WorldWideScience

Sample records for self-styled estonian embryologist

  1. New insights into life and death of the self-styled estonian embryologist, Louis Sébastien Marie de Tredern de Lézerec (1780-1818) / Jean-Claude Beetschen, Pierre Baudrier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beetschen, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    L. S. M. de Tredern de Lézerec´i teadustööst embrüoloogina (kuni 1809). K. E. Von Beari katsetest leida de Trederni kohta teavet, artikli autorite leitud uusi andmeid tema elukäigust aastatel 1802-1818, sh tegevusest Mazarini raamatukogus (1813-1816)

  2. Estonian literature / Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Estonian literature - born on the margins of Europe ; Baltic German literature and its impact ; Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature ; Literature and an independent Estonia ; Estonian literature in two cultural spheres ; The fifties and sixties ; Literature and congealed time ; A bold new Estonian literature

  3. Valued Estonian Music CDs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    2002. aastal välja antud eesti muusika heliplaatidest Artur Kapp "Symphonische Werke", Eduard Tubin "Symphonies No.9, No.10 and No.11", "Estonian Preludes", "Eesti heliloojad. Hortus Musicus", "Eesti Muusika Päevad", "Tallinn Saxophone Quartet. Estonian Contemporary Music", "Triskele. Kolga-Jaani vaimulikud rahvalaulud", "Helmekaala. Linnupuu Anne", "Modern Fox mängib Raimond Valgret",

  4. The educational and professional status of clinical embryology and clinical embryologists in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačič, B; Plas, C; Woodward, B J; Verheyen, G; Prados, F J; Hreinsson, J; De los Santos, M J; Magli, M C; Lundin, K; Plancha, C E

    2015-08-01

    What is the recognition of clinical embryology and the current status of clinical embryologists in European countries, regarding educational levels, responsibilities and workload, and need for a formal education in assisted reproductive technology (ART)? It is striking that the profession of clinical embryology, almost 40 years after the introduction of IVF, is still not officially recognized in most European countries. Reproductive medicine has developed into a sophisticated multidisciplinary medical branch since the birth of Louise Brown 37 years ago. The European Board & College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (EBCOG) has recognized reproductive medicine as a subspeciality and has developed a subspeciality training for gynaecologists in collaboration with the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). However, nothing similar exists for the field of clinical embryology or for clinical embryologists. A questionnaire about the situation in clinical embryology in the period of 2012-2013 in the respective European country was sent to ESHRE National representatives (basic scientists only) in December 2013. At this time, 28 European countries had at least one basic scientist in the ESHRE Committee of National Representatives. The survey consisted of 46 numeric, dichotomous (yes/no) or descriptive questions. Answers were obtained from 27 out of 28 countries and the data were tabulated. Data about the numbers of 'ESHRE Certified Embryologists' were taken from the ESHRE Steering Committee for Embryologist Certification. In 2012, more than 7000 laboratory staff from 1349 IVF clinics in 27 European countries performed over 700 000 fresh and frozen ART cycles. Despite this, clinical embryology is only recognized as an official profession in 3 out of 27 national health systems. In most countries clinical embryologists need to be registered under another profession, and have limited possibilities for organized education in clinical embryology. Mostly they

  5. Estonian Tax Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Trasberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Estonian tax structure changes during the last decade and critically assesses the current situation. The country’s tax mix is rather unique among EU countries – it has one of the highest proportions of consumption taxes in total taxes and the lowest level of capital and profit taxes. Such an unbalanced tax structure creates risks for public finances, limits revenue collection and distorts the business environment.

  6. Estonian energy forest project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, A.; Kirt, E.; Kull, K.; Lasn, R.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, J.; Ross, V.; Sulev, M.

    1994-04-01

    In February 1993 an agreement of Swedish-Estonian scientific co-operation on energy forest was signed. In may five energy forest plantations (altogether 2 ha) were established in Estonia with Swedish selected clones of Salix viminalis and Salix dasyclados. The research within this project is carried out within three main directions. The studies of basic ecophysiological processes and radiation regime of willow canopy will be carried out in Toravere. The production ecology studies, comparison of the productivity of multiple clones on different soil types is based on the plantations as vegetation filter for wastewater purification is studied on the basis of plantations in Vaeike-Maarja and Valga (author)

  7. Estonian Airi uued soodsad pakkumised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi kodulehelt on võimalik osta lennupileteid koostööpartnerite poolt pakutavatele mandritevahelistele lendudele ning broneerida internetis hotellituba Euroopa suurima hotelli broneerimise teenust pakkuva ettevõtte Booking.com kaudu

  8. [Mati Erelt. Estonian Language] / Katrin Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Katrin

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Estonian language / [Estonian Academy of Sciences] ; edited by Mati Erelt.Tallinn : Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus, 2003. 412, [1] lk. : ill., kaart. (Linguistica Uralica. Supplementary series, 0868-4731 ; vol. 1)

  9. Estonian wind climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kull, Ain

    1999-01-01

    Estonia is situated on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. This is a region with intensive cyclonic activity and therefore with a relatively high mean wind speed. Atmospheric circulation and its seasonal variation determine the general character of the Estonian wind regime over the Atlantic Ocean and Eurasia. However, the Baltic sea itself is a very important factor affecting wind climate, it has an especially strong influence on the wind regime in costal areas. The mean energy density (W/m 2 ) is a wind energy characteristic that is proportional to the third power of wind speed and describes energy available in a flow of air through a unit area. The mean energy density is a characteristic which has practical importance in regional assessment of snowdrift, storm damage and wind energy

  10. Estonian white paper on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamburg, Arvi

    1997-01-01

    Energy policy, environmental protection and economy form a triangle of tightly linked sectors, and any solution of some energy problem can be solved only in the light of all the above mentioned factors. There are several energy master plans for Estonia, the first of them dating back to the years of the Soviet Union and ending the list with the plan to cover the years up to 2000. By now the basic principles of the Estonian energy policy have been prepared and Estonian Energy Concept is being worked out. The main goal of Estonian energy policy is ensure an effective and environmentally benign energy supply for the country. It means safety in energy supply, effective production and supply together with sufficient environmental protection. Energy Council in the role of an advisory voluntary organization for inspection of the energy system and finding measures to improve its efficiency is established with parliament members included. The Estonian Energy Research Institute and the Oil--Shale Research Institute serve as a scientific advisory board for the government in energy policy. It's important to emphasise that privatisation is no panacea, solving all the problems, and therefore we are facing hard to move in the right direction, satisfying all the consumers of energy

  11. Logistics in Estonian business companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiisler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes logistics survey in Estonia carried out in 2007 as a part of the LogOnBaltic project. The level of logistics in Estonian manufacturing, trading and logistics companies is explored through logistics costs, performance indicators, outsourcing, ICT use and logistics self-estimation of the companies responded. Responses from 186 Estonian companies were gathered through a web-based survey (38% of manufacturing, 38% of trading and 24% of logistics sector. Logistics costs as the percentage of turnover make in average 13.8% in manufacturing and 13.3% in trading. Transportation and inventory carrying cost form around 70% of overall logistics costs. Considering the logistics indicators surveyed, Estonian companies show up with relatively low perfect order fulfillment rates, short customer order fulfillment cycles and effective management of cash flows. The most widely outsourced logistics function is international transportation followed by domestic transportation, freight forwarding and reverse logistics. By 2010, the outsourcing of IT systems in logistics followed by inventory management, warehousing and product customization is expected to increase more substantially. The awareness of logistics importance is still low among Estonian companies. Only 27–44% of those agree that logistics has a considerable impact on profitability, competitive advantage, top management or customer service level.

  12. Estonian Air to overhaul strategy / Matt Withers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Withers, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Air on majanduslikes raskustes, mida aitaks leevendada riigipoolne toetus. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts leiab, et riik peaks omama lennufirma juhatuses esimehe kohta, et mõjutada rohkem vastuvõetavaid otsuseid ja investeeringuid

  13. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2005-01-01

    Konkursil "Eesti parim puitehitis 2005" pälvis voodrilaua eripreemia Jõelähtme Estonian Golf & Country Club'i katus. Arhitekt Andres Siim. Sisearhitekt Juta Lember. Konstruktor: AS Resand. 11 värv. ill

  14. Estonian Air / Kirsti Vainküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vainküla, Kirsti, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Estonian Air reklaamib end Taani linna Aalborgi raadiojaama ilmateates. Lennukompanii pressiesindaja Epp Alatalu sõnul on firma Taanis reklaamimise põhjus see, et liinil Tallinn-Kopenhaagen sõitjate hulgas ei ole peaaegu üldse taanlasi

  15. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  16. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  17. Stocks of organic carbon in Estonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kõlli, Raimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil organic carbon (SOC stocks (Mg ha–1 ofautomorphic mineral (9 soil groups, hydromorphic mineral (7, and lowland organic soils (4 are given for the soil cover or solum layer as a whole and also for its epipedon (topsoil layer. The SOC stocks for forest, arable lands, and grasslands and for the entire Estonian soil cover were calculated on the basis of the mean SOC stock and distribution area of the respective soil type. In the Estonian soil cover (42 400 km2, a total of 593.8 ± 36.9 Tg of SOC is retained, with 64.9% (385.3 ± 27.5 Tg in the epipedon layer (O, H, and A horizons and 35.1% in the subsoil (B and E horizons. The pedo-ecological regularities of SOC retention in soils are analysed against the background of the Estonian soil ordination net.

  18. Digimodernistlik eesti kirjanik / The Digimodernist Estonian Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Viires

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the cultural situation following postmodernism in the first decade of the 21st century. To characterise this situation, the umbrella term “post-postmodernism” is used, as well as “neomodernism”, “altermodern”, “metamodernism”, “hypermodernity”, “performatism”, “critical realism” etc. All these approaches are, in a wider sense, united by their aim of opposing postmodernist cynicism and irony, and bringing back truth, simplicity and clarity. It has also been found that literature has returned or is returning to realism, and various cultural phenomena are emerging, which have been designated by the concept “new sincerity”.In descriptions of the current cultural situation, this trend seeking truth and simplicity is supported by approaches which emphasise the significance of technological developments during the last decade. A prominent figure here is Alan Kirby, who launched the term “digimodernism”, mainly linked with the adaptation and spread of Web 2.0 at the beginning of the 21st century: the blogosphere, Wikipedia, Twitter and Facebook.The article seeks answers to the question of whether we can talk about digimodernism in Estonian literature in the 2000s. In the 1990s Estonian writers were quite reluctant to undertake computer-technological experiments, and there are only a few examples of Estonian digital literature, whereas a change occurred in the 2000s. Many Estonian writers have had and still have their own blogs and surprisingly many have joined Facebook. The term “twitterature” is also familiar to Estonian writers. The article tackles the dominant topics in the blogs of Estonian writers and analyses their possible collective creative work on Facebook. A question is raised as to whether it is possible that the fragmentary narrative structure of blogs and Facebook has influenced mainstream literature.The article concludes that one essential change in Estonian literature in the

  19. Valued Estonian Music CDs / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2003-01-01

    2002. aastal välja antud eesti muusika heliplaatidest Arvo Pärt "Summa", Lepo Sumera "Chamber Music", "Baltic Voices 1.", "Sequenzen - Europäische Orgelmusik des 20. Jahrhundrets mit...", "El silenco ئ Silence. Kuldar and Marje Sink. Songs of Mother and Son", "Riho Sibul. Estonian Dream Big Band", "Rull's Royce ئ Rull's Choice"

  20. Resource and utilization of Estonian hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raesaar, P.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the Estonian hydropower resources and their utilization at present as well as prospective for the future are presented in this paper. A short overview of advantages of small hydropower stations and related issues is given. Some technological aspects are treated briefly. (authors)

  1. Transformational Leadership in the Estonian Defence Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antek Kasemaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The study is a contribution to the validation of the 15 items and 5 subscales Transformational Leadership Scale (TLS proposed by Rafferty and Griffin (2004. Design/methodology/approach – The sample includes participants from different levels of the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF military hierarchy (N=2570. The structure of the TLS was examined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally ANOVA was used to compare the results between different subsamples. Findings – TLS showed satisfactory reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses found TLS as valid five dimensions instrument to measure transformational leadership in the Estonian military context. Different management levels showed different emphases among the dimensions of transformational leadership. Research and practical limitations/implications – TLS will be an important tool to use in transformational leadership research in the Estonian military context and beyond. Additionally, the current research contributes to the development of alternative measurement tools besides the most commonly used MLQ. The limitation of the work will be the rather homogenous sample from the Estonian military, however it will open the door for the subsequent research using different samplings. Originality/value – The current research found TLS to be a reliable and valid instrument, very short and therefore easy to administrate, having the possibility to use it with five dimensional and as one general transformational instrument as well.

  2. Swedish-Estonian energy forest research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.; Kirt, E.; Koppel, A.; Kull, K.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, V.; Ross, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Organization of Estonian energetic economy is aimed at cutting the usage of oil, gas and coal and increasing the local resources firewood, oil-shale and peat for fuel. The resources of low-valued firewood-brushwood, fallen deadwood etc. are available during the following 10-15 years, but in the future the cultivation of energy forest (willow) plantations will be actual. During the last 20 years the Swedish scientists have been extensively studying the willow forest selection, cultivation and use in energetics and waste water purification systems. A Swedish-Estonian energy forest research project was started in 1993 between the Swedish Agricultural University on one hand and Toravere Observatory, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Academy of Sciences and Estonian Potato Processing Association on the other hand. In spring 5 willow plantations were established with the help of Swedish colleagues and obtained from Sweden 36000 willow cuttings. The aim of the project: a) To study experimentally and by means of mathematical modelling the biogeophysical aspects of growth and productivity of willow plantations in Sweden and Estonian climatological conditions. b) To study the possibility of using the willow plantations in waste waters purification. c) To study the economical efficiency of energy forest as an energy resource under the economic and environmental conditions of Estonia. d) To study the economic efficiency of willow plantations as a raw material for the basket industry in Estonia. e) To select the most productive and least vulnerable willow clones for practical application in energy plantations. During 1993 in all five plantations detailed analysis of soil properties has been carried out. In the plantation at Toravere Observatory phytometrical measurements were carried out - the growth of plant biomass leaf and stem area, vertical distribution of dry matter content, biomass and phyto area separately for leaves and stems has been performed. Some

  3. Emission from Estonian oil shale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aunela, L.; Haesaenen, E.; Kinnunen, V.; Larjava, K.; Mehtonen, A.; Salmikangas, T.; Leskelae, J.; Loosaar, J.

    1995-01-01

    Flue gas emissions from pulverized oil shale fired boilers of Estonian and Baltic power plants have been studied. The concentrations of NO x , CO, C x H y , HCI, Hf and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in flue gases have been found to be relatively low and acceptable according to German emission limits, for instance. Desulphurization degree of flue gases by SO 2 absorption with ash has been found to vary defending on boiler type and operation conditions. In spite of significant sulphur capture (average values for different boilers in the range between 68 and 77 % of the initial sulphur content of the fuel), SO 2 concentrations in flue gases remain still very high (up to 2600 mg/m 3 , 10% O 2 ). Very high concentrations of particles, especially at Estonian Power Plant (up o 6250 mg/m 3 , 10 % 0 2 ) have been detected. Heavy metal emissions were too high by the reason of particle control insufficiency as well. Yearly emission estimates of this study support the former Estonian ones within the range of 10-15 %. (author)

  4. Overview of the Estonian Biofuels Association activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueues, Meelis

    2000-01-01

    Due to global warming and environment pollution because of widespread use of fossil fuels there are already tendencies to stabilize and decrease the consumption of these energy resources and take into use more renewable energy resources. Estonian Biofuels Association (EBA) is a non-profit association, which was founded on 8. of May 1998 in Tallinn. The EBA is an independent and voluntary alliance of its members. Fields of activity of the EBA are by biofuels research, developing and evaluation to engage environmental, biofuels and energy saving. EBA members are: energy consultants, scientists, as well as fuel suppliers, DH-companies, technology suppliers, energy service companies etc. The members of EBA are involved in different projects in Estonia, where biomass are produced and used for heating, where wood, waste, peat, rape oil and biogas resources are examined and put into use, and also projects which deal with energy saving and environment friendly equipment production for using biofuels. During our short experience we have noticed that people in Estonia have become more aware of biomass and their use, so the development of environment friendly and sustainable energetics will continue in Estonia. Available biofuels in Estonia could compete with fossil fuels if burnt rationally with high technology equipment. EBA members are convinced that biomass have perspective and that they could play an important role in improving Estonian economic and environmental situation. Modem biomass combustion devices are taken into use more the faster general wealth increases and EBA can raise people's awareness of bio fuel subject through special, courses and media. We want Estonian energy policy to develop towards widespread use of renewable energy resources, which would save energy and environment improve nation's foreign trade balance and create jobs mainly in rural areas

  5. MINORITY LANGUAGES IN ESTONIAN SEGREGATIVE LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Küün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project in Estonia was to determine what languages are spoken by students from the 2nd to the 5th year of basic school at their homes in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. At the same time, this problem was also studied in other segregated regions of Estonia: Kohtla-Järve and Maardu. According to the database of the population census from the year 2000 (Estonian Statistics Executive Office's census 2000, there are representatives of 142 ethnic groups living in Estonia, speaking a total of 109 native languages. At the same time, the database doesn’t state which languages are spoken at homes. The material presented in this article belongs to the research topic “Home Language of Basic School Students in Tallinn” from years 2007–2008, specifically financed and ordered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant No. ETF 7065 in the framework of an international study called “Multilingual Project”. It was determined what language is dominating in everyday use, what are the factors for choosing the language for communication, what are the preferred languages and language skills. This study reflects the actual trends of the language situation in these cities.

  6. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  7. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P; Tullus, H; Uri, V [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  8. Estonian Air valmistub odavate piletitega EasyJeti tulekuks / Erkki Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Erkki

    2004-01-01

    Estonian Air pidi langetama piletihindu Berliini ja Londoni liinil kolmandiku võrra, kuna oktoobri lõpust hakkab Tallinna lennujaamast reise tegema uus odavlennufirma Easy-Jet. Lisa: Estonian Airi hinnad internetis

  9. Estonian Air lõpetab Pariisi ja Vilniuse lennud / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2005-01-01

    Talvisele lennuplaanile üleminev Estonian Air lõpetab otselennud Tallinnast Vilniusesse ja Pariisi. Estonian Airi presidendi Borge Thornbechi sõnul kavatseb firma suurendada talvehooajal turismilendude mahtu

  10. Cresco sai lahti võlast SASile ja osalusest Estonian Airis / Rivo Sarapik, Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts ning SAS-i asepresident Benny Zakrisson kirjutasid alla Estonian Airi ostu-müügitehingule. Investeerimispank Cresco, millele kuulus 17% Estonian Airist, jääb välja Estonian Airi omanikeringist ning SAS-i nõue Crescole tühistatakse

  11. SAS tahab Estonian Airi liita lätlaste firmaga airBaltic / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2007-01-01

    SAS plaanib Estonian Airi ja Läti firma airBalticu liitmisega luua uue lennufirma. Autori hinnangul viitavad Estonian Airi laienemisplaanidele kriipsu peale tõmbamine ja SAS-i investeeringud airBalticusse sellele, et ühendamise käigus "neelab" Läti firma Estonian Airi

  12. Joakim Helenius: Estonian Air võtku eeskuju airBalticust / Siim Sultson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sultson, Siim

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi ühe võimaliku nõukogu esimehe Jaokim Heleniuse hinnangul on väikeste lennufirmade, nagu Estonian Air ja airBaltic jaoks päris palju tegutsemisruumi. Estonian Airil tuleb leida oma nišš ja kindel, kuid omanäoline strateegia

  13. Estonian Airi president : uus äristrateegia toob ettevõttele edu / Borge Thornbech ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thornbech, Borge

    2007-01-01

    Estonian Air asutas regionaalsete lendude korraldamiseks ettevõtte Estonian Air Regional, idee on arendada tegevust lühidistantsidel ja luua ühenduslüli lennukompanii Euroopa-liinide vahel. Kommenteerivad Olev Schults, Oleg Harlamov, Rein Mark. Vt. samas: Kõik aktsionärid vannuvad Estonian Airile truudust; Estonian Air kaalub Tartu lennuliini avamist. Kaart: Reisijate jagunemine sihtkohtade vahel. Graafikud: Estonian Air kukkus kahjumisse

  14. Liberalism - Key to Entrepreneurial and Innovation Success: Estonian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Ignatov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its independence in 1991 Estonia has successfully overpassed the challenges of the transition period being in the present of one the most technologically developed nations of Europe. The present research is intended to evaluate the relationship between Estonian pro-market regulation, entrepreneurship and innovation. In order to reach relevant conclusions in this regard there have been used both qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis. In such a way, it could be comprehensively reviewed the process of Estonian economic development from a relatively underdeveloped USSR republic to an advanced innovation driven economy. The results show that pro-market governmental regulation has favourably influenced Estonian entrepreneurship, while it fostered country’s innovation capacities. It has been concluded that the economic “miracle” of Estonia has been at a great extent determined by proper government regulation oriented towards economic liberalisation.

  15. Ethnic Self-Esteem and Intergroup Attitudes Among the Estonian Majority and the non-Estonian Minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaris Raudsepp

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was focussed on the relationships between ethnic self-esteem and various indicators of intergroup attitudes in a representative sample of adult population of Estonia (N=1142. Attitudinal variables that discriminated most between persons with high and low ethnic self-esteem were identified. Among Estonians ethnic self-esteem was related to positive ingroup bias, readiness for outgroup contact, perceived threat from the outgroup, attitudes to non-Estonian minority, and attitudes toward minority integration. Among non-Estonians ethnic self-esteem was related to readiness for outgroup contact, ethnic sterotypes, and various attitudes towards minority integration. An attempt was made to reconstruct the system of intergroup attidues of prototypical persons with high and low ethnic selfesteem and to describe psychological implications of high and low ethnic self-esteem for members of majority and minority groups. Various theoretical models (social identity theory, integrated threat theory, social dominane theory were used for interpretation of the results.

  16. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Liina Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Liina, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Estonian Golf & Country Club'i etnomodernistlik golfikeskus ja klubihoone Jõelähtmel. Projekteerija: Arhitektuuristuudio Siim & Kreis. Autor Andres Siim. Konstruktor: Resand. Sisekujundaja Juta Lember (SAB Lember & Padar). Projekt 2004, valmis 2005. Ill.: I ja II korruse plaan, 3 värv. välis ja 3 sisevaadet

  17. Estonian Golf & Country Clubi klubihoone / Andres Siim, Alar Just

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siim, Andres

    2005-01-01

    Harjumaal Jõelähtme vallas rajab Estonian Golf & Country Club uut Jägala-Jõesuu spordi- ja puhkekeskust, mille südameks saab puidust golgiklubi hoone, mida tutvustavad klubihoone arhitekt ja üks inseneridest. Ill.: vaade ehitusele, projekti kaks vaadet, lõige

  18. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  19. Top 10 Estonian albums of 2004 / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2004-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Arvo Pärt "Pro et contra", Various composers "Baltic Voices 2", Raimo Kangro "Displays", Toivo Tulev "Be Lost in the Call", Indrek Vau and Mati Mikalai "Estonian Trumpet Music", Erdmann/Sooäär "Dessert Time, Peer Gynt & Other Stories", Alo Mattiisen "50 parimat laulu", Riho Sibul "Must", Rein Rannap "Tantsib klaveril", Eesti Keeled "Kella tiksumist..."

  20. Value Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülavere, Pärje; Tammik, Anu

    2017-01-01

    For systematic implementation of value education in educational institutions, the national programme "Values Development in Estonian Society 2009-2013" (Ministry of Education and Research 2009) was prepared in Estonia. However, it was launched only in 2010, and the authors intended to ascertain the values of the heads of preschool child…

  1. [Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system] / Stefan Werner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Werner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 29)

  2. Estonian Air püüdis viimase hetkeni Top Toursi päästa / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air kaalus Top Toursile appiminekut, sest reisifirma oli Estonian Airil üks olulisemaid koostööpartnereid. Abi oleks puudutanud ennekõike uutele lendudele allahindluse tegemist, räägiti ka võimalikust krediidist

  3. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers. I. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahu, Mati

    1999-01-01

    The most comprehensive epidemiological project ever performed in Estonia - The Estonian Study of Chernobyl Cleanup Workers - was the joint effort of researchers from Estonia, Finland and USA. Until September 1999, the results of this study were published in English only. To familiarize the readership of 'Eesti Arst' with the major study findings, the abridged versions of four original papers from 'Radiation Research' are presented in the current issue of the journal. For the Estonian epidemiologists, the work under this project that consists of eight sub projects was a real challenge. In the course of the study, skills were developed in writing a study protocol, preparing a questionnaire, progress reporting, documenting the structure of databases, record linkage, and problem solving. It was an exciting experience to work with top scientists like William Bigbee, John Boice, Timo Hakulinen, Ronald Jensen and Gayle Littlefield. (author)

  4. Critical Success Factors and information needs in Estonian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiki Tibar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the results of the study on the critical success factors and related information needs in Estonian industry conducted in 1999. Data were collected by interviews with 27 managers and engineers from 16 manufacturing companies in various industries. Most of the critical success factors taken up were related to marketing, information management, quality management, product development and technological innovations. The information needs of managers and engineers were related to competitors, customers, markets, technology, regulations, etc. Some identified CSFs expressed also priorities for development by Estonian economic authorities: to support the implementation of new technologies and introduction of quality management methods. The finding that information management was perceived as a very critical area supports the result of the recent Finnish study on CSFs.

  5. Trace metal emissions from the Estonian oil shale fired power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunela-Tapola, Leena A.; Frandsen, Flemming; Häsänen, Erkki K.

    1998-01-01

    Emission levels of selected trace metals from the Estonian oil shale fired power plant were studied. The plant is the largest single power plant in Estonia with an electricity production capacity of 1170 MWe (1995). Trace metals were sampled from the flue gases by a manual method incorporating...... in the flue gases of the studied oil shale plant contribute, however, to clearly higher total trace metal emission levels compared to modern coal fired power plants. Although the old electrostatic precipitators in the plant have been partly replaced by state-of-the-art electrostatic precipitators...... a two-fraction particle sampling and subsequent absorption of the gaseous fraction. The analyses were principally performed with ICP-MS techniques. The trace metal contents of Estonian oil shale were found to be in the same order of magnitude as of coal on average. The high total particle concentrations...

  6. Exhibition of photography from the Estonian diaspora / Ellu Maar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maar, Ellu, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Näitus "Photography from the Estonian Diaspora / Väliseesti foto" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 8.10.-19.11.2010, kuraatorid Eha Komissarov ja Ellu Maar. Näitus tutvustas 1944. a. Eestist lahkunud või juba võõrsil sündinud fotograafide (Eric Soovere, Karl Hintzer, Priit Vesilind, Rein Välme jt.) loomingut ja valikut väliseesti fotoarhiividest

  7. Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Storm / Anna Smolchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smolchenko, Anna

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest soome-ugri rahvaste maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis, kohtumisest Venemaa presidendi Dmitri Medvedeviga, Eesti delegatsiooni saalist väljamarssimisest Venemaa riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi sõnavõtu ajal. Ilmunud ka: St. Petersburg Times 1. juuli 2008, pealk.: Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Controversy (lüh.). Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  8. Efficiency of Estonian grain farms in 2000 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. VASILIEV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the efficiency of Estonian grain farms after Estonia’s transition to a market economy and during the accession period to the European Union (EU. The non-parametric method Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA was used to estimate the total technical, pure technical and scale efficiency of Estonian grain farms in 2000–2004. Mean total technical efficiency varied from 0.70 to 0.78. Of the grain farms 62% are operating under increasing returns to scale. Solely based on the DEA model it is not possible to determine optimum farm scale and the range of Estonian farm sizes operating efficiently is extensive. The most pure technically efficient farms were the smallest and the largest but the productivity of small farms is low compared to larger farms because of their small scale. Therefore, they are the least competitive. Since pre-accession period to the EU, large input slacks of capital have replaced the former excessive use of labour and land. This raises the question about the effects on efficiency of the EU’s investment support schemes in new member states.;

  9. Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Herzog

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In April 2007, the Estonian Government moved a memorial commemorating the Soviet liberation of the country from the Nazis to a less prominent and visible location in Tallinn. This decision triggered rioting among Russian-speaking minorities and cyber terrorism targeting Estonia's critical economic and political infrastructure. Drawing upon the Estonian cyber attacks, this article argues that globalization and the Internet have enabled transnational groups—such as the Russian diaspora—to avenge their grievances by threatening the sovereignty of nation-states in cyberspace. Sophisticated and virtually untraceable political "hacktivists" may now possess the ability to disrupt or destroy government operations, banking transactions, city power grids, and even military weapon systems. Fortunately, western countries banded together to effectively combat the Estonian cyber attacks and minimize their effects. However, this article concludes that in the age of globalization, interdependence, and digital interconnectedness, nation-states must engage in increased cooperative cyber-defense activities to counter and prevent devastating Internet attacks and their implications.

  10. Olev Schults : SAS vajab Estonian Airi rahvusliku lennufirmana / Olev Schults ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schults, Olev

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Airi nõukogu esimees vastab küsimustele, kas SAS arendas Läti airBalticut Estonian SAS-i arvel, mis mõte on rahvuslikul lennukompaniil, kui riik ei tohi seda finantseerida, kuidas mõjutab investorite meeleolu SAS-i Eestis tabanud poliitikute kriitika tulv

  11. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  12. Uniting the Divided Continent. The Estonian National Committee of the European Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauli Heikkilä

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the exiled Estonian politicians in the European Movement in the early Cold War period. The ultimate goal of exiled Estonians was to restore their state’s independence. In order to promote this, Estonian leaders sought connections with Western leaders. The European Movement was the only organisation involving actors from both the East and the West, and this corresponded to the Estonian discourse on Europe as a whole. Therefore, the European Movement was appreciated, although its limited opportunities for decisive actions were also recognised. East and West European interest in the European Movement declined as West European integration rapidly intensified through the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC and particularly after the January 1952 Eastern European Conference in London. By 1957, disappointment in the inability of European unification to help regain Estonian independence became evident.

  13. Estonian Language of Technology as a Factor Supporting the Evolution of Engineering Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mägi, Vahur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Casual mention of teaching technology subjects in Estonian schools dates back several centuries. Navigation and construction were amongthe earliest professional skills that were taught. As both of them required mathematical thinking skills, teaching the subjects was usually accompanied by explaining the principles of mathematics. The first technology book in Estonian was published about two centuries ago and it dealed with geodesy. The earliest Estonian glossaries of technological terminology were published in the fields of physics and chemistry. The rise of Estonian as a language of higher education and science in the country came about in the 1920s and 1930s. Faculty members of the Tallinn School of Technology then published the first textbooks composed in the Estonian language for students of technology. The Estonian Society for Technology and the Estonian Association of Engineers became seriously involved in linguistic activities. Together with the Vocational Teachers’ Assembly of Tartu they published an illustrated technology glossary for machinery and tools terms. It was followed by a glossary of construction and building terms, compiled under the lead of the University of Technology. In addition, journals of technology introducedinnovations in the lexicon of technology to the general public. The postwar period in the development of the lexicon of technical terms was of little significance at first. A surge in language creativity could be detected in the 1960s, when terminology became a target of constantly growing attention to the development of technology lexicon. Series of technology glossaries were published. This tendency has continued to this day.

  14. E-Banking: Risk Management Practices of the Estonian Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitri Sokolov

    2007-01-01

    During the last years the development of e-banking in Estonia has been very significant. According to the report of the World Economic Forum, the Estonian IT-development has been substantial. The success of e-banking in Estonia can be compared to the corresponding success of the Nordic countries. According to the Deutsche Bank Research, around 70-80% of the Internet users in Estonia use Internet banking and in this respect, Estonia could be compared to Finland, Norway and Iceland. Despite of ...

  15. Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, K; Rahu, K; Rahu, M

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians. Cross-sectional data for 2668 physicians were gathered by a self-administered postal survey. The current smoking prevalence was 24.9% for male physicians and 10.8% for female physicians. The percentages of ex-smokers were 32.9 and 16.8%, respectively. Smoking prevalence among physicians was below the levels reported for the highest educational bracket of the total population in Estonia. Non-smoking physicians had more unfavourable views towards smoking than those who smoked. The majority of physicians were aware of the association between smoking and various diseases, with significant differences between smokers and non-smokers. Non-smoking physicians were more active in asking patients about smoking habits than those who smoked. Most Estonian physicians, especially those who smoked, failed to perceive themselves as positive role models. This study found a lower prevalence of smoking among physicians compared with the general population, and demonstrated the impact of personal smoking on physicians' attitudes towards smoking. The results provide an important challenge to medical education in Estonia.

  16. Development of a breeding objective for Estonian Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PÄRNA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic weights for milk carrier (water plus lactose, fat and protein yields, calving interval, age at first service, interval between the first service and conception of heifers and length of productive life of Estonian Holsteins were estimated under assumed milk production quota and for non-quota conditions. A bio-economic model of an integrated production system of a closed herd was used. Economic values of milk carrier yield and length of productive life differed between quota and non-quota conditions, but there were only minor differences between those marketing systems in economic values for functional traits. The standardised economic values of the most important traits varied in magnitude between18 to 81% of the economic value for milk yield. Discounting had a substantial impact on the economic value of length of productive life. When defining the breeding objective for Estonian Holstein, the interval between the first service and conception of heifers, and the length of productive life should be included in the breeding goal along with the traits with the highest economic value, milk, fat and protein yield. In the optimum breeding objective, relative weights of production vs. functional traits were 79 and 21%, respectively.;

  17. Acquisition of noun derivation in Estonian and Russian L1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reili Argus

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of derivation is not a well-studied area in first language research and a comparative approach to the acquisition of derivation in different languages doesn’t exist. There is no information on how a child acquires derivation in a language with a rich and regular system of derivational patterns, or in a language where derivation is productive, but the system of derivational patterns is opaque. According to general ideas of complexity in a language, the child should start to use simplex stems first and, only after that, complex ones, that is, complexity should increase in the course of acquisition. Our paper is intended to address these issues, based on longitudinal child data from typologically different languages, Estonian and Russian. The results revealed significant differences in the acquisition of noun derivation in the two languages under observation. The system of noun derivation is acquired at a faster pace in Russian, while Estonian children have far fewer noun derivatives in their speech and they use different derivation suffixes with less regularity. Even so, the so-called building block model may be applied for both languages only partially.

  18. Estonian horticultural peat marketing: sales promotion and price formation. 2. part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Hele

    1999-01-01

    When forming prices, Estonian peat companies' decisions should be based on marginal cost analysis. Unfortunately most Estonian companies sell peat to intermediaries and cannot influence its price. Estonian peat producers have to choose between either selling peat directly or selling through a central marketing organization. Both systems have their pros and cons. Direct selling gives more freedom to individual producers but is more risky. Central marketing makes cost saving possible and is more effective and stable, but may alienate producers from clients and markets. Whichever marketing system Estonian peat companies choose, the most important elements in their marketing strategy should be: careful market analysis, personal sales, attending trade shows, catalogues, quality service and offering transportation services. (author)

  19. Serological evidence of exposure to globally relevant zoonotic parasites in the Estonian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children a...

  20. [Marge Rennit. Eesti muuseumid / Estonian museums] / Tapio Mäkeläinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäkeläinen, Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Tutvustus: Eesti muuseumid = Estonian museums / [Eesti Muuseumiühing ; koostaja Marge Rennit ; tõlkija Tiina Mällo ; toimetaja Ivi Tammaru ; eessõna: Piret Õunapuu ; kujundaja Marek Allvee]. Tallinn : Oomen, 2008

  1. Problems of contemporary ecology. Temporal changes in Estonian nature and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, T.

    1997-01-01

    This conference was held 8-9 May 1997 at Tartu, Estonia. The proceedings of the 7. Estonian Conference in Ecology contain the results of mostly original research in environmental science, conservation and natural philosophy

  2. The Dominance of Indirect Taxes in Estonian State Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Raju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recession has sharply erected the question of tax burden and the optimal proportion of different kinds of taxes among the incomes of the budget. Indirect taxes and consumption taxes, which proportion is different according to different methodologies, dominate in Estonian state budget. The buoyancy of a tax system based on taxes of that kind is especially weak during the recession. Difficulties concerning the incomes of budget have arisen the necessity for lifting taxes, which is possible as the tax burden is low now. But a sharp question of the optimal level of taxes is going to be raised. A formula for indirect tax optimum according to Ramsey taxes and Slutski decomposition has been proposed in the article.

  3. Jäätmetega kimpus Estonian Cell annab muda põldudele kompostiks / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Kundas asuv Estonian Celli tehas jagab ümberkaudsetele talunikele jäätmetest lahtisaamiseks kompostimissegu. Seadused ei sätesta, kuidas Estonian Cellis tekkivaid jäätmeid töödelda. Kommenteerib Peeter Eek: Aasta läbi ei saa muda põllule viia

  4. The Category of Time in Fairy Tales: Searching for Folk Calendar Time in the Estonian Fairy Tale Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairi Kaasik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines how folk calendar holidays are represented in Estonian fairy tales. It introduces some views presented in folklore studies about the concept of time in fairy tales and finds parallels with them in the Estonian context. The analysis relies on the digital corpus of Estonian fairy tales (5400 variants, created from the texts found in the Estonian Folklore Archives by the Fairy Tale Project of the Department of Estonian and Comparative Folklore, University of Tartu. Folk calendar holidays occur in Estonian fairy tales relatively seldom; most often these are holidays that occupy a significant place in the Estonian folk calendar (Christmas, St. John’s Day, Easter, St. George’s Day. Calendar holidays are notably mentioned more often in tale types which remain on the borderline between the fairy tale and the legend or the fairy tale and the religious tale. In Estonian fairy tales, calendar holidays are used on three levels of meaning: (1 the holiday is organically associated with the tale type; it has an essential role in the plot of the tale; (2 to a certain extent, the holiday could be replaced by another holiday having an analogous meaning; (3 the holiday forms an unimportant or occasional addition to the tale.

  5. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  6. On the System of Place Name Signs in Estonian Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Paales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A place name sign is a linguistic-cultural marker that includes both memory and landscape. The author regards toponymic signs in Estonian Sign Language as representations of images held by the Estonian Deaf community: they reflect the geographical place, the period, the relationships of the Deaf community with hearing community, and the common and distinguishing features of the two cultures perceived by community's members. Name signs represent an element of signlore, which includes various types of creative linguistic play. There are stories hidden behind the place name signs that reveal the etymological origin of place name signs and reflect the community's memory. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it aims to introduce Estonian place name signs as Deaf signlore forms, analyse their structure and specify the main formation methods. Secondly, it interprets place-denoting signs in the light of understanding the foundations of Estonian Sign Language, Estonian Deaf education and education history, the traditions of local Deaf communities, and also of the cultural and local traditions of the dominant hearing communities. Both perspectives - linguistic and folkloristic - are represented in the current article.

  7. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  8. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m 3 , in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m 3 . In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m 3 . The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m 3 . Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m 3 , and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m 3 . The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated to be 60 Bq/m 3 . Using

  9. Compiling the Dictionary of Word Associations in Estonian: From scratch to the database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Vainik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the project titled “The Dictionary of Word Associations in Estonian” undertaken by the author at the Institute of the Estonian Language. The general aim of the Dictionary is to provide insights into Estonians’ common-sense mind. It is meant to be a tool of self-reflection for Estonian native speakers and a guide for the foreigners who are eager enough to make themselves familiar with the Estonian cultural patterns of thought. The Dictionary will be published online. The number of keywords was initially limited to approximately 800. Specific emphasis is given to the stage of data collection by implementing the principles of citizen science.

  10. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409: Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend. The vast majority of the versions of The Woman as Wolf were written down in the first part of the 20th century within Estonia and where recorded from Estonians. The article introduces the content of the tale, the origin of the first records from the early 19th century, and the dissemination area of the tale, which remains outside Western Europe: apart from the Estonian versions there are Sami, Karelian, Vepsian, Livonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian versions. While in almost all the Estonian versions the main protagonist is transformed into a wolf, in most of the versions written down in other areas and ethnic groups, another animal or bird replaces the wolf. The author is of the opinion that the Finnic area is central to the distribution of the folk tale The Woman as Wolf. The animal the woman is transformed into in the plot would not have been a wolf in earlier times. The article provides an explanation why the wolf is predominant in Estonian written sources. For that purpose the ways in which the wolf and werewolf were perceived in earlier Estonian folk belief are introduced. At the end of the article interpretation of the folk tale is provided. The author states that the plot and some of the motifs found in this folk tale reflect the difficulties women had in submitting to the norms and values of patriarchal order within their society.

  11. The figure of the teacher in Estonian school discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott Puumeister

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns itself with the figure of the teacher in Estonian society. We do not concentrate on the educational system as a whole, but on one specific and crucial element in this apparatus - the teacher. We begin by offering a brief historical overview of the conditions of pedagogues in the 20th century before moving on to describe the adoption of neo-liberal free market policies since the 1990s and the effects these policies had and still have on education. Our main concern is to understand the teacher as an actor in power relations; to achieve this understanding we have selected as our examples 1 surveillance techniques in school environment that have direct relations to the state and the market; and 2 the 2012 educational workers' strike that made it quite clear that the teachers have been fixed to a position of wage workers. The overall and more abstract aim of the paper is to think about the social role of the teacher in Estonia.

  12. MODELLING DICLOFENAC AND IBUPROFEN RESIDUES IN MAJOR ESTONIAN SEASIDE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erki Lember

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model was developed to model the fate of two common pharmaceutical residues: diclofenac and ibuprofen in eight Estonian seaside cities that discharge their wastewaters directly into the Baltic Sea. The consumption rates of the active ingredients of diclofenac and ibuprofen from 2006-2014 were analysed. A decrease of 19.9% for diclofenac consumption and an increase of 14.1% for ibuprofen were found. The fate of diclofenac and ibuprofen were modelled by considering the human metabolism removal rate for pharmaceuticals, the removal rate of diclofenac and ibuprofen in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTP and annual flow rates. An average decrease from 1 to 0.8 µg/l (decrease of 20% for diclofenac and an increase from 11.4 to 13.4 µg/l (increase of 14.9% for ibuprofen for the concentration in the effluents of the WWTP were modelled. The model gives us a good overview about the theoretical concentrations of pharmaceutical residues in the environment and is helpful for evaluating environmental impacts.

  13. History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Jüri

    2007-11-01

    A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience.

  14. Chernobyl is still haunting us. Radionuclides in Estonian mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Vilde, R.; Martin, L.; Aaspollu, J.; Tekko, S.

    1993-01-01

    The disaster that happened at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in 1986 caused a sharp rise in radioactive pollution over an extensive area in the region of the Baltic Sea. To estimate the distribution and the concentration of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in Estonian ecosystems, samples of mushrooms, mosses, lichens and the upper horizons of soil were gathered from 63 test sites during 1991. We were particularly interested in the amounts of radionuclides in mushrooms because these are used as food by people. Dangerously high radionuclide concentrations were found in mushrooms gathered in North-East Estonia. Heightened concentrations were registered here and there all over the territory of Estonia, especially in mushrooms gathered in Central and South-Western Estonia. The Cs-137 content in mushrooms depends on its content in other components of the ecosystems, first and foremost on the concentrations of radiocaesium in mosses and litter, which, therefore, can be used as indicators in prognostication the radioactive pollution of mushrooms in a certain region. As Cs-137 migrates between various ecosystem components, it is necessary to check the radioactivity of the forest products used for food for still a number of years to come. The Sr-90 level was low in all the ecosystem components examined. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs

  15. Estonian Perceptions of Security: Not Only About Russia and the Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veebel Viljar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the Estonian perceptions of security and on the defence situation both globally and locally. The dynamic results of the public opinion surveys on security risks conducted in Estonia over the last 10 years (2006-2016 will be presented. In addition, to understand whether some of the security risks could be over- or underestimated in Estonia, these results will be compared with the views expressed recently by the World Economic Forum, particularly the Global Risks Report 2016. Also, the arguments why some topics have played or are currently playing key role in the Estonian security perception will be presented and discussed.

