unit on the central control console, whereby process input can be processed and displayed at high speed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Availability Improvement of German Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    High availability is important for the safety and economical performance of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The strategy for availability improvement in a typical German PWR shall be discussed here. Key parameters for strategy development are plant design, availability of safety systems, component reliability, preventive maintenance and outage organization. Plant design, availability of safety systems and component reliability are to a greater extent given parameters that can hardly be influenced after the construction of the plant. But they set the frame for maintenance and outage organisation which have shown to have a large influence on the availability of the plant. (author)

  17. More child leukemia near nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    A French study shows that there are more cases of child leukemia near nuclear power plants but the statistics is low: only 14 cases detected. The same study shows that the excess is not due to the releases of gaseous effluents from the plant, there is no relationship between the excess and a particular type of plant or even a particular plant. Some experts suggest that it might be the movement and intermingling of populations in the plant area that ease the propagation of infectious agents involved in child acute leukemia. A similar result was obtained in Germany a few years ago. (A.C.)

  18. An overview of the QA principles and practices applied to the design, construction, commissioning and bringing into service of an intermediate-level waste encapsulation plant at BNFL Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the arrangements adopted by BNFL to ensure that a new ILW Encapsulation Plant Project is brought from project conception through to commercial operation within a QA system which complies with the appropriate standards and includes the following: the role of the QA function within BNFL Engineering; the organization of the commissioning process into a formal QA system to satisfy the requirements of the Nuclear Site License; and the preparatory work carried out by the Site's QA organization in the management of R and D, the selection and evaluation of raw material suppliers, and the bringing together of large numbers of particularly complex activities and differing organizations to provide assurance of quality of the ultimate product. The author presents an explanation of the arrangements adopted by BNFL to monitor the achievements of quality objectives and to ensure a comprehensive audit programme is maintained

  19. Investigation of human system interface design in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yan; Zhang Yunbo; Wang Zhongqiu

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the importance of HFE in designing nuclear power plant, and introduces briefly the content and scope of HFE, discusses human system interface design of new built nuclear power plants. This paper also describes human system interface design of foreign nuclear power plant, and describes in detail human system interface design of domestic nuclear power plant. (authors)

  20. Nuclear power plants 1995 - a world survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The atw Statistics Report compiled by atw lists 428 nuclear power plants with 363 397 gross MWe in operation in 30 countries in late 1995. Another 62 units with 55 180 gross MWe were under construction in 18 countries. This adds up to a total of 490 units with an aggregate 418 577 MWe. In the course of 1995 four units in four countries started commercial operation. In the survey of electricity generation in 1995 for which no information was made available from China and Kasachstan, a total of 417 nuclear power plants were covered. In the year under review they generated an aggregate 2 282 614 GWH, which is 3.4% more than in the previous year. The highest nuclear generation again was recorded in the USA with 705 771 GWh, followed by France with 377 021 GWh. The Grohnde power station in Germany attained the maximum annual production figure of 11 359 GWh. The survey includes nine tables indicating the generating performance of each nuclear power plant, the development of electricity generation in nuclear plants, and status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1995 arranged by countries, types of reactors, and reactor manufacturers. (orig.) [de

  1. Linguistic control of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeley, J.J.; Johnson, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A multivariable linguistic controller based on fuzzy set theory is discussed and its application to a pressurized water nuclear power plant control is illustrated by computer simulation. The nonlinear power plant simulation model has nine states, two control inputs, one disturbance input, and two outputs. Although relatively simple, the model captures the essential coupled nonlinear plant dynamics and is convenient to use for control system studies. The use of an adaptive version of the controller is also demonstrated by computer simulation

  2. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1986-08-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. (author)

  3. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-09-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)

  4. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.; Lehtinen, P.

    1985-11-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. (author)

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-01-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants in the second quarter of the year 1984 concentrates on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and availability of the plants. (author)

  6. Safety design of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Yu; Zhang Lian; Du Shenghua; Zhao Jiayu

    1984-01-01

    Safety issues have been greatly emphasized through the design of the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant. Reasonable safety margine has been taken into account in the plant design parameters, the design incorporated various safeguard systems, such as engineering safety feature systems, safety protection systems and the features to resist natural catastrophes, e. g. earthquake, hurricanes, tide and so on. Preliminary safety analysis and environmental effect assessment have been done and anti-accident provisions and emergency policy were carefully considered. Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant safety related systems are designed in accordance with the common international standards established in the late 70's, as well as the existing engineering standard of China

  7. Environmental impact due to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, O.; Balfanz, H.P.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental impact due to nuclear power plants is smaller than that due to fossil-fired power plants. The risks of the nuclear power plant operation are determined by the quantity and the probability of the release of radioactive materials. According to the value, the risks of normal operation can be compared to the accident risks. An attempt should be made to effectively reduce the remaining risk at unfavourable sites with the emphasis on accidents with larger effects than design basis accidents. (orig./LH) [de

  8. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-05-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants in the third quarter of the year 1984 concentrates on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)

  9. Academic training for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the increasing emphasis being placed upon academic training of nuclear power plant operators, it is important that institutions of higher education develop and implement programs which will meet the educational needs of operational personnel in the nuclear industry. Two primary objectives must be satisfied by these programs if they are to be effective in meeting the needs of the industry. One objective is for academic quality. The other primary objective is for programs to address the specialized needs of the nuclear plant operator and to be relevant to the operator's job. The Center for Nuclear Studies at Memphis State University, therefore, has developed a total program for these objectives, which delivers the programs, and/or appropriate parts thereto, at ten nuclear plant sites and with other plants in the planning stage. The Center for Nuclear Studies program leads to a Bachelor of Professional Studies degree in nuclear industrial operations, which is offered through the university college of Memphis State University

