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Sample records for self-reported urinary schistosomiasis

  1. A comparison of urinary tract pathology and morbidity in adult populations from endemic and non-endemic zones for urinary schistosomiasis on Unguja Island, Zanzibar

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    Khamis Simba

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal tract involvement is implicated in both early and late schistosomiasis leading to increased disease burden. Despite there being good estimates of disease burden due to renal tract disease secondary to schistosomiasis at the global level, it is often difficult to translate these estimates into local communities. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of urinary tract pathology and morbidity due to schistosomiasis in Zanzibar and identify reliable clinical predictors of schistosomiasis associated renal disease. Methods A cross-sectional comparison of Ungujan men and women living within either high or low endemic areas for urinary schistosomiasis was conducted. Using urine analysis with reagent strips, parasitological egg counts, portable ultrasonography and a qualitative case-history questionnaire. Data analysis used single and multiple predictor variable logistic regression. Results One hundred and sixty people were examined in the high endemic area (63% women and 37% men, and 101 people in the low endemic area (61% women and 39% men. In the high endemic area, egg-patent schistosomiasis and urinary tract pathology were much more common (p = 1 × 10-3, 8 × 10-6, respectively in comparison with the low endemic area. Self-reported frothy urine, self-reported haematuria, dysuria and urgency to urinate were associated with urinary tract pathology (p = 1.8 × 10-2, p = 1.1 × 10-4, p = 1.3 × 10-6, p = 1.1 × 10-7, respectively as assessed by ultrasonography. In a multi-variable logistic regression model, self-reporting of schistosomiasis in the past year, self-reporting of urgency to urinate and having an egg-positive urine sample were all independently associated with detectable urinary tract abnormality, consistent with schistosomiasis-specific disease. Having two or more of these features was moderately sensitive (70% as a predictor for urinary tract abnormality with high specificity (92%. Conclusion Having two

  2. Urinary schistosomiasis epidemiological survey of urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... knowledge about the infection and 12% of the children that reported having blood in their urine ... urinary schistosomiasis on economic condition and the ..... Medicine for the Tropics (3rd edition) Edward Arnold: Educational.

  3. Profile of an epidemiological study of urinary schistosomiasis in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Children who played/bathed and collected fresh water snails had higher risks of infection with urinary schistosomiasis in the area. Conclusion: The study draws attention to the health hazards posed by urinary schistosomiasis among children in in the studied area ... praziquantel delivery in mass treatment effort.[6] In. Nigeria ...

  4. Concomitant prostatic schistosomiasis and sdenocarcinoma: case report and review

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    Carlos Alberto Basílio-de-Oliveira

    Full Text Available The term schistosomiasis encompasses a group of infectious disorders caused by five species of the genus Schistosoma, a blood trematode of outstanding importance in tropical areas. Some of these disorders have long been associated with malignant neoplasia, the most striking association being between disease caused by Schistosoma haematobium, the predominant etiological agent of urinary schistosomiasis, and squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder, a relatively uncommon vesical cancer in non-endemic areas. Four cases of simultaneous adenocarcinoma and schistosomiasis of the prostate have been previously reported (S. haematobium in three and S. mansoni in one. We report a fifth case of concomitant adenocarcinoma and schistosomiasis of the prostate in a 68-year-old Brazilian patient infected with S. mansoni. We also review the medical literature on the association between schistosomiasis and cancer.

  5. Rapid diagnosis of schistosomiasis in Yemen using a simple questionnaire and urine reagent strips.

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    Bassiouny, H K; Hasab, A A; El-Nimr, N A; Al-Shibani, L A; Al-Waleedi, A A

    2014-05-01

    Schistosomiasis ranks second to malaria in terms of socioeconomic and public health importance in Yemen. This study assessed the validity of a morbidity questionnaire and urine reagent strips as a rapid tool for screening schoolchildren for urinary schistosomiasis as compared with the presence of eggs in urine as the gold-standard parasitological diagnosis. The study examined urine samples and interviewed 696 children (mean age 12.5 years) attending a primary-preparatory school in south Yemen. Urinary schistosomiasis was confirmed in 126 (18.1%) children. Diagnostic performance was poor for 2 items in the morbidity questionnaire (self-reported history of previous infection and self-reported history of antischistosomal treatment). However, self-reported dysuria, self-reported haematuria in the questionnaire and microhaematuria by reagent strips (alone or with macrohaematuria) revealed good diagnostic performance. The results indicated that reagent strips are a valid method for detection of microhaematuria for identifying individuals and communities infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

  6. Epidemiological survey of urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-09-30

    Sep 30, 2014 ... schistosomiasis in Mayo-Louti Division, Northern. Region Cameroon ... fecal and urinary health, contacts water snail men. (fishermen, rice ... MATERIAL AND METHODS .... lens for clear observation of this image. For each ...

  7. A Comprehensive Mapping of Urinary Schistosomiasis Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comprehensive Mapping of Urinary Schistosomiasis Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Kano State, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about ...

  8. Urinary schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in Yemen: prevalence, risk factors, and the effect of a chemotherapeutic intervention.

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    Al-Waleedi, Ali A; El-Nimr, Nessrin A; Hasab, Ali A; Bassiouny, Hassan K; Al-Shibani, Latifa A

    2013-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important public health problems in Yemen. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis varies considerably across different parts of Yemen and was estimated to be 10% among schoolchildren in Sana'a. Praziquantel (PZQ) is highly effective against all five major human species of schistosomes. The aim of the present work was to estimate the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, describe the risk factors associated with its endemicity, and implement and assess a chemotherapeutic intervention using PZQ in a village in Yemen. The sample included 696 schoolchildren from a village in Abyan Governorate. During the baseline school survey, personal, sociodemographic, and environmental data, and data on practices in relation to water contact were collected from each study participant using a predesigned structured questionnaire. Urine samples from each participant were examined for macrohematuria and the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs. The chemotherapeutic intervention was assessed 3 and 6 months after the treatment and certain indicators were calculated. The prevalence of S. haematobium was 18.1%. The main significant risk factors were male sex; proximity of houses to water ponds; and using pond water for swimming, agricultural activities, and for bathing in houses. PZQ treatment reduced the prevalence of infection and decreased the prevalence of high-intensity infection. Survival analysis showed that the probability of residual infection also dropped after the treatment intervention. Male sex and using pond water for various activities were the main significant risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis. PZQ is still a cornerstone drug in reducing or eliminating morbidity associated with schistosomiasis infection. Health education programs tailored for the community are required for the control and prevention of urinary schistosomiasis. To address schoolchildren, school curricula should include lessons about urinary

  9. Urinary Schistosomiasis in Urban and Semi-Urban Communities in South-Eastern Nigeria

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    Ogochukwu Caroline Okeke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In view of the massive rural-to-urban migration in Nigeria, investiga­tions on transmission of urinary schistosomiasis were carried out in ur­ban and semi-urban communities in Nike Lake area of Enugu State, Nigeria.Methods: Urine samples of school children were tested for micro-haematuria using reagent strips followed by microscopic examination for Schistosoma haemato­bium eggs. Water contact sites were also identified and sampled for snails.Results: The overall prevalence of S. haematobium eggs in school children was 4.64%. The mean intensity of infection was 1.14 + 0.41 eggs/10ml urine. Males had insignificantly higher prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infec­tion than females. The youngest age group (4-7 years had no infection. The preva­lence of micro-haematuria (6.2% was higher than that of microscopy, and this correlated positively with prevalence (r=0.65, P < 0.01 and intensity (r=0.50, P < 0.01 of the infection. Potential intermediate host of human shistosome collected were: Bulinus globosus, B. senegalensis and Biomphalaria pfeifferi. How­ever, only B. globosus shed cercariae of S. haematobium, with a snail infection rate of 0.73%. Transmission was in the dry season coinciding with the drying of wells.Conclusion: The results revealed that urinary schistosomiasis is prevalent, and that B. globosus and not B. truncatus as previously reported is the main interme­diate host of urinary schistosomiasis in this part of Enugu State

  10. urinary schistosomiasis infection in dumbin dutse, igabi local

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Journal of Biotechnology. 7 (16), 2773-2776. Uneke, C. J.; Oyibo, P. G.; Ugwuoru, C.D.C.; Nwanokwai, A. P.;. Iloegbunam, R. O. (2007): Urinary Schistosomiasis Among School. Age Children In Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The Internet Journal of. Laboratory Medicine. 2(1):1. Clennon, J. A., King, C. H., Muchiri, E. M, Kariuki, H. C., ...

  11. Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool-aged children in Sahelian rural communities in Mali

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    Doumbo Ogobara K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass chemotherapy with praziquantel is the main control strategy for schistosomiasis in Mali. However, in the national control programme for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, infants and preschool-aged children are overlooked in preventive chemotherapy campaigns. We therefore determined the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis in children between the ages 1-4 years in three villages across Diema health district, a rural community with endemic schistosomiasis in Mali. For Schistosoma haematobium diagnosis, a single urine sample of 10 ml obtained from each child was subjected to the standard urine filtration method. Results Of the 338 children examined 173 (51.2% were infected. Both prevalence and intensity of infection varied significantly between communities (p Conclusion Our study showed that preschool children living closely to lakes across in Mali are at high risk to be infected by schistosomiasis and contributed largely to the transmission; therefore schistosomiasis control interventions should also target infants in addition to school children and adults in endemic areas.

  12. Profile of an epidemiological study of urinary schistosomiasis in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was conducted in an attempt to establish the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in relation to epidemiological factors among children in Buruku and Katsina-Ala local government areas, Benue, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Urine filtration technique using polycarbonate membrane filters was employed ...

  13. Geographical information system and predictive risk maps of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Solarin Adewale RT

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of occurrence of the disease and quantify the risk for infection in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods Infection data used were derived from carefully validated morbidity questionnaires among primary school children in 2001–2002, in which school children were asked among other questions if they have experienced "blood in urine" or urinary schistosomiasis. The infection data from 1,092 schools together with remotely sensed environmental data such as rainfall, vegetation, temperature, soil-types, altitude and land cover were analysis using binary logistic regression models to identify environmental features that influence the spatial distribution of the disease. The final regression equations were then used in Arc View 3.2a GIS software to generate predictive risk maps of the distribution of the disease and population at risk in the state. Results Logistic regression analysis shows that the only significant environmental variable in predicting the presence and absence of urinary schistosomiasis in any area of the State was Land Surface Temperature (LST (B = 0.308, p = 0.013. While LST (B = -0.478, p = 0.035, rainfall (B = -0.006, p = 0.0005, ferric luvisols (B = 0.539, p = 0.274, dystric nitosols (B = 0.133, p = 0.769 and pellic vertisols (B = 1.386, p = 0.008 soils types were the final variables in the model for predicting the probability of an area having an infection prevalence equivalent to or more than 50%. The two predictive risk maps suggest that urinary schistosomiasis is widely distributed and occurring in all the Local Government Areas (LGAs

  14. Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder in a Region of Low Schistosomiasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To study the geographical pathology of carcinoma of the urinary bladder as regards both its association with endemic schistosomiasis and the variable proportions of its histological types. Methods: A 30-year retrospective analysis was carried out with regard to Igbo patients who inhabit a region of low incidence of ...

  15. Urinary estrogen metabolites and self-reported infertility in women infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

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    Júlio Santos

    metabolic pathways. In view of the statistically significant association between catechol-estrogens/ DNA adducts and self-reported infertility, we propose that an estrogen-DNA adduct mediated pathway in S. haematobium-induced ovarian hormonal deregulation could be involved. In addition, the catechol-estrogens/ DNA adducts described here represent potential biomarkers for schistosomiasis haematobia.

  16. Current status of schistosomiasis in Sokoto, Nigeria

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    Kiran Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in poor communities, where most of the population is dependent on river and well for their everyday activities. In this study 5 years–15 years aged children were sampled for schistosomiasis (Urinary and intestinal, using of urine and stool samples. The stool samples were analyzed using kato-katz thick faecal smear technique while the urine samples were analyzed by filtration technique. The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis (Schistosoma haematobium was 60.8% (228 positive cases in 375 samples, and for intestinal schistosomiasis (Schistosoma mansoni was 2.93% (11 positive in 375 samples. The order of infection based on social status (occupation of pupil's parents was farmers > fishermen > traders > civil servents > others. The prevalence of infection based on pupil's water contact activities such as farming associated 84.87% urinary schistosomiasis, followed by swimming (78.21%. Occurrence of urinary schistosomiasis based on source of pupil's drinking water; highest infection was reported among those that drink dam water (75.24% while least infection was occurred whose drinking water was from bore-whole (17.64%. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in the studied area is therefore very high and family status, means of water contact and availability of drinking water dependent. Therefore there is urgent need to adapt preventive measures, provision of safe drinking water as well as control programmes for vector snails, immediately.

  17. Investigation of the Risk of Infection of Urinary Schistosomiasis at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sam Eshun

    Africa, Asia and South America (WHO, 1995). ... of risk of infection of urinary schistosomiasis and knowing the general perception of people about the disease ... in the western part of the District and close to the Weija lake, believed to be .... body. The associations of other variables with risk of infection of the disease are ...

  18. Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool-age children in an endemic area of Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 2016

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    Samwel Bushukatale Ng`weng`weta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the magnitude of Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium infection and the factors associated with exposure of preschool children in Kigogo Ward, Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey of Class I pupils (preschool-age in 2015 was carried out from May to June 2016 to examine the prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection and associated factors. Urine samples were examined for haematuria, S. haematobium eggs and intensity. Parents or guardians were interviewed on their awareness and level of knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis disease (symptoms, mode of transmission, treatment and prevention, as well as their perceived risk of infection to young children. Potential sites of transmission were identified and searched for Bulinus spp., snails and the activities that exposed young children to infection were recorded. Results: A total of 424 pupils and 408 female parents or guardians were recruited. Haematuria was detected in 51 (12.0% pupils, S. haematobium eggs were observed in 8 (1.9% pupils and all were light infection. Bulinus spp., snails were identified mostly at cross-points of rivers. The large majority (91.7% of parents or guardians were aware of urinary schistosomiasis disease, but three quarter (76% did not consider it as a health problem. More than two thirds (71.3% reported that anybody could get urinary schistosomiasis; two thirds (65.9% reported that infection was likely to be acquired at cross-points of rivers. The large majority (> 90% had the notion that young children could be exposed; and all the activities that might lead a child to come into contact with potentially infested waters were judged to be risk factors. The larger majority (83.6% had a high level of knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis (transmission, symptoms, availability of modern treatment and the preventive measures, reflecting the ongoing advocacy campaigns. Conclusions: Young children left

  19. [Vesical schistosomiasis, case report and Spanish literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donate Moreno, M J; Pastor Navarro, H; Giménez Bachs, J M; Carrión López, P; Segura Martín, M; Salinas Sánchez, A S; Virseda Rodríguez, J A

    2006-01-01

    Urinary schistosomiasis is an infection caused by parasite, Schistosoma haematobium. Squistosomiasis is an endemic disease in Africa and Middle East. We are presenting a case of a young immigrant male from Mali that came to our clinic with hematuria and miccional irritative syndrome during a year. Parasitological study reported Schimosoma's eggs and ecography showed a possible vesical newformation. After RTU, anatomopatological study confirms the presence of a vesical esquistosomiasis. Now pacient is asyntomatic after he was treated with Praziquantel.

  20. [Qualitative research of self-management behavior in patients with advanced schistosomiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-ping; Wang, Xing-ju; Bao, Hui-hong; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Zheng-rong

    2013-10-01

    To explore the self-management behavior of patients with advanced schistosomiasis, so as to provide the evidence for improving clinical nursing. A total of 18 patients with advanced schistosomiasis were interviewed in depth by using a semi structured interview method. The results were analyzed with Miles and Huberman content analysis method. Most of the patients with advanced schistosomiasis had self-management control behavior and were cooperated with medical assistance because of their seriously illness. Based on data analysis, the symptom management, follow-up management, a healthy lifestyle, medication awareness, and emotional management were obtained. The patients with advanced schistosomiasis have self management control behavior. Health care workers should promote the patients, their families and social people to participate in the self-management behavior of advanced schistosomiasis patients.

  1. Impact of Climate Variability on Prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis over Sunyani in the Transition Belt of Ghana

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    Tay, S. K.; Amekudzi, L. K.; Tagoe, G.

    2012-04-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the impact of climate variability on Schistosoma haematobium infection among patients and school children in Sunyani between 2006 and 2009. Urine samples from the subjects were collected and examined in the laboratory using the filtration technique for the detection and quantification of Schistosomiasis haematobium eggs. The prevalence rate of urinary schistosomiasis at the Sunyani Regional Hospital for 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 were found to be 0.24%, 0.55%, 0.55% and 0.75% respectively while that for Methodist Junior High School in 2008 and 2009 were 60.1% and 60.3% respectively. A decrease in the relative humidity and average annual rainfall were identified as factors contributory to the increase in urinary Schistosomiasis prevalence rate. The temperature values obtained throughout the study period did not have any significant effect on the prevalence rate. The temperature values, however, were those that enhanced cercarial incubation (15-35˚C) with a resultant increase in shedding of cercariae leading to more infections among water contacts. The infection rate due to stream Amama was 20.1%, while that due to river Tano was 36.6%. The highest risk group was children aged 15-19 years. Praziquantel was administered to treat the infection, producing a cure rate of 93%. Recognition of urinary Schistosomiasis as a public health problem in Ghana is the main challenge to prevention and control of the disease.

  2. Human Schistosomiasis, And Nigerian Environment And Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Schistosomiasis, And Nigerian Environment And Climate Change. ... There are two types of human schistosomiasis in Nigeria: urinary schistosomiasis caused by infection of S. haematobium and intestinal schistosomiasis caused by the infection of S. mansoni. Different species of freshwater snail which breed in ...

  3. Clinicopathological patterns and distribution of Schistosomiasis in Asir Region.

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    Morad, N A; Khan, A R

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study is to report, for the first time, the histopathologic pattern of Schistosomiasis from the Asir Region and to compare it to patterns reported from other regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Several studies have reported the patterns of Schistosomiasis in other regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and other countries where Schistosomiasis is endemic. Schistosomiasis is endemic in certain areas of Asir region, however no data is available concerning the clinicopathological pattern of Schistosomiasis in the Asir Region. This is a retrospective analysis of 217 cases of Schistosomiasis from surgical and biopsy files of Asir Central Hospital during a period from January 1990 to October 1999. Our study revealed that Schistosomiasis was more common among the expatriate population of Asir Region than Saudi nationals residing in this area. The urinary tract was most commonly involved, and then in descending frequency came the vermiform appendix, liver and large bowel. These findings are somewhat different from those observed in the Riyadh Region where the vermiform appendix was the most commonly affected organ. Based on the histopathologic pattern, our study describes the pattern of Schistosomiasis in the Asir Region and may serve as a base-line for future research work.

  4. A comparative study on the efficacy of praziquantel and albendazole in the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Adim, Cross River State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, S A; Useh, M F

    2017-09-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is the current drug of choice for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in endemic areas. It is very efficacious, although the potential for the development of resistance has been reported in some endemic areas among human subjects and in animal studies. Its' limitation include high cost and administration of multiple numbers of tablets. Albendazole (ALB) is used in the treatment of intestinal helminths infection. It is a broad-spectrum single-dose antihelminthic with an excellent cure rate and safety criteria. Currently, it is not routinely used for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis. Urine samples collected from 596 pupils aged between 2 and 16 years were processed and examined for the presence of ova of Schistosoma haematobium using a standard filtration technique. A total of 100 infected subjects were treated with a standard dose of PZQ (40 mg/kg body weight), while another group of 96 infected subjects were treated with ALB (400 mg for individuals above 3 years). A post-treatment study was conducted 1 month after treatment to assess their cure rate. The prevalence of S. haematobium infection in the study area was 32.8% (196/596). More males were infected (44.2%) (122/276) than females (23.1%) (74/320). The difference in the prevalence rate of infection by gender was statistically significant (X2=15.7>3.841, p0.05). PZQ gave a higher cure rate of 78.0% (78/100) compared with ALB (68.7%) (66/96). There was no statistically significant difference in the cure rate obtained with both drugs (X2=0.355>0.282, p>0.05). The intensity of egg excretion was greatly reduced in subjects who were not cured by the two drugs. The findings of this study suggest the use of ALB for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis. We recommend further assessment of the efficacy of the drug in an area with higher morbidity of urinary schistosomiasis than the present study area. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society

  5. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in Nigeria, 1994–2015 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Abdulkadir

    2017-03-14

    Mar 14, 2017 ... Introduction: The Global significance of schistosomiasis started waning ... prevalence of schistosomiasis in Nigeria, and its six geo-political zones. ...... schistosomiasis in a rural community in Edo state, Nigeria: eosinophil-.

  6. The epidemiology and small-scale spatial heterogeneity of urinary schistosomiasis in Lusaka province, Zambia

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    Christopher Simoonga

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In line with the aims of the “National Bilharzia Control Programme” and the “School Health and Nutrition Programme” in Zambia, a study on urinary schistosomiasis was conducted in 20 primary schools of Lusaka province to further our understanding of the epidemiology of the infection, and to enhance spatial targeting of control. We investigated risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis, and examined small-scale spatial heterogeneity in prevalence, using data collected from 1,912 schoolchildren, 6 to 15-year-old, recruited from 20 schools in Kafue and Luangwa districts. The risk factors identified included geographical location, altitude, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, maximum temperature, age, sex of the child and intermediate host snail abundance. Three logistic regression models were fitted assuming different random effects to allow for spatial structuring. The mean prevalence rate was 9.6%, with significance difference between young and older children (odds ratio (OR = 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.51-0.96. The risk of infection was related to intermediate host snail abundance (OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.00-1.05 and vegetation cover (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.00-1.07. Schools located either on the plateau and the valley also differed in prevalence and intensity of infection for moderate infection to none (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.36- 1.96. The overall predictive performance of the spatial random effects model was higher than the ordinary logistic regression. In addition, evidence of heterogeneity of the infection risk was found at the micro-geographical level. A sound understanding of small-scale heterogeneity, caused by spatial aggregation of schoolchildren, is important to inform health planners for implementing control schistosomiasis interventions.

  7. Urinary Schistosomiasis in an Adolescent Refugee from Africa: An Uncommon Cause of Hematuria and an Emerging Infectious Disease in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Castelli, Lucia; Pulcrano, Giovanna; Grosini, Alessia; Balzaretti, Michela; Spadaro, Salvatore; Bruni, Paola

    2016-10-01

    We report a case of urinary schistosomiasis in an adolescent refugee from Gambia (arrived to Italy illegally), who was brought to the Emergency Department of our hospital. The patient complained of gross hematuria and, in the absence of clinical evidence of bacterial urinary infection, was admitted to the pediatric ward, considering his provenience and social setting. An appropriate collection and microscopic analysis of urine samples led to the detection of bilharzia. Much attention should be paid to this emerging disease in Europe by physicians in order to recognize and treat it timely, which could prevent future and higher costs for public health systems and could reduce the potential risk of environmental spreading. In fact, there are some areas in Italy where the parasite can find its intermediate host to complete its lifecycle.

  8. Irrigation and Rural Welfare: Implications of Schistosomiasis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis infection on the socio-economic health of irrigation farmers in the rural districts of Kazaure Area, Northern Nigeria. It first reviews some general consideration of irrigation environment and schistosomiasis, its major associated health problem.

  9. The epidemiology and control of urinary schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in schoolchildren on Unguja Island, Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, J Russell; French, Michael D; Khamis, I Simba; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Rollinson, David

    2009-10-01

    As part of a 4-year control programme beginning in 2003 and entitled Piga Vita Kichocho, around 140,000 school-aged children on Unguja Island, Zanzibar were treated annually with a combination of praziquantel and albendazole. To provide information on the impact of this intervention, a subset of children, originating from 24 sentinel schools, were monitored in 2004, 2005 and 2006 using both parasitological and behavioural questionnaire methods. Overall, prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis fell by 52%, intensity by 55% and gross haematuria by 82%. There was a positive and statistically significant correlation between areas of elevated disease prevalence and areas of predicted high transmission based upon local occurrence of the permissive intermediate snail host. In areas of low transmission, urinary schistosomiasis was greatly reduced, but, by contrast, other intervention strategies are needed to complement and synergise with chemotherapy in high transmission areas. Whereas significant reductions were documented in the prevalence of both Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides significantly increased over the monitoring period. Through a detailed analysis of named child records, evidence of predisposition to helminth (re)infection and individual bias towards polyparasitism was detected, highlighting the often overlapping distribution of these parasites within the school-aged child.

  10. Porcelain Bladder as a Result of Urinary Schistosomiasis. Presentation of a Clinical Case with a Multidisciplinary Approach

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    Osmel Chávez Troya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Uro-genital schistosomiasis is one of the parasite infections suffered by inhabitants of underdeveloped countries. This disease, as some other parasite infections, is increasing its incidence in some other as a consequence of higher population mobility. A case of a 35 year old woman is presented who was admitted to Malange General Hospital complaining of hypo-gastric pain, chills and final intermittent hematuria she had had for two monhs. After some lab tests, it was confirmed the presence of Schistosomas eggs in a urine sample and calcification of the bladder in porcelain form observed in a simple abdominal radiography. With the diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis, she was treated with praziquantel at 40 mg per kg in a single dose. The patient came back a week later and afterwards for follow up. She is currently cured and doing her routines.

  11. Urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis in the Tono Irrigation Scheme, Kassena/Nankana District, Upper East Region, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amankwa, J. A.; Bloch, P.; Meyer-Lassen, J.

    1994-01-01

    Human- and snail-related aspects of transmission of urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis were studied in the Tono Irrigation Scheme in northern Ghana. The scheme became operational in 1977. In some schools, prevalences and intensities of both Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium infection were...... of S. haematobium takes place in all parts of the irrigation system (lateral canal, night storage dam, main reservoir). Transmission of both S. mansoni and S. haematobium is rather focal and a seasonal pattern of transmission is indicated with peak transmission taking place during the beginning...

  12. Evaluation of CD4+/CD8+ status and urinary tract infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of CD4+/CD8+ status and urinary tract infections associated with urinary schistosomiasis ... African Health Sciences ... by <50 ova /10ml of urine had a mean CD4+:CD8+ ratio of 1.57 while those with heavy infections as ... Key words: CD4+, CD8+, urinary tract infections, urinary schistosomiasis, rural Nigerians

  13. Protection motivation theory in predicting intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis among middle school students in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Li, Shiyue; Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Gao, Mengting; Yan, Hong; Okafor, Chukwuemeka N

    2014-10-01

    Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection. The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. The advanced structural equation modeling (SEM) method was utilized to assess the complex relationship among schistosomiasis knowledge, previous risk exposure and protective measures in predicting intentions to engage in protective behavior through the PMT constructs. Approximately 70% of participants reported they were always aware of schistosomiasis before exposure to water with endemic schistosomiasis, 6% of the participants reported frequency of weekly or monthly prior exposure to snail-conditioned water. 74% of participants reported having always engaged in protective behaviors in the past three months. Approximately 7% were unlikely or very unlikely to avoid contact with snail-conditioned water, and to use protective behaviors before exposure. Results from SEM analysis indicated that both schistosomiasis knowledge and prior exposure to schistosomiasis were indirectly related to behavior intentions through intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy; prior protective behaviors were indirectly related to behavior intentions through severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy, while awareness had an indirect relationship with behavior intentions through self-efficacy. Among the seven PMT constructs, severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy were significantly associated with behavior intentions. The PMT can be used to predict the intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis. Schistosomiasis intervention

  14. Protection Motivation Theory in Predicting Intention to Engage in Protective Behaviors against Schistosomiasis among Middle School Students in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Gao, Mengting; Yan, Hong; Okafor, Chukwuemeka N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection. Methods The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. The advanced structural equation modeling (SEM) method was utilized to assess the complex relationship among schistosomiasis knowledge, previous risk exposure and protective measures in predicting intentions to engage in protective behavior through the PMT constructs. Principal Findings Approximately 70% of participants reported they were always aware of schistosomiasis before exposure to water with endemic schistosomiasis, 6% of the participants reported frequency of weekly or monthly prior exposure to snail-conditioned water. 74% of participants reported having always engaged in protective behaviors in the past three months. Approximately 7% were unlikely or very unlikely to avoid contact with snail-conditioned water, and to use protective behaviors before exposure. Results from SEM analysis indicated that both schistosomiasis knowledge and prior exposure to schistosomiasis were indirectly related to behavior intentions through intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy; prior protective behaviors were indirectly related to behavior intentions through severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy, while awareness had an indirect relationship with behavior intentions through self-efficacy. Among the seven PMT constructs, severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy were significantly associated with behavior intentions. Conclusions The PMT can be used to predict the intention to engage in protective behaviors against

  15. Protection motivation theory in predicting intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis among middle school students in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection.The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. The advanced structural equation modeling (SEM method was utilized to assess the complex relationship among schistosomiasis knowledge, previous risk exposure and protective measures in predicting intentions to engage in protective behavior through the PMT constructs.Approximately 70% of participants reported they were always aware of schistosomiasis before exposure to water with endemic schistosomiasis, 6% of the participants reported frequency of weekly or monthly prior exposure to snail-conditioned water. 74% of participants reported having always engaged in protective behaviors in the past three months. Approximately 7% were unlikely or very unlikely to avoid contact with snail-conditioned water, and to use protective behaviors before exposure. Results from SEM analysis indicated that both schistosomiasis knowledge and prior exposure to schistosomiasis were indirectly related to behavior intentions through intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy; prior protective behaviors were indirectly related to behavior intentions through severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy, while awareness had an indirect relationship with behavior intentions through self-efficacy. Among the seven PMT constructs, severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy were significantly associated with behavior intentions.The PMT can be used to predict the intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis. Schistosomiasis

  16. Self-reported sunscreen use and urinary benzophenone-3 concentrations in the United States: NHANES 2003–2006 and 2009–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamoiski, Rachel D.; Cahoon, Elizabeth K.; Michal Freedman, D.; Linet, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sunscreens protect against skin cancer and other harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Epidemiologic and public health surveys often rely on self-reported sunscreen use to estimate sun exposure and avoidance, but questions remain about the validity of self-reports. Benzophenone-3 (BP-3), a common sunscreen ingredient, can be detected in the urine. Prior studies suggest that BP-3 concentrations increase after application of sunscreen. Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the validity of self-reported frequency of sunscreen use in relation to urinary BP-3 concentrations in a representative sample of the general US population, including in sub-groups defined by age, sex and race/ethnicity. Methods: To assess the relationship between categorical self-reported sunscreen use and creatinine-corrected urinary BP-3 concentrations, we conducted a linear regression adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, six-month time period, body mass index, education, and sun avoidance behaviors. We tested for effect modification by age, sex, ethnicity and time period of measurement using multiplicative interaction terms and a F test. Results: BP-3 was positively associated with self-reported frequency of sunscreen use across all ages, sexes, race/ethnicities, and time periods. Crude and multivariate adjusted models were all statistically significant. R-square was relatively low for all models, ranging from 0.15 to 0.43. Conclusions: Urinary BP-3 is positively associated with self-reported frequency of sunscreen use in the general US population, even in groups with overall low sunscreen use. These results suggest that self-report is a valid, although weak, way of assessing relative frequencies of sunscreen usage in a population-based study. - Highlights: • Urinary benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is a metabolite of a common sunscreen ingredient. • We modeled urinary BP-3 against self-reported sunscreen usage. • We observed a positive association between

  17. Self-reported sunscreen use and urinary benzophenone-3 concentrations in the United States: NHANES 2003–2006 and 2009–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamoiski, Rachel D., E-mail: rachel.zamoiski@nih.gov; Cahoon, Elizabeth K.; Michal Freedman, D.; Linet, Martha S.

    2015-10-15

    Background: Sunscreens protect against skin cancer and other harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Epidemiologic and public health surveys often rely on self-reported sunscreen use to estimate sun exposure and avoidance, but questions remain about the validity of self-reports. Benzophenone-3 (BP-3), a common sunscreen ingredient, can be detected in the urine. Prior studies suggest that BP-3 concentrations increase after application of sunscreen. Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the validity of self-reported frequency of sunscreen use in relation to urinary BP-3 concentrations in a representative sample of the general US population, including in sub-groups defined by age, sex and race/ethnicity. Methods: To assess the relationship between categorical self-reported sunscreen use and creatinine-corrected urinary BP-3 concentrations, we conducted a linear regression adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, six-month time period, body mass index, education, and sun avoidance behaviors. We tested for effect modification by age, sex, ethnicity and time period of measurement using multiplicative interaction terms and a F test. Results: BP-3 was positively associated with self-reported frequency of sunscreen use across all ages, sexes, race/ethnicities, and time periods. Crude and multivariate adjusted models were all statistically significant. R-square was relatively low for all models, ranging from 0.15 to 0.43. Conclusions: Urinary BP-3 is positively associated with self-reported frequency of sunscreen use in the general US population, even in groups with overall low sunscreen use. These results suggest that self-report is a valid, although weak, way of assessing relative frequencies of sunscreen usage in a population-based study. - Highlights: • Urinary benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is a metabolite of a common sunscreen ingredient. • We modeled urinary BP-3 against self-reported sunscreen usage. • We observed a positive association between

  18. Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Keiser, Jennifer; Bos, Robert; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2006-07-01

    An estimated 779 million people are at risk of schistosomiasis, of whom 106 million (13.6%) live in irrigation schemes or in close proximity to large dam reservoirs. We identified 58 studies that examined the relation between water resources development projects and schistosomiasis, primarily in African settings. We present a systematic literature review and meta-analysis with the following objectives: (1) to update at-risk populations of schistosomiasis and number of people infected in endemic countries, and (2) to quantify the risk of water resources development and management on schistosomiasis. Using 35 datasets from 24 African studies, our meta-analysis showed pooled random risk ratios of 2.4 and 2.6 for urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis, respectively, among people living adjacent to dam reservoirs. The risk ratio estimate for studies evaluating the effect of irrigation on urinary schistosomiasis was in the range 0.02-7.3 (summary estimate 1.1) and that on intestinal schistosomiasis in the range 0.49-23.0 (summary estimate 4.7). Geographic stratification showed important spatial differences, idiosyncratic to the type of water resources development. We conclude that the development and management of water resources is an important risk factor for schistosomiasis, and hence strategies to mitigate negative effects should become integral parts in the planning, implementation, and operation of future water projects.

  19. Health education and community participation in the control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryeetey, M E; Aholu, C; Wagatsuma, Y; Bentil, G; Nkrumah, F K; Kojima, S

    1999-06-01

    To study the role of health education and community participation for the provision of facilities necessary for the control of urinary schistosomiasis in southern Ghana. Health education facilitates community participation in the provision of facilities for the control of bilharzia. Three rural communities drained by the Densu river in southern Ghana. Individuals aged 14 years and above formed groups of 10-12 persons by age, sex, ethnic and educational background; 15-16 groups were formed. Based on existing structures, one community received active, another passive health education and the third had no education. All three communities received chemotherapy. Study was carried out in three phases: pre-intervention phase--during which baseline data on residents' knowledge, attitude, beliefs and perception about bilharzia were collected using focus group discussions (FGD) prior to the second phase, intervention. Another FGD was held after 18 months to evaluate the intervention--third phase. This study suggests that most community members were aware of schistosomiasis but not as a disease. Before the health education, some residents believed bilharzia was a sign of manhood while others attributed the red colour of the urine to the red colour of a variety of sugar cane eaten in the area. After the health education, residents in the three areas constructed hand-dug wells. In addition, those who received active health education constructed two toilets for the schools and weeded the banks of the rivers. Residents also associated the disease with the water snail. Health education was useful in changing community perception on bilharzia.

  20. Urban schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminthiases in young school children in Dar es Salaam and Tanga, Tanzania, after a decade of anthelminthic intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwakitalu, Mbutolwe E.; Malecela, Mwele N.; Mosha, Franklin W.

    2014-01-01

    and control of these infections in urban settings is limited. The present study assessed the status of urinary schistosomiasis and STH across two different-sized cities in Tanzania - Dar es Salaam and Tanga - after a decade of anthelminthic intervention. Primary school children were examined for parasite eggs......Rapid urbanization in resource poor countries often results in expansion of unplanned settlements with overcrowding and inadequate sanitation. These conditions potentially support transmission of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STH), but knowledge on the occurrence, transmission...... in urine and stool. Questionnaires were administered to the children, and observations were made on the urban environments. The burden of urinary schistosomiasis and STH was found to be low in both cities (overall 1.2% in Dar es Salaam and 0.3% in Tanga for urinary schistosomiasis; overall

  1. Calcifications of the bladder in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechmar, M. von; Vogel, H.

    1989-01-01

    In schistosomiasis calcification of the urinary bladder are characteristic signs that allow a corresponding diagnosis in endemic regions. Problems concerning differential diagnosis occur only in very rare cases. The calcifications of the bladder can be easily detected by native diagnostics. A late complication in an affected bladder is often a bladder carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  2. Self-reported urinary continence outcomes for repeat midurethral synthetic sling placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Eandi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our experience with tension-free transvaginal tape (TVT placement for the management of stress urinary incontinence (SUI in women who had previously undergone a failed midurethral synthetic sling (MUS procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten women underwent retropubic TVT insertion for continued or recurrent SUI following a prior MUS procedure. No attempt was made to remove the previously placed sling at the time of surgery. A retrospective chart review was performed to obtain perioperative and follow-up patient information. Post-operatively, each patient completed a mailed incontinence questionnaire to assess self-reported urinary continence outcomes. RESULTS: All 10 women were available for follow-up at a mean period of 16 months (range 6 to 33. Four of the 10 patients achieved complete continence, and another three patients reported significantly improved continence and quality of life. Three women stated that their continence did not improve. CONCLUSIONS: TVT placement may be a viable option for the management of women with persistent or recurrent SUI following an initial MUS procedure.

  3. primary spinal cord mansoni schistosomiasis : a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3 dos Reis FR, Brito JC, Costa MD et al. Brown-Sequard syndrome in schistosomiasis. Report of a Case. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 1993; 51:281-4. 4 Ikhayat RA, Girgis M. Bilharzial granuloma of the conus: case report. Neumurgwy 1993; 32:1022-4; discussion 10224. 5 Ferrari TC, Moreira PR, Oliveria RC, Ferrari ML, Gazinelli G,.

  4. Urinary Schistosomiasis in Two Endemic Communities of Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We diagnosed schistosomiasis due to S. haematobium in Obudu and Biase Local Government Areas of Cross River State, Nigeria, using the membrane filtration technique. Altogether, 1,326 urine samples where screened. Of the 722 individual urine screened in Biase, 444 (61.5%) were positive cases, while in Obudu 354 ...

  5. Scrotal Swelling and Testicular Atrophy due to Schistosomiasis in a 9-Year-Old Boy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Rambau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a communicable disease which commonly involves urinary bladder causing hematuria, or large bowel causing bloody stool. The common species encountered in this lake region surrounding Lake Victoria in Tanzania are Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni. Complications can lead to portal hypertension due portal fibrosis in liver, and fibrosis in lung can lead to pulmonary hypertension; this commonly seen with S. mansoni. Major complications of S. maeametobium are chronic cystitis with squamous metaplasia with subsequent development of squamous cell carcinoma. Involvement of spinal cord causing paraplegia has been observed in S. haematobium. Other unusual pathology of schistosomiasis has been described, such as involvement of the appendix, ovary, prostate, and cervix. Here, we present a case of schistosomiasis in a 9-year-old boy who presented with left scrotal pain for one year which was accompanied by scrotal swelling; surgical exploration was done, and the finding was hydrocele and atrophic testes with nodules on the surface. Histological examination reveals atrophic testis and heavy active granulomatous inflammation with schistosoma eggs consistent with Schistosoma haematobium in the tunica vaginalis.

  6. The roles of water, sanitation and hygiene in reducing schistosomiasis: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, Jack ET; Croll, David; Harrison, Wendy E; Utzinger, J?rg; Freeman, Matthew C; Templeton, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by infection with blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Transmission of, and exposure to, the parasite result from faecal or urinary contamination of freshwater containing intermediate host snails, and dermal contact with the same water. The World Health Assembly resolution 65.21 from May 2012 urges member states to eliminate schistosomiasis through preventive chemotherapy (i.e. periodic large-scale administration of the antischistosomal drug praziquantel ...

  7. Association between prostate cancer and schistosomiasis in young patients: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Bacelar

    Full Text Available This case report refers to a 47-year old patient with prostate cancer associated with schistosomiasis mansoni, who was submitted to radical prostatectomy. This is the third report published in the literature with respect to this association, and up to the present time it is still not known whether a cause and effect relationship exists between the two pathologies. The association between schistosomiasis and cancer has been well-documented in bladder cancer; however, there are no data yet proving the association of this disease with prostatic neoplasia. In this report, a third documented case of prostatic adenocarcinoma and schistosomiasis mansoni is described and a literature review is performed.