  16. The problems and development potential of revenue autonomy in Estonian municipalities. Kohalike omavalitsuste tuluautonoomia probleemid ja arenguvõimalused Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janno Reiljan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a regionally heterogeneous country like Estonia, it is a difficult task to create a local government revenue structure that guarantees even supply of public services across the entire country and, at the same time, revenue autonomy for the municipalities. In the theoretical part of the current article the suitability of different sources of own revenues are analysed in the context of Estonian municipalities. The empirical part of the article compares the financing principles of Estonian municipalities with other EU countries. Finally, the proportions of different own sources of revenues in the budgets of Estonian local governments are examined and suggestions are made for changing the current system

  17. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  18. Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present TLÜ Akadeemilises Raamatukogus / Sander Jürisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürisson, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilises Raamatukogus on üleval näitus "Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present", mis annab ülevaate Kanada Alberta provintsi eestlaste loost. Näitus valmis Alberta Eesti Kultuuripärandi Seltsi koostöös Alberta Provintsi Arhiivi Kultuuripärandi Osakonnaga Edmontonis

  19. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  20. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  1. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  2. Estonian Airi ümber käib lehmakauplemine / Tõnu Lilleorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilleorg, Tõnu

    2008-01-01

    Skandinaavia lennukompanii SAS saatis Eesti valitsusele kirja, milles teatab, et on nõus raskustes Estonian Airile lisainvesteeringuid tegema vaid siis, kui riik müüb SAS-ile oma osaluse, 34%. Vt. samas: SAS ei taha lennufirma eest maksta üle 150 miljoni. Diagramm: Majandusnäitajad, omanikud

  3. Estonian Cell peab suu kasumist puhtaks pühkima / Kaisa Tahlfeld, Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tahlfeld, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Cell saatis valitsusele pöördumise, milles palutakse teha parandusi elektrienergiaga seonduvates seadustes, mis aitaksid ettevõtet energia hinnatõusu ajal. Elektri hinnatõusu tõttu on muutunud küsitavaks ka Nitroferti tehase edasine eksisteerimine

  4. Sustainable development outlooks of the Estonian energy sector for convergence with the European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laur, Anton; Tenno, Koidu; Soosaar, Sulev

    2002-01-01

    The article presents an overview of a research conducted in the Estonian Inst. of Economics and the Estonian Energy Research Inst. with the objectives to: analyse the dynamics of the main Estonian energy use indicators over the last 8-10 years with the background of general macroeconomics developments; compare these indicators with the respective energy indicators in the European Union Member States and Candidate Countries; evaluate Estonia's potential to catch up by the energy use efficiency (GDP energy intensity) of the average level of EU countries, modelling our possible development scenarios of GDP and TPES. The research results indicates several positive development tendencies (e.g. reduction of TPES and CO 2 emissions with the background of economic growth) in the Estonian energy sector, as well as convergence with the EU countries in terms of GDP energy intensity. Unfortunately, the model analysis results demonstrate that it takes a lot of time for Estonia to reach the current EU level - even under the most favourable GDP and TPES development conditions, 25-30 years. The primary reason is the very low level of our GDP per capita compared to the EU countries. (author)

  5. Estonian Vocational Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education for Students with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Richard; Kaikkonen, Leena; Koiv, Kristi

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from research conducted with two samples of teachers from Estonian Vocational Schools. The first sample comprised a group of teachers who had received professional development directly related to the management of students with special educational needs in vocational education settings. Their attitudes and…

  6. Russian-Estonian Economic and Investment Cooperation During the Crisis: Dynamics and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevskaya Anastasia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development in Russian-Estonian relations during the crises of 2007 and 2014, taking into consideration the balance between political and economic factors in the decision-making by Estonian government. A number of special aspects, trends and problems in trade and investment ties are detected. The aim of the study is to uncover key motivation behind the actions of both Russia and Estonia, to identify the drivers for economic and political development in the region, and to work out recommendations to adjust them. The questions put forward by the authors of this article could not be more topical at the time, when Russian economic situation is obviously getting worse and capital flight (to the neighboring EU Member States is likely to increase. The method of the study is comparative analysis of the impact on economic ties made by Russian-Estonian crisis of 2007 and the current international tension around Ukraine. The regional fossil fuel market and the possibilities of Gazprom involvement in its development are also analyzed. It is concluded that political motives are still important for Estonian decisionmaking, though they are balanced out by measures of business support (despite some of these measures being taken by the EU bodies. The role of political factor for the Russian side is increasing. It is acknowledged that there is a growing number of missed economic opportunities in the Russian Northwest.

  7. The Estonian diaspora in South-West Russia in the 1920—30s: migration results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupin Yuri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the spatial features of the settling of Russian Estonians in the Northwest region at the “zenith” of diaspora on the basis of 1920, 1926, and 1939 censuses. The author identifies the principal settling areas and points out the geographical preconditions for the rapid decline of the diaspora.

  8. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  9. Organizational culture based on the example of an Estonian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saame, Iisi; Reino, Anne; Vadi, Maaja

    2011-01-01

    The concept of organisational culture (also referred to later as OC) is one of the approaches in modern organisational analysis exploring the values, attitudes and beliefs behind human behaviour in the workplace. OC as a social phenomenon is considered to be important for the sustainability of every organisation. In the service sector, OC may affect the nature and quality of the services provided. The aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand, to highlight the patterns of OC in a hospital; and, on the other hand, to outline relationships between OC and patient satisfaction. The study was conducted in Tartu University Hospital, one of the most influential health care organisations in Estonia. This paper has original value by presenting an insight into organisational culture in the Estonian health care sector, and the findings of the study will expand knowledge of OC in the health care sector in general. The OC instrument applied in a quantitative cross-sectional study was earlier developed according to the Competing Values Framework (CVF). Data from 456 medical and non-medical professionals were analysed using non-parametric tests of descriptive statistics. A factor analysis was performed to assess the instrument's compatibility for analysing the OC pattern in the health care sector. The dominant culture type in all the groups investigated was the Internal Processes type, mainly followed by the Rational Goal type, while different cultural patterns were observed in professional groups. The factor analysis yielded a three-subscale solution. Clinics with high patient satisfaction did not score more than clinics with low patient satisfaction in terms of the Human Relations type. In future studies a random sample design and a multidisciplinary approach to OC research should be followed in order to further explore OC patterns in hospitals and their consequences for different aspects of hospital performance.

  10. Power without manpower: Forecasting labour demand for Estonian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriküll, Jaanika; Eamets, Raul; Humal, Katrin; Espenberg, Kerly

    2012-01-01

    As energy demand and prices continue to grow, oil shale might help mitigate the energy crisis—it can widely be found all over the world but so far has not been widely used. Estonia is unique in the world for producing a large majority of energy out of oil shale and has been set as an example in numerous papers covering oil shale deposits, technology etc. This paper is the first to analyse oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts of the labour demand for the Estonian energy sector in 2010–2020. The contribution of the paper is twofold. First, the paper provides a valuable insight into oil shale energy related workforce, enabling to take into consideration the educational needs in countries where oil shale industry might be set up. Second, methodology-wise, the paper relates labour demand and supply to different scenarios of energy production capacities. The results illustrate problems related to aging of the workforce in energy production. If the existing trends continue in educational attainment in Estonia, there will be a serious shortage of high-skilled engineering and manufacturing specialists. Our method provides a simple yet reliable enough way to check for such problems early enough. - Highlights: ► This paper analyses oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts. ► This is the first study to investigate the workforce related to oil shale energy production. ► The main workforce-related problem in the sector is ageing of the workforce. ► Workers immigrating to the sector during the Soviet times are at the retirement age. ► There will be a serious shortage of engineers for energy sector in the near future.

  11. Estonian Business Schooli magistriharidus nüüd ka koju kätte / Madis Habakuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habakuk, Madis

    2007-01-01

    Sügisest hakkab Estonian Business School koos Mainori Kõrgkooliga pakkuma magistriõpet majandushariduseta inimestele, kus soovijatel on võimalus õppida EBSi Master of Business Administration programmi järgi

  12. [Encapsulated voices : Estonian sound recordings from the German prisoner-of-war camps in 1916-1918] / Tõnu Tannberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tannberg, Tõnu, 1961-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Encapsulated voices : Estonian sound recordings from the German prisoner-of-war camps in 1916-1918 (Das Baltikum in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 5). Hrsg. von Jaan Ross. Böhlau Verlag. Köln, Weimar und Wien 2012

  13. Väärikas Estonian Air jäi kampaaniaga hätta / Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnik, Alyona

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air müüs veebikaupluse cherry.ee kaudu soodsaid kinkekaarte. Vastuolu tekkis asjaolust, et nõudlus kinkekaartide järele oli suurem kui pakkumine. Lennukompanii katkestas soodsate kinkekaartide müügi

  14. The Rocky Road towards Professional Autonomy: The Estonian Journalists’ Organization in the Political Turmoil of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Lauk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to explain the relationships between journalists, politics and the state from the perspective of collective autonomy, that of the professional organization of journalists. The case of Estonian Journalists’ Union demonstrates the complexity and historical contingency of professional autonomy of journalism. The development of the Estonian journalists’ organization occurred as a sequence of transformations from the Estonian Journalists’ Association to the Estonian Journalists’ Union to the Soviet type journalists’ union, and lastly to an independent trade union. This sequence was disrupted by several fatal breakdowns that changed not only the character of the association, but also professional values, the whole occupational ideology and the conditions of the existence of journalism as a profession in Estonia.

  15. Noor eesti teater ja Noor-Eesti. Young Estonian Theatre and Young Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Aaslav-Tepandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins by examining points of intersection between two professional theatres, ”Estonia” and ”Vanemuine” (both established in 1906, their young directors – Karl Menning, Paul Pinna, Theodor Altermann, and Karl Jungholz, and the literary movement Young Estonia. Subsequently, we will consider Young Estonia’s theatrical ideals and the influence of these ideas on later Estonian theatrical life. Since not much information has survived regarding direct personal contacts between ”movers and shakers” in the theatre world and Young Estonians, the main focus here shall be on indirect creative connections and influences. One such context is education: like the Young Estonians, theatre activists of the younger generation aspired to place themselves on the larger map of European culture. Thus, their artistic beliefs and goals shall be examined in relation to those of Young Estonians’ quest for modern culture. Pinna, Altermann, Menning, Jungholz, and others went on study tours to Germany and France, where they were energized and inspired by innovative German and Russian theatres, by naturalistic staging, and by psychological realism, both in acting and in performance style. Among their models were A. Antoine’s Théâtre- Libre in Paris, K. Stanislavski’s Art Theatre in Moscow, O. Brahm’s Lessing-Theater, and M. Reinhardt’s Deutsches Theater in Berlin. These models were likewise known to the Young Estonians, but if theatre activists oriented themselves more fundamentally to German naturalist and realist dramatic art, Young Estonians were more taken with ”theatrical theatre” with its symbolist and impressionist influences. The Young Estonians attended performances at both theatres, ”Vanemuine” and ”Estonia”, and wrote numerous theatre reviews. Yet in the Young Estonia albums (yearbooks and in the magazine Young Estonia, theatre topics have a relatively modest representation. Young Estonians did not have direct

  16. Chemistry of the Estonian oil-shale kukersite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogerman, P N

    1931-01-01

    Estonian oil shale is one of the oldest and richest oil shales in the world. The deposits occur in the Middle-Ordovician strata having a total thickness of 2.2 meters. The ultimate composition of the kerogen varied within the following limits: carbon 76.5 to 76.7 percent, hydrogen 9.1 to 9.2 percent, nitrogen 0.2 to 0.4 percent, sulfur 1.6 to 2.2 percent, chlorine 0.5 to 0.7 percent, and oxygen (by difference) 11.2 to 12.2 percent. The composition of kukersite kerogen corresponds nearly to the empirical formula (C/sub 8/H/sub 11/O)n. One of the most significant differences between kukersite, coal, and lignite is the amount of alkali-soluble substances present. Kukersite has almost no humic acids. Samples of kukersite were brominated and chlorinated. The halogenated shales showed a solubility in absolute alcohol of 26 percent compared to only 0.31 percent for untreated shale. Enriched shale (4.5 percent ash) did not react with chlorine as much as did raw shale. Apparently the mineral matter acted catalytically during chlorination. The amount of soluble extract obtained by solvent treatment of kukersite ranged from 0.22 percent with chloroform to 2.20 percent with tetrachloroethane. Heat was the most effective agent for the depolymerization of kukersite kerogen. The percentage loss of weight due to drying in air was much less than in the presence of carbon dioxide. The results indicated that on drying in air, the powdered shale loses water and a volatile substance, probably the oxides of carbon, up to 80/sup 0/C. Carbon dioxide was also found to be present in the gases eliminated at the temperature of initial decomposition. Pulverized shale, heated for 6 hours at 220/sup 0/C, lost 2.6 percent of its weight; its solubility in carbon disulfide was 2.11 percent. Kukersite kerogen was formed from compounds that were resistent to bacteriological decomposition, such as waxes and resins, plus decomposition products of proteins, cellulose, and putrefaction products of

  17. Sources and distribution of trace elements in Estonian peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Hans; Orru, Mall

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the distribution of trace elements in Estonian mires. Sixty four mires, representative of the different landscape units, were analyzed for the content of 16 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb using AAS; Cd by GF-AAS; Hg by the cold vapour method; and V, Co, As, Sr, Mo, Th, and U by XRF) as well as other peat characteristics (peat type, degree of humification, pH and ash content). The results of the research show that concentrations of trace elements in peat are generally low: V 3.8 ± 0.6, Cr 3.1 ± 0.2, Mn 35.1 ± 2.7, Co 0.50 ± 0.05, Ni 3.7 ± 0.2, Cu 4.4 ± 0.3, Zn 10.0 ± 0.7, As 2.4 ± 0.3, Sr 21.9 ± 0.9, Mo 1.2 ± 0.2, Cd 0.12 ± 0.01, Hg 0.05 ± 0.01, Pb 3.3 ± 0.2, Th 0.47 ± 0.05, U 1.3 ± 0.2 μg g - 1 and S 0.25 ± 0.02%. Statistical analyses on these large database showed that Co has the highest positive correlations with many elements and ash content. As, Ni, Mo, ash content and pH are also significantly correlated. The lowest abundance of most trace elements was recorded in mires fed only by precipitation (ombrotrophic), and the highest in mires fed by groundwater and springs (minerotrophic), which are situated in the flood plains of river valleys. Concentrations usually differ between the superficial, middle and bottom peat layers, but the significance decreases depending on the type of mire in the following order: transitional mires - raised bogs - fens. Differences among mire types are highest for the superficial but not significant for the basal peat layers. The use of peat with high concentrations of trace elements in agriculture, horticulture, as fuel, for water purification etc., may pose a risk for humans: via the food chain, through inhalation, drinking water etc.

  18. Az észt névtervezés az észt nyelvpolitikai modell tükrében [The name management in the mirror of the Estonian LPP-model

    OpenAIRE

    Pomozi, Péter; Földesi, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    The Estonian model of language planning and policy, which has been serving the development and protection of the Estonian language in its current form since 2004, is one of the most successful of such strategies in Europe. It owes it success to the broad social and scientific consensus reached in questions of language policy, regardless of changes in government. The Development Plan of the Estonian Language divides Estonian language planning and policy into three parts: status planning, corpu...

  19. The Role of Language in (Recreating Tatar Diaspora Identity: The Case of the Estonian Tatars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Klaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the meanings assigned to Tatar language among the Tatar diaspora in Estonia. According to interviews with Estonian Tatars as well as descriptions of field material from Tatarstan, language is an important aspect of Tatar ethnic identity. This paper will track common discourses about the Tatar language and the way it is connected to Tatar ethnic identity. Issues concerning Tatar language are used to demonstrate various ways of enacting Tatarness in Estonia. It is shown that Estonian Tatars worry about the vitality and purity of Tatar language, but for some, marginalization of dialects is also an issue. People categorized with the same identity labels by self and others can experience and enact their Tatarness in a variety of different ways.

  20. Field of genes: the politics of science and identity in the Estonian Genome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Amy L

    2004-04-01

    This case study of the Estonian Genome Project (EGP) analyses the Estonian policy decision to construct a national human gene bank. Drawing upon qualitative data from newspaper articles and public policy documents, it focuses on how proponents use discourse to link the EGP to the broader political goal of securing Estonia's position within the Western/European scientific and cultural space. This dominant narrative is then situated within the analytical notion of the "brand state", which raises potentially negative political consequences for this type of market-driven genomic research. Considered against the increasing number of countries engaging in gene bank and/or gene database projects, this analysis of Estonia elucidates issues that cross national boundaries, while also illuminating factors specific to this small, post-Soviet state as it enters the global biocybernetic economy.

  1. Strategies for Estonian rural family enterprises. Eesti maapiirkonna pereettevõtete strateegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Kirsipuu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to analyse family businesses in rural areas, family business strategies and re-registration of sole proprietors with the Centre of Registers and Information Systems (hereinafter Commercial Register in 2009, and to provide an overview of entrepreneurship policies targeted at Estonian rural businesses. Layoffs have increased the number of unemployed; some of those who have lost employment opt for social assistance benefits, but some others decide to become entrepreneurs. Many enterprising people in Estonia have set up a family enterprise, mainly in the sphere of services, agriculture and tourism. The Estonian entrepreneurship policy supports enterprising people and approves of entrepreneurship as a promoter of national economic development. One of the most positive qualities of family enterprises is their short decision-making chain, which ensures rapid implementation of the strategy.

  2. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1998-01-01

    Laretei, Käbi. Eksiil; Toona, Elin. Lotukata; Park, Eeva. Naeru õpilane; Luik, Viivi. Inimese kapike; Laaman, Ilona. Vesi ahjus; Viiding, Juhan (Üdi, Jüri). Kogutud luuletused; Paju, Juhan. Katkenud romaan; Paju, Juhan. Hõõguv rist; Estonian short stories / toim. Kajar Pruul ja Darlene Reddaway; Traat, Mats. Kartaago kiirrong; Kauksi Ülle. Säng; Kross, Jaan. Paigallend; Puhvel, Madli. Symbol of dawn; Kaplinski, Jaan. Võimaluste võimalikkus; Kaplinski, Jaan. Usk on uskmatus

  3. Estonian Perceptions of Security: Not Only About Russia and the Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Veebel Viljar; Ploom Illimar

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the Estonian perceptions of security and on the defence situation both globally and locally. The dynamic results of the public opinion surveys on security risks conducted in Estonia over the last 10 years (2006-2016) will be presented. In addition, to understand whether some of the security risks could be over- or underestimated in Estonia, these results will be compared with the views expressed recently by the World Economic Forum, particularly the Global Risks R...

  4. The Challenges Organic Food Processors Meet at Small Emerging Market – Estonian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sarapuu, Kerttu; Pehme, Sirli; Peetsmann, Elen; Matt, Darja

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming and demand for organic products is continually a growing trend all over the world (Willer et al., 2013). In Estonia the share of organic land is 15% of all agricultural land and the number of organic farmers is also growing (Vetemaa, Mikk 2013). Estonian organic food market is still in forming stage being affected by local organic farming development, marketing situation, economic situation and consumer attitudes. Organic processing has clearly not kept up with organic farming...

  5. Assessment of the Estonian Research Development Technology and Innovation Funding System

    OpenAIRE

    Nedeva, Maria; Georghiou, Luke

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the assessment of the RDTI funding system in Estonia as specified by the Terms of Reference are as follows: 1) to conduct a review of the current R&D funding system in Estonia; 2) to review the objectives of the Estonian R&D Strategy 2002-2006; 3) to review best practice in R&D funding elsewhere; and 4) to propose an efficient, transparent and accountable R&D funding system.

  6. Is Estonian oil shale beneficial in the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsalu, Enno

    1998-01-01

    Oil shale mining production reached its maximum level of 31.35·10 6 tonnes per year in 1980. After the eighties there was a steady decline in mining. The first scientific prognoses of the inescapable decrease in oil shale mining were published in 1988. According to this, the Estonian oil shale industry would vanish in the third decade of the next century. From the beginning of the nineties, the consumption and export of electricity have dropped in Estonia. The minimum level of oil shale mining was 13.5·10 6 tonnes per year. This occurred in 1994/1995. Some increase in consumption of electric power and oil shale began at the end of 1995. Oil shale processing began to increase gradually in 1993. Oil shale is the most important fuel in Estonia today. In 1997, oil shale provided 76% of Estonia's primary energy supply and accounted for 57% of its economic value. Oil shale is the cheapest fuel in Estonia. Nowadays, oil shale provides an essential part of the fuel supply in Estonia because it is considerably cheaper than other fuels. Oil shale costs EEK 12.16 per G J. At the same time, coal costs EEK 23.41 per G J and peat costs EEK 14.80 per G J (year 1997). There are three important customers of oil shale: the electric power company Eesti Energia, the oil processing company Kiviter and the factory Kunda Nordic Cement. In 1995, the power company utilised 81% of the oil shale mass and 77% of its heating value. The state energy policy inhibits increases in the oil shale price even though the mining infrastructure is decaying. Government price policies subside oil shale processing. The energy of oil shale processing is 1.9 times cheaper than the heating value of raw oil shale for power stations. It could be considered as a state subsidisation of oil and cement export at the expense of electricity. The subsidy assigned to oil processing was of EEK 124·10 6 and to the cement industry of EEK 8.4·10 6 in year 1997 (based on heating value). State regulation of prices and

  7. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  8. Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies: from past to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Katrin; Jürisoo, Kadi; Raal, Ain

    2014-07-01

    Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advancements, the burden of cancer is still increasing worldwide. Toxicity of current chemotherapeutics to normal cells and their resistance to tumor cells highlights the urgent need for new drugs with minimal adverse side effects. The use of natural anticancer agents has entered into the area of cancer research and increased efforts are being made to isolate bioactive products from medicinal plants. To lead the search for plants with potential cytotoxic activity, ethnopharmacological knowledge can give a great contribution. Therefore, the attention of this review is devoted to the natural remedies traditionally used for the cancer treatment by Estonian people over a period of almost 150 years. Two massive databases, the first one stored in the Estonian Folklore Archives and the second one in the electronic database HERBA ( http://herba.folklore.ee/ ), containing altogether more than 30 000 ethnomedicinal texts were systematically reviewed to compile data about the Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies. As a result, 44 different plants with potential anticancer properties were elicited, 5 of which [Angelica sylvestris L. (Apiaceae), Anthemis tinctoria L. (Asteraceae), Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae), Sorbus aucuparia L. (Rosaceae), and Prunus padus L. (Rosaceae)] have not been previously described with respect to their tumoricidal activities in the scientific literature, suggesting thus the potential herbal materials for further investigations of natural anticancer compounds.

  9. Comparison of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding smoking among Estonian and Finnish physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Rahu, Kaja; Barengo, Noël C; Rahu, Mati; Sandström, Patrick H; Jormanainen, Vesa J; Myllykangas, Markku T

    2005-01-01

    To compare smoking behaviour, attitudes and opinions towards smoking and smoking cessation among Estonian and Finnish physicians. A cross-sectional postal survey using a self-administered questionnaire was carried out among 2,480 Estonian and 2,075 Finnish physicians. Daily smoking prevalence was higher among Estonian physicians than among their Finnish counterparts in both male (18.6% and 6.7%) and female (6.6% and 3.6%). Compared to Estonia, physicians in Finland more often agreed that smoking is very harmful to their health, that trying to convince people to stop smoking is their responsibility and that smoking prevention should be part of the normal and special training of health professionals. In both countries, non-smoking physicians held more unfavourable attitudes towards smoking than those who were smoking. Physicians' own smoking patterns and quitting behaviour are important because physicians serve as models for their patients and play a key role in the reinforcement of smoke-free health facilities. These results remain a challenge to medical educators, especially in Estonia. Estonia needs to improve medical education in terms of motivating physicians to ask about the smoking patterns of their patients and of training medical students and resident physicians to counsel their patients to stop smoking.

  10. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A; Salomaa, S [eds.; Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M; Veidebaum, T; Tekkel, M [eds.; Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T [ed.; Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, Jr, J D [ed.; Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  11. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaart Tanel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14 and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14 cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB. Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P P P P P P th min nadir (P th min postinfusion (P Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows.

  12. Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon stocks in Estonian arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suuster, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Roostalu, Hugo; Reintam, Endla; Penu, Priit

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) determines ecosystem functions, influencing soil fertility, soil physical, chemical and biological properties and crop productivity. Therefore the spatial pattern of SOC stocks and its appropriate management is important at various scales. Due to climate change and the contribution of carbon store in the soils, the national estimates of soil carbon stocks should be determined. Estonian soils have been well studied and mapped at a scale 1:10,000. Previous studies have estimated SOC stocks based on combinations of large groups of Estonian soils and the mean values of the soil profile database, but were not embedded into the geo-referenced databases. These studies have estimated SOC stocks of Estonian arable soils 122.3 Tg. Despite of available soil maps and databases, this information is still very poorly used for spatial soil modelling. The aim of current study is to assess and model spatial pattern of SOC stocks of arable soils on a pilot area Tartu County (area 3089 sq km). Estonian digital soil map and soil monitoring databases are providing a good opportunity to assess SOC stocks at various scales. The qualitative nature of the initial data from a soil map prohibits any straightforward use in modelling. Thus we have used several databases to construct models and linkages between soil properties that can be integrated into soil map. First step was to reorganize the soil map database (44,046 mapping units) so it can be used as an input to modelling. Arable areas were distinguished by a field layer of Agricultural Registers and Information Board, which provides precise information of current land use as it is the basis of paying CAP subsidies. The estimates of SOC content were found by using the arable land evaluation database of Tartu from the Estonian Land Board (comprising 950 sq km and 31,226 fields), where each soil type was assessed separately and average SOC content grouped by texture was derived. SOC content of epipedon varies in

  13. Trends in smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians in 1982-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Põld, Mariliis; Ringmets, Inge

    2017-07-25

    Smoking surveys among physicians have proved useful in highlighting the importance of physicians as healthy life style exemplars and role models in tobacco control and smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to give an overview of smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians from 1982 to 2014. Three cross-sectional postal surveys using a self-administered questionnaire were carried out among all practising physicians in Estonia. The number of physicians participating in this study was 3786 in 1982, 2735 in 2002, and 2902 in 2014. Data analysis involved calculating the age-standardized prevalences of smoking, prevalences of smoking by age group and mean age of smoking initiation. A non-parametric test for trend was used to assess significant changes in smoking over time. Age-standardized prevalence of current smoking among men was 39.7% in 1982, 20.9% in 2002, and 14.3% in 2014 and among women 12.2%, 8.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p smoking among men and women was in age groups under 35 (from 55.2% to 16.7% and from 16.7% to 2.8%, respectively) and 35-44 (from 47.1% to 8.3% and from 19.5% to 5.1%, respectively) (p smoking initiation decreased from 20.4 to 19.3 among men and from 24.5 to 20.4 among women over the study period. In 1982-2014, smoking prevalence among Estonian physicians declined substantially. This may influence the willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking which could give a support to the decline of the smoking epidemic in the country. Differences between smoking among male and female physicians persisted over the study period, but mean age of smoking initiation decreased. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians should be encouraged by special efforts targeted at physicians.

  14. The treatment of lexical collocations in EFL coursebooks in the Estonian secondary school context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Vassiljev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates lexical collocations encountered in English as a Foreign Language (EFL instruction in Estonian upper secondary schools. This is achieved through a statistical analysis of collocations featuring in three coursebooks where the collocations found are analysed in terms of their type, frequency and usefulness index by studying them through an online language corpus (Collins Wordbanks Online. The coursebooks are systematically compared and contrasted relying upon the data gathered. The results of the study reveal that the frequency and range of lexical collocations in a language corpus have not been regarded as an essential criterion for their selection and practice by any of the coursebook authors under discussion.

  15. Estonian experience in establishing the national radiation protection infrastructure in the newly independent State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalam, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (ERPC) was established on 4 January 1996 as the regulatory authority for radiation protection and safety of radiation sources. The report explains the ERPC's structure and its main functions and activities, and provides information on the regulations that have been approved or are planned to be adopted. Reference is made to radiological emergency preparedness and, in particular, to the status of development of the system of regulatory control by authorization and inspection of radiation practices in the country. (author)

  16. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  17. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  18. Tabud ja reeglid. Sissevaateid eesti laagriromaani / Taboos and Rules. Insights into Prison Camp Novels by Estonian Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Kõvamees

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concentrates on Estonian novels depicting Soviet prison camps in the 1940s and 1950s. The goal is to map themes, motifs and characteristics in such novels, concentrating on various taboos and rules in the prison camp environment. For a long time the Soviet prison camp theme was not publicly discussed in Estonia due to political reasons. Texts dealing with prison camps could appear in print only outside the Soviet Union; the way Estonians saw these historical events and hellish experiences were depicted mostly in exile novels. Most notable are the novels by Arved Viirlaid (b. 1922, e.g., Kes tappis Eerik Hormi? (Who Killed Eerik Horm? (1974, Surnud ei loe (The Dead do not Read (1975, Vaim ja ahelad (Mind and Chains (1961. Estonian prison camp novels can be seen as “the literature of testimony”, to use the term by Leona Toker. Dramatic historical events are written down to record the events and to show the inhumane nature of Soviet society. These records of the dramatic past follow certain patterns and create certain self- and hetero-images. A prison camp is a closed territory within a closed territory; prison camps can be seen as small models of Soviet society. Prison camp novels give a detailed view of the environment of the prison camp, its inhabitants and activities. Two central aspects are labour and food; the life of the prisoner whirls around these. The most important thing is to survive, which often leads to moral decline, e.g., stealing, cheating. However, there are lines Estonians do not cross, e.g., cannibalism or homosexual relationships with superiors. Estonians are always depicted as political prisoners (not common criminals and heterosexuals, while Russians are portrayed mainly as criminals and often also as homosexuals. Another important component of the image of the Estonians is their enterprising spirit and ability to manage even under very difficult conditions. Therefore, several oppositions can be identified, e

  19. Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall

    2015-11-01

    To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.

  20. Radon in Estonian buildings. Establishment of a measurement system and obtained results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahapill, L.; Rulkov, A.; Swedjemark, G.A.

    1996-12-01

    One purpose of this project was the establishment of a radon monitoring programme inside the state environmental monitoring programme. Another purpose was to investigate regions, expected to have high radon levels indoors. A new method for the long-term measurement of indoor radon was established and the staff for these measurements was trained. The results of the measurement can be used by Estonian decision-makers to work out rules and standards. There is no legislative act in the field of radiation in Estonian at this time. To summarize the results of the measurements we can say that indoor radon concentrations vary by region. The radon investigations must be continued to identify the risk areas and types of housing construction. The results of the state radon monitoring are provided to the municipalities, who advice the owners of planned new houses to select the right construction for the house. A new project will follow with an investigation of radon in randomly selected dwellings, training and equipment for radon measurement in soil, and general advice with regard to radon, as well as assistance in preparing information about radon. 7 refs, 5 figs

  1. Vene kirjandus venestusaja eesti koolides. Russian Literature in the Estonian Schools of the Russification Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülle Pärli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to give an overview of literary instruction in schools of the russification era at the beginning of the 20th century in Estonia; this was likewise the curriculum of literary study offered to the generation of educated youth which included the Young Estonians. Based on official documents, archival materials, and memoirs, and through analyses of anthologies, literary histories, and teaching methods in use at the time, we attempt to reconstruct the outlines of literary reading and requirements for students in various types of schools. When, as a result of school reform, Russian became the language of instruction; lessons in Russian became central in the curriculum, alongside the word of God; selections from Russian literature were read in the original language. In the lower grades, teaching was by the so-called ”natural method”, intended to guarantee swift achievement of fluency in ”living Russian language”; this was later replaced by systematic textual analysis, which distinguished between belles lettres and other types of texts. However, the study of literature was always subordinated to the goals of language instruction. In institutions of secondary education, study of Russian literature was separate from language instruction. Indeed, Russian literature was the only literature systematically studied in high schools (though one must keep in mind that not all schools completely followed the official program. Private schools were especially noticeable for their greater freedom, though all of them had to take general curriculum directives into account. Reading of literary texts connected with other languages thus had to remain almost purely illustrative. In view of the above, in the upper grades of elementary school and high school, students obtained a thorough introduction to the Russian classics. According to the official school curriculum, Russian literary history ended with Nikolai Gogol. Attempts were made to ignore

  2. Identity and Othering in Past and Present: Representations of the Soviet Era in Estonian Post-Soviet Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Kello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses representations of the ‘core Soviet era’ (1945-1985 in Estonian post-Soviet history textbooks (1989-2016. Attitudes towards the Soviet system have been a rich resource for identity building, and hence a powerful political tool across the whole of the post-Soviet block. Based on an analysis of sections about the Soviet era in Estonia in 21 textbooks, the paper takes a look at how textbooks reflect broader processes of social meaning making, identity building and othering after a profound social and political turn. In 1989 and during the early 1990s, perspectives and narratives in Estonian history textbooks were closely related to social memory and national politics, enacting a specific social representation of the Soviet era that dominated the Estonian-speaking public space during the 1990s. The Soviet era, Russia and local Russians became the main Others for Estonia and Estonians. Over time, public discourse has diversified. The national curriculum and textbooks, however, still maintain the canon that formed in 1990s and thus reflect earlier sentiments. Apart from the increasing salience of Soviet-era daily life in more recent textbooks, the thematic choices and emphases have changed little since the 1990s. Therefore, even if the style of writing has ‘cooled down’, issues of identity preservation, resistance and accommodation, together with a saliently negative representation of wrongdoings by the Soviet system, still prevail. On the one hand, this testifies to the resilience of an established tradition in the textbook genre in general. On the other hand, it reflects the dominance of an ethnocentric tradition in Estonian history textbook writing. The paper discusses the implications of these findings for interethnic relations in Estonia.

  3. Re-conceptualizing mother tongue tuition of Estonian abroad as a transnational phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Siiner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The governmental initiative called the Compatriots Programme, which supports language tuition in Estonian schools and societies abroad, reveals an increased interest in developing intergenerational language transmission in the growing Estonian diaspora. This transnational language political activity signals a new era in language policy, where nation states are increasingly decentralized by migration. The evaluation of the program furthermore reveals that organizing such schools requires a willingness to take language political agency, typically conducted by well-educated and well-integrated resourceful transnational multilingual parents. The present article outlines the results of an ethnographic study of the process of establishing the Estonian School in Copenhagen. This step has demanded a change in the mindset still prevailing in Estonia that language political activities, such as planning language acquisition, are solely the responsibility of the state. Since the prevailing language ideology in Denmark is not favorable towards multilingualism in migrant languages, intergenerational language transmission furthermore presupposes a feeling of ownership of the language and high language self-esteem. "Hargmaise keelepoliitika sünd. Eesti keeleõppe korraldamise võimalikkusest välismaal Taani näitel" Hargmaisus, kasvav väljarändajate arv ja sellega ka eesti keele rääkijate hulk välismaal on jätnud oma jälje eesti keelepoliitikale. Kui varem uuriti peamiselt seda, kuidas eesti keel muukeelses kontekstis muutub, siis viimasel kümnendil on riik asunud aktiivselt toetama eesti keele jätkuvat kasutamist välismaal, rahastades rahvuskaaslaste programmi abil haridusprogramme. Kuid millised faktorid määravad selle, kas uus eestlaste põlvkond oskab ja tahab eesti keelt rääkida? Artikkel hindab etnograafilises ja sotsiolingvistilises võtmes Kopenhaagenis kolm aastat tegutsenud Eesti Kooli ja Lasteklubi näitel, millised on keelekasutust

  4. Whole-word frequency and inflectional paradigm size facilitate Estonian case-inflected noun processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõo, Kaidi; Järvikivi, Juhani; Baayen, R Harald

    2018-06-01

    Estonian is a morphologically rich Finno-Ugric language with nominal paradigms that have at least 28 different inflected forms but sometimes more than 40. For languages with rich inflection, it has been argued that whole-word frequency, as a diagnostic of whole-word representations, should not be predictive for lexical processing. We report a lexical decision experiment, showing that response latencies decrease both with frequency of the inflected form and its inflectional paradigm size. Inflectional paradigm size was also predictive of semantic categorization, indicating it is a semantic effect, similar to the morphological family size effect. These findings fit well with the evidence for frequency effects of word n-grams in languages with little inflectional morphology, such as English. Apparently, the amount of information on word use in the mental lexicon is substantially larger than was previously thought. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of Heating Value of Estonian Oil Shale by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

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    M. Aints

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS combined with multivariate regression analysis of measured data were utilised for determination of the heating value and the chemical composition of pellets made from Estonian oil shale samples with different heating values. The study is the first where the oil shale heating value is determined on the basis of LIBS spectra. The method for selecting the optimal number of spectral lines for ordinary multivariate least squares regression model is presented. The correlation coefficient between the heating value predicted by the regression model, and that measured by calorimetric bomb, was R2=0.98. The standard deviation of prediction was 0.24 MJ/kg. Concentrations of oil shale components predicted by the regression model were compared with those measured by ordinary methods.

  6. Taxes, Estonian state budget and economic crises. Maksud, riigi eelarve ja majanduskriis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Raju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recession has sharply erected the question of tax burden and the optimal proportion of different kinds of taxes among the incomes of the budget. Indirect taxes and consumption taxes, which proportion is different according to different methodologies, dominate in Estonian state budget. The buoyancy of a tax system based on taxes of that kind is especially weak during the recession. Difficulties concerning the incomes of budget have arisen the necessity for lifting taxes, which is possible as the tax burden is low now. But a sharp question of the optimal level of taxes is going to be raised. A formula for indirect tax optimum according to Ramsey taxes and Slutski decomposition has been proposed in the article.

  7. Comparative analysis of idiom selection and sequencing 5 in Estonian basic school EFL coursebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Anita Forssten

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the selection and sequencing of the idioms encountered in two locally-produced and international coursebook series currently employed in Estonian basic schools. It is hypothesized that there exists a positive correlation between idioms’ difficulty and coursebooks’ language proficiency level. The hypothesis is tested through a statistical analysis of the idioms found which are categorized in terms of their analysability into three categories where category 1 includes analysable semi-literal idioms, category 2 comprises analysable semi-transparent idioms, and category 3 encompasses non-analysable opaque idioms, and then analysed through an online language corpus (British National Corpus. The results of the study reveal that the coursebook authors under discussion have disregarded idioms’ frequency as a criterion for selection or sequencing, whereas the factor utilized to some extent is the degree of analysability.

  8. Conceptual co-presence of motion and emotion in the Estonian terms of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heili Orav

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out whether the conceptual connection of emotion and motion is holding in the domain of personality traits. In a quantitative study 40 Estonian terms of personality traits were investigated and a conclusion was driven that, indeed, the qualities of emotionality and motion are perceived as co-present characteristics. In further data analysis some visualized measures were applied in order to get further insights into the hidden structure of the data. The self-organizing map (SOM analysis revealed an additional dimension of axiological evaluations present in the semantics and the SOM meta-analysis technique revealed groups of near synonymous words as well as gave overview of the more general structure common in the two data sets. The latter was tentatively explained by the person’s habitual level of activation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.21

  9. Change in medical plant use in Estonian ethnomedicine: a historical comparison between 1888 and 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo

    2011-05-17

    The aim of this paper is to compare the changes in the utilization of species from various hemeroby categories (indicating the degree of sensitivity of the plant to human impact) using historical data concerning the years 1888-1994. The authors digitised 8808 handwritten reports, reflecting local ethnopharmacological knowledge from 8 selected collections from the Estonian Folklore Archives of the Estonian Literary Museum. They were semi-quantitatively analyzed according to the sensitivity to human impact of 540 taxa that could possibly be related to the plant vernacular names given in the reports. Although in different periods of time the number of ethnopharmacologically used plants has changed, the proportion of plants utilized from each group has remained relatively same, consisting on average of: 23% anthropophytes, 42% apophytes, 32% hemeradiaphores and 3% hemerophobes. Comparison of the application of the most used plants revealed considerable changes of plant utilization, in which the varied use of the most popular anthropophytes increased and the applied scope of the most popular hemeradiaphores and hemerophobes decreased almost by twofold in one century. Case studies on seven taxa are presented, of them, use of Allium sativum L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Mentha xpiperita L. increased, whereas the use of Hordeum L., Orchidaceae, Paris quadrifolia L. and Briza media L. decreased greatly. This research contributes to the better understanding of the cognitive and human ecological concepts underlying the use of medicinal plants in Estonia. Strong increase in the ethnomedical utilization of plants depending on human influence, and a decrease in the use of taxa that do not prefer human activities indicates that, despite some of the population still have access to natural resources and diverse knowledge of the medical use of plants, the majority relies on a very narrow selection and a rather restricted herbal landscape. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  10. Smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians: results from cross-sectional studies in 2002 and 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Põld, Mariliis; Pärna, Kersti

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians in 2002 and 2014. Design Two self-administered cross-sectional postal surveys were conducted among practising physicians in Estonia. Participants Initial sample consisted of all practising physicians in Estonia. The corrected response rate was 67.8% in 2002 and 53.1% in 2014. Present study sample was restricted to physicians younger than 65 years (n=2549 in 2002, n=2339 in 2014). Methods Age-stand...

  11. Mutational analysis of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes among Estonian osteogenesis imperfecta patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhytnik, Lidiia; Maasalu, Katre; Reimann, Ene; Prans, Ele; Kõks, Sulev; Märtson, Aare

    2017-08-15

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare bone disorder. In 90% of cases, OI is caused by mutations in the COL1A1/2 genes, which code procollagen α1 and α2 chains. The main aim of the current research was to identify the mutational spectrum of COL1A1/2 genes in Estonian patients. The small population size of Estonia provides a unique chance to explore the collagen I mutational profile of 100% of OI families in the country. We performed mutational analysis of peripheral blood gDNA of 30 unrelated Estonian OI patients using Sanger sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, including all intron-exon junctions and 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions, to identify causative OI mutations. We identified COL1A1/2 mutations in 86.67% of patients (26/30). 76.92% of discovered mutations were located in the COL1A1 (n = 20) and 23.08% in the COL1A2 (n = 6) gene. Half of the COL1A1/2 mutations appeared to be novel. The percentage of quantitative COL1A1/2 mutations was 69.23%. Glycine substitution with serine was the most prevalent among missense mutations. All qualitative mutations were situated in the chain domain of pro-α1/2 chains. Our study shows that among the Estonian OI population, the range of collagen I mutations is quite high, which agrees with other described OI cohorts of Northern Europe. The Estonian OI cohort differs due to the high number of quantitative variants and simple missense variants, which are mostly Gly to Ser substitutions and do not extend the chain domain of COL1A1/2 products.

  12. How to Improve the Supportive Role of Estonian Innovation System toward Launching New Products by High Technology Companies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisi Sepp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to evaluate how supportive is Estonian national innovation system toward the launching of new innovative products by high technology firms. The article intends to combine two broad areas of research – national innovation system approach and the different models of the new product launching. Based on the literature review and in-depth analysis of three case studies of Estonian high-tech company’s major barriers as well success factors of highly innovative product launches were identified. The barriers of the new product launching were linked with the systemic failures of the national innovation system. The most relevant failures of Estonian national innovation system inhibiting the new product development are capability and networking failures. The sources of innovation of high-technology firms are too narrow, linkages with domestic firms and higher education institutions as well with foreign firms are poorly developed. High-tech firms have also serious capacity problems due to the extremely weak support mechanism by national innovation system on the seed funding stage of product development and prototype building stage as well. Paper argues that resources needed for the innovation should not be looked too narrowly following linear innovation model approach. Instead interactive approach is needed, which combines capability building, network development, interactive learning with direct investments into fundamental research.