  10. Nuclear power plants: 2013 atw compact statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2014-03-15

    At the end of 2013, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. A total of 437 nuclear power plants were in operation with an aggregate gross power of approx. 393 GWe and an aggregate net power, respectively, of 372 GWe. This means that the number was unchanged compared to the previous year's number on 31 December 2012. The available gross power of nuclear power plants increased by approx. 2 GWe from 2012 to the end of 2013. In total 4 nuclear generating units were commissioned in 2013 in China (+2) and in the Republic Korea (+1). 6 nuclear generating units were decommissioned in 2013. Four units in the U.S.A. (-4) were shut down due to economical reasons. In Canada (-2) the operation status of 2 units was changed from long-term shutdown to permanently shutdown. 70 nuclear generating units with an aggregate gross power of approx. 73 GWe, were under construction in 15 countries end of 2013. New or continued projects are notified from (in brackets: number of new projects) China (+3), Belarus (+1), Rep. of Korea (+1) and the United Arab Emirates (+1). Some 115 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning and licensing phases worldwide; on some of them, contracts have already been awarded. Another units are in their preliminary project phases. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear power plants: 2013 atw compact statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    At the end of 2013, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. A total of 437 nuclear power plants were in operation with an aggregate gross power of approx. 393 GWe and an aggregate net power, respectively, of 372 GWe. This means that the number was unchanged compared to the previous year's number on 31 December 2012. The available gross power of nuclear power plants increased by approx. 2 GWe from 2012 to the end of 2013. In total 4 nuclear generating units were commissioned in 2013 in China (+2) and in the Republic Korea (+1). 6 nuclear generating units were decommissioned in 2013. Four units in the U.S.A. (-4) were shut down due to economical reasons. In Canada (-2) the operation status of 2 units was changed from long-term shutdown to permanently shutdown. 70 nuclear generating units with an aggregate gross power of approx. 73 GWe, were under construction in 15 countries end of 2013. New or continued projects are notified from (in brackets: number of new projects) China (+3), Belarus (+1), Rep. of Korea (+1) and the United Arab Emirates (+1). Some 115 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning and licensing phases worldwide; on some of them, contracts have already been awarded. Another units are in their preliminary project phases. (orig.)

  12. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-05-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole fourth quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 94.7 % (the whole year 90.9 %). All the events in the last annual quarter, which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale, were below scale/level 0. Also the events which occurred in the other quarters of the year 1991 were rated at the scale's lowest levels. Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site remained well below authorised limits. Only quantities of radioactive material insignificant to radiation exposure originating in nuclear power plants were detected in the samples collected in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants

  13. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Bohr, E.

    1976-04-01

    This annotated bibliography is a first attempt to give a survey of the kind of literature which is relevant for the ergonomic working conditions in nuclear power plants. Such a survey seems to be useful in view of the fact that the 'factor human being' comes recently more and more to the fore in nuclear power plants. In this context, the necessity is often pointed out to systematically include our knowledge of the performance capacity and limits of human beings when designing the working conditions for the personnel of nuclear power plants. For this reason, the bibliography is so much intended for the ergonomics experts as for the experts of nuclear engineering. (orig./LN) [de

  14. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1994-06-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of the Finnish NPPs describe nuclear and radiation safety related events and observations which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers significant. Safety improvements at the plants and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors are also given. One event during the last quarter of 1993 was rated on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) as level 1. During this event at Loviisa 2, the secondary circuit emergency feedwater system was erroneously isolated from automatic start-up readiness. The error went unnoticed for 4.5 hours. During 1993 one level 2 incident and three level 1 incidents occurred at the Finnish NPPs. (8 figs., 4 tabs.)

  15. Holographic inspection of nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.L.; Armour, I.A.; Glanville, R.; Malcolm, G.J.; Wright, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The high resolution, enormous depth of field and high tolerance to radiation of holography mean that it has great potential as an inspection tool in the nuclear industry. In addition, the ability of double-pulse holography to yield detailed information on vibration over the whole field of both large and small structures provides measurements that often cannot be obtained in any other way. This paper reviews the development of equipment for the holographic inspection of nuclear fuel elements; a portable holocamera for use inside reactors; and the application of holographic techniques for vibration measurements in a nuclear power station. (author)

  16. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs.

  17. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs

  18. Nuclear power plants: 2004 atw compact statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    In late 2004, nuclear power plants were available for power supply or were under construction in 32 countries worldwide. A total of 441 nuclear power plants, i.e. two plants more than in late 2003, were in operation with an aggregate gross power of approx. 386 GWe and an aggregate net power, respectively, of 362 GWe, in 31 countries. The available capacity of nuclear power plants increased by approx. 5 GWe as a result of the additions by the six units newly commissioned: Hamaoka 5 (Japan), Ulchin 6 (Korea), Kalinin 3 (Russia), Khmelnitski 2 (Ukraine), Qinshan II-2 (People's Republic of China), and Rowno 4 (Ukraine). In addition, unit 3 of the Bruce A nuclear power plant in Canada with a power of 825 MWe was restarted after an outage of many years. Contrary to earlier plans, a recommissioning program was initiated for the Bruce A-1 and A-2 units, which are also down at present. Five plants were decommissioned for good in 2004; Chapelcross 1 to 4 with 50 MWe each in the United Kingdom, and Ignalina 1 with 1 300 MWe in Lithuania. 22 nuclear generating units with an aggregate gross power of 19 GWe in nine countries were under construction in late 2004. In India, construction work was started on a new project, the 500 MWe PFBR prototype fast breeder reactor. In France, the EDF utility announced its intention to build an EPR on the Flamanville site beginning in 2007. (orig.)

  19. Problems of nuclear power plant safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchomel, J.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is discussed with regard to external effects on the containment and to the human factor. As for external effects, attention is focused on shock waves which may be due to explosions or accidents in flammable material transport and storage, to missiles, and to earthquake effects. The criteria for evaluating nuclear power plant safety in different countries are shown. Factors are discussed affecting the reliability of man with regard to his behaviour in a loss-of-coolant accident in the power plant. Different types of PWR containments and their functions are analyzed, mainly in case of accident. Views are discussed on the role of destructive accidents in the overall evaluation of fast reactor safety. Experiences are summed up gained with the operation of WWER reactors with respect to the environmental impact of the nuclear power plants. (Z.M.)

  20. Nuclear power plant transients: where are we

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, D.

    1984-05-01

    This document is in part a postconference review and summary of the American Nuclear Society sponsored Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors Conference held in Jackson, Wyoming, September 26-29, 1983, and in part a reflection upon the issues of plant transients and their impact on the viability of nuclear power. This document discusses state-of-the-art knowledge, deficiencies, and future directions in the plant transients area as seen through this conference. It describes briefly what was reported in this conference, emphasizes areas where it is felt there is confidence in the nuclear industry, and also discusses where the experts did not have a consensus. Areas covered in the document include major issues in operational transients, transient management, transient events experience base, the status of the analytical tools and their capabilities, probabilistic risk assessment applications in operational transients, and human factors impact on plant transients management

  1. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1990-08-01

    During the first quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. Nuclear electricity accounted for 32.5% of the total Finnish electricity production during this quarter. The load factor average of the nuclear power plant units was 99.0%. An international nuclear event scale has been introduced for the classification of nuclear power plant events according to their nuclear and radiation safety significance. The scale first undergoes about a year long trial period in several countries. on the scale, events are divided into levels from 1 to 7 of which events at Level 7 are the most serious. Furthermore, Level 0 (Below Scale) is used for events with no safety significance. All events which occurred at the Finnish nuclear power plants this quarter are classified as Level 0. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were considerably below authorised limits. At the Loviisa plant, a back-up emergency feedwater system independent of the plant's other systems has been introduced which offers a new, alternative means of removing residual heat from the reactor. Owing to this system, the risk of a severe accident has been further reduced. At the TVO plants, systems have been introduced by which accident sequences which lead to containment failure could be eliminated and the consequences of a potential severe accident could be mitigated. In this report, also the release of short-lived radioactive materials along the transfer route of an irradiated sample is described which occured at the FiR 1 research reactor. The amounts of radioactive materials individuals received in their bodies in connection with this event were very low