  8. Sonographic screening for urinary tract abnormalities in patients with Schistosoma haematobium infection: pitfalls in examining pregnant women.

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, J.; Wagatsuma, Y.; Aryeetey, M.; Feldmeier, H.

    1996-01-01

    In areas where Schistosoma haematobium is endemic, urinary schistosomiasis and pregnancy are frequently concomitant; however, both these conditions may produce similar urinary tract changes in ultrasound scans and hence their differential diagnosis may be difficult. In patients with urinary schistosomiasis, focal and/or diffuse urinary bladder wall changes are frequently detected ultrasonically. Dilatation of one or both ureters and progressive hydronephrosis may be observed in more severe ca...

  9. Schistosomiasis with special references to the mechanisms of evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawras M. El-Saghier Mowafy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by infection with Schistosoma spp. It affects 200 million people worldwide, especially in the developing countries. There are five known species of Schistosoma which currently infect humans in various geographical locations. Infection with Schistosoma spp. leads to two forms of the disease: acute and chronic. Chronic infection can affect various organs within the human body including the brain, lungs, gut and the reproductive organs, which leads to neuroschistosomiasis, pulmonary schistosomiasis, hepatointestinal schistosomiasis and urinary genital schistosomiasis, respectively. All Schistosoma spp. have a common denominator that they have the ability to infect, invade and evade the host’s immune mechanism. Schistosoma sp. is a very complex organism that requires two hosts, mollusk and mammalian, to survive, propagate and complete its life cycle. Hence, it has developed specific immune evasion mechanisms for each of them. Once Schistosoma sp. has infected and established itself within its mammalian host as an adult worm, it evades the immune mechanism of that host. However, the antigens released by the eggs can elicit an immune response with formation of granuloma around eggs. Granuloma formation is the main characteristic lesion in schistosomiasis, which in the liver can cause hepatomegaly in hepatointestinal schistosomiasis. This paper will summarize various immune responses against the parasite as well as varieties of strategies which developed by the Schistosoma spp. to persist within human hosts.

  10. Sex Prevalence of Schistosomiasis among School Children in Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken among school children in 5 communities in the lower Volta Basin in South eastern Ghana to assess sex prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among the children. Results obtained showed that the disease prevalence was higher among the female pupils (64%) than their male counterparts ...

  11. HIV and schistosomiasis in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian Ranzi; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo; Kallestrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin A has widespread effects on immune function and is therefore interesting in HIV-infection. Retinol-binding protein (RBP or RBP4) is a negative acute-phase protein and a marker of vitamin A status. Our aim was to investigate the association of RBP with HIV progression, infection...... with schistosomiasis, inflammatory cytokines, and mortality. METHODS: The study included 192 HIV-infected and 177 HIV-uninfected individuals from Mupfure in rural Zimbabwe. Of these, 208 were infected with Schistosoma haematobium, 27 with S. mansoni and 48 with both. Plasma RBP, HIV-RNA, CD4 cell count, haemoglobin......, cytokines, clinical staging (CDC category), self-reported level of function (Karnoffsky Performance Score, KPS) and schistosomiasis status were assessed at baseline. Participants were followed up for survival 3-4 years post-enrolment. RESULTS: RBP levels were lower in HIV-infected individuals(p

  12. Vesical schistosomiasis with terminal hematuria in sub-Saharan patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J; Calleja, E; Marne, C; Borque, A

    2014-03-01

    To know the characteristics of vesical schistosomiasis caused by schistosoma hematobium in immigrant patients. The retrospective study of 41 cases microbiologically diagnosed in our hospital over the last 16 years is presented. Data was collected on origin, age, presentation form, diagnostic tests and treatment. All were African patients whose ages ranged from 4 to 32 years and who had terminal macroscopic hematuria. Most of the patients (85%) were men. In all of the cases, diagnosis was by a urinary microbiological study and in one case, cystoscopy with a biopsy of a typical vesical lesion. Terminal hematuria is the most representative clinical sign. They were treated with praziquantel. The epidemiology and intermittent terminal hematuria in African patients should lead to the suspicion of vesical schistosomiasis as the first diagnostic option. Urinary microbiological study is a rapid, non-invasive, test with high diagnostic yield that would avoid performing invasive studies. Its simple treatment assures high level of compliance and consequent efficacy. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Schistosomiasis of the spinal cord presenting as progressive myelopathy. Case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Mahmoud Hamdy

    2012-02-03

    The authors report on a case of schistosomiasis of the spinal cord in an individual returning to Ireland after a 25-year residence in Africa, where the infection affects approximately 200 million people.

  14. Schistosomiasis in patients in the Sultanate of Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrimgeour, Euan M.; Ahmed, A.; Sallam, J.; Khoul, R.; Al-Dhahry, Said H.S.; Daar, Abdallah S.; El-Khatim, Hussein S.; Idris, Mohamed A.; Date, A.

    2001-01-01

    Following an intensive public health eradication program, the focus of schistosomiasis mansoni at Salalah in Southern Oman (the only focus of schistosomiasis in Oman), appeared to have been eradicated in 1994. Since the vector snails for schistosomiasis mansoni (and also for S. haematobium) were widely endemic in fresh water springs at Salalah, and reintroduction of introduction (or introduction in case of S.haematobium), was possible, we undertook a prospective study in 1995 for schistosomiasis in our patients at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) and to obtain evidence of visits by these patients to Salalah. From May 1995 to May 2000, Omani and expatriate patients presenting at SQUH were evaluated for possible schistosomiasis (residence in an endemic region, suggestive clinical features) by a search for ova in stool, urine, or in tissue biopsies, or when ova were absent, by serodiagnosis. A retrospective survey of schistosomiasis patients diagnosed in SQUH from 1990 to April 1995 was also performed. Ministry of Health (MOH) data on reports of schistosomiasis (a notifiable disease) in Oman from 1991 to 2000 were obtained. Thirty patients with schistosomiasis were identified, 10 retrospectively and 20 in prospective study. Patients were aged 9 to 60 years, and 25 of them (10 Omanis, 14 Egyptians, 1 Sudanese) contracted the infection in Africa, while 5 Omanis became infected in Salalah (3 in 99). Twelve patients had schistosomiasis mansoni, 6 had schistosomiasis. Haematobia, and in the rest, infection by both parasites was confirmed or possible. The most common presentation (23%) was hepatosplenic schistosomiasis with portal hypertension. No patient admitted to contaminating fresh water with excreta in Salalah. MOH data revealed 3 to 14 cases of schistosomiasis were reported annually between 1991 and 2000, and that all schistosomiasis cases reported from 1994 1998 originated from Africa. Schistosomiasis remains an important health problem in Oman. Many

  15. Profile of an epidemiological study of urinary schistosomiasis in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    schistosomiasis in relation to epidemiological factors among children in Buruku ... [5]. Praziquantel has been adopted as the drug of choice for control strategy by the .... are low literacy, presence of infested water bodies .... rate of 38.2% found in the 8-12 years in this study ... maturity and abundance of the snail vectors.

  16. The impact of a school health programme on the prevalence and morbidity of urinary schistosomiasis in Mwera Division, Pangani District, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, P; Ndawi, B; Sheshe, A K

    2001-01-01

    in class 5 (median age 14 years, range 11-17) by urine filtration techniques. Treatment was administered as 40 mg/kg praziquantel in a single dose at the beginning of the school year. The programme was implemented by schoolteachers and coordinated by the District Health Management Team in collaboration......The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in Pangani District (Tanzania) was assessed rapidly by a questionnaire approach. Based on the results, a strategy of selective treatment with praziquantel was adopted. Eleven primary schools in Mwera Division, Pangani District...... parents pay for the treatment of children with episodes of visible haematuria during the school year. Communities also participated in the improvement of sanitary installations at the schools....

  17. Self-reported urinary incontinence in elderly and its associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Fernandes Bolina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Household survey, cross-sectional and observational study that aimed to verify the socio-demographic factors and self-reported morbidities associated with urinary incontinence (UI. The research was carried out between August and December 2008 with 2,142 elderly people. We used a semi-structured instrument, and performed a descriptive analysis and logistic regression (p<0.05. Most were female and with income of up to one minimum wage. UI prevailed among those aged 70├80 years, widowed and uneducated; for the group without UI: 60├70 years, married or living with partner and 4├8 years of study. The factors associated with increased chances of presenting UI were: 70├80 years and 80 years and older, no education and obesity. It is important to pay attention to the factors associated with UI in the development of effective actions on health prevention.

  18. Uptake of mass drug administration programme for schistosomiasis control in Koome Islands, Central Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Tuhebwe

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination in Uganda through the Mass Drug Administration (MDA programme. Praziquantel has been distributed using community resource persons in fixed sites and house-to-house visits; however the uptake is still below target coverage. In 2011/2012 MDA exercise, uptake stood at 50% yet WHO target coverage is 75% at community level. We assessed the uptake of MDA and the associated factors in Koome Islands, Central Uganda.In March 2013, we conducted a mixed methods cross sectional study in 15 randomly selected villages. We interviewed a total of 615 respondents aged 18 years and above using semi structured questionnaires and five key informants were also purposively selected. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done. MDA uptake was defined as self reported swallowing of praziquantel during the last (2012 MDA campaign. We conducted key informant interviews with Ministry of Health, district health personnel and community health workers.Self reported uptake of praziquantel was 44.7% (275/615, 95% confidence interval (CI 40.8-48.7%. Of the 275 community members who said they had swallowed praziquantel, 142 (51.6% reported that they had developed side effects. Uptake of MDA was more likely if the respondent was knowledgeable about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.85, 95% CI 1.22-2.81 and reported to have received health education from the health personnel (AOR 5.95, 95% CI 3.67-9.65. Service delivery challenges such as drug shortages and community health worker attrition also influenced MDA in Koome Islands.Uptake of MDA for schistosomiasis control in Koome was sub optimal. Lack of knowledge about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention, inadequate health education and drug shortages are some of the major factors associated with low uptake. These could be addressed through routine health education and systematic drug supply for the

  19. Diagnostic performance of screening methods for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care ... for urinary schistosomiasis in a school-based control programme, in Ibadan, Nigeria ... and visual examination were the most specific with values of 96.1 and 96.0% respectively.

  20. Evaluation of CD4+/CD8+ status and urinary tract infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The CD4+ and the CD8+ counts were correlated with the ova of S. haematobium in their urine samples at r = 0.0108 and r = 0.516 respectively. The bacteriuria, urinary schistosomiasis and urinary tract co - infections namely; Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staph.

  1. Biosocial Determinants of Persistent Schistosomiasis among Schoolchildren in Tanzania despite Repeated Treatment

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    Rose E. Donohue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease endemic to Tanzania and other countries of the global south, which is currently being addressed through preventive chemotherapy campaigns. However, there is growing recognition that chemotherapy strategies will need to be supplemented to sustainably control and eventually eliminate the disease. There remains a need to understand the factors contributing to continued transmission in order to ensure the effective configuration and implementation of supplemented programs. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire, to evaluate the biosocial determinants facilitating the persistence of schistosomiasis, among 1704 Tanzanian schoolchildren residing in two districts undergoing a preventive chemotherapeutic program: Rufiji and Mkuranga. A meta-analysis was carried out to select the diagnostic questions that provided a likelihood for predicting infection status. We found that self-reported schistosomiasis continues to persist among the schoolchildren, despite multiple rounds of drug administration.Using mixed effects logistic regression modeling, we found biosocial factors, including gender, socio-economic status, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH-related variables, were associated with this continued schistosomiasis presence. These findings highlight the significant role that social factors may play in the persistence of disease transmission despite multiple treatments, and support the need not only for including integrated technical measures, such as WASH, but also addressing issues of poverty and gender when designing effective and sustainable schistosomiasis control programs.

  2. Child abdominal tumour in tropical context: Think about schistosomiasis!

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    A. M. Napon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis presenting as an abdominal mass with chronic pain in a child is not common. This report presents case of child presenting with schistosomiasis presenting as an abdominal mass with chronic pain. Abdominal ultrasonography did not particularly contribute to definitive pre-operative diagnosis. However, pathological examination of surgical specimen confirmed Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the biospy. A decrease in the mass volume was noticed under medical treatment (Biltricide. The aim of this report was to intimate clinicians on possible abdominal schistosomiasis as differential diagnosis of childhood abdominal mass. This is a clarion call for a high index of suspicion of childhood abdominal schistosomiasis in children presenting with abdominal mass in a tropical setting.

  3. High prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in two communities in South Darfur: implication for interventions

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    Ali Gafar A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few data on the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Darfur. We conducted this study in response to reports of 15 laboratory confirmed cases of schistosomiasis and visible haematuria among children from two communities in South Darfur. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the area and to decide on modalities of intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey involving 811 children and adults from schools and health facilities was conducted in two communities of South Darfur in March 2010. Urine samples were collected and examined for ova of Schistosoma haematobium using a sedimentation technique. A semi-structured format was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Results Eight hundred eleven (811 urine samples were collected, 415 from Alsafia and 396 from Abuselala. Of the collected samples in 56.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI; 52.6-59.4 Schistosoma eggs were found. The prevalence was high in both Abuselala 73.3% (95% CI; 68.9-77.6 and Alsafia 39.5% (95% CI; 34.8-44.2. More males (61.7%, 95%CI; 56.5-64.9 were infected than females (52.1%, 95%CI; 48.2-56.0. Children in the age group 10-14 has the highest (73.0%, 95%CI; 68.7-77.2 infection rate. School age children (6-15 years are more likely to be infected than those >15 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR = 2.70, 95% CI; 1.80-4.06. Individuals in Abuselala are more likely to be infected than those who live in Alsafia (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI; 3.2-5.9. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that S. hematobium is endemic in Alsafia and Abuselala South Darfur in Sudan with a high prevalence of infection among older children. This signifies the importance of urgent intervention through Mass Drug Administration (MDA to halt the infection cycle and tailored health messages to targeted groups. Based on the findings MDA was conducted in the villages.

  4. High prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in two communities in South Darfur: implication for interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribe, Kebede; Eldaw, Abdeljbar; Hadziabduli, Samir; Kailie, Emmanuel; Omer, Mohamed D; Mohammed, Alam E; Jamshed, Tanole; Mohammed, Elmonshawe A; Mergani, Ali; Ali, Gafar A; Babikir, Khalid; Adem, Abdulrahman; Hashim, Farouq

    2011-02-07

    There are few data on the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Darfur. We conducted this study in response to reports of 15 laboratory confirmed cases of schistosomiasis and visible haematuria among children from two communities in South Darfur. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the area and to decide on modalities of intervention. A cross-sectional survey involving 811 children and adults from schools and health facilities was conducted in two communities of South Darfur in March 2010. Urine samples were collected and examined for ova of Schistosoma haematobium using a sedimentation technique. A semi-structured format was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Eight hundred eleven (811) urine samples were collected, 415 from Alsafia and 396 from Abuselala. Of the collected samples in 56.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI); 52.6-59.4) Schistosoma eggs were found. The prevalence was high in both Abuselala 73.3% (95% CI; 68.9-77.6) and Alsafia 39.5% (95% CI; 34.8-44.2). More males (61.7%, 95%CI; 56.5-64.9) were infected than females (52.1%, 95%CI; 48.2-56.0). Children in the age group 10-14 has the highest (73.0%, 95%CI; 68.7-77.2) infection rate. School age children (6-15 years) are more likely to be infected than those >15 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.70, 95% CI; 1.80-4.06). Individuals in Abuselala are more likely to be infected than those who live in Alsafia (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI; 3.2-5.9). The findings of this study indicate that S. hematobium is endemic in Alsafia and Abuselala South Darfur in Sudan with a high prevalence of infection among older children. This signifies the importance of urgent intervention through Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to halt the infection cycle and tailored health messages to targeted groups. Based on the findings MDA was conducted in the villages.

  5. Quantifying quality of life and disability of patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica.

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    Tie-Wu Jia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chinese government lists advanced schistosomiasis as a leading healthcare priority due to its serious health and economic impacts, yet it has not been included in the estimates of schistosomiasis burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD study. Therefore, the quality of life and disability weight (DW for the advanced cases of schistosomiasis japonica have to be taken into account in the re-estimation of burden of disease due to schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A patient-based quality-of-life evaluation was performed for advanced schistosomiasis japonica. Suspected or officially registered advanced cases in a Schistosoma japonicum-hyperendemic county of the People's Republic of China (P.R. China were screened using a short questionnaire and physical examination. Disability and morbidity were assessed in confirmed cases, using the European quality of life questionnaire with an additional cognitive dimension (known as the "EQ-5D plus", ultrasonography, and laboratory testing. The age-specific DW of advanced schistosomiasis japonica was estimated based on patients' self-rated health scores on the visual analogue scale of the questionnaire. The relationships between health status, morbidity and DW were explored using multivariate regression models. Of 506 candidates, 215 cases were confirmed as advanced schistosomiasis japonica and evaluated. Most of the patients reported impairments in at least one health dimension, such as pain or discomfort (90.7%, usual activities (87.9%, and anxiety or depression (80.9%. The overall DW was 0.447, and age-specific DWs ranged from 0.378 among individuals aged 30-44 years to 0.510 among the elderly aged ≥ 60 years. DWs are positively associated with loss of work capacity, psychological abnormality, ascites, and active hepatitis B virus, while splenectomy and high albumin were protective factors for quality of life. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These patient-preference disability

  6. Ultrasound findings in urinary shistosomaisis infection in school children in the Gezira State Central Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmadani, Ahmed E; Hamdoun, Anas O; Monis, Ahmed; Karamino, Nhashal E; Gasmelseed, Nagla

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasound findings of urinary schistosomiasis in Quran school (Khalwas) children in Gezira State Sudan, we studied all the students from two schools. A total of 103 boys were tested for urinary schistosomiasis using the urine filtration method. Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium) eggs were counted. Ultrasound was performed for all the positive subjects. Seventy-three (71%) subjects were positive for S. haematobium. The mean age was 11.3 ± 2.9 years. Sixty-six (90.4%) subjects showed urinary tract abnormalities. The findings revealed the following degrees of wall thickening: 53.0% mild, 18.2% moderate and 21.2% severe. Urinary bladder polyp(s) were noted in 43.3% (single) and 40.9% (multiple) of the subjects, and calcification of the bladder wall was observed in 7.6% subjects. Ureteric dilatation was noted in 38/73 (52.0%), while hydronephrosis was detected in 19/73 (26.3%). The vast majority of urinary tract schistomiasis lesions were in the urinary bladder. Ultrasound is a useful tool for identifying the morbidity of S. haematobium in endemic areas.

  7. Improving the management of imported schistosomiasis haematobia in China: lessons from a case with multiple misdiagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hai-Yong; Wang, Wei; Cao, Guo-Qun; Tang, Feng; Liang, You-Sheng

    2013-09-11

    Human Schistosoma haematobium infection that causes urinary schistosomiasis occurs in Africa and the eastern Mediterranean, and China is only endemic for S. japonicum. In this report, we reported an imported case with S. haematobium infection returning from Angola to Shaanxi Province, northwestern China, where S. japonicum is not endemic. The case was misdiagnosed as ureteral calculus, invasive urothelial carcinoma and eosinophilic cystitis in several hospitals, and was finally diagnosed by means of serological assay followed by microscopic examination of the urine sediment. The patient was then treated with praziquantel, and a satisfactory outcome was obtained. As S. haematobium is not indigenous to China, most Chinese doctors and medical technicians are unfamiliar with this introduced parasitic disease, therefore, they need to increase the awareness of its existence when they encounter persons who have visited or resided in endemic areas, and the techniques for detection of the parasite, so as to reduce the misdiagnosis. In addition, health education should be given to those who will go to the endemic areas to improve their knowledge and awareness on prevention and control of schistosomiasis haematobia, thereby reducing the risk of exposure to the infested freshwater.

  8. The Menace of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Schistosomiasis among Rural Communities in Kano State.

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    Salwa Dawaki

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases, especially in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with Nigeria having the greatest number of cases of schistosomiasis worldwide. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP regarding schistosomiasis among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria.A cross-sectional study was carried out among 551 participants from Hausa communities in five local government areas in Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Moreover, faecal and urine samples were collected and examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium eggs respectively.The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium respectively, and 0.5% had co-infection of both species. Moreover, 74.5% of the participants had prior knowledge about schistosomiasis with 67.0% of them how it is transmitted and 63.8% having no idea about the preventive measures. Three-quarters of the respondents considered schistosomiasis a serious disease while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate, with only 34.7% of them seeking treatment from clinics/hospitals. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, education and employment status were reported. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, history of infection and educational level of the respondents were the most important factors significantly associated with the KAP on schistosomiasis among this population.Schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria and participants' knowledge about the disease was poor. Mass drug administration, community mobilization and health education regarding the cause, transmission and prevention of schistosomiasis

  9. Self-assessment of treatment compliance with antimuscarinic drugs and lower urinary tract condition among women with urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosilov, Kirill; Loparev, Sergey; Kuzina, Irina; Shakirova, Olga; Zhuravskaya, Natalya; Lobodenko, Alexandra

    2017-11-01

    Our aim was to determine the efficiency of the Medication Compliance Self-Report Inventory (MASRI) in self-reporting antimuscarinic drug treatment compliance among women with urinary incontinence (UI). The study assessed 347 women aged 18-65 (averaging 49.7) years with more than one urinary incontinence (UI) episode per day. Treatment compliance was tested at the beginning and at weeks 4, 8, and 12 using the MASRI, the Brief Medication Questionnaire (BMQ), and visual pill counts. The MASRI's constructive, concurrent, and discriminate validity was studied in comparison with an external standard that uses the chi-square and Spearman coefficient. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to identify optimum MASRI cutoffs that would predict noncompliance. Furthermore, the functional condition of the lower urinary tract was tested using voiding diaries, uroflowmetry, and cystometry. The correlation between the percentage of noncompliant women according to the MASRI, and individuals with a belief barrier with respect to the BMQ screen was r = 0.81 (p ≤0.05), r = 0.84 (p ≤0.05), and r = 0.79 (p ≤0.05). The correlation between the percentage of noncompliant women according to the MASRI and of women who missed >20% of their doses according to the Regimen Screen of the BMQ was r = 0.79, p ≤0.05, r = 0.82, p ≤0.01, r = 0.77, and p ≤0.05 at the control points. Finally, the percentage of noncompliant patients who self-reported correctly according to the MASRI data compared with the BMQ was 95.6%, 95.7%, and 96.6% at the control points. The MASRI entails acceptable validity for accurately predicting treatment compliance with antimuscarinic drugs among women who have had UI for >3 months.

  10. Urinary Schistosomiasis among Children in Murbai and Surbai Communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agere, H.; Wama, B. E.; Bingbeng, J. B.; Amuta, E. U.

    2016-01-01

    Background. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity of infection, and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis among children in Murbai and Surbai communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area (LGA), Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods. Urine samples were analysed by the standard filtration technique using 10 ml syringe, Swinnex polypropylene filter holder (13 mm diameter), and polycarbonate membrane filters (12 μm porosity). Sociodemographic data and water contact activities were collated from children using structured questionnaires. Results. A point prevalence of 58.54% was reported out of the urine samples examined. Males were significantly more infected than their female counterparts (71.15% versus 43.66%, χ 2 = 89.12, p = 0.000). The age-related prevalence showed 6–10 and 11–15 years significantly infected with 78.70% and 73.02%, respectively (χ 2 = 89.12, p = 0.000). Light intensity of infection, 62.51%, was significantly higher than heavy intensity, 37.48%, among the infected children (χ 2 = 365.8, p = 0.000). Water contact activities such as fishing (OR = 4.01, CI = 3.04–5.61, p = 0.000), rice farming (OR = 4.01, CI = 2.96–5.36, p = 0.000), and dry season farming (OR = 4.78, CI = 3.68–6.22, p = 0.000) were the risk factors exposing children to infection in the area. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to undertake a large scale deworming control programme using praziquantel in the area. PMID:28096819

  11. Urinary Schistosomiasis among Children in Murbai and Surbai Communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Houmsou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity of infection, and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis among children in Murbai and Surbai communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area (LGA, Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods. Urine samples were analysed by the standard filtration technique using 10 ml syringe, Swinnex polypropylene filter holder (13 mm diameter, and polycarbonate membrane filters (12 μm porosity. Sociodemographic data and water contact activities were collated from children using structured questionnaires. Results. A point prevalence of 58.54% was reported out of the urine samples examined. Males were significantly more infected than their female counterparts (71.15% versus 43.66%, χ2 = 89.12, p=0.000. The age-related prevalence showed 6–10 and 11–15 years significantly infected with 78.70% and 73.02%, respectively (χ2 = 89.12, p=0.000. Light intensity of infection, 62.51%, was significantly higher than heavy intensity, 37.48%, among the infected children (χ2 = 365.8, p=0.000. Water contact activities such as fishing (OR = 4.01, CI = 3.04–5.61, p=0.000, rice farming (OR = 4.01, CI = 2.96–5.36, p=0.000, and dry season farming (OR = 4.78, CI = 3.68–6.22, p=0.000 were the risk factors exposing children to infection in the area. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to undertake a large scale deworming control programme using praziquantel in the area.

  12. Maternal urogenital schistosomiasis; monitoring disease morbidity by simple reagent strips.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyetunde T Oyeyemi

    Full Text Available Urine analysis is one of the recommended antenatal guidelines for early diagnosis of pregnancy-associated complications. While in practice, urine analysis by dipstick had been used to provide useful information on other urinary tract infections, its applications for early detection of urogenital schistosomiasis in pregnant women is often times not given due attention in most endemic areas. Our study therefore assessed the performance of some common urinalysis parameters in the diagnosis of maternal urogenital schistosomiasis in endemic rural communities of Nigeria.The cross-sectional epidemiologic survey of urogenital schistosomiasis was conducted among pregnant women in Yewa North Local Government, Ogun State, Nigeria. The women were microscopically examined for infection with Schistosoma haematobium, visually observed for macrohematuria, and screened for microhematuria and proteinuria using standard urine chemical reagent strips. Of 261 volunteered participants, 19.9% tested positive for S. haematobium infection. The proportion of microhematuria (23.8% was significantly higher than that of macrohematuria (3.8% and proteinuria (16.8% (P<0.05. Microhematuria with sensitivity (82.7% and specificity (89.0% was the best diagnostic indicator of urogenital schistosomiasis. Macrohematuria with the least sensitivity (11.8% was however the most specific (98.1% for diagnosing urogenital schistosomiasis in pregnant women. Maximum microhematuria sensitivity (100.0% was observed in women between 15-19 years but sensitivity was consistently low in older age groups. Maximum sensitivity, specificity and predictive values (100.0% were recorded for microhematuria in first trimester women. Diagnostic efficiency of proteinuria and macrohematuria was also better in the first trimester women except the 25.0% specificity recorded for proteinuria. The overall diagnostic performance of microhematuria and proteinuria was better in secundigravidae.Microhematuria can be

  13. The impact of urinary schistosomiasis and praziquantel treatment on the nutritional status of Sudanese schoolchildren: a double Blind Placebo controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja'a, Yahia Ahmed

    1997-08-01

    A longitudinal double blind study was designed to investigate the impact of urinary schistosomiasis infection on the nutritional status of school children, in Rahad area of Northern kordofan. The children were allocated at random to either praziquantel treatment or placebo and followed for one year. The effect of the infection and resultant pathology, environmental and demographic factors, the dietary practices and socioeconomic conditions on the nutritional status of 800 children were studied cross- sectionally. Anthropometry and iron status were the indicators of the nutritional status in the study. The effect of praziquantel treatment on the nutritional status was assessed after 6 and 12 months. The data revealed a prevalence rate of 24.4% among 3880 boys and girls screened for urinary schistosomiasis in the town and villages surrounding the lagoon Turda. The study revealed statistically significant differences in intensity of infection when analyzed against sex, ethic group and frequency of visits to Turda. the intensity was greater among boys (t-value=2.45, p=0.015), non-arabs -t-value=2.64,p=0.009) and in those who visited the Turda>4 times a week (t-value=2.35 and p=0.017) than girls, arabs or those who less frequently visited Turda. Alternatively, no significant differences were found with age, rural or urban residence, presents literacy, house-latrine availability or home closeness to the Turda. The assessment of nutritional status revealed that 6 children (0.9%) were severely wasted i.e. very thin. The mildly wasted were 70 cases (10.9%), while severely stunted (very short) children were (1%) and mildly stunted were 69 (8.9%). seb ere undernutrition was indicated in 3 cases (0.4%) and mildly under nourished were 100 cases (12.8). The mean Hb concentration in all of the children was found to be 122.2±11.6 g/l. The mean ferritin concentration in the children who were infected with S.Haematobium and had negative malaria blood film was to be 28.6±2.3 ng

  14. [Epidemic situation of oversea imported schistosomiasis in China and thinking about its prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Xu, Jing

    2014-04-01

    The imported schistosomiasis cases in the Chinese literature and reports from the infectious disease monitoring information system from 1979 to 2013 were collected and compiled. Totally 365 cases were reported to be infected with outside schistosomiasis, including 239 cases of schistosomiasis haematobia (74.0%) and 71 cases of schistosomiasis mansoni (22.0%), and 42 foreigners (11.5%) and 323 Chinese (88.5%). The infection areas involved 15 countries and regions in Africa. Totally 74.92% of patients worked in the construction or geological prospecting in the wild field. According to the analysis of these cases, we found that the management system of prevention and control of imported schistosomiasis cases was not perfect including the high missing re-port rate, high misdiagnosis rate, and no standard diagnostic criteria. We suggest that all the levels of CDC or health administrative authorities should adopt the following relevant control measures to strengthen the imported schistosomiasis prevention and control in order to reduce the damage to the public health and the risk of the spread of African schistosomiasis in China: (1) to establish and perfect the imported schistosomiasis monitoring and control system in China; (2) to integrate the dynamic information platform of labor export and establish the comprehensive prevention and control management system of infectious diseases; (3) to standardize the diagnosis and treatment of oversea imported schistosomiasis; (4) to strengthen the research on the transmission risk of imported schistosomiasis in the territory of China.

  15. Adventure tourism and schistosomiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röser, Dennis; Bjerrum, Stephanie; Helleberg, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosis of schistosomiasis in travellers is a clinical challenge, since cases may present with no symptoms or a few non-specific symptoms. Here, we report on the laboratory and clinical findings in Danish travellers exposed to Schistosoma-infested water during white-water rafting ...

  16. Knowledge, attitude, and practices towards schistosomiasis among rural population in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sady, Hany; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Atroosh, Wahib M; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Nasr, Nabil A; Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Areeqi, Mona A; Ithoi, Init; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Chua, Kek Heng; Surin, Johari

    2015-08-25

    Schistosomiasis is highly prevalent in Yemen, with an estimated 3 million cases, particularly among rural communities. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) on schistosomiasis among rural communities in Yemen. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 households from ten rural districts in Yemen. Overall, 400 children were screened for urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. Moreover, parents were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire to collect information about the demographic and socioeconomic information and their KAP concerning schistosomiasis. A total of 127 (31.8%) children were found to be excreting schistosome eggs in either their urine or faeces (22.5% S. haematobium and 8.0% S. mansoni). Although 92.4% of the respondents had heard about schistosomiasis, 49.8%, 68.0% and 47.2% had knowledge concerning the transmission, signs and symptoms, and prevention, respectively. In addition, 77.1% considered schistosomiasis as harmful while 48.5% believed that schistosomiasis could be prevented, albeit their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate. Significant associations between the KAP and age, education, employment status and household monthly income were reported (P Yemen was inadequate, and that this could be a challenging obstacle to the elimination of schistosomiasis in these communities. Besides the current mass drug administration, school and community-based health education regarding schistosomiasis is imperative among these communities to significantly reduce the transmission and morbidity of schistosomiasis.

  17. Ultrasound monitoring of structural urinary tract disease in Schistosoma haematobium infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Charles H

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A major advance in our understanding of the natural history of Schistosoma haematobium-related morbidity has come through the introduction of the portable ultrasound machines for non-invasive examination of the kidneys and bladder. With the use of generators or battery packs to supply power in non-clinical field settings, and with the use of instant photography or miniaturized thermal printers to record permanent images, it is possible to examine scores of individuals in endemic communities every day. Broad-based ultrasound screening has allowed better definition of age-specific disease risks in urinary schistosomiasis. Results indicate that urinary tract abnormalities are common (18% overall prevalence in S. haematobium transmission areas, with a 2-4% risk of either severe bladder abnormality or advanced ureteral obstruction. In longitudinal surveys, ultrasound studies have shown that praziquantel and metrifonate therapy are rapidly effective in reversing urinary tract abnormalities among children. The benefits of treating adults are less well known, but research in progress should help to define this issue. Similarly, the prognosis of specific ultrasound findings needs to be clarified, and the ease of sonographic examination will make such long-term follow-up studies feasible. In summary, the painless, quick, and reproducible ultrasound examination has become an essential tool in the study of urinary schistosomiasis.

  18. Schistosomiasis research in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W.; Kristensen, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    , the current piece provides an umbrella for the 25-article collection, including current gaps and remaining research needs. Finally, post-CONTRAST initiatives are discussed and a speculative viewpoint is given on how schistosomiasis control/elimination will have evolved over the next several years....... alliance to optimize schistosomiasis control and transmission surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa - was ahead of the game. Indeed, launched in October 2006, this 4-year project funded by the European Commission made important contributions for sustainable schistosomiasis control in the selected African...... countries through innovation, validation and application of new tools and locally adapted intervention strategies complementary to preventive chemotherapy. Moreover, CONTRAST articulated a research agenda for schistosomiasis elimination, framed by 10 key questions. Here, we provide a rationale for CONTRAST...

  19. The effect of pelvic muscle exercises on urinary incontinency and self-esteem of elderly females with stress urinary incontinency, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar Jahromi, Marzieh; Talebizadeh, Malihe; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2014-09-28

    Millions of women are afflicted with stress urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence is mentioned as one of the geriatric syndromes, together with pressure ulcers, functional decline, falls, and low self-esteem. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of pelvic muscle exercises on urinary incontinency and self- esteem of elderly females with stress urinary incontinency in Shiraz, Iran, 2013. In this interventional study, 50 old females aged 60-74 years were chosen among the members of Jahandidegan center, and they were asked to sign the informed consent form and complete the demographic questionnaire. Then, Quid questionnaire was used for choosing the type of incontinence in the elderly females. Next, the participants completed the ICIQ and self-esteem questionnaires. Then, they were randomly assigned to case and control groups. Each participant took part in 8 training classes. Finally, the subjects filled the ICIQ and self-esteem questionnaires before and 2 months after the intervention. The results is shown that after the intervention, ICIQ score has a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.001). Also, after the treatment, self-esteem average scores of studied unit indicated a significant statistical difference in experimental group. In other words, the training sessions improved the score of self-esteem in the experimental group (Pexercises were an empowerment mechanism for incontinent women in improving their quality of life and self-esteem, so recommended that such these exercising programs be used in elderly health care centers as a factor to improve health promotion of elderlies 'that are suffering from urinary incontinence.

  20. Schistosomiasis and infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Christian; Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo B L

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that treatment for schistosomiasis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) attenuated HIV replication as measured by plasma HIV RNA. We investigated systemic inflammation as measured by plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor II...... (sTNF-rII), interleukin-8, (IL-8), and IL-10 during schistosomiasis and HIV co-infection and after schistosomiasis treatment. The cohort was composed of 378 persons who were or were not infected with HIV-1, Schistosoma haematobium, or S. mansoni. Schistosomiasis-infected persons were randomized...... to receive praziquantel (40 mg/kg) at baseline or at the three-month follow-up. sTNF-rII and IL-8 were positively associated with schistosomiasis intensity as measured by circulating anodic antigen (CAA), regardless of HIV status. Interleukin-10 was positively associated with CAA in HIV-negative participants...

  1. The Effect of Pelvic Muscle Exercises on Urinary Incontinency and Self-Esteem of Elderly Females With Stress Urinary Incontinency, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Marzieh Kargar; Talebizadeh, Malihe; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Millions of women are afflicted with stress urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence is mentioned as one of the geriatric syndromes, together with pressure ulcers, functional decline, falls, and low self-esteem. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of pelvic muscle exercises on urinary incontinency and self- esteem of elderly females with stress urinary incontinency in Shiraz, Iran, 2013. Material and Method: In this interventional study, 50 old females aged 60-74 years were chosen among the members of Jahandidegan center, and they were asked to sign the informed consent form and complete the demographic questionnaire. Then, Quid questionnaire was used for choosing the type of incontinence in the elderly females. Next, the participants completed the ICIQ and self-esteem questionnaires. Then, they were randomly assigned to case and control groups. Each participant took part in 8 training classes. Finally, the subjects filled the ICIQ and self-esteem questionnaires before and 2 months after the intervention. Result: The results is shown that after the intervention, ICIQ score has a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.001). Also, after the treatment, self-esteem average scores of studied unit indicated a significant statistical difference in experimental group. In other words, the training sessions improved the score of self-esteem in the experimental group (Pself-esteem, so recommended that such these exercising programs be used in elderly health care centers as a factor to improve health promotion of elderlies ’that are suffering from urinary incontinence. PMID:25716389

  2. Factors Associated With Self-reported and Medically Diagnosed Urinary Incontinence Among Community-Dwelling Older Women In Korea

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    Jeongok Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI in community-dwelling Korean women 60 years or older, and to identify factors associated with self-reported and medically diagnosed UI. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of data from the 2008 Actual Living Condition of the Elderly and Welfare Need Survey, which used a stratified two-stage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of 8,961 elderly Korean women. Results: Of the 8,961 women in this study, 579 (6.5% had self-reported UI, and 209 (2.3% were medically diagnosed with UI. As patient age and exercise ability of the upper extremities increased, risk for self-reported UI decreased (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96–0.99; OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98–0.99, respectively. In contrast, as the number of limited instrumental activities of daily living (IADL increased, the risk for self-reported UI increased (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.24–1.35. Overweight women were 1.94 times more likely to have self-reported UI compared to underweight women. Women with a history of stroke or asthma were more likely to have self-reported UI compared to women with no history. Also, women who reported being in good health were less likely to have UI, compared to women who reported being in poor health (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.31–0.70. Medically diagnosed UI was negatively associated with the number of limited IADL and exercise ability scores for the lower extremities (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80–0.92; OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97–0.99, respectively. In contrast, as the exercise ability score for the upper extremities increased, so did the risk for medically diagnosed UI (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01–1.03. Conclusions: An interventional program for home visit health services is needed for incontinent women who are highly dependent on others for IADL.

  3. Schistosomiasis in european travelers and migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lingscheid, Tilman; Kurth, Florian; Clerinx, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide and the infection is frequently found in travelers and migrants. The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health conducted a sentinel surveillance study on imported schistosomiasis between 1997 and 2010...... or antigen testing. Schistosomiasis remains a frequent infection in travelers and migrants to Europe. Travelers should be made aware of the risk of schistosomiasis infection when traveling to sub-Saharan Africa. Posttravel consultations particularly for returning expatriates are useful given the high...

  4. Have You Heard of Schistosomiasis? Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Nampula Province, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassi, Christian; Kajungu, Dan; Martin, Sandrine; Arroz, Jorge; Tallant, Jamie; Zegers de Beyl, Celine; Counihan, Helen; Newell, James N; Phillips, Anna; Whitton, Jane; Muloliwa, Artur Manuel; Graham, Kirstie

    2016-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease which affects almost 300 million people worldwide each year. It is highly endemic in Mozambique. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis relies mainly on mass drug administration (MDA), as well as adoption of basic sanitation practices. Individual and community perceptions of schistosomiasis are likely to have a significant effect on prevention and control efforts. In order to establish a baseline to evaluate a community engagement intervention with a focus on schistosomiasis, a survey to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to the disease was conducted. A representative cross-sectional household survey was carried out in four districts of Nampula province, Mozambique. Interviews were conducted in a total of 791 households, using a structured questionnaire. While awareness of schistosomiasis was high (91%), correct knowledge of how it is acquired (18%), transmitted (26%) and prevented (13%) was low among those who had heard of the disease. Misconceptions, such as the belief that schistosomiasis is transmitted through sexual contact (27%), were common. Only about a third of those who were aware of the disease stated that they practiced a protective behaviour and only a minority of those (39%) reported an effective behaviour. Despite several rounds of MDA for schistosomiasis in the recent past, only a small minority of households with children reported that at least one of them had received a drug to treat the disease (9%). Poor knowledge of the causes of schistosomiasis and how to prevent it, coupled with persisting misconceptions, continue to pose barriers to effective disease prevention and control. To achieve high levels of uptake of MDA and adoption of protective behaviours, it will be essential to engage individuals and communities, improving their understanding of the causes and symptoms of schistosomiasis, recommended prevention mechanisms and the rationale behind MDA.