  13. Kolm Eesti Robinsoni: Daniel Defoe romaan eesti tõlkes / Three Estonian Robinsons: Daniel Defoe’s Novel in Estonian Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene-Reet Soovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses three Estonian translations of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe into Estonian with the focus on the completeness of the translated texts and the characterisation given to these in paratextual information. While there are several translations and versions of the tex t available in E stonian that have either used a mediating language or do not proceed directly from Defoe’s novel, three editions explicitly list Defoe’s English-language Robinson Crusoe as their source text. These are Rudolf Sirge’s translation from 1950 and two editions translated by Valter Rummel that appeared in 1984 (reprinted in 2001 and 2007, respectively. The article sets out to discover the main differences between the three editions and the possible reasons that may have triggered their publication in Estonia at those particular times. In order to approach the issues, a general framework derived from descriptive translation studies is employed with an emphasis on Gideon Toury’s chrestomatic treatment of translation norms. Thus an attempt is made to detect the preliminary translational norms regarding translation policy, particularly the choice of texts to be translated, as well as the matricial norms that concern the fullness of the translated text and are part of operational norms manifested in the translator’s decisions which, in two of the cases at hand, may also have been decisions made by the editor or the censor. Rudolf Sirge’s translation appeared at a time when Estonia had fairly recently been incorporated into the Soviet Union and there was a lack of children’s literature ideologically appreciated by the regime. This may account for the packaging of the book as a work with a strong didactic bent, while its primary audience was taken to be children and young adults for whom the protagonist served as an example of a hard-working and tenacious hero to be emulated by young Soviets. The target text has been considerably shortened as

  14. Estonian exceptionalism

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Ulatuslikud kärped ja liitumine eurotsooniga toovad Eestist häid majandusuudiseid: töötus langeb, majandus kasvab, eksport tõuseb, eelarve on plussis, reitinguagentuur Fitch krediidireiting tõusis tasemele A+

  15. With or without articles? A comparison of article-like determiners in Estonian and Finnish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hint

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the use and functions of definite and indefinite article-like determiners in Estonian and Finnish. Our main aim is to explore whether the factors that explain the choice of particular determiner forms are similar in Estonian and Finnish. We use a picture-sequence based elicitation experiment to collect spoken narratives from adult native speakers of Estonian and Finnish, and apply non-parametric tree and forest models to analyze the data. Our findings indicate that number of mention and animacy are important predictor variables in both languages, but their exact effect is divergent. We also find that in Finnish, case of the determiner NP proves to be an important factor, while in Estonian, syntactic role of the NP explains some aspects of determiner form choice. Nevertheless, the overall usage frequency of determiners is modest in the Estonian and Finnish data, and the process of grammaticalizing articles is only in initial stages in both languages. *** Artikliga, artiklita? Eesti ja soome keele artiklilaadsete määratlejate võrdlus Siinses uurimuses analüüsime võrdlevalt artiklilaadseid definiitseid ja indefiniitseid määratlejaid eesti ja soome keeles. Eelkõige kõrvutame eesti keele definiitset määratlejat see ja soome keele definiitseid määratlejaid se ja tämä ning eesti ja soome indefiniitset määratlejat üks/yks(i. Samuti vaatleme eesti keele possessiivpronoomeni oma ning soome 3sg possessiivsufiksi (-nsa/-nsä, -Vn referentsiaalseid omadusi. Uurimuse põhieesmärgiks on selgitada, millised on peamised määratlejate kasutust mõjutavad keelelised faktorid eesti ja soome keeles ning kas need faktorid on keeliti sarnased või erinevad. Ühtlasi otsime vastust küsimusele, kas eesti ja soome keeles on põhjust rääkida määratlejate grammatisatsioonist artikliteks. Uuritav keelematerjal pärineb pildiseeria põhjal kogutud suulistest narratiividest. Uurimuses osales 20 eesti ja 20 soome keele

  16. Frost related dieback in Estonian energy plantations of willows in relation to fertilisation and pathogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambours, M.A.; Nejad, P. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinsoo, K. [Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Agricultural University, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Granhall, U. [Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7025, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    Two 9-year old Estonian Salix plantations suffering from dieback were studied: one situated on poor mineral soil and divided into fertilised and unfertilised plots (Saare plantation) and another growing on a well-decomposed and nitrogen-rich organic soil, without fertiliser application (Kambja plantation). Bacteria from internal tissues of visually damaged shoots from seven clones were isolated in spring and autumn. The strains were subsequently biochemically characterised and tested for ice nucleation activity and pathogenicity on Salix. Some strains were also analysed with 16S rRNA. High numbers of culturable bacteria were found, belonging mainly to Erwinia, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas spp. Fertilised plots were significantly more colonised by bacteria than unfertilised plots and also more extensively damaged, showing a lower density of living plants after 7 years of culture. More ice nucleation active (INA) strains were found in Saare fertilised plots and at Kambja than in Saare unfertilised plots. Likewise, most pathogenic strains were isolated from Saare fertilised plots and from Kambja. For some of the willow clones studied, dieback appeared to be related to both clonal frost sensitivity and abundance of INA and pathogenic bacteria. The plantations probably suffered from the presence of high amounts of pathogens and from frost related injuries aggravated by INA bacteria. Most probably the fertilisation at Saare and the nitrogen-rich soil at Kambja created a favourable environment for bacterial development and led to high dieback levels after the first harvest. (author)

  17. Estonian energy system: Proposals for the implementation of a cogeneration strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.; Hvelplund, F.; Ingermann, K.; Kask, U.

    2000-01-01

    Since the Soviet era Estonia inherited oil-shale-based electricity plants, with a capacity of 3000 MW. Oil shale now provides Estonia with very low electricity prices. However, most of the stations are very old. Half of them were built before 1965, and sooner or later the old oil shale production units will have to be replaced. Estonia will then have to face serious increases in electricity production prices. At the same time Estonia has problems in restoring its district heating systems. The prices are rising and may consumers have converted to other heating sources such as electric heating. The major long-term strategic policy choices to make in Estonia are to decide (1) whether the oil shale power stations should be replaced by new centralized production units such as new oil shale stations or nuclear power, or (2) whether the electricity production should be decentralized. In the centralized solution (oil shale or nuclear power), the domestic heating will be left to boilers or electric heating leading to a very high primary energy supply. In the decentralized solution, Estonia could benefit from the advantage of cogeneration leading to very low fuel consumption. But this latter strategy depends on the restoration of the district heating systems. This article seeks to form a strategy to improve the efficiency of the Estonian energy system by increasing the use of cogeneration. (author)

  18. Vitality of the Estonian forests (results of the inventory and research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karoles, K.

    1991-01-01

    Factors affecting Estonian forests are: The environmental, specially atmospheric pollution, - the foundation of new forests as monoculture on unsuitable locations, - mechanical damages by unsuitable forest machinery, - unfavourable water conditions, - Heterobasidion or Armillaria rot roots. Local damages in consequence of air pollutants are distributed in environments of Tallinn, Kivioli, Kohtla-Jaerve and the thermal power stations (Narva), where the SO 2 -content in the air is on the average higher than 50 (80) μg/m 3 . Pine forests on dry sand soils (600 ha damaged in 1989) and the older spruce forests show the new type of forest decline. High Al-ion concentration, disturbances of the Ca-Mg-metabolism, an extreme nutrient deficit, (specially N-deficit) and periodical water deficit as well as pathogenic fungi are damaging the trees. Spruces show nonspecific defoliation, needle necrosis, needlefall, occurence of fungal diseases. More damaged are the spruce forests in regions with basic precipitations and high sulphur-deposition. (orig./UWA) [de

  19. Gender differences in factors associated with sexual intercourse among Estonian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part, Kai; Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Karro, Helle

    2011-06-01

    To examine factors associated with early sexual intercourse among 15 to 16-year-old adolescents by gender. The data were collected from a random sample of Estonian basic schools' ninth grade pupils in 1999 using self-completed questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression analysis for boys and girls was used to test for associations between sexual intercourse, and personal gender role-related attitudes, attitudes towards sexual intercourse, pubertal timing, smoking status and experience of drunkenness. Of the respondents, 14.6% of boys and 13.1% of girls had experienced sexual intercourse. Traditional gender role-related attitudes were associated with sexual intercourse among girls, but not among boys. Smoking and experience of drunkenness was strongly associated with sexual intercourse for both genders. Gender differences in the association between gender role-related attitudes and early sexual intercourse were observed among 15 to 16-year-olds in Estonia. Smoking and experience of drunkenness were strongly related to sexual intercourse for both genders.

  20. Sexual behavior, depressive feelings, and suicidality among Estonian school children aged 13 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmets, L; Samm, A; Sisask, M; Kõlves, K; Aasvee, K; Värnik, A

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is based on a WHO Collaborative Cross-National Study "Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC)." It aimed at describing and analyzing how the sexual behaviors of 13- to 15-year-old Estonian school children were associated with self-reported depressive feelings and suicidality. Distinctive behavioral traits in relation to age of first sexual intercourse were also investigated. Self-reported questionnaires from school children (n = 3,055) were analyzed. In total, 15.2% of school children reported being nonvirgin. Among 13-year-olds, 2.9% of girls and 6.8% of boys were nonvirgins. Approximately 25% of the 15-year-old girls and boys were nonvirgins. The likelihood of depressive feelings and suicidal ideation increased significantly in both genders with loss of virginity. Boys who had lost their virginity at 13 years or younger were 4.2 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts; comparable girls were 7.8 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts. Compared to virgins, youths who had lost their virginity reported poor self-assessed health and more risk behaviors in themselves and their peers. Experiences of sexual intercourse increased the odds ratios for depressive feelings and suicidality. The earlier sexual intercourse was initiated, the greater were the odds of lower mental well-being. Risk behaviors emerged as a complex phenomenon requiring complex prevention.

  1. Supervision, mentorship and peer networks: how Estonian early career researchers get (or fail to get support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Eigi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses issues related to supervision and support of early career researchers in Estonian academia. We use nine focus groups interviews conducted in 2015 with representatives of social sciences in order to identify early career researchers’ needs with respect to support, frustrations they may experience, and resources they may have for addressing them. Our crucial contribution is the identification of wider support networks of peers and colleagues that may compensate, partially or even fully, for failures of official supervision. On the basis of our analysis we argue that support for early career researchers should take into account the resources they already possess but also recognise the importance of wider academic culture, including funding and employment patterns, and the roles of supervisors and senior researchers in ensuring successful functioning of support networks. Through analysing the conditions for the development of early career researchers – producers of knowledge – our paper contributes to social epistemology understood as analysis of specific forms of social organisation of knowledge production.

  2. Seltsi muuseumist riigi keskmuuseumiks: ikka ajutiste lahendustega / Changes in the Estonian National Museum from 1909 to the present.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Aru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the Estonian National Museum from 1909 to the presentThe Estonian National Museum was founded in Tartu in 1909 as part of the national movement. With its activities and connections in society, the ENM helped create Estonian society, the nation’s collective memory and identity.The ENM has always been – despite the changing locations, names, and content – one of the symbols of national identity. But at the same time, ENM has never had its own building designed specially for the museum’s purposes.Since 1909 there have been several attempts to establish a home for the ENM. At first (1909–1923, Estonian society wanted to establish the museum in the center of Tartu. The museum was intended to become a key institution of the growing nation and establishing the nation’s identity.At last in 1923 the ENM secured the Raadi manor, outside the center of the city, in a beautiful park, near the lake with its boats and water attractions. In this manor the first permanent exhibition of mainly 19th century Estonian peasant life was compiled, and the ENM operated in the Raadi manor from 1923–1940 as the “Estonian’s own museum” The years of alternating occupations, World War II, and political terror damaged and destroyed the whole society. The Raadi manor was destroyed in the war too, and the ENM itself was divided into two parts – the State Ethnographic Museum and the State Literary Museum. The collections of the ENM were given to Tallinn and to many different places inside and outside Tartu. Then began “the period of temporary location” that continues today. The museum is located in several places in the city of Tartu.In 1988, the prior name of the State Ethnographic Museum – the Estonian National Museum – was reinstated. Since the 1990s there have been many attempts to secure a special building for the ENM. Now, at last, as a result of serious economic pressure, we are closer to this goal than ever. During the last five

  3. Implementation of quality assurance and quality control in the Nuclear Analytical Laboratory of the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeoep, T.; Jakobson, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Analytical Laboratory of the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre is in the process of implementing the system of Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) in the framework of the IAEA TC Project RER/2/004/ 'QA/QC of Nuclear Analytical Techniques'. The draft Quality Manual with annexes has been prepared accordingly to the ISO 17025 Guide, documents and other printed material delivered on the seminars of the project. The laboratory supply has been supplemented with necessary equipment for guaranteeing of quality. Proficiency testing included in the project has been performed successfully. (author)

  4. Bernhard Linde. Noor-Eesti vooriülem. Bernhard Linde. Leader of the Young Estonian Pack

    OpenAIRE

    Jaanus Kulli

    2012-01-01

    Bernhard Linde (1886–1954) was a recognized and prolific Estonian theatre critic of the first quarter of the 20th century, who mediated and propagated western as well as eastern European theatrical innovations. In addition, he was active as a literary and art critic, publisher, and proponent of libraries, to a modest extent he was a prose writer and poet. Unquestionably, however, Bernhard Linde’s most prominent role was as one of the founding members of the literary movement Young Estonia. He...

  5. Jüri Okas’ ‘specific objects’: diverging discourses in Estonian Art in the 1970s.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurg, Andres.

    2003-01-01

    Previously in the University eprints HAIRST pilot service at http://eprints.st-andrews.ac.uk/archive/00000367/ Article 3 of 6 in issue devoted to the visual culture of the Scandinavian and Baltic region. This article will look at the early works of Estonian architect and artist Jüri Okas and will try to work between diverging languages and interpretations, reading works by Okas against the background of Anglo-american conceptualism and minimalism of the same period. The first part of th...

  6. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  7. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…

  8. “... if there’s a party, then there’s definitely alcohol”. Construction of partying practices and abstinence in Estonian youth forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parder Mari-Liisa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Adolescents’ abstinence from alcohol has not been much researched in terms of providing suggestions for prevention strategies. This study aims to fill that gap by offering a practice theory-inspired analysis of how the unwritten rules of partying practices are communicated between posters of Estonian youth forums.

  9. Corporate Governance from the Perspective of Stakeholder Theory and in Light of Perceptions among Estonian Owners and Managers of Relations with Stakeholders / Mari Kooskora

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kooskora, Mari, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Äriühingute valitsemise kontseptsioon ja teoreetiline taust; Eesti omanike ja tippjuhtide ootused suhetes erinevate huvigruppidega ning äriühingute valitsemine huvigruppide teooriast lähtudes. Skeem: The stakeholder model. Tabelid: Contractual and community stakeholders; Overview of how perceptions of the main stakeholder groups among Estonian business leaders between 1995-2004 have changed

  10. Economic modelling of the capture-transport-sink scenario of industrial CO2 emissions: The Estonian-Latvian cross-border case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shogenova, A.; Shogenov, K.; Pomeranceva, R.; Nulle, I.; Neele, F.; Hendriks, C.

    2011-01-01

    Industrial CO2 emissions and opportunities for CO2 geological storage in the Baltic Region were studied within the EU GeoCapacity project supported by the European Union Framework Programme 6. Estonia produces the largest amounts of CO2 emissions in the region, due to the combustion of Estonian oil

  11. The Role of Parents and Parental Mediation on 0-3-Year Olds' Digital Play with Smart Devices: Estonian Parents' Attitudes and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevski, Elyna; Siibak, Andra

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript, we analyse the attitudes and practices of Estonian parents (N = 198) who allowed their 0-3-year olds to use smart devices. We aimed to discover if there was an interaction between parental use of smart technologies, parents' attitudes and the child's age that would predict young children's usage of smart devices. We also wanted…

  12. Occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous Estonian dairy cows in different housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aasmäe Birgit

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectives of the study were to document the impact of some management factors on the occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous dairy cows and to identify common udder pathogens of clinical mastitis in freshly calved heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving. Methods A one-year study was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 11 selected Estonian dairy herds. Data consisted of 68 heifers with clinical mastitis and 995 heifers without clinical mastitis on the day of calving. Multivariable logistic regression with a random herd effect was used to investigate any association between housing system or the time interval from movement of heifers to the calving facility and day of calving on occurrence of clinical mastitis. Milk samples for bacteriological analysis were collected from affected heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving Results Clinical mastitis occurrence in the study population of freshly calved heifers equalled 6.1 %. Housing system was not a significant risk factor for clinical mastitis of freshly calved heifers. Moving heifers to the cowbarn less than two weeks before calving in tiestall farms increased risk (OR = 5.9 p = 0.001 for clinical mastitis at parturition. The most frequently isolated udder pathogens among heifers were Escherichia coli (22.1%, Streptococcus uberis (19.1% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8.8%. In comparison, the main pathogen in multiparous cows with clinical mastitis at parturition was Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%. Conclusion Moving heifers to the calving facilities too late in tiestall farms increased risk for clinical mastitis at parturition. The isolated udder pathogens did not differ significantly in tiestall farms compared to freestall farms in heifers, but differences were found between heifers and multiparous cows at parturition.

  13. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-05-14

    To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Register-based cohort study. Estonia. An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Personality traits and eating habits in a large sample of Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Deary, Ian J; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres

    2012-11-01

    Diet has health consequences, which makes knowing the psychological correlates of dietary habits important. Associations between dietary habits and personality traits were examined in a large sample of Estonians (N = 1,691) aged between 18 and 89 years. Dietary habits were measured using 11 items, which grouped into two factors reflecting (a) health aware and (b) traditional dietary patterns. The health aware diet factor was defined by eating more cereal and dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruits. The traditional diet factor was defined by eating more potatoes, meat and meat products, and bread. Personality was assessed by participants themselves and by people who knew them well. The questionnaire used was the NEO Personality Inventory-3, which measures the Five-Factor Model personality broad traits of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, along with six facets for each trait. Gender, age and educational level were controlled for. Higher scores on the health aware diet factor were associated with lower Neuroticism, and higher Extraversion, Openness and Conscientiousness (effect sizes were modest: r = .11 to 0.17 in self-ratings, and r = .08 to 0.11 in informant-ratings, ps < 0.01 or lower). Higher scores on the traditional diet factor were related to lower levels of Openness (r = -0.14 and -0.13, p < .001, self- and informant-ratings, respectively). Endorsement of healthy and avoidance of traditional dietary items are associated with people's personality trait levels, especially higher Openness. The results may inform dietary interventions with respect to possible barriers to diet change.

  15. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: I. Design and questionnaire data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekkel, M.; Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-01-01

    Nearly 2% of the male population of Estonia aged 20-39 years were sent to Chernobyl to assist in the cleanup activities after the reactor accident. A cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers was assembled based on multiple and independent sources of information. Information obtained from 3,704 responses to a detailed questionnaire indicated that 63% of the workers were sent to Chernobyl in 1986; 54% were of Estonian and 35% of Russian ethnicity; 72% were married, and 1,164 of their 5,392 children were conceived after the Chernobyl disaster. The workers were less educated than their counterparts than their counterparts in the general population of Estonia, and only 8.5% had attended university. Based on doses entered in workers records, the mean dose was 11 cGy, with only 1.4% over 25 cGy. Nearly 85% of the workers were sent as part of military training activities, and more than half spent in excess of 3 months in the Chernobyl area. Thirty-six percent of the workers reported having worked within the immediate vicinity of the accident site; 11.5% worked on the roofs near the damaged reactor, clearing the highly radioactive debris. The most commonly performed task was the removal and burial of topsoil (55% of the workers). Potassium iodide was given to over 18% of the men. The study design also incorporates biological indicators of exposure based on the glycophorin A mutational assay of red blood cells and chromosome translocation analyses of lymphocytes; record linkage with national cancer registry and mortality registry files to determine cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality; thyroid screening examinations with ultrasound and fine-needle biopsy; and cryopreserved white blood cells and plasma for future molecular studies. Comprehensive studies of Chernobyl cleanup workers have potential to provide a new information about cancer risks due to protracted exposures to ionizing radiation. 21 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs

  16. Omaeluloolisus eesti teatris: Merle Karusoo lavastustest. Life Narratives and Estonian Theatre: The Productions of Merle Karusoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Kruuspere

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Any consideration of Estonian theatre from the point of view of biographical theatre needs to include the work of playwright and director Merle Karusoo. Productions based on various life narratives (diaries, letters, biographical interviews form the core of her work that can be defined as biographical or memory theatre. Her work has also been viewed within the context of community theatre or political theatre; Karusoo has herself referred to her work as sociological theatre. Life narratives have functioned in Karusoo’s productions as the basis for restoring oppressed or denied collective discourses of memory. Her productions emerged within the framework of the more general process of restoration of historical heritage and the rehabilitation of collective memory at the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. Life story can be viewed as the essence of Merle Karusoo’s theatre. The personal in the life story in the production activates the emotional memory of the audience; for older generations such theatre facilitates a legitimisation of remembering one’s life story in entirety, and for younger generations it functions as a vehicle of collective, historical and national memory. The current article outlines the main stages of Karusoo’s biographical theatre, highlights major productions of each stage and provides an overview of their reception. Karusoo’s theatre dates back to 1980s. Productions based on life stories of the generations born in 1950s and 1960s, Meie elulood (Our Biographies and Kui ruumid on täis ... (Full Rooms both in 1982, mediated fragments of life stories of 16 drama students, focusing on the processes of self-conception and -reflection of young persons. In the context of the Soviet regime that exerted firm ideological control over the private lives of its citizens, Karusoo’s productions struck an especially powerful and unusual chord. Karusoo’s biographical theatre has gathered momentum and assumed a more

  17. Euroopa-ihalusest taasiseseisvusperioodi autobiograafiates / European Identifications in Post-Soviet Estonian Life Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Kurvet-Käosaar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel käsitleb Euroopat kui identiteedi ja minaduse sõlmpunkti ja enesevahenduse mõõdet kolmes omaelulookirjutuslikus teoses, mille autoritel on väljapaistev positsioon eesti (kirjanduskultuuris: Jaan Krossi „Kallid kaasteelised“ (2003a, 2008, Jaan Kaplinski „Isale“ (2003 ja Tõnu Õnnepalu „Flandria päevik“ (2007. Artikkel keskendub sellele, kuidas küsimused suhestumise trajektooridest Euroopa mäluruumiga haakuvad Krossi, Kaplinski ja Õnnepalu teostes esiletuleva enesemääratlusliku raamiga, neist lähtuvate vastastikuse kõnetuse võimaluste ja oma aegruumi tunnetuse pidepunktidega. Kuigi tegemist on eesti keeles ilmunud ning eesti kultuuriruumi lugejale suunatud teostega, seostuvad neis väljajoonistuvad enesemääratluse teljed viimastel aastakümnetel hoogustunud laiemate aruteludega ühtse Euroopa mäluraami ning identiteedi võimalikkusest ja selle toimimise tingimustest.   In recent years, the question of the possibility of a shared frame of memory and identity in Europe, its desired manifestations and practices for attaining it as well as its obstacles and limitations to it have gained prominence in scholarly debates in a number of disciplines. In terms of the division between the East and West of Europe, these discussions take as their starting point the collapse of the Soviet system in 1989 as well as the European Union enlargement in 2004. Far from uniform, the exceedingly complex and contrasting ranges of arguments have put forward a varied palette of perspectives and suggestions about possible and desirable implications of Europe in different socio-political and cultural configurations. Taking these debates as my starting point, the current article offers an analysis of three life writing works by contemporary Estonian authors and intellectuals, Kallid kaasteelised (Dear Fellow Travellers, 2003, 2008 by Jaan Kross, Isale (To My Father, 2003 by Jaan Kaplinski and Flandria päevik (The Flemish Diary

  18. Isamaalaulud ja okupatsioonirežiim – nostalgia, utoopia ja reaalsus. Estonian Patriotic Songs and the Occupational Regime – Nostalgia, Utopia and Reality

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    Kanni Labi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Estonian knowledge of history emanates from the fact that constituting an independent nation has for the most part been nothing but a utopia, and was a reality for a relatively short time. When it comes to selfidentification though, the expression ’a singing people’ is often used by the Estonians to describe themselves. Nostalgia for freedom is reflected in the Estonian culture of almost all periods and is carried on by the singing tradition, where patriotic songs emerge independent of different musical tastes within a particular generation and form an important part of a common Estonian repertoire. Patriotic songs occupy a central place in several fields of Estonian culture: besides music culture also in popular culture,and literary history – the works of poetry which have gained the most popularity are those which when put to music have been the most widely spread among the people. The main part of the most popular Estonian patriotic songs are choral songs from the national awakening at the end of the 19th century. Despite the national programmes aiming to wipe out ‘bourgeois nationalism’, they were sung at the song festivals in the Soviet era and were published in song books, expressing the people’s nostalgia for freedom lost. After the end of the Second World War, there was an attempt at launching a kind of patriotic new creation, where patriotism was merged with Soviet pathos; the aim was to show that the people’s utopia was in fact communism, but not a single one of those songs made it into the people’s common repertoire. Only the patriotic songs composed in the 1980s during the so-called new national awakening reached a popularity comparable to that of the old songs. The discourse on ’Estonianness’ and the shaping of a matching repertoire under imperial Russian rule took place under very different circumstances than its preservation and development in the second half of the 20th century under Soviet occupation, but

  19. The dominance of indirect taxes in Estonian state budget. Summary:Kaudsete maksude dominant Eesti riigieelarve tuludes

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    Olev Raju

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recession has sharply erected the question of tax burden and the optimal proportion of different kinds of taxes among the incomes of the budget. Indirect taxes and consumption taxes, which proportion is different according to different methodologies, dominate in Estonian state budget. The buoyancy of a tax system based on taxes of that kind is especially weak during the recession. The purpose of Estonian government’s economic policy during the highest peak of crisis was to keep the budget in balance. Instead of recovering economy the taxes were arisen and costs were reduced. The results of such a policy aren’t still clear. Difficulties concerning the incomes of budget have arisen the necessity for lifting taxes, which is possible as the tax burden is low now. But a sharp question of the optimal level of taxes is going to be raised. A formula for indirect tax optimum according to Ramsey taxes and Slutski decomposition has been proposed in the article

  20. Factors in ventricular and atrioventricular valve growth: An embryologist's perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedmera, David

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2010), s. 11-14 ISSN 1058-9813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : chick embryo * myocyte proliferation * hypoplastic left heart syndrome Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  1. An invertebrate embryologist's guide to routine processing of confocal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dassow, George

    2014-01-01

    It is almost impossible to use a confocal microscope without encountering the need to transform the raw data through image processing. Adherence to a set of straightforward guidelines will help ensure that image manipulations are both credible and repeatable. Meanwhile, attention to optimal data collection parameters will greatly simplify image processing, not only for convenience but for quality and credibility as well. Here I describe how to conduct routine confocal image processing tasks, including creating 3D animations or stereo images, false coloring or merging channels, background suppression, and compressing movie files for display.

  2. Riik võib lüüa SAS-i esmaspäevaks Estonian Airi omanikeringist välja / Erik Müürsepp, Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müürsepp, Erik

    2008-01-01

    SAS osaleb Estonian Airþile lisakapitali eraldamises ainult juhul, kui Eesti riik müüb oma osaluses lennukompaniis SAS-ile. Peaminister Andrus Ansipi ning majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  3. Eesti autobiograafilise kirjutuse kujunemisest 18. sajandist Teise maailmasõjani. The Development of Estonian Autobiographical Writing from the 18th Century to the Second World War

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    Rutt Hinrikus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the development of Estonian autobiographical writing from its first manifestations to published memoirs, and the development of life writing and its diversification. The beginnings of life writing can be traced back to Estonian folk song and Estonian incidental poetry. The Moravian Brethren movement in Estonia in the 18th century promoted the spread of canonical autobiography. The Moravian Brethren offered alternative opportunities for self-realisation for Estonians who were serfs, and were therefore popular with the people. The practice of the Moravian Brethren made use of retelling and writing about the life of the congregation members, which sometimes became suitable biographies in print, especially stories of awakening. Several manuscript biographies have survived from the Brethren times, such as the biographies of Mäletu Jaan and Mihkel Sarapuu. In addition to the history of the Moravian Brethren movement, these biographies give information about the educational situation and living conditions of the people of the time. The Estonian life writing tradition emerged within the reigning Baltic German cultural space thanks to the Estophiles among the Baltic Germans (J. H. Rosenplänter and the first Estonian men of letters; from the early 19th century we have the diary by Rosenplänter, an estophile pastor from Pärnu, and the diary by the Estonian poet, the then-student Kristjan Jaak Peterson, both in the Estonian language. Johann Voldemar Jannsen, the founder of Estonian-language journalism, kept a diary in the German language for a longer period of time; it was usual that the first Estonian intellectuals (Lilli Suburg, and others in the late 19th century wrote in German. Admittedly, the first Estonian-language life history was written by a forward-looking 19th century peasant named Märt Mitt (1833-1912, who was conscious of himself as a historical subject and gave his memoirs, begun in the 1880s, a memorable title

  4. Az észt névtervezés az észt nyelvpolitikai modell tükrében [The name management in the mirror of the Estonian LPP-model

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    Pomozi, Péter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Estonian model of language planning and policy, which has been serving the development and protection of the Estonian language in its current form since 2004, is one of the most successful of such strategies in Europe. It owes it success to the broad social and scientific consensus reached in questions of language policy, regardless of changes in government. The Development Plan of the Estonian Language divides Estonian language planning and policy into three parts: status planning, corpus planning and prestige planning. Name management is a part of corpus planning, although certain aspects are also connected to legal and prestige planning. Name management strategies are present in all components of the Estonian model of language planning and policy, as linguistically appropriate name use is not only a socio-cultural, but economic question, as informative and easy to understand names contribute to measurable economic advantages. The paper mainly demonstrates the dilemmas and answers of Estonian name management through examples from personal name giving practices, but questions concerning the problems of name use in a multicultural environment and the difficulties of place name and firm name management are also discussed.

  5. Computation of Estonian CORS data using Bernese 5.2 and Gipsy 6.4 softwares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollo, Karin; Kall, Tarmo; Liibusk, Aive

    2017-04-01

    GNSS permanent station network in Estonia (ESTREF) was established already in 2007. In 2014-15 extensive reconstruction of ESTREF was carried out, including the establishment of 18 new stations, change of the hardware in CORS stations as well as establishing GNSS-RTK service for the whole Estonia. For GNSS-RTK service one needs precise coordinates in well-defined reference frame, i.e., ETRS89. For long time stability of stations and time-series analysis the re-processing of Estonian CORS data is ongoing. We re-process data from 2007 until 2015 with program Bernese GNSS 5.2 (Dach, 2015). For the set of ESTREF stations established in 2007, we perform as well computations with GIPSY 6.4 software (Ries et al., 2015). In the computations daily GPS-only solution was used. For precise orbits, final products from CODE (CODE analysis centre at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern) and JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) for Bernese and GIPSY solutions were used, respectively. The cut-off angle was set to 10 degrees in order to avoid near-field multipath influence. In GIPSY, precise point positioning method with fixing ambiguities was used. Bernese calculations were performed based on double difference processing. Antenna phase centers were modelled based on igs08.atx and epnc_08.atx files. Vienna mapping function was used for mapping tropospheric delays. For the GIPSY solution, the higher order ionospheric term was modelled based on IRI-2012b model. For the Bernese solution higher order ionospheric term was neglected. FES2004 ocean tide loading model was used for the both computation strategies. As a result, two solutions using different scientific GNSS computation programs were obtained. The results from Bernese and GIPSY solutions were compared, using station repeatability values, RMS and coordinate differences. KEYWORDS: GNSS reference station network, Bernese GNSS 5.2, Gipsy 6.4, Estonia. References: Dach, R., S. Lutz, P. Walser, P. Fridez (Eds); 2015

  6. Towards The Operational Oceanographic Model System In Estonian Coastal Sea, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõuts, T.; Elken, J.; Raudsepp, U.

    An integrated system of nested 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models together with real time forcing data asquisition is designed and set up in pre-operational mode in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. Along the Estonian coast, implicit time-stepping 3D models are used in the deep bays and 2D models in the shallow bays with ca 200 m horizontal grid step. Specific model setups have been verified by in situ current measurements. Optimum configuration of initial parameters has been found for certain critical locations, usually ports, oil terminals, etc. Operational system in- tegrates also section of historical database of most important hydrologic parameters in the region, allowing use of certain statistical analysis and proper setup of initial conditions for oceanographic models. There is large variety of applications for such model system, ranging from environmental impact assessment at local coastal sea pol- lution problems to forecast of offshore blue algal blooms. Most probable risk factor in the coastal sea engineering is oil pollution, therefore current operational model sys- tem has direct custom oriented output the oil spill forecast for critical locations. Oil spill module of the operational system consist the automatic weather and hydromet- ric station (distributed in real time to internet) and prognostic model of sea surface currents. System is run using last 48 hour wind data and wind forecast and estimates probable oil deposition areas on the shoreline under certain weather conditions. Cal- culated evolution of oil pollution has been compared with some real accidents in the past and there was found good agreement between model and measurements. Graphi- cal user interface of oil spill model is currently installed at location of port authorities (eg. Muuga port), so in case of accidents it could be used in real time supporting the rescue operations. In 2000 current pre-operational oceanographic model system has been sucessfully used to

  7. Chemical composition of anthropogenic particles on needles collected close to the Estonian oil-shale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinander, O.

    1995-01-01

    Within the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea, north-eastern Estonia is among the most polluted areas. Emissions from the oil-shale power plants produce air pollution problems both locally and on a larger scale. In the atmosphere, pollutants mix and convert. Consequently, the particles deposited due to the use of oil-shale can have various chemical compositions. From the point of view of air chemistry, ecological effects and air pollution modelling, knowledge of the chemical composition of the deposited particles can be of great value. The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition of single anthropogenic particles occurring on needle surfaces in north-eastern Estonia and Southern Finland close to the Estonian oil-shale power plants. For the purpose, scanning electron microscopical microanalysis was used

  8. The Problems of Estonian R&D and Innovation Strategy and the Demand-Side Innovation Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Roolaht

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The second larger Estonian R&D and Innovation Strategy ‘Knowledge-based Estonia 2007-2013’ is aimed at continuing the advancement of research and development efforts towards an innovative knowledge-based society and economic system in Estonia. Fostering of knowledge-based high-tech industries is seen as paramount for retaining country’s competitive advantage. However, the mid-term evaluations indicate that several goals of the strategy might not be achievable by 2013. In fact, the policy measures have been much more successful in developing scientific research, as indicated by increased international publication, number of patents, and number of researchers and engineers. The advances in development of high-tech products and services through innovations are noticeable but less prominent. The purpose of this study is to suggest the role for demand-side innovation policies in helping to advance commercial development and innovation

  9. Iseseisvusdeklaratsioonid 1776–1918. The Estonian Declaration of Sovereignty: An Example of the Civilizing Force of Hypocrisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hent Kalmo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty has been characterised as a form of “organized hypocrisy”, a system governed by a set of rules that are generally recognised as binding and yet are continually infringed upon by the most powerful actors. This idea can be extended to analyse the role of sovereignty within the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was nominally governed by a Constitution which endowed the Union Republics with the right of secession, but there was no realistic possibility of exercising this right. One should not rush to conclude, however, that the actual wording of the Soviet Constitution of 1977 was entirely without relevance. As Jon Elster has argued, hypocrisy can have a “civilizing force” when the need to appear impartial and to retain public credibility forces actors to choose a strategy they would not choose otherwise. A good example of this kind of argumentative constraint is offered by the dilemma faced by the Soviet leadership after the mid-1980s, as it became reluctant to use military force to suppress independence movements within the Baltic States while, at the same time, promising to give more weight to the Soviet Constitution and respect the “sovereignty” of the Union Republics. In this setting, the ambiguity of the word “sovereignty” could be played upon by a whole gamut of political movements in order to further their agenda, from local communists eager to expand their autonomy within the Soviet system to those making an explicit bid for the restoration of independence. Significant legal and political changes could be justified as mere conclusions from the constitutionally recognised status of the Union Republics – a strategy which was all the more effective as Moscow struggled to formulate an alternative line of constitutional interpretation that could be used to counter the Baltic claims. This exchange of opinions escalated into a constitutional conflict in November 1988, when the Estonian Supreme Soviet responded to

  10. Field trial on progesterone cycles, metabolic profiles, body condition score and their relation to fertility in Estonian Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarütel, J; Ling, K; Waldmann, A; Jaakson, H; Kaart, T; Leesmäe, A

    2008-08-01

    Resumption of luteal activity postpartum and fertility were investigated in an Estonian Holstein high milk production and good fertility dairy herd. Body condition was scored after every 10 days in 54 multiparous dairy cows (71 lactations) calving inside from December to March during 4-year period. Blood samples were taken 1-14 days before calving and 1-14, 28-42 and 63-77 days after calving: analytes estimated were serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose, ketone bodies, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides. The general linear mixed model was used to compare the data for cows with different characteristics in luteal activity postpartum based on their milk progesterone profiles. Forty-five per cent of cases had abnormal profiles; delayed resumption of ovarian cyclicity postpartum (DC) was the most prevalent abnormality. There was no difference in body condition scores between the groups. The DC and prolonged luteal phase groups had higher serum AST activity (p fertility.

  11. Using micro-contexts to describe a writing process in Estonian as a second language across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pastuhhova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the writing process of native Russian‑speaking students in Estonian as a second language. 34 participants were given the assignment of writing a text in the L2. The written texts were then rated as being at levels from A2 to C1 according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. The data were collected by computer keystroke logging and analysed based on the concept of a ‘micro-context’. Micro-contexts were analysed according to their frequency and duration and were compared across proficiency levels. The results show that writing in the L2 is not a smooth process. The longest transitions in micro-contexts reveal that the most cognitive effort is made between paragraphs and sentences and when deletions are involved. The growing number of consecutive deletions demonstrates that even with developing proficiency, the linear production text is subject to constant revision, correction and modification.

  12. Tõlkepärl eesti ilukirjanduse algusaegadest – esimene eestikeelne robinsonaad / A Translation Gem from the Beginnings of Estonian Literature - the First Robinsonade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ave Mattheus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artiklis uuritakse Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumis asuvat mahukat, ligi 800 lk tõlkekäsikirja „Norem Robinson“, mida võib pidada esimeseks eesti kirjanduse täiemahuliseks robinsonaadiks. Selle valmistas Pärnu koolmeister Heinrich Gottlieb Lorenzsonn saksa pedagoogi ja koolikirjaniku Joachim Heinrich Campe menukast noorsooromaanist „Robinson der Jüngere“ (1779–1780. Tõlge valmis 1822.–1823. aastal, kuid jõudis trükki alles 1842. aastal tugevasti kärbitud ja mugandatud kujul. Toetudes deskriptiivse tõlkeuurimuse analüüsikategooriatele, vaadeldakse artiklis, millised tegurid tõlkeprotsessi suunasid ja milline oli kultuuriruum, kuhu tõlge omal ajal paigutus. SU M M A R Y This article discusses a voluminous manuscript translation of almost 800 pages entitled Norem Robinson (Engl. Robinson the Younger, from the collections of the Estonian Literary Museum. This manuscript can be considered as the first complete Robinsonade in Estonian literature. Its author is a schoolteacher from Pärnu, Heinrich Gottlieb Lorenzsonn (1803–1847, who translated it from the youth novel Robinson der Jüngere(1779–1780, Engl. Robinson the Younger, a bestseller by the educator, writer and a major representative of German Enlightenment, Heinrich Joachim Campe. Lorenzsonn’s translation was completed in 1822–1823, but not printed until 1842 in a strongly adapted version titled Norema Robinsoni ello ja juhtumised ühhe tühja sare peäl (Engl. The Life and Adventures of Robinson the Younger on a deserted island. The print version of the Robinsonade lacks a pedagogical frame story, where the father tells children about the adventures of Robinson and takes the opportunity to discuss and imitate with children all the actions taken by Robinson the Younger. Due to this and other extirpated parts, the possible target audience was enlarged – besides children and youth, the text was now addressed to adults as well. In accordance with the

  13. Individual and work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study among Estonian computer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oha, Kristel; Animägi, Liina; Pääsuke, Mati; Coggon, David; Merisalu, Eda

    2014-05-28

    Occupational use of computers has increased rapidly over recent decades, and has been linked with various musculoskeletal disorders, which are now the most commonly diagnosed occupational diseases in Estonia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) by anatomical region during the past 12 months and to investigate its association with personal characteristics and work-related risk factors among Estonian office workers using computers. In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaires were sent to the 415 computer users. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire from 202 computer users at two universities in Estonia. The questionnaire asked about MSP at different anatomical sites, and potential individual and work related risk factors. Associations with risk factors were assessed by logistic regression. Most respondents (77%) reported MSP in at least one anatomical region during the past 12 months. Most prevalent was pain in the neck (51%), followed by low back pain (42%), wrist/hand pain (35%) and shoulder pain (30%). Older age, right-handedness, not currently smoking, emotional exhaustion, belief that musculoskeletal problems are commonly caused by work, and low job security were the statistically significant risk factors for MSP in different anatomical sites. A high prevalence of MSP in the neck, low back, wrist/arm and shoulder was observed among Estonian computer users. Psychosocial risk factors were broadly consistent with those reported from elsewhere. While computer users should be aware of ergonomic techniques that can make their work easier and more comfortable, presenting computer use as a serious health hazard may modify health beliefs in a way that is unhelpful.

  14. The Dialogue with Hamlet: Paul-Eerik Rummo’s “Hamlet’s Songs” as an Example of the Existential Paradigm in Estonian Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Mihkelev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates different meanings of the motif of Hamlet in the Estonian culture. Hamlet as a literary figure has been very important and influential, a symbol of will and a fighter in a hopeless situation. Paul-Eerik Rummo’s poem “Hamlet’s Songs” (1964 forms the centre around which revolve not only written texts but also many such cultural texts as theatre performances and music, all connected by allusions to Hamlet. Rummo’s poem is one of the most innovative poems from the 1960s in Estonian literature. The generation of the 1960s was influenced by several important contemporary theories, including existentialism. Many young writers systematically undermined the Soviet regime in their works. The use of the motif of Hamlet reveals a similarity between the existential and romantic rebellions. Rummo’s dialogue with Hamlet in his poem expresses optimism in a hopeless situation in a way different from Shakespeare’s.

  15. Describing temporal variability of the mean Estonian precipitation series in climate time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, P.; Kärner, O.

    2009-04-01

    Applicability of the random walk type models to represent the temporal variability of various atmospheric temperature series has been successfully demonstrated recently (e.g. Kärner, 2002). Main problem in the temperature modeling is connected to the scale break in the generally self similar air temperature anomaly series (Kärner, 2005). The break separates short-range strong non-stationarity from nearly stationary longer range variability region. This is an indication of the fact that several geophysical time series show a short-range non-stationary behaviour and a stationary behaviour in longer range (Davis et al., 1996). In order to model series like that the choice of time step appears to be crucial. To characterize the long-range variability we can neglect the short-range non-stationary fluctuations, provided that we are able to model properly the long-range tendencies. The structure function (Monin and Yaglom, 1975) was used to determine an approximate segregation line between the short and the long scale in terms of modeling. The longer scale can be called climate one, because such models are applicable in scales over some decades. In order to get rid of the short-range fluctuations in daily series the variability can be examined using sufficiently long time step. In the present paper, we show that the same philosophy is useful to find a model to represent a climate-scale temporal variability of the Estonian daily mean precipitation amount series over 45 years (1961-2005). Temporal variability of the obtained daily time series is examined by means of an autoregressive and integrated moving average (ARIMA) family model of the type (0,1,1). This model is applicable for daily precipitation simulating if to select an appropriate time step that enables us to neglet the short-range non-stationary fluctuations. A considerably longer time step than one day (30 days) is used in the current paper to model the precipitation time series variability. Each ARIMA (0

  16. Non-market value of Estonian seminatural grasslands: a contingent valuation study. Eesti poolloodusliku rohumaa turuväline väärtus: tingliku hindamise uuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helli Lepasaar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seminatural grasslands i.e. the floodplain meadows, seashore meadows, wooded meadows, dry meadows, wooded pastures are the very traditional part of Estonian landscapes, which play an important role in the appearance of the landscape in general and also serve as an important habitat for many plant and animal species. In order to preserve the seminatural grasslands continuous annual mowing and/or pasturing is needed. This activity is not economically profitable and needs subsidizing. The authors of the work raise a hypothesis that the Estonian seminatural grasslands could be viewed as a valuable non-market environmental good for which a significant public demand exists. In order to find out the non-market value of the seminatural grasslands a contingent valuation study was carried out among the Estonian working-age population (size of the sample 1061 individuals. The average individual willingness to pay was 11.3 euros. During the study, the authors constructed the total demand function and discovered that the total annual demand for seminatural grasslands was 17.9 million euros.