  3. Safety provisions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.

    1994-01-01

    Safety of nuclear power plants is determined by a deterministic approach complemented by probabilistic considerations. Much use has been made of the wealth of information from more than 6000 years of reactor operation. Design, construction and operation is governed by national and international safety standards and practices. The IAEA has prepared a set of Nuclear Safety Standards as recommendations to its Member States, covering the areas of siting, design, operations, quality assurance, and governmental organisations. In 1988 the IAEA published a report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group on Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, summarizing the underlying objectives and principles of excellence in nuclear safety and the way in which its aspects are interrelated. The paper will summarize some of the key safety principles and provisions, and results and uses of Probabilistic Safety Assessments. Some comments will be made on the safety of WWER 440/230 and WWER-1000 reactors which are operated on Bulgaria. 8 figs

  4. The financing of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Many countries have recognised that greater use of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. However, given the high capital cost and complexity of nuclear power plants, financing their construction often remains a challenge. This is especially true where such financing is left to the private sector in the context of competitive electricity markets. This study examines the financial risks involved in investing in a new nuclear power plant, how these can be mitigated, and how projects can be structured so that residual risks are taken by those best able to manage them. Given that expansion of nuclear power programmes will require strong and sustained government support, the study highlights the role of governments in facilitating and encouraging investment in new nuclear generating capacity

  5. Robotic devices for nuclear plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, E

    1986-05-01

    The article surveys the background of nuclear remote handling and its associated technology, robotics. Manipulators, robots, robot applications, extending the range of applications, and future developments, are all discussed.

  6. SWOT of nuclear power plant sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaspour, M.; Ghazi, S.

    2008-01-01

    SWOT Analysis is a Useful tool that can he applied to most projects or business ventures. In this article we are going to examine major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of nuclear power plants in view of sustainable development. Nuclear power plants have already attained widespread recognition for its benefits in fossil pollution abatement, near-zero green house gas emission, price stability and security of energy supply. The impressive new development is that these virtues are now a cost -free bonus, because, in long run, nuclear energy has become an inexpensive way to generate electricity. Nuclear energy's pre-eminence economically and environmentally has two implications for government policy. First, governments should ensure that nuclear licensing and safety oversight arc not only rigorous but also efficient in facilitating timely development of advanced power plants. Second, governments should be bold incentivizing the transformation to clean energy economics, recognizing that such short-term stimulus will, in the case of nuclear plants, simply accelerate desirable changes that now have their own long-term momentum. The increased competitiveness of nuclear power plant is the result of cost reductions in all aspects of nuclear economics: Construction, financing, operations, waste management and decommissioning. Among the cost-lowering factors are the evolution to standardized reactor designs, shorter construction periods, new financing techniques, more efficient generation technologies, higher rates of reactor utilization, and longer plant lifetimes. U.S World Nuclear Association report shows that total electricity costs for power plant construction and operation were calculated at two interest rates. At 10%, midrange generating costs per kilowatt-hour are nuclear at 4 cents, coal at 4.7 cents and natural gas at 5.1 cent. At a 5% interest rate, mid-range costs per KWh fall to nuclear at 2.6 cents, coal at 3.7 cents and natural gas at 4.3 cents

  7. Nuclear power plants: selected references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Books, articles, and US government documents cited in this bibliography cover the political, economic, environmental, scientific, and legal aspects of nuclear power. Because the question of safety has been such an important issue in the debate over nuclear power, safety aspects are treated in a substantial number of the publications cited. All material listed was published in the past 15 years, with the majority appearing since 1975

  8. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station... that the NRC take action with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee.... Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant (Fitzpatrick), Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Vermont Yankee), and...

  9. Advancements in nuclear plant maintenance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meligi, A.E.; Maras, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The viability of the nuclear option as a technology choice for present and future electricity generation will be decided primarily on the basis of operating cost to achieve plant performance objectives. In a nuclear plant, performance is judged not only on availability and output rate but also on safety risk and radiation exposure. Operating, cost is essentially made up of the fuel cost and operation and maintenance (O and M) cost. Over the past decade, the industry average nuclear plant performance has improved significantly; however, this improvement was accompanied by rising O and M cost. The net result was that the nuclear option lost its long-standing economic advantage over the coal option, based on the industry average comparison, around 1987 - with the gap narrowing slightly in the last 2 years. In recent times, gas-fired plants have also become a basis for comparison. The electric generation cost comparisons of various fuel options has led to even greater scrutiny of nuclear plant performance, with the poorer performing plants facing the risk of shutdown. While effective O and M programs improve plant performance, present industry data show that there is no direct correlation between the cost of a plant O and M program and its associated performance. There is a significant number of existing tools and techniques in the O and M area that have proved to be successful and have resulted in significant benefits and payback. This paper presents an overview of the nuclear industry efforts to improve the conduct of O and M activities, describes the basic elements of an effective O and M program, and addresses some of the state-of-the-art tools and techniques to enhance maintenance work planning, training, and procedures

  10. Nuclear material control systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    Paragraph 70.51(c) of 10 CFR Part 70 requires each licensee who is authorized to possess at any one time special nuclear material in a quantity exceeding one effective kilogram to establish, maintain, and follow written material control and accounting procedures that are sufficient to enable the licensee to account for the special nuclear material in his possession under license. While other paragraphs and sections of Part 70 provide specific requirements for nuclear material control systems for fuel cycle plants, such detailed requirements are not included for nuclear power reactors. This guide identifies elements acceptable to the NRC staff for a nuclear material control system for nuclear power reactors. (U.S.)

  11. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of Withdrawal of...) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, to withdraw its... for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, located in Calvert County, MD. The...

  12. Nuclear energy. Towards a re-launching in the UK?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marante, W.

    2006-01-01

    While the country recently started a debate about energy, United Kingdom is questioning about a re-launching of its nuclear energy. Even if UK's history of atomic energy is rather old (first nuclear power plant, Calder Hall, built in 1953), the lack of standardization of british plants, the fear of terrorism, the uncertainties about radioactive wastes, and a series of incidents at the Sellafield reprocessing plant have calmed down the infatuations of the past. This paper makes a brief overview of the energy prospects of a country where nuclear energy is in standby since 10 years. (J.S.)