  5. Knowledge, attitude, and practices on intestinal schistosomiasis among primary schoolchildren in the Lake Victoria basin, Rorya District, north-western Tanzania

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    David Z. Munisi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally school-age children, adolescents and young adults bear the highest burden of schistosomiasis. When developing a specific intervention to improve community’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs, existing KAPs must be taken into account. Therefore, this study was designed to determine schoolchildren’s KAPs on schistosomiasis in the study area. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Busanga and Kibuyi villages involving 513 schoolchildren. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and to assess KAP on schistosomiasis among primary schoolchildren in the study area. Results Of the 488 interviewed children, 391 (80.12% reported to have heard of schistosomiasis, with the majority 289 (73.91% citing school as the source of this knowledge. Swimming in the lake, worms, witchcraft, and mosquitoes were mentioned to be the cause for intestinal schistosomiasis. Fishing in the lake, drinking unboiled lake water, walking bare footed, and shaking hands were reported to be practices that may lead to contracting schistosomiasis. Only 156 (39.90% of the study respondents reported to know the signs of intestinal schistosomiasis. Avoiding swimming in the lake, drinking unboiled water and eating unwashed fruits were mentioned as preventive measures. Nearly 85% (412 reported understanding that there was a disease known as schistosomiasis; additionally, 419 (85.86% considered schistosomiasis as a dangerous disease and 418 (85.66% believed that schistosomiasis was treatable. Fishermen and schoolchildren were reported to be groups most at risk of schistosomiasis infection. Visiting the lake (for swimming and other gatherings was a common practice among study participants 471 (96.52%.Nearly 93% (451 of participants mentioned using lake water for domestic chores, and, although 407 (84.61% reported to own a toilet at home, only 229 (55.31% reported to always use a toilet for sanitation purposes

  6. Control of schistosomiasis transmission

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    Luiz C. de S. Dias

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success of control programmes, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in the world. More than 70 countries where 200 million individuals are evaluated to be infected of a total 600 million at risk. Though there have been important local success in the control of transmission, globally the infection has increased. Economic constrains in developing countries, environmental changes associated with migration and water resources development have been blocking the progress. The main objective of schistosomiasis control is to achieve reduction of disease due to schistosomiasis. We discussed the control measures like: health education, diagnosis and chemotherapy, safe water supplies, sanitation and snail control. We emphasized the need to give priority to school-age children and the importance of integrating the measures of control into locally available systems of health care. The control of schistosomiasis is directly related to the capacity of the preventive health services of an endemic country. The strategy of control requires long-term commitment from the international to the local level.

  7. Gaining and sustaining schistosomiasis control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezeamama, Amara E.; He, Chun-La; Shen, Ye

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) was established in 2008 to answer strategic questions about schistosomiasis control. For programme managers, a high-priority question is: what are the most cost-effective strategies for delivering preventiv...

  8. the role of jakara dam in the transmission of schistosomiasis 58

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    macrophytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Primary school pupils were interviewed for possible cases of schistosomiasis and water contact activities using a standardized self administered questionnaire, each pupil was interviewed for details of age, sex, water supply, whether they passed blood in urine and whether they ...

  9. Distribution of Peripheral Memory T Follicular Helper Cells in Patients with Schistosomiasis Japonica.

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    Xiaojun Chen

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a helminthic disease that affects more than 200 million people. An effective vaccine would be a major step towards eliminating the disease. Studies suggest that T follicular helper (Tfh cells provide help to B cells to generate the long-term humoral immunity, which would be a crucial component of successful vaccines. Thus, understanding the biological characteristics of Tfh cells in patients with schistosomiasis, which has never been explored, is essential for vaccine design.In this study, we investigated the biological characteristics of peripheral memory Tfh cells in schistosomiasis patients by flow cytometry. Our data showed that the frequencies of total and activated peripheral memory Tfh cells in patients were significantly increased during Schistosoma japonicum infection. Moreover, Tfh2 cells, which were reported to be a specific subpopulation to facilitate the generation of protective antibodies, were increased more greatly than other subpopulations of total peripheral memory Tfh cells in patients with schistosomiasis japonica. More importantly, our result showed significant correlations of the percentage of Tfh2 cells with both the frequency of plasma cells and the level of IgG antibody. In addition, our results showed that the percentage of T follicular regulatory (Tfr cells was also increased in patients with schistosomiasis.Our report is the first characterization of peripheral memory Tfh cells in schistosomasis patients, which not only provides potential targets to improve immune response to vaccination, but also is important for the development of vaccination strategies to control schistosomiasis.

  10. Schistosomiasis control in China

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    Hong-Chang Yuan

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available After three decades' efforts, schistosomiasis japonica were controlled in one-third (4/12 of endemic provinces and 68.2 (259/380 of endemic counties throughout the country. The remaining 121 endemic counties are located primarily in the lake and mountainous regions. The epidemiological and ecological features of the lake and mountainous areas are different from the other endemic areas. The major schistosomiasis control efforts in China can be characterized as follows: (1 Application of centralized leadership and management, since schistosomiasis control is a task not only of the Ministry of Public Health, but also of all local governments in the endemic areas; (2 Integration of actions taken by various departments or bureaus, such as agriculture, water conservation and public health; (3 Promotion of mass participation; (4 Organization of strong professional teams; (5 Raising sufficient funds. Strategies on schistosomiasis control applied in different areas are divided into three levels: (1 In the areas where the schistosomiasis has been successfully controlled, surveillance must be maintained and immediate action should be taken where new infections occur and/or vector snails are found, so that control can be reestablished quickly; (2 In the areas where schistosomiasis has been partially controlled, any residents and/or live-stock infected should be examined and treated promptly with due care, and environment modifying and/or mollusciding must be used to eliminate the remaining snails; (3 In the areas where transmission has not been controlled, the main strategy is to control morbidity. Mass or selective chemotherapy with praziquental should be applied to both infected persosns and the live-stock, and environment modification for the snail-ridden areas should be taken but should be coordinated with agriculture where possible. Advance cases must be treated; and epidemics of Katayama fever prevented; water supply and sanitation shoud be improved

  11. Human plasma lipid modulation in schistosomiasis mansoni depends on apolipoprotein E polymorphism.

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    Caíque Silveira Martins da Fonseca

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mansoni is a parasitic liver disease, which causes several metabolic disturbances. Here, we evaluate the influence of Apolipoprotein E (APOE gene polymorphism, a known modulator of lipid metabolism, on plasma lipid levels in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis.Blood samples were used for APOE genotyping and to measure total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and triglycerides. Schistosomiasis patients had reduced TC, LDL-C and triglycerides (25%, 38% and 32% lower, respectively; Pε3>ε4 was absent in patients (ε2 or ε4>ε3, and the increase in HDL-C of ε2 or ε4 patients compared to ε3 patients was not seen in the control groups.We confirm that human schistosomiasis causes dyslipidemia and report for the first time that certain changes in plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels depend on APOE gene polymorphism. Importantly, we also concluded that S. mansoni disrupts the expected regulation of plasma lipids by the different ApoE isoforms. This finding suggests ways to identify new metabolic pathways affected by schistosomiasis and also potential molecular targets to treat associated morbidities.

  12. [Study on the change of semantic perspective of schistosomiasis control in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-ying; Liu, Si-yuan; Li, Yu-ye; Deng, Yao; Yang, Kun

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the evolution process, discourse and semantic meaning of schistosomiasis prevention and control, so as to provide suggestions for control work. The official documents and mainstream media reports of schistosomiasis prevention and control were selected at different periods as discourse samples, and the deep social reasons behind the strategy change and the semantic meaning of the utterance were analyzed at different periods. The discourse of schistosomiasis prevention and control experienced the evolution of the political discourse, pluralistic discourse and public discourse, and the semantic connotations showed the authority conflict semantic features, and then transferred to semantic cooperation. The prevention and control of schistosomiasis have different semantic meanings at different periods, and the prevention and control work should correspond to a social practice, seek truth from facts, correctly understand the actual situation, and then establish the effective control policy.

  13. Epidemiology of Malaria, Schistosomiasis, Geohelminths, Anemia and Malnutrition in the Context of a Demographic Surveillance System in Northern Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Gamboa, Dina; Pedro, João Mário; Fançony, Cláudia; Langa, António Justino; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Stothard, J. Russell; Nery, Susana Vaz

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria, schistosomiasis and geohelminth infection are linked to maternal and child morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowing the prevalence levels of these infections is vital to guide governments towards the implementation of successful and cost-effective disease control initiatives. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study of 1,237 preschool children (0–5 year olds), 1,142 school-aged children (6–15 year olds) and 960 women (>15 year olds) was conducted to understand the distribution of malnutrition, anemia, malaria, schistosomiasis (intestinal and urinary) and geohelminths in a north-western province of Angola. We used a recent demographic surveillance system (DSS) database to select and recruit suitable households. Malnutrition was common among children (23.3% under-weight, 9.9% wasting and 32.2% stunting), and anemia was found to be a severe public health problem (i.e., >40%). Malaria prevalence was highest among preschool children reaching 20.2%. Micro-hematuria prevalence levels reached 10.0% of preschool children, 16.6% of school-aged children and 21.7% of mothers. Geohelminth infections were common, affecting 22.3% of preschool children, 31.6% of school-aged children and 28.0% of mothers. Conclusions Here we report prevalence levels of malaria, schistosomiasis and geohelminths; all endemic in this poorly described area where a DSS has been recently established. Furthermore we found evidence that the studied infections are associated with the observed levels of anemia and malnutrition, which can justify the implementation of integrated interventions for the control of these diseases and morbidities. PMID:22493664

  14. Cerebral Schistosomiasis Caused by Schistosoma mansoni: a Case Report with Clinical Analysis

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    M Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nCentral nervous system involvement arising from schistosomiasis is uncommon. It may be produced most fre­quently by Schistosoma japonicum infection, but reports of S. mansoni presenting as an intracerebral mass lesion are particularly rare. The authors describe the case of a 35-year-old woman with a 3-month history of partial epilep­tic seizures and head­aches. She immigrated to Egypt 4 years ago and had worked in Iraq for 2 years after the immigration. The patient's gen­eral physical and neurological examinations were unremarkable. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging revealed an enhanc­ing lesion with surrounding edema and mild mass effect in the left frontal lobe. A stereotactic brain biopsy demonstrated intraparenchymal granulomas surrounding S. mansoni eggs. S. mansoni was identified by stool examination. Prednisone (1 mg/kg per day for 1 week, with gradual with­drawal during the following 3 weeks and praziquantel (2 doses at 20 mg/kg per day therapy was initiated. The patient's symptoms resolved following medical treatment and the follow-up MR imaging yielded normal findings. This case is the rare imported case of cerebral schistosomiasis in China and the neuroschistosomiasis should be considered as the patient lived in a region in which this disease is endemic.

  15. Development and testing of Schisto and Ladders™, an innovative health educational game for control of schistosomiasis in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejike, Cynthia Uchechukwu; Oluwole, Akinola Stephen; Mogaji, Hammed Oladeji; Adeniran, Adebiyi Abdulhakeem; Alabi, Oladimeji Michael; Ekpo, Uwem Friday

    2017-06-28

    Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem in many regions of the world, including Nigeria. Current control strategy involves mass drug administration with praziquantel to the endemic population. To complement and sustain on-going preventive chemotherapy, we developed a health educational game named Schisto and Ladders™ and tested its potential for the control of schistosomiasis among schoolchildren living in Imala-Odo, a highly endemic community near Abeokuta, Nigeria. One hundred school children were randomly selected and divided into intervention and control groups through balloting. Their knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) concerning schistosomiasis transmission, control and prevention were assessed using structured questionnaires. Schisto and Ladders™ game were given to the intervention group and the popular Snake and Ladders™ game to the control group. Both games were played for 2 months under the supervision of their class teachers. A post-KAP assessment was carried out in both groups, including focus group discussions (FGDs) to investigate knowledge and the impact of the games. Knowledge about urinary schistosomiasis and its transmission significantly improved (P = 0.000) in the intervention group (68.0%) compared to the control group (8.0%). FGDs showed that the frequency of visits to dam water also significantly reduced (P = 0.048) in the intervention group (18.0%) compared to the control group (40.0%). There was a significant increase in knowledge regarding risk behaviours, prevention and control of schistosomiasis among the intervention group, but no new knowledge gained in the control group. This study demonstrates the potential of the health education game Schisto and Ladders™ for teaching basic health education and promoting behavioural changes among schoolchildren in endemic communities.

  16. Giant urinary bladder calculus: Case report | Otieno | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vertical calculus weighing more than 100 g is categorised as a giant urinary bladder stone. Giant urinary bladder stones are very rare and very few cases have been reported in English literature and only one case from Africa. This is a case report of a patient with a giant urinary bladder calculus presenting as a rectal ...

  17. Schistosomiasis of the spinal cord value of magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, C.; Rey, A.; Ast, G.; Cambier, J.; Masson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report a case of spinal cord schistosomiasis presenting as myelitis, with rapidly developing deficit, signs of severe cerebrospinal fluid inflammation, normal myelography and computerized tomography. The patient's country of origin suggested schistosomiasis, and the diagnosis was confirmed by serology and rectal biopsy which showed eggs of Schistosoma mansoni. Magnetic resonance imaging was helpful as it confirmed the absence of spinal cord compression and showed a lesion of the conus medullaris, this region being the most frequent site of schistosomial myelitis [fr

  18. Adventure tourism and schistosomiasis: serology and clinical findings in a group of Danish students after white-water rafting in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röser, Dennis; Bjerrum, Stephanie; Helleberg, Marie; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel; David, Kim Peter; Thybo, Søren; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2018-04-01

    Diagnosis of schistosomiasis in travellers is a clinical challenge, since cases may present with no symptoms or a few non-specific symptoms. Here, we report on the laboratory and clinical findings in Danish travellers exposed to Schistosoma -infested water during white-water rafting on the Ugandan part of the upper Nile River in July 2009. Forty travellers were offered screening for Schistosoma -specific antibodies. Serological tests were performed 6-65 weeks after exposure. A self-reporting questionnaire was used to collect information on travel activity and health history, fresh water exposure, and symptoms. Seropositive cases were referred to hospitals where clinical and biochemical data were collected. Schistosoma -specific antibodies were detected in 13/35 (37 %) exposed participants, with 4/13 (31 %) seroconverting later than 2 months following exposure. Four of thirteen (31 %) cases reported ≥3 symptoms compatible with schistosomiasis, with a mean onset of 41 days following exposure. No Schistosoma eggs were detected in stool or urine in any of the cases. Peripheral eosinophilia (>0.45×10 9 cells l -1 ) was seen in 4/13 cases, while IgE levels were normal in all cases. Schistosomiasis in travellers is not necessarily associated with specific signs or symptoms, eosinophilia, raised IgE levels, or detection of eggs. The only prognostic factor for infection was exposure to freshwater in a Schistosoma -endemic area. Seroconversion may occur later than 2 months after exposure and therefore - in the absence of other diagnostic evidence - serology testing should be performed up to at least 2-3 months following exposure to be able to rule out schistosomiasis.

  19. Reversal of Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Murine Schistosomiasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In schistosomiasis, healing of parasite egg- induced liver ... greater in liver than in other tissues. It has been reported that ..... biology, diseases, and potentials for therapy. Annul Rev Biochem ... regeneration in cirrhotic rats. J Hepatol, 2002;.

  20. [Study on interventions based on urban - rural integration system construction to consolidate achievements of schistosomiasis control in hilly schistosomiasis endemic areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong-Zhi, Li; Yang, Liu; Hui, Zhang; Yi, Zhang; Bo, Zhong; Jian-Jun, Wu; Chun-Xia, Yang

    2017-09-28

    To explore the effectiveness of comprehensive schistosomiasis control interventions based on urban-rural integration system construction to carry out the schistosomiasis control in hilly schistosomiasis endemic areas, so as to offer a new mode to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control in the new situation. Shouan Town and Changqiu Township in Pujiang County in hilly schistosomiasis endemic regions were selected as demonstration areas. The comprehensive schistosomiasis control interventions based on urban-rural integration system construction were implemented, including the land consolidation, centralized residence and so on. The effectiveness the interventions was evaluated. In Shouan Town and Changqiu Township, the transformed environments with Oncomelania hupensis snail habitats were 1 330.61 hm 2 and 1 456.84 hm 2 , the areas with snails decreased from 94.31 hm 2 and 83.00 hm 2 in 2000 to both 0 in 2015, the positive rates of serological tests for schistosomiasis decreased from 11.8% and 7.53% in 2000 to 1.01% and 1.86% in 2015, and the positive rates of parasitological tests decreased from 0.18% and 0.15% in 2000 to both 0 in 2015 respectively. The numbers of cattle decreased from 358 and 368 in 2000 to 4 and 6 in 2015 respectively. In 2000, the schistosome infection rates of cattle were 3.63% and 6.51% in Shouan Town and Changqiu Township respectively, and from 2004, no infected cattle were found. The comprehensive schistosomiasis control interventions based on urban-rural integration system construction can decrease the schistosome infection rate and area with snails effectively, providing a new mode for schistosomiasis elimination.

  1. Long-term impact of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control: a comparison of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992-2001. Its short-term impact has been assessed from non-spatial perspective, but its long-term impact remains unclear and a spatial evaluation has not previously been conducted. Here we compared the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk using national datasets in the lake and marshland regions from 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 to evaluate the long-term impact of WBLP strategy on China's schistosomiasis burden. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hierarchical Poisson regression model was developed in a Bayesian framework with spatially correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneities at the county-level, modeled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure and a spatially unstructured Gaussian distribution, respectively. There were two important findings from this study. The WBLP strategy was found to have a good short-term impact on schistosomiasis control, but its long-term impact was not ideal. It has successfully reduced the morbidity of schistosomiasis to a low level, but can not contribute further to China's schistosomiasis control because of the current low endemic level. A second finding is that the WBLP strategy could not effectively compress the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk. To achieve further reductions in schistosomiasis-affected areas, and for sustainable control, focusing on the intermediate host snail should become the next step to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission within the two most affected regions surrounding the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Furthermore, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the WBLP's morbidity control strategy may need to continue for some time until snails in the upriver provinces have been well controlled. CONCLUSION: It is difficult to further reduce morbidity due to schistosomiasis using a chemotherapy-based control strategy in the lake and marshland regions of China

  2. Long-term impact of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control: a comparison of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Zhu, Rong; Ward, Michael P; Xu, Wanghong; Zhang, Lijuan; Guo, Jiagang; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Qingwu

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992-2001. Its short-term impact has been assessed from non-spatial perspective, but its long-term impact remains unclear and a spatial evaluation has not previously been conducted. Here we compared the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk using national datasets in the lake and marshland regions from 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 to evaluate the long-term impact of WBLP strategy on China's schistosomiasis burden. A hierarchical Poisson regression model was developed in a Bayesian framework with spatially correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneities at the county-level, modeled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure and a spatially unstructured Gaussian distribution, respectively. There were two important findings from this study. The WBLP strategy was found to have a good short-term impact on schistosomiasis control, but its long-term impact was not ideal. It has successfully reduced the morbidity of schistosomiasis to a low level, but can not contribute further to China's schistosomiasis control because of the current low endemic level. A second finding is that the WBLP strategy could not effectively compress the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk. To achieve further reductions in schistosomiasis-affected areas, and for sustainable control, focusing on the intermediate host snail should become the next step to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission within the two most affected regions surrounding the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Furthermore, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the WBLP's morbidity control strategy may need to continue for some time until snails in the upriver provinces have been well controlled. It is difficult to further reduce morbidity due to schistosomiasis using a chemotherapy-based control strategy in the lake and marshland regions of China because of the current low endemic levels of infection. The future control

  3. Schistosomiasis control in Brazil

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    Katz Naftale

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1975 the Special Programme for Schistosomiasis Control was introduced in Brazil with the objective of controlling this parasitic disease in six northeastern states. The methodology applied varied largely from state to state, but was based mainly on chemotherapy, This Programme was modified about ten years after it beginning with the main goals including control of morbidity and the blockage of establishment of new foci in non-endemic areas. In two states, Bahia and Minas Gerais, the schistosomiasis control programme started in 1979 and 1983, respectively. The recently made evaluation of those two programmes is the main focus of this paper. It must also be pointed out, that the great majority of the studies performed by different researchers in Brazil, at different endemic areas, consistently found significant decrease on prevalence and incidence, when control measures are repeatedly used for several years. Significant decrease of hepatosplenic forms in the studied areas is well documented in Brazil. After more than 20 years of schistosomiasis control programmes in our country, chemotherapy has shown to be a very important tool for the control of morbidity and to decrease prevalence and incidence in endemic areas. Nevertheless, in medium and long terms, sanitation, water supply, sewage draining and health education seem to be the real tools when the aim is persistent and definitive schistosomiasis control.

  4. Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bilharzia) Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is a neglected tropical disease caused by parasitic worms. It is ... 1 Inclusion of Minorities Part 2 Inclusion of Children Data Safety Monitoring Plan Protection Human Subjects from ...

  5. An outbreak of schistosomiasis in travellers returning from endemic areas: the importance of rigorous tracing in peer groups exposed to risk of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blach, Ola; Rai, Bhavan; Oates, Ken; Franklin, Grant; Bramwell, Steve

    2012-03-01

    Each year, schools across Scotland send their students on exchange programmes to Malawi. Between 2005 and 2009, 22.8% of Scotland's new cases of schistosomiasis were from freshwater exposure in Malawi, with 41.5% diagnosed in 15-24 year olds. In January 2011, a 17-year-old male presented to our urology department with visible haematuria following freshwater exposure during a school trip to Malawi. He was subsequently diagnosed with urinary schistosomiasis. The potential involvement of other individuals from the trip prompted further public health enquiry. The school, public health department and education authorities were notified promptly and all individuals potentially exposed to Schistosoma haematobium were invited for screening. All 21 participants of the exchange programme underwent serological screening. Thirteen tested positive for Schistosoma infection. Only two individuals displayed symptoms of schistosomiasis; the other 11 were asymptomatic. Infection rates, even following a limited exposure to S. haematobium, are high. The majority of seropositive cases may never have symptoms. Therefore, a history of foreign travel to endemic schistosomiasis areas should be sought from any young person presenting with visible heamaturia and appropriate tests instigated. Schools should adopt policies forbidding activities involving freshwater exposure in Malawi. Effective public health measures must be set in place to trace and treat any other possible cases of exposure.

  6. Macroscopic hematuria: A rare etiology in western countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahjat Barakat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide, the infection frequently being found in migrants and travelers, its recognition in Italy may be delayed as patients may either present symptoms or be asymptomatic, especially with regard to localization in the bladder, in a similar way to other infectious diseases. We report a case of urinary schistosomiasis in a young African male with persistent hematuria which did not respond to antibiotic treatment administered on suspicion of a urinary bacterial infection. The present case indicates that urinary schistosomiasis should be ruled out, especially in those patients presenting symptoms and coming from areas known to be endemic for helminthiasis. Finally, bladder polyps must be ruled out in cases of migrants with unexplained urinary inflammation associated either with or without hematuria.

  7. Relationships Among Use of Complementary and Alternative Interventions, Urinary Incontinence, Quality of Life, and Self-esteem in Women With Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz, Özge; Altay, Birsen

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations among sociodemographic characteristics, urinary incontinence (UI) characteristics, UI-specific quality of life and self-esteem, and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions for UI. Correlational-descriptive research. This sample comprised 394 female patients 18 years or older cared for in the urology and gynecology outpatient clinics of a university hospital in Samsun, Turkey. Participants completed an investigator-developed questionnaire that included 2 validated instruments, King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Descriptive statistics were used for demographic data and use of CAM interventions. Variables associated with CAM use were assessed using χ analysis. The differences between using CAM and scales points of the KHQ and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale were assessed using the t test, and the relationship between the KHQ and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale was assessed using correlation analysis. Thirty-three percent (n = 130) of women indicated using CAM interventions to manage their UI. The most common CAM intervention, reported by 52.6% of respondents, was prayer. Women with lower UI-specific quality of life and self-esteem scores were more likely to report using CAM interventions (P self-esteem and condition-specific health-related quality of life than women who did not use these interventions.

  8. [Implementation of precision control to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2016-02-01

    The integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, which has been implemented since 2004, accelerated the progress towards schistosomiasis control in China, and achieved transmission control of the disease across the country by the end of 2015, which achieved the overall objective of the Mid- and Long-term National Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis (2004-2015) on schedule. Then, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination by 2025 was proposed in China in 2014. To achieve this new goal on schedule, we have to address the key issues, and implement precision control measures with more precise identification of control targets, so that we are able to completely eradicate the potential factors leading to resurgence of schistosomiasis transmission and enable the achievement of schistosomiasis elimination on schedule. Precision schistosomiasis control, a theoretical innovation of precision medicine in schistosomiasis control, will provide new insights into schistosomiasis control based on the conception of precision medicine. This paper describes the definition, interventions and the role of precision schistosomiasis control in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China, and demonstrates that sustainable improvement of professionals and integrated control capability at grass-root level is a prerequisite to the implementation of schistosomiasis control, precision schistosomiasis control is a key to the further implementation of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, and precision schistosomiasis control is a guarantee of curing schistosomiasis patients and implementing schistosomiasis control program and interventions.

  9. [Survey of current situation of schistosomiasis health education in Wuxi City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiao-jun; Gao, Dong-lin; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Bing

    2015-04-01

    To understand the current situation of schistosomiasis health education in in Wuxi City where schistosomiasis transmission has been interrupted, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the health education strategies. Face to face interviews and a professional designed questionnaire were used to collect the information of the current schistosomiasis health education and investigate the awareness of schistosomiasis knowledge in primary and middle schools and in communities. The total awareness rate of schistosomiasis knowledge was 87.7% among 873 students and the figure was 83.0% among 693 community residents. The students who studied in the schools with more than 1 class hour of schistosomiasis health education, completed schistosomiasis health education material or teaching plan, and implementing health education through multiple ways had higher knowledge awareness rates compared with the schools without (χ2 = 291.408, 709.622, 13.751, all P <0.001). The residents living in the communities with schistosomiasis health education through broadcast/TV or square propaganda had a higher knowledge awareness rate compared with the communities without (χ2= 90.772, 47.436, all P < 0.001). The awareness rates of schistosomiasis knowledge among both students and community residents in Wuxi City are low. Therefore, the schistosomiasis control health education should be strengthened.

  10. Mitrofanoff Urinary Diversion: A Report of Three Cases | Mugalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of life in patients with urinary incontinence or irreparable urethral stricturing can be improved by diversion with construction of catheterizable urinary stomas. We report our experience with three patients who required urinary diversion and underwent the Mitrafanoff procedure. The cases involved an eight year old ...

  11. Control of urinary schistosomiasis on Zanzibar (Unguja Island: a pilot evaluation of the educational impact of the Juma na Kichocho health booklet within primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JR Stothard

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available To improve health education within primary schools, the health education booklet Juma na kichocho was evaluated during a study within 5 schools using key-informant questionnaires that recorded children's knowledge and attitude (KA towards schistosomiasis before and after daily structured-use of booklets. A total of 229 schoolchildren (114 boys : 115 girls of between 11 and 15 years of age were interviewed and re-assessed after a working school week. Existing and putative booklet-induced changes in KA scores for schistosomiasis were compared directly against equivalent KA scores for malaria. In total 47.4% of children were already aware that schistosomiasis was a water-borne disease while only 10.5% knew of its exact aetiology; after booklet intervention these levels increased to 54.6 and 15.7%, respectively. The majority of children still failed, however, to realise that re-infection could take place soon after treatment. While a positive increase was observed for children's total KA questionnaire scores for both malaria and schistosomiasis after booklet intervention, these were not statistically significant. In the context of control, further educational efforts are needed to promote and guide behavioural change, especially in relation to reduction of environmental water contact.

  12. Two cases of schistosomiasis japonica diagnosed on computed tomography and ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Tatsuo; Midorikawa, Shigeo; Hagiri, Masumi; Itoh, Haruhisa; Haku, Eijitsu (Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-12-01

    We reported two cases of schistosomiasis japonica which showed pathognomonic pattern on liver C.T. and ultrasonography. Schistosomiasis japonica is an endemic disease in areas of Japan, but only chronic case of the disease is found now since Schistosoma Japonicum is thought to be died out in Japan. The adult worms are most commonly in branches of portal system, such as superior mesenteric vein, and many eggs are carried to the liver, where they cause inflammatory pseudotubercle formation, periportal fibrosis, and calcifications in interlobular connective tissue. According to Nakayama et al, pathognomonic pattern of schistosomiasis japonica on U.S. for the liver consists of the amounts of the eggs' calcifications, that is, the more eggs' calcifications, the more pathognomonic U.S. finding. Typical sonographic finding in the liver is network or fishscale pattern, which consists of streaky high level echo and internal low level echo. C.T. similarly demonstrates mosaic high density streak resulting from eggs' calcifications in peripheral portal branches. In addition, if patient's past history shows the life in the endemic area such as these two cases, we can easily make a diagnosis of ''schistosomiasis japonica''.

  13. Two cases of schistosomiasis japonica diagnosed on computed tomography and ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Tatsuo; Midorikawa, Shigeo; Hagiri, Masumi; Itoh, Haruhisa; Haku, Eijitsu

    1982-01-01

    We reported two cases of schistosomiasis japonica which showed pathognomonic pattern on liver C.T. and ultrasonography. Schistosomiasis japonica is an endemic disease in areas of Japan, but only chronic case of the disease is found now since Schistosoma Japonicum is thought to be died out in Japan. The adult worms are most commonly in branches of portal system, such as superior mesenteric vein, and many eggs are carried to the liver, where they cause inflammatory pseudotubercle formation, periportal fibrosis, and calcifications in interlobular connective tissue. According to Nakayama et al, pathognomonic pattern of schistosomiasis japonica on U.S. for the liver consists of the amounts of the eggs' calcifications, that is, the more eggs' calcifications, the more pathognomonic U.S. finding. Typical sonographic finding in the liver is network or fishscale pattern, which consists of streaky high level echo and internal low level echo. C.T. similarly demonstrates mosaic high density streak resulting from eggs' calcifications in peripheral portal branches. In addition, if patient's past history shows the life in the endemic area such as ours two cases, we can easily make a diagnosis of ''schistosomiasis japonica''

  14. Nutrition and acute schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eridan M. Coutinho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In northeast Brazil, nutritional deficiency diseases and schistosomiasis mansoni overlap. An experimental model, wich reproduces the marasmatic clinical form of protein-energy malnutrition, was developed in this laboratory to study these interactions. Albino Swiss mice were fed with a food association ingested usually by human populations in northeast Brazil. This diet (Regional Basic Diet - RBD has negative effects on the growth, food intake and protein utilization in infected mice (acute phase of murine schistosomiasis. Nitrogen balance studies have also shown that infection with Schistosoma mansoni has apparently no effect on protein intestinal absorption in well nourished mice. However, the lowest absorption ratios have been detected among RBD - fed infected animals, suggesting that suprerimposed schistosome infection aggravated the nutritional status of the undernourished host. The serum proteins electrophoretic pattern, as far as albumins are concerned, is quite similar for non-infected undernourished and infected well-fed animals. So, the significance of albumins as a biochemical indicator of the nutritional status of human populations residing in endemic foci of Manson's schistosomiasis, is discussable.

  15. CASE REPORT: A GIANT URINARY BLADDER STONE IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vesical calculus weighing more than 100g is categorized as a giant urinary bladder stone. Male preponderance for urinary bladder calculi is well known. A rare case of a giant urinary bladder calculus weighing 1200g and occurring in a female patient is reported. The stone was removed by open vesicolithotomy.

  16. Impact of schistosomiasis on quality of life and productivity of workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, M I; Moustafa, Y A; Foda, N; Khashab, S; Moemen, M; Abo el-Naga, R M

    2002-01-01

    The effect of schistosomiasis on quality of life (QOL) and productivity of workers was examined. In a textile factory in Alexandria, Egypt, personal, occupational and sociodemographic data were collected from 172 workers with schistosomiasis and 172 workers without schistosomiasis. Several indicators of productivity and the World Health Organization QOL brief were used to determine the impact of schistosomiasis. The disease affected the general, physical and independence, psychological and spiritual, and social domains of QOL. Although the productivity score of workers with schistosomiasis did not differ significantly from the control group, they had significantly lower additional hours of work and lower total incentives/month. A significant relationship was found between severity of schistosomiasis and QOL domains and productivity indicators.

  17. The Burden of Urinary Incontinence and Urinary Bother Among Elderly Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Ryan P.; Marshall, Lynn M.; Wang, Patty Y.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Parsons, J. Kellogg

    2014-01-01

    Background Data describing urinary health in elderly, community-dwelling prostate cancer (PCa) survivors are limited. Objective To elucidate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary bother, and incontinence in elderly PCa survivors compared with peers without PCa. Design, setting, and participants A cross-sectional analysis of 5990 participants in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Research Group, a cohort study of community-dwelling men ≥65 yr. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis We characterized urinary health using self-reported urinary incontinence and the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI). We compared urinary health measures according to type of PCa treatment in men with PCa and men without PCa using multivariate log-binomial regression to generate prevalence ratios (PRs). Results and limitations At baseline, 706 men (12%) reported a history of PCa, with a median time since diagnosis of 6.3 yr. Of these men, 426 (60%) reported urinary incontinence. In adjusted analyses, observation (PR: 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15–3.21; p = 0.01), surgery (PR: 4.68; 95% CI, 4.11–5.32; p incontinence. Daily incontinence risk increased with time since diagnosis independently of age. Observation (PR: 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00–1.78; p = 0.05), surgery (PR: 1.25; 95% CI, 1.10–1.42; p = 0.0008), and ADT (PR: 1.50; 95% CI, 1.26–1.79; p urinary incontinence, which rose with increasing survivorship duration. Observation, surgery, and ADT were each associated with increased urinary bother. These data suggest a substantially greater burden of urinary health problems among elderly PCa survivors than previously recognized. PMID:23587870

  18. prevalence of schistosomiasis among secondary school boarding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emmy

    the study area. Keywords: Prevalence, Schistosomiasis, Boarding students, Potiskum, North-Eastern Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Schistosomiasis is the most common parasite transmitted through contact with fresh water. It is endemic in more than 70 low income countries where it occurs in rural areas and the fringes of cities.

  19. Schistosomiasis and HIV in rural Zimbabwe: efficacy of treatment of schistosomiasis in individuals with HIV coinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence from experimental models that the praziquantel-induced clearance of schistosomiasis is dependent on the host's immune response. Consequently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency may impair the effect of praziquantel treatment.......There is evidence from experimental models that the praziquantel-induced clearance of schistosomiasis is dependent on the host's immune response. Consequently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency may impair the effect of praziquantel treatment....

  20. [Investigation on schistosomiasis cognitive levels of people from Chaohu area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Sha, Jian-jun; Huang, Hao; Cao, Zhi-guo; Zhao, Jin-hong; Li, Chao-pin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the cognitive levels of people from Chaohu area, Anhui Province about the prevention and control knowledge of schistosomiasis before the water transfer project operation, so as to provide the reference for formulating the health education intervention. A schistosomiasis questionnaire survey was conducted among the students, fishermen, boat people and villagers from Chaohu selected by the random cluster sampling from May to October, 2014. A total of 1 140 questionnaires were issued with the actual recovery of 1 096 copies and 1 032 valid questionnaires. The awareness rate of prevention and control knowledge of schistosomiasis was from 11.72% to 71.71%. The highest awareness rate was in the "know schistosomiasis", however the lowest awareness rate was in the "know the intermediate host of schistosomiasis". Catching fish or shrimp in river or lake was the main way of contacting water in production activities (39.05%), and swimming or playing in river or lake was the main way of contacting water in life activities (63.18%). The prevention and control knowledge of schistosomiasis by teaching was at a rate of 41.47% on average, and the main way was anti-schistosomiasis professionals going to countryside to do health education (49.53%). That the feces directly discharged into water accounted for 91.14% in fishman and boatman. It is necessary for people from Chaohu to carry out various forms of health education of schistosomiasis prevention and control before the water transfer project operation.

  1. Mapping and prediction of schistosomiasis in Nigeria using compiled survey data and Bayesian geospatial modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekpo, Uwem F.; Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis prevalence data for Nigeria were extracted from peer-reviewed journals and reports, geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide geographical information system database for the generation of point prevalence maps. This exercise revealed that the disease is endemic in 35 of the cou......Schistosomiasis prevalence data for Nigeria were extracted from peer-reviewed journals and reports, geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide geographical information system database for the generation of point prevalence maps. This exercise revealed that the disease is endemic in 35...

  2. Enhancing Schistosomiasis Control Strategy for Zimbabwe: Building on Past Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses J. Chimbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are prevalent in Zimbabwe to levels that make schistosomiasis a public health problem. Following three national surveys to map the disease prevalence, a national policy on control of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths is being developed. This paper reviews the experiences that Zimbabwe has in the area of schistosomiasis control with a view to influence policy. A case study approach to highlight key experiences and outcomes was adopted. The benefits derived from intersectoral collaboration that led to the development of a model irrigation scheme that incorporates schistosomiasis control measures are highlighted. Similarly, the benefits of using plant molluscicides and fish and duck biological agents (Sargochromis codringtonii and Cairina moschata are highlighted. Emphasis was also placed on the importance of utilizing locally developed water and sanitation technologies and the critical human resource base in the area of schistosomiasis developed over years. After synthesis of the case studies presented, it was concluded that while there is a need to follow the WHO recommended guidelines for schistosomiasis control it is important to develop a control strategy that is informed by work already done in the country. The importance of having a policy and local guidelines for schistosomiasis control is emphasized.

  3. The association between self-reported versus nicotine metabolite-confirmed smoking status and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2018-05-01

    There are no data comparing the relationship between coronary artery calcification and self-reported and cotinine-verified smoking. This study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and urinary cotinine or self-reported smoking status in Korean adults. Study participants included 22 797 individuals (19 181 men; mean age±SD 39.2±7.1 years) who were enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study between 2011 and 2013, and who had urinary cotinine and CAC measurements. Cotinine-verified current smokers were defined as having a urinary cotinine level of above 50 ng/ml. The prevalence of never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers according to the self-reported questionnaires was 44.6, 24.2, and 31.2%, respectively, and that of cotinine-verified current smokers was 30.2%. The prevalence of the presence of CAC in self-reported current smokers was higher than that in self-reported never/former smokers (13.7 vs. 10.2%, P<0.001), and that in cotinine-verified current smokers was higher than that in cotinine-verified never smokers (14.0 vs. 10.2%, P<0.001). A multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for the variables with univariate relationships showed that self-reported former smokers and current smokers had significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for the presence of CAC compared with self-reported never smokers [OR (95% confidence interval): 1.20 (1.03-1.40) in former smokers and 1.29 (1.11-1.50) in current smokers]. Cotinine-verified current smokers also showed a significant association with the presence of CAC [1.23 (1.12-1.35)]. Furthermore, log-transformed cotinine levels increased the OR for the presence of CAC [1.03 (1.01-1.05)]. This study is the first large cohort study to show that both self-reported and cotinine-verified smoking is associated independently with the presence of CAC in Korean adults.

  4. Ectopic forms of schistosomiasis mansoni in the second macroregion of Alagoas: case series report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos William Rodrigues Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION Ectopic forms of schistosomiasis are those in which the parasitic element is localized outside the portal system, the natural habitat of the helminth. Although the prevalence rates of schistosomiasis are high in Brazil, clinical and epidemiological data on ectopic forms of the disease are still scarce. METHODS Cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive epidemiological study in which cases with a confirmed histopathological diagnosis of an ectopic form of schistosomiasis were analyzed. The cases were selected from a database of the anatomic pathology files of a referral center. RESULTS Of the 21 cases identified, seven affected the female genital tract and five the male genital tract; four cases were identified in the peritoneum; two cases involved lymph nodes and two involved adipose tissue; and renal involvement was detected in one case. CONCLUSIONS The lack of knowledge of the clinical presentation of ectopic forms of schistosomiasis makes the early identification and treatment of this form difficult, with direct implications in the reduction of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas.