  17. Where Do Dead Books Go? The Problem of the Soviet Canon Today, on the Example of Johannes Becher's Work in Estonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre Talviste

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the conception and editing process of an anthology of Johannes Becher’s poems (Unistades täiusest, 1962 in Estonian, and discusses its status in the Soviet and contemporary literary canon. The work on the Becher anthology was led by an already outstanding literary scholar Nigol Andresen and a young poet and translator Ain Kaalep, who later became one of the most prolific and wellknown poetry translators in Estonia. An important part was also played by another poet-translator, August Sang, who already had achieved such a standing in the Estonian literary field. Several other translators contributed to the anthology, making it a common project for intellectuals otherwise very differently positioned vis-à-vis the Soviet political authorities and cultural agendas. Becher’s work was strongly promoted by these instances, but his poetry was also read with genuine enthusiasm by the main contributors to the anthology (whose own poetry has certain parallels to some aspects of Becher’s, as well as the general public, at that time. After the fall of the Soviet regime it has been forgotten, mostly for the same contextual reasons that once granted its success. The case of his poetry in Estonian explores the question of this new invisibility of now politically irrelevant, but still voluminous and aesthetically intriguing literary works in the post-Soviet canon.

  18. Rahvusliku ajaloo tõlgendusi eesti draamas ja teatris 1970.–1980. aastatel. Interpretations of National History in Estonian Drama and Theatre in the 1970s–1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Kruuspere

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available According to theatre scholar Freddie Rokem, theatre portraying or performing historical events is seeking to overcome both the separation and the exclusion from the past, as well as ’striving to create a community where the events from this past will matter again’. This article covers the topic of interpretations of national history in Estonian theatre and in original dramaturgy during the Soviet era, with the focus on aspects like national self-reflection and the relationship to the common past. The main focus is on the 1970s, with examples from Rein Saluri’s, Mati Unt’s and Jaan Kaplinski’s drama productions. During the period in question, re-tellings of national history on Estonian theatre stages were clothed in metaphors, allusions and secret codes – Aesopian language. Within the Soviet cultural context, I analyse if and to what extent theatre of the time displayed resistance, political theatre or social allegory. Theatre was also connected with the principle of playing or playfulness, which on one hand indicates national resistance, national endurance, and a certain survival strategy, but on the other hand indicates the Estonian as being an involuntary homo ludens – the Playing Man, who through various enforced roles is trying to adjust to the whirlwinds of history. Saluri’s first play, the intellectual drama Külalised (The Guests, opens with an allusion to a drama classic the world over, William Shakespeare’s Hamlet, adding a powerful national-symbolic background to the play. The role-play which permeates and structures the play (The Host–The Guest however, displays allegorical references to changes in the status and self-image of Estonians. In Unt’s play Peaproov (Dress Rehearsal, the principle of playing/acting sheds ironic light on the makers of an historical film and their readiness to create superficially flashy interpretations at any cost: this take acts as an estranging and generalising reflection in a context

  19. Bernhard Linde. Noor-Eesti vooriülem. Bernhard Linde. Leader of the Young Estonian Pack

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    Jaanus Kulli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bernhard Linde (1886–1954 was a recognized and prolific Estonian theatre critic of the first quarter of the 20th century, who mediated and propagated western as well as eastern European theatrical innovations. In addition, he was active as a literary and art critic, publisher, and proponent of libraries, to a modest extent he was a prose writer and poet. Unquestionably, however, Bernhard Linde’s most prominent role was as one of the founding members of the literary movement Young Estonia. He was the group’s first general manager; later on, he was the secretary of the Estonian Writers’ Association Young Estonia, and the chairman of the board of the Young Estonia Publishing House. Linde’s formal education culminated in graduation from Tartu University as a Slavic philologist; he was the only member of the Young Estonia group to demonstrate serious and sustained interest toward Slavic cultures and peoples. Linde was a contradictory figure, evoking a range of responses from his contemporaries: on the one hand, there was the unbelievably broad range of his participation in cultural life, his organizing skills and business instincts in directing publishing houses; on the other hand, a superficiality in his writings, his often rash and subjective style as a critic, and his financial intrigues. If one adds in Linde’s stubbornness, egocentrism, and intense spirit of protest, which often led to lawsuits, the outcome is the portrait of an extremely complicated, fascinating, and passionate man—both in his creative work and his personal life Linde guaranteed a place for himself in literary history through a small catch of texts: a few foundational essays (for example, on August Kitzberg, a translation of Balzac’s Le père Goriot, the essay collection Omad ja võõrad (Own and Foreign and a travel book focusing on the literature and theatre of eastern Europe (Loova Kesk-Euroopa Poole (Toward A Creative Central Europe. The prominent public

  20. Experiences of a long-term randomized controlled prevention trial in a maiden environment: Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial

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    Rahu Mati

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive drugs require long-term trials to show their effectiveness or harms and often a lot of changes occur during post-marketing studies. The purpose of this article is to describe the research process in a long-term randomized controlled trial and discuss the impact and consequences of changes in the research environment. Methods The Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial (EPHT, originally planned to continue for five years, was planned in co-operation with the Women's International Study of Long-Duration Oestrogen after Menopause (WISDOM in the UK. In addition to health outcomes, EPHT was specifically designed to study the impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT on health services utilization. Results After EPHT recruited in 1999–2001 the Women's Health Initiative (WHI in the USA decided to stop the estrogen-progestin trial after a mean of 5.2 years in July 2002 because of increased risk of breast cancer and later in 2004 the estrogen-only trial because HT increased the risk of stroke, decreased the risk of hip fracture, and did not affect coronary heart disease incidence. WISDOM was halted in autumn 2002. These decisions had a major influence on EPHT. Conclusion Changes in Estonian society challenged EPHT to find a balance between the needs of achieving responses to the trial aims with a limited budget and simultaneously maintaining the safety of trial participants. Flexibility was the main key for success. Rapid changes are not limited only to transiting societies but are true also in developed countries and the risk must be included in planning all long-term trials. The role of ethical and data monitoring committees in situations with emerging new data from other studies needs specification. Longer funding for preventive trials and more flexibility in budgeting are mandatory. Who should prove the effectiveness of an (old drug for a new preventive indication? In preventive drug trials companies may

  1. Eesti patsient. Haiguse ja haige inimese kujutamise mudel 19. sajandi eesti kultuuris ja kirjasõnas. The Estonian Patient: A Model for the Representation of Illness and the Ill in 19th Century Estonian Culture and Letters

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    Janek Kraavi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The portrait of the 18th and 19th century „Estonian patient” sketched in this article is a theoretical model of the ill person, based mainly on literary texts, but with reference to a variety of scientific and popular-scientific material. The point of departure is the classic postcolonial theorist, Frantz Fanon, in whose writings medicine, healing, and discourse on such topics are seen as the functioning of a specific colonial practice. The most notable characteristic of the figure of the Estonian patient is non-communicativeness. Communication is avoided and feared primarily because it has to be directed toward those in higher positions of power, or to institutions that embody power (the apothecary, the hospital. While these traits also characterize the separation between peasants and their rulers more generally, in a situation of illness the exclusion is felt with a double intensity. Sickness casts the peasant in a double bind: when in need of help or healing, contact across the divide between social rank, and – more broadly, between two cultures and ways of understanding the world, becomes unavoidable. In such situations, illness signifies an intensification of the gap in social standing. The ill person, who already stands on a lower rung of the social hierarchy, becomes all the more marginalized. In keeping with these observations, the real reason behind indecisiveness and refusal of medical treatment may well be an effort to avoid or postpone humiliation on the basis of lower social standing. Other contributing factors might include unconscious resistance – or even a conscious model of resistance – in the psyche, which manifests as an avoidance of communication. The content and motivating force for the model is not heroism, but rather a sense of shame. Indeed, behind the context of medical culture lurks ethnic and material isolation. The individual’s economic situation, living conditions, education and – most important – his

  2. The effects of political and economic transitions on health and safety in Estonia: an Estonian-Swedish comparative study.

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    Kaasik, T; Andersson, R; Hörte, L G

    1998-11-01

    A general and dramatic deterioration of health in Estonia during the transition period 1990-1994 was analysed using Sweden as a comparative example. Though there were diverging trends between Estonia and Sweden in the leading cause of death, cardiovascular diseases, the gap in mortality from injury had increased most rapidly. While the injury mortality rate slightly decreased in Sweden from 1990 to 1994, it almost doubled in Estonia. In 1994, the total injury death rate for men was about 6 times higher in Estonia than in Sweden. The death rates for some types of injuries, such as alcohol intoxication and homicide, were many tenfolds higher in Estonia than in Sweden. Injury contributed the most to the widening health gap between the countries, especially in males. The mechanisms of this sudden health deterioration remain to be fully explained. It could be hypothesised that behind the traditional behavioural risk factors, the influence of socio-political factors related to economic and political reconstruction is present. A widespread risk-taking and unhealthy behaviour among Estonians can likely be partly explained as a way of coping with the distress created by the new demands of transition society. An important challenge on the way to improvement is creating the political will among policy-makers to confront the tremendous problems of controlling the factors in society that affect the population's health in Estonia.

  3. The Estonian national program for sustainable resource development and its connection with teaching about fossil fuels in chemistry courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karik, H.

    1996-01-01

    The conception of sustainable resource development worked out under the initiative of the United Nations (UN) actualizes ideas for improving the health of people and the environment. The needs of people are to he addressed and, simultaneously, natural resources preserved. That is ,why ecological and economic expenses are to he integrated and flow sheets of industrial plants are to be reorganized in order to utilize natural resources in a rational way. The association of Estonia with the resolution of the UN Conference on Environmental Development held in Rio de Janeiro and the resolution of the Estonian Parliament concerning The National Program of Sustainable Development require changes in our lifestyle. Chemical education in schools has to support a change in the way of thinking and many concrete subjects can be connected with the problems of sustainable development. Metallic elements get into the environment mostly with fuel combustion ashes. According to various prognoses, fossil fuel resources will last for a thousand years. This means that more and more metallic compounds are thrown into the environment. Dispersion of metals in the air, water bodies and soil is continuously increasing. Finally, they reach the food chain and to the human body. As a result, toxicosis, illnesses, and inadvisable dislocations in organic life may occur. The trend to use ash as a raw material for metal production is considered to have some prospective economically attractive application. This would be one possible way of sustainable resource development to avoid the increase of environmental pollution and increase production of the corresponding metals

  4. Noor-Eesti enesekoloniseerimisprojekt. Teine osa Olulised kirjandusmõtteviisid . The Self-Colonization Project of Young Estonia. Part II. Modes of Literary Thinking and Relations with Colonialism in Estonian Literature of the beginning of the 20th century

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    Tiit Hennoste

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this article is the literary discourse of Young Estonia; its relations with other important Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, and its relations with colonial cultural discourse. First, I give an overview of the basic positions of the Young Estonians’ literary discourse, the main shapers of which were Friedebert Tuglas, Gustav Suits, later on Johannes Semper as well. Next, I present the basic principles of three Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, which were also important to the Young Estonians: nationalist-naturalistic (close-to-life; socialist/ class-based, and 20th century modernist. The Young Estonians began as nationalists and/or socialists. During the formation of Young Estonia’s discourse at the end of the first and beginning of the second decade of the 20th century, 20th century modernism began, which the Young Estonians regarded first and foremost with irony. The Young Estonians’ literary discourse is a mixture of aestheticism, decadence, symbolism, romanticism, and classicism. The point of departure for the Young Estonian approach to literature was eurocentrism. They took a superior and negative view of existing Estonian literature, which they regarded as having fallen drastically behind Europe. Since it was unable to build on its own foundation, it had to borrow from Europe. The discourse’s understandings of cultural values – theory, reading, knowledge, ready-made culture, derive from the centrality of the dynamic of borrowing. New culture could be created freely, without the support of previous local tradition; it was to be an elite culture, while the writer remained an individualist. Literature was to follow the principle of art for art’s sake; aesthetics and the form of the work of art were basic criteria. The formal ideals of the work of art were classicist: unity, integrity (wholeness, harmony, order, logic, etc. Thirdly, I outline the

  5. Short rotation willow coppice for renewable energy and improved environment. Proceedings of a joint Swedish - Estonian seminar on energy forestry and vegetation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perttu, K.; Koppel, A.

    1996-01-01

    The overall aim of the present seminar was to present and discuss results from the joint Swedish - Estonian energy forestry research activities during the period of 1993-1995 and to publish the papers in a technical report. The results is a publication, presenting interesting methods and results, and is meant partly to serve as the final report of the joint efforts during the period mentioned, partly to be used for future planning of new projects and for application of funding for a continued cooperation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all of the 17 papers in the report

  6. Smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians: results from cross-sectional studies in 2002 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põld, Mariliis; Pärna, Kersti

    2017-11-25

    To explore smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians in 2002 and 2014. Two self-administered cross-sectional postal surveys were conducted among practising physicians in Estonia. Initial sample consisted of all practising physicians in Estonia. The corrected response rate was 67.8% in 2002 and 53.1% in 2014. Present study sample was restricted to physicians younger than 65 years (n=2549 in 2002, n=2339 in 2014). Age-standardised prevalence of smoking and prevalence of agreement with seven statements concerning attitudes towards smoking was determined. To analyse association of physicians' attitudes towards smoking with study year and smoking status, logistic regression analysis was used. Adjusted ORs of agreement with the seven statements were determined. Corresponding 95% CIs were calculated. The age-standardised prevalence of current smoking among men was 26.8% in 2002 and 15.3% in 2014, among women 10.4% and 5.8%, respectively. Compared with the year 2002, in 2014, prevalence of agreement with statements declaring harmfulness of smoking was higher and prevalence of agreement with statements approving smoking was lower. Adjusted ORs showed that compared with 2002, physicians' attitudes towards smoking were less favourable in 2014, and physicians' attitudes towards smoking were associated with their smoking status. Compared with 2002, the age-standardised smoking prevalence among male and female physicians was lower, and attitudes towards smoking were less approving in 2014. The smoking physicians had more approving attitudes towards smoking than their non-smoking colleagues. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Relationships between luteal activity, fertility, blood metabolites and body condition score in multiparous Estonian Holstein dairy cows under different management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarütel, Jaak; Waldmann, Andres; Ling, Katri; Jaakson, Hanno; Kaart, Tanel; Leesmäe, Andres; Kärt, Olav

    2008-11-01

    The objective was to compare the relationships between luteal activity and fertility, and relate these parameters to metabolic indices and body condition changes in multiparous Estonian Holstein cows on two commercial dairy farms under different management and levels of production and nutrition (higher, H, n=54 (71 lactations) and lower, L, n=39 (39 lactations)). For statistical analysis cows were categorized according to their milk progesterone (P4) profiles as follows: normal ovarian function; delayed start of cyclicity (DC) (interval from calving to first luteal response (P45 ng/ml up to and more than 50 d respectively, followed by regular cyclicity); cessation of luteal activity (prolonged interluteal interval, P4bodies, non-esterified fatty acids, total cholesterol) and aspartate aminotransferase, body condition scores (BCS) and fertility parameters between the two farms, and also fertility parameters between the farms within P4 categories. Differences in milk fat/protein ratio, ketone body levels and BCS indicated a deeper negative energy balance (NEB) during the first month after calving on farm L. On both farms nearly 50% of the recently calved dairy cows suffered from ovarian dysfunction during the post-partum period. Delayed start of cyclicity was the most prevalent abnormal P4 profile, 25% and 28% on farms H and L, respectively. Prolonged luteal activity accounted for one-third of atypical ovarian patterns on farm H, and cessation of luteal activity on farm L. On farm L, DC cows had lower BCS values from day 10 to day 90 after calving compared with normal cows (Pcows lost more BCS (1.2 units) during the 40 d after calving than normal resumption cows (0.75 units; P<0.05). On farm H with moderate NEB the delayed start of ovulation post partum did not impair subsequent reproductive performance.

  8. Biological dosimetric studies in the Chernobyl radiation accident, on populations living in the contaminated areas (Gomel regions) and in Estonian clean-up workers, using FISH technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darroudi, F.; Natarajan, A.T.

    1996-01-01

    In order to perform retrospective estimations of radiation doses seven years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl, the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals living in contaminated areas around Chernobyl and the Estonian clean-up workers were determined. The first study group composed of 45 individuals living in four areas (i.e. Rechitsa, Komsomolski, Choiniki and Zaspa) in the vicinity (80-125 km) of Chernobyl and 20 individuals living in Minsk (control group - 340 km from Chernobyl). The second study group (Estonian clean-up workers) composed of 26 individuals involved in cleaning up the Chernobyl for a different period of time (up to 7 months) and a matched control group consisting of 9 probands. Unstable aberrations (dicentrics and rings) were scored in Giemsa stained preparations and stable aberrations (translocations) were analyzed using chromosome specific DNA libraries and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. For both study groups the estimated average dose is between 0,1-0,4 Gy. Among the people living in the contaminated areas in the vicinity of Chernobyl, a higher frequency of numerical aberrations (i.e. trisomy, hyper diploidy) was evident

  9. Unique spectrum of SPAST variants in Estonian HSP patients: presence of benign missense changes but lack of exonic rearrangements

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    Gross-Paju Katrin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder that can be an autosomal-dominant, autosomal-recessive, or X-linked disease. The most common autosomal-dominant form of the disease derives from mutations in the SPAST gene. Methods The aim of this study was to analyze 49 patients diagnosed with HSP from the Estonian population for sequence variants of the SPAST gene and to describe the associated phenotypes. Healthy control individuals (n = 100 with no family history of HSP were also analyzed. All patient samples were screened using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA assay. Samples with abnormal DHPLC and MLPA profiles were sequenced, with the same regions sequenced in control samples. Results Sequence variants of SPAST were identified in 19/49 HSP patients (38.8%, twelve among them had pathogenic mutations. Within the latter group there was one sporadic case. Eight patients had pure, and four - complex HSP. The twelve variants were identified: seven pathogenic (c.1174-1G>C, c.1185delA, c.1276C>T, c.1352_1356delGAGAA, c.1378C>A, c.1518_1519insTC, c.1841_1842insA and five non-pathogenic (c.131C>T, c.484G>A, c.685A>G, c.1245+202delG, c.1245+215G>C. Only 2 of these mutations had previously been described (c.131C>T, c.1245+202delG. Three mutations, c.1174-1G>C, c.1276 C>T, c.1378C>A, showed intrafamilial segregation. Conclusion This study identified new variants of the SPAST gene which included benign missense variants and short insertions/deletions. No large rearrangements were found. Based on these data, 7 new pathogenic variants of HSP are associated with clinical phenotypes.

  10. Eesti Rahva Muuseumi strateegiad ja praktikad rahvaga suhtlemisel muuseumi algusaastatel / Estonian National Museum: Public communication strategies and practices in the initial years

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    Piret Õunapuu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the museum phenomenon as the valuator of the indigenous culture in the context of the awakening national consciousness has received little attention. The evolution of the idea of the Estonian National Museum (ENM and its realization reflects the story of the Estonian people maturing into a nation. The museum was founded by a few dedicated persons and it took a long time before the general public recognised it as the museum for the Estonian people. The main purpose of this research is to ascertain how relations developed between the public and the museum in its initial years and what were the museum strategies in declaring its objectives. After the official foundation of the ENM in 1909 the museum narrative can be divided into two main parts. First, work inside the museum, the compilation and arrangement of collections. This was, above all, the work of the collection committee and organizing heritage collection trips. Collections constitute the basis of a museum – therefore the primary and most important task of the established museum was the collection of heritage items. The collections were started immediately after the foundation of the museum; within the first ten years approximately 20,000 items were collected, approximately two thirds of the items in the years 1911–1913. The phenomenon that a museum where people worked mainly without a salary for the benefit of their homeland, with the set aim to empty the whole of Estonia of heritage items parish by parish and succeeded in engaging dozens and dozens of people for this work, is probably exceptional in world history. As a result, the museum acquired not only voluminous but also valuable item collections, which reached the museum before the devastating First World War. The timing was favourable. There were enough old artefacts left, although most collectors complained in their diaries that there was nothing interesting to be found any more. However, the majority of the

  11. 1988. aasta suveräänsusdeklaratsioon: silmakirjalikkuse tsiviliseeriv mõju / The Estonian Declaration of Sovereignty: An example of the civilising force of hypocrisy

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    Hent-Raul Kalmo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty has been characterised as a form of “organised hypocrisy”, a system governed by a set of rules that are generally recognised as binding and yet continually infringed by the most powerful actors. This idea can be extended to analyse the role of sovereignty within the Soviet Union. The latter was also nominally governed by a constitution which endowed the Union Republics with the right of secession, but there was no realistic possibility of exercising this right. One should not rush to conclude, however, that the letter of the Soviet Constitution of 1977 was entirely without relevance. As Jon Elster has argued, hypocrisy can be a “civilising force” when the need to appear impartial and retain public credibility forces actors to choose a strategy they would not have chosen otherwise. A good example of this kind of argumentative constraint is offered by the dilemma faced by the Soviet leadership after the mid-1980s, as it became reluctant to use military force to suppress independence movements within the Baltic States while, at the same time, promising to give more weight to the Soviet Constitution and respect the “sovereignty” of the Union Republics. In this setting, the ambiguity of the word “sovereignty” could be used by a whole gamut of political movements in order to further their agenda, from local communists eager to expand their autonomy within the Soviet system to those making an explicit bid for the restoration of independence. Significant legal and political changes could be justified as mere conclusions from the constitutionally recognised status of the Union Republics — a strategy which was all the more effective as Moscow struggled to formulate an alternative line of constitutional interpretation that could be used to counter the Baltic claims. This exchange of opinions escalated into a constitutional conflict in November 1988 when the Estonian Supreme Soviet responded to proposed amendments to the Soviet

  12. Client-centeredness of Finnish and Estonian nursing students and the support from nursing education to develop it. Students' self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalam-Salminen, Ly; Valkonen, Marjo-Riitta; Aro, Ilme; Routasalo, Pirkko

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this comparative study is to describe the differences between Finnish and Estonian students evaluations about their client-centeredness and educational support they received to develop it. Client-centeredness has many positive effects on the quality and effectiveness of care. However, some deficiencies have been identified in the client-centeredness of nursing staff. Research on the subject has been limited, and we lack knowledge of graduating students' competence in client-centeredness and the support of their education to develop it. The sample consisted of 390 undergraduate nursing students, 195 from Finland and 195 from Estonia. The data were collected in 2009 using the structured five-point scale questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to measure students' client-centeredness and the educational support they received from nursing education. The data were analyzed by the PASW Statistics 18-programme using descriptive statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Predominantly, students in both countries evaluated their level of client-centeredness high. The Estonian students generally evaluated their client-centeredness higher compared to the Finnish students. The same applied to support provided by nursing education. The greatest differences were related to education and particularly theoretical teaching. In Estonia, students' client-centeredness manifested itself more in politeness and willingness to serve clients, whereas respecting the clients' values was emphasized in Finland. Students' requisites, referred here as knowledge, skills and abilities to implement client-centered nursing, for client-centeredness had deficiencies, and the support from education was also the weakest regarding these aspects. In future, education on development of nursing activities, acquisition of knowledge and services provided by health care as well as legislation should be enhanced, since these areas proved the most difficult for the students

  13. Composition of Estonian atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punning, J. M.; Karindi, A.

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric study, particularly that of its chemical composition, has a long tradition in Estonia. Since middle of this century, in addition to meteorological observations, some chemical compounds in precipitations have been regularly measured in many meteorological stations. The main aim was to acquire information about the state and dynamics of the atmosphere. Therefore, main attention was paid to monitoring chemical compounds which have a direct impact on the human environment. As energy production developed intensively and SO 2 and NO x increased drastically in the atmosphere in acidic rock areas, like Scandinavia, the problem of acid rain became the most important environmental problem in Europe and North-America. As a consequence, monitoring the compounds of sulphur in precipitation was organized in Estonia. In the 1970 s, as related to large operating oil shale-based power plants, Estonia became a country , where emissions of sulphur compounds per capita were extremely high. In 1979, Estonia became a participant in the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme - the network created to study transboundary air pollution. The aims of the precipitation chemistry study and the related problems of the formation and transformation of the atmospheric composition have varied over the years. But monitoring of pollutant (in particular, sulphur compound) loads has been a central issue. Over recent years, an attempt was made to estimate the spatial regularities of atmospheric impurities and their impact on the pH of mean monthly precipitations. Furthermore, calculations were provided to find out the origin of atmospheric impurities washed out in Estonia. Until the 1990 s, CO 2 , and some other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were not studied in Estonia. The first inventory of GHG for Estonia was provided in 1995 using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology

  14. Estonian total ozone climatology

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    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  15. THE CATEGORIZATION OF THE ESTONIAN DOMAIN OF “MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS” ‒ LISTENERS VS MUSICIANS AND THE COMPARISON OF BASIC LEVELS

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    Martin Eessalu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the prototypicality phenomena in the Estonian language’s lexical-semantic domain of “musical instruments”. There are two groups of people under examination: (i those who consider themselves actively involved in music (practitioners, and (iithose who don’t (listeners. To elicit basic terms, a cognitive salience index is used. The results show that the main common feature between the groups is that the basic level consists of the same members: klaver ‘piano’, kitarr ‘guitar’ and viiul ‘violin’. While klaver and viiul are stable in their nature, the salience of kitarr varies greatly, as listeners put it in the leading position and practitioners nearly leave it out of the basic level. Generally, the two groups share the same category structure,as based on cognitive salience index values both have: (i three basic terms, (ii a connecting group, and (iii the rest of the category members with their index values decreasing toward zero.

  16. On using an efficiency matrix in analysing profit per employee (on the basis of the Estonian SME software sector 

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    Paavo Siimann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Service companies earn their profit mainly due to their employees’ intellectual skills, therefore, increasing profit per employee is one opportunity to increase profit and thereby also the company’s market value. In this article the number of employees, the value of owners’ equity and loan capital, operating expenses, net sales and profit before income tax have been used to analyse the change in profit per employee of the Estonian software small and medium-sized enterprise (SME sector in total, and for small and medium-sized companies separately in the years 2009–2013. Furthermore, this article demonstrates that the efficiency matrix methodology and its developments that were refined in Estonia and Russia from the 1960s to the 1990s can be deployed nowadays as well. Of all the components, profit margin and owners’ equity per employee showed the most rapid growth during the analysed period. Profit per employee was higher in the small enterprises segment and lowest among medium-sized enterprises, where owners’ equity per employee, net sales to operating expenses, and profit margin were lower than in small enterprises over the whole period analysed.

  17. Two Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in ADAM12 Gene Are Associated with Early and Late Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis in Estonian Population

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    Irina Kerna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate associations of selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in ADAM12 gene with radiographic knee osteoarthritis (rKOA in Estonian population. Methods. The rs3740199, rs1871054, rs1278279, and rs1044122 SNPs in ADAM12 gene were genotyped in 438 subjects (303 women from population-based cohort, aged 32 to 57 (mean 45.4. The rKOA features were evaluated in the tibiofemoral joint (TFJ and patellofemoral joint. Results. The early rKOA was found in 51.4% of investigated subjects (72% women and 12.3% of participants (63% women had advanced stage of diseases. The A allele of synonymous SNP rs1044122 was associated with early rKOA in TFJ, predominantly with the presence of osteophytes in females (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.08–2.29, . The C allele of intron polymorphism rs1871054 carried risk for advanced rKOA, mostly to osteophyte formation in TFJ in males (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.11–7.53, . Also the CCAA haplotype of ADAM12 was associated with osteophytosis, again mostly in TFJ in males (. For rs3740199 and rs1278279, no statistically significant associations were observed. Conclusion.  ADAM12 gene variants are related to rKOA risk during the early and late stages of diseases. The genetic risk seems to be predominantly associated with the appearance of osteophytes—a marker of bone remodelling and neochondrogenesis.

  18. Vitamin D as a possible independent predictor of bone mineral density in Estonian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, M; Kallikorm, R; Lember, M

    2012-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are prevalent worldwide, with the highest prevalence in the northern countries due to the lack of ultraviolet exposure. The individual effect of vitamin D on bone mineral density (BMD) has been studied but the results are inconclusive. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D on BMD in a random population-based cohort of Estonian adults. A cross-sectional population-based study. A total of 273 individuals free of diseases or states known to affect bone or vitamin D metabolism participated in the study. We measured BMD, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations (in winter and in summer). Several co-variables were included in the regression analysis, including age, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical activity, fresh milk consumption, caffeinated beverage consumption, lean tissue mass and total body fat percentage, and in women the number of children and breastfeeding history. We show that summer vitamin D independently correlates with BMD in lumbar spine, trochanter and total body regions (P vitamin D predicts independently lumbar spine (P body BMD (P mass and fat mass were additional contributors of the BMD (P body composition indices, vitamin D could be an independent contributor of BMD in several skeletal regions in men and women. © 2010 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. Ärkamisaeg, Noor-Eesti ja miski nende vahel. Eesti kirjandusloo küsimusi Juhan Kunderi näitel / National Awakening , Young Estonia and Something In Between. Problems of Estonian Literary History in the Example of Juhan Kunder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pille-Riin Larm

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the long-standing periodisation of Estonian literary history, the Estonian National Awakening that started in the mid-19th century was followed by a period of lesser creativity and originality, which ended only with the breakthrough of the modernist Young Estonia group in 1905. In the canon of Estonian literature, Juhan Kunder (1852–1888, today known primarily for his fairy tales, one play and lyrics of one song, is placed in this intermediate period. This article first introduces the significance of Kunder in his time. He was a popular writer and a wellknown pedagogue, and a younger contemporary of the great figures of the National Awakening. As a critic, magazine editor and literary historian, his most important contribution to literary history was in the development of literary thought. It seems that several precedents that have been attributed to the Young Estonia group, e.g., valuing originality, writing well-argued criticism, etc., actually originated from an earlier period. Based on these observations, the author of this article believes that the current structure of Estonian literary history is not adequately justified, and she points out a semantic shift in the terms in use. It is true that Kunder was largely an epigone of his predecessors, but in the positive sense of the term, meaning that he continued their mission. Similarly, Kunder’s predecessor, the ‘first Young Estonian’ Kreutzwald, and a representative of his 20th-century successors, Friedebert Tuglas, were also epigones. During the period of Russification that started during his era, Kunder’s attitudes could be considered progressive. Kunder was also a 19th-century contemporary of the Young Estonia group and a true Young Estonian in the original sense of the term which emerged in this period: a Young Estonian introduced new initiatives and was a leader of the national movement. Epigonism and membership in Young Estonia can be seen as the keys to cultural

  20. Grupuskulaarne identiteediloome paremäärmuslaste võrgusuhtluses / The Formation of Groupuscular Identity in the Web Communication of the Estonian Extreme Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Liis Madisson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikli eesmärgiks on avada eesti paremäärmuslaste tähendusloomet hüpermeedias. Roger Griffini teooria järgi iseloomustab paremäärmuslaste võrgusuhtluse väikeste mitteparteiliste üksuste – grupuskulite (nt veebilehed, blogid paljusus ja suhteline marginaalsus, rahulolematus praeguse maailmakorraga, ideede revolutsioonilisus ning risoomne ehk mitte-hierarhiline kommunikatsioonistruktuur. Täiendame Griffini teooriat kultuurisemiootika ideedega. Semiosfääri kontseptsioon võimaldab paremini analüüsida grupuskulite kommunikatsiooni eripära ja seal tekkivaid tähendushierarhiaid. Koodteksti mõiste selgitab aga, miks, vaatamata hüpermeedias kättesaadavale arvamuste paljususele, domineerivad grupuskulaarses kommunikatsioonis väga kindlad tähendusloome viisid.    S U M M A R Y The purpose of this article is to create a conceptual framework which would aid in the understanding of the characteristic ways the Estonian extreme right has created the prevalent identities and meanings that are currently in circulation in the media. The analysis is based on non-participant observation, by means of which we have attempted to isolate the main foci and dominant practices of self-description found in web communications among members of the Estonian extreme right. Based on the number of visitors to sites, the concentration of topics posted and frequency of citation, we take the following as representatives of extreme right positions: the blogs „The Nationalist“ („Rahvuslane“, „NS“, and „Nationalist“ („Rahvuslik“, and the alternative web pages „Be Aware“ („Ole Teadlik“ and „BHR Ruzzland“. Markers of the extreme right were present in the pages we examined at different levels of intensity; in fact, not every post to these pages clearly, not every page could be labelled as extreme right. Yet the general tonality of the webpages we examined included the following: an urgent need to conserve

  1. Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Mits

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations

  2. Developments of the Estonian intellectual property system to meet the challenges of the knowledge-based economy : [doktoritöö] / Aleksei Kelli ; Tartu Ülikool ; juhendaja: Heiki Pisuke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelli, Aleksei, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab artikleid: Intellectual property in an innovation-based economy // Review of Central and East European Law (2008) nr. 2, lk. 223-238 (kaasautor Heiki Pisuke) ; Some issues of the Estonian innovation and intellectual property policy // Juridica International. XV. Tartu, 2008, lk. 104-114 ; Improvement of the intellectual property system as a measure to enhance innovation // Juridica International. XVI. Tartu, 2009, lk. 114-125 ; Some issues regarding entrepreneurial universities and intellectual property // Juridica International. XII. Tartu, 2007, lk. 161-172 (kaasautor Heiki Pisuke). - Tutvustus // Tartu Ülikooli doktorite promoveerimine 2010. Tartu, 2010, lk. 5-6

  3. Estonian soil classification as a tool for recording information on soil cover and its matching with local site types, plant covers and humus forms classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rannik, Kaire; Krebstein, Kadri

    2015-04-01

    Estonian soil classification (ESC) has been used successfully during more than half of century in soil survey, teaching of soil science, generalization of soil databases, arrangement of soils sustainable management and others. The Estonian normally developed (postlithogenic) mineral soils (form 72.4% from total area) are characterized by mean of genetic-functional schema, where the pedo-ecological position of soils (ie. location among other soils) is given by means of three scalars: (i) 8 stage lithic-genetic scalar (from rendzina to podzols) separates soils each from other by parent material, lithic properties, calcareousness, character of soil processes and others, (ii) 6 stage moisture and aeration conditions scalar (from aridic or well aerated to permanently wet or reductic conditions), and (iii) 2-3 stage soil development scalar, which characterizes the intensity of soil forming processes (accumulation of humus, podzolization). The organic soils pedo-ecological schema, which links with histic postlithogenic soils, is elaborated for characterizing of peatlands superficial mantle (form 23.7% from whole soil cover). The position each peat soil species among others on this organic (peat) soil matrix schema is determined by mean of 3 scalars: (i) peat thickness, (ii) type of paludification or peat forming peculiarities, and (iii) stage of peat decomposition or peat type. On the matrix of abnormally developed (synlithogenic) soils (all together 3.9%) the soil species are positioned (i) by proceeding in actual time geological processes as erosion, fluvial processes (at vicinity of rivers, lakes or sea) or transforming by anthropogenic and technological processes, and (ii) by 7 stage moisture conditions (from aridic to subaqual) of soils. The most important functions of soil cover are: (i) being a suitable environment for plant productivity; (ii) forming adequate conditions for decomposition, transformation and conversion of falling litter (characterized by humus

  4. 17 September 2013 - Estonian Minister of Education and Research J. Aaviksoo signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R- Heuer; visiting the TOTEM facility with TOTEM Collaboration Spokesperson S. Giani; in the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with International Relations Adviser T. Kurtyka and visiting the CMS cavern with CMS Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela. International Relations Adviser R. Voss present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    17 September 2013 - Estonian Minister of Education and Research J. Aaviksoo signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R- Heuer; visiting the TOTEM facility with TOTEM Collaboration Spokesperson S. Giani; in the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with International Relations Adviser T. Kurtyka and visiting the CMS cavern with CMS Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela. International Relations Adviser R. Voss present.

  5. The effect of hormone therapy on women's quality of life in the first year of the Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerus Piret

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For postmenopausal women, the main reason to start hormone therapy (HT is to reduce menopausal symptoms and to improve quality of life (QOL. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of HT on different aspects of symptom experience and QOL during a randomised trial. A total of 1823 postmenopausal women were recruited into the Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy (EPHT trial in 1999–2001. Women were randomised to blind HT, open-label HT, placebo or non-treatment arm. After one year in the trial, a questionnaire was mailed and 1359 women (75% responded, 686 in the HT arms and 673 in the non-HT arms. Mean age at filling in the questionnaire was 59.8 years. The questionnaire included Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ to assess menopause specific QOL of middle-aged women together with a 17-item questionnaire on symptoms related to menopause, a question about painful intercourse, and a question about women's self-rated health. Results After one year in the trial, fewer women in the HT arms reported hot flashes, trouble sleeping, and sweating on the symptom questionnaire. According to WHQ, women in the HT arms had fewer vasomotor symptoms, sleep problems, and problems with sexual behaviour, but more menstrual symptoms; HT had no effect on depression, somatic symptoms, memory, attractiveness, or anxiety. A smaller proportion of women reported painful intercourse in the HT arms. There were no significant differences between the trial arms in women’s self-rated subjective health. Conclusions The results from the EPHT trial confirm that HT is not justified for treating symptoms, other than vasomotor symptoms, among postmenopausal women. WHQ proved to be a useful and sensitive tool to assess QOL in this age group of women.

  6. Five-class height-weight mean and SD system applying Estonian reference values of height-weight mean and SD for systematization of seventeen-year-old conscripts' anthropometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintsi, Mart; Kaarma, Helje; Aunapuu, Marina; Arend, Andres

    2007-03-01

    A study of 739 conscripts aged 17 years from the town of Tartu and from the Tartu county was performed. Height, weight, 33 anthropometric measurements and 12 skinfolds were measured. The data were classified into five height-weight mean and SD-classes applying the Estonian reference values for this age and sex (Grünberg et al. 1998). There were 3 classes with conformity between height and weight class: 1--small (small height and small weight), 2--medium (medium height and medium weight), 3--large (large height and large weight), 4--weight class dominating (pyknomorphic) and 5--height class dominating (leptomorphic). It was found, that in classes 1, 2 and 3 the height and weight increase was in accordance with the increase in all heights, breadths and depths, circumferences, skinfolds, body fat, muscle and bone mass. In class 4 circumferences, skinfolds, body fat and muscle mass were bigger. In class 5 all heights and the relative bone mass were bigger. The present investigation confirms the assumption that the five height-weight mean and SD five-class system applying the Estonian reference values for classifying the anthropometric variables is suitable for seventeen-year-old conscripts. As well the border values of 5%, 50% and 95% for every anthropometrical variable in the five-classes were calculated, which may be helpful for practical classifying.

  7. Postmodernistlikke jooni eesti noore režissuuri lavastustes 1969–1975 / Postmodernist Traits in the Performances of Young Estonian Directors 1969-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Heinsalu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: 1960. aastate lõpus toimusid eesti teatris suured muutused. Ilmus nähtus, mida hakati nimetama nooreks režissuuriks. Eeskätt on see seotud Evald Hermaküla, Jaan Toominga, Kalju Komissarovi, Kaarin Raidi jt nimedega. Noor režissuur tõstis mässu ahtaks muutunud realismi raamide vastu, mis ei vastanud noore põlvkonna teatriootustele. Olles mõjutatud ideeliselt radikaalsest eksperimentaalteatrist USAs, aga ka Jerzy Grotowski katsetustest ning teistest avangardsetest liikumistest, muutis see füüsilist teatrikeelt. Tõusis improvisatsiooni osakaal. Teater lakkas olemast dramaturgiliste tekstide esituskoht, vaid hakkas otsima etendustes vahetut kohalolu. Tajuprotsessi hakkas juhtima mängu põhimõte. Suured müüdid dekonstrueeriti, autoritaarsusele vastanduti. Seksuaalsus ilmutas end uuel jõul, toetatud alateadvuse impulssidest. Uue laine radikaalsus kestis 1970. aastate lõpuni, mil see sulandus peavoolu. Murrang teatriesteetikas mõjutas kogu järgnenud teatriperioodi, seda on kutsutud ka eesti teatri kuldajaks. SU M M A R Y Young directors emerged in Estonian theatre at the end of the 1960s. More specifically, during the years 1969–1974 many new directors’ names appeared on theatre posters, and the fundamental changes in the language and content of the theatre at the end of the 1960s and the 1970s began to be associated with these names. Most important among these are Evald Hermaküla, Jaan Tooming, Kalju Komissarov, and Karin Raid. Within a short time these young directors changed prevailing assumptions about the purpose, means, and content of the theatre in Estonia. This phenomenon came to be referred to as the breakthrough, or the new wave; later on, in sum, as the renewal of theatre. A generational change was taking place in the theatre, and in this framework a different language of theatre emerged, which began carrying innovative emotional and aesthetic paradigms. As in the Anglo-American cultural space, this new

  8. Nooreestlased arvustuses ja arvustajatena: lugejakontseptsioonist 20. sajandi alguse kriitikas. The Young Estonians as Critics and in the Eyes of Critics: On the Concept of the Reader in Early 20th Century Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marju Mikkel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the treatment of Estonian literature from the beginning of the 20th century has been influenced by the literary and cultural activities and programmatic articles of the Young Estonia movement. Current research on Young Estonia has addressed their more everyday realm of activity, which has heretofore received less attention: the Young Estonians as readers of the new works of their literary contemporaries and their practical criticism in reviews, particularly in daily newspapers. This article uses a receptionhistorical approach to analyze a large body of source material: the Young Estonians voluminous critical oeuvre in the period 1905–1915. The Young Estonians to be examined are all members of the core group of the movement: Gustav Suits, Bernhard Linde, Aino Kallas, Johannes Aavik, Villem Grünthal-Ridala, Jaan Oks, August Alle, and Johannes Semper. Within the larger framework of collective horizons of expectation, the focus of the study is the critics` concept of the reader. In addition, I will briefly discuss the dynamics of how such conceptions change. Research results indicate that in critical reviews from the time of Young Estonia, the topic of the reader was addressed from different standpoints depending on the addressee. Texts directed rhetorically toward a broad readership are characterized by the pursuit of objectivity and generalizations. When the concept of the reader is critic-centered, the text emphasizes subjective judgments, experience, and emotion. When focusing on the author and the text, the reviewer describes the influence on the reader, the cause of which is either the literary work directly or the author’s genius. In the case of polemic on the subject of reading, found mainly in responses written to reviews, the writer interprets another reader (or other readers` reading, opposing it to his or her own. When we follow the way the readers of Young Estonia and the Young Estonians themselves handle the

  9. The success factors of scaling-up Estonian sexual and reproductive health youth clinic network--from a grassroots initiative to a national programme 1991-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempers, Jari; Ketting, Evert; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raudsepp, Triin

    2015-01-08

    A growing number of middle-income countries are scaling up youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health pilot projects to national level programmes. Yet, there are few case studies on successful national level scale-up of such programmes. Estonia is an excellent example of scale-up of a small grassroots adolescent sexual and reproductive health initiative to a national programme, which most likely contributed to improved adolescent sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This study; (1) documents the scale-up process of the Estonian youth clinic network 1991-2013, and (2) analyses factors that contributed to the successful scale-up. This research provides policy makers and programme managers with new insights to success factors of the scale-up, that can be used to support planning, implementation and scale-up of adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes in other countries. Information on the scale-up process and success factors were collected by conducting a literature review and interviewing key stakeholders. The findings were analysed using the WHO-ExpandNet framework, which provides a step-by-step process approach for design, implementation and assessment of the results of scaling-up health innovations. The scale-up was divided into two main phases: (1) planning the scale-up strategy 1991-1995 and (2) managing the scaling-up 1996-2013. The planning phase analysed innovation, user organizations (youth clinics), environment and resource team (a national NGO and international assistance). The managing phase examines strategic choices, advocacy, organization, resource mobilization, monitoring and evaluation, strategic planning and management of the scale-up. The main factors that contributed to the successful scale-up in Estonia were: (1) favourable social and political climate, (2) clear demonstrated need for the adolescent services, (3) a national professional organization that advocated, coordinated and represented the youth clinics, (4) enthusiasm

  10. Bullying at work: do industries differ in the Estonian case? Kas psühholoogilise töövägivalla levik on majandus-sektorites erinev: olukord Eestis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Tambur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bullying at work has not so far analyzed in Estonia – its dispersal, causes and impact have not studied, while in the countries with long democratic traditions it has been the actual problem of work context for two decades. The current study examines the prevalence of workplace bullying in Estonian organizations and the extent of the problem by industries because bullying may put impact on the employees´ efficiency. The sample consists of 1941 respondents which covers 59 organizations across Estonia and represents in all over 30 000 employee and the unemployed. The results reveal that bullying poses a serious problem in Estonia. According to Leymann´s criteria (1996 at least one negative act per week with a duration of at least 6 months, has been reported by 23,44% of respondents. Although, it came out that bullying is not sector-specific problem in Estonia, several and different industries are vulnerable from bullying.