  13. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Pekka

    1987-07-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. No event in the report period, or in the whole year of 1986, essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. For remedying certain defects found in the adminstrative procedures concerning plant operation and maintenance, the Loviisa power plant was shut down for several days in September

  14. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Pekka

    1987-05-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the perssonnel or the environment. For remedying certain defects found in the administrative procedures concerning plant operation and maintenance, the Loviisa power plant was shut down for several days

  15. Fatigue assessments in operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, S.R.; Deardorff, A.F.; Peltola, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1991, the ASME Section XI Task Group on Operating Plant Fatigue Assessment was formed to develop criteria and evaluation methodology for evaluating the effects of cyclic operation in operating nuclear power plants. The objective was to develop guidelines for inclusion in Section XI that could be used by plant operators in evaluating fatigue concerns and their impact on serviceability. This paper discusses the work performed by the Task Group. It explores the concept of ''Fatigue Design Basis'' versus ''Fatigue Operating Basis'' by examining the roles of ASME Section III and ASME Section XI in the design and operation of the nuclear power plants. Guidelines are summarized that may help plant operators perform effective design transient cycle evaluations and optimize cycle counting and fatigue usage tracking. The alternative fatigue evaluation approach using flaw tolerance is also introduced

  16. Revised inspection program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates nuclear power plants to assure adequate protection of the public and the environment from the dangers associated with nuclear materials. NRC fulfills this responsibility through comprehensive safety reviews of nuclear facilities, licensing of organizations that use nuclear materials, and continuing inspection. The NRC inspection program is currently conducted from the five regional offices in or near Philadelphia, Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas and San Francisco. Inspectors travel from the regional offices to nuclear power plants in various phases of construction, test and operation in order to conduct inspections. However, in June 1977 the Commission approved a revision to the inspection program that will include stationing inspectors at selected plants under construction and at all plants in operation. In addition, the revised program provides for appraising the performance of licensees on a national basis and involves more direct measurement and observation by NRC inspectors of work and tests in progress. The program also includes enhanced career management consisting of improved training and career development for inspectors and other professionals. The report was requested in the Conference Report on the NRC Authorization for Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1978. The report provides a discussion of the basis for both the current and revised inspection programs, describes these programs, and shows how the NRC inspection force will be trained and utilized. In addition, the report includes a discussion of the actions that will be taken to assure the objectivity of inspectors

  17. Safety goals for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    In its official policy statement on safety goals for the operation of nuclear power plants, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) set two qualitative goals, supported by two quantitative objectives. These goals are that (1) individual members of the public should be provided a level of protection from the consequences of nuclear power plant operation such that individuals bear no significant additional risk to life and health; and (2) societal risks to life and health from nuclear power plant operation should be comparable to or less than the risks of generating electricity by viable competing technologies and should not be a significant addition to other societal risks. As an alternative, this study proposes four quantitative safety goals for nuclear power plants. It begins with an analysis of the NRC's safety-goal development process, a key portion of which was devoted to delineating criteria for evaluating goal-development methods. Based on this analysis, recommendations for revision of the NRC's basic benchmarks for goal development are proposed. Using the revised criteria, NRC safety goals are evaluated, and the alternative safety goals are proposed. To further support these recommendations, both the NRC's goals and the proposed goals are compared with the results of three major probabilistic risk assessment studies. Finally, the potential impact of these recommendations on nuclear safety is described

  18. Ground assessment methods for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    It is needless to say that nuclear power plant must be constructed on the most stable and safe ground. Reliable assessment method is required for the purpose. The Ground Integrity Sub-committee of the Committee of Civil Engineering of Nuclear Power Plant started five working groups, the purpose of which is to systematize the assessment procedures including geological survey, ground examination and construction design. The works of working groups are to establishing assessment method of activities of faults, standardizing the rock classification method, standardizing assessment and indication method of ground properties, standardizing test methods and establishing the application standard for design and construction. Flow diagrams for the procedures of geological survey, for the investigation on fault activities and ground properties of area where nuclear reactor and important outdoor equipments are scheduled to construct, were established. And further, flow diagrams for applying investigated results to design and construction of plant, and for determining procedure of liquidification nature of ground etc. were also established. These systematized and standardized methods of investigation are expected to yield reliable data for assessment of construction site of nuclear power plant and lead to the safety of construction and operation in the future. In addition, the execution of these systematized and detailed preliminary investigation for determining the construction site of nuclear power plant will make much contribution for obtaining nation-wide understanding and faith for the project. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  19. Nuclear power plants: 2005 atw compact statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power plants were available for power supply and under construction, respectively, in 32 countries of the world as per end of 2005. A total of 444 nuclear power plants, i.e. three plants more than at the end of 2004, with an aggregate gross power of approx. 389 GWe and an aggregate net power of 370 GWe, respectively, were in operation in 31 countries. The available capacity of nuclear power plants increased by some 4,5 GWe as a result of the capacities added by the four newly commissioned units of Higashidori 1 (Japan), Shika 2 (Japan), Tarapur 4 (India), and Tianwan 1 (China). In addition, unit A-1 of the Pickering nuclear power station in Canada, with 825 MWe, was restarted after a downtime of several years. Two plants were decommissioned for good in 2005: Obrigheim in Germany, and Barsebaeck 2 in Sweden. 23 nuclear generating units, i.e. one unit more than in late 2004, with an aggregate gross power of approx. 19 GWe were still under construction in nine countries by late 2005. In Pakistan, construction of a new project, Chasnupp 2, was started; in China, construction was begun of two units, Lingao Phase 2, units 3 and 4, and in Japan, the Shimane 3 generating unit is being built. (orig.)

  20. Countermeasures to earthquakes in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazuhide

    1979-01-01

    The contribution of atomic energy to mankind is unmeasured, but the danger of radioactivity is a special thing. Therefore in the design of nuclear power plants, the safety has been regarded as important, and in Japan where earthquakes occur frequently, the countermeasures to earthquakes have been incorporated in the examination of safety naturally. The radioactive substances handled in nuclear power stations and spent fuel reprocessing plants are briefly explained. The occurrence of earthquakes cannot be predicted effectively, and the disaster due to earthquakes is apt to be remarkably large. In nuclear plants, the prevention of damage in the facilities and the maintenance of the functions are required at the time of earthquakes. Regarding the location of nuclear plants, the history of earthquakes, the possible magnitude of earthquakes, the properties of ground and the position of nuclear plants should be examined. After the place of installation has been decided, the earthquake used for design is selected, evaluating live faults and determining the standard earthquakes. As the fundamentals of aseismatic design, the classification according to importance, the earthquakes for design corresponding to the classes of importance, the combination of loads and allowable stress are explained. (Kako, I.)