  5. Pad use and patient reported bother from urinary leakage after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstedt, Anna; Carlsson, Stefan; Nilsson, Andreas E; Johansson, Eva; Nyberg, Tommy; Steineck, Gunnar; Wiklund, N Peter

    2012-01-01

    To better understand clinically significant definitions of urinary incontinence we investigated the relationship between urinary leakage and patient reported bother from urinary leakage. A consecutive series of 1,411 men who underwent radical prostatectomy at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, from 2002 to 2006 were invited to complete a study specific questionnaire with questions on pad status, urinary leakage and bother from urinary leakage. Questionnaires were received from 1,179 men with a followup of greater than 1 year (median 2.2). Results showed that even a small amount of urinary leakage resulted in a high risk of urinary bother. Of 775 survivors 46 (6%) reporting 0 pads indicated moderate or much bother compared to 38 of 123 (31%) who reported using a security pad. When comparing the 2 groups, the risk of bother from urinary leakage was more than 5 times higher in the safety pad vs the 0 pad group (RR 5.2, 95% CI 3.5-7.7). As the number of pads increased, we noted a higher bother risk. Cross-tabulation of pad use and urinary leakage revealed wide variation in pad requirements despite the same answer to urinary leakage questions. If the definition of continence is based on pad use, for example safety pads, a certain number of men who report moderate or much bother from urinary leakage will be defined as continent. Our results also show that for each stated rate of urinary leakage men prove to have a major variation in the pad requirement. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hemangioma of the prostate - an unusual cause of lower urinary tract symptoms: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemangioma of the prostate gland is extremely rare and only a few cases have been reported. There have been several cases of hemangioma of posterior urethra, urinary bladder and periprostatic plexus in the literature, all presenting with hematuria or hematospermia. Diagnosis of prostatic hemangioma is difficult due to its rarity and unspecific symptoms such as hematuria, hematospermia or lower urinary tract symptoms. It cannot be detected by conventional examinations such as cystoscopy or standard rectal ultrasonography. Case presentation We present a case of prostatic hemangioma in an 84-year old male presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms. Bleeding has not been a feature in our case and diagnosis was not made until after operation. The patient was treated as a case of bladder neck outflow obstruction with transurethral resection of prostate gland and simultaneous bladder neck incisions. A period of self-catheterization was instituted due to postoperative urinary retention as the result of detrusor insufficiency. Conclusion Hemangioma of prostate gland is extremely rare and symptomatic prostatic hemangioma should be treated either by transurethral resection of prostate or laser evaporation.

  7. Self-monitoring urinary salt excretion in adults: A novel education program for restricting dietary salt intake

    OpenAIRE

    YASUTAKE, KENICHIRO; SAWANO, KAYOKO; YAMAGUCHI, SHOKO; SAKAI, HIROKO; AMADERA, HATSUMI; TSUCHIHASHI, TAKUYA

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the usefulness of the self-monitoring of urinary salt excretion for educating individuals about the risk of excessive dietary salt intake. The subjects were 30 volunteers (15 men and 15 women) not consuming anti-hypertensive medication. The subjects measured urinary salt excretion at home for 4 weeks using a self-monitoring device. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric variables and nutritional variables (by a dietary-habits questionnaire) were measured before and af...

  8. Upper urinary tract damage caused by ketamine snorting—A report of nine cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang-Ying Lee; Yu-Chao Hsu; Chao-Yu Hsu; Eric Chieh-Lung Chou; Ching-Chia Li; Yung-Shun Juan; Mei-Yu Jang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The toxicity of ketamine to genitourinary system not only involved in lower urinary tract, which include urinary frequency, urgency, suprapubic pain, dysuria and hematuria, but also upper urinary tracts. However, the reports of ketmaine-induced upper urinary tract damage were rare. Materials and methods: Herein, we reported nine ketamine abusers presented with moderate flank pain with hydronephrosis and lower urinary tract symptoms from three medical centers located around Taiwa...

  9. Environmental factors and the risk of urinary schistosomiasis in Ile Oluji/Oke Igbo local government area of Ondo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaremilekun G. Ajakaye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information systems are being increasingly used to show the distributions of disease where data for specific environmental risk factors are available. For successful transmission of schistosomiasis, suitable climatic conditions and biological events must coincide; hence its distribution and prevalence are greatly influenced by environmental factors affecting the population of snail intermediate hosts and human hosts. Prevalence and demographic data was obtained by parasitological examination of urine samples and questionnaire administration. The mean values of environmental factors corresponding to the local government area were obtained from remotely sensed images and data from climate research unit. The effects of the environmental factors were determined by using regression analysis to analyse the correlation of environmental factors to prevalence of schistosomiasis. There was a negative correlation between infection and elevation. There was a positive correlation between vegetation, rainfall, slope, temperature and prevalence of infection. There was also a weak negative correlation between proximity to water body and prevalence. The result shows the study area to be at low to high risk of infection.

  10. Psychogenic Urinary Retention in Children: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong-Sang Wan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychogenic urinary retention occurs relatively infrequently in children and is less common than in adults. The influence of psychogenic factors on voiding generally results in an irritative syndrome, but rarely in urinary retention. A definitive diagnosis is established by excluding other pathological conditions. Evaluation includes urine culture, renal echography, spine magnetic resonance imaging, voiding cysto-urethrography, intravenous pyelography, and uroflowmetry. Here, we report on a 6-year-old girl with a 1-month history of voiding difficulty. Urology studies, including urine culture, revealed Escherichia coli, which was not present in preadmission urine cultures. Renal ultrasound and radiological images showed no gross abnormalities or vesicoureteral reflux, but uroflowmetry showed a low flow rate with residual urine. The results of imaging studies and pediatric psychiatric consultation led to a diagnosis of psychogenic urinary retention combined with urinary tract infection. Urinary rehabilitation included intermittent catheterization, bladder training, and supportive psychotherapy, after which the patient recovered and was discharged.

  11. Interventions for treating schistosomiasis mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saconato, H; Atallah, A

    2000-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasite that is carried by freshwater snails. The intestinal form infects the intestine, liver and spleen and can be fatal. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of oxamniquine or praziquantel for treating Schistosomiasis mansoni We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group trials register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, Lilacs and reference lists of articles. The Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical and Brazilian Tropical Medicine Congress abstracts were handsearched Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing oxamniquine and/or praziquantel to placebo for the treatment of Schistosomiasis mansoni. Two reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Thirteen trials met the inclusion criteria. Praziquantel and oxamniquine were effective in curing Schistosoma mansoni infection when compared to placebo. In Africa, praziquantel 40 mg/Kg is more effective than oxamniquine 15 mg/Kg in individuals older than 14 years (OR 3.54, 95%CI 1.70, 7.38), but no difference was found when compared with oxamniquine 30 mg/Kg (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.08, 1.01). In Brazil, praziquantel was equally effective when compared with oxamniquine in individuals older than 14 years (OR 1.70, 95%CI 0.83, 3.49). Both drugs appear safe. There was no difference in reinfection rate between zinc supplementation and placebo (OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.47, 1.41). IPraziquantel and oxamniquine both appear to be effective for the treatment of Schistosomiasis mansoni, although lower doses of oxamniquine (less than 30 milligrams per kilogram) may not be as effective.

  12. Bilateral Tubal Gestation Associated with Schistosomiasis in an African Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Odubamowo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of tubal ectopic gestation caused by schistosomiasis induced tubal pathology is undocumented in this environment, which may be due to rarity of this pathology. Bilateral tubal gestation is common in patients that have undergone in vitro fertilization. We report a hitherto undocumented case of spontaneous bilateral ectopic gestation following tubal schistosomiasis. Case Report. Mrs. OB was a 32-year-old G4P3+0 (3 alive woman who complained of abdominal pain and bleeding per vaginam of 4 and 2 days’ duration respectively following 8 weeks of amenorrhea. A clinical impression of ruptured ectopic gestation was confirmed by ultrasound scanning. She had bilateral salpingectomy with histology of specimens showing bilateral ectopic gestation with Schistosoma haematobium induced salpingitis (findings of Schistosoma haematobium ova noted on slide. Conclusion. Schistosoma induced salpingitis is a rare but possible cause of bilateral tubal gestation.

  13. Use of a urinary sugars biomarker to assess measurement error in self-reported sugars intake in the Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study (NPAAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha; Midthune, Douglas; Tinker, Lesley F.; Potischman, Nancy; Lampe, Johanna W.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Beasley, Jeannette M.; Van Horn, Linda; Prentice, Ross L.; Kipnis, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurement error (ME) in self-reported sugars intake may be obscuring the association between sugars and cancer risk in nutritional epidemiologic studies. Methods We used 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose as a predictive biomarker for total sugars, to assess ME in self-reported sugars intake. The Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study (NPAAS) is a biomarker study within the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study, that includes 450 post-menopausal women aged 60–91. Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ), 4-day food records (4DFR) and three 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs) were collected along with sugars and energy dietary biomarkers. Results Using the biomarker, we found self-reported sugars to be substantially and roughly equally misreported across the FFQ, 4DFR and 24HR. All instruments were associated with considerable intake- and person-specific bias. Three 24HRs would provide the least attenuated risk estimate for sugars (attenuation factor, AF=0.57), followed by FFQ (AF=0.48), and 4DFR (AF=0.32), in studies of energy-adjusted sugars and disease risk. In calibration models, self-reports explained little variation in true intake (5–6% for absolute sugars; 7–18% for sugars density). Adding participants’ characteristics somewhat improved the percentage variation explained (16–18% for absolute sugars; 29–40% for sugars density). Conclusions None of the self-report instruments provided a good estimate of sugars intake, although overall 24HRs seemed to perform the best. Impact Assuming the calibrated sugars biomarker is unbiased, this analysis suggests that, measuring the biomarker in a subsample of the study population for calibration purposes may be necessary for obtaining unbiased risk estimates in cancer association studies. PMID:25234237

  14. Health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas; Sheppard, James; de Wildt, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease acquired through contact with infested freshwater. An essential component of its control is passive case finding, which, in order to be effective, requires a detailed understanding of health-seeking behaviour. This study aimed to systematically review evidence on health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis, in order to determine factors influencing use or non-use of modern health services for the infection. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies reporting on factors related to seeking treatment from modern health services for schistosomiasis were obtained, combining electronic and hand searching. Data extraction and quality assessment of the included articles were performed, with all studies qualitatively analysed using thematic synthesis. A total of 19 studies were included in the review. Six themes were identified from the analysis: biomedical knowledge on schistosomiasis, perceptions of modern treatment and health services, financial considerations of treatment, perceptions on the symptoms, stigma of the infection, and physical location and community. These findings were consistent across studies of different design, setting and quality. Many of the themes identified echo existing literature on health-seeking behaviour. The synthesis also highlighted the role of stigma, and aspects of the physical location and community that may affect treatment-seeking for schistosomiasis. Health education programmes that intend to improve the utilisation of modern health services for the infection need to acknowledge the multiple determinants influencing their use. Future research should move beyond describing health-seeking behaviour to identifying the factors that underlay such behaviour.

  15. Self-reported toileting behaviors in employed women: Are they associated with lower urinary tract symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mary H; Willis-Gray, Marcella G; Zhou, Fang; Newman, Diane K; Wu, Jennifer M

    2018-02-01

    To describe toileting behaviors working women habitually use and investigate behaviors associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), especially urinary urgency with or without leakage. Non-pregnant female employees of a large academic medical center 18 years and over were eligible to complete an online survey about bladder health and toileting behaviors. One hundred eighty-two women participated in the survey. The majority were white (83.52%), married (52.49%), had ≥1 pregnancy (54.40%), and in excellent health (93.41%). The average age and body mass index were 47.28 ± 13.56 years and 27.92 ± 6.78, respectively. The sample was further sub-divided into two groups: urinary urgency (N = 119) or no urinary urgency symptoms (N = 51). Habitual toileting behaviors for these groups (N = 170) included: sitting to urinate at home (98.24%), emptying the bladder completely (88.82%), emptying the bladder before leaving home (80.00%), and sitting to urinate when away from home (68.82%). Logistic regression analysis showed age increased the odds of urinary urgency (aOR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02-1.09). Women who waited too long to urinate at work (aOR 7.85, 95%CI 1.57-39.24) and wore panty liners for urinary leakage (aOR 2.86, 95%CI 1.25-6.56) had greater odds of urinary urgency than women who did neither. Most habitual toileting behaviors were not associated with urinary urgency except waiting too long to urinate when at work. Logistic regression revealed significant relationships among health-related factors, personal characteristics, behaviors, and urinary urgency. LUTS in women is both a women's health and occupational health issue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Schistosomiasis Presenting as Recurring Sigmoid Volvulus in a Danish Man With an Inconspicuous Travel History-A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krog, Asger D; Axelsson, Johanna M; Bondgaard, Anna-Louise R; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A

    2018-04-01

    A healthy 72-year-old Danish male presenting with recurring sigmoid volvulus was found to be infested with Schistosoma mansoni . No other explanation for recurring volvulus was found. A travel history 12 years ago, which included bathing in the Botswana Okavango delta for 10 minutes, revealed the likely time and place of infection. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of recurrent sigmoid volvulus and chronic intestinal schistosomiasis in a patient from a nonendemic area.

  17. Schistosomiasis presenting as recurring sigmoid volvulus in a Danish man with an inconspicuous travel history - a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Asger D; Axelsson, Johanna M; Bondgaard, Anna-Louise R

    2018-01-01

    A healthy 72-year-old Danish male presenting with recurring sigmoid volvulus was found to be infested with Schistosoma mansoni. No other explanation for recurring volvulus was found. A travel history 12 years ago, which included bathing in the Botswana Okavango delta for 10 minutes, revealed...... the likely time and place of infection. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of recurrent sigmoid volvulus and chronic intestinal schistosomiasis in a patient from a nonendemic area....

  18. [Study on schistosomiasis control measures in mobile boat fishermen. III. Construction and application of regional joint mechanism for schistosomiasis examination and treatment in boatmen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gao; Le-Ping, Sun; Yin-Ping, Zuo; Yu-Hui, Xu; Zheng-Qiu, Zhang; Yu-Cai, Ma; Jin-Bin, Gao; Xi-Guang, Zhu; Bo, Zheng; Guo-Jing, Yang; Qing-Biao, Hong; Kun, Yang; You-Sheng, Liang

    2011-10-01

    To construct the regional joint mechanism for schistosomiasis examination and treatment and the examination protocol among mobile boatmen, so as to provide effective measures for control of mobile infectious sources of schistosomiasis in the Yangtze River basin. According to the characteristics of the cargo frequent mobility of ships with fixed anchor points, the health, maritime and transport sections were jointly cooperated to set up sites for schistosomiasis examination and treatment in ship locks, wharfs and harbors. The infection of schistosomiasis was detected by means of rapid immunological screening and stool examination, and the regional joint mechanism was constructed. The sero-positives were traced for further parasitological examinations and treatment by using the regional joint network for schistosomiasis examination and treatment. The schistosome infections in boatmen were analyzed and compared between different examination and treatment sites and among different navigation coverage. A total of 16 sites for examination and treatment of schistosomiasis, including 5 fixed sites and 11 mobile sites, were set up in 12 townships of 6 districts (counties) of Yangzhou City. During a period between June and August, the examination of schistosomiasis was conducted in 40 sites, and of the 1 225 boatmen from 967 boats detected, 19 cases were sero-positive, with a positive rate of 1.55%. Among the 14 sero-positives examined, no stool positive patients were found. Among the 1 225 boatmen detected, 820 were from fixed sites and 405 from mobile sites, and 4 and 15 cases were found, respectively, with positive rates of 0.49% and 3.70%, respectively, and the sero-positive rate was higher in mobile sites and that in fixed sites. A total of 898 boatmen from the Yangtze River basin and 305 from the local inland rivers were examined, and 3 and 16 sero-positive cases were detected, respectively, with positive rates of 0.33% and 5.25%, respectively, and the sero

  19. Self-monitoring urinary salt excretion in adults: A novel education program for restricting dietary salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Sawano, Kayoko; Yamaguchi, Shoko; Sakai, Hiroko; Amadera, Hatsumi; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the usefulness of the self-monitoring of urinary salt excretion for educating individuals about the risk of excessive dietary salt intake. The subjects were 30 volunteers (15 men and 15 women) not consuming anti-hypertensive medication. The subjects measured urinary salt excretion at home for 4 weeks using a self-monitoring device. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric variables and nutritional variables (by a dietary-habits questionnaire) were measured before and after the measurement of urinary salt excretion. Statistical analyses were performed, including paired t-tests, Chi-square test, Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analysis. In all subjects, the average urinary salt excretion over 4 weeks was 8.05±1.61 g/day and the range (maximum-minimum value) was 5.58±2.15 g/day. Salt excretion decreased significantly in weeks 3 and 4 (Pself-monitoring device appears to be an effective educational tool for improving the quality of life of healthy adults.

  20. An instrument based on protection motivation theory to predict Chinese adolescents' intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Peng, Minjin; Yan, Hong; Gao, Mengting; Li, Jingjing; Yu, Bin; Wu, Hanbo; Li, Shiyue

    2016-01-01

    Further advancement in schistosomiasis prevention requires new tools to assess protective motivation, and promote innovative intervention program. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an instrument developed based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to predict protective behavior intention against schistosomiasis among adolescents in China. We developed the Schistosomiasis PMT Scale based on two appraisal pathways of protective motivation- threat appraisal pathway and coping appraisal pathway. Data from a large sample of middle school students ( n  = 2238, 51 % male, mean age 13.13 ± 1.10) recruited in Hubei, China was used to evaluated the validity and reliability of the scale. The final scale contains 18 items with seven sub-constructs. Cronbach's Alpha coefficients for the entire instrument was 0.76, and for the seven sub-constructs of severity, vulnerability, intrinsic reward, extrinsic reward, response efficacy, self-efficacy and response cost was 0.56, 0.82, 0.75, 0.80, 0.90, 0.72 and 0.70, respectively. The construct validity analysis revealed that the one level 7 sub-constructs model fitted data well (GFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.03, Chi-sq/df = 3.90, p  motivation in schistosomiasis prevention control. Further studies are needed to develop more effective intervention programs for schistosomiasis prevention.

  1. Schistosomiasis in Zambia: a systematic review of past and present experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinda, Chester; Chimbari, Moses J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2018-04-30

    The speedy rate of change in the environmental and socio-economics factors may increase the incidence, prevalence and risk of schistosomiasis infections in Zambia. However, available information does not provide a comprehensive understanding of the biogeography and distribution of the disease, ecology and population dynamics of intermediate host snails. The current study used an information-theoretical approach to understand the biogeography and prevalence schistosomiasis and identified knowledge gaps that would be useful to improve policy towards surveillance and eradication of intermediate hosts snails in Zambia. To summarise the existing knowledge and build on past and present experiences of schistosomiasis epidemiology for effective disease control in Zambia, a systematic search of literature for the period 2000-2017 was done on PubMed, Google Scholar and EBSCOhost. Using the key words: 'Schistosomiasis', 'Biomphalaria', 'Bulinus', 'Schistosoma mansoni', 'Schistosoma haematobium', and 'Zambia', in combination with Booleans terms 'AND' and 'OR', published reports/papers were obtained and reviewed independently for inclusion. Thirteen papers published in English that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected for the final review. The papers suggest that the risk of infection has increased over the years and this has been attributed to environmental, socio-economic and demographic factors. Furthermore, schistosomiasis is endemic in many parts of the country with infection due to Schistosoma haematobium being more prevalent than that due to S. mansoni. This review also found that S. haematobium was linked to genital lesions, thus increasing risks of contracting other diseases such as HIV and cervical cancer. For both S. haematobium and S. mansoni, environmental, socio-economic, and demographic factors were influential in the transmission and prevalence of the disease and highlight the need for detailed knowledge on ecological modelling and mapping the

  2. [Strategic thinking of the construction of national schistosomiasis laboratory network in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhi-Qiang; Xu, Jing; Feng, Ting; Zhu, Hong-Qing; Li, Shi-Zhu; Xiao, Ning; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-08-01

    A schistosomiasis laboratory network and its quality assurance system have been built and will be more and more perfect in China. This paper introduces the present situation of schistosomiasis diagnosis in China and expounds the basic ideas and the progress in the construction of schistosomiasis network platform. Furthermore, the face of schistosomiasis diagnosis network platform construction and operation of the challenge and the future work will be put forward in the latter part of this paper.

  3. [Development of performance evaluation and management system on advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Rong; Huang, Shui-Sheng; Gong, Xin-Guo; Cen, Li-Ping; Zhang, Cong; Zhu, Hong; Yang, Jun-Jing; Chen, Li

    2012-04-01

    To construct a performance evaluation and management system on advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment, and analyze and evaluate the work of the advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment over the years. By applying the database management technique and C++ programming technique, we inputted the information of the advanced schistosomiasis cases into the system, and comprehensively evaluated the work of the advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment through the cost-effect analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. We made a set of software formula about cost-effect analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. This system had many features such as clear building, easy to operate, friendly surface, convenient information input and information search. It could benefit the performance evaluation of the province's advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment work. This system can satisfy the current needs of advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment work and can be easy to be widely used.

  4. Schistosomiasis: Two cases with unusual presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddhavarapu, S.; Szmigielski, W.

    2008-01-01

    Schistosoma live in bowel lumen and their eggs migrate through mesenteric and portal veins where they cause granulomatous response, fibrosis and various complications. Two cases of schistosomiasis with hepatic and intestinal manifestations are presented. One of them presented as colonic malignancy and the second masquerading as appendicitis. Plain x-ray, Ultrasound and CT findings are discussed. Established cases of schistosomiasis may be seen far from endemic areas due to migration of populations across the globe. It is therefore important to recognize the radiological findings and its possible associations. (authors)

  5. [Evaluation standards and application for photography of schistosomiasis control theme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Li, Cao; Qing-Biao, Hong; Jing-Ping, Guo; Fang, Liu; Tian-Ping, Wang; Jian-Bin, Liu; Lin, Chen; Hao, Wang; You-Sheng, Liang; Jia-Gang, Guo

    2018-02-26

    To set up and apply the evaluation standards for photography of schistosomiasis control theme, so as to offer the scientific advice for enriching the health information carrier of schistosomiasis control. Through the literature review and expert consultation, the evaluation standard for photography of schistosomiasis control theme was formulated. The themes were divided into 4 projects, such as new construction, natural scenery, working scene, and control achievements. The evaluation criteria of the theme photography were divided into the theme (60%), photographic composition (15%), focus exposure (15%), and color saturation (10%) . A total of 495 pictures (sets) from 59 units with 77 authors were collected from schistosomiasis epidemic areas national wide. After the first-step screening and second-step evaluation, the prizes of 3 themes of control achievements and new construction, working scene, and natural scenery were selected, such as 6 pictures of first prize, 12 pictures of second prize, 18 pictures of third prize, and 20 pictures of honorable prize. The evaluation standards of theme photography should be taken into the consideration of the technical elements of photography and the work specification of schistosomiasis prevention and control. In order to improve the ability of records for propaganda purpose of schistosomiasis control and better play a role of guiding correct propaganda, the training and guidance of photography of professionals should be carried out.

  6. Underestimation of Self-Reported Smoking Prevalence in Korean Adolescents: Evidence from Gold Standard by Combined Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Kim, Jong Yeon; Lee, Do Hoon; Jung, Hye Gyoun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2018-04-05

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported smoking prevalence in Korean adolescents by using an improved gold standard by a combined method. Using a stratified sampling method, we selected 13 schools from among 397 high schools that participated in the 2015 Korean Youth Health Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBS). A second survey (repeated self-reporting questionnaire and urinary cotinine test) was conducted on 1058 students who completed the KYRBS. The gold standard of current smoker was defined as those either self-reporting as a smoker in the second survey or having a urinary cotinine concentration ≥50 ng/mL. The current smoking prevalence in the first survey (KYRBS) was 7.9% (boys 16.5% and girls 1.8%), which was lower than the results based on gold standard (11.3% total, boys 21.9% and girls 3.7%). The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking status was 62.5% and 99.0%, respectively. In particular, the sensitivity of girls (43.5%) was lower than that of boys (67.0%). The self-reported smoking prevalence in Korean adolescents was underestimated, particularly among girls. Careful attention should be paid to interpreting adolescents' smoking prevalence, and supplementary surveys or periodic validity tests need to be considered in Asian countries.

  7. Studies on Schistosomiasis japonica and Saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edito Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of the bark of Entada phaseoloides and extracts from tubers of its related specie, Entada parvifolia against Oncomelania quadrasi, the snail intermediate host of Shistosoma japonicum in the Philippines were determined.The commercial gogo bark applied to waters with O. quadrasi, in the proportion of 2 gms/liter will kill 100% of snails within 24 hours. At this concentration miracidia and cercariae of S. japonicum in the same waters will die within one hour, thus, making the water safe or noninfective for some time. At the dose 100 gms/sqm of water-covered terrestial snail habitats, provided previously cleared of vegetations, at least 90% of O. quadrasi will die within 24 hours. These measures can be practical on a self-help basis by inhabitants of schistosomiasis endemic areas where gogo plant grows or where its bark is marketed.At dilution of 1:5,000 saponin extracted from tubers of E. parvifolia killed at least 90% of snails after 24 hours exposure while ethanol (crude saponin and other extracts require at least 1:2,000 concentration to kill at least 90% of O. quadrasi. At these concentrations and the expenses and time involved in the preparation of these extracts, they are not economical or practical for large scale use of molluscicides.It is suggested that methods of extraction and purification which require little time of preparation and a cheaper but of higher recovery rate of molluscicidal principles be developed.Surveys of barrios in three towns of Leyte, endemic for Schistosomiasis japonica using the circum oval-precipitin test (COPT and stool examination in the same subjects were undertaken. Findings show that the use of blood COPT method is advantageous over that of the stool examination in schistosomiasis surveys as its prescribed procedure is simple, specific and more sensitive. Moreover, the prevalence rate it determined was higher than that obtained by the stool examination in all three towns studied with

  8. [Schistosomiasis status of staff in Hydrology Bureau of Yangtze Water Resources Committee in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jun; Leng, Cheng-mei; Tang, Min; Yao, Wei-gang

    2014-08-01

    To understand the status of schistosomiasis of staff in the Hydrology Bureau of Yangtze Water Resources Committee and the Oncomelania hupensis snail condition of their work areas in 2013, so as to provide the evidences for the schistosomiasis control in the industry. The physical examination data about schistosomiasis of the staff from 2006 to 2013 were collected and analyzed to understand the schistosomiasis prevalence condition of the staff and the changes of their liver parenchyma. Meanwhile, the snail status in the work areas was surveyed. There were 1,393 staff involved in the physical examinations of schistosomiasis in 2003, 197 of them were schistosomiasis patients, the prevalence rate was 14.14%, and no new acute schistosomiasis case occurred. The cases whose liver parenchyma were classified as Grade 0, I , II , III occupied 28.9%, 67.0%, 3.05% and 1.02%, respectively. A total of 24 work areas were involved in the snail survey, and 71 snails were captured. Among the whole snails captured, 39 were living snails, but no schistosome infected snails were found. The prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in staff of the Hydrology Bureau of Yangtze Water Resources Committee is relatively high, so the schistosomiasis surveillance as well as the snail survey and control still should be carried out consistently.

  9. Reinfection immunity in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Haruo

    1987-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world, especially in endemic areas of developing countries. This situation has prompted parasitologist to attempt intensive researches on immune mechanisms, especially those of reinfection immunity associated with eliminating challenge infection. The current knowledge of reinfection immunity against Schistosoma spp. infection was therefore reviewed briefly and discussed with special reference to our data on protective immune responses induced by radiation-attenuated cercarial infection. A recently developed technique of compressed organ autoradiography (COA) has contributed to assessing parasite attrition in immune animals following challenge infection. Our study using COA has demonstrated that major attrition of schistosomula from challenge infection occurs in the skin of CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with 20 Krad gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni, while in both lungs and liver of similarly vaccinated guinea pig model. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation to cercariae affected their migration potential and surface-antigen profiles. The immunizing stimuli of gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae profoundly affected the expression of responsiveness in vaccinated animals. The change in antigenic profiles and migration potential of those vaccinating population was discussed in relation to the kinetics of reinfection immunity induced in vaccinated amimal models. These works might provide a base line data to develop a practical vaccine for schistosomiasis using defined antigens. It must be emphasized that these vaccines could serve as a practical prophylactic measure for schistosomiasis in the endemic areas, even if the vaccines fail to induce sterilizing immunity. (author). 141 refs

  10. Building a global schistosomiasis alliance:an opportunity to join forces to fight inequality and rural poverty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lorenzo Savioli; Katharina Klohe; Philip T.LoVerde; David Rollinson; J.Russell Stothard; Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté; Johannes Waltz; Xiao-Nong Zhou; Marco Albonico; Daniel G.Colley; Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira; Alan Fenwick; Will Green; Narcis Kabatereine; Achille Kabore; Naftale Katz

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis,one of the 17 neglected tropical diseases listed by the World Health Organization,presents a substantial public health and economic burden.Of the 261 million people requiring preventive chemotherapy for schistosomiasis in 2013,92% of them lived in sub-Saharan Africa and only 12.7% received preventive chemotherapy.Moreover,in 2010,the WHO reported that schistosomiasis mortality could be as high as 280 000 per year in Africa alone.In May 2012 delegates to the sixty-fifth World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA65.21 that called for the elimination of schistosomiasis,and foresees the regular treatment of at least 75% of school age children in at-risk areas.The resolution urged member states to intensify schistosomiasis control programmes and to initiate elimination campaigns where possible.Despite this,in June 2015,schistosomiasis was indicated to have the lowest level of preventive chemotherapy implementation in the spectrum of neglected tropical diseases.It was also highlighted as the disease most lacking in progress.This is perhaps unsurprising,given that it was also the only NTD with access to drug donations but without a coalition of stakeholders that collaborates to boost commitment and implementation.As a consequence,and to ensure that the WHO NTDs Roadmap Targets of 2012 and World Health Assembly Resolution WHA65.21 are met,the Global Schistosomiasis Alliance (GSA) has been set up.Diverse and representative,the GSA aims to be a partnership of endemic countries,academic and research institutions,international development agencies and foundations,international organizations,non-governmental development organizations,private sector companies and advocacy and resource mobilisation partners.Ultimately,the GSA calls for a partnership to work for the benefit of endemic countries by addressing health inequity and rural poverty.

  11. Building a global schistosomiasis alliance: an opportunity to join forces to fight inequality and rural poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savioli, Lorenzo; Albonico, Marco; Colley, Daniel G; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Fenwick, Alan; Green, Will; Kabatereine, Narcis; Kabore, Achille; Katz, Naftale; Klohe, Katharina; LoVerde, Philip T; Rollinson, David; Stothard, J Russell; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Waltz, Johannes; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2017-03-23

    Schistosomiasis, one of the 17 neglected tropical diseases listed by the World Health Organization, presents a substantial public health and economic burden. Of the 261 million people requiring preventive chemotherapy for schistosomiasis in 2013, 92% of them lived in sub-Saharan Africa and only 12.7% received preventive chemotherapy. Moreover, in 2010, the WHO reported that schistosomiasis mortality could be as high as 280 000 per year in Africa alone.In May 2012 delegates to the sixty-fifth World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA65.21 that called for the elimination of schistosomiasis, and foresees the regular treatment of at least 75% of school age children in at-risk areas. The resolution urged member states to intensify schistosomiasis control programmes and to initiate elimination campaigns where possible.Despite this, in June 2015, schistosomiasis was indicated to have the lowest level of preventive chemotherapy implementation in the spectrum of neglected tropical diseases. It was also highlighted as the disease most lacking in progress. This is perhaps unsurprising, given that it was also the only NTD with access to drug donations but without a coalition of stakeholders that collaborates to boost commitment and implementation.As a consequence, and to ensure that the WHO NTDs Roadmap Targets of 2012 and World Health Assembly Resolution WHA65.21 are met, the Global Schistosomiasis Alliance (GSA) has been set up. Diverse and representative, the GSA aims to be a partnership of endemic countries, academic and research institutions, international development agencies and foundations, international organizations, non-governmental development organizations, private sector companies and advocacy and resource mobilisation partners. Ultimately, the GSA calls for a partnership to work for the benefit of endemic countries by addressing health inequity and rural poverty.

  12. Optimising cluster survey design for planning schistosomiasis preventive chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C L Knowles

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The cornerstone of current schistosomiasis control programmes is delivery of praziquantel to at-risk populations. Such preventive chemotherapy requires accurate information on the geographic distribution of infection, yet the performance of alternative survey designs for estimating prevalence and converting this into treatment decisions has not been thoroughly evaluated.We used baseline schistosomiasis mapping surveys from three countries (Malawi, Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia to generate spatially realistic gold standard datasets, against which we tested alternative two-stage cluster survey designs. We assessed how sampling different numbers of schools per district (2-20 and children per school (10-50 influences the accuracy of prevalence estimates and treatment class assignment, and we compared survey cost-efficiency using data from Malawi. Due to the focal nature of schistosomiasis, up to 53% simulated surveys involving 2-5 schools per district failed to detect schistosomiasis in low endemicity areas (1-10% prevalence. Increasing the number of schools surveyed per district improved treatment class assignment far more than increasing the number of children sampled per school. For Malawi, surveys of 15 schools per district and 20-30 children per school reliably detected endemic schistosomiasis and maximised cost-efficiency. In sensitivity analyses where treatment costs and the country considered were varied, optimal survey size was remarkably consistent, with cost-efficiency maximised at 15-20 schools per district.Among two-stage cluster surveys for schistosomiasis, our simulations indicated that surveying 15-20 schools per district and 20-30 children per school optimised cost-efficiency and minimised the risk of under-treatment, with surveys involving more schools of greater cost-efficiency as treatment costs rose.

  13. [Application of Big Data Mining Technology in Monitoring and Early-warning of Schistosomiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-zhu

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of schistosomiasis will soon be controlled to a low level in China. It is therefore imperative to establish a more sensitive and effective early warning system for schistosomiasis, so as to consolidate the achievements of the disease control. By covering four topics including the importance of early warning system for schistosomiasis and its research direction, as well as recent development in big data mining and its application in monitoring and early-warning of schistosomiasis, this review discusses the feasibility of data mining technology for monitoring and early warning of the disease. It is hoped that this technology would increase the efficacy of studies on monitoring and early warning, and promote the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

  14. Hubungan Perilaku Anak Sekolah Dasar dengan Kejadian Schistosomiasis di Kecamatan Lindu Kabupaten Sigi, Sulawesi Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octaviani Octaviani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Schistosomiasis merupakan penyakit parasitik yang disebabkan infeksi cacing Schistosoma japonicum, S. haematobium, S. mansoni, S. mekongi, dan S. intercalatum. Penyakit ini ditularkan melalui air tercemar cercaria ke hospes. Di Indonesia, schistosomiasis disebabkan oleh  S. japonicum ditemukan endemis di dataran tinggi Lindu, dataran tinggi Napu, dan dataran tinggi Bada. Penyakit schistosomiasis bisa menyerang semua orang termasuk anak-anak. Apabila tidak diberikan pengobatan bisa menjadi kronis. Anak yang terinfeksi akan mengalami gangguan pertumbuhan, gangguan kognitif, bahkan dapat menimbulkan kematian. Secara epidemiologi penularan schistosomiasis tidak terpisahkan dari faktor perilaku atau kebiasaan manusia. Penelitian bertujuan mengidentifikasi hubungan perilaku anak sekolah dasar dengan kejadian schistosomiasis. Penelitian dilakukan di Kecamatan Lindu Kabupaten Sigi Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah, selama 8 bulan mulai bulan Maret sampai Oktober 2014. Penelitian observasional ini menggunakan desain cross sectional. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan pengambilan sampel tinja dan wawancara pada anak sekolah. Sampel tinja diperiksa dengan menggunakan metode Kato-Katz. Hasil uji chi-square menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada hubungan antara kebiasaan mandi, kebiasaan buang air besar, kebiasaan ke daerah fokus dan kebiasaan penggunaan sepatu boot dengan kejadian schistosomiasis. Kata kunci: schistosomiasis, perilaku, anak sekolah dasar ABSTRACT Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by infection of Schistosoma japonicum, S. haematobium, S. mansoni, S. mekongi, and S. intercalatum. It is transmitted to definitive host through cercaria contaminated water. In Indonesia, schistosomiasis was caused by S. japonicum which can be found in endemic areas at Lindu, Napu, and Bada highland. Schistosomiasis can infect all people regardless their age. If untreated, it leads to a chronic condition. Children who are infected will have a growth and cognitive

  15. [Urinary ascites, uroperitoneum and urinary peritonitis in children: management of nine case reports in Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raherinantenaina, F; Rambel, A H; Rakotosamimanana, J; Rajaonanahary, T M A; Rajaonera, T; Rakototiana, F A; Hunald, F A; Andriamanarivo, M L; Rantomalala, H Y H; Rakoto Ratsimba, H N

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the frequency of urinary peritonitis in children and to highlight its terms of management in a country with limited resources. We retrospectively observed nine case reports of urinary peritonitis collected in surgical reanimation service at the CHU of Antananarivo, from 1st January 2009 to 31 December 2012. Urinary peritonitis accounts 0.5% of all pediatric abdominal emergencies and 5% of pediatric urological emergencies collected in our service during study period. Three etiologies were traumatic bladder rupture, one bladder iatrogenic rupture, four secondary to obstructive uropathy and one other after cystolithotomy. We found a new case of posttraumatic transverse rupture of the bladder neck. Among obstructive uropathy observed, there were two cases of posterior urethral valves and two cases of ureteralpelvic junction obstruction. Clinical expression was dominated by fever, with abdominal distention and defense. In majority of cases, etiological diagnosis was made intraoperatively. The surgical treatment by laparotomy was performed under cover of systemic antibiotic therapy. Evolution was complicated with sepsis in three cases and acute renal failure in both cases. Surgical follow-up without complication were observed in four cases. A child has died to septic shock and multivisceral failure. Unlike urinary ascites resulting a transperitoneal extravasation of urine, uroperitoneum was a fistula between adominal cavity and content of the urinary tract. Urinary ascites was a rare cause of peritonitis. In contrast, uroperitoneum caused peritonitis quickly. Urinary peritonitis was a rare entity but severe prognosis in children. In majority of cases, etiological diagnosis was made intraoperatively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Effect of ecological civilized homestead construction on schistosomiasis control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Meng; Jia, Tie-Wu; Wu, Zi-Song; Mao, Ping; Chen, Lin; Li, Han-Gang; Zhong, Bo; Qiu, Dong-Chuan; Yao, Qin; Hu, You-Ping

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of Ecological Civilized Homestead Construction on schistosomiasis control. The data of ecological civilized homestead construction and schistosomiasis control were collected and analyzed in Meiwan Village, Shuangqiao Town, Danling County, Sichuan Province from 2004 to 2010. Ecological Civilized Homestead Construction was carried out from 2004 to 2010. Totally 454 bio-gas pools were built. All the farmers used well water. The popularized rates of the household bio-gas pool, sanitary toilet, sewage treatment pool reached 100%. The number of cattle was 4, which decreased by 91.30% compared with that in 2004, and all the cattle were fed in captivity. The schistosome infection rates of populations were 0.26% and 0.30% in 2005 and 2008, respectively, and nobody was infected in other years. The infection rate of cattle was 0 from 2004 to 2010. The awareness rate of knowledge about schistosomiasis control achieved 100% in the population over 6 years old. Most of the farmers could use certain protective measures while they were farming. The effect of ecological civilized homestead construction on schistosomiasis control is remarkable.

  17. PENULARAN SCHISTOSOMIASIS DI DESA DODOLO DAN MEKARSARI DATARAN TINGGI NAPU SULAWESI TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmini Rosmini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of schistosomiasis is still ongoing in Dodolo and Mekarsari Villages ofNapu highland, Poso District. The people who infected with Schistosoma japonicum, intermediate host. Oncomelania hnpensis lindoensis snails that infected by cercaria. infective stage of S. japonicum and reservoir host, rats, which infected by S. japonicum were still (bund. The purpose of this study was to identify the transmission of schistosomiasis at Dodolo and Mekarsari Villages, Napu highland. The epidemiological investigation was analyzed using observational study with cross sectional design. Data collections were conducted, including stool, snail and rat suryeys. Stool samples were examined by the Kato-Katz method and rats were dissected to identify the prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in human and rats. Snails were examined using crushing method to identify the infection rate of the snails. Prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in human, rats (Rattus exulans and infection rate O. hnpensis lindoensis snails in Dodolo were 6,9%, 8,3%, 2,8% and in Mekarsari were 6,1%, 10% 2,6% respectively. Prevalence of schistosomiasis in Dodolo and Mekarsari villages is still high, so we need continuous surveillance.   Keywords: Schistosomiasis, Schistosoma japonicum, O. hupensis lindoensis, Dodolo, Mekarsari

  18. Validity and reliability of parental report of frequency, severity and risk factors of urinary tract infection and urinary incontinence in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Premala; Cumming, Robert G; Craig, Jonathan C

    2006-06-01

    We describe the validity and reliability of a questionnaire designed to determine frequency, severity and risk factors of urinary tract infection and daytime urinary incontinence in primary school-age children. Based on published validated questionnaires and advice from content experts, a questionnaire was developed and piloted in children attending outpatient clinics. Construct validity for parent report of frequency and severity of daytime urinary incontinence was tested by comparison with a daily accident diary in 52 primary school children, and criterion validity of parent report for UTI was verified by comparison with the reference standard (urine culture) in 100 primary school children. Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was assessed in 106 children from primary schools. There was excellent agreement between the questionnaire and accident diary in severity (weighted kappa 0.94, 95% confidence intervals 0.85 to 1.03) and frequency of daytime urinary incontinence (0.88, 0.7 to 1.0). Parents reported urinary tract infection in 15% of children, compared to a positive urine culture in 8% (sensitivity 100% and specificity 68.5%). Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was excellent (mean k 0.78, range 0.61 to 1.00). Parents overreport UTI by about 2-fold but can recall frequency and severity of daytime urinary incontinence well during a 3-month period. The developed questionnaire is a valid tool to estimate frequency, severity and risk factors of daytime urinary incontinence and UTI in primary school children.