  11. Extending research on the influence of grammatical gender on object classification: A cross-linguistic study comparing Estonian, Italian and Lithuanian native speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Vernich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Using different experimental tasks, researchers have pointed to a possible correlation between grammatical gender and classification behaviour. Such effects, however, have been found comparing speakers of a relatively small set of languages. Therefore, it’s not clear whether evidence gathered can be generalized and extended to languages that are typologically different from those studied so far. To the best of our knowledge, Baltic and Finno-Ugric languages have never been examined in this respect. While most previous studies have used English as an example of gender-free languages, we chose Estonian because – contrary to English and like all Finno-Ugric languages – it does not use gendered pronouns (‘he’ vs. ‘she’ and is therefore more suitable as a baseline. We chose Lithuanian because the gender system of Baltic languages is interestingly different from the system of Romance and German languages tested so far. Taken together, our results support and extend previous findings and suggest that they are not restricted to a small group of languages. "Grammatiline sugu objektide kategoriseerimise mõjutajana: eesti, itaalia ja leedu keele võrdlev uurimus" Eri tüüpi eksperimente kasutades on uurijad osutanud grammatilise soo ja objektide klassifitseerimise võimalikele seostele. Senised tulemused on saadud siiski suhteliselt väheste keelte andmete võrdlemisel. Seetõttu ei ole teada, kas need järeldused on üldistatavad ka nendele keeltele, mille struktuur erineb siiani uuritud keeltest. Probleemi uurimiseks laiendasime vaadeldavate keelte hulka ja tegime grammatilise soo ja objektide kategoriseerimise seoste katse läbi balti ja soome-ugri keelte hulka kuuvate keeltega, mida ei ole kõnealusest vaatenurgast uuritud. Enamik seniseid uuringuid on seadnud nn lähtepunktiks ehk grammatilise soota keeleks inglise keele. Siinses uuringus valisime aga selliseks lähtepunktiks hoopis eesti keele, kus erinevalt inglise keelest ei ole ka

  12. Coalition agreement of Estonian Centre Party and Estonian Reform Party

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Keskerakonna ja Reformierakonna koalitsioonileppe dokument, millele kirjutasid 18 jaanuaril 2002 alla Reformierakonna esimees Siim Kallas ja kantsler Eero Tohver, Keskerakonna esimees Edgar Savisaar ja kantsler Küllo Arjakas

  13. Radiation protection glossary. English-Estonian and Estonian-English

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realo, E.; Viik, T.

    1997-01-01

    The dictionary contains more than 300 entries in the field of radiation protection and also useful information about special measurement units for quantities of interest in radiation protection (SI units and the previously used units) with their conversion factors

  14. Beevor receives Estonian State decoration

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti suursaadik Suurbritannias Margus Laidre andis 2. juunil 2008 Londonis Suurbritannia ajaloolasele Antony James Beevorile üle talle president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese poolt annetatud Maarjamaa Risti III klassi teenetemärgi

  15. Estonians in cyberspace / Pille Runnel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Runnel, Pille, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    Autor teeb ülevaate 2002. aastal Tartu Ülikooli ajakirjanduse ja kommunikatsiooni osakonnas läbi viidud meedia tarbimise uuringu tulemustest, analüüsib Interneti kasutamise, mittekasutamise ning tekkinud digilõhe võimalikke põhjuseid. Diagrammid

  16. New Estonian CDs / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest "Eesti portreed", Lepo Sumera. Film Music by Lepo Sumera, Urmas Sisask "Starry Sky Cycle", "Poeme d'amour", "Tango King Astor Piazolla", "Eduard Tubin. Complete Symphonies vol. 2", Henn Rebane "Arabesque", Eino Tamberg "Nocturne"

  17. Eesti Ajaloomuuseum = Estonian History Museum

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Renoveeritud Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi Suurgildi hoone sisekujundusest ja ekspositsioonist. Sisekujundusprojekti autorid: Margit Aule (KAOS Arhitektid), Liis Lindvere (KOKO Arhitektid) ja Margit Argus (KAOS Arhitektid), loetletud nende töid. Suure saali metallpõranda autorid: Risto Tali, Rait Siska

  18. Sustainable development and Estonian energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausmaa, T.

    1997-01-01

    This conference was held 14 Nov 1997 in Tallinn, Estonia. The conference stressed the importance of the diminishing the negative impact of energy production on the environment. The Government and the Parliament should ensure the composing of short and long term master plans with the public participation for all sectors of the economy, based on the principles of sustainable development, the involved international treaties and the Sustainable Development Framework Act

  19. 27 Estonian Music Festivals 2002

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    2002. aastal Eestis toimunud muusikafestivalidest: opeNBaroque 2002 (muusikafestival),Akadeemilised Trompetipäevad, Klavessiinimuusika Päevad, Eesti muusika päevad 2002,Mravinski Festival, Rudolf Tobiase muusikafestival, Eduard Tubin ja tema aeg (muusikafestival), Suure-Jaani muusikapäevad 2002,Regiöö (muusikafestival), David Oistrahhi festival, Haapsalu vanamuusikafestival 2002, Viljandi vanamuusikafestival 2002, Hiiumaa kammermuusikapäevad 2002, Klaaspärlimäng (festival),Mustjala Festival, Haapsalu viiulimuusika Päevad 2002, Kuressaare ooperipäevad 2002, Leigo järvemuusika 2002, Tallinna Orelifestival, Rapla kirikumuusika X festival 2002, Kuressaare kammermuusikapäevad 2002, Mart Saare muusikafestival, Credo 2002, Tartu vanamuusika IX festival, Trialogos 2002 (kultuurifestival), Fiesta de la guitarra (kitarrimuusika festival), Klaver 2002

  20. Professionalizing the Estonian Reserve Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Everett, William

    1998-01-01

    .... In particular, citizen-soldier reserves can allow nations that do not face immediate external threats, such as Estonia, to meet their security requirements for less money than required by standing forces...

  1. Characteristics of cyclones causing extreme sea levels in the northern Baltic Sea** The study was supported by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (IUT20-11 and Grant ETF9134 and by the EU Regional Development Foundation, Environmental Conservation and Environmental Technology R&D Programme Project No. 3.2.0801.12-0044.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piia Post

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic parameters of extra-tropical cyclones in the northern Baltic are examined in relation to extreme sea level events at Estonian coastal stations between 1948 and 2010. The hypothesis that extreme sea level events might be caused not by one intense extra-tropical cyclone, as suggested by earlier researchers, but by the temporal clustering of cyclones in a certain trajectory corridor, is tested. More detailed analysis of atmospheric conditions at the time of the two most extreme cases support this concept: the sequence of 5 cyclones building up the extreme sea level within about 10 days was very similar in structure and periodicity.

  2. Associations of ECP (eosinophil cationic protein-gene polymorphisms to allergy, asthma, smoke habits and lung function in two Estonian and Swedish sub cohorts of the ECRHS II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janson Christer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP is a potent multifunctional protein. Three common polymorphisms are present in the ECP gene, which determine the function and production of the protein. The aim was to study the relationship of these ECP gene polymorphisms to signs and symptoms of allergy and asthma in a community based cohort (The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS. Methods Swedish and Estonian subjects (n = 757 were selected from the larger cohort of the ECRHS II study cohort. The prevalence of the gene polymorphisms ECP434(G>C (rs2073342, ECP562(G>C (rs2233860 and ECP c.-38(A>C (rs2233859 were analysed by DNA sequencing and/or real-time PCR and related to questionnaire-based information of allergy, asthma, smoking habits and to lung functions. Results Genotype prevalence showed both ethnic and gender differences. Close associations were found between the ECP434(G>C and ECP562(G>C genotypes and smoking habits, lung function and expression of allergic symptoms. Non-allergic asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of the ECP434GG genotype. The ECP c.-38(A>C genotypes were independently associated to the subject being atopic. Conclusion Our results show associations of symptoms of allergy and asthma to ECP-genotypes, but also to smoking habits. ECP may be involved in impairment of lung functions in disease. Gender, ethnicity and smoking habits are major confounders in the evaluations of genetic associations to allergy and asthma.

  3. “Viimne reliikvia” ja “Kolme katku vahel”: ruumist eesti ajalookirjanduse ekraniseeringutes / The Last Relic and Between Three Plagues: On Space in Film Adaptations of Estonian Historical Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Näripea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel keskendub kahele ajalooromaani ekraniseeringule Nõukogude Eesti filmikunstis: „Viimne reliikvia“ (1969, rež Grigori Kromanov, Tallinnfilm, mis põhineb Eduard Bornhöhe romaanil „Vürst Gabriel ehk Pirita kloostri viimsed päevad“ (1893, ning „Kolme katku vahel“ (1970, rež Virve Aruoja, Eesti Telefilm, mille seosed oma kirjandusliku allikaga (Jaan Krossi samanimelise romaaniga on oluliselt keerulisemad. Ekraniseeringuid käsitletakse ruumirepresentatsioonide perspektiivist, uurides, missuguseid strateegiaid kasutati filmiruumide loomisel, kuidas suhestuti kirjandusliku (lähtematerjaliga ning millised ajaloonarratiivi ja rahvusliku identiteedi vahekorrad neis kangastuvad. SU M M A R Y This article examines two Soviet Estonian screen adaptations of historical novels: The Last Relic (Viimne reliikvia, Tallinnfilm, 1969, directed by Grigori Kromanov, based on Eduard Bornhöhe’s novel Prince Gabriel or The Last Days of Pirita Monastery (1893, which became a box-office hit throughout the Soviet Union and even beyond; and Between Three Plagues (Kolme katku vahel, Eesti Telefilm, 1970, directed by Virve Aruoja which reached much more limited TV-audiences; the connections between this film and its literary „source“ (a novel of the same name by Jaan Kross are much more complicated. These screen adaptations are considered from the perspective of spatial representations. I examine which strategies and devices the scriptwriters, directors and production designers drew upon when constructing these cinematic spaces and how they related to their literary hypotexts. As generally for adaptations of historical novels to other media, both The Last Relic and Between Three Plagues speak (perhaps even primarily about their time of production, about the present rather than the past. In this regard, it is important to recall the role of Tallinn’s Old Town as a locus of resistance in Soviet Estonian culture. Arguably

  4. Unelõiv ja Saarepiiga: Jüri Talveti kirjanduslik "Kalevipoeg" / The Rhisomes of „Kalevipoeg“: Literary Interpretation of the Estonian National Epic by Jüri Talvet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Laak

    2016-12-01

    one of the most remarkable representatives of the genre of literary epic in world literature. Literary scholarship of the text and poetics of the epic has demonstrated how the text is constructed by gradational internal intertextual relations, based on certain textual nodal points such as, e.g., ’island maid’, ’stone’, ’sleep’, etc. For example, the figure of Island Maid is intertextually related to many earlier archetexts and fundamental texts and has, in its turn, inspired other fictional texts. The author intentionally allowed for ambiguous interpretation of the death of a young girl – the girl slipped into water, but was it an accident or a suicide? The Estonian heroic epic differs from other literary epics by a gradational motif of ’sleep’, occurring through the text; by using this motif, the author develops the heroic epic into a tragedy of fate. The hero is informed about his fatal guilt in sleep long before it occurred in real life. Jüri Talvet has discovered such rhizomes of relations in the text of The Kalevipoeg due to his studies of world literature, but he has also written about them in his poetry.

  5. Finnish Kalevala and Estonian Kalevipoeg / Jaan Puhvel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puhvel, Jaan, 1932-

    2003-01-01

    Tõlgitud kogumikust: The world of the Kalevala : essays in celebration of the 150 year jubilee of the publication of the Finnish national epic / ed. Kai Laitinen. Los Angeles : UCLA Centre for the Study of Folklore & Mythology, 1987

  6. New Estonian museum - two cases / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Kumu arhitektuurist ja tähtsusest (arhitekt Pekka Vapaavouri). Eesti Rahva Muuseumi uue hoone rahvusvahelise arhitektuurikonkursi võitnud projektist "Mälestuste väli/Memory Field", autorid Dan Dorell, Tsuyoshi Tane ja Lina Ghotmeh. Aerofotod

  7. Estonian MEPs : common energy policy unlikely

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Euroopa Parlamendi liikmed Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja Andres Tarand kahtlevad, kas Euroopa Liit on valmis pakkuma ühtset energiapoliitikat. Energeetiline julgeolek Euroopas. Baltimaade ja Skandinaavia energeetikaalane koostöö

  8. Basic Color Terms in Estonian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Liivi; Sutrop, Urmas

    2011-01-01

    The article is written in the tradition of Brent Berlin and Paul Kay's theory of basic color terms. According to this theory there is a universal inventory of eleven basic color categories from which the basic color terms of any given language are always drawn. The number of basic color terms varies from 2 to 11 and in a language having a fully…

  9. Estonian parties face internal struggles / Helga Kalm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalm, Helga

    2010-01-01

    2011. aasta parlamendivalimiste eel on Eestimaa Rahvaliit, Erakond Eestimaa Rohelised ja Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond keerulises olukorras. Parteides on probleeme juhatustega. Kahe esimese partei puhul ei ole üldse kindel, kas nad saavad parlamendis kohti või mitte. Tõnis Saartsi, Rein Toomla ja Andres Tarandi arvamusi

  10. Estonian companies promoted in Copenhagen / Olya Schaefer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schaefer, Olya

    2010-01-01

    9 Eesti info- ja kommunikatsioonitehnoloogia ettevõtet võttis osa 10.-11. märtsil 2010 Kopenhaagenis toimunud infotehnoloogia messist. Eesti suursaadik Taanis Meelike Palli korraldas vastuvõtu Eesti firmadele, et tutvustada neid Taani ettevõtetele

  11. 2005 for Estonian advertising / interv. Oksana Kostina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Juhtivate reklaami- ja meediaagentuuride Lowe AGE, DDB Estonia, Kontuur Leo Burnett, Euro RSCG Idea, Media House, OMD Estonia ja Mediapool juhid vastavad viiele küsimusele ettevõtete käekäigu ja tulevikuplaanide kohta Eesti reklaamiturul

  12. Demographic dream : 1,5 million Estonians

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Haridus- ja teadusminister Tõnis Lukas loodab rahvuskaaslaste programmi abil saavutada, et väliseestlased ei unusta eesti keelt ning eesti keelt kõnelevate inimeste arv võiks järgmisel aastakümnel jõuda 1,5 miljonini

  13. Eesti Kaevandusmuuseum = Estonian Mining Museum / Margit Argus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Argus, Margit, 1981-

    2016-01-01

    Eesti Kaevandusmuuseumi rajamisest Kohtla-Nõmmele, muuseumi ekspositsioonist. Autorid Margit Argus ja Margit Aule (KAOS Arhitektid), arhitektuur Innopolis Insenerid. Kultuurkapitali arhitektuuri sihtkapitali aastapreemia nominent 2016

  14. What is Estonian sound art? / Maria Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Maria, 1988-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti helikunstist, kunstnikest ja nende töödest. Maria Juure Eesti Kunstiakadeemia Kunstiteaduse Instituudi lõputöö teema oli "Helikunsti määratlemine ja spetsiifika. Erinevad lähenemised helile Eesti uuemas kunstis" (2010)

  15. Soviet Director - Estonian Industrialist / Aavo Kokk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kokk, Aavo, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    BLRT Grupp - kõige konkurentsivõimelisem suurte tööstus- ja energeetikaettevõtete hulgas. Lisa: BLTR Grupp. Diagramm, graafik: BLTR Grupi käive, kasum ja investeeringud. Tabel: Suured tööstus- ja energeetikaettevõtted

  16. Dangerous enemy in Estonian garden soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersell, V.; Mottus, V.; Taeht, K.

    2005-01-01

    Radon is thoroughly discussed in the article. Its generation and the heath risks it can cause. The distribution of radon in the soil is analysed (one soil lithotype at a time (kBq/m)). The measurements received on different surveyed sites are compared to the standards allowed for the construction works. There is also the link between lung cancer cases and radon's radiance and incense/smoking. The North of Estonia is the pearl of Estonia landscape. The sea being near, beautiful seaside views attract people and inspire them to build their houses in this kind of surroundings. However, these areas are natural danger sources, as the percentage of radon concentration in the soil is often high or very high. South Estonia also has a lot of spectacular places with high concentration of radon in the soil [et

  17. Russians in Estonian literature / Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti kirjandusteostest, milles on tegelaskujudeks venelasi. Pikemalt Maimu Bergi romaanidest "Ära" (1995) ja "Ma armastasin venelast" (1994), Mari Saadi romaanist "Lasnamäe lunastaja" (2008) ning Andrei Hvostovi lühiproosakogust "Võõrad lood" (2008)

  18. Savisaar : no plans to buy Estonian Railway

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Majandusminister Edgar Savisaar ei ole rahul Eesti Raudtee enamusomaniku Baltic Rail Service erastamisjärgsete kohustuste täitmisega. Eesti Raudtee nõukogu esimehe Edward Buckhardti ja BRS-i ühe omaniku Henry Posner III seisukohad

  19. Renewable energy sources and Estonian national interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    2002-01-01

    There is only one national level document, The Long-term National Development Plan for the Fuel and Energy sector, regulating the development of renewable energy for Estonia. It was approved by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in 1998. This document planned a 2/3 (66,7%) increase in the share of renewable (according to the document: peat, biofuels and other renewables) to the year 2010 against 1996. At the same time a decrease of the share of domestic oil shale was planned 1/5 to the year 2010 against 1995. That means the use of domestic energy sources, both renewable and non-renewable, will decrease by 16,8% altogether. In reality the rapid projected growth of renewables in Estonia (+66,7% between 1996 and 2010) was changed with decrease of 20% by 2000. So the security of supply must shift to the first place in Estonia. It is also an issue of national sovereignty. Estonia is rich in renewable energy sources, mainly in wood, peat and wind, to achieve the goals set in the National Development Plan. Forest resources amount 352,7, total felling 6,44, allowed felling 7,81 million cubic meters solid volume in 2000. The future of fuel peat usage in Estonia is uncertain, as most of the EU member states, which have burned up their peat resources and/or drained their mires do not consider peat as a renewable fuel. Obviously Estonia has to explain its opinion about the renewability of its resources. Although progress is needed in all directions of additional use of all renewable energy sources in tactical consideration finance must be directed first to guarantee better use of wastes of woodworking and timber industry

  20. Changes in Estonian organisations / Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-2018

    2003-01-01

    Kaanel ajak. ilmumisaeg 2002/2003. Autor teeb ülevaate organisatsiooniliste muudatuste tüüpe käsitlevatest teooriatest, analüüsib Eesti ettevõtetes läbiviidud empiirilise uuringu tulemusi ümberkorraldusprotsesside kohta ja tutvustab Eesti ettevõtlusele sobivat 4-astmelist organisatsiooniliste muutuste mudelit. Tabelid. Skeem

  1. Internationalisation of Estonian banking / Mart Sõrg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõrg, Mart, 1943-

    2002-01-01

    Välispankade osaluse suurenemine Eesti pankades ja selle mõjust nende arengule. Tabelid: Eesti kommertspankade suurimad aktsionärid; Aasia ja Venemaa kriiside aegsed kasuminäitajad Eesti kommertspankades

  2. Eesti paviljon "Koda" = Estonian pavilion "Koda"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Eesti paviljon "Koda" Hollandi maailmanäitusel "Floriade". Arhitektuurivõistlus 2011. Arhitektid Joel Kopli, Koit Ojaliiv (Kuu Arhitektid), konstruktorid Alar Hammer, Marek Suursalu (Projekt 363). Lauad Kristel Jakobson (Haka Disain), toolid Aap Piho (Maast Furniture), valgustid Margus Triibmann (Keha3)

  3. EU must accept Turkey's membership, Estonian president

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ja Türgi presidendi Abdullah Güli ühisel pressikonverentsil Ankaras avaldas Eesti riigipea toetust Türgi liitumisele Euroopa Liiduga. Ametlik visiit Türgi Vabariiki 15.-21.04.2010

  4. Estonian ambassador ensures support for Ignalina extension

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti saadik Vilniuses Andres Tropp kinnitas Eesti toetust Leedu püüdlustele pikendada Ignalina tuumareaktori töötamisaega. Einari Kisel majandusministeeriumist arvas, et sulgemine kiirendaks uue tuumajaama ehitust

  5. Estonian sugar mountain turns sour / Alec Charles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Charles, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Eesti valitsus jätkab võitlust Euroopa Komisjoniga, et mitte maksta 55 miljonit eurot trahvi suhkru ladustamise eest. Peaminister Juhan Parts saatis Euroopa Komisjoni presidendile Jose Manuel Barrosole kirja, milles palus trahvi nõudmise suhtes järele mõelda.

  6. Historian Norman Davies Receives Estonian State Decoration

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti suursaadik Suurbritannias Margus Laidre andis 15. märtsil 2008 Londonis Suurbritannia ajaloolasele Ivor Norman Richard Davies'ele üle talle president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese poolt annetatud Maarjamaa Risti III klassi teenetemärgi

  7. Paet praises Estonian-French cooperation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Välisminister Urmas Paet esines kõnega Sorbonne’i ülikoolis toimunud Euroopa Liidu teemalisel konverentsil ja ütles, et Euroopa Liit saab lahendada oma finantsprobleemid ainult rahanduspoliitika ja struktuurimuutuste abil. Välisministri sõnul näitab Eesti ja Prantsusmaa väga häid suhteid Prantsusmaal toimuv Eesti kultuurifestival "Estonie tonique"

  8. Estonian annual retail conference / Oksana Kostina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kostina, Oksana

    2005-01-01

    Eesti jaekaubanduse aastakonverentsil mais 2005 jagati välja aasta kaubandussaavutuste auhinnad. Esimese koha pälvis Eesti suurim kaubanduskeskus Viru Keskus, mida 2004. aastal külastas 7,5 mln inimest ja mille keskmine päevane käive oli 3,3 mln krooni. Teise koha sai Tallinna Kaubamaja ning kolmanda Baltika Grupp

  9. Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2007-01-01

    Tutvustus: Mattheus, Ülo.¡India armastus. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2006 ;¡Teder,¡Tarmo. Onanistid. Tallinn :¡Tuum, 2006 ;¡Hirv, Indrek. Surmapõletaja. Tallinn :¡Tuum, 2006 ;¡Hvostov, Andrei. Henrik : näidend 12-s pildis. Tallinn : Kultuurileht, 2006. (Loomingu Raamatukogu ;¡20) ;¡Traat,¡Mats. Naised ja pojad. Tallinn : Looming, 2006, nr. 2-5 ;¡Traat, Mats. Sarviku armastus. Tallinn :¡Looming, 2006, nr. 11 ;¡Kaardipakk II. Tallinn : Näo Kirik, 2006 ;¡Kivirähk,¡Andrus. Mees, kes teadis ussisõnu. Tallinn :¡Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2007 ;¡Õunapuu,¡Ervin. Meie igapäevane jää :¡eesti gootika III. Tallinn : Varrak, 2006 ;¡Ehlvest, Jüri. Palverännak. Tallinn :¡Tuum, 2005

  10. Estonian universities struggle for students / Ksenia Repson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Repson, Ksenia

    2005-01-01

    Haridus- ja teadusminister Mailis Reps usub, et ülikoolilõpetajate arv kahaneb 2015. aastaks praeguselt 11 000-lt 6000-ni. Kõrg- ja ülikoolid avavad välistudengite ligimeelitamiseks järjest rohkem inglisekeelseid õppevorme

  11. Estonian-Chinese cohesion / Liina Lelmi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lelmi, Liina

    2009-01-01

    Eesti-Hiina majandussuhetest. Hiina asepeaministri Zhang Dejiangi Eesti visiidist ja kohtumisest peaminister Andrus Ansipi, välisminister Urmas Paeti ning majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsiga

  12. A packed Estonian House welcomes back Estonian President Toomas Hendrik Ilves / Adu Raudkivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudkivi, Adu

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese külaskäigust Toronto Eesti Majja 27. mail 2008. Juuresoleval fotol Eesti riigipea koos Ülemaailmse Eesti Kesknõukogu esimehe Avo Kittaski ja Eesti Ohvitseridekogu Kanadas esimehe Ülo Isbergiga

  13. Four vision of contemporary Estonian art : the series of exhibitions Estonian art / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    Neljast eesti kunsti näitusest 2000. a. märtsis-aprillis Tartus ja Tallinnas, nende kuraatoritest: Toomas Vint, Reet Varblane, Peeter Allik, Johannes Saar. Déj́-vu (Tallinn). Naturalism (Tallinn). AIDS kultuuris (Tallinn). Eneseksjäämine (Tartu)

  14. Eesti luuletaja päris oma prantsuse luuleraamat. August Sanga, Jaan Krossi ja Ain Kaalepi loomingust 1960. aastail / An Estonian Poet’s Own Book of French Poetry. About the Works of August Sang, Jaan Kross and Ain Kaalep in the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre Talviste

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article positions the translations of French verse works (plays and selected collections of individual poets that August Sang, Jaan Kross and Ain Kaalep made in the 1960s, onto the background of their own original works. At that time, August Sang translated four plays by Molière (The Misanthrope, Tartuffe, The School for Wives in 1961; Amphitryon in 1961, which have already been discussed in relation to the tradition of translating the French syllabic verse into Estonian, because these translations form a considerable part of the body of Estonian translations of French verse poetry. For Jaan Kross and Ain Kaalep, the wider context is created by the so-called free verse battles in the 1950s, to which we can link Kross’ translation of a selected collection of Éluard (Veel enne kostma peab, 1969 and Kaalep’s translation of a selected collection of Prévert (Kuidas portreteerida lindu, 1965. One of the two remaining translations by Kross, (Rostand’s Cyrano de Bergerac, 1964, can also be examined in relation to the problems of translating verse, but the other, (Béranger’s Laulud, 1963, should be discussed in the framework of intellectual and cultural resistance, a part of which was also the struggle put up for the existence of free verse in the 1950s and 1960s. Of August Sang’s original work, the article examines his collection of poems Võileib suudlusega (1963, written simultaneously with his translations of Molière’s plays and published right after them. Both the translations and the collection of original poems have attracted critics’ attention with their remarkable lack of linguistic constraint and simplicity. Although Sang has rarely voiced theoretical ideas about translation or explained his method, both his poetic image, outlined in the collection Võileib suudlusega, and his search for right words, reflected in the drafts of his translations, let us believe that the simplicity of expression and the avoidance of marked

  15. What has happened to previous Estonian marketing acts? / Ingrid Nielsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nielsen, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    Ülevaade eelnevatel aastatel Eesti turundusteo tiitli pälvinud kampaaniatega seotud ettevõtete, teenuste ja ürituste - EGO järelmaksukaart, EMT ja Eurovisiooni lauluvõistlus - käekäigust, korraldatud reklaamikampaaniate tulemuslikkusest

  16. Estonian Mean Snow Depth and Duration (1891-1994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the number of days of snow cover in days per year, and three 10-day snow depth means per month in centimeters from stations across Estonia....

  17. Estonian arts and crafts still alive / Jana Belugina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Belugina, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Lühidalt eesti käsitöö ajaloost. Rahvarõivad ja neid kandvad nukud moodustavad siiani suurima osa eesti käsitöö toodetest. Platsiveere Meistrid (Pikk 15) müüb rahvarõivaid, mis on valmistatud sama tehnoloogiaga, mida kasutati sajandeid tagasi. Käsitööesemeid kogub ja säilitab Eesti Rahva Muuseum. 1929. a. loodud Eesti Rahvakunsti ja Käsitöö Liidust, Eesti Käsitöö Majast (Pikk 22), kus asub ka tekstiilikunstnik Riina Tombergi töötuba

  18. Short Outlines of Books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2007-01-01

    Tutvustus: Miljutina, Tamara. Inimesed minu elus. Tallinn : Varrak, 2007 ; Soosaar, Enn. Isa ja aeg. Tallinn : Kultuurileht, 2007. (Loomingu Raamatukogu ; 5) ; Paju, Imbi. Tõrjutud mälestused. Tallinn : Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, 2007 ; Kaplinski, Jaan. Seesama jõgi. Tallinn : Vagabund, 2007 ; Laanem, Tiina. Väikesed vanamehed. Tallinn : Eesti Päevalehe Kirjastus, 2007 ; Vaarandi, Debora. Aastad ja päevad. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2006 ; Berg, Maimu. Unustatud inimesed. Tallinn : Tuum, 2007 ; Heinsaar, Mehis. Rändaja õnn. Tallinn : Verb, 2007

  19. Seminar of contemporary Estonian literature and translation in Hungary

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Sept-st 2002 töötab Budapesti ülikoolis soome-ugri kateedri juures tänapäeva eesti kirjanduse ja tõlkimise seminar, asutatud ülikooli ja Eesti Instituudi koostöö tulemusena. Põhiorganisaatoriks oli Eesti Instituut Ungaris

  20. The Information Culture of Higher Education Institutions: The Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauri, Liia; Heidmets, Mati; Virkus, Sirje

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper focuses on the information culture of higher education institutions in Estonia. The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between information culture, information management and job satisfaction, leadership style, and self-reported individual performance. Method: A total of 160 faculty members from twelve…

  1. Estonian Society and Political Pictures : 6 Case Studies / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    2002-01-01

    Kuus lugu Eesti dokumentaal- ja poliitilisest fotograafiast - põgenemine Läände, eestlased Teises maailmasõjas, Jüri Liimi fotod 1990. aastatest, Carl Sarapi ja Peeter Toominga fotolood, Marko Laimre "Jaotatud territooriumid"

  2. Estonian President Ilves: Euro introduction was a "fantastic idea"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves nõudis Viinis maailmapoliitika konverentsi ajal uudisteagentuurile APA antud usutluses rangemat rahanduspoliitilist distsipliini.Visiit Šveitsi ja Austriasse 07.12.2011 - 11.12.2011

  3. The construction of gender in Estonian school textbooks / Jeannine Richards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Richards, Jeannine

    2001-01-01

    Uurimusest, mille eesmärgiks oli analüüsida nais- ja meessoo kujutamist inglise keele õpikus. Vaadeldavaks õpikuks on : Sotter, Ingrid ; Vahtra, Leida. English : step five. 5th print.- Tallinn : Koolibri, 1997

  4. Estonian central bank sees euro as stabilizing force

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Riigikogu rahanduskomisjoni esindajad teatasid, et Eesti Pank on valmistanud ette lisameetmeid tugevdamaks Eesti rahandussektorit ning näeb eurotsooniga liitumises võtit Eesti majanduse stabiilsusele

  5. Target market pattern of Estonian internationalizing enterprises / Ele Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Ele, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti ettevõtete rahvusvahelistumise puhul ei saa sihtturgude valikul tuua välja selgeid eelistusi, siiski võib öelda, et sageli on ettevõtted keskendunud Baltimaade turu teenindamisele. Tabelid. Diagrammid

  6. Technological Knowledge and Reasoning in Finnish and Estonian Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Ossi; Soobik, Mart

    2017-01-01

    The main idea of this research was to find out if there is a relationship between students' undertakings within Craft and Technology education and their ability to understand technological concepts. Study participants' technological knowledge and reasoning was measured with a questionnaire regarding mechanical systems connected with simple…

  7. The Rotterdam Rules from an Estonian perspective / Heiki Lindpere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindpere, Heiki, 1949-

    2010-01-01

    Rotterdami reeglite (Konventsioon lepingute kohta kaupade rahvusvaheliseks veoks täies ulatuses või osaliselt meritsi = Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea (Rotterdam Rules)) tähtsusest Eestile ja kaubaveo reguleerimisest Eesti õiguses

  8. Developments in production of synthetic fuels out of Estonian shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarna, Indrek

    2010-09-15

    Estonia is still the world leader in utilization of oil shale. Enefit has cooperated with Outotec to develop a new generation of solid heat carrier technology - Enefit280, which is more efficient, environmentally friendlier and has higher unit capacity. Breakeven price of oil produced in Enefit280 process is competitive with conventional oils. The new technology has advantages that allow easy adaptation to other oil shales around the world. Hydrotreated shale oil liquids have similar properties to crude oil cuts. Design for a shale oil hydrotreater unit can use process concepts, hardware components, and catalysts commercially proven in petroleum refining services.

  9. Viron arkkitehtuurin uudistaja = Creators of new Estonian architecture / Tarja Nurmi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurmi, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    KOKO arhitektuuribüroo arhitektidest Raivo Kotovist ja Andrus Kõresaarest. Tähtsamad tööd: Fahle maja, Lennusadama angaarid, äri- ja büroohoone Rotermanni kvartalis, Balti jaama turuhooned. Eesti ja Soome arhitektide koostööst

  10. Russian students face new Estonian-language classes / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Vene koolide üleminekust eestikeelsele õppele, Tallinna Ülikoolis selleks õpetajatele korraldatud kursustest. Haridusministeeriumi kommentaar. President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kõnest teadmiste päeval

  11. Ood Eesti puidule = Praise to Estonian wood / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2014-01-01

    Eesti puitmajade ekspordist. Firma Kodumaja ehitab Norrasse Bergeni linna maailma kõrgeima puithoone. Metsamasinate tootjast Metsis, mis valmistab harvestereid ja forvardereid. Saaremaal asuvast puitpaaditootjast Vätta Puit. Karl Annuse Prillitehasest, mis valmistab puidust prilliraame. Metsamaterjali mõõtmise nutirakendusest Timber Diameter

  12. Estonian President Appeals to Scientists to Find Answers to Problems

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kutsus presidendi mõttekoja avakoosolekul teadlasi ja arvamusliidreid otsima lahendusi küsimustele, millega tegelemiseks valitsusel ja parlamendil ei jätku aega või poliitilist tahet. Mõttekoja tööd korraldab ajakirja Akadeemia peatoimetaja Toomas Kiho

  13. Estonian economic growth slows down / Olavi Grünvald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünvald, Olavi

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti majandusliku arengu viimastest aastatest, 2007. aastal alanud majanduslangusest, mida iseloomustavad langus kinnisvaraturul, SKT kasvu aeglustumine, transiitkaubanduse vähenemine. Lisatud tabel diagramm ja graafikud

  14. Changes in Professionalism: The Case of Estonian Chefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Roosipold

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 The changes that have taken place in professional life have led to changes both in the occupations and social positions of practitioners. In this article, the authors analyse the implications of occupational changes on professionalisation and professional learning, using chefs in Estonia as an example. The article aims to interpret the theoretical framework of professionalism by exploring the beliefs and opinions of chefs and the assessments of their work. The methodological approach is qualitative, relying on semi-structured interviews with outstanding chefs and experts in the field of food science in Estonia. Based on this analysis, we conclude that the chefs are still experts in their field of cooking but new managerial and leadership roles have become more significant. We argue that professionalisation can lead to hybrid professionalism of chefs, which involves communication with the public, reliance on practical knowledge, nonformal learning and reflexive control over their work.

  15. Estonian Railway irked with lack of state cooperation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Raudtee soovib tõsta veotasu, samas kui Raudteeinspektsioon soovitas tasusid vähendada. Ettevõtte nõukogu esimehe Edward Burkhardti sõnul tekitaksid madalad tariifid kompaniile 800 miljoni krooni suuruse puudujäägi

  16. Estonian hospital sector in transition / Toomas Palu, Reet Kadakmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palu, Toomas

    2001-01-01

    Autorid tutvustavad meditsiini vallas Eesti iseseisvuse perioodil läbi viidud reforme: haiglate tulevik sõltub 2001. aastal käivitunud reformide teisest faasist. Tabelid. Skeem: EHIF expenditures on health services, pharmaceutical and sick benefits 1996-2001

  17. Estonský styl = estonian style / Ivar Sakk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sakk, Ivar, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti graafilise disaini rahvuslikust eripärast ja arengust 20. sajandil. Teiste riikide (Rootsi, Venemaa, Saksamaa) mõjust eesti graafilise disaini kujunemisele. Lähemalt Günther Reindorffi, Paul Luhteina tegevusest

  18. Estonian leader voices worry over Russia / Michael Abramowitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Abramowitz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    USA presidendi George W. Bushi 28. novembril 2006. a. toimunud Eesti visiidi ajal oli presidentide vahelise vestluse läbivaks probleemiks Venemaa aina kasvav autokraatia ja despotism, mis on välja viinud juba esimeste arvatavate poliitmõrvadeni Kremli tuliste kriitikute Anna Politkovskaja ja Aleksandr Litvinenko näol

  19. From Estonian Exile to Executive Office / Susan Frith

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Frith, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi Presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese elukäigust, haridusteest, poliitilistest vaadetest. T. H. Ilves lõpetas Pennsylvania ülikooli psühholoogia alal magistrikraadiga 1978. a. Artiklis on kasutatud telefoniintervjuud presidendiga. T. H. Ilvese kohta avaldavad arvamust ülikoolikaaslane Brian Wandell ja Eesti Rahvuskomitee Ühendriikides endine president Juhan Simonson. Ülevaade artiklist ilmunud ka: Vaba Eesti Sõna, 24. jaan. 2008, lk. 7, 10: Vaga, Airi. Eesti president Toomas H. Ilves Pennsylvania ülikooli ajakirjas

  20. Estonian company develops an enhanced wind power generator

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eesti firmas Goliath Wind OÜ töötatakse välja uut tüüpi energiasäästlikku tuulegeneraatorit, mis võimaldaks tuuleenergia hinda alandada kuni viiendiku võrra. Vt. samas intervjuud Goliath Wind OÜ juhatuse liikme Lars Machiga

  1. Estonian utility close to sealing deal with Jordan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energia tutvustab Jordaania valitsusele põlevkiviõli tööstuse teostatavuse ja tasuvuse uuringut. Eesti Energia soovib eriõigusi põlevkivi kaevandamiseks Jordaanias ning õli- ja elektritoomise tööstuskompleksi ehitamiseks

  2. Hydrogenation of Estonian oil shale and shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogerman, P N; Kopwillem, J

    1932-01-01

    Kukersite was heated in an atmosphere of hydrogen, nitrogen, or water in three series of experiments. Shale samples were heated at 370/sup 0/ to 410/sup 0/C for 2 to 3/sup 1///sub 2/ hours in the presence of 106 to 287 kg/sq cm pressure of water, nitrogen, or hydrogen. In some experiments 5 percent of iron oxide was added to the shale. The amount of kerogen liquefied by hydrogenation was not greater than the amount of liquid products obtained by ordinary distillation. On hydrogenation, kukersite absorbed 1.8 weight-percent of hydrogen. Almost no hydrogenation took place below the decomposition point of kerogen, and the lighter decomposition products were mainly hydrogenated. Hydrogenation of the shale prevented coke formation. Heating kukersite or its crude oil at temperatures of 400/sup 0/ to 410/sup 0/C under 250 kg/sq cm hydrogen pressure produced paraffinic and naphthenic oils of lower boiling points. At higher temperatures and after long-continued heating, the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons was observed.

  3. Collaborative development of Estonian nuclear master's program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkaczyk, A. H.; Kikas, A.; Realo, E.; Kirm, M.; Kiisk, M.; Isakar, K.; Suursoo, S.; Koch, R.; Feldbach, E.; Lushchik, A.; Reivelt, K. [Inst. of Physics, Univ. of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia)

    2012-07-01

    In 2009 Estonia approved the National Development Plan for the Energy Sector, including the nuclear energy option. This can be realized by construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) in Estonia or by participation in neighboring nuclear projects (e.g., Lithuania and/or Finland). Either option requires the availability of competent personnel. It is necessary to prepare specialists with expertise in all aspects related to nuclear infrastructure and to meet workforce needs (e.g. energy enterprises, public agencies, municipalities). Estonia's leading institutions of higher education and research with the support of the European Social Fund have announced in this context a new nuclear master's curriculum to be developed. The language of instruction will be English. (authors)

  4. Eesti Lastekirjanduse Keskus = The Estonian Children's Literature Centre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Lastekirjanduse Keskuse hoone (1910, Pikk 73, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Malle Jürgenson, Krista Lepland ja Tea Tammelaan (Laika, Belka & Strelka OÜ). Varakambrit kaunistavad istmed erinevate illustraatorite tehtud maalingutega. Muinasjututoa aknaluuke kaunistavad Jüri Mildebergi loodud fantastilised tüübid. Pööningukorrust kujundas Piret Mildeberg. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad ühiselt tehtud tööd. 3 korruse plaani, värv. välisvaade, 9 sisevaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  5. Prevalence of cysticercosis in Estonian pigs and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorbek-Kilin, Elisabeth; Åhlberg, Tuuli; Tummeleht, Lea

    2018-01-01

    Taenia solium has been ranked as the most important foodborne parasite and Taenia saginata as the most commonly found human Taenia tapeworm worldwide. The last official reports of taeniosis from Estonia were in 2003 for T. solium and 2012 for T. saginata. By law, all animal cases of cysticercosis...

  6. The Pleasures of Mud : Estonian Summer Resort Architecture / Mart Kalm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalm, Mart, 1961-

    2006-01-01

    Pärnu, Haapsalu, Kuressaare ja Narva-Jõesuu suvitusarhitektuurist 20. saj. esimesest poolest kuni 21. saj. alguseni. Arhitektide Olev Siinmaa, Anton Soansi, August Volbergi, Tõnis Mihkelsoni, Raivo Puusepa, Raivo Kotovi, Üla Koppeli, Andrus Kõresaare, ehitusinseneride Erich Ottingi ja Robert Ederma ning sisearhitektide Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla, Urmo Vaikla, Liisi Murula ja Raili Palingu loomingust

  7. Estonian combustible shale kukersite: its chemistry technology and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luts, K

    1944-01-01

    Nearly all investigators, except Cunningham-Craig, believe that kukersite represents a maritime product of plant origin. In all probability the deposition of the material that formed kukersite took place in large open seas, at a depth of at least 200 meters and in quiet water not subject to the motion of the sea. The temperature at that depth may have been warm; that of the surface was not below 15/sup 0/C. Variation in the temperature of the water had an effect upon the alternation of the kukersite and the limestone layers in the deposit. Decaying process probably changed the original algal masses to the present kukersite.