  1. Plant Design Nuclear Fuel Element Production Capacity Optimization to Support Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Galung Susanto

    2007-01-01

    The optimization production capacity for designing nuclear fuel element fabrication plant in Indonesia to support the nuclear power plant has been done. From calculation and by assuming that nuclear power plant to be built in Indonesia as much as 12 NPP and having capacity each 1000 MW, the optimum capacity for nuclear fuel element fabrication plant is 710 ton UO 2 /year. The optimum capacity production selected, has considered some aspects such as fraction batch (cycle, n = 3), length of cycle (18 months), discharge burn-up value (Bd) 35,000 up 50,000 MWD/ton U, enriched uranium to be used in the NPP (3.22 % to 4.51 %), future market development for fuel element, and the trend of capacity production selected by advances country to built nuclear fuel element fabrication plant type of PWR. (author)

  2. Nuclear power plants - active environment protection|

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aegerter, I.

    1987-01-01

    The Federal Commission, which is studying energy scenarios, will doubtlessly come to the conclusion that a withdrawal from nuclear energy is technically and economically feasible. Feasibility alone however is no justification for action. Have the questions been asked correctly by the parliamentarians? Are the real problems being bypassed? Is the demand for a withdrawal from nuclear energy soundly based? Is it not oversimplified? Many people are afraid of nuclear energy because they do not understand it. It is necessary that specialists formulate their ideas so that the layman can easily understand them. The broad public can be educated to lose their fear of nuclear power plants which they compare with the nuclear bombs. They can also be educated to lose their fear of radioactivity. The public should also realize that the CO 2 problem is actual and very serious, and that nuclear energy can in fact help to alleviate this particular problem. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Modifications at operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, T.J.; Gazda, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications at operating nuclear power plants offer the structural engineer many challenges in the areas of scheduling of work, field adjustments, and engineering staff planning. The scheduling of structural modification work for operating nuclear power plants is normally closely tied to planned or unplanned outages of the plant. Coordination between the structural engineering effort, the operating plant staff, and the contractor who will be performing the modifications is essential to ensure that all work can be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inaccessibility of some areas in operating nuclear power plants or the short time available to perform the structural engineering in the case of an unscheduled outrage, field verification of a design is not always possible prior to initiating the construction of the modification. This requires the structural engineer to work closely with the contractor to promptly resolve problems due to unanticipated interferences or material procurement problems that may arise during the course of construction. The engineering staff planning for structural modifications at an operating nuclear power plant must be flexible enough to permit rapid response to the common ''fire drills,'' but controlled enough to ensure technically correct designs and to minimize the expenditure of man-hours and the resulting engineering cost

  4. Safety criteria for nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, P.W.; Curtis, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Safety measures have always been required to limit the hazards due to accidental release of radioactive substances from nuclear power plants and chemical plants. The risk associated with the discharge of radioactive substances during normal operation has also to be kept acceptably low. BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels Ltd.) are developing risk criteria as targets for safe plant design and operation. The numerical values derived are compared with these criteria to see if plants are 'acceptably safe'. However, the criteria are not mandatory and may be exceeded if this can be justified. The risk assessments are subject to independent review and audit. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate also has to pass the plants as safe. The assessment principles it uses are stated. The development of risk criteria for a multiplant site (nuclear chemical plants tend to be sited with many others which are related functionally) is discussed. This covers individual members of the general public, societal risks, risks to the workforce and external hazards. (U.K.)

  5. Plant life management and maintenance technologies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tsukasa; Aoki, Masataka; Shimura, Takao; Kaimori, Kimihiro; Koike, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power generation occupying an important position for energy source in Japan and supplying about one third of total electric power usage is now required for further upgrading of its economics under regulation relaxation of electric power business. And, under execution retardation of its new planning plant, it becomes important to operate the already established plants for longer term and to secure their stability. Therefore, technical development in response to the plant life elongation is promoted under cooperation of the Ministry of Economics and Industries, electric power companies, literate, and plant manufacturers. Under such conditions, the Hitachi, Ltd. has progressed some technical developments on check inspection, repairs and maintenance for succession of the already established nuclear power plants for longer term under securing of their safety and reliability. And in future, by proposing the check inspection and maintenance program combined with these technologies, it is planned to exert promotion of maintenance program with minimum total cost from a viewpoint of its plant life. Here were described on technologies exerted in the Hitachi, Ltd. such as construction of plant maintenance program in response to plant life elongation agreeing with actual condition of each plant, yearly change mechanism grasping, life evaluation on instruments and materials necessary for maintenance, adequate check inspection, repairs and exchange, and so forth. (G.K.)

  6. Video camera use at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, M.L.; Langan, M.O.; Owen, D.E.

    1990-08-01

    A survey of US nuclear power plants was conducted to evaluate video camera use in plant operations, and determine equipment used and the benefits realized. Basic closed circuit television camera (CCTV) systems are described and video camera operation principles are reviewed. Plant approaches for implementing video camera use are discussed, as are equipment selection issues such as setting task objectives, radiation effects on cameras, and the use of disposal cameras. Specific plant applications are presented and the video equipment used is described. The benefits of video camera use --- mainly reduced radiation exposure and increased productivity --- are discussed and quantified. 15 refs., 6 figs

  7. Nuclear power plant outage optimisation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    Competitive environment for electricity generation has significant implications for nuclear power plant operations, including among others the need of efficient use of resources, effective management of plant activities such as on-line maintenance and outages. Nuclear power plant outage management is a key factor for good, safe and economic nuclear power plant performance which involves many aspects: plant policy, co-ordination of available resources, nuclear safety, regulatory and technical requirements and, all activities and work hazards, before and during the outage. This technical publication aims to communicate these practices in a way they can be used by operators and utilities in the Member States of the IAEA. It intends to give guidance to outage managers, operating staff and to the local industry on planning aspects, as well as examples and strategies experienced from current plants in operation on the optimization of outage period. This report discusses the plant outage strategy and how this strategy is actually implemented. The main areas identified as most important for outage optimization by the utilities and government organizations participating in this report are: organization and management; outage planning and preparation, outage execution, safety outage review, and counter measures to avoid extension of outages and to easier the work in forced outages. This report was based on discussions and findings by the authors of the annexes and the participants of an Advisory Group Meeting on Determinant Causes for Reducing Outage Duration held in June 1999 in Vienna. The report presents the consensus of these experts regarding best common or individual good practices that can be used at nuclear power plants with the aim to optimize