  19. [S1 Herpes zoster localization: acute urinary retention in woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Marco; Mastrocinque, Giuseppe; Romeo, Salvatore; Giammanco, Giovanni; Melloni, Darwin

    2011-01-01

    Acute urinary retention in women is rare. The varicella-zoster virus causes inflammatory lesions of the sensory-root ganglions, meninges and, less frequently, spinal cord. Herpes zoster has been reported to affect, although rarely, lower urinary tract innervations, and acute urinary retention can be thought to occur in the presence of sacral dermatome involvement. Usually it is located in S2-4 dermatome and the prognosis for acute urinary retention is benign resolving in about 20 days. We present a case in which the S1 dermatome was involved and acute urinary retention developed. After 10 days of specific therapy and self-catheterization the problem resolved.

  20. The role of snail aestivation in transmission of schistosomiasis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aestivation therefore plays an important role in maintaining the transmission of schistosomiasis. This review assesses the possible impacts of climate change on the temporal and spatial distribution of schistosomiasis-transmitting snails with special emphasis on aestivation, and discusses the effect of schistosome infection ...

  1. Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder is a rare tumor and presents less than 0.06% of all urinary bladder tumors. Case report. We presented a 49-year-old female patient with a history of daily paroxysmal hypertension accompanied with flushing of the face and upper chest, palpitations and excessive sweating prior to micturition. Ultrasonography reported a 3 cm bladder wall tumor. The 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG scan showed a pathological isotope accumulation in the projection of the bladder. The patient underwent a partial cystectomy. One year following the operation the patient was normotensive and without recurrence. Conclusion. The most efficient treatment option for bladder pheochromocytoma is surgical resection. The most important fact in the diagnostics is suspicion on this rare condition.

  2. An Epidemiological Trend of Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bayissa Chala; Bayissa Chala; Workineh Torben

    2018-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Currently, the prevalence of the disease can possibly be heightened due to man-made ecological transformations particularly related to the recent development programs involving irrigation and construction of dams. The expansion of some of the water resource development projects has been cited enhancing the upsurge of urogenital schistosomiasis mainly in the lower altitude areas of the country. In connection to the extensive initiat...

  3. From innovation to application: social-ecological context, diagnostics, drugs and integrated control of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Jürg; N'goran, Eliézer K; Caffrey, Conor R; Keiser, Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    Compared to malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, schistosomiasis remains a truly neglected tropical disease. Schistosomiasis, perhaps more than any other disease, is entrenched in prevailing social-ecological systems, since transmission is governed by human behaviour (e.g. open defecation and patterns of unprotected surface water contacts) and ecological features (e.g. living in close proximity to suitable freshwater bodies in which intermediate host snails proliferate). Moreover, schistosomiasis is intimately linked with poverty and the disease has spread to previously non-endemic areas as a result of demographic, ecological and engineering transformations. Importantly though, thanks to increased advocacy there is growing awareness, financial and technical support to control and eventually eliminate schistosomiasis as a public health problem at local, regional and global scales. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent progress made in innovation, validation and application of new tools and strategies for research and integrated control of schistosomiasis. First, we explain that schistosomiasis is deeply embedded in social-ecological systems and explore linkages with poverty. We then summarize and challenge global statistics, risk maps and burden estimates of human schistosomiasis. Discovery and development research pertaining to novel diagnostics and drugs forms the centrepiece of our review. We discuss unresolved issues and emerging opportunities for integrated and sustainable control of schistosomiasis and conclude with a series of research needs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Training elements at different levels in the strategies for control of schistosomiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnbjerg, Niels; Simonsen, P. E.; Furu, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Recently acquired comprehensive knowledge concerning the epidemiology of schistosomiasis has provided the background for the establishment of schistosomiasis control strategies. However, the planning, implementation, and maintenance of such control programmes requires sufficient numbers of well t...... trained personnel at the local, district and central levels. Training of health personnel as well as motivation of the community are fundamental and essential elements in any schistosomiasis control programme. The training elements and approaches are discussed....

  5. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenowo, Abiola Fatimah; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Ogunyinka, Bolajoko Idiat; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the "bottom 500 million" inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made significant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  6. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Fatimah Adenowo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the “bottom 500 million” inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made significant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics.

  7. A Wireless Self-Powered Urinary Incontinence Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ami; Utsunomiya, Fumiyasu; Douseki, Takakuni

    A self-powered urinary incontinence sensor system consisting of a urine-activated coin battery and a wireless transmitter has been developed as an application for wireless biosensor networks. The urine-activated battery makes possible both the sensing of urine leakage and self-powered operation. An intermittent power-supply circuit that uses an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) with a small internal resistance suppresses the supply voltage drop due to the large internal resistance of the battery. This circuit and a 1-V surface acoustic wave (SAW) oscillator reduce the power dissipation of a wireless transmitter. The SAW oscillator quickly responds to the on-off control of the power supply, which is suitable for intermittent operation. To verify the effectiveness of the circuit scheme, the authors fabricated a prototype sensor system. When the volume of urine is 0.2 ml, the battery outputs a voltage of over 1.3 V; and the sensor system can transmit signals over a distance of 5 m.

  8. Early development of osteoporosis in male smokers with hypoandrogenism due to fascioliasis with or without schistosomiasis added by life style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilany, Yasser Fouad; Abou Holw, Sahar A; Abouel-Nour, Mohamed Fathy; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2009-12-01

    The multifactor outcome of hypoandrogenemia with the impact of oxidative stress induced by glucose intolerance, fascioliasis with or without schistosomiasis and cumulative smoking influence on bone remodeling and the early development of osteoporotic manifestations were studied. The effect on vascular endothelium immune mediated mechanisms and antioxidant capacity were monitored in cases of youth aged selected male smokers involving 20 with hypoandrogenemia who were either subjected to sedentary life style, glucose intolerance fascioliasis hepatic fibrosis (FHF) (G1) or without (G2) and GI after following 6 months therapy (G3). Monitoring of clinical picture and biochemical assessments of osteoporotic indices (osteocolcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, urinary cyclic AMP), hypoandrogenism (dehydroepiandrosterane sulphate or DHEAS & testosterone) glycemic determinant (insulin) immuno-inflammatory response (interleukein-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, E-selectin, ceruloplasmin) smoking index (serum cotinine), total antioxidant capacity (AOC) and lipid peroxidation (malonedialdehyde) was done before and after 6 months therapeutic program involving supplement of DHEAS, mirazid, chromium picolinate, and megavit zinc alongside smoking cessation and physical exercise daily for at least 30 minutes. Treatment with Mirazid supplied as 10 mg/kg for 6 successive days resulted in 100% cure of fascioliasis whether single or combined with schistosomiasis.

  9. Current status of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Beyla and Macenta Prefectures, Forest Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Mary; Koroma, Manso M; Baldé, Mamadou S; Turay, Hamid; Fofanah, Ibrahim; Divall, Mark J; Winkler, Mirko S; Zhang, Yaobi

    2011-11-01

    A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in children aged 9-14 years in Beyla and Macenta Prefectures, Forest Guinea. Stool samples were examined by Kato-Katz and urine samples were examined by the centrifugation method. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection was 66.2% and 462.4 eggs per gram of faeces (epg) for Schistosoma mansoni, 21.0% and 17.8 eggs per 10ml of urine for S. haematobium, 51.2% and 507.5 epg for hookworm, 8.1% and 89.1 epg for Ascaris lumbricoides and 2.4% and 16.7 epg for Trichuris trichiura. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis (S. mansoni and/or S. haematobium) was 70.7%. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was similar to those reported in the 1990s in the region; however, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths has since fallen. These findings illustrate the need for schistosomiasis control in Guinea. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Schistosomiasis and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Khaled

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is not known to be associated with any malignant disease other than bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is still the most common malignant tumor among males in Egypt and some African and Middle East countries. However, the frequency rate of bladder cancer has declined significantly during the last 25 years. This drop is mainly related to the control of Schistosomiasis. Many studies have elucidated the pathogenic events of Schistosomal-related bladder cancer with a suggested theory of pathogenesis. Furthermore, the disease presents with a distinct clinicopathologic profile that is quite different from bladder cancer elsewhere with younger age at presentation, more male predominance, more invasive stages, and occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma pathologic subtype. However, recent data suggest that this profile has been dramatically changed over the past 25 years leading to minimization of the differences between its features in Egypt and that in Western countries. Management of muscle-invasive localized disease is mainly surgery with 5-year survival rates of 30–50%. Although still a debatable issue, adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have improved treatment outcomes including survival and bladder preservation rates in most studies. This controversy emphasizes the need of individualized treatment options based on a prognostic index or other factors that can define the higher risk groups where more aggressive therapy is needed. The treatment for locally advanced and/or metastatic disease has passed through a series of clinical trials since 1970s. These phase II and III trials have included the use of single agent and combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. The current standard of systemic chemotherapy of generally fit patients is now the gemcitabine–cisplatin combination. In conclusion, a changing pattern of bladder cancer in Egypt is clearly observed. This is mainly due to the success in the

  11. Combined spatial prediction of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sierra Leone: a tool for integrated disease control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H Hodges

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A national mapping of Schistosoma haematobium was conducted in Sierra Leone before the mass drug administration (MDA with praziquantel. Together with the separate mapping of S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths, the national control programme was able to plan the MDA strategies according to the World Health Organization guidelines for preventive chemotherapy for these diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 52 sites/schools were selected according to prior knowledge of S. haematobium endemicity taking into account a good spatial coverage within each district, and a total of 2293 children aged 9-14 years were examined. Spatial analysis showed that S. haematobium is heterogeneously distributed in the country with significant spatial clustering in the central and eastern regions of the country, most prevalent in Bo (24.6% and 8.79 eggs/10 ml, Koinadugu (20.4% and 3.53 eggs/10 ml and Kono (25.3% and 7.91 eggs/10 ml districts. By combining this map with the previously reported maps on intestinal schistosomiasis using a simple probabilistic model, the combined schistosomiasis prevalence map highlights the presence of high-risk communities in an extensive area in the northeastern half of the country. By further combining the hookworm prevalence map, the at-risk population of school-age children requiring integrated schistosomiasis/soil-transmitted helminth treatment regimens according to the coendemicity was estimated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first comprehensive national mapping of urogenital schistosomiasis in Sierra Leone was conducted. Using a new method for calculating the combined prevalence of schistosomiasis using estimates from two separate surveys, we provided a robust coendemicity mapping for overall urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. We also produced a coendemicity map of schistosomiasis and hookworm. These coendemicity maps can be used to guide the decision making for MDA strategies in combination

  12. Combined spatial prediction of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sierra Leone: a tool for integrated disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Mary H; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Paye, Jusufu; Koroma, Joseph B; Sonnie, Mustapha; Clements, Archie; Zhang, Yaobi

    2012-01-01

    A national mapping of Schistosoma haematobium was conducted in Sierra Leone before the mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel. Together with the separate mapping of S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths, the national control programme was able to plan the MDA strategies according to the World Health Organization guidelines for preventive chemotherapy for these diseases. A total of 52 sites/schools were selected according to prior knowledge of S. haematobium endemicity taking into account a good spatial coverage within each district, and a total of 2293 children aged 9-14 years were examined. Spatial analysis showed that S. haematobium is heterogeneously distributed in the country with significant spatial clustering in the central and eastern regions of the country, most prevalent in Bo (24.6% and 8.79 eggs/10 ml), Koinadugu (20.4% and 3.53 eggs/10 ml) and Kono (25.3% and 7.91 eggs/10 ml) districts. By combining this map with the previously reported maps on intestinal schistosomiasis using a simple probabilistic model, the combined schistosomiasis prevalence map highlights the presence of high-risk communities in an extensive area in the northeastern half of the country. By further combining the hookworm prevalence map, the at-risk population of school-age children requiring integrated schistosomiasis/soil-transmitted helminth treatment regimens according to the coendemicity was estimated. The first comprehensive national mapping of urogenital schistosomiasis in Sierra Leone was conducted. Using a new method for calculating the combined prevalence of schistosomiasis using estimates from two separate surveys, we provided a robust coendemicity mapping for overall urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. We also produced a coendemicity map of schistosomiasis and hookworm. These coendemicity maps can be used to guide the decision making for MDA strategies in combination with the local knowledge and programme needs.

  13. Biological and environmental factors associated with risk of schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Neto, Onicio Batista; Gomes, Elainne Christine de Souza; Oliveira Junior, Fernando José Moreira de; Andrade, Rafael; Reis, Diego Leandro; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Bocanegra, Silvana; Barbosa, Constança Simões

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis has expanded to the coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where there are frequent reports of Biomphalaria glabrata snails and human cases of the disease. This study analyzes factors related to schistosomiasis transmission risk in Porto de Galinhas. A one-year malacological survey was conducted to identify biological, abiotic, and environmental factors related to the host snail breeding sites. Data analysis used Excel 2010, GTM Pro, and ArcGis 10. A total of 11,012 B. glabrata sn...

  14. MRI diagnosis of the cerebral schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanqiu; Chen Yuanjun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To discuss MRI appearance of the cerebral schistosomiasis and its clinical value through analyzing the MRI features and post-surgery pathological findings. Methods: MRI features of the cerebral schistosomiasis in 16, pathologically (n = 6) or clinically (n = 10) proved cases were analyzed retrospectively, and compared with the post-surgery pathological findings in 6 cases. Results: Single masses were found in 11 cases (11/16), and multiple masses in 5 eases (5/16), amounting to 23 masses . fifteen masses (15/23) were located in right cerebral hemisphere, including frontal lobe (n = 2), frontoparietal lobe (n = 5) , and occipitoparietal lobe (n 8), while 8 masses (8/23) in left cerebral hemisphere, including frontal lobe (n = 1), frontoparietal lobe (n = 3), and occipitoparietal lobe (n = 4). The nodular masses were isointense with the gray mass like 'island', and 12 cases (12/16) show the 'gigantic hand' form of edema around them. After IV administration of Gd-DTPA, 15 cases (15/16) revealed multiple closely spaced, intensely enhancing modules, 1-3 mm in diameter, distributed throughout the mass. Seven cases misdiagnosed by CT were revised by MRl. Conclusion: The MRI appearance of the cerebral schistosomiasis is characteristic, and MRI is the most valuable tool to diagnose it without injury

  15. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Balen

    Full Text Available Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis.Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care.We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed.There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached.

  16. Acute urinary retention due to HSV-1: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancino, P; Dalessandro, M; Falasca, K; Ucciferri, C; Pizzigallo, E; Vecchiet, J

    2009-03-01

    Complications in urinary tract nervous routes due to herpes viruses as VZV and HSV-2 are well known. Acute urinary retention and chronic neuropathic pain are not rare when sacral dermatomes are involved by these viruses. However, an analogous condition has not yet been clearly ascribed to HSV-1 infection. We present a 32-year-old immunocompetent patient with fever, lumbar pain and acute urinary retention who had never had herpetic clinical manifestations. Urodynamic studies diagnosed a neurologic bladder with an absent filling sensation. Cystoscopic assessment revealed the presence of reddened and isolated small mucosal areas in the bladder walls. The search for herpes viruses in plasma and CSF by PCR assay were positive for HSV-1. After treatment with antiviral therapy the disease resolved. Intermittent catheterization was necessary and voiding dysfunction resolved after three weeks by its appearance. Neurological damage to the central nervous system (CNS) and/or PNS due to HSV-1 seems to be the most likely reason. The course of disease was benign and self-remitting.

  17. Sandwich mapping of schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Bergquist, Robert; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Li, Rui; Sun, Liqian; Xia, Congcong; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-06-03

    Schistosomiasis mapping using data obtained from parasitological surveys is frequently used in planning and evaluation of disease control strategies. The available geostatistical approaches are, however, subject to the assumption of stationarity, a stochastic process whose joint probability distribution does not change when shifted in time. As this is impractical for large areas, we introduce here the sandwich method, the basic idea of which is to divide the study area (with its attributes) into homogeneous subareas and estimate the values for the reporting units using spatial stratified sampling. The sandwich method was applied to map the county-level prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in Anhui Province, China based on parasitological data collected from sample villages and land use data. We first mapped the county-level prevalence using the sandwich method, then compared our findings with block Kriging. The sandwich estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.21% with a lower level of uncertainty, while the Kriging estimates varied from 0 to 0.97% with a higher level of uncertainty, indicating that the former is more smoothed and stable compared to latter. Aside from various forms of reporting units, the sandwich method has the particular merit of simple model assumption coupled with full utilization of sample data. It performs well when a disease presents stratified heterogeneity over space.

  18. [Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists.

  19. The Establishment and Function of Schistosomiasis Surveillance System Towards Elimination in The People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L-J; Li, S-Z; Wen, L-Y; Lin, D-D; Abe, E M; Zhu, R; Du, Y; Lv, S; Xu, J; Webster, B L; Rollinson, D; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum is the main schistosome species in The People's Republic of China, causing intestinal schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease of public health importance. The People's Republic of China used to be heavily endemic with schistosomiasis, but great progress has been made through the vigorous efforts of the national control programmes in the last six decades. Presently, efforts are geared towards eliminating schistosomiasis from The People's Republic of China by the end of 2025 through effective schistosomiasis surveillance, an important component in the drive towards schistosomiasis elimination. Therefore, this article explicitly outlines the development and progress made in schistosomiasis surveillance since 1990 with a special focus on the new surveillance system in use. Although the surveillance system has steadily improved over the years, it is faced with many challenges. Hence, more efforts are needed to establish an effective and sensitive evaluation system for the national schistosomiasis elimination programme in The People's Republic of China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on Schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacolo, Hlengiwe; Chimbari, Moses; Kalinda, Chester

    2018-01-18

    Schistosomiasis remains a global health problem with an estimated 250 million people in 78 countries infected, of whom 85% live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Preventive chemotherapy remains the key public health strategy to combat schistosomiasis worldwide. Recently the WHO emphasized on the use of integrative approaches in the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. However, a detailed understanding of sociocultural factors that may influence the uptake of the intended health activities and services is vital. Thus, our study sought to understand the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, beliefs and practices about schistosomiasis in various communities in Sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic search of literature for the period 2006-2016 was done on Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, Psych info and Google Scholar using the following key words "Schistosomiasis, S. mansoni, S. haematobium, knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, beliefs and practices in Sub-Saharan Africa" in combination with Bolean operators (OR, AND). In this context, we reviewed studies conducted among school children, community members and caregivers of preschool children. Thematic analysis was utilised for the overall synthesis of the selected studies. This was done after reading the articles in depth. Themes were identified and examined for similarities, differences and contradictions. Gaps in schistosomiasis related knowledge and sociocultural barriers towards the uptake of preventive and treatment services among communities in Sub-Saharan Africa were identified. In addition to limited knowledge and negative attitudes, risky water related practices among community members, school children and caregivers of preschool children were identified as key factors promoting transmission of the disease. The study concluded that a comprehensive health education programme using contextual and standardised training tools may improve peoples' knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to schistosomiasis prevention and control

  1. The impact of sexual orientation on body image, self-esteem, urinary and sexual functions in the experience of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C; Wootten, A C; Robinson, P; Law, P C F; McKenzie, D P

    2018-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) poses a large health burden globally. Research indicates that men experience a range of psychological challenges associated with PCa including changes to identity, self-esteem and body image. The ways in which sexual orientation plays a role in the experience of PCa, and the subsequent impact on quality of life (QoL), body image and self-esteem have only recently been addressed. By addressing treatment modality, where participant numbers were sufficient, we also sought to explore whether gay (homosexual) men diagnosed with PCa (PCaDx) and with a primary treatment modality of surgery would report differences in body image and self-esteem compared with straight (heterosexual) men with PCaDx with a primary treatment modality of surgery, compared with gay and straight men without PCaDx. The results of our study identified overall differences with respect to PCaDx (related to urinary function, sexual function and health evaluation), and sexual orientation (related to self-esteem), rather than interactions between sexual orientation and PCaDx. Gay men with PCaDx exhibited higher levels of urinary functioning than straight men with PCaDx, the difference being reversed for gay and straight men without PCaDx; but this result narrowly failed to achieve statistical significance, suggesting a need for further research, with larger samples. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Four cases of urinary dysfunction associated with sacral herpes zoster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomohiro; Oba, Kojiro; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki

    2014-02-01

    Herpes zoster is caused by the infection of Varicella-Zoster virus. The anatomical distribution of herpes zoster in the sacral area is only 6. 9%1). Moreover, the onset rate of herpes zoster with urinary dysfunction is 0.6%1). The lesion sites of herpes zoster which cause urinary dysfunction are almost lumber and sacral areas. We describe four cases of sacral herpes zoster with urinary dysfunction in this report. All patients were elderly people (66-84 years old), and all patients were administered anti-virus drugs and alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blockers. Because of urinary retention, three patients have performed clean intermittent self-catheterization (CIC) for several weeks. As the lesions of herpes zoster healed, each patient recovered from urinary dysfunction.

  3. Why reinvent the wheel? Lessons in schistosomiasis control from the past.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Shiff

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis has been of concern to local health authorities for most of the last century, and in spite of a lack of effective chemotherapy, the disease was dealt with quite effectively in many endemic countries by snail control and environmental management [1]. Much of this work was reported in journals prior to the electronic era but, sadly, seems to have been subsequently ignored. For many years, there followed a global hiatus on schistosomiasis control, and much of the local expertise was lost, but many things have changed more recently, mainly with the advent of generic and affordable praziquantel. With the increased availability of this drug, there has been an increasing interest in readdressing schistosomes as well as other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. The strategic approach for this had been based almost exclusively on chemotherapy. Recently, however, questions arose about this strategy with evidence that chemotherapy alone was not succeeding [2]. Additional strategies were needed, and the "Towards Elimination of Schistosomiasis" (TES 2017 Conference in Cameroon stressed an integrated PHASE strategy. This was in line with the WHO-NTD and WHO-AFRO 2014-2020 Regional Strategy on NTDs and directed emphasis on transmission control. Subsequently, this emphasis was discussed in a comprehensive review [3] that stressed the importance of such additions to any elimination programme. In reality, this means focusing on the aquatic snail hosts where and when transmission occurs, defining other risk factors such as water contact and latrine design and identifying improved sanitation and health education as essential components for elimination. For schistosomiasis reduction during the mid-20th century, transmission control was used extensively, but these facts are not well reported. Recent reviews have attempted to cover previous research [4,5], but sadly, they have left major knowledge gaps, particularly from Africa. These omissions also

  4. Why reinvent the wheel? Lessons in schistosomiasis control from the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiff, Clive

    2017-10-01

    Schistosomiasis has been of concern to local health authorities for most of the last century, and in spite of a lack of effective chemotherapy, the disease was dealt with quite effectively in many endemic countries by snail control and environmental management [1]. Much of this work was reported in journals prior to the electronic era but, sadly, seems to have been subsequently ignored. For many years, there followed a global hiatus on schistosomiasis control, and much of the local expertise was lost, but many things have changed more recently, mainly with the advent of generic and affordable praziquantel. With the increased availability of this drug, there has been an increasing interest in readdressing schistosomes as well as other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The strategic approach for this had been based almost exclusively on chemotherapy. Recently, however, questions arose about this strategy with evidence that chemotherapy alone was not succeeding [2]. Additional strategies were needed, and the "Towards Elimination of Schistosomiasis" (TES) 2017 Conference in Cameroon stressed an integrated PHASE strategy. This was in line with the WHO-NTD and WHO-AFRO 2014-2020 Regional Strategy on NTDs and directed emphasis on transmission control. Subsequently, this emphasis was discussed in a comprehensive review [3] that stressed the importance of such additions to any elimination programme. In reality, this means focusing on the aquatic snail hosts where and when transmission occurs, defining other risk factors such as water contact and latrine design and identifying improved sanitation and health education as essential components for elimination. For schistosomiasis reduction during the mid-20th century, transmission control was used extensively, but these facts are not well reported. Recent reviews have attempted to cover previous research [4,5], but sadly, they have left major knowledge gaps, particularly from Africa. These omissions also occurred in a recent

  5. Urinary Ascites in Newborn – A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakant Y. Ingale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Ascites in the newborn is a very rare condition. It is commonly secondary to posterior urethral valves (PUV which are membranous folds extending from proximal urethra leading to obstruction to urine flow. Here we report a two days old male neonate delivered full term in a hospital who presented with gross, uniform tense distension of abdomen with massive scrotal oedema, secondary to massive urinary ascites as a result of rupture of renal calyces. In addition there was a peri-renal urinoma.

  6. Urinary Incontinence and Psychosocial Factors Associated With Intimate Relationship Satisfaction Among Midlife Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Lori; Meize-Grochowski, Robin

    To explore associations among symptoms of urinary incontinence, severity of symptoms, and measures of psychosocial health that may be assessed during a well-woman screening examination and the possible contribution of these variables to the relationship satisfaction of partnered midlife women living with urinary incontinence. Exploratory correlational design using self-report questionnaires. Community recruitment by posted fliers, advertisements, and social media. Partnered women, ages 45 to 65 years, with urinary incontinence (N = 57). Self-report measures of severity of incontinence symptoms, relationship satisfaction, self-concept/emotional health (self-esteem, body image, depression, anxiety), and relationship factors (sexual quality of life, incontinence-related communication). Data were analyzed using Spearman rho correlation with an exploration of the contribution of study factors to relationship satisfaction through standard multiple regression. The severity of urinary incontinence symptoms had no significant correlation with scores on relationship satisfaction or psychosocial health. Measures of self-concept/emotional health and relationship factors were significantly correlated with each other (r s  = .40-.75, p < .01) and with relationship satisfaction (r s  = .35-.71, p < .05). Preliminary exploration of the contribution of study factors to relationship satisfaction through exploratory regression analysis showed unique contributions from sexual quality of life (18.7%, p < .001) and depression (8.7%, p = .004). Midlife women with urinary incontinence, regardless of symptom severity, might benefit from screening for poorer sexual quality of life and mild depression symptoms because these two study factors significantly contributed to poorer intimate relationship satisfaction among this study's participants. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial analysis of Schistosomiasis in Hubei Province, China: a GIS-based analysis of Schistosomiasis from 2009 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in China. The major endemic areas are located in the lake and marshland regions of southern China, particularly in areas along the middle and low reach of the Yangtze River. Spatial analytical techniques are often used in epidemiology to identify spatial clusters in disease regions. This study assesses the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and explores high-risk regions in Hubei Province, China to provide guidance on schistosomiasis control in marshland regions.In this study, spatial autocorrelation methodologies, including global Moran's I and local Getis-Ord statistics, were utilized to describe and map spatial clusters and areas where human Schistosoma japonicum infection is prevalent at the county level in Hubei province. In addition, linear logistic regression model was used to determine the characteristics of spatial autocorrelation with time.The infection rates of S. japonicum decreased from 2009 to 2013. The global autocorrelation analysis results on the infection rate of S. japonicum for five years showed statistical significance (Moran's I > 0, P < 0.01, which suggested that spatial clusters were present in the distribution of S. japonicum infection from 2009 to 2013. Local autocorrelation analysis results showed that the number of highly aggregated areas ranged from eight to eleven within the five-year analysis period. The highly aggregated areas were mainly distributed in eight counties.The spatial distribution of human S. japonicum infections did not exhibit a temporal change at the county level in Hubei Province. The risk factors that influence human S. japonicum transmission may not have changed after achieving the national criterion of infection control. The findings indicated that spatial-temporal surveillance of S. japonicum transmission plays a significant role on schistosomiasis control. Timely and integrated prevention should be continued, especially in the Yangtze

  8. [Analysis of projects of schistosomiasis sponsored by National Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-di, Zhou; Liang, Shi; Xue-Dan, Ke; Jie, Wang

    2017-07-27

    To summarize the present development by analysis of projects in schistosomiasis funded by National Science Foundation of China (NSFC). Based on the ISIS database of NFSC, the projects in the studies of schistosomiasis from 2005 to 2016 were analyzed. The distributions of sponsored numbers, amounts, types, agencies, disciplines and changes in research topics by means of network profiles were described. During the study period, 198 projects were funded by NSFC totally with 76.05 million yuan in which the general and youth projects were main types. The main sponsored agencies were research institutes and medical colleges. The top three fields sponsored were medical pathogenic microbes and infection, veterinary and medical immunology. The funding on schistosomiasis researches has a downward trend, but studies are continuing in depth. In this situation, innovative and interdisciplinary researches need to be encouraged to promote the development of schistosomiasis.

  9. Use of Indicator Kriging to Investigate Schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. P. S. Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GISs are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission.

  10. [Prediction of schistosomiasis infection rates of population based on ARIMA-NARNN model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke-Wei, Wang; Yu, Wu; Jin-Ping, Li; Yu-Yu, Jiang

    2016-07-12

    To explore the effect of the autoregressive integrated moving average model-nonlinear auto-regressive neural network (ARIMA-NARNN) model on predicting schistosomiasis infection rates of population. The ARIMA model, NARNN model and ARIMA-NARNN model were established based on monthly schistosomiasis infection rates from January 2005 to February 2015 in Jiangsu Province, China. The fitting and prediction performances of the three models were compared. Compared to the ARIMA model and NARNN model, the mean square error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the ARIMA-NARNN model were the least with the values of 0.011 1, 0.090 0 and 0.282 4, respectively. The ARIMA-NARNN model could effectively fit and predict schistosomiasis infection rates of population, which might have a great application value for the prevention and control of schistosomiasis.

  11. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. ... BATHING AND HYGIENE To prevent future urinary tract infections, ... believe make infections more likely. Change your pad each time ...

  12. Repurposing pharma assets: an accelerated mechanism for strengthening the schistosomiasis drug development pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthi, Roopa; Graef, Katy M; Dent, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, one of 17 diseases deemed to be neglected by the World Health Organization, has received little attention from the biopharmaceutical industry. Due to this, only a handful of drugs have been developed to treat schistosomiasis, with only one, praziquantel, used in most endemic regions. Growing concern over resistance coupled with praziquantel's incomplete efficacy across all stages of the Schistosoma platyhelminth life cycle highlights the urgent need for new drugs. The WIPO Re:Search consortium is a platform whereupon biopharmaceutical company compounds are being repurposed to efficiently and cost-effectively develop new drugs for neglected diseases such as schistosomiasis. This article summarizes recent clinical-stage efforts to identify new antischistosomals and highlights biopharmaceutical company compounds with potential for repurposing to treat schistosomiasis.

  13. A Rapid Monitoring and Evaluation Method of Schistosomiasis Based on Spatial Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhuang, Dafang

    2015-12-12

    Thanks to Spatial Information Technologies (SITs) such as Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) that are being quickly developed and updated, SITs are being used more widely in the public health field. The use of SITs to study the characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of Schistosoma japonicum and to assess the risk of infection provides methods for the control and prevention of schistosomiasis japonica has gradually become a hot topic in the field. The purpose of the present paper was to use RS and GIS technology to develop an efficient method of prediction and assessment of the risk of schistosomiasis japonica. We choose the Yueyang region, close to the east DongTing Lake (Hunan Province, China), as the study area, where a recent serious outbreak of schistosomiasis japonica took place. We monitored and evaluated the transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica in the region using SITs. Water distribution data were extracted from RS images. The ground temperature, ground humidity and vegetation index were calculated based on RS images. Additionally, the density of oncomelania snails, which are the Schistosoma japonicum intermediate host, was calculated on the base of RS data and field measurements. The spatial distribution of oncomelania snails was explored using SITs in order to estimate the area surrounding the residents with transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica. Our research result demonstrated: (1) the risk factors for the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica were closely related to the living environment of oncomelania snails. Key factors such as water distribution, ground temperature, ground humidity and vegetation index can be quickly obtained and calculated from RS images; (2) using GIS technology and a RS deduction technique along with statistical regression models, the density distribution model of oncomelania snails could be quickly built; (3) using SITs and analysis with overlaying population

  14. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforga, Juan B; Gasent, Joan M

    We report a case of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder in an elderly female patient. A 97-year old woman presented with hematuria, and an ultrasonographic urinary study showed a localized tumor in the trigone region of the urinary bladder. A transurethral resection revealed a mixed tumor formed by high-grade transitional carcinoma and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma that had infiltrated into the muscular propria. We describe the clinicopathological, morphological and immunohistochemical features of this tumor and briefly discuss its differential diagnosis and biological behavior. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anatomía Patológica. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Schistosomiasis elimination strategies and potential role of a vaccine in achieving global health goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Annie X; Agosti, Jan M; Walson, Judd L; Hall, B Fenton; Gordon, Lance

    2014-01-01

    In March 2013, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation co-sponsored a meeting entitled "Schistosomiasis Elimination Strategy and Potential Role of a Vaccine in Achieving Global Health Goals" to discuss the potential role of schistosomiasis vaccines and other tools in the context of schistosomiasis control and elimination strategies. It was concluded that although schistosomiasis elimination in some focal areas may be achievable through current mass drug administration programs, global control and elimination will face several significant scientific and operational challenges, and will require an integrated approach with other, additional interventions. These challenges include vector (snail) control; environmental modification; water, sanitation, and hygiene; and other future innovative tools such as vaccines. Defining a clear product development plan that reflects a vaccine strategy as complementary to the existing control programs to combat different forms of schistosomiasis will be important to develop a vaccine effectively.

  16. Schistosomiasis Sustained Control Program in Ethnic Groups Around Ninefescha (Eastern Senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, Monique; Dioukhane, Elhadji M; Ndao, Babacar; Diedhiou, Kemo; Diawara, Lamine; Talla, Idrissa; Vernet, Charlotte; Bessin, François; Barbier, Dominique; Dewavrin, Patrick; Klotz, Francis; Georges, Pierre

    2016-09-07

    Schistosomiasis is the second most significant parasitic disease in children in several African countries. For this purpose, the "Programme National de Lutte contre les Bilharzioses" (PNLB) was developed in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) to control this disease in Senegal. However, geographic isolation of Bedik ethnic groups challenged implementation of the key elements of the schistosomiasis program in eastern Senegal, and therefore, a hospital was established in Ninefescha to improve access to health care as well as laboratory support for this population. The program we have implemented from 2008 in partnership with the PNLB/WHO involved campaigns to 1) evaluate schistosomiasis prevalence in children of 53 villages around Ninefescha hospital, 2) perform a mass drug administration following the protocol established by the PNLB in school-aged children, 3) monitor annual prevalence, 4) implement health education campaigns, and 5) oversee the building of latrines. This campaign led to a drop in schistosomiasis prevalence but highlighted that sustainable schistosomiasis control by praziquantel treatment, awareness of the use of latrines, and inhabitants' voluntary commitment to the program are crucial to improve Schistosoma elimination. Moreover, this study revealed that preschool-aged children, for whom praziquantel was not recommended until 2014 in Senegal, constituted a significant reservoir for the parasite. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Saarnak, Christopher F L; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Magnussen, Pascal; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-06-12

    This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear. A literature search on T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was performed to compile all known studies on the presence of T. solium and apparent prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in Africa. Studies were geo-referenced using an online gazetteer. A Bayesian framework was used to combine the epidemiological data on the apparent prevalence with external information on test characteristics to estimate informed district-level prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis. Districts with T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis presence were cross-referenced with the Global Neglected Tropical Diseases Database for schistosomiasis presence. The search strategies identified 141 reports of T. solium in Africa from 1985 to 2014 from a total of 476 districts in 29 countries, 20 with porcine cysticercosis, 22 with human cysticercosis, and 16 with taeniosis, in addition to 2 countries identified from OIE reports. All 31 countries were considered, on national scale, to have co-distribution with schistosomiasis. Presence of both parasites was confirmed in 124 districts in 17 countries. The informed prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis were estimated for 14 and 41 districts in 10 and 13 countries, respectively. With the paucity of data, T. solium infection is grossly under-reported and expected to be more widespread than this study suggests. In areas where co-distribution occurs there is a need for increased emphasis on evaluation of integrated intervention approaches for these two helminth infections and allocation of resources for evaluating the extent of adverse effects caused by mass drug administration.

  18. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-24

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Spain remains high. UC is a reliable biomarker for classifying

  19. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Design We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. Participants At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Results Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Conclusions Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in

  20. Human schistosomiasis mansoni: studies on in vitro granuloma modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juçara C. Parra

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Schistosoma mansoni induces humoral and T cell mediated responses and leads to delayed hipersensitivity that results in granulomatous inflamatory disease around the parasite eggs. Regulation of these responses resulting in a reduction in this anti-egg inflamatory disease is appsrently determined by idiotypic repertoires of the patient, associated with genetic background and multiple external factors. We have previously reported on idiotype/anti-idiotype-receptor transactions in clinical human schistosomiasis. These findings support a hypothesis that anti-SEA cross-reactive idiotypes develop in some patients during the course of a chronic infection and participate in regulation of anti-SEA cellular immune responses. We repport here on experiments wich extend those observations to the regulation of granulomatous hypersensitivity measured by an in vitro granuloma model. T cells from chronic intestinal schistosomiasis patients were stimulated in vitro with anti-SEA idiotypes and assayed in an autologous in vitro granuloma assay for modulation of granuloma formation. These anti-SEA idiotype reactive T cells were capable of regulating autologous in vitro granuloma formation. This regulatory activity, initiated with stimulatory anti-SEA idiotypic antibodies, was antigenically specific and was dependent on the present of intact (F(ab'2 immunoglobulin molecules. The ability to elicit this regulatory activity appears to be dose dependent and is more easily demonstrated in chronically infected intestinal patients or SEA sensitized individuals. These data support the hypothesis that anti-SEA cross reactive idiotypes are important in regulating granulomatous hypersensitivy in chronic intestinal schistosomiasis patients and these cross-reactive idiotypes appear to play a major role in cell-cell interactions which result in the regulation of anti-SEA cellular immune responses.

  1. [Research of preferences and security management of tourists in Poyang Lake based on schistosomiasis prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shu-hua

    2015-04-01

    To discuss the prevention of schistosomiasis in tourism of lake region. The seasonal distribution of tourism activities and spatial distribution of scenic spots, as well as the coupling between space and temporal of Oncomelania snail distribution and the transmission time of schistosomiasis in Poyang Lake region were analyzed. The travel preference of schistosomiasis susceptible population was surveyed by questionnaires and interviews. There were couplings of space and temporal between tourism activities in Poyang Lake region and transmission time of schistosomiasis as well as space distribution of snails, respectively. The most popular tourism items were Shuishangrenjia (overwater household) and fishing folk culture with property of participation and experience. The suggestion is to establish health records of tourists, carry out health education of schistosomiasis, and enhance the management of tourism and activities of tourists.

  2. [Construction and operation status of management system of laboratories of schistosomiasis control institutions in Hubei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao-Hui, Zheng; Jun, Qin; Li, Chen; Hong, Zhu; Li, Tang; Zu-Wu, Tu; Ming-Xing, Zeng; Qian, Sun; Shun-Xiang, Cai

    2016-10-09

    To analyze the construction and operation status of management system of laboratories of schistosomiasis control institutions in Hubei Province, so as to provide the reference for the standardized detection and management of schistosomiasis laboratories. According to the laboratory standard of schistosomiasis at provincial, municipal and county levels, the management system construction and operation status of 60 schistosomiasis control institutions was assessed by the acceptance examination method from 2013 to 2015. The management system was already occupied over all the laboratories of schistosomiasis control institutions and was officially running. There were 588 non-conformities and the inconsistency rate was 19.60%. The non-conformity rate of the management system of laboratory quality control was 38.10% (224 cases) and the non-conformity rate of requirements of instrument and equipment was 23.81% (140 cases). The management system has played an important role in the standardized management of schistosomiasis laboratories.