  8. Estonian president recalls judicial reform was not easy / Abdullah Bozkurt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bozkurt, Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Türgi-visiidi eelõhtul räägib president Toomas Hendrik Ilves Eesti õigussüsteemi reformimisest enne Euroopa Liiduga liitumist, Euroopa piiridest, Euroopa Liidu ja NATO suhetest, julgeolekust ja küberturvest, oma viibimistest Türgis, Türgi ja Eesti suhetest ja koostöövõimalustest, Eesti toetusest Türgile Euroopa Liiduga liitumisel. Ametlik visiit Türgi Vabariiki 15.-21.04.2010

  9. New English translation of the Estonian national epic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumis antakse 2011. a. välja Triinu Kartuse inglise keelde tõlgitud "Kalevipoeg" Gunnar Neeme illustratsioonidega. Sellega tähistatakse "Kalevipoja" esmailmumise 150. aastapäeva

  10. Authorship verification of opinion pieces in Estonian / Timo Petmanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petmanson, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Pakutakse välja autorituvastuse algoritm eestikeelsete arvamusartiklite jaoks: ajakirjaniku tuvastamiseks otsitakse tema tekstidest mustreid, mis kirjeldavad talle omaseid lause- ja sõnakonstruktsioone

  11. Place Marketing Implementation in Different Administrative Subdivisions: Estonian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Agan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal scope of this paper is to construct the chain-of-marketing that regards the implementation of a place marketing strategy, in particular regional tourism and development policy. For a few decades place marketing has been mostly a marketing viewpoint for urban areas in the context of tourism in cities or metropols. Smaller rural areas and country-sides have not got so much attention and place marketing is not much used as a strategic tool to improve development in such areas. Place marketing is usually seen as a tourism improvement for tourists, but actually the target audience is much wider. The starting point of the paper was the assumption that the quality of place marketing in these rural areas is not good and strategically elaborated. By comparing three different case studies, Tartu Rural Development Association (Example 1, 4P area in Central-Estonia (Example 2 and Attractions in Municipality of Konguta (Example 3, worst and best practices have been identified, and an answer to the question whether there exists such a thing as ideally sized and structured geographical area that deals with place marketing on the regional level has been sought

  12. New generation in Estonian animation / Mari-Liis Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Mari-Liis, 1988-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti animafilmide loojate uuest põlvkonnast, animafilmide tegemise võimalustest, uute animafilmide tasemest. Martinus Daane Klemeti animafilmidest "Furry Flurry" (2006) ja "Light My Fire" (2007) ning joonisfilmist "Õhus" (Eesti Joonisfilm, 2009, kunstnik Gerda Märtens)

  13. Russification of non-Estonian pupils in Tallinn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülle Rannut

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article home languages, their qualities and use by pupils in grades 2 to 5 in Tallinn are analyzed. Two larger and more characteristic groups (Ukrainians and Belarusians and two groups with Islamic backgrounds (Azerbaijanis and Tatars were compared with the aim of analysing different language loss and preservation factors. Although Ukrainians and Belarusians form much larger ethnic groups within Estonia, they have not managed to preserve their language anywhere near as successfully as the Azerbaijanis and Tatars. Comparison of the data suggests that language preservation in Estonia and the ability to withstand Russification are most influenced by the degree of difference of the language from Russian and the religious difference from the Russian Orthodox faith (and Soviet era atheism. Home languages are characterised by their use mainly in the verbal form, with skills in the literary language generally low or even non-existent. Languages are for the most part learned informally, primarily through communication with parents and/or grandparents. The result is a supersaturated vernacular with a large degree of variation and loans from superstratum languages which falls far from the standard of the language in question.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.15

  14. Estonian agriculture after accession : CAP impact / Mati Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Mati, 1945-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti on olnud üks liberaalsema hinna- ja väliskaubanduse korraldusega riike maailmas. Ühinemine ühtse põllumajanduspoliitikaga tähendab aga eelkõige kõrget interventsiooniastet toodete mahu ja hindade kujundamisel ning konservatiivset toiduainete väliskaubanduse korraldust. Tabelid. Graafikud. Diagrammid

  15. Viron televisio- ja radiokeskus = Estonian National Broadcasting Building / Pentti Kareoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kareoja, Pentti

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Rahvusringhäälingu hoone arhitektuurikonkursi võitis Taani arhitektuuribüroo Nobel Arkitekter. Teise koha pälvis Soome arhitektuuribüroo Harris-Kjisik OY (arhitektid Trevor Harris, Taru Niskanen) töö "Mediatetris". Ergutuspreemia pälvis Pekka Lassila Arhitektuuribüroo (arhitektid Pekka Lassila, Janne Kantee, Annika Ritola, Tuomas Arnala) töö "Auteur"

  16. Estonian agriculture works to increase exports / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2009-01-01

    Eesti põllumajanduse seisust. Eesti Toiduainetööstuse Liit, tootjad ja kaubandusketid algatasid kampaania Eesti toidu populariseerimiseks ning kodumaist kaupa hakkab eristama Eesti rahvuslipu värvides märgistus

  17. Estonian-bound Russian timber detours through Latvia / Artur Tooman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooman, Artur, 1971-

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Baltiiskii Kurss 2002/Zima/Vesna nr. 20 lk. 29. Venemaa tollikomitee otsus, mis ei lubanud ühegi Eesti piiripunkti kaudu Vene metsa Eestisse eksportida, seab paljud metsaga kaubitsejad ning metsatöötlejad keerulisse olukorda. Diagramm

  18. Estonian President attended conference on fight against terrorism

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    President Arnold Rüütel rõhutas Varssavis 16 Euroopa riigipea nõupidamisel otsustavuse tähtsust terrorismivastases võitluses ning tänas Poola presidenti Aleksander Kwasniewskit toetuse eest Eesti pürgimustele liituda NATO-ga. Töövisiit Poola Vabariiki 6.11.2001

  19. Family Factors and NEET Status: An Estonian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Mare; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Merjonen, Paivi; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    For young people, not being in education, employment or training (NEET) may be detrimental to self-esteem and limit possibilities for achieving financial security and a respectable position in society. One major educational problem in Estonia is low academic achievement at the upper level of basic education (Grades 7-9), reflected in a large…

  20. Estonian living in safest of times / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Peaminister Andrus Ansip ütles kevadisi riigikaitsekursuseid avades, et tema hinnangul elab Eesti julgeoleku seisukohalt oma ajaloo ilmselt kõige turvalisemat etappi, olles NATO ja Euroopa Liidu liige. Kursuste avamistseremooniast võtsid osa ka kaitseminister Jaak Aaviksoo, välisminister Urmas Paet, siseminister Marko Pomerants ja kaitseväe juhataja kindralleitnant Ants Laaneots

  1. Competitiveness of Estonian Economy : some Dilemmas Looming Ahead / Alari Purju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purju, Alari

    1999-01-01

    Eesti majandus on jõudnud avatud majanduse perioodist järgmisesse arenguetappi. Seoses sellega tõstatuvad probleemid praeguse makroökonoomilise strateegia seostamisest strukturaalsete reformidega. Eesti ühinemine Euroopa Liiduga

  2. Estonian president defends imminent euro-accession / Valentina Pop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pop, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves räägib Eesti liitumisest euroalaga, eelarvelisest vastutustundest, e-kaubanduse arendamise tähtsusest, Euroopa Liidu lepingust, WikiLeaksi avaldatud materjalidest, küberkaitsest. Töövisiit Brüsselisse 08.12.2010 - 10.12.2010

  3. Estonian views of collective action and democracy / Risto Alapuro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alapuro, Risto

    2003-01-01

    Autor analüüsib Eesti sotsiaalteadlaste poolt välismaal avaldatud teostele tuginedes sotsiaalteadlaste rolli Eesti ja lääneriikide suhete kujundamisel üleminekuajal ning võrdleb Eestis iseseisvumise perioodil toimunud rahvuslikku enesekonstrueerimist ja riigi ülesehitamist Soomega

  4. Investment needs and possibilities in Estonian agricultural sector / Grete Sommer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sommer, Grete

    2003-01-01

    Viimase kümne aasta investeeringute puudulikkust arvestades oleks aastatel 2004-2006 põllumajandussektorisse vaja investeerida 10 381 miljonit krooni ehk 3 460 miljonit krooni aastas, väidab autor. Tabelid. Diagrammid

  5. Mind your languages: Lingua Receptiva in Estonian-Russian communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahtina, D

    2013-01-01

    This study was inspired by the idea that there is more diversity in the ways languages come into contact to create efficient and fair communication. The alternative mode explored in this study is called lingua receptiva (or, LaRa): here interlocutors speak their own language and have enough

  6. Juhan Kukk and the establishment of Estonian sovereignty / Ago Pajur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajur, Ago, 1962-

    2016-01-01

    Juhan Kuke teest poliitikasse. Tallinna Eesti Seltside Liidust. Tööerakonna loomisest. Juhan Kukk Maanõukogu saadikuna. Juhan Kukk Maavalitsuse rahaosakonna juhatajana. Juhan Kukest iseseisvusmanifesti koostajana. Ajutise Valitsuse koosseisus. Eesti rahanduse loomisest

  7. Estonian President : Missile Shield Should Cover All NATO Member Countries

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Poola presidendi Lech Kaczynski ühepäevasest töövisiidist Eestisse. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja Poola riigipea kõnelesid kohtumisel Euroopa tulevikust, NATO laienemisest, Euroopa Liidu naabruspoliitikast ja energiajulgeolekust, võtsid vastu ühisdeklaratsiooni, milles kutsusid Euroopa riikide valitsusi arutama võimalust luua rahvusvaheline komisjon kommunismi inimsusevastaste kuritegude ja inimõiguste rikkumiste uurimiseks

  8. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Estonian Bariatric Surgery Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Šebunova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (Hp is one of the most important human pathogens that can cause duodenal and gastric ulcers, gastritis and stomach cancer. Hp infection is considered to be a cause of limiting access to bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Hp in patients with obesity going into bariatric surgery and to reveal the relationship between Hp and clinical data. The study group was formed of 68 preoperative bariatric surgery patients (body mass index (BMI 44.7 ± 4.8. Gastric biopsies (antrum and corpus were used for histological and molecular (caqA and glmM genes examinations. The PCR method revealed Hp infection in 64.7% of obese patients that is higher in comparison with histological analysis (55.9%. The prevalence of cagA and glmM genes in antrum mucosa was 45.6% and 47.0% while in the corpus it was 41.2% and 38.3%, respectively. The coincidence of both cagA and glmM virulence genes in the antrum and corpus mucosa was 33.8% and 22.1%, respectively. Either of the genes was found in 58.8% of antrum and 57.3% of corpus mucosa. Presence of caqA and glmM genes was in association with active and atrophic chronic gastritis. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that two thirds of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery are infected with Hp and have a high prevalence of cagA and glmM virulence genes that points out the necessity for diagnostics and treatment of this infection before surgery.

  9. Estonian Memory Theatre : the 1970s-1990s / Piret Kruuspere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruuspere, Piret, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti teatrikunstis - nii näidendites kui lavastustes - 1970-1990. aastatel peegelduv ajalooteadvus ja rahvuslik identiteet. Vaadeldakse Rein Saluri näidendeid "Külalised" (Eesti Draamateater 1974, lav. Kaarin Raid) ja "Minek" (Eesti Draamateater 1988, lav. Mikk Mikiver ja Pärnu Endla 1988, lav. Priit Pedajas), Madis Kõivu näidendeid "Tagasitulek isa juurde" (Eesti Draamateater 1993, lav. Priit Pedajas) ja "Stseene saja-aastasest sõjast" (Eesti Draamateater 1998, lav. Mikk Mikiver), Jaan Kruusvalli näidendit "Pilvede värvid" (Eesti Draamateater 1983, lav. Mikk Mikiver) ja Merle Karusoo dokumentaalteatrit. Viited lk. 174-176

  10. Polish and Estonian Economic Competitiveness. A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kowalska

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of the study has been a survey of indices developed by international economic organizations. Such indices tend to encompass a number of qualitative/quantitative variables relating to economic viability, e.g. economic liberties, budgetary balance, judiciary, technical sophistication, social factors and innovation. Basing on the aforementioned data, the study has focused upon the comparison of both countries competitive stances and permitted the formulation of certain economic policy guidelines with regard to Poland, which has underperformed Estonia in most of the rankings.

  11. Fatal Babesia canis canis infection in a splenectomized Estonian dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiškina, Valentina; Capligina, Valentina; Must, Külli; Berzina, Inese; Ranka, Renate; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-25

    A previously splenectomized dog from Estonia was presented with a sudden lack of appetite and discoloration of the urine. Despite supportive therapy, its condition deteriorated dramatically during 1 day. Severe thrombocytopenia and high numbers of protozoan hemoparasites were evident in blood smears, and the hematocrit dropped from 46 to 33 %. The dog was euthanized before specific antibabesial treatment was initiated. Blood samples from the dog and from two other dogs in the same household tested positive for Babesia using molecular methods, and the sequences of partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed the causative species as Babesia canis canis. The risk of severe, rapidly progressing babesiosis in splenectomized dogs merits awareness.

  12. Values and Values Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülavere, Pärje; Veisson, Marika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide an outline of the values that principals, teachers and parents of preschool child care institutions consider important to be taught to children, and which activities, in their estimation, should be used to implement values education in child care institutions. A total of 978 respondents from all 15…

  13. Estonian cow berries have not been affected by radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liiva, A.; Pihlik, U.

    1994-01-01

    According to Latvia n scientists cow berry leaves contain 0.15 kBq/kg of radioactive cesium ( Cs-137 + Cs-134). To check the situation in Estonia officials of forestry enterprises were asked to gather cow berry plants from five control areas in different parts of Estonia, two samples from each (one from a glade, the other from under trees). Analysis of the material collected has shown the specific Cs-137 activity of all samples to be less than 0.18 kBq/kg of dry leaf mass. This is 100 times lower than the limit set for dried medicinal herbs in the Soviet Union after the Chernobyl disaster. (author). 6 refs

  14. The State of Estonian Media Art 1998 / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    1998-01-01

    Meediakunst Eestis (videokunst, videoperformance, videoinstallatsioon, interaktiivne installatsioon, CDRomid, netiprojektid) 1998. a. Kunstnike näitustest ja välisnäitustest. Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Ekraan kui membraan". Tartu, 2007, lk. 113-116 eesti keeles pealkirja all "Eesti meediakunsti olukord A.D. 1998"

  15. Joint final report. General overview : General findings at the Estonian Business School / Estonian Higher Education Accreditation Centre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    2003. aasta lõpus toimunud EBS-i õppekavade akrediteerimise rahvusvahelise komisjoni poolt langetatud otsusest ja selle ingliskeelne versioon, milles analüüsitakse EBSi tugevusi ja nõrkusi ning antakse soovitusi, millest peaks tulevikus juhinduma

  16. Imeasjadest Eesti asjani. Eestimaa muuseumitraditsiooni algus = From little wonders to the Estonian national cause. The beginning of the Estonian museum tradition

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi Suurgildi hoones 2009. aasta 5. juunist 29. septembrini toimunud näituse kujundusest. Kujunduse autorid Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ), loetletud nende ühiselt tehtud töid. Graafiline disain: Tuuli Aule. Näituse kuraatorid: Inge Laurik-Teder, Mariann Raisma

  17. How the Estonian communists lost their war against the Finnish television : the documents of the Estonian State Archive reveal the historical truth / Olga Zhurjari, Peeter Vares

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zhurjari, Olga

    2000-01-01

    EKP võitlusest soome televisiooniga, mis jõudis haripunkti 1980-ndate alguses, kui keelati avalikes kohtades soome televisiooni vaatamine, üritati kontrollida soome telekanalite vaatamist kodudes jne

  18. Eesti elektrisüsteemi juhtimiskeskus = Estonian electrical system command centre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Kadaka tee 42B1asuva Eesti elektrisüsteemi juhtimiskeskuse sisekujundusest. Spetsiaalsed kaarjad lauad on sisearhitektide projekteeritud. Sisearhitektid: Priit Põldme, Reet Sepp (Joonprojekt), nende tähtsamate tööde loetelu

  19. Eesti arvutikunsti teke = The birth of Estonian computer art / Tuuli Lepik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepik, Tuuli

    2010-01-01

    Arvutustehnika arengust, esimestest elektronarvutitest Eestis ja kunstiväliselt loodud visuaalidest, s.t. tähemärkidest piltidest meie teadusasutustes, esimestest kunstnikest, kes kasutasid arvutigraafikat pildi loomiseks, Fin Plotteri tegevusest, inseneride, programmeerijate, informaatikute ja kunstnike koostööst, ka Eestis loodud arvutimängudest

  20. Drivers of the Estonian accounting system in the harmonization process with the European framework / Toomas Haldma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haldma, Toomas, 1957-

    2005-01-01

    Analüüsi tulemusena selgus, et enam on mõjutanud Eesti arvestussüsteemi raamatupidamisregulatsioonide eristumine maksundusest, arenev arvestuse kutseala ja arvestuse riiklike regulatsioonide paindlikkus ning strateegiline suunitlus

  1. Contextual factors and motivators of the accounting developments in Estonian local goverments / Toomas Haldma, Helje Jõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haldma, Toomas, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Siirdeperioodil on Eesti kohalike omavalitsuste (KOV) süsteem läbi teinud nii finants- kui administratiivreformi, mis mõjutavad majandusarvestuse kontseptuaalseid aspekte. Etapilise lähenemise teoreetilistest seisukohtadest lähtudes analüüsitakse KOV-de arevestussüsteemi arengut läbi Eesti majandusarvestuse kolme arenguetapi

  2. Eesti Meremuuseumi hoone Lennusadamas = Estonian Maritime Museum in the Tallinn Seaplane Harbour

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Eesti Meremuuseumi rekonstrueeritud vesilennukite angaarid Tallinnas Vesilennuki 6, valminud 2012. Eesti kultuurkapitali aastapreemia 2012. Arhitektid Raivo Kotov, Andrus Kõresaar, Indrek Mikk, Margit Aule, Tõnis Savi, Lea Laidra, Karis Kahr, Jelena Altmäe, Jaanus Männik (KOKO Arhitektid). Sisearhitektid Margit Argus, Andrus Kõresaar, Olga Batuhtina (KOKO Arhitektid). Raudbetoonkonstruktsioonide renoveerimisprojekt Karl Õiger, Heiki Onton (Tallinna Tehnikaülikool). Uued konstruktsioonid Neoprojekt

  3. Eesti väliskaubandus aastal 2007 = Estonian's foreign trade in 2007 / Allan Aron, Riina Kerner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aron, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Eesti väliskaubanduse näitajatest 2007. aastal: Eesti kaupade eksport oli 125,5 miljardit krooni, import 177,1 miljardit krooni, kaubavahetuse puudujääk oli 51,6 miljardit krooni. Peamisteks partnerriikideks olid 2007. aastal Soome, Rootsi ja Läti. Olulisemad ekspordi- ja impordiartiklid. Graafikud. Tabel. Diagrammid

  4. Ghostly possession and real estate : the dead in contemporary Estonian folklore / Ülo Valk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valk, Ülo, 1962-

    2006-01-01

    Vaimudest üldises, sotsiaalses ja ajaloolises kontekstis, surnute tagasipöördumisest ja nende mõjust tänapäeva inimestele. Artikkel põhineb eesti saartel tehtud intervjuudele, kus uuriti kodude mahajätmist ja sealt väljaajamist seoses nõukogude süsteemiga ning sellega seotud kummituslugusid

  5. Estonian household forms and motives for saving and borrowing / Marge Sults

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sults, Marge

    2003-01-01

    Kui 1990-ndate alguses mõjutas majapidamissektori säästmiskäitumist inflatsioon, siis nüüd on oluliseks saanud nii sissetulekute kasv, madalad laenuintressid kui ka uued laenutooted ja väiksemad laenupiirangud. Siia lisandub Eestis läbiviidav pensionireform, mis peaks säästmisele mõjuma positiivselt. Tabelid

  6. TBT recommends : Estonian Music Awards. First Rock'n'Roll Festival. Fantazy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Muusikaauhindade jagamise üritusest 2. märtsil Tallinna klubis Parlament. 26. veebr. rahvusvahelisest Rock'n'Roll Festivalist Lätis (esinevad eesti ansambel Chick'n Band, ansamblid Boogie D, Wildfire Willie & the Ramblers ning läti pianist Pete Anderson). Vodevillide õhtust 25. veebr. klubis "New York" Vilniuses

  7. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1996-01-01

    Kõiv, Madis. Studia memoriae I. Rännuaastad; Krull, Hasso. Luuletused 1987-1991; Krull, Hasso. Swinburne; Mihkelson, Ene. Nime vaev; Saarsen, Karin. Poola suvi; Traat, Mats. Hirm ja iha; Murutar, Kati. Naisena sündinud; Unt, Mati. Tere, kollane kass; Unt, Mati. Argimütoloogia sõnastik 1983-93; Unt, Mati. Vastne argimütoloogia; Mutt, Mihkel. Pingviin ja raisakass; Mutt, Mihkel. Rahvusvaheline mees; Teder, Tarmo. Kurat kargas pähe; Suuman, Sass. Targemat ei ole; Hirv, Indrek. Tähekerjus; Kaplinski, Jaan. Mitu suve ja kevadet; Kaplinski, Jaan. Jää ja Titanic

  8. Kaheksakümnendate eesti fotost = Estonian photography in the eighties / Peeter Laurits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laurits, Peeter, 1962-

    2010-01-01

    Fotograafiast, fotoklubidest ja fotorühmitustest, fotograafidest ja nende vormiotsingutest, sotsiaalse ja nn. salongliku suuna esindajate vahelistest probleemidest ja diskussioonidest teemal "Kas fotokunst on kunst?" Neil aastail hakkas eesti fotokunst väljuma kultuurilisest isolatsioonist

  9. Probing the Perceptual and Cognitive Underpinnings of Braille Reading. An Estonian Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Mannamaa, Mairi; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have…

  10. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2004-01-01

    Tutvustus: Baturin, Nikolai. Kentaur. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2003 ; Kaplinski, Jaan. Isale. Tallinn : Varrak, 2003 ; Jaks, Ilmar. Pimedus. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2003 ; Ivask, Ivar. Tähtede tähendust tunda. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2003 ; Vint, Toomas. Minu abielu prostituudiga. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2003 ; Ehin, Kristiina. Luigeluulinn. Tallinn : Huma, 2004 ; Kivisildnik. Päike, mida sa õhtul teed? Tallinn : Perioodika, 2003 ; Kivisildnik. Rahvuseepos Kalevipoeg ehk armastus. Tallinn : Tuum, 2003 ; Veidemann, Rein. Lastekodu. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2003 ; Park, Eeva. Lõks lõpmatuses. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2003 ; Traat, Mats. Islandi suvi. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2003 ; Kauksi Ülle. Uibu. Tartu : Kauksi Ülle Mänedsment, 2003 ; Kross, Jaan. Kallid kaasteelised. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2003 ; Undusk, Jaan. Quevedo. Tallinn : Perioodika, 2003

  11. Maastikuarhitektuuri koolitusest Eesti Kunstiakadeemias = Schooling in Landscape Architecture at the Estonian Academy of Art / Katrin Koov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koov, Katrin, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Maastikukool tegutseb EKA arhitektuuriosakonna juures neljandat hooaega. Seni oli tegemist valikkursusega, 2003/2004. õppeaastast on see lülitatud arhitektuuriüliõpilaste põhiõppesse. Maastikukooli eesmärgist ja plaanidest, ülevaade aastatel 2000-2003 toimunud maastikukoolidest. 6 ill

  12. Eesti Maastikuarhitektide Liidu "Aasta tegu 2014" = Estonian Landscape Architects' Union annual achievment award 2014 / Minea Kaplinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaplinski, Minea

    2015-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektide Liidu algatatud EV 100 arhitektuuriprogramm "Hea avalik ruum" pälvis Eesti Maastikuarhitektide Liidu preemia "Aasta tegu 2014". Töögrupi koosseis: Kalle Vellevoog, Ingrid-Mald Villand, Ylle Rajasaar. Loetletud 2015. aasta oktoobriks toimunud arhitektuurikonkursid ja nende võitjad

  13. Estonia teater - helikindel ja sinine = Estonian National Opera - soundproof and blue / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia maja teatritiiva interjööri renoveerimine. Sisekujundus: Juta Lember (kavandas ka uued valgustid), Aulo Padar (SAB Lember & Padar). Arhitekt Indrek Suigusaar (AB Pluss OÜ). Restaureerimistööd: KAR-Grupp. Projekt ja valmis 2005. Ill.: 8 värv. sisevaadet

  14. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2002-01-01

    Ehlvest, Jüri. Taevatrepp ; Suuman, Aleksander. Tondihobu tõugud vetikatega ; Õunapuu, Ervin. Mõõk. Nagu jõgi ; Nigov, Anton. Harjutused ; Hainsalu, Lehte. Kellakuuljad ; Heinsaar, Mehis. Härra Pauli kroonikad ; Bristol, Piret. Sajandi öömajad ; Kas kuulete...? : [kuuldemängud] / koost. Tamur Tohver; Rummo, Paul-Eerik. Kohvikumuusikat ; Käsper, Kalle. Vennad Luiged ; Põldroos, Enn. Mees narrimütsiga ; Remsu, Olev. Margit Puusaag ja tema mehed ; Sauter, Peeter. Pori

  15. Short Outlines of Books by Estonian Authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Kaplinski, Jaan. Parallelle ja parallelisme. Tartu : Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, c2009 ; Hellat, Henn-Kaarel. Inimese tegemine I-V. Tallinn : Faatum, 2002-2008 ; Nõu, Helga. Elu täis üllatusi. Tartu : Atlex, 2009 ; Remsu, Olev. Musketäride muundumised. [Tallinn] : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2008 ; Ristikivi, Karl. Päevaraamat 1957-1968. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008

  16. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Berk Vaher, Aare Pilv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Tutvustus: Raudam, Toomas. Nips. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2004 ; Ilus Armin : eesti lühiproosat 1987-2002 / koost. Udo Uibo. Tallinn : Varrak, 2004 ; Ehlvest, Jüri von. Rahuldus. Tartu : Ilukirjandus, 2004 ; Ki:wa. Roboti tee on nihe ; Salatühik. Tallinn : Eesti Kunstimuuseum, 2004 ; Sommer, Lauri. Nõidade õrnus. Sännä : Tiivaalune, 2004 ; Kalkun, Andreas. Pääväraamat. Tartu : Erakkond, 2004 ; Jõerüüt, Jaak. Uus raamat. Tallinn : Tuum, 2004 ; Krull, Hasso. Meeter ja Demeeter. Tallinn : Vagabund, 2004 ; Kõiv, Madis. Päev. Tartu : Akkon, 2004 ; Mihkelson, Ene. Uroboros. Tallinn : Tuum, 2004 ; Soomets, Triin. Toormaterjal. Tallinn : Verb, 2004 ; Vaher, Berk. Sekeldaja päevad. Tallinn : Tuum, 2004

  17. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1998-01-01

    Sauter, Peeter. Luus; Kuik, Valentin. Poegade mäss; Kallas, Teet. Käsi; Toomet, Tiia. Isamaa suvi; Ehlvest, Jüri. Päkapikk kirjutab; Meri, Lennart. Presidendikõned; Rannap, Jaan. Kõverkäpp; Krull, Hasso; Kalve, Toomas. Kaalud; Talvet, Jüri. Eesti eleegia ja teisi luuletusi; Mihkelson, Ene. Pidevus neelab nuga; Tode, Emil. Printsess; Lepik, Kalju. Pihlakamarja rist; Vint, Toomas. Lõppematu maastik; Valter, Edgar. Isand Tuutu ettevõtmised; Kõiv, Madis. Kolm näitemängu

  18. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2005-01-01

    Tutvustus: Henno, Sass. Mina olin siin. 1 : esimene arest. Tallinn : Eesti Päevaleht, 2005 ; Kruusvall, Jaan. Sinetavad kaugused : valitud proosat. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2004 ; Hirv, Indrek. Klaaskübara all : [esseed]. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2004 ; Õudne Eesti : valimik eesti õudusjutte. Tallinn : Varrak, 2005 ; Ruitlane, Olavi. Kroonu. Räpina : Väiku Välläandja, 2005 ; Ehin, Kristiina. Kaitseala. Tallinn : Huma, 2005 ; Kivirähk, Andrus. Jutud. Tallinn : Eesti Kirjanduse Sihtasutus, 2005 ; Talvet, Jüri. Unest, lumest. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005 ; Künnap, Asko. Kõige ilusam sõda. Tallinn : Näo Kirik, 2004 ; Kaplinski, Jaan. Kaks päikest : teistmoodi muinaslood. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2005 ; Alver, Betti. Koguja : suur luuleraamat. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005

  19. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2000-01-01

    Kaur Kender. Yuppiejumal; Hiram [Laaniste, Mari]. Mõru maik; Paul-Eerik Rummo. Luuletused; Ilona Laaman. Mulle ei meeldinud su nimi; Lehte Hainsalu. Viis minutit pärast vihma ja Kukelokuti; Maimu Berg. Ära; Kalju Kruusa. Meeleolu; Ervin Õunapuu. Eesti gootika ja Teie mälestuseks, kes iganes te olete ja kus asute; Ilmar Talve. Kevad Eestis, Kutsumatu külaline ja Kolmas kodumaa

  20. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2001-01-01

    Arvo Valton. Leidik; Mats Traat. Valge lind; Mats Traat. Harala elulood; Kärt Hellerma. Kassandra; Uku Masing. Luule 1.; Ilmar Vene. Trotsija : katse mõista Uku Masingut; Eesti identiteet ja iseseisvus / koost. A. Bertricau; Ene Mihkelson. Kaalud ei kõnele : valitud luuletusi 1967-1977; Mehis Heinsaar. Vanameeste näppaja; Eesti kirjanduslugu / Epp Annus, Luule Epner, Ants Järv jt.; Aarne Ruben. Volta annab kaeblikku vilet; Mart Kivastik. Näidendid; Kaardipakk / Jürgen Rooste, Karl Martin Sinijärv, Triin Soomets, Elo Viiding, Asko Künnap; Hasso Krull. Kornukoopia : sada luuletust; Tiia Toomet. Vana aja koolilood; Aidi Vallik. Kuidas elad, Ann?; Enn Vetemaa. Neitsist sündinud

  1. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1999-01-01

    Madis Kõiv. Kähri ker'ko man Pekril; Hannes Varblane. Avalikult halb : valik; Andrus Kivirähk. Liblikas; Juhan Paju. Vanaema mõis; Henn Mikelsaar. Ristiratast; Asta Põldmäe. Viini plika; Ellen Niit. Paekivi laul; Toomas Raudam. Elus enesetapja; Andrus Kivirähk. Pagari piparkook; Oskar Kruus. Hella Wuolijoki; Hasso Krull. Jazz : nelikümmend luuletust; Mart Kivastik. Varblane; Jüri Ehlvest. Elli lend

  2. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1997-01-01

    Vint, Toomas. Kojamehe naine; Mihkelson, Ene. Surma sünnipäev; Vint, Toomas. Naisepiinaja õnnenatukene; Kross, Jaan. Mesmeri ring; Vetemaa, Enn. Väegade noobel kooljas...; Berg, Maimu. Ma armastasin venelast; Kivi, Aita. Jumalakäpp; Berg, Maimu. Mina, moeajakirjanik; Kivastik, Mart. Palun õnnelikuks; Kivisildnik, Sven. Nagu härjale punane kärbseseen; Varblane, Hannes. Vihkamiseta; Ehin, Andres. Rummu Jüri mälestused; Tode, Emil (Õnnepalu, Tõnu). Mõõt; Raudam, Toomas. Tarzani seiklused Tallinnas; Ehlvest, Jüri. Ikka veel Bagdadis; Ehlvest, Jüri. Krutsiaania

  3. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2001-01-01

    Mari Vallisoo. Ainsuse olevik; Andrus Kivirähk. Rehepapp; Toomas Vint. Elamise sulnis õudus; Andreas Oplatka. Lennart Meri - Eestile elatud elu; Mari Saat. Sinikõrguste tuultes; Eeva Park. Pääse karussellile; Hando Runnel. Mõistatused; Jaan Kaplinski. Kirjutatud; Contra [Konnula, Margus]. Suusamütsi tutt; Triin Soomets. Soon; Ervin Õunapuu. Surmaminejad lasevad tervitada; Kaur Kender. Ebanormaalne

  4. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2000-01-01

    Andres Ehin. Alateadvus on alatasa purjus; Peeter Torop. Kultuurimärgid; Matt Barker. Sarah' jalad; Jaan Isotamm. Mina Johnny B.; Jaan Kaplinski. Silm. Hektor; Jaan Kaplinski. Kevad kahel rannikul ehk tundeline teekond Ameerikasse; Rein Raud. Pisiasjad, mis omavad tähtsust; Kerttu Rakke. Kalevipoeg; Elin Toona. Rõõm teeb taeva taga tuld; Veera Saar. Neid ammuseid aegu; Toomas Vint. Nädalavahetusel. Mängides; Varjatud ilus haigus : valik sajandilõpu eesti luuletajaid / koostanud Kajar Pruul; Viiu Härm. Duubel kaks

  5. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2002-01-01

    Debora Vaarandi. See kauge hääl; Ene Mihkelson. Ahasveeruse uni; Jaan Puhvel. Ulgvel ja umbes; Haljand Udam. Orienditeekond, Jüri Talvet. Kas sul viinamarju ka on?; Leo Kunnas. Sõdurjumala teener; Hendrik Adamson. Laotuse õlmas; Mats Traat. Kõllane õtak; Mari Vallisoo. Ussisõnad; Jan Kaus. Maailm ja mõni; Helga Nõu. Tõmba uttu; Toomas Vint. Kaine kuu ja purjus päike; Kadri Kõusaar. Ego; Mihkel Mutt. Progressiivsed hiired; Jaan Kross. Tahtamaa; Valeria Ränik. Aitab ajast; Valeria Ränik. Ülejõel Kassilaiu pealinnas; Mihkel Samarüütel. 3 : [novellid

  6. Short Outlines of Books by Estonian Authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Karusoo, Merle. Kui ruumid on täis : Eesti rahva elulood teatritekstides 1982-2005. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008 ; Aleksejev, Tiit. Palveränd. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008 ; Saat, Mari. Lasnamäe lunastaja. Tallinn : Tuum, 2008 ; Tarand, Mari. Ajapildi sees. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2008 ; Ojamaa, Liisi. Jõgi asfaldi all. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008 ; Kaalep, Ain. Muusad ja maastikud. Luuletused aastaist 1945-2008. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2008 ; Toona, Elin. Ella. Tallinn : Kultuurileht, 2008 ; Hellerma, Kärt. Sinine missa. Valik reisikirju. Tallinn : Tuum, 2008 ; Raud, Rein. Vend. Tallinn : Tuum, 2008 ; Kruusa, Kalju. Pilvedgi mindgi liigutavadgi. Tallinn : Koma, 2008

  7. Shaping Estonian Primary School Pupils' Values by Using Bullying-Prevention Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piht, Sirje; Talts, Leida; Nigulas, Sigrit

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify to what extent using the methodology of the programme "Bullying-free school", initiated in the Kingdom of Denmark in 2007 and implemented in schools in Estonia since 2013, has supported the development of ethical values in primary school pupils. The methodology focuses on four value attitudes:…

  8. Tiina Tammetalu : Eesti maastikud, personifitseeritud, dokumenteeritud = Estonian landscapes, personified, documented / Andreas Trossek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trossek, Andreas, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Maalikunstnik Tiina Tammetalu käsitluses on Eesti maastik dokument, mida ta oma lõuenditel seeriapäraselt rekonstrueerib. 1980-ndate õpiaja maalides kandvaks muutunud kehaesteetika on kunstniku viinud läbi 90-ndate erinevate dokumentaalsete/feministlike näituseprojektide ja kolmemõõtmeliste installatsioonide ideeni, et maastik on kui kunstniku identiteet, on kui keha, on kui mälu. Viimaste aastate töödes aimub kogu seda "eestlaslikku" valulikku ajalootunnetust, need on otsekui retooriliseks vastuseks paljude jaoks korduvale küsimusele - kust oled sa tulnud?

  9. Eesti tööturu areng = Development of Estonian labour market / Mihkel Servinski, Mare Kusma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Servinski, Mihkel

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Maksumaksja, nr. 11, 2007, lk. 34-38. Tööturuga seotud protsessidest 2006. aastal, sealhulgas erasektori ja avaliku sektori vahekorrast. Keskmise brutokuupalga muutustest omaniku liigi järgi. Diagrammid

  10. Socialisation tactics : an empirical study of the Estonian defensive force / Uku Mats Peedosk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peedosk, Uku Mats

    2003-01-01

    2002. aastal Eesti kaitsejõududes läbiviidud uuringu tulemustest selgus, et ajateenistuse jooksul muutuvad värvatute riigi- ja peretasandi kollektivismi määrad, samuti mitmed väärtusorientatsioonid. Tabelid. Graafikud

  11. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: II. Incidence of cancer and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahu, M.; Tekkel, M.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-01-01

    A cohort of 4,472 men from Estonia who had participated in the cleanup activities in the Chernobyl area sometime between 1986 and 1991 and were followed through 1993 was analyzed with respect to the incidence of cancer and mortality. Incidence and mortality in the cleanup workers were assessed relative to national rates. No increases were found in all cancers (25 incident cases compared to 26.5 expected) or in leukemia (no cases observed, 1.0 expected). Incidence did not differ statistically significantly from expectation for any individual cancer site or type, though lung cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma both occurred slightly more often than expected. A total of 144 deaths were observed [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-1.14] during an average of 6.5 years of follow-up. Twenty-eight deaths (19.4%) were suicides (SMR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.01-2.19). Exposure to ionizing radiation while at Chernobyl has not caused a detectable increase in the incidence of cancer among cleanup workers from Estonia. At least for the short follow-up period, diseases directly attributable to radiation appear to be of relatively minor importance when compared with the substantial excess of deaths due to suicide. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Taking a stroll through the shelves of the History of Estonian Thought / Paavo Matsin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsin, Paavo, 1970-

    2011-01-01

    Raamatusarjast "Eesti mõttelugu" (kirj. Ilmamaa). Pikemalt on tutvustatud Uku Masingu artiklikogumikke "Pessimismi põhjendus" (1995) ja "Meil on lootust" (1998), Haljand Udami "Orienditeekonda" (2001) ja Vaino Vahingu "Vaimuhaiguse müüti" (2005). Autor soovitab "Eesti mõtteloo" sarjas välja anda Gunnar Aarma artiklikogumik

  13. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg and Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: Käsper, Kalle. Buridanid. I-V. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2005-2010 ; Kivastik, Mart. Eesti asjad. Tartu : Kaks Musketäri, 2010 ; Kangro, Maarja. Ahvid ja solidaarsus. Tallinn : Eesti keele Sihtasutus, 2010 ; Põder, Rein. Unustatud. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2010 ; Kesküla, Kalev. Elu sumedusest. Tallinn : Tuum, 2009 ; Pilv, Aare. Ramadaan. Tallinn : Tuum, 2010

  14. Is the russo-phone minority a structural security threat to the Estonian state? / Maibritt Lind

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lind, Maibritt

    2003-01-01

    Autor analüüsib vene vähemuse olukorda Eestis, nende poliitilist ja sotsiaalset kaasatust ühiskondlikku ellu, Eesti integratsioonipoliitikat ning kirjeldab venelaste kõrvaletõrjutusega kaasnevaid võimalikke julgeolekupoliitilisi ning Eesti poliitilist stabiilsust mõjutavaid ohte

  15. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg and Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: Kiin, Sirje. Marie Under : elu, luuletaja identiteet ja teoste vastuvõtt. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2009 ; Laanes, Eneken. Lepitamatud dialoogid : subjekt ja mälu nõukogudejärgses eesti romaanis. Tartu : Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2009 ; Ehin, Kristiina. Emapuhkus. Tallinn : Pandekt, 2009 ; Tungal, Leelo. Seltsimees laps ja suured inimesed. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2008 ; Tungal, Leelo. Samet ja saepuru, ehk, Seltsimees laps ja kirjatähed. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2009 ; Õnnepalu, Tõnu. Paradiis. Tallinn : Varrak, 2009

  16. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Runnel, Hando. Sinamu. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005 ; Talvet, Jüri. Tõrjumatu äär. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005 ; Nõu, Enn. Mõtusekuke viimne kogupauk. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2005 ; Merca. Hele häärber. Tartu : Vilep & Vallik, 2005 ; Õnnepalu, Tõnu. Enne heinaaega ja hiljem : luulet ja luuletõlkeid 1983-2005. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2005 ; Kaplinski, Jaan. Kõik on ime. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2004 ; Unt, Mati. Vend Antigone, ema Oidipus. Tallinn : Kultuurileht, 2006 ; Laretei, Käbi. Otsekui tõlkes : teema variatsioonidega. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2005 ; Jõerüüt, Jaak. Sõber : valik novelle 1979-2005. Tallinn : Tuum, 2005

  17. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Krull, Hasso. Loomise mõnu ja kiri. Tallinn : Kultuurileht, 2006 ; Aleksejev, Tiit. Valge kuningriik. Tallinn : Varrak, 2006 ; Baturin, Nikolai. Sõnajalg kivis. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2006 ; Nõu, Helga. Ood lastud rebasele. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2006 ; Kaus, Jan. Tema. Tallinn : Tuum, 2006 ; Krull, Hasso. Talv. Tallinn : Tuum, 2006 ; Soomets, Triin. Väljas. Tallinn : Tuum, 2006 ; Kareva, Doris. Aja kuju. Tallinn : Verb, 2006 ; Vint, Toomas. Topeltvalguses. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2005 ; Bristol, Piret. Sõud. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2005 ; Valton, Arvo. Taltsutatud lammas : jutud. Tallinn : Kirjastuskeskus, 2005 ; Kivastik, Mart. Külmetava kunstniku portreed. Viinistu triloogia. Tartu : Väike Öömuusika, 2006

  18. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1997-01-01

    Traat, Mats. Peremees võtab naise; Raudam, Toomas. Muusika kuum sai; Baturin, Nikolai. Ringi vangid; Õunapuu, Ervin. Olivia. Meistriklass; Mattheus, Ülo. Läheb ega peatu; Nõu, Enn. Kojutulek; Valton, Arvo. Väike ilus vangimaja; Unt, Mati. Brecht ilmub öösel; Alliksaar, Artur. Päikesepillaja; Kareva, Doris. Hingring; Kaplinski, Jaan. See ja teine; Hellerma, Kärt. Alkeemia

  19. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Afanasjev, Vahur. Kosmos. Tallinn : Jutulind, 2008 ; Hvostov, Andrei. Võõrad lood. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2008 ; Lauli, Olle. Niguliste õpilased. Tallinn : Verb, 2007 ; Rooste, Jürgen. Tavaline eesti idioot. Pärnu : Ji, 2008 ; Talvet, Jüri. Silmad peksavad une seinu. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2008 ; Beekman, Aimée. Proovielu. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008 ; Kivi, Aita. Lähedal. Tallinn : Ajakirjade Kirjastus, 2008 ; Beekman, Vladimir. Alles see oli. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2008 ; Viiding, Elo. Püha Maama. Tallinn : Tuum, 2008 ; Nõu, Helga. Peaaegu geenius ehk Schrödingeri kassi otsimas. Tallinn : Atlex, 2008 ; Unt, Lii. Parim näitleja linnas. Varanasi päevaraamat. Tallinn : Eesti Ekspressi Kirjastus, 2007 ; Sild, Ivar. Tantsiv linn. Tallinn : Tuum, 2007

  20. Estonian SMEs in the context of an enlarged Europe / David Smallbone, Urve Venesaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smallbone, David

    2006-01-01

    Ülevaade väikeettevõtluse probleemidest ja strateegiatest seoses Eesti liitumisega EL-iga. Analüüsi aluseks on 2002. a. detsembris väikeettevõtjate seas läbi viidud küsitlusuuringu tulemused. Tabelid. Diagramm

  1. Searching for an Estonian design hit among the Brunos / Herke Vaarmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmann, Herke, 1981-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti disainist. Eesti Disainerite Liit annab 2006. aastast välja disainiauhinda Bruno. 26. 09. 2008 anti teist korda välja disainiauhinnad kolmes kategoorias: parim tootedisain - Mare Kelpmani padjakollektsioon "Lights & Stripes", parim disainiprojekt - Tarmo Luisu "LED Stick" valgusti, eeskujuliku design management'i preemia - byRoller. Preemiale kandideerinud valgustitest, mis võiksid edu saavutada

  2. "Riigikogu hoone 90" = "Estonian parliament building 90" / Janno Roos, Andres Labi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roos, Janno, 1976-

    2013-01-01

    Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2012. aasta näituse kujunduse preemia pälvinud näitusest (Lossiplats 1A). Kujunduse autorid Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor). Kuraator Mait Väljas. Graafiline disain: Identity. Sisearhitekti ja ESLi aastapreemiate žürii liikme Mari Kurismaa ning arhitektuuriajaloolase Leele Välja arvamused

  3. NATO and EU Need Not Enlarge Hand in Hand - Estonian President in Riga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Riias NATO tippkohtumise ajal toimunud rahvusvahelisel julgeolekukonverentsil esinenud president Toomas Hendrik Ilves toetas Euroopa Liidu edasist laienemist, kuid möönis ühenduses tekkinud nn. laienemisväsimust. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Läti Vabariiki ja Rootsi Kuningriiki 28.-30.11.2006

  4. Indicative effects of climate change on groundwater levels in Estonian raised bogs over 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lode

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of 50-year (1962–2011 monthly air temperature and precipitation data indicated substantial climate change in the locations of two raised bogs (Linnusaare and Männikjärve in central-east Estonia. During recent years the cross-year winter air temperature increased by 1.7 ºC, while the cold-season precipitation increased by 4 mm. The fluctuation amplitude of temperature and precipitation values decreased. Snow depth proved to be the most sensitive variable to winter warming, followed by groundwater levels together with mean and maximum soil frosts. Long-term groundwater levels on the domes of the bogs and in the forested/treed lagg areas were 0.3−0.4 m and 0.4−0.8 m below the soil surface, respectively. Warming caused changes in groundwater level amplitude of 3−22 cm in the bog domes and 3−14 cm in the forested lagg zones. The lowest groundwater levels in ridge-pool ecotopes at Männikjärve rose by 6−10 cm (i.e. these ecotopes became wetter; but the incidence of low groundwater levels increased in most ecotopes, indicating a more general trend towards drier conditions in the bog.