  8. Thoughts on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouze, Michel

    1996-01-01

    In this article published before the Chernobyl accident (and the greenhouse effect issue), the author comments the evolution of the perception people have on nuclear energy: it was supposed to be the beginning of a golden age, and is finally perceived as a source of thermal and radioactive pollution and a major industrial risk. He outlines and criticizes the various and more or less violent reactions and debates about the fact that choosing nuclear energy means choosing a certain type of society. He considers that this point of view refuses reality. He states that the emerging new and renewable energies cannot be the solution. He comments the emergence of an energy crisis after the first oil crisis, and the associated questions about a possible reduction of consumption, the replacement of oil, the potential of renewable energies. He criticizes the excessive fear about nuclear materials and energy, discusses the actual risks associated with electronuclear production, and discusses the energy issue in the international context to outline the importance of nuclear energy. He finally addresses issues related to the definition and implementation of an energy policy, with EDF as a major actor

  9. Review of nuclear power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehler

    1980-01-01

    This presentation starts with a brief description of the Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein (TUeV) and its main activities in the field of technical assessments. The TUeV-organisation is in general the assessor who performs the review if nuclear power plant systems, structures and equipment. All aspects relating to the safe operation of nuclear power plants are assessed by the TUeV. This paper stresses the review of the design of nuclear power plant systems and structures. It gives an outline on the procedure of an assessment, starting with the regulatory requirements, going into the papers of the applicant and finally ending with the TUeV-appraisal. This procedure is shown using settlement measuring requirements as an example. The review of the design of mechanical structures such as pipes, valves, pump and vessels is shown in detail. (RW)

  10. Nuclear plant cancellations: causes, costs, and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This study was commissioned in order to help quantify the effects of nuclear plant cancellations on the Nation's electricity prices. This report presents a historical overview of nuclear plant cancellations through 1982, the costs associated with those cancellations, and the reasons that the projects were terminated. A survey is presented of the precedents for regulatory treatment of the costs, the specific methods of cost recovery that were adopted, and the impacts of these decisions upon ratepayers, utility stockholders, and taxpayers. Finally, the report identifies a series of other nuclear plants that remain at risk of canellation in the future, principally as a result of similar demand, finance, or regulatory problems cited as causes of cancellation in the past. The costs associated with these potential cancellations are estimated, along with their regional distributions, and likely methods of cost recovery are suggested

  11. Ground acceleration in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena G, P.; Balcazar, M.; Vega R, E.

    2015-09-01

    A methodology that adopts the recommendations of international organizations for determining the ground acceleration at a nuclear power plant is outlined. Systematic presented here emphasizes the type of geological, geophysical and geotechnical studies in different areas of influence, culminating in assessments of Design Basis earthquake and the earthquake Operating Base. The methodology indicates that in regional areas where the site of the nuclear power plant is located, failures are identified in geological structures, and seismic histories of the region are documented. In the area of detail geophysical tools to generate effects to determine subsurface propagation velocities and spectra of the induced seismic waves are used. The mechanical analysis of drill cores allows estimating the efforts that generate and earthquake postulate. Studies show that the magnitude of the Fukushima earthquake, did not affect the integrity of nuclear power plants due to the rocky settlement found. (Author)

  12. Wireless Technology Application to Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Kweon; Jeong, See Chae; Jeong, Ki Hoon; Oh, Do Young; Kim, Jae Hack

    2009-01-01

    Wireless technologies are getting widely used in various industrial processes for equipment condition monitoring, process measurement and other applications. In case of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), it is required to review applicability of the wireless technologies for maintaining plant reliability, preventing equipment failure, and reducing operation and maintenance costs. Remote sensors, mobile technology and two-way radio communication may satisfy these needs. The application of the state of the art wireless technologies in NPPs has been restricted because of the vulnerability for the Electromagnetic Interference and Radio Frequency Interference (EMI/RFI) and cyber security. It is expected that the wireless technologies can be applied to the nuclear industry after resolving these issues which most of the developers and vendors are aware of. This paper presents an overview and information on general wireless deployment in nuclear facilities for future application. It also introduces typical wireless plant monitoring system application in the existing NPPs

  13. A nuclear power plant system engineering workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.H.; Crosby, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    System engineers offer an approach for effective technical support for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. System engineer groups are being set up by most utilities in the United States. Institute of Nuclear Power operations (INPO) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have endorsed the concept. The INPO Good Practice and a survey of system engineer programs in the southeastern United States provide descriptions of system engineering programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe a process for developing a design for a department-level information network of workstations for system engineering groups. The process includes the following: (1) application of a formal information engineering methodology, (2) analysis of system engineer functions and activities; (3) use of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Plant Information Network (PIN) data; (4) application of the Information Engineering Workbench. The resulting design for this system engineer workstation can provide a reference for design of plant-specific systems

  14. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  15. Closures for underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This study demonstrates that, with the appropriate selection of an access concept on the underground nuclear power plant, it is possible to design a gate complying with the increased requirements of the construction of an underground nuclear power plant. The investigations revealed that a comparison leakage of 42 mm in diameter for the failure of seals is too conservative. When selecting suitable seals a leakage being more extensive than the above mentioned one can be prevented even in case of disturbance lasting several months. The closure structures of the personnel and material accesses do not represent any weak point within the concept of the construction method for underground nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  16. Investment issues in nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynon, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    A method that determines the operating lives for existing nuclear power plants is discussed. These assumptions are the basis for projections of electricity supply through 2020 reported in the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 1999. To determine if plants will seek license renewal, one must first determine if they will be operating to the end of their current licenses. This determination is based on an economic test that assumes an investment of $150/kW will be required after 30 yr of operation for plants with older designs. This expenditure is intended to be equivalent to the cost that would be associated with any of several needs such as a one0time investment to replace aging equipment (steam generators), a series of investments to fix age-related degradation, increases in operating costs, or costs associated with decreased performance. This investment is compared with the cost of building and operating the lowest-cost new plant over the same 10-yr period. If a plant fails this test, it is assumed to be retired after 30 yr of service. All other plants are then considered candidates for license renewal. The method used to determine if it is economic to apply for license renewal and operate plants for an additional 20 yr is to assume that plants face an investment of $250 million after 40 yr of operation to refurbish aging components. This investment is compared with the lowest-cost new plant alternative evaluated over the same 20 yr that the nuclear plant would operate. If the nuclear plant is the lowest cost option, it is projected to continue to operate. EIA projects that it would be economic to extend the operating licenses for 3.7 GW of capacity (6 units)

  17. Nuclear power plant in whose backyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.

    1981-01-01

    The authority to regulate the nuclear power industry resides largely with the federal government. But states have the responsibility to protect the health and safety of their citizens and to regulate land use within their borders. The siting of nuclear power plants can engender conflicts between these jurisdictions that are usually resolved in the courts. Most state challenges to federal control of nuclear power have been struck down or severely weakened by the preemption doctrine contained in the supremacy clause of Article VI of the Constitution, which provides for the preemption of federal law over state law in the event of direct conflict. The existing avenues for state control over siting and operation of nuclear power plants can be greatly strengthened while avoiding direct conflict with federal jurisdiction

  18. A nuclear power plant status monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, B.B.; Conradi, L.L.; Weinzimmer, F.