  3. [Role of socio-economy and management in sustainable transmission control of schistosomiasis in Taoyuan County, Hunan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Hong; Li, Sheng-Ming; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yi, Ping; Ren, Guang-Hui; Franziska, Bieri; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan; Hou, Xun-Ya; Ren, Mao-Yuan; Li, Yi-Yi; Dong, Ru-Lan; Zeng, Jin-Yuan; She, Shu-Ping

    2013-02-01

    To clarify the role of socio-economy and management in the sustainable schistosomiasis-control in Taoyuan County, an endemic area in hilly region, Hunan Province, China. From 1996 to 2011, the data of socio-economy, the management of schistosomiasis control organizations, environment, and the changes in schistosomiasis prevalence were collected in Taoyuan County where schistosomiasis transmission had been controlled since 2008. A sampling survey of schistosomiasis prevalence of human and bovine was performed in 2011 to verify the current status of schistosomiasis transmission. All the data were analyzed statistically to evaluate the role of socio-economy and management in the sustainable schistosomiasis control. During the period from 1998 to 2012, the socio-economy including the residents' productive mode and daily life in Taoyuan County improved dramatically, but the recurrence risk of schistosomiasis endemic still existed due to the retuning of out-going workers and the migrating population. Moreover, the introduction of exotic species of plants and animals may increase the risk. The low running cost of schistosomiasis control organization as well as the efficient and adequate resource allocation in the county was in line with the national requirement to strengthen the rural grass-roots public health system. The harmonious development of socio-economy and the scientific and efficient health system in Taoyuan County are the key factors for the sustainable transmission control of schistosomiasis.

  4. Self-monitoring of urinary salt excretion as a method of salt-reduction education: a parallel, randomized trial involving two groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Miyoshi, Emiko; Misumi, Yukiko; Kajiyama, Tomomi; Fukuda, Tamami; Ishii, Taeko; Moriguchi, Ririko; Murata, Yusuke; Ohe, Kenji; Enjoji, Munechika; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2018-02-20

    The present study aimed to evaluate salt-reduction education using a self-monitoring urinary salt-excretion device. Parallel, randomized trial involving two groups. The following parameters were checked at baseline and endline of the intervention: salt check sheet, eating behaviour questionnaire, 24 h home urine collection, blood pressure before and after urine collection. The intervention group self-monitored urine salt excretion using a self-measuring device for 4 weeks. In the control group, urine salt excretion was measured, but the individuals were not informed of the result. Seventy-eight individuals (control group, n 36; intervention group, n 42) collected two 24 h urine samples from a target population of 123 local resident volunteers. The samples were then analysed. There were no differences in clinical background or related parameters between the two groups. The 24 h urinary Na:K ratio showed a significant decrease in the intervention group (-1·1) compared with the control group (-0·0; P=0·033). Blood pressure did not change in either group. The results of the salt check sheet did not change in the control group but were significantly lower in the intervention group. The score of the eating behaviour questionnaire did not change in the control group, but the intervention group showed a significant increase in eating behaviour stage. Self-monitoring of urinary salt excretion helps to improve 24 h urinary Na:K, salt check sheet scores and stage of eating behaviour. Thus, usage of self-monitoring tools has an educational potential in salt intake reduction.

  5. Ability of self-reported estimates of dietary sodium, potassium and protein to detect an association with general and abdominal obesity: comparison with the estimates derived from 24 h urinary excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-28

    As under-reporting of dietary intake, particularly by overweight and obese subjects, is common in dietary surveys, biases inherent in the use of self-reported dietary information may distort true diet-obesity relationships or even create spurious ones. However, empirical evidence of this possibility is limited. The present cross-sectional study compared the relationships of 24 h urine-derived and self-reported intakes of Na, K and protein with obesity. A total of 1043 Japanese women aged 18-22 years completed a 24 h urine collection and a self-administered diet history questionnaire. After adjustment for potential confounders, 24 h urine-derived Na intake was associated with a higher risk of general obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥80 cm; both P for trend=0·04). For 24 h urine-derived protein intake, positive associations with general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·02 and 0·053, respectively). For 24 h urine-derived K intake, there was an inverse association with abdominal obesity (P for trend=0·01). Conversely, when self-reported dietary information was used, only inverse associations between K intake and general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·04 and 0·02, respectively), with no associations of Na or protein intake. In conclusion, we found positive associations of Na and protein intakes and inverse associations of K intake with obesity when using 24 h urinary excretion for estimating dietary intakes. However, no association was observed based on using self-reported dietary intakes, except for inverse association of K intake, suggesting that the ability of self-reported dietary information using the diet history questionnaire for investigating diet-obesity relationships is limited.

  6. A systematic review of estrogens for recurrent urinary tract infections: third report of the hormones and urogenital therapy (HUT) committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, L; Lose, G; McClish, D; Versi, E; de Koning Gans, H

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to apply a meta-analysis to the available data to evaluate the effect of estrogen supplementation in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women. The literature review incorporated articles based on a search of Excerpta Medica, Medline, Science Citation Index and a manual search of commonly read journals in the fields of urology, gynecology, gerontology and primary healthcare, from January 1969 to December 1998. The search was not limited to English-language publications. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed articles containing original data with a primary outcome of symptomatic urinary tract infections and an estrogen-treated group. Articles were categorized into randomized controlled trials, case-control studies and self-controlled series. Of the articles reviewed, five were randomized controlled trials, two were case-control studies and three were self-control series. Meta-analysis of data from 334 subjects revealed a significant benefit from estrogen over placebo (odds ratio = 2.51, 95% confidence interval = 1.48 4.25). The most convincing results were obtained using the vaginal route of administration. A variety of different estrogen preparations have been employed in the few published reports, making comparison of the data difficult. However, vaginal administration seems to be effective in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women.

  7. Sandwich mapping of schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mapping using data obtained from parasitological surveys is frequently used in planning and evaluation of disease control strategies. The available geostatistical approaches are, however, subject to the assumption of stationarity, a stochastic process whose joint probability distribution does not change when shifted in time. As this is impractical for large areas, we introduce here the sandwich method, the basic idea of which is to divide the study area (with its attributes into homogeneous subareas and estimate the values for the reporting units using spatial stratified sampling. The sandwich method was applied to map the county-level prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in Anhui Province, China based on parasitological data collected from sample villages and land use data. We first mapped the county-level prevalence using the sandwich method, then compared our findings with block Kriging. The sandwich estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.21% with a lower level of uncertainty, while the Kriging estimates varied from 0 to 0.97% with a higher level of uncertainty, indicating that the former is more smoothed and stable compared to latter. Aside from various forms of reporting units, the sandwich method has the particular merit of simple model assumption coupled with full utilization of sample data. It performs well when a disease presents stratified heterogeneity over space.

  8. Epidemiological determinants correlating hepatitis C and Schistosomiasis mansoni in one of Upper Egypt governorates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah S. Abdel Gawad

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis and hepatitis C virus (HCV are endemic diseases with high prevalence in Africa especially in Egypt. Many sociodemographic and behavioral related determinants were implicated to be associated with schistosomiasis, HCV or coinfection. Recently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR is used as a diagnostic tool as it is a sensitive and a specific method especially in early stage of infection. But, diagnosis of S. mansoni is depending on microscopic examination remains the most widely used direct diagnostic method in endemic area. The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of schistosomiasis mansoni, HCV and confection if any among the studied population, to identify any associated factors for schistosomiasis mansoni, HCV or coinfection if any.A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted on 400 participants, inhabitants in Beni-Suef Governorate, Upper Egypt. The studied population was screened for both schistosomiasis mansoni and HCV. They were subjected to fulfill a well-structured field tested interviewing questionnaire focusing on many suspected associated factors. Moreover, testing the performance characteristics of the used techniques was determined. The prevalence of schistosomiasis mansoni was (2.8% and HCV was (42.5% among the studied subjects. The study highlights on many behavioral and sociodemographic determinants significantly associated with HCV infection such as home crowding index, shaving at the community barber, sharing razors within the family, delivery at home and circumcision outside the health settings. Also, the study revealed that there are certain determinants associated with both schistosomiasis mansoni and HCV infection such as blood transfusion and liver cirrhosis. Studying the linked determinates with schistosomisis and HCV is the cornerstone to plan and implement a preventive strategy in the Upper Egypt. Thus, further studying the associated environmental determinants in relation to

  9. Eradication of schistosomiasis in Guangxi, China. Part 2: Political economy, management strategy and costs, 1953-92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, A.; Jackson, S.; Li, X.; Huang, K.

    1998-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study of the political economy, management, and costs of the successful Guangxi schistosomiasis eradication programme, spanning 40 years from 1953 to 1992. For this purpose we analysed all government data and memoranda on the policy, management, technical support, finance, and the control strategy of the programme. We also interviewed many local staff involved in the programme over the 40-year period and obtained cost data from annual county-level records on seven major categories of variable costs. Schistosomiasis control in Guangxi began with one of the first examples of community participation and rapid assessment in public health history--the use of pre-franked envelopes to return disease questionnaires and suspect snails from rural areas. This approach quickly and accurately delineated the endemic area. This was Mao Zedong's "mass line", incorporating ideas and knowledge from peasants directly into services run for and by them, here the schistosomiasis control programme. Recognition by China's leaders that schistosomiasis was a great economic burden, steadfast prioritizing of the programme over 40 years, local innovative scientific study, agricultural and environmental focus on eradicating the snail hosts and boosting rural production, and mass community education and support were all key factors in the final success. Local leaders motivated programme staff and everyone involved knew the objectives. The programme was always multisectoral, with policy developed centrally, and strategy and collaboration encouraged and rewarded at the grass-roots. These features explain how a very poor autonomous region such as Guangxi finally eradicated schistosomiasis, spending less than US$ 0.50 per protected citizen per year; it is remarkable that the disease and snails were initially found across a large area of complex environments and modern drugs such as praziquantel were not available for most of the 40-year period. The lessons from Guangxi

  10. Erythrocytes 125I-Insulin Binding Studies in Viral Hepatitis and Schistosomiasis Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the alterations of insulin binding sites in human erythrocytes in patients with chronic viral B and C hepatitis and in schistosomiasis. Fifty men with ages ranged from 20-45 years were diagnosed into five groups; hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, mixed hepatitis B and C, schistosomiasis and normal healthy volunteers as a control group. Biochemical analyses as erythrocyte insulin radioreceptor, plasma insulin estimation, fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels and liver function tests were performed. The results revealed significant decrease in insulin binding sites/cell in patients with hepatitis C virus, mixed B and C viruses and in schistosomiasis compared to the control group. There were significant increase in fasting plasma glucose levels in groups of hepatitis C virus mixed B and C viruses, while there were highly significant increase in post prandial plasma glucose levels in patients with mixed B and C viruses and in schistosomiasis groups compared to the normal control. Also, fasting plasma insulin levels were significantly elevated in groups of hepatitis C mixed B and C viruses and in schistosomiasis group. The obtained results revealed the importance of laboratory follow up of glucose and insulin levels in patients with chronic liver diseases

  11. Aeromonas hydrophila urinary tract infection in pregnancy- Case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ragunathan, Latha; Kavitha, Kannaiyan; Raveendran, Vinod; Dhandapani, Senthil Pragash; Jaget, Nirmala; Kannivelu, Jayanthi

    2012-01-01

    A case of a pregnant woman without previous or concomitant disease, who developed an Aeromonas hydrophila urinary tract infection (UTI) at 12 weeks gestation, is reported. A brief review of the literature on the association and incidence of Aeromonas spp in urinary infections and also in association with pregnancy is presented.

  12. Access to, and use of, water by populations living in a schistosomiasis and fascioliasis co-endemic area of northern Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauth, Stefanie J; Musard, Capucine; Traoré, Seïdinan I; Zinsstag, Jakob; Achi, Louise Y; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-09-01

    Water is an essential element of life, but it can also be a source of disease. Apart from direct consumption of unsafe water, direct contact and indirect consumption puts people at risk of many different types of pathogens. Employing a mixed methods approach, consisting of questionnaires and direct observations, we assessed access to, and use of, different water sources by the participants of the district des Savanes in northern Côte d'Ivoire. The use of water sources was put in relation to the potential risk of acquiring schistosomiasis and fascioliasis. Overall, 489 people aged 8 to 82 years participated. While all participants had access to safe water, 63% were in direct contact with unimproved water and 31% directly consumed unsafe water. More than a third of the people who otherwise reported using only improved water for all activities came in contact with unimproved water through crossing open water when going to their workplace, school or other destinations. Self-reported blood in urine - a marker for Schistosoma haematobium with reasonable sensitivity and specificity - was reported by 6% (n=30), self-reported blood in stool - an unspecific marker for Schistosoma mansoni - was reported by 7% (n=35), while blood co-occurring in both urine and stool was reported by another 10% (n=48) of participants. Accessing unimproved water for any activity (including crossing) was associated with higher odds of reporting blood in urine and/or blood in stool (odds ratio: 1.90; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.36). Our results have important rami-fications for intervention programmes targeting neglected tropical diseases, and emphasize the need for a wider supply of safe water to rural populations, since the water supply at the workplace needs to be considered as well next to the water supply at home. Crossing of open water sources is an important risk factor for sustained transmission of schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. China-Africa and China-Asia Collaboration on Schistosomiasis Control: A SWOT Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Bergquist, R; Qian, Y-J; Wang, Q; Yu, Q; Peeling, R; Croft, S; Guo, J-G; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a trematode, parasitic worm, is a worldwide public health problem. In spite of great progress with regard to morbidity control, even elimination of this infection in recent decades, there are still challenges to overcome in sub-Saharan Africa and endemic areas in Southeast Asia. Regarded as one of the most successful countries with respect to schistosomiasis control, The People's Republic of China has accumulated considerable experience and learnt important lessons in various local settings that could benefit schistosomiasis control in other endemic countries. Based on an analysis of conceived strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of potential collaborative activities with regard to schistosomiasis in Africa and Asia, this article addresses the importance of collaborative efforts and explores the priorities that would be expected to facilitate the transfer of Chinese experience to low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Human schistosomiasis in Ngamiland, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L; Magnussen, Pascal; Wouters, J S

    1985-01-01

    To reassess the schistosomiasis problem in Ngamiland and especially in Maun area 552 primary school children and 213 adult labourers were examined with urinalysis and rectal snip. Of the pupils 80.3% were found positive for S. mansoni and 1.4% for S. haematobium; of the labourers 35.7% were...

  15. Evaluation of Lethal Giant Larvae as a Schistosomiasis Vaccine Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of humans, and it is considered to be the second most devastating parasitic disease after malaria. Eggs produced by normally developed female worms are important in the transmission of the parasite, and they responsible for the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. The tumor suppressor gene lethal giant larvae (lgl has an essential function in establishing apical-basal cell polarity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue organization. In our earlier study, downregulation of the lgl gene induced a significant reduction in the egg hatching rate of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj eggs. In this study, the Sjlgl gene was used as a vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis, and vaccination achieved and maintained a stable reduction of the egg hatching rate, which is consistent with previous studies, in addition to reducing the worm burden and liver egg burden in some trials.

  16. Kocuria kristinae in catheter associated urinary tract infection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Rachna; Dudeja, Mridu; Das, Ayan K; Nandy, Shyamasree

    2013-08-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a gram positive coccus of the family of Micrococcacae. It inhabits the skin and mucous membranes, but it has rarely been isolated from clinical specimens and is thus considered to be a non-pathogenic commensal. However, it may cause opportunistic infections in patients with indwelling devices and severe underlying diseases. We are reporting an unusual case of a Kocuria kristinae urinary tract infection in a catheterized, 20-years old male. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a catheter related urinary tract infection which was caused by Kocuria kristinae.

  17. The diagnostic strength of the 24-h pad test for self-reported symptoms of urinary incontinence in pregnancy and after childbirth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijma, Jacobus; Potters, Annemarie E. Weis; Tinga, Dick J.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.

    The clinical impact of incontinence in pregnancy and after childbirth is growing because some studies report the efficacy of physiotherapy in pregnancy and because obstetric choices are supposed to have significant impact on post-reproductive urinary function (Goldberg et al. in Am J Obstet Gynecol

  18. The management of stress urinary incontinence: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preshani Reddy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conservative management is the first option for patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI. However, successful management of women diagnosed with SUI is dependent on a proper assessment and a tailored treatment plan. This case report aims to show the effectiveness of physiotherapy management in a 42-year-old patient diagnosed with SUI. Patient presentation: The patient’s main complaints were involuntary loss of urine on coughing, sneezing and lifting of heavy objects, which started following the birth of her third child. Management and outcome: The patient was taught the ‘Knack’ manoeuvre and provided with a tailored pelvic floor exercise programme. Improvement was noted at the third visit and the patient no longer had involuntary episodes. Conclusion: This case report shows the successful outcome of conservative management in a patient with stress urinary incontinence.

  19. A Case Report of Primary B–Cell Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. Less than 100 cases have been reported. The best treatment approach for this disease remained unknown.In this article we reported a 41-year-old-female who was admitted to Sina hospital with the chief complaint of macrohematuria that was followed by dysuria , frequency , noturia and urgency. Other examinations were normal and there was no organomegaly and lymphadenopathy.In ultrasonography the thickening of trigone zone of the urinary bladder was reported. The patient underwent a transurethral biopsy of the bladder that revealed malignant lymphoma , intermediate grade , diffuse mixed small and large cell type ( B-cell lymphoma. The reports of computed tomography scan of the thorax , abdomen and pelvis and bonemarrow biopsy were normal and results of metastatic work up were negative.Primary lymphoma of the urinary bladder was diagnosed and a combination of systemic chemotherapy and relatively low dose irradiation were done for the patient. The patient is in complete remission with this kind of treatment now.

  20. Agreement between maternal cannabis use during pregnancy according to self-report and urinalysis in a population-based cohort: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. El Marroun (Hanan); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); B. Hofman; F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W. van den Brink (Wim); A.C. Huizink (Anja)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAim: To verify self-reported information on prenatal drug use in urine because reporting in pregnancy is sensitive to stigma and might lead to misclassification. Methods: Using semiquantitative immunochemical analysis, the presence of the urinary metabolite

  1. Human schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico: reduced prevalence rate and absence of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboda, M; Malek, E A; Correa, R

    1997-11-01

    A combined epidemiologic and malacologic survey of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico was carried out in areas where previous surveys had reported the prevalence of the disease. This limited survey, with 495 persons examined, found a low prevalence (0.6%) of Schistosoma mansoni infections. The infections were restricted to three people more than 36 years of age. No infections were detected in children 16 years of age or less, and this cohort comprised 57.8% of the study group. Malacologic surveys of the four streams, 10 rivers, and eight lakes throughout the island revealed the absence of intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata and the presence of Thiara granifera, a competitive species of B. glabrata and the predatory snail Marisa cornuarietis. We believe that the absence of B. glabrata is the primary reason for the sustained reduction in the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico.

  2. Treating schistosomiasis among South African high school pupils in an endemic area, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothe, Andrea; Zulu, Nqobile; Øyhus, Arne Olav; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Taylor, Myra

    2018-05-25

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease caused by parasites that infest open water sources such as rivers and dams may increase susceptibility to HIV. Mass-treatment with praziquantel tablets, recommended by the World Health Organization reduces the prevalence of schistosomiasis. The goal in endemic areas is 75% treatment participation in every treatment round (e.g. yearly). However, in rural Ugu district, KwaZulu-Natal, South-Africa there was low participation among pupils in a Department of Health Mass-Treatment Campaign for schistosomiasis. Nested in a large study on schistosomiasis the study was conducted in 2012 over 4 months using qualitative methods with the Health Belief Model as the conceptual framework. Purposive sampling was done. Focus Group Discussions were undertaken at six schools in grades 10-12. Individual in-depth interviews were held with one teacher and two pupils at each school. In addition three traditional healers and a community health worker were interviewed. The severity of schistosomiasis was not recognised and neither was the pupils' susceptibility. Barriers to treatment included confusing S, haematobium symptoms with sexually transmitted infections, teasing and stigma. Increased knowledge, health literacy for treatment, and correct understanding about the severity of schistosomiasis may provide cues to action. The study indicates that comprehensive information may increase pupil participation in mass-treatment and decrease schistosomiasis prevalence. This study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov registry database and the registration number is NCT01154907 30 June 2011.

  3. Knowledge attitudes and practices of grade three primary schoolchildren in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis and malaria in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwer Kimberly C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helminth infection rates in grade three children are used as proxy indicators of community infection status and to guide treatment strategies in endemic areas. However knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of this target age group (8-10 years in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis (STHs and malaria is not known at a time when integrated plasmodium - helminth control strategies are being advocated. This study sought to assess KAP of grade 3 children in relation to schistosomiasis, STHs and malaria in order to establish an effective school based health education for disease transmission control. Methods Grade 3 children (n = 172 attending four randomly selected primary schools (one in rural and 3 in the commercial farming areas in Zimbabwe were interviewed using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. The urine filtration technique was used to determine S. haematobium infection status. Infection with S. mansoni and STHs was determined using a combination of results from the Kato Katz and formol ether concentration techniques. P. falciparum was diagnosed by examination of Giemsa stained thick blood smears. Results It was observed that 32.0%, 19.2% and 4.1% of the respondents had correct knowledge about the causes of schistosomiasis, malaria and STHs, respectively, whilst 22.1%, 19.2% and 5.8% knew correct measures to control schistosomiasis, malaria and STHs. Sixty-two percent and 44.8% did not use soap to wash hands after toilet and before eating food respectively, whilst 33.1% never wore shoes. There were no functional water points and soap for hand washing after toilet at all schools. There was a high prevalence distribution of all parasites investigated in this study at Msapa primary school - S. haematobium (77.8%, S. mansoni (33.3% hookworms (29.6% and P. falciparum (48.1%. Reports that participant had suffered from schistosomiasis and malaria before were significant predictors of

  4. Schistosomiasis and the social patterning of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Manderson, L

    1992-08-01

    Social, cultural, behavioural and economic factors interact with local environmental and ecological factors to produce extraordinary variation in the epidemiology of schistosomiasis, including with respect to prevalence and intensity of infection and the potential for control. This article reviews the literature on schistosomiasis infection, primarily derived from African studies, to identify its major social themes. Research has demonstrated a strong link between economic development strategies, where irrigation has been introduced to boost agricultural production, and the increased transmission of infection. Water-contact studies have provided the fullest and most detailed descriptions of social risk factors, and have isolated age, sex, religion and occupation as primary risk factors. However, fuller explorations of the social and cultural context of infection have yet to be undertaken. The social context of water-related behaviour and patterns of water use within communities and households, the intersection of social and economic activities, and the significance that people give to these activities, remains poorly explored, and although research papers concerned with community-based interventions refer to poor community understanding of the cause, prevention and treatment of the disease, this domain has also received little scholarly attention. Finally, economic studies have focused primarily on working capacity, and extrapolated these findings to generalize about the impact that this might have on productivity, but have yet to address either household or community costs of schistosomiasis infection.

  5. Agreement between Maternal Cannabis Use during Pregnancy according to Self-Report and Urinalysis in a Population-Based Cohort: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, H.; Tiemeier, H.; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F. C.; van den Brink, W.; Huizink, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To verify self-reported information on prenatal drug use in urine because reporting in pregnancy is sensitive to stigma and might lead to misclassification. Methods: Using semiquantitative immunochemical analysis, the presence of the urinary metabolite (11-nor-Delta

  6. Modeling and Validation of Environmental Suitability for Schistosomiasis Transmission Using Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Yvonne; Wegmann, Martin; Dech, Stefan; Vounatsou, Penelope; Poda, Jean-Noël; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2015-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is the most widespread water-based disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and human water contact patterns. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. We investigated the potential of remote sensing to characterize habitat conditions of parasite and intermediate host snails and discuss the relevance for public health. We employed high-resolution remote sensing data, environmental field measurements, and ecological data to model environmental suitability for schistosomiasis-related parasite and snail species. The model was developed for Burkina Faso using a habitat suitability index (HSI). The plausibility of remote sensing habitat variables was validated using field measurements. The established model was transferred to different ecological settings in Côte d'Ivoire and validated against readily available survey data from school-aged children. Environmental suitability for schistosomiasis transmission was spatially delineated and quantified by seven habitat variables derived from remote sensing data. The strengths and weaknesses highlighted by the plausibility analysis showed that temporal dynamic water and vegetation measures were particularly useful to model parasite and snail habitat suitability, whereas the measurement of water surface temperature and topographic variables did not perform appropriately. The transferability of the model showed significant relations between the HSI and infection prevalence in study sites of Côte d'Ivoire. A predictive map of environmental suitability for schistosomiasis transmission can support measures to gain and sustain control. This is particularly relevant as emphasis is shifting from morbidity control to interrupting transmission. Further validation of our mechanistic model needs to be complemented by field data of parasite- and snail

  7. Association between Schistosomiasis mansoni and hepatitis C: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Silva de Moraes Van-Lume

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of the prevalence of the HCV/ S. mansoni co-infection and associated factors in Schistosoma mansoni -infected populations. METHODS: The bibliographic search was carried out using the Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, Cochrane Library and Ibecs databases. The criteria for the studies' selection and the extraction data were based on systematic review methods. Forty five studies were found, with nine being excluded in a first screening. Thirteen articles were used for data extraction. RESULTS: The HCV infection rates in schistosomiasis populations range from 1% in Ethiopia to 50% in Egypt. Several studies had poorly defined methodologies, even in areas characterized by an association between hepatitis C and schistosomiasis, such as Brazil and Egypt, which meant conclusions were inconsistent. HCV infection rates in schistosomotic populations were heterogeneous and risk factors for acquiring the virus varied widely. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limitations, this review may help to identify regions with higher rates of hepatitis C and schistosomiasis association. However, more studies are necessary for the development of public health policies on prevention and control of both diseases.

  8. Control of schistosomiasis in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, William R.; Ferguson, Frederick F.; Palmer, Juan R.

    1970-01-01

    In 1953, a programme to control schistosomiasis mansoni was started in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico, employing, first, chemical and, later, both biological and chemical methods to control Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail host of Schistosoma mansoni. Sodium pentachlorophenate was the molluscicide, and an ampullarid snail, Marisa cornuarietis, was used for biological control in ponds and reservoirs. In addition some chemotherapy was given to infected persons. The prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was measured annually, sampling about one-third of the 6-year-old population in Guayama and Arroyo and in Caguas, an untreated area. Costs of the programme and the results are discussed in relation to similar projects in other parts of Puerto Rico. In Guayama and Arroyo the prevalence of schistosomiasis reached zero in 6-year-olds by 1966 despite the persistence of the disease in a nearby untreated area. Although this decline appeared related to the control effort, it is noted that a large decline also occurred in the untreated area, suggesting the influence of other factors such as economic development or improvements in sanitation. PMID:5309511

  9. Control of schistosomiasis in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, W R; Ferguson, F F; Palmer, J R

    1970-01-01

    In 1953, a programme to control schistosomiasis mansoni was started in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico, employing, first, chemical and, later, both biological and chemical methods to control Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail host of Schistosoma mansoni. Sodium pentachlorophenate was the molluscicide, and an ampullarid snail, Marisa cornuarietis, was used for biological control in ponds and reservoirs. In addition some chemotherapy was given to infected persons. The prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was measured annually, sampling about one-third of the 6-year-old population in Guayama and Arroyo and in Caguas, an untreated area. Costs of the programme and the results are discussed in relation to similar projects in other parts of Puerto Rico. In Guayama and Arroyo the prevalence of schistosomiasis reached zero in 6-year-olds by 1966 despite the persistence of the disease in a nearby untreated area. Although this decline appeared related to the control effort, it is noted that a large decline also occurred in the untreated area, suggesting the influence of other factors such as economic development or improvements in sanitation.

  10. Assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms in women by a self-administered questionnaire: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Sejr, T; Able, I

    1996-01-01

    A self-administered questionnaire assessing female lower urinary tract symptoms and their impact on quality of life is described and validated, on 56 females in six participating departments. The patients answered two identical questionnaires on separate occasions before treatment. Test-retest re...

  11. [Bibliometric analysis of literature regarding integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi-Li; Wang, Wei; Hong, Qing-Biao; Liang, You-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of implementation of integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control using a bibliometric method. The literature pertaining to integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control was retrieved from CNKI, Wanfangdata, VIP, PubMed, Web of Science, BIOSIS and Google Scholar, and a bibliometric analysis of literature captured was performed. During the period from January 1, 2004 through September 30, 2014, a total of 94 publications regarding integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control were captured, including 78 Chinese articles (82.98%) and 16 English papers (17.02%). The Chinese literature was published in 21 national journals, and Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control had the largest number of publications, consisting of 37.23% of total publications; 16 English papers were published in 12 international journals, and PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases had the largest number of publications (3 publications). There were 37 affiliations publishing these 94 articles, and National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (16 publications), Anhui Institute of Schistosomiasis Control (12 publications) and Hunan Institute of Schistosomiasis Control (9 publications) ranked top three affiliations in number of publications. A total of 157 persons were co-authored in these 94 publications, and Wang, Zhou and Zhang ranked top 3 authors in number of publications. The integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control has been widely implemented in China, and the achievements obtained from the implementation of this strategy should be summarized and transmitted internationally.

  12. coinfection with malaria, hookworm and schistosomiasis among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Schistosomiasis among School Children in Zambezi: A School-based ... positive at least to one parasitic infection. Estimated .... coinfections did not differ significantly by age and sex with the ..... Efficacy of integrated school based deworming ...

  13. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe: effect of treatment of schistosomiasis on CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether treatment of schistosomiasis has an effect on the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, individuals with schistosomiasis and with or without HIV-1 infection were randomized to receive praziquantel treatment at inclusion or after a delay of 3 months......; 287 participants were included in the study, and 227 (79%) were followed up. Among the 130 participants who were coinfected, those who received early treatment (n=64) had a significantly lower increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA load than did those who received delayed treatment (n=66) (P...

  14. Agreement between Maternal Cannabis Use during Pregnancy according to Self-Report and Urinalysis in a Population-Based Cohort: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, H.; Tiemeier, H.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Brink, W. van den; Huizink, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To verify self-reported information on prenatal drug use in urine because reporting in pregnancy is sensitive to stigma and might lead to misclassification. Methods: Using semiquantitative immunochemical analysis, the presence of the urinary metabolite (11-nor-Δ9–tetrahydrocannabinol-

  15. [Impact of ecological protection construction on schistosomiasis transmission of Qionghai Lake wetland in Xichang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zong-liang; Xu, Cong-min; Yin, Hong-zhi; Hua, Jiao; Lai, Yu-hua; Zhao, Lin; Wu, Zhong-ping

    2016-02-01

    To understand the impact of Qionghai Lake wetland ecological protection construction on the prevalence of schistosomiasis, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the strategies for schistosomiasis control and prevention. A retrospective survey of the construction of Qionghai Lake wetland was performed, and eleven villages around the wetland were surveyed for schistosomiasis endemic situation. The influence of the wetland project on the schistosomiasis prevalence and Oncomelania hupensis snail status were investigated. Before the construction of Qionghai Lake wetland, the snail elimination and extended chemotherapy for residents was performed. After the project was finished, the roads and ditches were hardened. From 2009 to 2014, the schistosome infection rate of residents declined from 0.37% to 0. No schistosome infected snails were found and in recent 2 years, no snails were found. No mice were infected in the sentinel tests. The construction of Qionghai Lake wetland effectively eliminates snails, and interrupts the transmission of schistosomiasis. However, the environment of the wetland is more suitable for snail breeding, and therefore, the surveillance still should be strengthened.

  16. Impact of Schistosoma haematobium infection on urinary tract pathology, nutritional status and anaemia in school-aged children in two different endemic areas of the Niger River Basin, Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacko, Moussa; Magnussen, Pascal; Keita, Adama D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to contribute to define urinary schistosomiasis-related morbidity indicators and to understand the relationship between infection intensity and disease burden among school-aged children in different endemic areas of Mali. A cross sectional study was undertaken in ...... this study are of importance for planning intervention as for monitoring and evaluation of control in different endemic settings in Mali....

  17. Radionuclide study on hepatic blood flow in Schistosomiasis Japonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Junichi; Uchiyama, Guio; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Hayashi, Sanshin; Araki, Tsutomu; Arai, Takao; Iuchi, Masahiko

    1986-11-01

    Schistosomiasis Japonica is a regional disease found in elderly people who were living in once-endemic areas in Japan. Yamanashi was one of these areas until 1970, since when no newly infected patients were reported. The disease is characteristic of developing irreversible interstitial fibrosis of the liver, where parasites migrate and lay eggs. Portal hypertension, esophageal varices and hepatocellular carcinomas are the common features of the results. In order to estimate patient's hepatic blood flow, radionuclide angiography of the liver with the use of 10 - 15 millicuries of Tc-99m phytate were performed prior to the conventional multiview imaging. Twenty-two patients with schistosomiasis and twelve adults without evidence of liver disease were studied. A time-activity curve of the right lobe of the liver was generated by a computer, and the ratio of arterial blood flow to portal blood flow was calculated. As a result, a good correlation was found between the arterial to portal blood flow ratio and the grade of hepatic fibrosis verified by laparoscopic biopsy. The development of esophageal varices were likely to correlate well with the blood flow ratio rather than scores on the conventional static liver and spleen scintigram. The study was useful for evaluating patient's clinical stages and prognosis.

  18. Radionuclide study on hepatic blood flow in Schistosomiasis Japonica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Junichi; Uchiyama, Guio; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Hayashi, Sanshin; Araki, Tsutomu; Arai, Takao; Iuchi, Masahiko.

    1986-01-01

    Schistosomiasis Japonica is a regional disease found in elderly people who were living in once-endemic areas in Japan. Yamanashi was one of these areas until 1970, since when no newly infected patients were reported. The disease is characteristic of developing irreversible interstitial fibrosis of the liver, where parasites migrate and lay eggs. Portal hypertension, esophageal varices and hepatocellular carcinomas are the common features of the results. In order to estimate patient's hepatic blood flow, radionuclide angiography of the liver with the use of 10 - 15 millicuries of Tc-99m phytate were performed prior to the conventional multiview imaging. Twenty-two patients with schistosomiasis and twelve adults without evidence of liver disease were studied. A time-activity curve of the right lobe of the liver was generated by a computer, and the ratio of arterial blood flow to portal blood flow was calculated. As a result, a good correlation was found between the arterial to portal blood flow ratio and the grade of hepatic fibrosis verified by laparoscopic biopsy. The development of esophageal varices were likely to correlate well with the blood flow ratio rather than scores on the conventional static liver and spleen scintigram. The study was useful for evaluating patient's clinical stages and prognosis. (author)

  19. Co-endemicity of Cysticercosis and Schistosomiasis in Africa - how many people are at risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) is aiming for elimination of schistosomiasis by 2020 through mass drug administration (MDA). However, the drug used for this, praziquantel, has been reported to cause dramatic side effects, even death, among people suffering from neurocysticercosis (NCC). Both...... countries were identified. The co-endemicity dataset was then combined with modelled data on population density for 2015 derived from the WorldPop database (http://www.worldpop.org). We used the open source GIS software QGIS and GRASS to overlay the two datasets and identified the number of people living...... in co-endemic districts. Over 135 million people live in co-endemic areas. Of these, almost 44 million live in high prevalence areas for schistosomiasis where WHO recommend MDA for the entire population. In co-endemic areas resources need to be allocated for evaluating the extent of adverse effects...

  20. Epidemiology and impact of urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, and other lower urinary tract symptoms: results of the EPIC survey in Russia, Czech Republic, and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Mikhail Iosifovich; Zachoval, Roman; Ozyurt, Ceyhun; Schäfer, Thomas; Christensen, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI), overactive bladder (OAB), and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in the Czech Republic, Russia, and Turkey. Stage one of this population-based survey consisted of computer-assisted telephone interviews to obtain prevalence estimates of storage, voiding, and post-micturition LUTS. Stage two face-to-face interviews evaluated subjects with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI), stress urinary incontinence (SUI) or OAB (case group) and a control group (subjects with other incontinence or LUTS complaints, or no symptoms). Prevalence of LUTS categories were determined for each country based on International Continence Society (ICS) criteria. A total of 3130 individuals agreed to participate in the survey, which found high rates of LUTS (men 80%; women 84%) and OAB (men 18%; women 28%). Duration of urinary symptoms was relatively brief (approximately 60% ≤ 3 years) and was associated with relatively modest effects on quality of life and work performance in the majority of individuals. Forty percent had consulted with a healthcare provider about their urinary symptoms, of whom 37% had consulted with a physician and 34% with an urologist, and 12% had been treated with a prescription medication. Drug therapy, while uncommon, was associated with a high degree of self-reported improvement (96%). Because of between-country population differences, aggregate results may not always be representative of results for each of the three countries individually. Study limitations include reliance on patient self-report, and potential bias introduced by patients who declined to participate in the survey. The results of this epidemiologic survey found high rates of LUTS and OAB, but low levels of medical consultation and very low use of medication treatment, despite high levels of improvement when medications were used.

  1. Prevalence and associated factors of Schistosomiasis among children in Yemen: implications for an effective control programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Sady

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, is a life-threatening public health problem in Yemen especially in rural communities. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of schistosomiasis among children in rural Yemen.Urine and faecal samples were collected from 400 children. Urine samples were examined using filtration technique for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs while faecal samples were examined using formalin-ether concentration and Kato Katz techniques for the presence of S. mansoni. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information were collected via a validated questionnaire. Overall, 31.8% of the participants were found to be positive for schistosomiasis; 23.8% were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, 39.5% of the participants were anaemic whereas 9.5% had hepatosplenomegaly. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was significantly higher among children aged >10 years compared to those aged ≤ 10 years (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis confirmed that presence of other infected family member (P<0.001, low household monthly income (P = 0.003, using unsafe sources for drinking water (P = 0.003, living nearby stream/spring (P = 0.006 and living nearby pool/pond (P = 0.002 were the key factors significantly associated with schistosomiasis among these children.This study reveals that schistosomiasis is still highly prevalent in Yemen. These findings support an urgent need to start an integrated, targeted and effective schistosomiasis control programme with a mission to move towards the elimination phase. Besides periodic drug distribution, health education and community mobilisation, provision of clean and safe drinking water, introduction of proper sanitation are imperative among these communities in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis. Screening and treating other infected

  2. Of monkeys and men: immunomic profiling of sera from humans and non-human primates resistant to schistosomiasis reveals novel potential vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark S; Becker, Luke; Driguez, Patrick; Young, Neil D; Gaze, Soraya; Mendes, Tiago; Li, Xiao-Hong; Doolan, Denise L; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; McManus, Donald P; Wilson, R Alan; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Nausch, Norman; Mutapi, Francisca; Felgner, Philip L; Loukas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium affects more than 100 million people throughout Africa and is the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis. The parasite is strongly associated with urothelial cancer in infected individuals and as such is designated a group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Using a protein microarray containing schistosome proteins, we sought to identify antigens that were the targets of protective IgG1 immune responses in S. haematobium-exposed individuals that acquire drug-induced resistance (DIR) to schistosomiasis after praziquantel treatment. Numerous antigens with known vaccine potential were identified, including calpain (Smp80), tetraspanins, glutathione-S-transferases, and glucose transporters (SGTP1), as well as previously uncharacterized proteins. Reactive IgG1 responses were not elevated in exposed individuals who did not acquire DIR. To complement our human subjects study, we screened for antigen targets of rhesus macaques rendered resistant to S. japonicum by experimental infection followed by self-cure, and discovered a number of new and known vaccine targets, including major targets recognized by our human subjects. This study has further validated the immunomics-based approach to schistosomiasis vaccine antigen discovery and identified numerous novel potential vaccine antigens.

  3. Of monkeys and men: immunomic profiling of sera from humans and non-human primates resistant to schistosomiasis reveals novel potential vaccine candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark ePearson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma haematobium affects more than 100 million people throughout Africa and is the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis. The parasite is strongly associated with urothelial cancer in infected individuals and as such is designated a group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Using a protein microarray containing schistosome proteins, we sought to identify antigens that were the targets of protective IgG1 immune responses in S. haematobium-exposed individuals that acquire drug-induced resistance (DIR to schistosomiasis after praziquantel treatment. Numerous antigens with known vaccine potential were identified, including calpain (Smp80, tetraspanins, glutathione-S-transferases and glucose transporters (SGTP1, as well as previously uncharacterized proteins. Reactive IgG1 responses were not elevated in exposed individuals who did not acquire DIR. To complement our human subjects study, we screened for antigen targets of rhesus macaques rendered resistant to Schistosoma japonicum by experimental infection followed by self-cure, and discovered a number of new and known vaccine targets, including major targets recognised by our human subjects. This study has further validated the immunomics-based approach to schistosomiasis vaccine antigen discovery and identified numerous novel potential vaccine antigens.