  5. Estonian literature and a brave new world : a postmodern turn? / Piret Viires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viires, Piret, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Ilm. ka väljaandes: Different inputs - same output? : autonomy and dependence of the arts under different social-economic conditions / ed C. D. Hasselblatt - Maastricht : Shaker, 2006. (Studia Fenno-Ugrica Groningana ; 3)

  6. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Brita Melts and Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Melts, Brita

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Vadi, Urmas. Kirjad tädi Annele. Pärnu : Jumalikud Ilmutused, 2010 ; Sommer, Lauri. Kolm yksiklast. Tallinn : Menu Kirjastus, 2010 ; Hargla, Indrek. Apteeker Melchior ja Oleviste mõistatus. Tallinn : Varrak, 2010 ; Hargla, Indrek. Apteeker Melchior ja Rataskaevu viirastus. Tallinn : Varrak, 2010 ; Pihelgas, Carolina. Metsas algavad hääled. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2010

  7. Leadership style as determinant of creativity profiles in Estonian organizations / Ruth Alas, Krista Tuulik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-2018

    2004-01-01

    Eesti organisatsioonides aastatel 2001-2003 projekti GLOBE raames läbi viidud empiirilise juhiuuringu tulemuste analüüs. Uuringu käigus selgitati välja, kuidas alluvad tajuvad oma juhte, keda eestlased peavad suurepäraseks juhiks, milliseid isiksuseomadusi ning käitumist omab karismaatiline juht. Definitsioonid: innovatsioon, loovus, juhtimine, eestvedamine ja väärtushinnangud. Diagrammid, tabelid

  8. Distribution and migration of cesium and strontium radionuclides in Estonian scots pine stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.; Tekko, S.; Aaspollu, J.; Martin, J.; Vilde, R.; Nifontova, M.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive pollution from the Chernobyl NPS reactor accident in 1986 has wide scale impact through radionuclides fallout over large areas. We used mushrooms, macrolichenes, mosses and pine needles, forest litter and soil for the investigaton of 137 Cs and 90 Sr accumulation and migration in pine ecosystems. Systematic collections were made on 63 field sites, total amount of samples analyzed is 350. Highest concentrations of radiocaesium were determined in mushrooms (41.8 kBq/kg) in north-east of Estonia, in macrolichens at the Lahemaa National Park (6.2 kBq/kg). At the Rumpo Botanical Reserve the level of radiocaesium exceeded background concentration (1985) 1.3-1.8 times and at the Koljaku 4.0-4.4 times. During five years of observations (1986-1991) decrease of radionuclides pollution revealed 15 times the Rumpo and Koljaku. Radiostrontium concentrations in different ecosystem compartments all over the territory did not exeed harmful levels. (author). 2 tabs

  9. Re-vegetation of block-cut and milled peatlands: an Estonian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Triisberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The re-vegetation of mined peatlands after abandonment is often a long-lasting process. The aim of this study was to clarify the factors influencing the re-vegetation of abandoned block-cut, milled and fertilised peat areas in Estonia by investigating and comparing their present vegetation. The analysis is based on 285 quadrat samples where plant species composition and cover were assessed, and the pH and electrical conductivity of bog water were measured. Whereas re-vegetation in the block-cut area was quite fast and progressive, in milled peat areas it was slow and irregular because of the absence of viable propagules and the unfavourable conditions for plant growth. The course of re-vegetation depends considerably upon the peat extraction method, the area and surface microtopography of the mined area, the pH and electrical conductivity of the bog water, and the density at which trees have established on the cutover surface. Plant species richness was most affected by the density of tree saplings, litter cover, former treatment and microtopography. A single application of fertiliser ca 25 years ago did not have a long-term effect on the total number of plant species, but did increase plant cover and the mean number of species per quadrat. On milled peatlands, neither the sowing of Oxycoccus palustris seeds nor the planting of Rubus chamaemorus had the desired effect unless growth conditions for the plants were improved.

  10. My Home Is My Stage: Restaurant Experiences in Two Estonian Lifestyle Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Võsu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses recent developments in the home-based lifestyle business featuring the example of two cases: Tammuri farm restaurant near Otepää in South Estonia, and home restaurant MerMer in Kolga-Aabla in North Estonia. We study the restaurants from a Goffmanian performance perspective, focusing on the lifestyle entrepreneur's viewpoint of creating a restaurant experience in their homes. Accordingly, the home and its surroundings are considered a setting in which food has an important role as a performance medium and multiple roles are enacted by a single entrepreneur as a performer. Freshness, quality and locality of food, homeliness and personalised service are used for creating a special home restaurant meal experience. The two cases also shed light on the dynamics of the concepts of home and lifestyle entrepreneurship in contemporary Estonia, challenging the understanding of restaurant cuisine and home cooking as oppositional practices of food preparation and consumption.

  11. My Home Is My Stage: Restaurant Experiences in Two Estonian Lifestyle Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Võsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses recent developments in the home-based lifestyle business featuring the example of two cases: Tammuri farm restaurant near Otepää in South Estonia, and home restaurant MerMer in Kolga-Aabla in North Estonia. We study the restaurants from a Goffmanian performance perspective, focusing on the lifestyle entrepreneur's viewpoint of creating a restaurant experience in their homes. Accordingly, the home and its surroundings are considered a setting in which food has an important role as a performance medium and multiple roles are enacted by a single entrepreneur as a performer. Freshness, quality and locality of food, homeliness and personalised service are used for creating a special home restaurant meal experience. The two cases also shed light on the dynamics of the concepts of home and lifestyle entrepreneurship in contemporary Estonia, challenging the understanding of restaurant cuisine and home cooking as oppositional practices of food preparation and consumption.

  12. Factors signifying gender differences in clinical presentation of sarcoidosis among Estonian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, Hille; Kliiman, Kai; Altraja, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is endemically prevalent in Northern Europe, but gender differences among the sarcoidosis population have not yet been compositely addressed. To reveal independent factors that formulate gender differences in the presentation of sarcoidosis. All Caucasian patients with confirmed sarcoidosis were recruited from the outpatient department of the Lung Clinic of the Tartu University Hospital, Estonia, between February 2009 and April 2011. Data on demographics, complaints, symptoms, clinical presentation, extrapulmonary manifestations, radiographic stage, lung function parameters and sarcoidosis-related laboratory indices were all drawn from patients' clinical records at presentation. Factors characteristic of female gender were estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of 230 cases included, there were significantly more females (56.5%, P = 0.005). After adjustment for age, females appeared distinguishable from males by older age [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.07], less frequent smoking (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.13-0.49), higher probability of extrapulmonary complaints (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.16-3.65) and musculoskeletal sarcoidosis (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.65-6.29), and after adjustment for both age and smoking status lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s and lung carbon monoxide diffusing coefficient % predicted (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.97 and OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-0.995, respectively), but by higher forced vital capacity % predicted (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03-1.22). Women with sarcoidosis are independently characterized by greater airflow obstruction, lower lung diffusing coefficient, older age, less smoking, and more frequent extrapulmonary complaints and musculoskeletal involvement. This may urge special attention when addressing female patients in both differential diagnostic and management settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Brita Melts, Rutt Hinrikus, Maire Iro and Maret Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtna, Maarja. Läved ja tüved. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2013 ; Sauter, Peeter. Ära jäta mind rahule. Tallinn : P. Sauter, 2012 ; Viiding, Elo. Teised. Tallinn : Tuum, 2012 ; Mathura. Kumalasepäev. Lelle : Allikaäärne, 2012 ; Kadastik, Mart. Kevad saabub sügisel. Tallinn : Varrak, 2013 ; Mutt, Mihkel. Kooparahvas läheb ajalukku. Tallinn : Fabian, 2012 ; Hargla, Indrek. Apteeker Melchior ja Pirita kägistaja. Tallinn : Varrak, 2013 ; Raud, Rein. Rekonstruktsioon. Tallinn : Mustvalge Kirjastus, 2012 ; Toona, Elin. Into exile : a life story of war and peace. Woodsville (N.H.) : Lakeshore Press, 2013 ; Berg, Maimu. Moemaja. Tartu : Petrone Print, 2012 ; Kareva, Doris, Rooste, Jürgen. Elutants. Tallinn : Verb, 2013 ; Ehin, Kristiina. Paleontoloogi päevaraamat. Tartu : Petrone Print, 2013 ; Maria Lee. Stereomeetria. Tallinn : Verb, 2012

  14. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Brita Melts, Rutt Hinrikus and Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Melts, Brita

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Baturin, Nikolai. Lendav hollandlanna. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2012 ; Friedenthal, Meelis. Mesilased. Tallinn : Varrak, 2012 ; Kaus, Jan. Koju. Tallinn : Tuum, 2012 ; Kaldmaa, Kätlin. Armastuse tähestik. Tallinn : NyNorden, 2012 ; Kivastik, Mart. Vietnami retsept. Tartu : Väike Öömuusika, 2012 ; Õnnepalu, Tõnu. Kuidas on elada. Tallinn : Varrak, 2012 ; Õnnepalu, Tõnu. Mandala. Tallinn : Varrak, 2012 ; Riismaa, Kaur. Rebase matmine. Tallinn : Näo Kirik, 2012 ; Vadi, Urmas. Tagasi Eestisse. Saarde-Pärnu : Jumalikud Ilmutused, 2012 ; Vint, Toomas. Avalikult abielust. Tallinn : Tulikiri, 2012 ; Kangro, Maarja. Dantelik auk. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2012 ; Kaevats, Mihkel. Ungari kirsid & teisi luuletusi. Tallinn : Pegasus, 2012.

  15. Horticultural markets promote alien species invasions: an Estonian case study of herbaceous perennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Ööpik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gardening is a popular pastime, but commercial horticulture is responsible for the introduction of alien species and contributes to invasions in a variety of ways. Although an extensive international literature is available on plant invasions, it is still important at the national level to examine the influence of local factors. Accordingly, 17 nurseries in Estonia that cultivated and sold perennial alien species were selected, and a list of species and prices was compiled. The relationships between species status, and factors such as their abundance in the wild were examined statistically. A qualitative list of the nationally problematic species among herbaceous perennials was also completed. A total of 880 taxa were recorded, of which 10.3% were native and 89.7% alien. In all, 87.3% of the alien species were still confined to cultivated areas. The ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the taxa were described, and lists of the families of casual, naturalised and invasive aliens were provided. Both native and increasing wild alien species have a very similar profile on the market. Alien species that are less expensive, widely available and have more cultivars per species on the market are also more likely to escape. The invasive status and abundance of escaped aliens in an area increases with residence time. In general, socio-economic factors create new and reflect previous propagule pressures from commercial horticulture, which continuously increase the likelihood of alien species surviving and invading new areas. Our findings suggest that these national socio-economic market-related factors explain much of the invasiveness of various perennial ornamental species, and therefore regional and national authorities urgently need to regulate and control the ornamental plant trade to diminish the risk of new invasions.

  16. People's attitudes towards the application of information technology in Estonian companies / Merike Kaseorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaseorg, Merike, 1964-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti ettevõtetes tuleks rohkem tähelepanu pöörata töötajate teadmiste täiendamisele, hirmu ja vastumeelsuse vähendamisele uue infotehnoloogia suhtes ning muutustega seotud positiivsete hoiakute suurendamisele, leiab autor. Tabel. Skeemid. Lisad lk. 206-207

  17. Näitus "Eesti kirjanik karikatuuris" = Exhibition "Estonian writers in caricature"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Välinäitus pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2010. a. näituse ja installatsiooni kujunduse preemia. Autorid: Kaarel Vahtramäe, Liina Jakobson, Mart Lankots, Janno Siimar (Velvet Creative Alliance)

  18. The Internationalisation of Higher Education in Two Different Contexts: Catalan and Estonian Sociolinguistic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep; Gallego-Balsà, Lídia

    2016-01-01

    The topic of the internationalisation of academia has recently attracted attention from sociolinguists and language-policy scholars. In this paper, we compare two different universities from two contrasting contexts in Europe in order to find out more about their projected stance [Jaffe, A. (2009). Stance in a Corsican School: Institutional and…

  19. Postmodern diversity in Estonian architecture in the 70s and 80s / Marieke van Rooy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rooy, Marieke van, 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis 28. 06.-24. 08. 2008 olnud näitusest ja kataloogist "Keskkond, projektid, kontseptsioonid. Tallinna Kooli arhitektid 1972-1985 = Environment, projects, concepts. Architects of the Tallinn School 1972-1985". Näituse kuraatorid ja kataloogi koostajad Andres Kurg ja Mari Laanemets

  20. AP Interview : Estonian leader denies seeking Russia's breakup, says Moscow won't accept past

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest soome-ugri rahvaste maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis. Eesti president lükkab ümber Vene riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi süüdistuse, et tema kõnest võis välja lugeda toetusavalduse soome-ugri rahvaste iseseisvusele. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  1. Võsast võrsub kultuur = Sowing the seeds of Estonian culture / Piret Õunapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õunapuu, Piret, 1955-

    2014-01-01

    Läbilõige Eesti Rahva Muuseumi ajaloost, uue muuseumihoone ehitamisest Raadile (arhitektuurivõistluse võidutöö nimega "Memory Field", autoriteks rahvusvaheline arhitektide kolmik Pariisist: Dan Dorell, Lina Ghotmeh ja Tsuyoshi Tane) ning selles 2016.a. avatavatest püsinäitustest

  2. Estonian pavilion at EXPO 2010 in Shangai urges action to save cities / Tiit Konsand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Konsand, Tiit

    2010-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse turundus- ja kommunikatsiooniüksuse direktor räägib Eesti esindamisest ning paviljonist 2010. aasta EXPOl Shanghais. Samuti on avatud portaal SaveCity.org, kus on võimalik suhelda ning vahetada kogemusi

  3. Innovation in Estonian enterprises : is it sufficient for competing in the world economy? / Silja Kurik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurik, Silja

    2003-01-01

    Kaanel ajak. ilmumisaeg 2002/2003. Autor tutvustab 2001. a. Eesti ettevõtetes läbiviidud uuringu tulemusi ettevõtete investeeringutest tootearenduseks, seadmete ja tehnoloogiate hankimiseks, töötajate koolituseks ja turundustegevuse arendamiseks ning hindab ettevõtete konkurentsivõimet Euroopa turul. Tabel. Diagrammid

  4. Spectacular - spectacular! : the exhibition revolution in Estonian museums and theme parks / Mariann Raisma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raisma, Mariann, 1974-

    2012-01-01

    Muuseumide kaasajastamisest Eestis viimastel aastatel. Näituste kvaliteedi tõusust ja muuseumide uuest rollist. Pikemalt Eesti Meremuuseumi Lennusadamast (KOKO Arhitektid), TÜ Ajaloo muuseumi varakambrist (KAOS Arhitektid), Eesti Maanteemuuseumi väliekspositsioonist "Teeaeg" (Salto Arhitektid, Laika, Belka & Strelka)

  5. Art and Identity : The Soviet Woman in Estonian Art / Michael Schwab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schwab, Michael, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 8.04.-26.09.2010 avatud näitusest "Nõukogude naine eesti kunstis", kuraatorid Katrin Kivimaa ja Kädi Talvoja. Ernst Hallopi maalist "Piimatootmine Väimela karjandustehnikumis" (1948) ja Lola Liivati maalist "Laulja ja näitleja Elo Tamuli portree" (1954)

  6. Estonian rail transport policy : cohesion with the European Union transport policy / Ott Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Ott, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Käesoleval ajal asub Euroopa liidu liikmesriikide ainus erastatud avalik raudteeinfrastruktuur Eestis. Artikkel püüab selgitada, kas ja kuidas haakuvad Euroopa Liidu ja Eesti transpordipoliitikad raudteeveonduse osas ning kas erastatud avaliku raudtee puhul on võimalik nendes sisalduvate eesmärkide elluviimine. Järeldused. Tabelid, diagrammid

  7. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1999-01-01

    Ehin, Andres. Seljatas sada meest; Ilmet, Peep. Tuuldunud luule; Kaplinski, Jaan. Öölinnud. Öömõtted; Kender, Kaur. Iseseisvuspäev; Kesküla, Kalev. Vabariigi laulud; Luik, Viivi. Maa taevas; Nõu, Helga. Hundi silmas; Raun, Mait. Wake up; Remsu, Olev. Haapsalu tragöödia; Sauter, Peeter. Kogu moos; Undusk, Jaan. Maagiline müstiline keel; Vint, Toomas. Kunstnikuromaan

  8. S.P.E.A.K. = The strange politics of Estonian authorities against "Kinsfolk" / Irina Brusnigina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brusnigina, Irina

    2004-01-01

    Keelest kui poliitika osast, Eesti kodakondsuse saamise tingimustest, venekeelsete koolide üleminekust eestikeelsele õppele aastal 2007, riiklikust keelepoliitikast, eestlaste negatiivse suhtumise põhjustest venelastesse

  9. Eesti Tervishoiu Muuseum = Estonian Health Care Museum / Raili Paling, Liis Lindvere, Kadri Kaldam ; kommenteerinud Kadri Liimal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paling, Raili

    2016-01-01

    Eesti Tervishoiu Muuseumi (Tallinn, Lai tn. 30) renoveeritud interjöör ja püsiekspositsioon. Autorid Jelena Altmäe, Kadri Kaldam, Andrus Kõresaar, Indrek Mikk, Jaanus Männik, Lea Laidra, Liis Lindvere, Raili Paling; kuraator Ülle Kask

  10. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Kareva, Doris. Lõige. Tallinn : Verb, 2007 ; Õnnepalu, Tõnu. Flandria päevik. Tallinn : Varrak, 2007 ; Mihkelson, Ene. Katkuhaud. Tallinn : Varrak, 2007 ; Vint, Toomas. Mäluauguga naine. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2007 ; Pervik, Aino. Suleline, Puhuja ja must munk. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2007 ; Mutt, Mihkel. Siseemigrant. Novellid Rui taevalike kommentaaridega. Tallinn : Fabian, 2007 ; Nõlvak, Valentine. Ellujääja mälestused. Tallinn : Varrak, 2007 ; Tungal, Leelo. Täisminevik. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2007 ; Kangro, Maarja. Tule mu koopasse, mateeria. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2007

  11. Estonian Attitudes towards the German Exercise of Power in Estonia 1941-1944 / Kari Alenius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alenius, Kari, 1966-

    2012-01-01

    Eestlaste suhtumisest Saksa okupatsioonivõimudesse perioodil 1941-1944. Perioodi võib jagada kolmeks etapiks. 1941. aastal suhtuti sakslastesse heatahtlikult. Pettumus hakkas süvenema 1942. aasta talvel. Alates 1942. aasta kevadest polnud enam üksmeele leidmine võimalik

  12. Estonian science breeds world-class researches / ToivoTänavsuu, Hille Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti teadusfirmadest: biotehnoloogia ettevõtted Celecure AS, Protobios OÜ, Icosagen AS, Asper Biotech AS ja Solis BioDyne OÜ, geenitehnoloogia firma Genorama OÜ, keemiatehnoloogia ettevõte AS Cambrex Tallinn

  13. Peculiar high temperature corrosion of martensite alloy under impact of Estonian oil shale fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H.; Klevtsov, I. [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The superheaters` surfaces of oil shale steam boiler made of pearlitic and austenitic alloys, are subject to intensive corrosion, mainly due to presence of chlorine in external deposits. The applicability of martensitic alloys X1OCrMoVNb91 and X20CrMoV121 for superheaters is examined here and empirical equations allowing to predict alloys` corrosion resistance in the range of operational temperatures are established. Alloy X1OCrMoVNb91 is found been most perspective for superheaters of boilers firing fossil fuel that contain alkaline metals and chlorine. The abnormal dependence of corrosion resistance of martensitic alloys on temperature is revealed, namely, corrosion at 580 deg C in presence of oil shale fly ash is more intensive than at 620 deg C. (orig.) 2 refs.

  14. Amendments to procurement contracts : Estonian law in the light of the pressetext ruling / Mari Ann Simovart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Simovart, Mari Ann, 1969-

    2010-01-01

    Euroopa Kohtu lahendist kohtuasjas Pressetext (C-454/06). Hankelepingu teise poole isiku muutusest ning hinna ja tähtaja muudatustest. Eesti riigihangete seaduses sätestatud lepingu muutmise regulatsioonist

  15. Estonian-Russian relations - on the threshold of change? / Tunne Kelam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelam, Tunne, 1936-

    2002-01-01

    Riigikogu aseesimees Tunne Kelam peamistest takistustest Eesti-Vene suhete paranemisel ning võimalikest muutustest Venemaa Eesti-suunalises välispoliitikas tulevikus. Autor: Isamaaliit. Parlamendisaadik

  16. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Brita Melts, Rutt Hinrikus and Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Melts, Brita

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Kilusk, Ott. Veidrikud ja võpatused. Tallinn : Menu, 2012 ; Kilusk, Ott. Oktoobrikuine tuuker. Tallinn : Kirjastuskeskus, 2010 ; Hansen, Aime. Ma olin mereingel. Tallinn : Verb, 2011 ; Vallisoo, Mari. Koidutäht koolivihikus. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2011 ; Sinijärv, Karl Martin. Krümitor 0671. Tallinn ; Näo Kirik, 2011 ; Aareleid, Kai. Vene veri. Tallinn : Varrak, 2011 ; Ashilevi, Jim. Ma olen elus olemise tunne. Luige : Verb, 2011 ; Traat, Mats. Vastsed Harala elulood. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2011 ; Tamm, Margus. Unesnõiduja. Tallinn : Raudwara, 2011

  17. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Talvet, Jüri. ElegÍa Estonia y otros poemas = Eesti eleegia ja teisi luuletusi / Spanish transl. by the author and Albert L̉zaro Tinaut. Ciudad de València : Palmart, 2002 ; Ehlvest, Jüri. Hobune eikuskilt. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2002 ; Raudam, Toomas. Saint-Prousti vastu. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2002 ; Tode, Emil. Raadio. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2002 ; Vene, Ilmar. Pahustumine ehk Uusaja olemus. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2002 ; Annus, Epp. Kuidas kirjutada aega. Tallinn : Underi ja Tuglase Kirjanduskeskus, 2002 ; Lepik, Kalju. Valguse riie ei vanu. Kogutud luuletused 1938-1999 ; Barker, Matt. Waanenburgi tapatalgud. Tartu : EYS Veljesto, 2002 ; Kesküla, Kalev. Platoni riik. Tallinn : Tuum, 2002 ; Vahing, Vaino. Mängud ja kõnelused. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2002 ; Tuulik, Jüri. Üksik lind mere kohal. Tallinn : Maalehe Raamat, 2002 ; Tätte, Jaan. Näidendid. Tallinn : Maalehe Raamat, 2002 ; Kareva, Doris. Mandragora. Tallinn : Huma, 2002

  18. Comparison of French and Estonian Students' Conceptions in Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castera, Jeremy; Sarapuu, Tago; Clement, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Innatism is the belief that most of the human personality can be determined by genes. This ideology is dangerous, especially when it claims to be scientific. The present study investigates conceptions of 1060 students from Estonia and France related to genetic determinism of some human behaviours. Factors taken into account included students'…

  19. Edgar Savisaar : Estonian Air ja Levira tuleb erastada / Edgar Savisaar ; interv. Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Edgar, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Infopress 13. mai nr. 19 lk. 148-149. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad prioriteete ministriametis, Vene kapitali tulekut Eesti tööstusse, Saaremaa Laevakompanii soovi saada 2006. aastal dotatsiooni tänavusega võrreldes kaks korda rohkem, geenivaramule riigi raha andmist, kust saadakse raha pensionitõusuks, miks eestlane ei taha ettevõtjaks saada. Diagrammid: Mida on riigil müüa?

  20. Edgar Savisaar : Estonian politics does not exist / Edgar Savisaar ; interv. Aarne Mäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Edgar, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Keskerakonna esimees vastab küsimustele enda seotusest Virumaaga, Ida- ja Lääne-Virumaa ühendamisest, Keskerakonnale pingelisest 2004. aastast ning iseloomustab tänapäeva poliitikuid Eestis. Lisa: Edgar Savisaar

  1. Acquisition of epistemic marking in Estonian and Russian / Viktoria V. Kazakovskaya, Reili Argus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kazakovskaya, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Kahe eesti ja kahe vene keelt omandava lapse kogemuse põhjal kirjeldatakse esimeste epideemiliste modaalsuse markerite ilmumist laste keelekasutusse ning tõenäosust väljendavate markerite edasist arengut

  2. Estonian monetary system : readiness to join the European Monetary Union / Mart Sõrg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõrg, Mart, 1943-

    2004-01-01

    1992. a rahareformi läbiviimise paratamatusest, valuutakomitee ning liberaalse rahapoliitika olulisusest, Eesti valmisolekust eurole üleminekuks ja selle mõjust riigi majanduslikule arengule. Tabelid

  3. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Brita Melts, Rutt Hinrikus and Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Melts, Brita

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Helme, Peeter. Varastatud aja lõpus. Tallinn : Tuum, 2011 ; Jõerüüt, Jaak. Kõik luuletused. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2011 ; Kareva, Doris. Sa pole üksi. Tallinn : Verb, 2011 ; Paju, Imbi. Soome lahe õed : vaadates teiste valu. Tallinn : Hea lugu, 2011 ; Pervik, Aino. Matlena teekond. Tallinn : Mustvalge Kirjastus, 2010 ; Raud, Rein. Hotell Amalfi. Tallinn : Tuum, 2011 ; Sommer, Lauri. Räestu raamat. Tallinn : Menu Kirjastus, 2012 ; Kasemaa. Andrus. Leskede kadunud maailm. Tallinn : Varrak, 2012 ; Teede, Andra. Käigud. Pärnu : Jumalikud Ilmutused, 2011

  4. The issue of E-elections in the Estonian public / Edgar Savisaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Edgar, 1950-

    2011-01-01

    Keskerkonna esimees leiab, et tähtsaim demokraatia eeltingimus on usaldusväärne valimissüsteem, kuid praegusel kujul ei ole Eesti valimissüsteem läbipaistev, kuna keegi ei saa tagada e-valimiste turvalisust

  5. The Estonian Tax System is Under Attack / Craig Rawlings, Daria Sivovol, Kersti Harkmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rawlings, Craig

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika, Briti ja Rootsi Kaubanduskojad Eestis ning Prantsuse-Eesti Äriklubi korraldasid seminari, kus Eesti maksusüsteemi tuleviku üle arutasid 15 põhiesinejat ning üle saja osavõtja. Väljavõte sessioonist, kus vastajateks olid Meelis Atonen, Eiki Nestor, Tarmo Kriis ja Vahur Kraft. Lisa: Esinejate tutvustus

  6. Estonians Cast Wary Eye on Russiaþs Energy Empire / Steven Roman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roman, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Euroopa, sh Eesti sõltuvus Venemaa energiaressurssidest ja energeetiline julgeolek. Diagramm: Gaasi kasutamine Eestis. Arvamust avaldavad majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi energeetika osakonna juhataja Einari Kisel ja parlamendisaadik Marko Mihkelson

  7. Estonian companies forced to cooperate / Mikk Salu ; commented by Priit Tamm, Jüri Riives

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Kuigi ettevõtete omavaheline koostöö aitab kaasa majanduse konkurentsivõime tõstmisele, ei ole koostöö Eesti ettevõtete vahel veel piisav. Swedbanki, audiitorfirma Ernst & Young Balticu ning Eesti Masinatööstuse Liidu juhtide kommentaarid

  8. Qualities to Be Developed in Estonian Children at Home and at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulviste, Tiia; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the views of 580 mothers, 333 fathers and 43 primary school teachers about qualities to be developed at home and at school in Estonia--a country in transition with reforms towards child-centered democratic education. The study found that mothers, fathers and teachers shared the dominant family socialization values. Mothers,…

  9. U.S. court opens rogue trading case against Estonian firm, two brokers / Kairi Kurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurm, Kairi

    2005-01-01

    USA väärtpaberijärelvalve komisjon süüdistab investeerimispanga LHV töötajaid Oliver Peeki ja Kristjan Lepikut siseinfo abil väärtpaberitehingute tegemises. Sündmuste käigust seoses skandaaliga ja pettuse uurimisest

  10. Eesti ja Venemaa kaubavahetusest = Estonian-Russian trade relations / Allan Aron

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aron, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Eesti ja Venemaa kaubavahetusest pärast taasiseseisvumist ja enne liitumist Euroopa Liiduga, liitumise mõju kaubavahetusele Venemaaga, peamised kaubaartiklid ekspordis ja impordis, arengusuunad 2007. aastal. Kuigi majanduslikult on Venemaaga kauplemine perspektiivikas ja kasulik mõlemale osapoolele, mängivad kahe riigi kaubavahetuses sageli olulist rolli poliitilised ning muud majandusvälised tegurid. Diagrammid

  11. Vabariigi Valitsuse istungitesaali mööbel = Furniture for the Estonian Government cabinet's meeting room

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Stenbocki Maja istungitesaali (Rahukohtu 3, Tallinn) mööbel. Disainerid: Katrin Vaikla, Argo Vaikla (Vaikla Disain), Liis Tarbe (Torpedo Interior OÜ). Argo ja Katrin Vaiklast, Vaikla Disaini tähtsamad tööd. Liis Tarbest, koostöös Vaikla Disainiga valminud tööd. 6 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  12. Peculiar high temperature corrosion of martensite alloy under impact of Estonian oil shale fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H; Klevtsov, I [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-12-31

    The superheaters` surfaces of oil shale steam boiler made of pearlitic and austenitic alloys, are subject to intensive corrosion, mainly due to presence of chlorine in external deposits. The applicability of martensitic alloys X1OCrMoVNb91 and X20CrMoV121 for superheaters is examined here and empirical equations allowing to predict alloys` corrosion resistance in the range of operational temperatures are established. Alloy X1OCrMoVNb91 is found been most perspective for superheaters of boilers firing fossil fuel that contain alkaline metals and chlorine. The abnormal dependence of corrosion resistance of martensitic alloys on temperature is revealed, namely, corrosion at 580 deg C in presence of oil shale fly ash is more intensive than at 620 deg C. (orig.) 2 refs.

  13. Leading Estonian brands in the hands of foreign companies / Andreas Kaju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaju, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Emori poolt 2002. aasta alguses läbi viidud uurimusest selgus, et Eesti top 10 kaubamärkide hulgas on Kalev ainus Eesti kapitalil põhineva ettevõtte kaubamärk. Tabel: Eesti ettevõtete ja kaubamärkide top 6. Lisa

  14. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Brita Melts, Rutt Hinrikus, Maret Vaher and Arno Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Melts, Brita

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Kronberg, Janika. Rännud kuue teejuhiga. Tallinn : Go Group, 2013 ; Kallaste, Helen. Kogutud hetked. Tallinn : Verb, 2012 ; Ahi, Eda. Gravitatsioon. Tallinn : Verb, 2013 ; Heinsaar, Mehis. Ülikond. Tallinn : Menu Kirjastus, 2013 ; Kann, Kaja. Eratee. Tallinn : Hea Lugu, 2013 ; Kivirähk, Andrus. Maailma otsas. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2013 ; Kurvitz, Robert. Püha ja õudne lõhn. Tallinn : ZA/UM, 2013 ; Mattheus, Ülo. Tema salajane palve. Tallinn : Tuum, 2013 ; Kangro, Maarja. Dantelik auk. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2012

  15. Three models of integration and the Estonian/Russian reality / David D. Laitin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laitin, David D.

    2003-01-01

    Autor kirjeldab kolme 2000. aastal vastu võetud Eesti riiklikus integratsiooniprogrammis sisalduvat kolme integratsiooni mudelit ja pakub omalt poolt välja neljanda, milles kaks integratsiooniprotsessi toimuvad samaaegselt. Lisad. Tabelid

  16. National space, (trans)national cinema : Estonian film in the 1960s

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Näripea, Eva, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    1960. aastatel kujunes ja kinnistus rahvusmaastiku kronotoop, mis mängis keskset rolli kogu hilisemas eesti filmis. Artiklis vaadeldakse lähemalt põlvkonnavahetuse n. ö. avalöögina käsitletava filmi "Ühe küla mehed" saamislugu

  17. HOME and AWAY : Urban Representations in 1980s Soviet Estonian Cinema / Eva Näripea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Näripea, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Analüüsitakse 1980. aastate eesti linnaelu kujutavat filmikunsti, eriti filme "Õnnelind flamingo", režissöör Tõnis Kask : 1986 ja "Ma pole turist, ma elan siin", režissöör Peeter Urbla : 1988. Eriti reljeefselt kajastub 1970.-1980. a-te linnanägemus ja arhitektuurialane diskussioon ja sügav skepsis masselamuehituse suhtes ning selle tulemusena tekkinud elukeskkonna mõju inimese psüühhikale ja tema käitumisele

  18. Job Satisfaction, Beliefs and Instructional Practice: The Case of Latvian and Estonian Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipere, Anita; Lepik, Madis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An effective teaching and learning environment has been identified as a factor having an impact on the functionality of school. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the satisfaction level of mathematics teachers with their collaboration and recognition at school as a significant component of general job…

  19. Why Do Actors Vary? A Study of the Estonian Pension and Unemployment Insurance Legislations / Anu Toots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toots, Anu, 1959-

    2006-01-01

    Kahe sotsiaalkindlustusreformi - töötuskindlustuse ja kolmesambalise pensionisüsteemi väljatöötamisest Eestis. Parteide, erinevate huvigruppide ja rahvusvaheliste organisatsioonide (ILO,IMF, WB, EU) huvi mõjust poliitilisele protsessile

  20. Unemployment and education : Estonian labour market entry pattern compared to the EU countries / Ellu Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Ellu

    2005-01-01

    Autor analüüsib erinevusi töötuse määras tööturule sisenejate ja kogemustega töötajate vahel, tööturule sisenejate seas lähtudes nende haridustasemest ning kuidas haridustasemest tingitud kihistumine varieerub erinevate riikide lõikes. Võrreldud on Eesti ja Euroopa Liidu riikide tööturu-uuringute andmeid. Tabelid. Diagrammid. Graafikud

  1. Target market pattern of de-internationalization in Estonian manufacturing firms / Ele Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Ele, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Autori hinnangul peaksid riiklikud institutsioonid pöörama suuremat tähelepanu sellele, et ettevõtted hajutaksid oma tegevust suuremale arvule sihtturgudele ning siseneksid ka kaugemal asuvatele välisturgudele. Tabel. Diagramm. Graafikud

  2. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Brita Melts, Rutt Hinrikus and Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Melts, Brita

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Afanasjev, Vahur. Tünsamäe tigu. Tartu Tartu NAK, 2015 ; Vadi, Urmas. Kuidas me kõik reas niimoodi läheme. Tallinn : Tuum, 2014 ; Traat, Mats. Kolm Solveigi. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2015 ; Saat, Mari. Matused ja laulupeod. Tartu : Petrone Print, 2015 ; Kivisilla, Veronika. Cantus firmus. Tallinn : Näo Kirik, 2015 ; Kolk, Jüri. Suur võidujooks. Tallinn : Tuum, 2015 ; Mudlum. Tõsine inimene. Tallinn : ZA/UM, 2014

  3. Estonian waste management in the second round / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-

    2002-01-01

    Jäätmemajandusest Eestis, vanade prügilate sulgemisest ning uute EL-i standarditele vastavate prügilate rajamisest erinevatesse piirkondadesse. Autor hinnangul on Eesti jäätmemajanduse prioriteediks põlevkivitööstuse jäätmete keskkonnasääslik ladestamine. Vt. samas: Uikala is not scared of the landfill

  4. Postcolonial heterotopias in Marek Piestrak's Estonian co-productions : a paracinematic reading / Eva Näripea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Näripea, Eva, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    M.Piestraki populaarsete ja "parafilmidena" käsitletavate "Navigaator Prix"(1978) ja "Madude oru needus"(1988) analüüs. Piestraki filmide ruumimaailmu uurides toetutakse Foucault' heterotoopiakontseptsioonile ja mõningatele postkolonialistku teooria mõttekäikudele

  5. Investor wants listing for Estonian Railway, state officials balk at prospect

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Eesti Raudtee suuromanik Baltic Rail Service tahab ettevõtte 2005. aasta keskpaigaks börsile viia. Riik, mis on firma vähemusaktsionär, pole plaaniga nõus, kuna BRS-il on täitmata investeerimiskohustused

  6. Two-and-a-half targets for Estonian foreign policy / Karmo Tuur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuur, Karmo

    2005-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli politoloogia õppejõu arvates võiksid Eesti peamisteks välispoliitilisteks sihtideks olla koostöö Põhjamaade ja Venemaa lääneosaga ning olla hästi informeeritud meist kaugemate riikide sündmustest. Olgugi, et meie panus võib olla vaid sümboolne, on väga tähtis osaleda ka rahvusvahelistes kriisireguleerimis- ja arenguprogrammides, et end nähtavaks ja usaldusväärseks teha

  7. The Estonian president: the Baltics are not afraid of migrants or Russians / Sten Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Sten A., 1979-

    2016-01-01

    President Kersti Kaljulaidi avalikust vastusest EurActivis ilmunud James Crispi artiklile "The Brief: Europe’s elites rush to hide behind Mutti’s skirts" http://www.euractiv.com/section/all/news/the-brief-europes-elites-rush-to-hide-behind-muttis-skirts/

  8. The influence of carbonation process on concrete bridges and durability in Estonian practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liisma, E.; Sein, S.; Järvpõld, M.

    2017-10-01

    Concrete as one of the most widely used construction material in building industry, has considerable implementing in bridge engineering due to its extensive number of effective technical characteristics. However, according to exploitation environment, there are substantial factors such as aggressive liquids (e.g. deiced salts, sulfates, etc), rapid temperature alterations and the increasing rate of CO2 to take into account predicting actual retained service life of concrete structure and the need of repairmen to increase the lifespan of the bridge. According to several measuring, concentration of atmospheric CO2 is reported linearly increasing and is modeled to appear as exponential increase in the next decade. This environmental influence leads to accelerated carbonation process of concrete and brings up the importance of its potential untimely degradation mechanism. Hence, the main aim of this research is to give an analyzed overview of the carbonation depths of selection of 11 concrete bridges in Estonia built in the period of 1976-2007 and their relation with compressive strength of concrete. In addition to in situ tests, laboratory research was performed to understand natural carbonation rate and compressive strength relations of concrete.

  9. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Brita Melts, Rutt Hinrikus and Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Melts, Brita

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Viitol, Livia. Jutte ja novelle. Tallinn : Libri Livoniae, 2014 ; Talvet, Jüri. Ten Letters to Montaigne : "Self" and "other". Tartu : Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2014 ; Rooste, Jürgen. Suur sume, suur tume. [Luige (Kiili vald)] : Verb, 2014 ; Kross, Märten. Hullumäng. [Tallinn] : Tammerraamat, 2014 ; Kaus, Jan. Ma olen elus. Tallinn : Tuum, 2014 ; Kangro, Maarja. Hüppa tulle. Tallinn : Nähtamatu Ahv, 2014 ; Kasemaa, Andrus. Minu viimane raamat. Tallinn : Varrak, 2014 ; Raik, Katri. Minu Narva : kahe maailma vahel. [Tartu] : Petrone Print, 2013 ; Kareva, Doris. Maailma asemel. [Kordustr. Tallinn] : Verb, 2014

  10. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2004-01-01

    Tutvustus: Talvik, Heiti. Legendaarne. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2004 ; Pilter, Lauri. Lohejas pilv : romaan lühijuttudes. Tallinn : Tuum, 2004 ; Raud, Rein. Hector ja Bernard. Tallinn : Tuum, 2004 ; Ruben, Aarne. Elajas trepi eelastmel. Tallinn : Tuum, 2004 ; fs. 2004. Tallinn : Tuum, 2004 ; Normet, Dagmar. ...ainult võti taskus. Tallinn : Varrak, 2004 ; Künnap, Asko. Ja sisalikud vastasid (kolmes kirjas). Tallinn : Näo Kirik, 2003 ; Kall, Toomas. Armas aeg. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2004 ; Õunapuu, Ervin. Eesti gootika II. Tallinn : Umara, 2004 ; Soomets, Triin. Leping number 2 : luuletusi 2000-2003. Tallinn : Tuum, 2004 ; Tuulik, Jüri. Linnusita : [jutustused, lühijutud, näidendid ja vested]. Tallinn : Maalehe Raamat, 2004 ; Raudam, Toomas. Teie. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2003 ; Härm, Viiu. Keegi teeline : luuletused. Tallinn : Varrak, 2004 ; Härm, Viiu. Õhuaken : romaan. Tallinn : Varrak, 2004

  11. Estonian spas trade in good feeling = SPAd müüvad head enesetunnet / Ulli Sats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sats, Ulli

    2005-01-01

    Vee- ja tervisekeskuste rajamisest Eestis, mis pakuvad klientidele erinevaid lõõgastumise võimalusi. Lisad: Suuremad SPAd Eestis; Levinumate teenuste hinnad. Vt. samas: Eestit külastavate turistide arv suureneb

  12. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Sinijärv, Karl- Martin. Artutart & 39. Tallinn : Tuum, 2002 ; Beier, Priidu. Monaco. Tartu : P. Beier, 2002 ; Malin, Jaan. Sulle. Tartu : J. Malin, 2003 ; Liiv, Toomas. Luuletused 1968-2002. Tallinn : Tuum, 2003 ; Mägi, Arvo. Katk ja koolera. Tartu : Ilmamaa ; Kross, Jaan. Omaeluloolisus ja alltekst. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2003 ; Kaplinski, Jaan ; Salminen, Johannes. Ööd valged ja mustad. Tallinn : Loomingu Raamatukogu, 2003 ; Kauksi Ülle. Käänüpäiv. Tartu : Kauksi Ülle Mänedsment', 2003 ; Luik, Tõnu. Filosoofiast kõnelda. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2002 ; Teder, Tarmo. Pööningujutud. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2002 ; Vetemaa, Enn. Minu väga magus elu ehk martsipanimeister. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2002 ; Põldroos, Enn. Joonik kivi. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2003 ; Suburg, Lilli. Kogutud kirjatööd. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2002 ; Mikelsaar, Henn. Müüritud. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2003 ; Kaus, Jan. Õndsate tund. Tallinn : Tuum, c2003

  13. Agency lost in the discourse of language endangerment : nominalisation in discourse about South Estonian / Kadri Koreinik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koreinik, Kadri

    2011-01-01

    Analüüsitakse agentsuse representatsiooni keele ohustatuse küsimustes peetavas avalikus diskursuses. Uuritakse, millised protsessid on nominaliseeritud ning milliseid teisi varjatud või taandatud agentsuse võtteid on kasutatud

  14. Estonian contemporary poetry in Galician : [intervjuu] / Arturo Casas Vales ; interv. by Rein Veidemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Casas Vales, Arturo

    2002-01-01

    Santiago de Compostelas ilmus galeegi keeles eesti luule antoloogia "Vello ceo n̤rdico" (2002), kogu ilmus kirjandusajakirja Boletin Galego de Literatura erinumbrina. Intervjuu ilmus eesti k.: Postimees, 2002, 28. märts

  15. Eesti Maaülikooli spordihoone = Estonian University of Life Sciences' Athletics Centre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2009. a. ühiskondliku interjööri preemia pälvinud Eesti Maaülikooli spordihoonest Tartus Kreutzwaldi t. 3. Sisekujunduse autorid Katrin Kaevats ja Jaan Port (Funk AB), nende tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Hoone arhitekt Salto AB (Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, Maarja Kask)

  16. Leegiheide : eesti performance kaheksakymnendatel = Flame-throwing : Estonian performance in the eighties / Raoul Kurvitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurvitz, Raoul, 1961-

    2010-01-01

    Performance'ikunsti eestvedaja mõtteid ja mälestusi tolle aja performance'ist kui puhtast eneseväljendusjanust ja loomingulise seisundi edastamisest kehalise tegevuse kaudu. Ka eesti performance'i keskse grupeeringu Rühm T kui algselt multidistsiplinaarse projekti tegevusest, ideaalidest, mille läteteks oli anarhism. Kunst oli nende jaoks kui kammitsev meedium, mis nõudis enda ärajätmist autori ja publiku vahelt, neid ühendas rõhutatud rituaalsus ja aktsent eeldatavale katarsisele, irooniaga tembitud enesehävituslik tegevus oli kui ümberpööratud agressioon, milles nähti vabaduse ülimuslikku vormi

  17. Production functions of Estonian banking 1995-2002 / August Aarma, Jaan Vainu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aarma, August, 1948-

    2003-01-01

    Analüüsi tulemusena järeldavad autorid, et erinevatel kliendigruppidel on panga suhtes erinevad ootused, nad vajavad erinevat informatsiooni ja erinevad analüüsimeetodid võimaldavad saada erinevat liiki informatsiooni. Tabelid

  18. Muutuv ruum : meediakunst eesti kultuuris = Changing spaces : new media art in Estonian culture / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    1990-ndate aastate Eesti kaasaegse kunsti arengust, selle medialiseerumisest, mida iseloomustab fotograafia, video ja arvutipõhise meedia tungimisest "kõrgesse kunsti", Mall Nukke, Tiia Johannsoni, Raivo Kelomehe ja Nelli Rohtvee netiprojektidest ning Ando Keskküla kureeritud rahvusvahelistest kunsti- ja meediaüritustest "Interstanding"1-3, ka Prantsuse-Balti videofestivalidest, uue meedia festivalist "Offline@online". Eestikeelne lühem variant ilmunud ajakirjas "Kunst.ee", 2001, nr.4, inglisekeelne - ajakirjas "Mare Articum", 2000, nr. 2(7)?