    1986-01-01

    Power plant operation requires decisions that can affect both the availability of the plant and its compliance with operating guidelines. Taking equipment out of service may affect the ability of the plant to produce power at a certain power level and may also affect the status of the plant with regard to technical specifications. Keeping the plant at a high as possible production level and remaining in compliance with the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) can dictate a variety of plant operation and maintenance actions and responses. Required actions and responses depend on the actual operational status of a nuclear plant and its attendant systems, trains, and components which is a dynamic situation. This paper discusses an Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Research Project, RP 2508, the objective of which is to combine the key features of plant information management systems with systems reliability analysis techniques in order to assist nuclear power plant personnel to perform their functions more efficiently and effectively. An overview of the EPRI Research Project is provided along with a detailed discussion of the design and operation of the PSM portion of the project

  19. Gundremmingen (KRB) nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-03-01

    Plant reliability and availability during 1973 was very good despite an unscheduled shutdown in October. A temporal availability of 79.42% and an operating availability of 79.07% yielded a usable current production of 1 634 000 000 000 kWh. In May, during the five-week inspection and refueling period, several machines and items of equipment were overhauled in addition to the major generator strip-down, and checks were also carried out on the safety and protection systems throughout the plant. Particular attention was paid to the fire-protection system so that, for example, a fire-protection valve was installed in the turbine oil circuit. The heating system was made independent of oil supplies and considerable economies were achieved by converting it from oil-firing to secondary steam operation. During October copper deposits from a feedwater pre-heater were discovered in the reactor core. The plant had to be shut down for five weeks in order to clean the reactor out with various items of cleaning equipment. After the plant had been started up again, it proved necessary to take the pre-heater releasing copper out of service. This was possible without any noteworthy loss of power. For further operation, it will be necessary to fit the pre-heater with high-grade steel tubes. Throughout the remainder of the year, the power plant operated under full load without any particular malfunction occurring. At the beginning of the year increasing amount of activity in the reactor water pointed to fuel element damage. It was possible to operate the plant at a constant, low level of water activity during the second half of the year after refuelling and the removal of the faulty elements. Faultless plant operation can likewise be expected for 1974. Owing to the officially required pressure test on the reactor pressure vessel, the inspection time will probably extend over six weeks. It is expected that plant availability during 1974 will exceed the 1973 figure

  20. Development of nuclear plant Operation Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koide, I.; Okada, T.; Ishida, K. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    Recently it has become more important to detect a change in operational characteristics and to take appropriate corrective actions before it deteriorates to an incident in nuclear power plants. Therefore, aiming at earlier detection of a tendency change, swifter corrective actions and more effective application of operational data, we have developed Operation Management System which automatically acquires, accumulates and observes operational data of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station through cycles. (author)

  1. Development of nuclear plant Operation Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, I.; Okada, T.; Ishida, K.

    1998-01-01

    Recently it has become more important to detect a change in operational characteristics and to take appropriate corrective actions before it deteriorates to an incident in nuclear power plants. Therefore, aiming at earlier detection of a tendency change, swifter corrective actions and more effective application of operational data, we have developed Operation Management System which automatically acquires, accumulates and observes operational data of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station through cycles. (author)

  2. Nuclear power plant training simulator fidelity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.; Laughery, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The fidelity assessment portion of a methodology for evaluating nuclear power plant simulation facilities in regard to their appropriateness for conducting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's operating test was described. The need for fidelity assessment, data sources, and fidelity data to be collected are addressed. Fidelity data recording, collection, and analysis are discussed. The processes for drawing conclusions from the fidelity assessment and evaluating the adequacy of the simulator control-room layout were presented. 3 refs

  3. Improvement of communications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depigny, C.; Ghertman, F.; Lestien, A.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1983, Electricite de France (EDF) has been engaged in a major project to improve nuclear power plant communications. This project was launched following a series of incidents in which inappropriate communications practices and equipment were shown to be an aggravating, or in some cases, the determining factor. This paper presents the program established by EDF to resolve communications problems in its nuclear power stations

  4. Economic evaluation of nuclear plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolba, Adel.

    1988-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to prepare a ''fair price'' estimate to serve as bench mark in the course of economic evaluation of bids to construct nuclear power plants. The methodology of determining the present value of all capital investment is used. Running costs of nuclear fuel, operation, and maintenance are also determined. As a result, levelized energy cost is calculated. Sensitivity analysis for different parameters has been conducted, and the results of which are included in this paper

  5. Safety targets for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herttrich, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    By taking as an example the safety targets of the American nuclear energy authority US-NRC, this paper explains what is meant by global, quantitative safety targets for nuclear power plants and what expectations are associated with the selecton of such safety targets. It is shown how probabilistic methods can be an appropriate completion of proven deterministic methods and what are the sectors where their application may become important in future. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Quality assurance and nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Quality assurance in the nuclear industry was born in the late 1960s. Atomic Energy Control Board staff began its regulatory practice on quality assurance during that period. In this presentation the author traces the circumstances that first led to the establishment of Canadian nuclear power plant quality assurance programmes, summarizes progress over the last decade and a half, and outlines the current regulatory approach and what has been learned so far

  7. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-03-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole third quarter of 1991. Longer interruptions in electricity generation were caused by the annual maintenances of the Loviisa plant units. The load factor average was 81.7 %. In a test conducted during the annual maintenance outage of Loviisa 1 it was detected that the check valve of the discharge line of one pressurized emergency make-up tank did not open sufficiently at the tank's hydrostatic pressure. In connection with a 1988 modification, a too tightly dimensioned bearing had been mounted on the valve's axle rod and the valve had not been duly tested after the operation. The event is classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Other events in this quarter which are classified according to the International Nuclear Event Scale are Level Zero (Below Scale). Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site were below authorised limits in this quarter. Only small amounts of radioactive materials originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  8. Design concepts of nuclear desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    Interest in using nuclear energy for producing potable water has been growing worldwide in the past decade. This has been motivated by a variety of factors, including economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, the growing need for worldwide energy supply diversification, the need to conserve limited supplies of fossil fuels, protecting the environment from greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially advantageous spin-off effects of nuclear technology for industrial development. Various studies, and at least one demonstration project, have been considered by Member States with the aim of assessing the feasibility of using nuclear energy for desalination applications under specific conditions. In order to facilitate information exchange on the subject area, the IAEA has been active for a number of years in compiling related technical publications. In 1999, an inter regional technical co-operation project on Integrated Nuclear Power and desalination System Design was launched to facilitate international collaboration for the joint development by technology holders and potential end users of an integrated nuclear desalination system. This publication presents material on the current status of nuclear desalination activities and preliminary design concepts of nuclear desalination plants, as made available to the IAEA by various Member States. It is aimed at planners, designers and potential end-users in those Member States interested in further assessment of nuclear desalination. Interested readers are also referred to two related and recent IAEA publications, which contain useful information in this area: Introduction of Nuclear Desalination: A Guidebook, Technical Report Series No. 400 (2000) and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Plants Coupled with Seawater Desalination Units, IAEA-TECDOC-1235 (2001)