  4. Effectiveness of a Self-monitoring Device for Urinary Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio on Dietary Improvement in Free-Living Adults: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahori, Toshiyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Ohgami, Naoto; Yamashita, Hideyuki; Miyagawa, Naoko; Kondo, Keiko; Torii, Sayuki; Yoshita, Katsushi; Shiga, Toshikazu; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Arima, Hisatomi; Miura, Katsuyuki

    2018-01-05

    Reducing the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio is important for reducing both blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease. Among free-living Japanese individuals, we carried out a randomized trial to clarify the effect of lifestyle modification for lowering urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio using a self-monitoring device. This was an open, prospective, parallel randomized, controlled trial. Ninety-two individuals were recruited from Japanese volunteers. Participants were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups. A month-long dietary intervention on self-monitoring urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio was carried out using monitors (HEU-001F, OMRON Healthcare Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan). All participants had brief dietary education and received a leaflet as usual care. Monitors were handed out to the intervention group, but not to the control group. The intervention group was asked to measure at least one spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio daily, and advised to lower their sodium-to-potassium ratio toward the target of less than 1. Outcomes included changes in 24-hour urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio, sodium excretion, potassium excretion, blood pressure, and body weight in both groups. Mean measurement frequency of monitoring was 2.8 times/day during the intervention. Changes in urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio were -0.55 in the intervention group and -0.06 in the control group (P = 0.088); respective sodium excretion changes were -18.5 mmol/24 hours and -8.7 mmol/24 hours (P = 0.528); and corresponding potassium excretion was 2.6 mmol/24 hours and -1.5 mmol/24 hours (P = 0.300). No significant reductions were observed in either blood pressure or body weight after the intervention. Providing the device to self-monitor a sodium-to-potassium ratio did not achieve the targeted reduction of the ratio in "pure self-management" settings, indicating further needs to study an effective method to enhance the synergetic effect of dietary programs and self

  5. [Study on interventions based on systematic ecological system construction to interrupt transmission of schistosomiasis in hilly endemic regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xu; Xue-Xiang, Wan; Lin, Chen; Bo, Zhong; Yi, Zhang

    2016-10-13

    To study the effectiveness of comprehensive control measures based on systematic ecological system construction to interrupt the transmission of schistosomiasis in hilly endemic regions in Sichuan Province, so as to provide the evidence for adjustment of schistosomiasis prevention and control strategies. A high endemic area of schistosomiasis, Panao Township of Dongpo District in Meishan City, was selected as a demonstration area. The comprehensive measures for schistosomiasis control with focus on systematic ecological management were implemented, and the income of residents, indexes of schistosomiasis control effect and so on were investigated before and after the intervention and the results were compared. The project based on systematic ecological system construction started in 2009 and 317.351 million Yuan was put into the construction. The construction included economic forest plant base (1 866.68 hm 2 , 72.66% of the total farmland areas), ecological protection gardens (585.35 hm 2 ) and so on. Totally 97.04% of historical areas with Oncomelania hupensis snails were comprehensively improved. In 2015, the peasants´ pure income per capita increased 4 938 Yuan, with the average annual growth rate of 14.69%. All the farm cattle were replaced by the machine. The benefit rate of water improvement was increased by 52.84% and the coverage rate of harmless toilets increased by 18.30%. The positive rate of serological tests for schistosomiasis decreased from 7.69% to 3.50%, and the positive rate of parasitological tests decreased from 1.18% to 0. The area with snails was decreased from 23.33 hm 2 to 0. The awareness rate of schistosomiasis control knowledge and correct behavior rate of the residents increased from 85.50% and 82.60% to 95.70% and 93.90% respectively. The comprehensive schistosomiasis control measures based on systematic ecological management are conform to the currently actual schistosomiasis prevention and control work in hilly endemic regions, and

  6. Intestinal Schistosomiasis and the Associated Transmission Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    single urine-CCA cassette test would be enough for mapping and screening of S. ... Schistosomiasis were assessed using logistic regression. .... Total X2 P-value. Sex ... Stream. Pond. Lake. First choice of the source of water used to bath child.

  7. Arginase activity in peripheral blood of patients with intestinal schistosomiasis, Wonji, Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getaneh, A; Tamrat, A; Tadesse, K

    2015-07-01

    Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis usually results from immunopathology. But the underlying mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Th2-type immune response is thought to be dominant during chronic schistosomiasis, and upregulation of arginase-I is one component of this milieu. A cohort study was conducted to assess arginase activity in peripheral blood of humans with intestinal schistosomiasis in Wonji-Shoa Sugar Estate, Central Ethiopia. Laboratory-confirmed 30 Schistosoma mansoni-infected patients and 18 apparently healthy controls were recruited. Faecal egg count was carried out by Kato-Katz technique. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood. Activity of arginase in plasma and PBMC lysates was measured, and results were compared with that of controls. Twenty-one of 30 patients had light infection, whereas moderate and heavy intensity infections were observed in eight and only one patient(s), respectively. A significant increase in both PBMC (patients: 59.96 + 82.99, controls: 25.44 + 24.6 mU/mg protein, P intestinal schistosomiasis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Microgeographical patterns of schistosomiasis and water contact behavior; examples from Africa and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kloos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the results of spatial (microgeographical water contact/schistosomiasis studies in two African (Egyptian and Kenyan and one Brazilian communities. All three studies used traditional cartographic and statistical methods but one of them emploeyd also GIS (geographical information systems tools. The advantage of GIS and their potential role in schistosomiasis control are briefly described. The three cases revealed considerable variation in the spatial distribution of water contact, transmission parameters and infection levels at the household and individual levels. All studies showed considerable variation in the prevalence and intensity of infection between households. They also show a variable influence of distance on water contact behavior associated with type of activity, age, sex, socioeconomic level, perception of water quality, season and availability of water in the home. Water contact behavior and schistosomiasis were evaluated in the Brazilian village of Nova União within the context of water sharing between household and age/sex groups. Recommendations are made for further spatial studies on the transmission and control of schistosomiasis.

  9. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lains Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training, surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  10. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  11. National survey data for zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines grossly underestimates the true burden of disease within endemic zones: implications for future control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigio M. Olveda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic schistosomiasis has a long endemic history in the Philippines. Human mass drug administration has been the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control in the country for the past three decades. Recent publications utilizing retrospective national survey data have indicated that the national human prevalence of the disease is <1%, hence the disease is now close to elimination. However, the evidence for such a claim is weak, given that less than a third of the human population is currently being treated annually within endemic zones and only a third of those treated actually swallow the tablets. For those who consume the drug at the single oral dose of 40 mg/kg, the estimated cure rate is 52% based on a recent meta-analysis. Thus, approximately 5% of the endemic human population is in reality receiving the appropriate treatment. To compound this public health problem, most of the bovines in the endemic communities are concurrently infected but are not treated under the current national control programme. Given this evidence, it is believed that the human prevalence of schistosomiasis within endemic regions has been grossly underestimated. Inherent flaws in the reporting of national schistosomiasis prevalence data are reported here, and the problems of utilizing national retrospective data in making geographic information system (GIS risk maps and advising policy makers of the outcomes are highlighted.

  12. [Development and application of information management system for advanced schistosomiasis chemotherapy and assistance in Jiangxi Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuan-Hua; Li, Dong; Ning, An; Qiu, Ling; Xiong, Ji-Jie

    2011-04-01

    To develop the information management system for advanced schistosomiasis chemotherapy and assistance in Jiangxi Province. Based on Access 2003, the system was programmed by Visual Basic 6.0 and packaged by Setup Factory 8.0. In the system, advanced schistosomiasis data were able to be input, printed, indexed, and statistically analyzed. The system could be operated and maintained easily and timely. The information management system for advanced schistosomiasis chemotherapy and assistance in Jiangxi Province is successfully developed.

  13. Urogenital Schistosomiasis among Schoolchildren and the Associated Risk Factors in Selected Rural Communities of Kwara State, Nigeria

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    Babamale Olarewaju Abdulkareem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease that causes severe morbidity among schoolchildren in many poor-resource communities in Nigeria. We investigated the prevalence, intensity, and risk factors of the infection in three communities of Kwara State to ascertain the current status of the disease. Of the 724 urine samples screened, using filtration method, 332 (45.6% school-aged children were infected with average intensity and mean population eggs load of 127.9 eggs/10 ml of urine and 0.794, respectively. Prevalence and intensity of infection varied with communities: high in Ajase-Ipo (57.1%; X = 100.7 ± 23.01 eggs/10 ml and low in Shonga (37.5%; X = 91.4 ± 78.0. Infection was significantly (P<0.05 higher in males (50.8% than the females (42.4%. Similarly, infection significantly (P<0.05 increased with increasing age. Multivariate logistic analysis of risk factors revealed that lack of portable drinking water (adjusted odd ratio (aOR = 4.76; 95% CI = 2.64–5.98, unemployment (aOR = 2.23; 1.87–2.294, lack of knowledge of infection (aOR = 2.16; 0.59–3.83, and frequent contact with contaminated water bodies (aOR = 2.01; 1.45–2.70 were important predictors of urinary schistosomiasis. Therefore, continuous evaluation of the intervention strategies that address risk factors must compliment Mass Drug Administration to curtail the transmission and debilitating health consequences of infection in endemic settings.

  14. The menopause and urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, Søren

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to study the possible role of the menopause in adult female urinary incontinence (UI) etiology, using a cross-sectional population study comprising a random sample of adult females and self-reported data based on postal questionnaires. The study group comprised 915 women who...... prevalence in 1987 of episodes of stress and urge urinary incontinence; prevalence of menopause and exposure to childbirth, gynecologic surgery, cystitis and obesity as indicated by body mass index more than 29; prevalence relative risks, as indicated by odds ratio of UI conditional on menopause and other...... the year of final menstruation. The findings suggest perimenopausal processes rather than the menopause in general to be responsible for an increased risk of developing UI. The elevation of UI prevalence in the perimenopause may reflect the adjustment of the female continence mechanism to function...

  15. Effects of stigma on Chinese women's attitudes towards seeking treatment for urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuili; Li, Jingjing; Wan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Xiaojuan; Kane, Robert L; Wang, Kefang

    2015-04-01

    To examine whether and how stigma influences attitudes towards seeking treatment for urinary incontinence, and whether its effect varies by symptom severity. Urinary incontinence is prevalent among women, but few seek treatment. Negative attitudes towards urinary incontinence treatment inhibit from seeking care. Urinary incontinence is a stigmatised attribute. However, the relationship between stigma and attitudes towards seeking treatment for urinary incontinence has not been well understood. This was a cross-sectional community-based study. We enrolled a sample of 305 women aged 40-65 years with stress urinary incontinence from three communities in a Chinese city between May-October in 2011. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, urinary incontinence symptoms, stigma and attitudes towards seeking treatment for urinary incontinence using a self-reported questionnaire. Effects of stigma were analysed using path analysis. Attitudes towards seeking treatment for urinary incontinence were generally negative. For the total sample, all the stigma domains of social rejection, social isolation and internalised shame had direct negative effects on treatment-seeking attitudes. The public stigma domain of social rejection also indirectly affected treatment-seeking attitudes through increasing social isolation, as well as through increasing social isolation and then internalised shame. The final model accounted for 28% of the variance of treatment-seeking attitudes. Symptom severity influenced the strength of paths: the effect of internalised shame was higher in women with more severe urinary incontinence. Stigma enhances the formation of negative attitudes towards seeking treatment for urinary incontinence; public stigma affects treatment-seeking attitudes through internalisation of social messages. Stigma reduction may help incontinent women to form positive treatment-seeking attitudes and engage them in treatment. Interventions should specifically target

  16. On a Five-Dimensional Nonautonomous Schistosomiasis Model with Latent Period

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    Shujing Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A five-dimensional nonautonomous schistosomiasis model which include latent period is proposed and studied. By constructing several auxiliary functions and using some skills, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the extinction and permanence (uniform persistence of infectious population of the model. New threshold values of integral form are obtained. For the corresponding autonomous schistosomiasis model, our results are consistent with the past results. For the periodic and almost periodic cases, some corollaries for the extinction and permanence of the disease are established. In order to illustrate our theoretical analysis, some numerical simulations are presented.

  17. Revisiting the concept of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and its challenges using traditional and new tools

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    José Roberto Lambertucci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Different aspects of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis are revisited here. Manson's schistosomiasis causes periportal fibrosis and portal hypertension in approximately 6% of infected subjects, usually with preservation of their hepatic function. The assessment of liver involvement is of major importance in determining the prognosis and risk of complications from schistosomiasis, such as upper digestive bleeding secondary to variceal rupture. For many years, the diagnosis of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and liver fibrosis was made by abdominal palpation and the finding of liver and/or spleen enlargement. However, there is no consensus regarding the clinical parameters of the liver and spleen to be considered in this physical evaluation. For the last three decades, abdominal ultrasound (US has become the best imaging technique to evaluate liver fibrosis caused by schistosomiasis mansoni. However, US is a subjective procedure and is therefore examiner-dependent. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings have provided valuable information in addition to ultrasound and clinical examination. The combination of a comprehensive history and physical examination, basic laboratory tests (a stool examination for Schistosoma mansoni eggs and a blood cell count, biomarkers for liver fibrosis/portal hypertension and imaging methods seem to offer the best approach for evaluating patients with this disease. In situations where research is involved or in patients with severe disease, MRI may be considered.

  18. [Schistosomiasis control in the State of São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, C M

    1995-01-01

    The program of schistosomiasis control for the State of São Paulo, where only low endemicity areas occur, is discussed in this paper. Inclusion of schistosomiasis among the diseases due to obligatory notification is considered as a measure of great importance. Accordingly the search for passive cases conducted by the public health system acquired major importance in the disease surveillance. As from 1981 to 1992 only 11% of the detected cases were considered as autochthonous. The main transmission areas are located at the Litoral and Paraiba Valley regions. In the period of time under analysis, the epidemiological surveillance data suggest a decrease in the morbidity and in the autochthony tendency in the State of São Paulo.

  19. Infection status and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis among school-going children in the Ndumo area of uMkhanyakude district in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa two years post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuyaya, Muhubiri; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2018-04-18

    To assess the efficacy of praziquantel of infected children with Schistosoma haematobium over a 2year period in the Ndumo area of uMkhanyakude district, South Africa. This cohort study enrolled 173 school-going children in September 2017 that participated in a baseline survey conducted in 2015 in the Ndumo area. Questionnaire interviews were conducted to collect information on the risk factors related to transmission of schistosomiasis and filtration technique was performed to detect Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine. Infection intensity was classified as light and heavy. A Chi square test was performed to assess association between variables with 95% confidence interval and p-value=0.05 was considered significant. Of the 173 participants screened two years post-treatment, 10 were infected and six were new infection cases while 4 were re-infections. The intensity of infection decreased significantly (P value=0.001) in the follow-up survey compare to the baseline survey. However, no significant difference was found among the risk factors of schistosomiasis 2 years later. The prevalence of S. haematobium decreased significantly in the cohort 2 years post praziquantel treatment during persistent drought in the area. Risk factors which were significantly associated with schistosomiasis at baseline were not two years following treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Decision-model estimation of the age-specific disability weight for schistosomiasis japonica: a systematic review of the literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Julia L Finkelstein; Mark D Schleinitz; Hélène Carabin; Stephen T McGarvey

    2008-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent parasitic infections worldwide. However, current Global Burden of Disease (GBD) disability-adjusted life year estimates indicate that its population-level impact is negligible. Recent studies suggest that GBD methodologies may significantly underestimate the burden of parasitic diseases, including schistosomiasis. Furthermore, strain-specific disability weights have not been established for schistosomiasis, and the magnitude of human disease burden ...

  1. The reliability and validity of self-reported reproductive history and obstetric morbidity amongst birth to ten mothers in Soweto

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    GTH Ellison

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether self-reports of reproductive history and obstetric morbidity provide an accurate basis for clinical decision-making. Setting, participants and methods: Self-reports of maternal age and reproductive history, together with clinical measurements of five medical disorders, were abstracted from the obstetric notes of 517 mothers whose children were enrolled in the Birth to Ten study. These data were compared to self-reported information collected by interview during the Birth to Ten study. Findings: The reliability of self-reported age and gravidity was high (R=0.810-0.993, yet self-reports of previous miscarriages, terminations, premature- and stillbirths were only fairly reliable (Kappa=0.48-0.50. Self-reported diabetes and high blood pressure had specificities of more than 95% for glycosuria, hypertension and pre-eclampsia. However, the specificity of self-reported oedema for hypertensive disorders and the specificity of self-reported urinary tract infection for STD seropositivity were only around 65%. Conclusions: The modest reliability and limited validity of self-reported obstetric morbidity undermines the clinical utility of this information. Recommendations: These results strengthen the case for providing mothers with “Home-based Maternal Records” to facilitate access to accurate obstetric information during subsequent clinical consultations.

  2. Analysis of self-reported versus biomarker based smoking prevalence: methodology to compute corrected smoking prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of smoking is needed to estimate the need for future public health resources. To compute and compare smoking prevalence rates by using self-reported smoking statuses, two serum cotinine (SCOT) based biomarker methods, and one urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) based biomarker method. These estimates were then used to develop correction factors to be applicable to self-reported prevalences to arrive at corrected smoking prevalence rates. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2007-2012 for those aged ≥20 years (N = 16826) were used. Self-reported prevalence rate for the total population computed as the weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by weighted number of all participants was 21.6% and 24% when computed by weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by the weighted number of self-reported smokers and nonsmokers. The corrected prevalence rate was found to be 25.8%. A 1% underestimate in smoking prevalence is equivalent to not being able to identify 2.2 million smokers in US in a given year. This underestimation, if not corrected, could lead to serious gap in the public health services available and needed to provide adequate preventive and corrective treatment to smokers.

  3. Herpes zoster-associated acute urinary retention: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Jimmy J; Cholhan, Hilary J

    2007-01-01

    An 87-year-old woman presents with a 4-week history of urinary incontinence during which she had been treated for disseminated herpes zoster virus (HZV). On physical exam painful vesicles involving the entire vulvar region with mainly right sacral distribution were found. A catheterized volume exceeded 600 ml of retained urine after the patient failed to void spontaneously. Multichannel voiding-pressure urodynamic studies revealed an acontractile neurogenic bladder with overflow incontinence. The patient was discharged on a conservative regimen with arrangement for visiting nurse services to perform intermittent self-catheterization twice daily. Urodynamic testing was repeated 10 weeks after initial symptoms. During voiding cystometry a biphasic increase in detrusor pressure of 15 cm H2O was observed with no increase in abdominal pressure. The patient emptied 400 ml with a postvoid residual of 300 ml. Recovery from HZV-associated bladder emptying dysfunction can be achieved usually through conservative management, including intermittent self-catheterization. Complete recovery time ranges from 4 to 10 weeks.

  4. Urinary incontinence, pelvic floor dysfunction, exercise and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari

    2004-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is defined as "the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine" and is a common problem in the female population with prevalence rates varying between 10% and 55% in 15- to 64-year-old women. The most frequent form of urinary incontinence in women is stress urinary incontinence, defined as "involuntary leakage on effort or exertion, or on sneezing or coughing". The aim of this article is to systematically review the literature on urinary incontinence and participation in sport and fitness activities with a special emphasis on prevalence and treatment in female elite athletes. Stress urinary incontinence is a barrier to women's participation in sport and fitness activities and, therefore, it may be a threat to women's health, self-esteem and well-being. The prevalence during sports among young, nulliparous elite athletes varies between 0% (golf) and 80% (trampolinists). The highest prevalence is found in sports involving high impact activities such as gymnastics, track and field, and some ball games. A 'stiff' and strong pelvic floor positioned at an optimal level inside the pelvis may be a crucial factor in counteracting the increases in abdominal pressure occurring during high-impact activities. There are no randomised controlled trials or reports on the effect of any treatment for stress urinary incontinence in female elite athletes. However, strength training of the pelvic floor muscles has been shown to be effective in treating stress urinary incontinence in parous females in the general population. In randomised controlled trials, reported cure rates, defined as athletes than in other women. There is a need for more basic research on pelvic floor muscle function during physical activity and the effect of pelvic floor muscle training in female elite athletes.

  5. The NIH-NIAID Schistosomiasis Resource Center at the Biomedical Research Institute: Molecular Redux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Cody

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a health burden in many parts of the world. The complex life cycle of Schistosoma parasites and the economic and societal conditions present in endemic areas make the prospect of eradication unlikely in the foreseeable future. Continued and vigorous research efforts must therefore be directed at this disease, particularly since only a single World Health Organization (WHO-approved drug is available for treatment. The National Institutes of Health (NIH-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID Schistosomiasis Resource Center (SRC at the Biomedical Research Institute provides investigators with the critical raw materials needed to carry out this important research. The SRC makes available, free of charge (including international shipping costs, not only infected host organisms but also a wide array of molecular reagents derived from all life stages of each of the three main human schistosome parasites. As the field of schistosomiasis research rapidly advances, it is likely to become increasingly reliant on omics, transgenics, epigenetics, and microbiome-related research approaches. The SRC has and will continue to monitor and contribute to advances in the field in order to support these research efforts with an expanding array of molecular reagents. In addition to providing investigators with source materials, the SRC has expanded its educational mission by offering a molecular techniques training course and has recently organized an international schistosomiasis-focused meeting. This review provides an overview of the materials and services that are available at the SRC for schistosomiasis researchers, with a focus on updates that have occurred since the original overview in 2008.

  6. Re-evaluation of schistosomiasis mansoni in Minas Gerais, Brazil. III. "Noroeste de Minas" mesoregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, O S; Massara, C L; Guerra, H L; Campos, Y R; Caldeira, R L; Chaves, A; Katz, N

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the presence of schistosomiasis mansoni in the "Noroeste de Minas" mesoregion, an area considered non-endemic. A malacologic survey and parasitologic stool examinations were undertaken in 13 municipalities of the mesoregion. A sample of 3,283 primary school students was submitted to fecal examination by the Kato-Katz method. A total of 3,627 planorbids was collected and examined. The molluscs were identified as Biomphalaria straminea in seven municipalities (Unaí, Bonfinópolis de Minas, Paracatu, Jaão Pinheiro, Vazante, Lagamar and Lagoa Grande) and as Biomphalaria peregrina in one (Presidente Olegário). All planorbids were negative for Schistosoma mansoni. Four students were diagnosed with schistosomiasis in the municipalities of Buritis, Formoso, Paracatu and Unaí, but none of these cases was considered autochthonous. The data obtained indicate that the "Noroeste de Minas" mesoregion continues to be non-endemic for schistosomiasis mansoni, although the presence of intermediate hosts associated with parasitized individuals emphasizes the need for epidemiological surveillance of schistosomiasis in this mesoregion.

  7. RE-EVALUATION OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI IN MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL. III. "NOROESTE DE MINAS" MESOREGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVALHO Omar S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the presence of schistosomiasis mansoni in the "Noroeste de Minas" mesoregion, an area considered non-endemic. A malacologic survey and parasitologic stool examinations were undertaken in 13 municipalities of the mesoregion. A sample of 3,283 primary school students was submitted to fecal examination by the Kato-Katz method. A total of 3,627 planorbids was collected and examined. The molluscs were identified as Biomphalaria straminea in seven municipalities (Unaí, Bonfinópolis de Minas, Paracatu, João Pinheiro, Vazante, Lagamar and Lagoa Grande and as Biomphalaria peregrina in one (Presidente Olegário. All planorbids were negative for Schistosoma mansoni. Four students were diagnosed with schistosomiasis in the municipalities of Buritis, Formoso, Paracatu and Unaí, but none of these cases was considered autochthonous. The data obtained indicate that the "Noroeste de Minas" mesoregion continues to be non-endemic for schistosomiasis mansoni, although the presence of intermediate hosts associated with parasitized individuals emphasizes the need for epidemiological surveillance of schistosomiasis in this mesoregion.

  8. Effectiveness of a Self-monitoring Device for Urinary Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio on Dietary Improvement in Free-Living Adults: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Iwahori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reducing the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio is important for reducing both blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease. Among free-living Japanese individuals, we carried out a randomized trial to clarify the effect of lifestyle modification for lowering urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio using a self-monitoring device. Methods: This was an open, prospective, parallel randomized, controlled trial. Ninety-two individuals were recruited from Japanese volunteers. Participants were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups. A month-long dietary intervention on self-monitoring urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio was carried out using monitors (HEU-001F, OMRON Healthcare Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan. All participants had brief dietary education and received a leaflet as usual care. Monitors were handed out to the intervention group, but not to the control group. The intervention group was asked to measure at least one spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio daily, and advised to lower their sodium-to-potassium ratio toward the target of less than 1. Outcomes included changes in 24-hour urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio, sodium excretion, potassium excretion, blood pressure, and body weight in both groups. Results: Mean measurement frequency of monitoring was 2.8 times/day during the intervention. Changes in urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio were −0.55 in the intervention group and −0.06 in the control group (P = 0.088; respective sodium excretion changes were −18.5 mmol/24 hours and −8.7 mmol/24 hours (P = 0.528; and corresponding potassium excretion was 2.6 mmol/24 hours and −1.5 mmol/24 hours (P = 0.300. No significant reductions were observed in either blood pressure or body weight after the intervention. Conclusions: Providing the device to self-monitor a sodium-to-potassium ratio did not achieve the targeted reduction of the ratio in “pure self-management” settings, indicating further needs to study an

  9. Splenectomy Improves Hemostatic and Liver Functions in Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis Mansoni.

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    Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mansoni is a chronic liver disease, in which some patients (5-10% progress to the most severe form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This form is associated with portal hypertension and splenomegaly, and often episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, even with liver function preserved. Splenectomy is a validated procedure to reduce portal hypertension following digestive bleeding. Here, we evaluate beneficial effects of splenectomy on blood coagulation factors and liver function tests in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni compared to non-operated patients.Forty-five patients who had undergone splenectomy surgery were assessed by laboratory analyses and ultrasound examination and compared to a non-operated group (n = 55. Blood samples were obtained for liver function tests, platelet count and prothrombin time. Coagulation factors (II, VII, VIII, IX and X, protein C and antithrombin IIa, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were measured by routine photometric, chromogenic or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while hyperfibrinolysis was defined by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Both groups had similar age, gender and pattern of periportal fibrosis. Splenectomized patients showed significant reductions in portal vein diameter, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels compared to non-operated patients, while for coagulation factors there were significant improvement in prothrombin, partial thromboplastin times and higher levels of factor VII, VIII, IX, X, protein C and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.This study shows that the decrease of flow pressure in portal circulation after splenectomy restores the capacity of hepatocyte synthesis, especially on the factor VII and protein C levels, and these findings suggest that portal hypertension in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis influences liver functioning and the blood coagulation status.

  10. Population-based estimate of urinary stones from Ballabgarh, northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiya, Ayush; Kant, Shashi; Kapil, Arti; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Misra, Puneet; Rai, Sanjay K

    2017-01-01

    Stones in the urinary tract are a common condition but there is paucity of data on their population-based estimates in India. We describe our findings of the burden of urinary stones during a cross-sectional study with another primary goal. We conducted the study at Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Haryana, among residents aged 18 years or above. We used simple random sampling to enrol participants. Self-reported history of urinary stones was elicited through an interview schedule. Results of the descriptive analysis were described as proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CI) or as mean wherever applicable. Bivariate analysis was done using t-test and chi-square test as applicable. The response rate for our study was 86.6%; lifetime prevalence (95% CI) of urinary stones was 7.9% (5.7, 10.8). In a majority of participants, urinary stones were diagnosed at an age of 20-40 years (55.9%), mostly by an ultrasonography examination (94.1%). A high burden of urinary stones is indicated in the working-age population in northern India at the community level. Untreated urinary stones can lead to an acute emergency (colic) or may have long-term adverse consequences, e.g. hydronephrosis, which have implications for the healthcare delivery system.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebellar Schistosomiasis mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Bruno Perocco; Costa Junior, Leodante Batista da; Lambertucci, Jose Roberto

    2003-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a history of headache, dizziness, vomiting and double vision that started two weeks before. His parents denied any previous disease. During clinical examination he presented diplopia on lateral gaze to the left and horizontal nystagmus. No major neurological dysfunction was detected. He was well built, mentally responsive and perceptive. Laboratory findings revealed a leukocyte count of 10,000/mL, a normal red blood cell count and no eosinophilia. The magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain showed a left cerebellar lesion with mass effect compressing the surrounding tissues. Contrast-enhanced images showed a mass like structure and punctate nodules (Figures A and B: axial and coronal contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images showed the nodular - yellow arrows - enhancement pattern of a left cerebellar intraxial lesion). The lesion extended to the vermis and brachium pons and compressed the medulla. There was no hydrocephalus. He was taken to the operating room with the presumptive diagnosis of a neuroglial tumor, and submitted to a lateral suboccipital craniectomy. A brown, brittle tumoral mass without a clearly defined margin with the cerebellar tissue was removed. Microscopic examination revealed schistosomal granulomas in the productive phase in the cerebellum (Figure C). After surgery, treatment with praziquantel (50 mg/kg/dia, single dose) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) was offered and the patient improved quickly. Thirty days later he was seen again at the outpatient clinic: he was asymptomatic and with no neurological impairment. This is the eighth case of cerebellar involvement in schistosomiasis mansoni and the second report of a tumoral form of cerebellar schistosomiasis documented by magnetic resonance images. (author)

  12. Storage of organochlorine inseticides in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wassermann

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a survey on OCI storage in people in Bahia, Brasil. In this survey 11 samples of adipose tissue were taken from people who underwent splenectomy for hepato splenic schistosomiasis. In these patients, total DDT averaged 10.66 ppm as compared to 4,83 ppm of total DDT found in presumably healthy people. The difference was statistically significant. It is considered that the increased DDT storage in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiass may be the result of a reduced metabolzation of p,p'-DDT and reduced excretion of its metabolites. Another possíbility is the increased exposure to organochlorine nsectedes by hepatosplenc patients who frequently come from irrigation zones, where these compounds are more used in intensive cultivatíon.

  13. Primary Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiem Boukettaya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare and aggressive histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. In general, this tumor occurs in the middle age, and clinical presentation does not differ from transitional cell carcinomas. The prognosis is often poor, given the advanced stage at diagnosis. To our knowledge, <100 cases of signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder have been reported. We report 2 cases with bladder linitis plastica primitive, and we draw attention to its pathologic, anatomoclinical, and evolution specificity to optimize its therapeutic management.

  14. Development of a Web-Based Self-management Intervention for Intermittent Urinary Catheter Users With Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Mary H; Fairbanks, Eileen; Parshall, Robert; Zhang, Feng; Miner, Sarah; Thayer, Deborah; Harrington, Brian; Brasch, Judith; McMAHON, James M

    2015-11-01

    While Web-based interventions have proliferated recently, information in the literature is often lacking about how the intervention was developed. In response to that gap, this is a report of the development of a Web-based self-management intervention for intermittent urinary catheter users and pretesting with four adults with spinal cord injury living in the community. Two Web sites were created, one for recruitment and the other for the intervention itself. The intervention involved developing new Web-based technology, including an interactive urinary diary (with fluid intake/urine output and a journal), extensive catheter products information, three intervention nurse phone call consultations, and user-community discussion forums. Study participants completed an online survey and were interviewed twice about the enrollment process and their perceptions of their involvement in the intervention. Suggestions from the pretesting participants were used to revise the Web site applications prior to the next stage of research (a feasibility study). Numerous recommendations and comments were received related to content, interactivity of components, and usability. This article provides a description of how the Web sites were developed (including the technology and software programs used), issues encountered and what was done to address them, and how the Web-based intervention was modified for improvements.

  15. Moderate and high endemicity of schistosomiasis is a predictor of the endemicity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis - Systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, A.; Gabrielli, A. F.; Montresor, A.; Engels, D.

    2017-01-01

    The authors conducted a systematic literature review with the following aims: (i) to investigate how frequently soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) infections are endemic where schistosomiasis is present; and (ii) to assess the correlation between the risk level of schistosomiasis and that of STH. Among 155 sites on which data were collected and analyzed, schistosomiasis was present in 130 sites, all of which were also co-endemic for STH, whereas 25 sites were endemic only for STH. Out of 83 sites where at least one biannual round of preventive chemotherapy (PC) for schistosomiasis is recommended, 94% were also eligible for at least a yearly round of PC against STH. And among 21 sites where PC for schistosomiasis is recommended once a year, 81% were also eligible for at least a yearly round of PC for STH. This fact provides managers of control programmes with the operationally important indication that use of available information on endemicity of schistosomiasis is a valid tool to predict the presence of STH in the same geographical area as well as to estimate the need of PC for STH. The implementation of this tool is expected to save financial and human resources and help accelerate the scale-up of PC throughout the world. PMID:21215979

  16. Clean Intermittent Self-Catheterization as a Treatment Modality for Urinary Retention: Perceptions of Urologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Weynants

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC is now considered the gold standard for the management of urinary retention. In the literature, several articles on patients’ perspectives on CISC and adherence to this technique have been published. No studies have yet explored the points of view of professional caregivers, such as nurses and doctors. The aim of this study was to explore the opinions of urologists about CISC and to evaluate the need for dedicated nurses specialized in CISC through a self-administered questionnaire. Methods A questionnaire was developed to explore the opinions of professional caregivers about self-catheterization and to evaluate the need to provide nurses with specialized education in CISC. Questionnaires were sent to 244 urologists through email. We received 101 completed questionnaires. The response rate was 41.4%. Results Hand function, the presence or absence of tremor, and visual acuity were rated as the most important determinants for proposing CISC to a patient. Twenty-five percent of the urologists reported that financial remuneration would give them a greater incentive to propose CISC. The lack of dedicated nurses was reported by half of the urologists as a factor preventing them from proposing CISC. A meaningful number of urologists thought that patients perceive CISC as invasive and unpleasant. Although most urologists would choose CISC as a treatment option for themselves, almost 1 urologist out of 5 would prefer a permanent catheter. Conclusions This questionnaire gave valuable insights into urologists’ perceptions of CISC, and could serve as the basis for a subsequent broader international study. Further research should also focus on the opinions of nurses and other caregivers involved in incontinence management. Apart from financial remuneration, it is also clear that ensuring sufficient expertise and time for high-quality CISC care is important. This could be a potential role for dedicated

  17. Clean Intermittent Self-Catheterization as a Treatment Modality for Urinary Retention: Perceptions of Urologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weynants, Laurens; Hervé, François; Decalf, Veerle; Kumps, Candy; Pieters, Ronny; Troyer, Bart de; Everaert, Karel

    2017-09-01

    Clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC) is now considered the gold standard for the management of urinary retention. In the literature, several articles on patients' perspectives on CISC and adherence to this technique have been published. No studies have yet explored the points of view of professional caregivers, such as nurses and doctors. The aim of this study was to explore the opinions of urologists about CISC and to evaluate the need for dedicated nurses specialized in CISC through a self-administered questionnaire. A questionnaire was developed to explore the opinions of professional caregivers about self-catheterization and to evaluate the need to provide nurses with specialized education in CISC. Questionnaires were sent to 244 urologists through email. We received 101 completed questionnaires. The response rate was 41.4%. Hand function, the presence or absence of tremor, and visual acuity were rated as the most important determinants for proposing CISC to a patient. Twenty-five percent of the urologists reported that financial remuneration would give them a greater incentive to propose CISC. The lack of dedicated nurses was reported by half of the urologists as a factor preventing them from proposing CISC. A meaningful number of urologists thought that patients perceive CISC as invasive and unpleasant. Although most urologists would choose CISC as a treatment option for themselves, almost 1 urologist out of 5 would prefer a permanent catheter. This questionnaire gave valuable insights into urologists' perceptions of CISC, and could serve as the basis for a subsequent broader international study. Further research should also focus on the opinions of nurses and other caregivers involved in incontinence management. Apart from financial remuneration, it is also clear that ensuring sufficient expertise and time for high-quality CISC care is important. This could be a potential role for dedicated nurses.

  18. The WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Control of Schistosomiasis at Niamey, Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chippaux J-P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The Centre de Recherche sur les Méningites et les Schistosomes (CERMES is a research institute depending on the Organisation de Coordination et de Coopération pour la lutte contre les Grandes Endémies - a West African Organization for Public Health - devoted to the studies on schistosomiasis and meningitis. The staff includes 32 persons with 11 scientists and one financial officer. The activities of the CERMES involving schistosomiasis concern three research units: (a ecology of human and animal schistosomiasis transmission; the CERMES defined the different patterns of schistosomiasis transmission in Niger (involving African dry savana; in this field, we have shown, (i the existence of important variability in conditions of transmission of S. haematobium and, (ii natural hybridization between parasitic species of the ruminants (S. bovis and S. curassoni and genetic interaction between human and animal parasites; (b definition of morbidity indicators usable for rapid assessment methods, for appraisal of the severity of the disease and for the evaluation of the efficiency of control methods; we have established the correlation between ultrasonographic data and some cheap and simple field indicators; (c immune response and protective immunity induced by recombinant glutathion S-transferase (Sm28, Sb28 and Sh28 in homologous and heterologous animal models including goats, sheep and non human primates (Erythrocebus patas. In Niger, we participate in all control programs against schistosomiasis to define control strategies, to supervise operations and to participate in their evaluation with external experts. International collaborations constitute a frame including four laboratories in Africa and six laboratories in developed countries (Europe and USA

  19. Schistosomiasis vaccine development: approaches and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Bergquist

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence for acquired immunity to schistosomiasis in humans supports the case for immunological intervention. On the other hand, rapid reinfection poses a threat to younger age groups due to the slow maturation of natural resistance. However, rational approaches, based on advances in immunology and molecular biology, have substantially increased the odds of producing an effective vaccine. Since the parasite cannot replicate in the human host and serious morbidity generally occurs only after a relatively long period of heavy worm burden, complete protection against infection is not essential. The chances of success would increase if more than one of the various host/parasite interphases were targeted, for example reducing morbidity through decreased worm loads as well as through suppression of egg production. Several promising schistosome antigens have now reached an advanced phase of development and are currently undergoing independent confirmatory testing according to a standardized protocol. A few molecules are being contemplated for scaled-up production but, so far, only one has reached the stage of industrial manufacture and safety testing. Since schistosomiasis cannot realistically be controlled by a single approach, vaccination is envisaged to be implemented in conjunction with other means of control, notably chemotherapy.

  20. 5. Surveys for Schistosomiasis and Soil Transmitted Helminths in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Occurrence of dual infection with S. ..... considered and properly integrated when planning and implementing further ... geostatistical model based risk estimates of schistosomiasis. ... Shiff, C.J. Diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni without the ...

  1. To reduce the global burden of human schistosomiasis, use ‘old fashioned’ snail control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Jones, Isabel J.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand; Hsieh, Michael H.; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2018-01-01

    Control strategies to reduce human schistosomiasis have evolved from ‘snail picking’ campaigns, a century ago, to modern wide-scale human treatment campaigns, or preventive chemotherapy. Unfortunately, despite the rise in preventive chemotherapy campaigns, just as many people suffer from schistosomiasis today as they did 50 years ago. Snail control can complement preventive chemotherapy by reducing the risk of transmission from snails to humans. Here, we present ideas for modernizing and scaling up snail control, including spatiotemporal targeting, environmental diagnostics, better molluscicides, new technologies (e.g., gene drive), and ‘outside the box’ strategies such as natural enemies, traps, and repellants. We conclude that, to achieve the World Health Assembly’s stated goal to eliminate schistosomiasis, it is time to give snail control another look.

  2. [Study on risk assessing indicator system after schistosomiasis transmission interruption in Wuxi City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Jun, Meng; Sheng-Hua, Zong; Xuan, Zhang; Dong-Lin, Gao; Yan-Hua, Qian; Bing, Lu

    2017-07-27

    To establish a risk assessing indicator system after the transmission interruption of schistosomiasis in Wuxi City, so as to provide evidences for formulating strategies on schistosomiasis control and prevention. A primary risk assessing indicator system was established based on the literature review. Alternative indicators were scored and screened to establish a final indicator system through two rounds of Delphy method and the related normalized weights and combined weights were also calculated. The risk assessing indicator system was established through two rounds of expert consultation including 3 first grade indicators and 15 second grade indicators. Among the first grade indicators, the normalized weights of natural environment, key populations and social environment were 0.370 6, 0.292 9 and 0.336 5, respectively. Among the second grade indicators, the migrant population accounted for the highest combined weight of 0.125 2 compared to domestic animal of 0.037 1. The authority degree among the first grade indicators was between 0.91 and 0.93, while the authority degree among the second grade indicators was between 0.79 and 0.92. The scientific and authoritative risk assessing indicator system after the transmission interruption of schistosomiasis is established, which provides the evidences for risk assessment on schistosomiasis transmission in Wuxi City.