  19. Peripheries of (be)longing in contemporary Estonian literature / Brita Melts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Melts, Brita, 1984-

    2016-01-01

    Ääremaad tänapäeva eesti kirjanduses: Andrus Kasemaa "Poeedirahu" (2008), Vahur Afanasjevi "Tünsamäe tigu" (2015), Ott Kiluski "Veidrikud ja võpatused" (2012), Lauri Sommeri "Räestu raamat" (2012), Tõnu Õnnepalu "Paradiis" (2009), Lauri Pilteri "Vilekoor ja teisi jutte" (2014), Kristiina Ehini "Kaitseala" (2005) ja Kaja Kannu "Eratee" (2013)

  20. The impact of the EU support measures to Estonian agriculture / Sirli Jurjev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jurjev, Sirli, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    Ülevaade praegusel ajal Eestis makstavatest põllumajandustoetustest ning EL-i ühtse põllumajanduspoliitika ja selle reformiga kehtestatud toetusskeemidest. Kalkulatsiooni aluseks on Eurostati metoodikal põhinev põllumajanduse majanduslik arvestus. Tabelid

  1. Estonian social dialogue in the context of European employment strategy / Raul Eamets, Epp Kallaste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eamets, Raul, 1964-

    2003-01-01

    Sotsiaalne partnerlus on Euroopa Tööhõivestrateegia läbivaks tööpoliitika kujundamise meetmeks, olles olulise tähtsusega nii rahvusliku kui kohaliku tasandi tööhõive meetmete kujundamisel. Eestis on sotsiaalne partnerlus nõrgalt arenenud

  2. Impact of the changing European Union regulations on Estonian accounting policies. Euroopa finantsaruandluse muudatuste sobivus Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Güldenkoh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial reporting and audit activities are the areas to ensure the legitimacy of the everyday economic activities of the accounting entities. Financial reporting provides information on the past periods of the accounting entities; the audit activity is used to verify the accuracy of the recorded information and an assessment is given to the financial position of the audited entities. Auditing of financial statements prepared on the basis of historical financial information, results in increased reliability of the economic environment and stability of the financial environment of the state. The objective of this research was to assess the suitability of the European Union reporting principles for the auditing activity in Estonia. This objective was achieved with the following research tasks: 1 to provide an overview of the legal framework of the EU financial reporting and auditing activities; 2 to assess the problems related to the transposition of the legal framework in Estonia. The article consists of two parts, the first part provides an overview of the regulation of financial reporting and auditing activities in the European Union. The second part assess the impact of the European Union legislation on financial reporting and audit activities for the activities of the corresponding areas in Estonia. The research method used was a combined method, in the course of which legal acts were collected and analyzed, analysis of the data obtained from the commercial register was carried out and the impact of the Directive 2013/34 / EC to the accounting area of Estonia was assessed. Upon application of the Directive 2013/34/EU to the Estonia's legal framework, one cannot be sure that the desired administrative burden is reduced, rather it could bring along growth of the administrative burden for the accounting entities, which comprises the obligation of submission of additional reporting to various authorities. The reporting process could become more time-consuming. The decline in reporting volume could present a risk to the transparency and sustainability of the economic environment. Rather than reducing administrative burdens that are the goal of Directive 2013/34/EU, in Estonia the effect is just the opposite. The implementation of the Directive will result in an increase of the administrative burden and the obligation of duplication of reporting, which in turn can lead to a lack of transparency in the economic environment. The accounting entities will fail to submit the financial reports to the register on a timely manner, which in turn puts into question the information contained in the reports. Establishment of the audit limits would result in a reduction in the auditing obligation, an estimated 97-99% of entrepreneurs will remain unaudited.

  3. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers. II. Cohort assembling and questionnaire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekkel, Mare; Rahu, Mati; Veidebaum, Toomas

    1999-01-01

    An abridged version of the published paper, Radiation Research 1997, 147, 641-652. A cohort of 4832 Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia was assembled. Response rate to the mailed questionnaire was 81.4%. The majority of workers were 20-39 years old, and they were less educated than their counterparts in the general population. Most of the cleanup workers were sent to the Chernobyl area in 1986-1987 and more than half of them spent about three months there. Four hundred and twenty seven cleanup workers worked on the roofs near the damaged reactor, clearing the highly radioactive debris. The most commonly performed task was removal and burial of topsoil (55% of the workers). Potassium iodide was given to over 18% of the men. (author)

  4. Collective memory and the politics of experience in Estonian post-Soviet life stories / Ene Kõresaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõresaar, Ene, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    Elulugude põimumine kultuuritraditsioonide ja suulise traditsiooniga ning nende jutustamine kui poliitilise ajaloo väljendusvorm. Kollektiivse mälu ja poliitika vahelistest seostest kahe Eesti Kultuuriloolisele Arhiivile saadetud Eesti nõukogude aega kajastava eluloo alusel

  5. Patterns of learning organisation in Estonian companies / Tõnis Mets, Made Torokoff

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mets, Tõnis, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    Uuringu eesmärgiks on määratleda õppiva organisatsiooni põhiomadused ja hinnata organisatsioonilise õppimise olukorda Eesti tootmisettevõtetes. Empiirilise uuringu põhimudelid tulenevad Senge viiest distsipliinist ja Mets'ia kolmedimensioonilisest õppimise raamistikust. Tabelid

  6. Competition creation and regulation in case of Estonian competition policy / Diana Eerma, Jüri Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eerma, Diana, 1964-

    2006-01-01

    Riikliku reguleerimise peaeesmärgiks on suurendada majanduslikku ja sotsiaalset heaolu ning luua makro- ja mikromajanduslik keskkond selleks, et kindlustada ettevõtete konkurentsivõime. Eesti konkurentsipoliitika näitel analüüsitakse konkurentsi loomist ja riiklikku reguleerimist turule sisenemisel

  7. Competitiveness of Estonian milk production / Katri Lahesoo, Ülle Roosmaa, Johannes Holzner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lahesoo, Katri, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti piimatootmise konkurentsivõime analüüs võrreldes mõningate Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa ning Euroopa Liidu riikidega, kasutatud on selleks IFCN Dairy 2001. aasta andmebaasi ja tüüptalude metodoloogiat. Diagrammid

  8. EÜ : EC News Summary Informatsioonibülletään - Estonian Edition

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1993-01-01

    Järg nr. 6, lk. 63-64. Edinburgh'i tippkohtumine. EÜ laiendamise küsimus. Doonau küsimus. G-24 Riias. EÜ ja Sloveenia. Eurobaromeeter, kommunikatsioon. "Eurobaromeetri" avaliku arvamuse küsitlus. EÜ volinik tervitab kasvavat balti identiteeti

  9. Remote Search and Seizure in Domestic Criminal Procedure: Estonian Case Study / Anna-Maria Osula

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Osula, Anna-Maria, 1984-

    2016-01-01

    Euroopa Nõukogu arvutikuritegevusvastase konventsiooni artiklitest, mis on seotud kaugläbiotsimisega, artikli (32)b tõlgendamisraskustest. Erinevate riikide s.h. Eesti kaugläbiotsimise regulatsioonide võrdlus

  10. Family building using donated gametes and embryos in the UK: recommendations for policy and practice on behalf of the British Infertility Counselling Association and the British Fertility Society in collaboration with the Association of Clinical Embryologists and the Royal College of Nurses Fertility Nurses Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Ruth; McTavish, Alison; Crawshaw, Marilyn

    2014-03-01

    The UK Department of Health's consultation on the future of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) presented an opportunity to review current practice in relation to donor conception (DC) and make recommendations for improving services to those seeking fertility treatment, to families with donor conceived children and those of donors, and to those seeking later information. The year 2023 marks the start of post-2005 donor conceived adults having statutory access to identifying information about their donor(s); some adults with pre-2005 donors will have access sooner if the donor(s) re-registers as 'willing to be identified'. This paper examines current practice in UK licensed treatment centres in collecting and disseminating donor information and in supporting donors and prospective parents. Further, it considers current HFEA functions concerning DC including its responsibilities for the Register of Information and Donor Sibling Link and its approach to policy making, regulation and the release of information from these Registers to applicants. Proposals for how these functions could be carried out in the future are set out together with recommendations for national support and intermediary services. The key evidence available to support these recommendations is outlined.

  11. Kellele kuulub keel? / Maarja Siiner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siiner, Maarja

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Kadri Koreinik. Language ideologies in the contemporary Estonian public: with a focus on South Estonian. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011.(Dissertationes sociologicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 5)

  12. Eesti sotsiaaluuringu palgaandmete ühilduvus Maksu- ja Tolliameti andmetega = Compatibility of the wages and salaries data recorded in the Estonian Social Survey and Estonian Tax and Customs Board database / Piia-Piret Eomois

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eomois, Piia-Piret

    2007-01-01

    Eesti sotsiaaluuring (ESU) on Euroopas rahvusvaheliselt harmoneeritud uuring sissetuleku ja vaesuse mõõtmiseks. Analüüs uurib võimalikku üleminekut Maksu- ja Tolliameti andmebaasi sissetulekuandmete kasutamisele ESU-s. Tabelid. Diagrammid

  13. Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi Suurgildi hoone. Püsinäitus "Visa hing. 11 000 aastat Eesti ajalugu" = Restoration of the Estonian History Museum Great Guild Hall building, permanent exhibition "Spirit of survival. 11,000 years of Estonian history" / Margit A

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Argus, Margit, 1981-

    2012-01-01

    Suurgildi hoone renoveerimisest, sisekujundusest, ekspositsioonist. Sisearhitektid Margit Aule, Liis Lindvere, Margit Argus (Koko Arhitektid). Restaureerimisarhitekt: Mart Keskküla (Restor). Graafilise disaini autorid Jan Tomson, Indrek Sirkel, Mikk Heinsoo, Kaarel Nõmmik, Andrus Kõresaar (Produktsioonigrupp). Ekspositsiooni multimeedia ja interaktsioon: Produktsioonigrupp

  14. "Eesti taluarhitektuur. Püsiv ja muutuv : Eesti Vabaõhumuuseumi näitus = Estonian farm architecture. Enduring and changing : an Estonian Open Air Museum exhibition / Heiki Pärdi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärdi, Heiki, 1951-

    2015-01-01

    Eesti Vabaõhumuuseumi näitus "Eesti taluarhitektuur. Püsiv ja muutuv". Näituse autor Heiki Pärdi, kuraator Elo Lutsepp, kujundaja Jan Skolimowski (KAMP Arhitektid). 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  15. Corporate moral development and stakeholder relations: an empirical analysis of the Estonian business community / Mari Kooskora, Johanna Kujala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kooskora, Mari, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    Artiklis analüüsitakse organisatsioonide moraalse arengu ja aktsionäride vahelisi suhteid Eesti ettevõtluskogukonnas aastatel 1985-2005 aset leidnud kiirete ja radikaalsete muutuste jooksul. Tabelid

  16. Using micro-contexts to describe a writing process in Estonian as a second language across proficiency levels / Olga Pastuhhova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pastuhhova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Kirjeldatakse venekeelsete eesti keele õppijate kirjutamisprotsessi mikrokonteksti mõiste abil. Uurimismaterjal on kogutud klaviatuuri klahvivajutuste salvestuse meetodil põhineva programmiga ScriptLog

  17. Potential Teaching Model for Applying Novel Approaches of Renewed Estonian National Curriculum into Visual Art Classes in Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahter, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the renewed national curriculum was legislated in Estonia. Major changes include a new list of cross-curricular topics, increased importance of integration and specification of the components of the art learning process. In this situation, the question arises--how to fully implement the challenges of the renewed curriculum in primary…

  18. Teachers̀ views on affective education and teaching the arts; Estonian and Finnish teachers compared / Arja Puurula

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puurula, Arja

    2001-01-01

    Eesti ja Soome õpetajate võrdlevast uurimusest, mis selgitab nende seisukohti afektiivse kasvatuse suhtes, õpetajate pädevusi, õpilaste karakteristikuid, õpetajate rahulolu oma tööst, kunstiõpetuse kohast koolihariduses

  19. Eesti Metodisti Kirik : Balti Misjoni Keskus, Narva mnt. 51, Tallinn = Estonian Methodist Church / Vilen Künnapu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Künnapu, Vilen, 1948-

    2000-01-01

    Projekteerija Arhitektuuribüroo Künnapu & Padrik. Arhitektid Vilen Künnapu, Ain Padrik. Konstruktsioonide autor Andres Laur. Sisekujundajad Argo ja Katrin Vaikla. Projekt 1994, valmis 2000. Kirik on klaasja pikliku koolitiivaga (teoloogiline seminar). 7 ill.: I korruse plaan, lõige, välis- ja sisevaated

  20. Estonian russification of non-russian ethnic minorities in Estonia? : A policy analysis / Aleksandr Aidarov, Wolfgang Drechsler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aidarov, Aleksandr

    2013-01-01

    Aastatel 1945-1990 koos venelastega Eestisse immigreerunud etniliste vähemuste assimileerumisest eesti vene kultuuri peale 1991. aastat. Poliitilistes vahenditest, mida Eesti Valitsus rakendab etniliste vähemuste erisuste säilitamiseks.

  1. Patterns in Entrepreneurial Competences as the Perceived Learning Outcomes of Entrepreneurship Education: The Case of Estonian HEIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mets, Tõnis; Kozlinska, Inna; Raudsaar, Mervi

    2017-01-01

    The importance of evaluating the outcomes of entrepreneurship education (EE) has been widely acknowledged, but how to approach the evaluation and what models and measures to use are still subjected to academic debate. In this article, the authors present an application of the European Competence Framework (ECF)--the knowledge-skills-attitude triad…

  2. Perspectives on the emblems of the nation in contemporary Estonian and Anglo-Welsh poetry / Ene-Reet Soovik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soovik, Ene-Reet, 1968-

    2000-01-01

    Kaasaegse eesti luule ja Walesi ingliskeelse luule võrdlemiseks on kasutatud uusi antoloogiaid: Eesti luule antoloogia II (koost. Raivo Kuusk, 1998), Twentieth-century anglo-welsh poetry (ed. Dannie Abse, 1997)

  3. Physical activity of Estonian family doctors and their counselling for a healthy lifestyle: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rätsep Anneli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity offers major health benefits and counselling for it should be integrated into the medical consultation. Based on the literature, the personal health behaviour of the physician (including physical activity is associated with his/her approach to counselling patients. Our hypothesis is that family doctors (FD in Estonia are physically active and their recommendation to counsel patients with chronic diseases to use physical activity is high. The study was also interested in how FDs value physical activity among other important determinants of a healthy lifestyle, e.g. nutrition, non-consumption of alcohol, and non-smoking. Methods Physicians on the electronic list were contacted by e-mail and sent a questionnaire. The first part assessed physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ short form. Self-reported physical activity during one week was calculated as total physical activity in minutes per week (MET min/week. The second part of the questionnaire included questions about the counselling of patients with chronic disease concerning their physical activity and a healthy lifestyle. The study focused on female FDs because 95% of the FDs in Estonia are women and to avoid bias related to gender. Results 198 female FDs completed the questionnaire. 92% reported that they exercised over the past 7 days to a moderate or high level of physical activity. Analysis revealed no statistically significant relationship between the level of physical activity and general characteristics (age, living area, body mass index [BMI], time spent sitting. FDs reported that patients with heart problems, diabetes, and obesity seek their advice on physical activity more often than patients with depression. Over 94% of the FDs claimed that they counsel their patients with chronic diseases about exercising. According to the FDs' reports, the most important topic in counselling patients for a healthy lifestyle was physical activity. Conclusion This study showed that female FDs are physically active. The level of physical activity is not related to their age, BMI, living area, or time spent sitting. Also, FDs reported that promotion of physical activity is part of their everyday work.

  4. Dead Men Risen: Estonian defence minister accuses me of 'fiction' and 'does not rule out going to court'

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Harnden, Toby

    2011-01-01

    Raamatu "Dead Men Risen" autor räägib oma blogis Eesti kaitseministri Jaak Aaviksoo ja president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese reageeringutest teosele, kus on juttu ka Afganistanis teeninud Eesti kaitseväelastest

  5. Field investigations of apparent optical properties of ice cover in Finnish and Estonian lakes in winter 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruibo Lei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A field programme on light conditions in ice-covered lakes and optical properties of lake ice was performed in seven lakes of Finland and Estonia in February–April 2009. On the basis of irradiance measurements above and below ice, spectral reflectance and transmittance were determined for the ice sheet; time evolution of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR transmittance was examined from irradiance recordings at several levels inside the ice sheet. Snow cover was the dominant factor for transmission of PAR into the lake water body. Reflectance was 0.74–0.92 in winter, going down to 0.18–0.22 in the melting season. The bulk attenuation coefficient of dry snow was 14–25 m–1; the level decreased as the spring was coming. The reflectance and bulk attenuation coefficient of snow-free ice were 0.1–0.4 and 1–5 m–1. Both were considerably smaller than those of snow cover. Seasonal evolution of light transmission was mainly due to snow melting. Snow and ice cover not only depress the PAR level in a lake but also influence the spectral and directional distribution of light.

  6. Estonian President Urges West To 'Pay Attention To What Is Going On' / Toomas Hendrik Ilves ; interv. Charles Recknagel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti riigipea intervjuu raadiojaamale Raadio Vaba Euroopa. President räägib demokraatia ja inimõiguste käekäigust endise Nõukogude Liidu territooriumil, poliitilistest suundumustest Venemaal ning kritiseerib Lääneriikide valitsusi selle eest, et need on jätnud inimõiguste eest võitlemise eeskätt rahvusvahelistele organisatsioonidele

  7. Frost-related dieback of Swedish and Estonian Salix plantations due to pathogenic and ice nucleation-active bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambours, M.A.

    2004-07-01

    During the past decade, important dieback has been observed in short-rotation forestry plantations of Salix viminalis and S. dasyclados in Sweden and Estonia, plantations from which the isolation of ice nucleation-active (INA) and pathogenic bacteria has also been reported. This thesis investigates the connection between bacterial infection and frost as a possible cause for such damage, and the role played by internal and external factors (e.g. plant frost sensitivity, fertilisation) in the dieback observed. Bacterial floras isolated from ten Salix clones growing on fertilised/unfertilised mineral soil or nitrogen-rich organic soil, were studied. Culturable bacterial communities present both in internal necrotic tissues and on the plant surface (i.e. epiphytes) were isolated on two occasions (spring and autumn). The strains were biochemically characterised (with gram, oxidase and fluorescence tests), and tested for ice nucleation-activity. Their pathogenic properties were studied with and without association to a freezing stress. Certain strains were eventually identified with BIOLOG plates and 16S rRNA analysis. A high number of culturable bacterial strains was found in the plant samplings, belonging mainly to Erwinia and Sphingomonas spp.; pathogenic and INA communities being mostly Erwinia-, Sphingomonas- and Xanthomonas-like. The generally higher plant dieback noted in the field on nutrient-rich soils and for frost sensitive clones was found connected to higher numbers of pathogenic and INA bacteria in the plants. We thus confirm Salix dieback to be related to a synergistic effect of frost and bacterial infection, possibly aggravated by fertilisation.

  8. The jubilee year of the Estonian protocol was filled with extraordinary events / Ille Grün-Ots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grün-Ots, Ille, 1960-2016

    2006-01-01

    Eesti välisministeeriumi protokolliosakonna peadirektor Tiia Miller räägib organisatsioonilisest tööst tseremooniate ja riiklike visiitide korraldamisel, sealhulgas USA presidendi George W. Bushi ja Suurbritannia kuninganna Elizabeth II vastuvõtmisest. Juuresolevatel fotodel president Toomas Hendrik Ilves kõrgeid külalisi vastu võtmas

  9. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Leena Kurvet-Käosaar, Brita Melts, Rutt Hinrikus and Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Nurklik, Siim. Kas ma olen nüüd elus. Tallinn : S. Nurklik, 2010 ; Lintrop, Aado. Annapurna. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2010 ; Lintrop, Aado. Õhtud sõidavad õue. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2011 ; Saar, Anti. Tekste siledast ruumist. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2009 ; Hvostov, Andrei. Sillamäe passioon. Tartu : Petrone Print, 2011 ; Nõu, Helga. Valetaja. Tallinn : Eesti Ajalehed, 2011 ; Malin, Jaan. Alati vahe. Tallinn : Tuum, 2010 ; Jõerüüt, Jaak. Muutlik. Tallinn : Tuum, 2010 ; Luik, Viivi. Varjuteater. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2010

  10. Introducing borrowings in the late 18th century : the Estonian translation of a Swedish cookbook by Cajsa Warg / Raimo Raag

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raag, Raimo, 1953-

    2002-01-01

    Rootsi kokaraamatu tõlkest eesti keelde ja selle osast eesti keele arengus: Warg, Christina. Köki ja Kokka Ramat, mis Rootsi kelest Eesti-ma Kele üllespandud on / [tlk. Johann Luthander]. Tallinn : [s.n.], 1781

  11. Converging human resource management : A comparison between Estonian and Finnish HRM / Sinikka Vanhala, Tõnu Kaarelson, Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vanhala, Sinikka

    2006-01-01

    Eesti ja Soome personalijuhtimise strateegiate ja trendide võrdleva uuringu tulemusi vaadeldakse EU-15 hõlmanud rahvusvahelise personalijuhtimise uuringu Cranet tulemuste taustal. Tabelid, diagrammid

  12. Organizational and sectoral changes in transition banking : Estonian experience / Kari Liuhto, Olga Lushtshik, Mart Sõrg...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Teadustöö käsitleb organisatsioonilisi ja sektoriaalseid arenguid Eesti pangandussektoris. Uuringu tulemuste põhjal võib järeldada, et vaatamata ebastabiilsele majanduslikule ja õiguslikule keskkonnale üleminekuperioodil, on pangandus Eestis olnud palju tulutoovam kui paljudes arenenud riikides, samal ajal on aga siirdemajanduse panganduse efektiivsus volatiilne ning ebaõnnestumise risk kõrge. Tabelid, joonised, diagrammid

  13. Eesti paviljon Hannoveri maailmanäitusel EXPO 2000 = Estonian Pavilion at Hannover World Exposition EXPO 2000 / Andrus Kõresaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõresaar, Andrus

    2000-01-01

    Eesti paviljoni arhitektuurist. Autorid Andrus Kõresaar, Raivo Kotov. Sisekujundajad A. Kõresaar, R. Kotov, Tiit Tael, Hannes Praks. Konstruktsioonid: Neoprojekt. Saksamaa-poolne kontaktarhitektuuribüroo: KSP Engel & Zimmermann. 15 ill.: korruste plaanid, lõiked, välis- ja sisevaated

  14. Does the European Union still matter for Estonian's security? Positioning Estonia in CFSP and ESDP / Kristi Raik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raik, Kristi

    2003-01-01

    Eesti peab otsustama, kas võtta eesmärgiks kuulumine Euroopa Liidu välis- ja julgeolekupoliitika tuumikusse ja olla valmis süvendama integratsiooni või säilitada praegune ettevaatlik seisukoht, millega kaasneks risk jääda Euroopa julgeolekusüsteemis vähese mõjuvõimuga perifeerseks väikeriigiks

  15. Knowledge brokering on emissions modelling in Strategic Environmental Assessment of Estonian energy policy with special reference to the LEAP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuldna, Piret; Peterson, Kaja; Kuhi-Thalfeldt, Reeli

    2015-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) serves as a platform for bringing together researchers, policy developers and other stakeholders to evaluate and communicate significant environmental and socio-economic effects of policies, plans and programmes. Quantitative computer models can facilitate knowledge exchange between various parties that strive to use scientific findings to guide policy-making decisions. The process of facilitating knowledge generation and exchange, i.e. knowledge brokerage, has been increasingly explored, but there is not much evidence in the literature on how knowledge brokerage activities are used in full cycles of SEAs which employ quantitative models. We report on the SEA process of the national energy plan with reflections on where and how the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) model was used for knowledge brokerage on emissions modelling between researchers and policy developers. Our main suggestion is that applying a quantitative model not only in ex ante, but also ex post scenario modelling and associated impact assessment can facilitate systematic and inspiring knowledge exchange process on a policy problem and capacity building of participating actors. - Highlights: • We examine the knowledge brokering on emissions modelling between researchers and policy developers in a full cycle of SEA. • Knowledge exchange process can evolve at any modelling stage within SEA. • Ex post scenario modelling enables systematic knowledge exchange and learning on a policy problem

  16. Influence of Article 9 (3) of the Aarhus Convention on legal standing in Estonian administrative courts / Kaarel Relve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Relve, Kaarel, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Aarhusi konventsioonist (Keskkonnainfo kättesaadavuse, keskkonnaasjade otsustamises üldsuse osalemise ja neis asjus kohtu poole pöördumise konventsioon) ja selle art. 9 (3) mõjust Eesti halduskohtutele

  17. Benzene exposure assessed by metabolite excretion in Estonian oil shale mineworkers: influence of glutathione s-transferase polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Poole, Jason; Autrup, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of urinary excretion of the benzene metabolites S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) and trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) has been proposed for assessing benzene exposure, in workplaces with relatively high benzene concentrations. Excretion of S-PMA and t,t-MA in underground workers...... the last shift of the week. Personal benzene exposure was 114 +/- 35 mug/m(3) in surface workers (n = 15) and 190 +/- 50 mug/m(3) in underground workers (n = 15) in measurements made prior to the study. We found t,t-MA excretion to be significantly higher in underground workers after the end of shifts 1...... of benzene metabolites as biomarkers for assessment of exposure at modest levels and warrant for further investigations of health risks of occupational benzene exposure in shale oil mines....

  18. Eesti Maaülikooli spordihoone = The Sports Hall of the Estonian University of Life Sciences / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Tartus Kreutzwaldi 3 asuva EMÜ spordihoone arhitektuursest lahendusest. Arhitektid: Maarja Kask, Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke (Salto AB). Sisearhitektid: Katrin Kaevats, Jaan Port (Funk AB). Žürii liikme Kalle Komissarovi hinnang kultuurkapitali aastapreemiale esitatud hoonele

  19. Capital structure optimization on the example of Estonian industrial companies : the case of three constraints / Roman Zahharov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zahharov, Roman

    2003-01-01

    Kapitali struktuuri optimeerimisest. Analüüsi aluseks on võetud Eesti tööstusettevõtete (Baltika, Estiko, Kalev, Klementi, Norma, Saku Õlletehas, Rakvere Lihakombinaat, Viisnurk) 1996-2001 aastate finantsaruanded. Lisad lk. 238-241. Tabelid. Diagramm

  20. Second time round : a City Paper interview with Estonian Prime minister Mart Laar / Mart Laar ; interv. Michael Tarm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2000-01-01

    Peaminister annab vastuseid küsimustele, mis puudutavad käesoleva valitsuse prioriteete, liitumist EL-iga, suhteid Venemaaga, Tšetšeenia sõda, USA poolt peale Teist maailmasõda NSVL-le väljaantud baltlaste saatust

  1. The Interconnections of Regional and Domestic Cluster Development Processes : Using the Example of Estonian Wood and Forest Industries / Tonu Roolaht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roolaht, Tõnu, 1972-

    Artiklis analüüsitakse regionaalsete klastrite mõju klastrimajanduse arengule ja võrgustike väljakujunemisele, juhtumianalüüsis kasutatakse Põhjamaade puidu- ja metsatööstusklastris tegutsevaid Eesti ettevõtteid

  2. Knowledge brokering on emissions modelling in Strategic Environmental Assessment of Estonian energy policy with special reference to the LEAP model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuldna, Piret, E-mail: piret.kuldna@seit.ee [Stockholm Environment Institute Tallinn Centre, Lai 34, Tallinn 10133 (Estonia); Peterson, Kaja [Stockholm Environment Institute Tallinn Centre, Lai 34, Tallinn 10133 (Estonia); Kuhi-Thalfeldt, Reeli [Stockholm Environment Institute Tallinn Centre, Lai 34, Tallinn 10133 (Estonia); Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn 19086 (Estonia)

    2015-09-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) serves as a platform for bringing together researchers, policy developers and other stakeholders to evaluate and communicate significant environmental and socio-economic effects of policies, plans and programmes. Quantitative computer models can facilitate knowledge exchange between various parties that strive to use scientific findings to guide policy-making decisions. The process of facilitating knowledge generation and exchange, i.e. knowledge brokerage, has been increasingly explored, but there is not much evidence in the literature on how knowledge brokerage activities are used in full cycles of SEAs which employ quantitative models. We report on the SEA process of the national energy plan with reflections on where and how the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) model was used for knowledge brokerage on emissions modelling between researchers and policy developers. Our main suggestion is that applying a quantitative model not only in ex ante, but also ex post scenario modelling and associated impact assessment can facilitate systematic and inspiring knowledge exchange process on a policy problem and capacity building of participating actors. - Highlights: • We examine the knowledge brokering on emissions modelling between researchers and policy developers in a full cycle of SEA. • Knowledge exchange process can evolve at any modelling stage within SEA. • Ex post scenario modelling enables systematic knowledge exchange and learning on a policy problem.

  3. Eesti Maanteemuuseumi välialad = Estonian Road Museum, outdoor areas / Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik, Maarja Kask ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõoke, Ralf, 1978-

    2011-01-01

    Arhitektid: Maarja Kask, Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, Pelle-Sten Viiburg (Salto AB). Näituse kujundajad: Malle Jürgenson, Tea Tammelaan, Krista Lepland (Laika, Belka & Strelka). Maarja Kask, Karli Luik ja Ralf Lõoke pälvisid Eesti Kultuurkapitali aastapreemia (2010) kõrgetasemelise panuse eest Eesti maa-arhitektuuri: Eesti Maanteemuuseumi välialad (kaasautor Pelle-Sten Viiburg), Sõmeru keskushoone (kaasautorid Kristiina Arusoo ja Margit Argus)

  4. Valuation of private companies by Estonian private equity and venture capitalists / Priit Sander, Margus Kõomägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sander, Priit, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Eraettevõtete hindamine Eesti era- ja riskiinvestorite poolt. Riskikapitali hinnakujundamise meetodid. Tabelid: Venture capital valuation issues; Venture capital pricing issues and return. Skeem: The venture capital valuation process in Estonia

  5. Medieval socialist realism : Representations of Tallinn Old Town in Soviet Estonian Feature Films, 1969-1972 / Eva Näripea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Näripea, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna keskaegse vanalinna kujutamine Nõukogude Eesti mängufilmides : "Viimne reliikvia" (režii Grigori Kromanov, Tallinnfilm 1969), "Varastati Vana Toomas" (režii Semjon Shkolnikov, Tallinnfilm 1970), "Kolme katku vahel" (režii Virve Aruoja, Eesti Telefilm 1970), "Don Juan Tallinnas" (režii Arvo Kruusement, Tallinnfilm 1971), "Verekivi" (režii Madis Ojamaa, Tallinnfilm 1972)

  6. Historical Science and the "Estonian War of Independence" : looking for a new research agenda / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Vabadussõjad kipuvad aja möödudes muutuma legendaarseks. Tänapäevase lähenemise seisukohalt jääb Eesti Vabadussõja puhul palju küsimusi siiski lahtiseks. Eesti vaatenurk kipub rahvusvahelisi aspekte ignoreerima

  7. Estonian President and ex-MEP Toomas Ilves : new states "open to change" / Toomas Hendrik Ilves ; [interv. Kristiina Randmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2007-01-01

    President T.H. Ilvese intervjuu Euroopa Parlamendi internetiväljaandele. President räägib oma töökogemustest Euroopa Parlamendi saadikuna, Euroopa Liidu uute liikmesriikide erinevustest, Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa suhetest, Eesti infotehnoloogilisest arengust

  8. Esimene Eesti maja Hiinas = The first Estonian house in China / Andres Põime, Lauri Vaimel ; interv. Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põime, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Vestlus Pekingi Eesti saatkonna arhitektuurikonkursi võidutöö autoritega. Tulemused: I preemia - Andres Põime, Lauri Vaimel, II - Erik Nobel, Christian Jensen, Kristen Herup Sovang, Soren Andersson, Pille Kivihall, Dan Ljungar, Hans Willadsen (Taani), III - Kalle Vellevoog, Velle Kadalipp, Tiiu Truus, Martin Prommik

  9. Palved eesti, soome ja vene keeles: grammatika pragmaatika teenistuses / Requests in Estonian, Finnish and Russian: Grammar and pragmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Pajusalu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Artikkel käsitleb palvete ja küsimuste vormistamise stereotüüpe eesti, vene ja soome keeles. Materjal on kogutud küsitluste abil, milles vastajad pidid kirjutama, mida nad kirjeldatud situatsioonis ütleksid või kirjutaksid (nn diskursuse täiendamise ülesanne. Iga vaadeldava keele kohta loodi andmebaas, milles on 200 palvet. Nende alusel vaadeldakse kümmet esitatud situatsiooni võrdlevalt kolmes keeles, tuues välja nii sarnasused kui erinevused. Kokkuvõttes tehakse üldistused palvete kodeerimisel esinenud sagedamate grammatiliste vahendite (lausetüüp, verbi morfoloogiline vorm, eituse olemasolu, pöördumine sina- või teie-vormiga jm esinemise kohta eesti, soome ja vene keeles.

  10. Risk assessment as part of internal auditing in the government institutions of the Estonian Republic / Krisi Pungas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pungas, Krisi

    2003-01-01

    Ülevaade sisekontrolli mõistest, eesmärkidest ja teostamisest Eesti Vabariigi valitsusasutustes. Sisekontrolli ülesandeks on välja selgitada kõige efektiivsem tee võimalike riskide juhtimiseks ühes organisatsioonis või tegevusvaldkonnas. Skeem

  11. Esteetilise suhtumise mõiste Nõukogude Eesti esteetikas. The Concept of Aesthetic Approach in Soviet Estonian Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Volt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This nostalgic yet analytic article discusses the topic of aesthetic approach in the aesthetic literature of Soviet Estonia (authors Borev, Kagan, Stolovich and others. Firstly, the aesthetic approach engages man’s creative/reshaping activities in relation to the world (following Marx’s slogan that ’man also produces in accordance with the laws of beauty’. Secondly, an artistic meaning can be distinguished, followed by a third, the subjective aesthetic meaning, which indicates the actual application of aesthetic categories (such as ’beauty’, ’sublimity’, etc.. Since the subjective aesthetic meaning is fundamental in relation to the other meanings, the article focuses on the specific characterisation of this category. The first important characteristic is the appraisability, which is born from the usage of the categories; the number of categories has been subject to historical change, reflecting the development of man’s aesthetic approach. Aesthetic approach was mainly defined through the five conditions (sensuousness, direct contact with the concrete object, selflessness, and the appraisal of the object in comparison with the ideal. Analysis of the aesthetic approach in a historical dialectic relation to theoretical, utilitarian and ethical approaches indicates that aesthetical feelings only arose towards the end of the Paleolithic era. Peoples on a lower developmental level didn’t know of aesthetic appraisal, or their aesthetic appraisals were still very closely connected with the utilitaristic. Even though all approaches at times are exhibited in their ‘pure’ forms, Soviet aesthetics generally held to the opinion that they arose simultaneously in daily practice and were intertwined with one another. The societal and practical meanings are what constitute the aesthetic approach – meaning that they define what man will begin to consider beautiful (in its more radical forms, this meant reducing the beauty of an object to its usefulness, but they also affect the nature of existing aesthetic objects. An example typical of that time: relations of private property transforms a beautiful object into its opposite (a beautiful pearl found by a poor fisherman can become an ugly grey nodule due to the afflictions caused by a world ruled by selfishness. In analysing the Soviet aesthetical concept of aesthetic approach and how it differs from the corresponding notion in the ’nations of Western capitalism’, I point to the neutral appraisal of aesthetic approach in Western ethics and the fact that the aesthetic approach has been relatively unaffected by individual/ societal meanings.

  12. From nation-scape to nation-state : reconfiguring filmic space in post -soviet Estonian cinema / Eva Näripea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Näripea, Eva, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Käsitleb nihkeid ruumikujutuses perestroikaaegses ja vahetult taasiseseisvumisjärgses Eesti filmikunstis, võrreldes kahte mängufilmi : Peeter Urbla "Ma pole turist, ma elan siin"(1988) ja Ilkka Järvilaturi "Tallinn pimeduses" (1993)

  13. Remarks by president Bush and Estonian president Ilves, november 28, 2006 / Toomas Hendrik Ilves, George W. Bush

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2007-01-01

    USA presidendi George W. Bushi ja Eesti presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kohtumisest Tallinnas 28. novembril 2006. Riigipead keskendusid oma vestluses ühisele tegevusele demokraatia edendamiseks, olukorrale Afganistanis ja Iraagis, viisavabadusele ning olukorrale Gruusias

  14. A broadening debate : is the Estonian society ready for civic initiative? / Rein Ruutsoo, Erle Rikmann, Mikko Lagerspetz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruutsoo, Rein, 1947-

    2004-01-01

    Valitsusväliste organisatsioonide koostöö võimalustest riiklike institutsioonidega, osalemisest poliitiliste otsuste tegemises, ühiskonna suhtumisest kodanikualgatusse. 22. juunist 4. detsembrini 2000. a. läbiviidud küsitlusuuringu tulemustest

  15. Euroraha investeerimine Eesti tööturule = EU investment in the Estonian labour market / Kerli Lorvi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lorvi, Kerli

    2006-01-01

    Riiklikku arengukava meedet "Võrdsed võimalused tööturul" rahastatakse Euroopa Sotsiaalfondist aastatel 2004-2006 kokku 413 miljoni krooni ulatuses, programm EQUAL. Lisad: Majanduslik aktiivsus 15-64-aastaste hulgas, 1997-2005; Kõnekaid fakte

  16. Impact of oil shale mining and mine closures on hydrological conditions of North-East Estonian rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetsep, A.; Liblik, V.

    2004-01-01

    The attention is focused on the formation of hydrological and hydrogeological interconnections between the catchment areas of Purtse, Rannapungerja, Puhajoe and Vasavere rivers after closing (in 1997-2002) and flooding the Ahtme, Tammiku, Sompa and Kohtla oil shale underground mines. The multivariate relationship between the changes in mine water amounts directed into the rivers, annual runoff due to mine water inlets, groundwater underground flow, outflow module and other factors (as variables) were studied. A complex of linear regression formulas was derived to calculate the amounts of mine water outputs into the rivers and water distribution in order to regulate the hydrological regime of investigated rivers. (author)

  17. Vello Vinn : Eripära eesti graafikas = A curiosity in Estonian graphic art / Jüri Hain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hain, Jüri, 1941-

    2007-01-01

    Klaasikunsti õppinud Vello Vinn kerkis 1970-ndatel aastatel esile oma oforditehnikas peenekoeliste tööde erilisusega, luues kummastavaid kooslusi, kus eri valdkondadest pärit komponendid olid aheldatud ootamatustesse seostesse. Tol ajal kuulus ta vaieldamatult eesti graafikakunsti tippu, olles fantaasiaküllane visionäär, kelle teostes ilmnes selge sotsiaalkriitiline mõõde. Rahvusvaheliselt on tuntuks saanud ka oma eksliibriste ja raamatuillustratsioonidega, viljelnud ka kollaaži. 1990-ndaist aktiivne sürrealistliku rühmituse "Para '89" liige, osaledes edukalt mitmetel välisnäitustel

  18. Shifting chronic disease management from hospitals to primary care in Estonian health system: analysis of national panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Hone, Thomas; Pell, Lisa; Stokes, Jonathan; Habicht, Triin; Lukka, Kaija; Raaper, Elin; Habicht, Jarno

    2016-12-01

    Following independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Estonia introduced a national insurance system, consolidated the number of health care providers, and introduced family medicine centred primary health care (PHC) to strengthen the health system. Using routinely collected health billing records for 2005-2012, we examine health system utilisation for seven ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], depression, Type 2 diabetes, heart failure, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease [IHD]), and by patient characteristics (gender, age, and number of co-morbidities). The data set contained 552 822 individuals. We use patient level data to test the significance of trends, and employ multivariate regression analysis to evaluate the probability of inpatient admission while controlling for patient characteristics, health system supply-side variables, and PHC use. Over the study period, utilisation of PHC increased, whilst inpatient admissions fell. Service mix in PHC changed with increases in phone, email, nurse, and follow-up (vs initial) consultations. Healthcare utilisation for diabetes, depression, IHD and hypertension shifted to PHC, whilst for COPD, heart failure and asthma utilisation in outpatient and inpatient settings increased. Multivariate regression indicates higher probability of inpatient admission for males, older patient and especially those with multimorbidity, but protective effect for PHC, with significantly lower hospital admission for those utilising PHC services. Our findings suggest health system reforms in Estonia have influenced the shift of ACSCs from secondary to primary care, with PHC having a protective effect in reducing hospital admissions.

  19. Civic commitment, political culture and the Estonian inter-war generation / Li Bennich-Björkman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bennich-Björkman, Li

    2007-01-01

    Sõdadevahelises Eesti Vabariigis väljakujunenud kodanikupanuse ja poliitilise kultuuri vaimse pärandi kaasaega edasikandumine mõjutas ülemineku ja demokratiseerumisprotsesse Eestis. Lisa: Tabelid, diagrammid

  20. Põhja-Eesti Regionaalhaigla X-korpus = North-Estonian Regional Hospital X-wing / Mari Kurismaa ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurismaa, Mari, 1956-

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas Sütiste tee 19 asuva haigla juurdeehitise sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekt Mari Kurismaa (Stuudio Kurismaa OÜ). Arhitektid Indrek Suigusaar, Vivian Oruvee (AB Pluss OÜ). Infograafika autor Mari Kaljuste