  9. Studies in training nuclear plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlin, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    One of the lessons learned from the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident was that the nuclear industry was ineffective in learning from previous events at other plants. As training programs and methods have improved since TMI, the nuclear industry has searched for effective methods to teach the lessons learned from industry events. The case study method has great potential as a solution. By reviewing actual plant events in detail, trainees can be challenged with solving actual problems. When used in a seminar or discussion format, these case studies also help trainees compare their decision-making processes with other trainees, the instructor, and the personnel involved in the actual case study event

  10. Nuclear Power Plant Temelin Technical Support Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizek, K.

    2000-01-01

    The erection of the Technical Support Centre for the Nuclear Power Plant Temelin has been a relatively sophisticated and costly issue. It was by proper use of the existing systems, as e.g. I and C, ISE and other systems, that a robust system has been created that is able to meet any requirements laid on the performance of the Technical Support Centre. The decision of the utility CEZ, a.s. that made it possible to establish the Technical Support Centre at the Nuclear Power Plant Temelin has been a right step which shows the level of safety culture within the utility. (author)

  11. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, M.

    1983-01-01

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those Plants, against the action of earthquakes is described. The instrumentation described is based on the nuclear standards in force. The minimum amount of sensors and other components used, as well as their general localization, is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The various devices used are not covered in detail, except for the accelerometer, which is the seismic instrumentation basic component. (Author) [pt

  12. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbritter, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plants require exceptional safety guarantees which are reflected in a rigorous control of the employed materials, advanced construction technology, sophisticated methods of analysis and consideration of non conventional load cases such as the earthquake loading. In this paper, the current procedures used in the seismic analysis of Nuclear Power Plants are presented. The seismic analysis of the structures has two objectives: the determination of forces in the structure in order to design it against earthquakes and the generation of floor response spectra to be used in the design of mechanical and electrical components and piping systems. (Author) [pt

  13. Site survey for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Safety Guide describes the first stage of the siting process for nuclear power plants - the site survey to select one or more preferred candidate sites. Its purpose is to recommend procedures and provide information for use in implementing a part of the Code of Practice on Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Siting (IAEA Safety Series No.50-C-S). The organization, procedures, methodologies, guidance for documenting the site survey process and examples of detailed procedures on some safety-related site characteristics are given in the Guide

  14. Nuclear power plant siting: Hydrogeologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Safety Guide gives guidelines and methods for determining the ground water concentration of radionuclides that could result from postulated releases from nuclear power plants. The Guide gives recommendations on the data to be collected and the investigations to be performed at various stages of nuclear power plant siting in relation to the various aspects of the movement of accidentally released radioactive material through the ground water, the selection of an appropriate mathematical or physical model for the hydrodynamic dispersion even two-phase distribution of the radioactive material and an appropriate monitoring programme

  15. Construction plant requirements for nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, C.B.; Harris, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Planning and developing the temporary construction plant facilities for a nuclear project is equivalent to providing utility services for a small city. Provision of adequate facilities is an important factor in the productivity of both the manual and non-manual work force. This paper summarizes construction facility requirements for a two unit (1300 MWe each) nuclear project. Civil, mechanical and electrical facilities are described, including design, installation and operation. Assignment of responsibility for specific work tasks regarding the construction plant is also discussed. In presenting this data, the authors seek to transfer experience and assist in the provision of adequate facilities on future projects

  16. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP)

  17. Barsebaeck nuclear plant February-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, Ann-Christin

    1999-01-01

    Barsebaeck should, according to the government decision, have been closed before the 1st of July 1998, but the Supreme Administrative Court ruled on Stay of Execution, after Barsebaeck Kraft had applied for judicial review. The Threat of a Phase out of Barsebaeck 1 started in 1980, due to the accident at Three Mile Island. Swedish opinion Opinion polls (Nov 97, March 98 and May 98) shows that about 80 percent of the Swedish population want to use nuclear power until the existing reactors have to be stopped for safety or economical reasons. About 20 percent of these want to develop nuclear power. Average or high confidence in Barsebaeck has 94 percent on the Swedish side and 74 percent in Copenhagen 1998. From February 1997 till August 1998 Barsebaeck personnel have executed several information activities to stress our message that Barsebaeck is necessary for the environment, the jobs and the economy

  18. Decommissioning of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tadamichi

    2002-01-01

    On nuclear energy facilities, an abolished one is often difficult to reuse, and is difficult to subdivide because of its strong structure and its inclusion of many apparatus and constructions containing radioactive materials in them. And, it is required to consider radiation management under dismantling operation and radioactive wastes forming at its subdivision. Abolishment of nuclear power station is a measure carrying out subdivision removing of a facility ended its role to a condition unnecessary for its radiation administration, and is defined as all of measures to be done after unused condition before reaching green field condition. Here were described on basic principle on abolishment measure in Japan, processing and disposition of subdivided wastes, and system preparation. (G.K.)

  19. Commissioning Leibstadt nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, A.; Degen, R.; Nedelko, U.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the experience and benefits obtained from the use of temporary oil fired boilers of sufficient capacity to allow commissioning and no-load tests to be carried out on the turbine-generator months ahead of steam being available from the NSSS. The successful result at Leibstadt may be a model for other plants

  20. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Guide covers the organizational and procedural aspects of maintenance but does not give detailed technical advice on the maintenance of particular plant items. It gives guidance on preventive and remedial measures necessary to ensure that all structures, systems and components important to safety are capable of performing as intended. The Guide covers the organizational and administrative requirements for establishing and implementing preventive maintenance schedules, repairing defective plant items, providing maintenance facilities and equipment, procuring stores and spare parts, selecting and training maintenance personnel, reviewing and controlling plant modifications arising from maintenance, and for generating, collecting and retaining maintenance records. Maintenance shall be subject to quality assurance in all aspects important to safety. Because quality assurance has been dealt with in detail in other Safety Guides, it is only included here in specific instances where emphasis is required. Maintenance is considered to include functional and performance testing of plant, surveillance and in-service inspection, where these are necessary either to support other maintenance activities or to ensure continuing capability of structures, systems and components important to safety to perform their intended functions