  3. Reversal of Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Murine Schistosomiasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NO Al-Harbi, SA Bahashwan, MS Aboonq, MA Ramadan, AA Bahashwan. Abstract. Purpose: To evaluate the safety, pharmacological effect and mechanism of action of an antifibrotic compound, safironil (SAF)/praziquantel (PZQ) combination on reversal of liver fibrogenesis in chronic murine Schistosomiasis mansoni.

  4. Cycling and Female Sexual and Urinary Function: Results From a Large, Multinational, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Murphy, Gregory P; Metzler, Ian; Sanford, Thomas; Eisenberg, Michael L; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Osterberg, E Charles; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2018-04-01

    Bicycle riding has become an increasingly popular mode of transportation and exercise, especially among women, and previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between cycling and sexual dysfunction, albeit using non-validated questionnaires. We aimed to explore the relationship between cycling and sexual and urinary dysfunction. Cyclists were recruited to complete a survey through Facebook advertisements and outreach to sporting clubs across 5 English-speaking countries. Swimmers and runners were recruited as a comparison group. Participants were queried using validated questionnaires, including the Female Sexual Function Index, the American Urological Association Symptom Index, and non-validated questions about history of urinary tract infections (UTIs), genital numbness, and genital saddle sores (all self-reported). 3,118 (53.3%) Women completed the survey, comprising 1,053 (34%) non-cyclists, 1,656 (53%) low-intensity cyclists, and 409 (13%) high-intensity cyclists. After adjusting for age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, tobacco use, race, marital status, urinary symptoms, and sexual activity, high-intensity cyclists had lower odds of self-reported sexual dysfunction compared to non-cyclists (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.7, P = .02). There were no statistically significant differences in urinary symptoms across groups. Compared to non-cyclists, both low- and high-intensity cyclists had higher odds of reporting a previous UTI (aOR 1.4, P < .001, and aOR 1.4, P = .009, respectively), genital numbness (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, P < .001, and OR 9.1, P < .001, respectively), and saddle sores (OR 6.3, P < .001, and OR 22.7, P < .001, respectively). Women cyclists were more likely to report other genitourinary conditions, including UTIs, genital numbness, and saddle sores. This is the largest study comparing cyclists to other athletes with respect to sexual and urinary function. The study is limited by its cross-sectional design

  5. Fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall: Incidental finding on abdominal computed tomography: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Ho; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Seong Jin; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    In a computed tomography (CT) scan, fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall is seen as a linear hypoattenuating band surrounded by soft tissue density. It is uncommon, but is often seen in normal cases. However, there is no report of fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall in Korea. The authors encountered a 62-year-old male patient who showed an incidental hypoattenuating band in the urinary bladder wall on abdominal CT. The patient showed no clinical signs related to fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall. When the patient's previous abdominal CT was retrospectively reviewed, the same CT finding was seen. This linear hypoattenuating band within the urinary bladder wall should be considered as a normal CT finding, although it is uncommon.

  6. [Epidemiological investigation on confirmed cases of schistosomiasis in Hubei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Yan, Chen; Shun-Xiang, Cai; Guo, Li; Ying, Xiao; Xiao-Wei, Shan; Juan, Zhang; Jian-Bing, Liu

    2016-05-10

    To grasp the distribution and epidemiology of confirmed cases of schistosomiasis in Hubei Province, so as to provide the evidence for promoting the prevention and control work. The confirmed cases of schistosomiasis in Hubei Province from 2010 to 2014 were epidemiologically investigated, and the prevalence characteristics and main influencing factors were analyzed. A total of 10 102 confirmed cases from 2010 to 2014 were surveyed. There were 1 062 local infected patients, accounting for 10.51% and including 354 repeated infections and 17 newly infected. There were 290 foreigninfected patients, accounting for 2.87%, with 206 repeated infection cases and 84 newly infected. There were 8 750 historical patients, including 2 229 patients who leaked the former schistosomiasis investigations, accounting for 22.06%; 570 patients missed treatment, accounting for 5.64%; 3 640 patients were treated with non-standard therapy, accounting for 36.03%; 2 311 patients were treated with poor medication efficacy, accounting for 22.88%. The multivariate non-conditional Logistic regression, targeting at confirmed cases in 2014, showed that, for the leaking investigations, the potential risk factors included the age, educational level, and latrine renovation ( b >0, OR >1), the protective factors were the times of previous treatment, cattle feeding in villager team, and Oncomelania hupensis snails in surroundings ( b <0, OR <1); for the treatment-missing, the age, educational level, snails in the surroundings of residence were risk factors ( b <0, OR <1); for the substandard treatment, the risk factors included the occupation and snails in the surroundings of residence ( b >0, OR >1), and the educational level and snails in the own field were protective factors ( b <0, OR <1). The epidemiological investigation on the confirmed cases of schistosomiasis could grasp the epidemic factors so as to improve the management and carry out the scientific control.

  7. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Saarnak, Christopher; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-01-01

    countries identified from OIE reports. All 31 countries were considered, on national scale, to have co-distribution with schistosomiasis. Presence of both parasites was confirmed in 124 districts in 17 countries. The informed prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis were estimated for 14 and 41...... intervention approaches for these two helminth infections and allocation of resources for evaluating the extent of adverse effects caused by mass drug administration....

  8. Integrated Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis Control over Five Years on Kome Island, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatano, Godfrey M; Siza, Julius E; Mwanga, Joseph R; Min, Duk-Yong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Ko, Yunsuk; Chang, Su Young; Kullaya, Cyril M; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M; Eom, Keeseon S

    2015-10-01

    Integrated control strategies are important for sustainable control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, despite their challenges for their effective implementation. With the support of Good Neighbors International in collaboration with National Institute of Medical Research, Mwanza, Tanzania, integrated control applying mass drug administration (MDA), health education using PHAST, and improved safe water supply has been implemented on Kome Island over 5 years for controlling schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Baseline surveys for schistosomiasis and STHs was conducted before implementation of any integrated control strategies, followed by 4 cross-sectional follow-up surveys on randomly selected samples of schoolchildren and adults in 10 primary schools and 8 villages, respectively, on Kome islands. Those follow-up surveys were conducted for impact evaluation after introduction of control strategies interventions in the study area. Five rounds of MDA have been implemented from 2009 along with PHAST and improved water supply with pumped wells as other control strategies for complementing MDA. A remarkable steady decline of schistosomiasis and STHs was observed from 2009 to 2012 with significant trends in their prevalence decline, and thereafter infection rate has remained at a low sustainable control. By the third follow-up survey in 2012, Schistosoma mansoni infection prevalence was reduced by 90.5% and hookworm by 93.3% among schoolchildren while in adults the corresponding reduction was 83.2% and 56.9%, respectively. Integrated control strategies have successfully reduced S. mansoni and STH infection status to a lower level. This study further suggests that monitoring and evaluation is a crucial component of any large-scale STH and schistosomiasis intervention.

  9. Thrombocytopenia as a surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in endemic areas for Schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Costa Drummond

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to evaluate whether a low platelet count is a good surrogate marker of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS in a rural area of Brazil. A small district in southeastern Brazil, with a population of 1,543 individuals and a 23% prevalence of schistosomiasis, was selected for this investigation. Methods In July 2012, 384 volunteers were subjected to clinical, ultrasonography (US, and laboratory examinations, including stool sample analysis. The HSS patients were classified into four groups: Group 1 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm and liver fibrosis; Group 2 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen and spleen>13cm measured by US; Group 3 consisted of patients with a spleen >13cm measured by US; and Group 4 consisted of patients with a palpable spleen. Results Eight patients were in Group 1 (2.1%, twenty-one were in Group 2 (5.5%, eight were in Group 3 (2.1%, and eighteen were in Group 4 (4.7%. A significant difference in the mean platelet counts was observed between the patients with and without HSS (p<0.01. Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (platelet count <143,000/mm3, the sensitivity was greater than 92% in all groups, and the specificity varied from 44.4% to 75%. Conclusions We concluded that in endemic areas, thrombocytopenia demonstrates good sensitivity for detecting HSS and may be used as a screening tool to identify patients with HSS.

  10. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, A.; Olsen, Annette; Tukahebwa, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by Schistosoma trematode parasites, affects hundreds of millions of people and accounts for more than 40% of the global health burden due to neglected tropical diseases. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is endemic in 73 out of 112 districts and about 55......% of the population of 36 million individuals are at risk. There is scanty information on the status and burden of schistosomiasis in preschool children less than six years of age in Uganda. This study aimed to assess the status of Schistosoma mansoni infections in children aged 1-5 years in Uganda. S. mansoni...... prevalence and intensity of infection were examined in 3058 children from 5 districts along Lake Victoria shoreline, eastern Uganda. For each child one stool sample was collected on three consecutive days. The Kato-Katz technique was used to prepare stool smears on slides for microscopic examination. Short...

  11. Biochemical Comparative study on viral hepatitis (B) and schistosomiasis in Egyptian patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.M.; Fahim, F.A.; Abo-Arab, S.

    2001-01-01

    This study included 50 patients, out of which 25 patients suffering from viral hepatitis B (10 acute and 15 chronic patients), 25 schistosomiasis patients and 20 individuals as control healthy group, (5 hepatitis carriers and 15 normal healthy). Elevation in serum ALT and AST activities were noticed in all patient groups and the highest levels were recorded in acute HBV, (368.6 and 364 U/L respectively, P< 0.001). Also, serum total protein and albumin showed significant in acute, chronic and schistosomiasis by changes reached 200, 93.3 and 134.0%, respectively,

  12. Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Rwanda: an update on their epidemiology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujeni, Nadine; Morona, Domenica; Ruberanziza, Eugene; Mazigo, Humphrey D

    2017-03-01

    Even though Rwanda lies within a region that has a high prevalence of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, epidemiological information regarding these infections in the country remains scarce. The present review attempts to compile the available data on schistosomiasis and STHs, from 1940 to 2014, to provide an insight on the epidemiological profile of these infections. This information will, in turn, support the design and implementation of sustainable control measures. The available records indicate that only Schistosoma mansoni and all the major species of STHs are endemic in Rwanda. In 2008, the national prevalence of S. mansoni was reported to be 2.7%, ranging from 0 to 69.5%, and that of STH infections was 65.8% (diagnosed using the Kato-Katz technique). The prevalence of these infections varies from one district to another, with schoolchildren remaining a highly affected group. The main control approach is mass drug administration using albendazole and praziquantel, mostly targeting school-aged children in school environments. In 2008, adult individuals living in areas with a prevalence of S. mansoni ≥30% were also included in the mass drug administration programme. However, despite Rwanda achieving an almost 100% coverage of this programme in 2008-2010, the transmission of S. mansoni and STHs continues to take place, as illustrated by the most recent surveys. If Rwanda is to achieve sustainable control and elimination of schistosomiasis and STHs, there is a need to revise the country's control strategy and adopt an integrated control approach that involves a combination of measures.

  13. Absence of linkage between MHC and a gene involved in susceptibility to human schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiarella J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Six hundred million people are at risk of infection by Schistosoma mansoni. MHC haplotypes have been reported to segregate with susceptibility to schistosomiasis in murine models. In humans, a major gene related to susceptibility/resistance to infection by S. mansoni (SM1 and displaying the mean fecal egg count as phenotype was detected by segregation analysis. This gene displayed a codominant mode of inheritance with an estimated frequency of 0.20-0.25 for the deleterious allele and accounted for more than 50% of the variance of infection levels. To determine if the SM1 gene segregates with the human MHC chromosomal region, we performed a linkage study by the lod score method. We typed for HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ antigens in 11 informative families from an endemic area for schistosomiasis in Bahia, Brazil, by the microlymphocytotoxicity technique. HLA-DR typing by the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP and HLA-DQ were confirmed by PCR-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP. The lod scores for the different q values obtained clearly indicate that there is no physical linkage between HLA and SM1 genes. Thus, susceptibility or resistance to schistosomiasis, as defined by mean fecal egg count, is not primarily dependent on the host's HLA profile. However, if the HLA molecule plays an important role in specific immune responses to S. mansoni, this may involve the development of the different clinical aspects of the disease such as granuloma formation and development of hepatosplenomegaly.

  14. S. haematobium as a common cause of genital morbidity in girls: a cross-sectional study of children in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Elise Amlie Hegertun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosoma (S. haematobium infection is a common cause of genital morbidity in adult women. Ova in the genital mucosal lining may cause lesions, bleeding, pain, discharge, and the damaged surfaces may pose a risk for HIV. In a heterogeneous schistosomiasis endemic area in South Africa, we sought to investigate if young girls had genital symptoms and if this was associated with urinary S. haematobium. METHODOLOGY: In a cross-sectional study of 18 randomly chosen primary schools, we included 1057 schoolgirls between the age of 10 and 12 years. We interviewed assenting girls, whose parents had consented to their participation and examined three urines from each of them for schistosome ova. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One third of the girls reported to have a history of genital symptoms. Prior schistosomal infection was reported by 22% (226/1020, this was associated with current genital symptoms (p<0.001. In regression analysis the genital symptoms were significantly associated both with urinary schistosomiasis (p<0.001 and water contact (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Even before sexually active age, a relatively large proportion of the participating girls had similar genital symptoms to those reported for adult genital schistosomiasis previously. Anti-schistosomal treatment should be considered at a young age in order to prevent chronic genital damage and secondary infections such as HIV, sexually transmitted diseases and other super-infections.

  15. Adolescent Self-Reported and Peer-Reported Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, William James

    1979-01-01

    The study is an examination of the relationship between adolescents' self-reported and peer-reported self-esteem and how this relationship is affected by sex, race, and age variables. Significant sex and race variations interacted with age. Explanatory hypotheses for these findings are given. (Author/KC)

  16. Treatment Effects and Integrated Morbidity Control of Schistosomiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Danso-Appiah (Anthony)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSchistosomiasis is caused by the blood fl uke and leads to signifi cant ill-health and economic burden. The disease is common in the tropics and subtropics and acquired through contact with freshwater bodies infested with the infective cercariae shed from the intermediate host snail.

  17. Assessing the Accuracy of Self-Reported Self-Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Brinthaupt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-Talk Scale (STS; Brinthaupt, Hein, & Kramer, 2009 is a self-report measure of self-talk frequency that has been shown to possess acceptable reliability and validity. However, no research using the STS has examined the accuracy of respondents’ self-reports. In the present paper, we report a series of studies directly examining the measurement of self-talk frequency and functions using the STS. The studies examine ways to validate self-reported self-talk by (1 comparing STS responses from 6 weeks earlier to recent experiences that might precipitate self-talk, (2 using experience sampling methods to determine whether STS scores are related to recent reports of self-talk over a period of a week, and (3 comparing self-reported STS scores to those provided by a significant other who rated the target on the STS. Results showed that (1 overall self-talk scores, particularly self-critical and self-reinforcing self-talk, were significantly related to reports of context-specific self-talk; (2 high STS scorers reported talking to themselves significantly more often during recent events compared to low STS scorers, and, contrary to expectations, (3 friends reported less agreement than strangers in their self-other self-talk ratings. Implications of the results for the validity of the STS and for measuring self-talk are presented.

  18. Nanotechnology as a potential therapeutic alternative for schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiotto-Pellissier, Fernanda; Miranda-Sapla, Milena Menegazzo; Machado, Laís Fernanda; Bortoleti, Bruna Taciane da Silva; Sahd, Claudia Stoeglehner; Chagas, Alan Ferreira; Assolini, João Paulo; Oliveira, Francisco José de Abreu; Pavanelli, Wander Rogério; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Costa, Idessania Nazareth; Melanda, Francine Nesello

    2017-10-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease that affects millions of people worldwide, recognized as the most important human helminth infection in terms of morbidity and mortality. The treatment of choice presents low bioavailability and water solubility, in addition to the induction of parasite resistance. In this context, researchers have been conducting studies seeking to develop new drugs to ensure safety, quality, and efficacy against this parasitosis. In this scenario, nanotechnology arises including the drug delivery systems in nanoscale: nanoemulsions, liposomes and nanoparticles. These drug delivery systems have been extensively applied for in vitro and in vivo studies against Schistosoma spp. with promising results. This review pointed out the most relevant development scenarios regarding the treatment of schistosomiasis as well as the application of nanotechnology as a vaccine, highlighting the use of nanotechnology as an alternative therapy for both the repositioning of drugs and the use of new pharmaceutical products, with promising results regarding the aforementioned disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis Control over Five Years on Kome Island, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Siza, Julius E.; Mwanga, Joseph R.; Min, Duk-Yong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Ko, Yunsuk; Chang, Su Young; Kullaya, Cyril M.; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M.; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated control strategies are important for sustainable control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, despite their challenges for their effective implementation. With the support of Good Neighbors International in collaboration with National Institute of Medical Research, Mwanza, Tanzania, integrated control applying mass drug administration (MDA), health education using PHAST, and improved safe water supply has been implemented on Kome Island over 5 years for controlling schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Baseline surveys for schistosomiasis and STHs was conducted before implementation of any integrated control strategies, followed by 4 cross-sectional follow-up surveys on randomly selected samples of schoolchildren and adults in 10 primary schools and 8 villages, respectively, on Kome islands. Those follow-up surveys were conducted for impact evaluation after introduction of control strategies interventions in the study area. Five rounds of MDA have been implemented from 2009 along with PHAST and improved water supply with pumped wells as other control strategies for complementing MDA. A remarkable steady decline of schistosomiasis and STHs was observed from 2009 to 2012 with significant trends in their prevalence decline, and thereafter infection rate has remained at a low sustainable control. By the third follow-up survey in 2012, Schistosoma mansoni infection prevalence was reduced by 90.5% and hookworm by 93.3% among schoolchildren while in adults the corresponding reduction was 83.2% and 56.9%, respectively. Integrated control strategies have successfully reduced S. mansoni and STH infection status to a lower level. This study further suggests that monitoring and evaluation is a crucial component of any large-scale STH and schistosomiasis intervention. PMID:26537032

  20. c-KIT positive schistosomal urinary bladder carcinoma are frequent but lack KIT gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tahany M; Metawea, Mokhtar; Salim, Elsayed I

    2013-01-01

    Urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), one of the most common neoplasms in Egypt, is attributed to chronic urinary infection with Schistosoma haematobium (Schistosomiasis). The proto-oncogene c-KIT, encoding a tyrosine kinase receptor and implicated in the development of a number of human malignancies, has not been studied so far in schistosomal urinary bladder SCCs. We therefore determined immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of c-KIT in paraffin sections from 120 radical cystectomies of SCCs originally obtained from the Pathology Department of Suez Canal University (Ismailia, Egypt). Each slide was evaluated for staining intensity where the staining extent of >10% of cells was considered positive. c-KIT overexpression was detected in 78.3% (94/120) of the patients, the staining extents in the tumor cells were 11-50% and >50% in 40 (42.6%) and 54 (57.4%) respectively. The positive cases had 14.9%, 63.8%, 21.3% as weak, moderate and strong intensity respectively. Patients with positive bilharzial ova had significantly higher c-KIT expression than patients without (95.2% vs. 38.9%, P=0.000). Mutation analysis of exons 9-13 was negative in thirty KIT positive cases. The high rate of positivity in SBSCC was one of the striking findings; However, CD117 may be a potential target for site specific immunotherapy to improve the outcome of this tumor.

  1. Decision-model estimation of the age-specific disability weight for schistosomiasis japonica: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Schleinitz, Mark D; Carabin, Hélène; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2008-03-05

    Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent parasitic infections worldwide. However, current Global Burden of Disease (GBD) disability-adjusted life year estimates indicate that its population-level impact is negligible. Recent studies suggest that GBD methodologies may significantly underestimate the burden of parasitic diseases, including schistosomiasis. Furthermore, strain-specific disability weights have not been established for schistosomiasis, and the magnitude of human disease burden due to Schistosoma japonicum remains controversial. We used a decision model to quantify an alternative disability weight estimate of the burden of human disease due to S. japonicum. We reviewed S. japonicum morbidity data, and constructed decision trees for all infected persons and two age-specific strata, or =15 y. We conducted stochastic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses for each model. Infection with S. japonicum was associated with an average disability weight of 0.132, with age-specific disability weights of 0.098 ( or =15 y). Re-estimated disability weights were seven to 46 times greater than current GBD measures; no simulations produced disability weight estimates lower than 0.009. Nutritional morbidities had the greatest contribution to the S. japonicum disability weight in the disability weights for schistosomiasis urgently need to be revised, and species-specific disability weights should be established. Even a marginal increase in current estimates would result in a substantial rise in the estimated global burden of schistosomiasis, and have considerable implications for public health prioritization and resource allocation for schistosomiasis research, monitoring, and control.

  2. [Application of clinical nursing path integrated with holistic nursing in advanced schistosomiasis patients with ascites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei-Zhi, Yuan; Jing-Ru, Sun; Tao, Chen; Xiao-Yu, Zhang; Liang-Cai, He; Jia-Song, Wang

    2016-05-12

    To evaluate the effect of the clinical nursing path integrated with the holistic nursing on advanced schistosomiasis patients with ascites. A total of 226 advanced schistosomiasis patients with ascites were randomly divided into a control group and an experimental group (113 cases each group). The subjects in the experimental group were nursed by the clinical nursing path integrated with the holistic nursing, while those in the control group were nursed only by the holistic nursing. Then the clinical relevant indexes of the two groups were observed, and the quality of life of the patients before and after hospital discharge was assessed. The improvement rate, satisfaction degree, and awareness rate of health knowledge of the patients in the experiment group were 93.8%, 100% and 97.4%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of the control group (all P holistic nursing can effectively improve the improvement rate and decrease the mortality of the advanced schistosomiasis patients with ascites; meanwhile, it can shorten the hospitalization time and save the hospitalization cost. Therefore, this nursing model is suitable for popularization and application in the treatment and nursing work of the advanced schistosomiasis assistance.

  3. Are health education interventions effective for the control and prevention of urogenital schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amy; Verma, Arpana; Welfare, William

    2015-04-01

    An estimated 129 million people are infected with urogenital schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control recommendations endorse mass administration of praziquantel. Health education is an important component of effective schistosomiasis prevention and control, but there has been limited research on its effectiveness. This paper reviews the effectiveness of health education as an intervention in the prevention and control of urogenital schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. The outcomes of interest were prevalence, incidence or transmission of schistosomiasis, behaviour change associated with infection, or changes in knowledge of the disease. The findings from this review suggest that health education has a beneficial impact on knowledge and understanding of schistosomiasis within the target groups. However, further research is needed due to the poor quality of the included studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Moderate and high endemicity of schistosomiasis is a predictor of the endemicity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, A; Gabrielli, A F; Montresor, A; Engels, D

    2011-02-01

    The authors conducted a systematic literature review with the following aims: to investigate how frequently soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) infections are endemic where schistosomiasis is present; and to assess the correlation between the risk level of schistosomiasis and that of STH. Among 155 sites on which data were collected and analyzed, schistosomiasis was present in 130, all of which were also co-endemic for STH, whereas 25 sites were endemic only for STH. Ninety percent (117 out of 130) of the areas eligible for preventive chemotherapy (PC) against schistosomiasis are also eligible for PC against STH. This fact provides managers of control programmes with the operationally important indication that use of available information on endemicity of schistosomiasis is a valid tool to predict the presence of STH in the same geographical area and to estimate the need of PC for STH. The implementation of this tool is expected to save financial and human resources and help accelerate the scale-up of PC throughout the world. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrology and density feedbacks control the ecology of intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis across habitats in seasonal climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-06-07

    We report about field and theoretical studies on the ecology of the aquatic snails (Bulinus spp. and Biomphalaria pfeifferi) that serve as obligate intermediate hosts in the complex life cycle of the parasites causing human schistosomiasis. Snail abundance fosters disease transmission, and thus the dynamics of snail populations are critically important for schistosomiasis modeling and control. Here, we single out hydrological drivers and density dependence (or lack of it) of ecological growth rates of local snail populations by contrasting novel ecological and environmental data with various models of host demography. Specifically, we study various natural and man-made habitats across Burkina Faso's highly seasonal climatic zones. Demographic models are ranked through formal model comparison and structural risk minimization. The latter allows us to evaluate the suitability of population models while clarifying the relevant covariates that explain empirical observations of snail abundance under the actual climatic forcings experienced by the various field sites. Our results link quantitatively hydrological drivers to distinct population dynamics through specific density feedbacks, and show that statistical methods based on model averaging provide reliable snail abundance projections. The consistency of our ranking results suggests the use of ad hoc models of snail demography depending on habitat type (e.g., natural vs. man-made) and hydrological characteristics (e.g., ephemeral vs. permanent). Implications for risk mapping and space-time allocation of control measures in schistosomiasis-endemic contexts are discussed.

  6. Secondary or Transient Pseudohypoaldosteronism Associated With Urinary Tract Anomaly and Urinary Infection: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Krishnappa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia with hyperkalemia in infancy is a rare presentation, but may be due to aldosterone deficiency or end organ resistance to its action. There are few cases associating this condition with urinary tract infections or anatomic abnormalities that predispose to infection. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion in diagnosing secondary pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA due to its often atypical presentation. We describe ten month-old infant who presented with this condition and was found to have urinary tract infection complicating unilateral urinary tract anomaly, which may have strong association with renal tubular resistance to aldosterone.

  7. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Evaluation of recombinant multi-epitope proteins for diagnosis of goat schistosomiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chao; Hong, Yang; Fu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Ke; Cao, Xiaodan; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Chuangang; Li, Hao; Xu, Rui; Jia, Bingguang; Han, Qian; Dou, Xuefeng; Shen, Yuanxi; Zhang, Zuhang; Zai, Jinli; Feng, Jintao; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-03-09

    Schistosomiasis is a huge threat to human and animal health. Apart from bovines, goats play an important role in the transmission of schistosomiasis in some endemic areas of China. An accessible, quality-assured goat schistosomiasis diagnostic technique is needed. Recently, our laboratory identified two recombinant diagnostic antigens, SjPGM and SjRAD23 via an immuno-proteomic method. The application of these two recombinant antigens to develop a higher sensitivity and specificity technique for the sheep schistosomiasis diagnosis is urgently needed. Epitopes of SjPGM and SjRAD23 were predicted and three polypeptides, two from SjRAD23 and one from SjPGM, were selected. Recombinant plasmids containing two to three DNA sequences encoding predicted polypeptides or large hydrophilic region of Sj23 (LHD-Sj23) were constructed and expressed. Eight recombinant schistosome antigens including four multi-epitope proteins and four recombinant single-molecule antigens as well as SEA, were assessed by ELISA in 91 sera from schistosome-infected goats, 44 sera from non-infected goats, 37 sera from Orientobilharzia-infected goats, and 12 from Haemonchus contortus-infected goats. ELISA tests showed that three multi-epitope proteins had higher sensitivity than the four single-molecule antigens (rSjRAD23, rSjPGM, rBSjRAD23-1, rBSj23) and the multi-epitope protein rBSjPGM-BSjRAD23-1-BSj23 had the highest sensitivity (97.8 %, 89/91) and maintained good specificity (100 %, 44/44) as well as low cross-reactivity with haemonchosis (8.33 %, 3/12) and orientobilharziasis (13.51 %, 5/37) in the diagnosis of goat schistosomiasis. In contrast, when SEA was applied as a diagnosis antigen, it had 100 % (91/91) sensitivity, 75 % (33/44) specificity, 25 and 83.78 % cross-reactivity with haemonchosis (3/12) and orientobilharziasis (31/37), respectively. The application of recombinant multi-epitope proteins may increase the sensitivity of diagnosis technique and retain high specificity of single

  9. Nationwide cross-sectional survey of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sudan: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seungman; Hong, Sung-Tae; Lee, Young-Ha; Lee, Keon Hoon; Cho, Dae Seong; Lee, Jinmoo; Chai, Jong-Yil; Elhag, Mousab Siddig; Khaled, Soheir Gabralla Ahmad; Elnimeiri, Mustafa Khidir Mustafa; Siddig, Nahid Abdelgadeir Ali; Abdelrazig, Hana; Awadelkareem, Sarah; Elshafie, Azza Tag Eldin; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Amin, Mutamad

    2017-09-12

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) are target neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) of preventive chemotherapy, but the control and elimination of these diseases have been impeded due to resource constraints. Few reports have described study protocol to draw on when conducting a nationwide survey. We present a detailed methodological description of the integrated mapping of schistosomiasis and STHs on the basis of our experiences, hoping that this protocol can be applied to future surveys in similar settings. In addition to determining the ecological zones requiring mass drug administration interventions, we aim to provide precise estimates of the prevalence of these diseases. A school-based cross-sectional design will be applied for the nationwide survey across Sudan. The survey is designed to cover all districts in every state. We have divided each district into 3 different ecological zones depending on proximity to bodies of water. We will employ a probability-proportional-to-size sampling method for schools and systematic sampling for student selection to provide adequate data regarding the prevalence for schistosomiasis and STHs in Sudan at the state level. A total of 108,660 students will be selected from 1811 schools across Sudan. After the survey is completed, 391 ecological zones will be mapped out. To carry out the survey, 655 staff members were recruited. The feces and urine samples are microscopically examined by the Kato-Katz method and the sediment smears for helminth eggs respectively. For quality control, a minimum of 10% of the slides will be rechecked by the federal supervisors in each state and also 5% of the smears are validated again within one day by independent supervisors. This nationwide mapping is expected to generate important epidemiological information and indicators about schistosomiasis and STHs that will be useful for monitoring and evaluating the control program. The mapping data will also be used for overviewing

  10. An updated review on primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and report of a case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lendorf, Maria Elisabeth; Dohn, Line Hammer; Á Dunga, Bara

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to emphasize the critical importance of the clinician's awareness of signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the urinary bladder, a rare and aggressive disease entity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the current literature was conducted and a classic case...... of advanced SRCC of the urinary bladder is reported, clearly demonstrating the severity of this disease and the imperative need for standardized recommendations for the diagnostic work-up and management of urinary bladder SRCC. RESULTS: The prognosis for patients with SRCC of the urinary bladder is poor...

  11. Urinary incontinence in children in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta: a serial case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taralan Tambunan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Urinary incontinence in children is a complex problem of varying causes. Most children brought to physician for evaluation of difficulties with urinary control will have single or diurnal enuresis, or will be experiencing urgency associated with functional or organic incontinence. To find out the magnitude of urinary incontinence problems in Child Health Department Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital Jakarta, we retrospectively looked at medical report of such cases between the years of 1989-2001. During eleven years there were 20 cases, consisted of 10 males and 10 females, aged ranged between 3 months up to 16 years. Nineteen children showed significant bacteriuria defined as a urinary tract infection. Ten children were diagnosed as having neurogenic bladder, all had spinal lesions; 7 children had spinal dysraphyism while 3 others had osteolityc lesions in vertebrae due to malignancy. Non neurogenic bladder was defined in 6 children, while in other 4 children we defined that urinary incontinence was caused by anatomical abnormalities. Vesico-ureteral reflux in various degree were found in 9 children, while 11 out of 20 (55% cases were experiencing chronic renal failure on their first visit. Although the annual incidence of urinary incontinence is low, these difficult cases causing many problems. Breakthrough infection was almost unpreventable and in most cases had progressed to renal failure. Many factors such as invasive procedures and prolonged treatment causing fear and frustration to the patients and their parents leading to poor compliance and lost to follow up. In summary we can conclude that urinary incontinence in children is a complex problem include medically, economically, and socially, not only for the patient and their parents, but also for medical profession.

  12. Whole genome analysis of a schistosomiasis-transmitting freshwater snail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Coen M; Hillier, LaDeana W; Jones, Catherine S; Loker, Eric S; Knight, Matty; Minx, Patrick; Oliveira, Guilherme; Raghavan, Nithya; Shedlock, Andrew; do Amaral, Laurence Rodrigues; Arican-Goktas, Halime D; Assis, Juliana G; Baba, Elio Hideo; Baron, Olga L; Bayne, Christopher J; Bickham-Wright, Utibe; Biggar, Kyle K; Blouin, Michael; Bonning, Bryony C; Botka, Chris; Bridger, Joanna M; Buckley, Katherine M; Buddenborg, Sarah K; Lima Caldeira, Roberta; Carleton, Julia; Carvalho, Omar S; Castillo, Maria G; Chalmers, Iain W; Christensens, Mikkel; Clifton, Sandra; Cosseau, Celine; Coustau, Christine; Cripps, Richard M; Cuesta-Astroz, Yesid; Cummins, Scott F; di Stephano, Leon; Dinguirard, Nathalie; Duval, David; Emrich, Scott; Feschotte, Cédric; Feyereisen, Rene; FitzGerald, Peter; Fronick, Catrina; Fulton, Lucinda; Galinier, Richard; Gava, Sandra G; Geusz, Michael; Geyer, Kathrin K; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I; de Souza Gomes, Matheus; Gordy, Michelle A; Gourbal, Benjamin; Grunau, Christoph; Hanington, Patrick C; Hoffmann, Karl F; Hughes, Daniel; Humphries, Judith; Jackson, Daniel J; Jannotti-Passos, Liana K; de Jesus Jeremias, Wander; Jobling, Susan; Kamel, Bishoy; Kapusta, Aurélie; Kaur, Satwant; Koene, Joris M; Kohn, Andrea B; Lawson, Dan; Lawton, Scott P; Liang, D.C.; Limpanont, Yanin; Liu, Sijun; Lockyer, Anne E; Lovato, TyAnna L; Ludolf, Fernanda; Magrini, Vince; McManus, Donald P; Medina, Monica; Misra, Milind; Mitta, Guillaume; Mkoji, Gerald M; Montague, Michael J; Montelongo, Cesar; Moroz, Leonid L; Munoz-Torres, Monica C; Niazi, Umar; Noble, Leslie R; Oliveira, Francislon S; Pais, Fabiano S; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Peace, Rob; Pena, Janeth J; Pila, Emmanuel A; Quelais, Titouan; Raney, Brian J; Rast, Jonathan P; Rollinson, David; Rosse, Izinara C; Rotgans, Bronwyn; Routledge, Edwin J; Ryan, Kathryn M; Scholte, Larissa L S; Storey, Kenneth B; Swain, Martin; Tennessen, Jacob A; Tomlinson, Chad; Trujillo, Damian L; Volpi, Emanuela V; Walker, Anthony J; Wang, Tianfang; Wannaporn, Ittiprasert; Warren, Wesley C; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Yoshino, Timothy P; Yusuf, Mohammed; Zhang, Si-Ming; Zhao, Min; Wilson, Richard K

    2017-01-01

    Biomphalaria snails are instrumental in transmission of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. With the World Health Organization's goal to eliminate schistosomiasis as a global health problem by 2025, there is now renewed emphasis on snail control. Here, we characterize the genome of

  13. SCHISTOSOMIASIS: GEOSPATIAL SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE SYSTEMS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information system (GIS and remote sensing (RS from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  14. Self-reported halitosis and emotional state: impact on oral conditions and treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimarchi Giuseppe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Halitosis represents a common dental condition, although sufferers are often not conscious of it. The aim of this study was to examine behavior in a sample of Italian subjects with reference to self-reported halitosis and emotional state, and specifically the presence of dental anxiety. Methods The study was performed on Italian subjects (N = 1052; range 15-65 years. A self-report questionnaire was used to detect self-reported halitosis and other variables possibly linked to it (sociodemographic data, medical and dental history, oral hygiene, and others, and a dental anxiety scale (DAS divided into two subscales that explore a patient's dental anxiety and dental anxiety concerning dentist-patient relations. Associations between self-reported halitosis and the abovementioned variables were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Correlations between the two groups, with self-perceived halitosis and without, were also investigated with dental anxiety and with the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Results The rate of self-reported halitosis was 19.39%. The factors linked with halitosis were: anxiety regarding dentist patient relations (relational dental anxiety (OR = 1.04, CI = 1.01-1.07, alcohol consumption (OR = 0.47, CI = 0.34-0.66, gum diseases (OR = 0.39, CI = 0.27-0.55, age > 30 years (OR = 1.01, CI = 1.00-1.02, female gender (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.51-0.98, poor oral hygiene (OR = 0.65, CI = 0.43-0.98, general anxiety (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.49-0.90, and urinary system pathologies (OR = 0.46, CI = 0.30-0.70. Other findings emerged concerning average differences between subjects with or without self-perceived halitosis, dental anxiety and the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Conclusions Halitosis requires professional care not only by dentists, but also psychological support as it is a problem that leads to avoidance behaviors and thereby limits relationships. It

  15. Comparison of the spatial patterns of schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe at two points in time, spaced twenty-nine years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulrik Bo; Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Midzi, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Temperature, precipitation and humidity are known to be important factors for the development of schistosome parasites as well as their intermediate snail hosts. Climate therefore plays an important role in determining the geographical distribution of schistosomiasis and it is expected that climate......, a Bayesian geostatistical model was fitted to a range of climatic, environmental and other potential risk factors to identify significant predictors that could help us to obtain spatially explicit schistosomiasis risk estimates for Zimbabwe. The observed general downward trend in schistosomiasis prevalence...

  16. Decision-model estimation of the age-specific disability weight for schistosomiasis japonica: a systematic review of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia L Finkelstein

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent parasitic infections worldwide. However, current Global Burden of Disease (GBD disability-adjusted life year estimates indicate that its population-level impact is negligible. Recent studies suggest that GBD methodologies may significantly underestimate the burden of parasitic diseases, including schistosomiasis. Furthermore, strain-specific disability weights have not been established for schistosomiasis, and the magnitude of human disease burden due to Schistosoma japonicum remains controversial. We used a decision model to quantify an alternative disability weight estimate of the burden of human disease due to S. japonicum. We reviewed S. japonicum morbidity data, and constructed decision trees for all infected persons and two age-specific strata, or =15 y. We conducted stochastic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses for each model. Infection with S. japonicum was associated with an average disability weight of 0.132, with age-specific disability weights of 0.098 ( or =15 y. Re-estimated disability weights were seven to 46 times greater than current GBD measures; no simulations produced disability weight estimates lower than 0.009. Nutritional morbidities had the greatest contribution to the S. japonicum disability weight in the <15 y model, whereas major organ pathologies were the most critical variables in the older age group. GBD disability weights for schistosomiasis urgently need to be revised, and species-specific disability weights should be established. Even a marginal increase in current estimates would result in a substantial rise in the estimated global burden of schistosomiasis, and have considerable implications for public health prioritization and resource allocation for schistosomiasis research, monitoring, and control.

  17. Urinary incontinence a first presentation of central pontine myelinolysis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Asmah Hassan; Shak, Joanna; Alsawaf, Ali

    2015-09-01

    An 84-year-old lady was treated for hyperosmolar hyperglycaemia with IV insulin, fluids and catheterisation for fluid balance monitoring. Trial without catheter failed as the patient complained of new-onset urinary incontinence and lack of awareness of bladder filling. In light of her breast cancer history, we excluded cauda equina. Ultrasound KUB showed an enlarged bladder. Whole-body MRI revealed a lesion in the pons which was highly suggestive of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). Her electrolytes were normal throughout her admission; thus, the rapid fluctuation in osmolality, secondary to her hyperglycaemic state, was the likely cause of CPM. CPM has been reported secondary to hyperglycaemia; however, this is the first reported case of CPM presenting as urinary incontinence and loss of bladder sensation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Specific schistosomiasis treatment as a strategy for disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues Coura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The great hope for schistosomiasis treatment began with the development of oxamniquine and praziquantel. These drugs can be administered orally in a single dose and have a high curative power with minor side effects. In this study, we carried out a field experiment involving a population of 3,782 people. The population was examined at four localities in Minas Gerais within the valleys of the Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers. In this cohort, there were 1,790 patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni (47.3% and we showed that only 1,403 (78.4% could be treated with oxamniquine in a single dose of 12.5-20 mg/kg orally. The other 387 (21.6% were not treated during the first stage because of contraindications (pregnancy or impeditive diseases, absences or refusals. It was observed that, on average, 8.8-17% of the infected patients continued to excrete S. mansoni eggs at the end of the 2nd month after treatment and 30-32% of the cohort was infected by the end of the 24th month. In one of the areas that we followed-up for a total of 30 years, the prevalence of the infection with S. mansoni fell from 60.8-19.3% and the hepatosplenic form of the disease dropped from 5.8-1.3%. We conclude that specific treatment of schistosomiasis reduces the prevalence of infection in the short-term and the morbidity due to schistosomiasis in medium to long-term time frames, but does not help to control disease transmission.

  19. Impaired Lymphocyte Profile in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Santos Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Th2 immune response in chronic schistosomiasis is associated with the development of periportal fibrosis. However, little is known about the phenotype and activation status of T cells in the process. Objective. To evaluate the profile of T cells in schistosomiasis patients with periportal fibrosis. Methods. It was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the village of Agua Preta, Bahia, Brazil, which included 37 subjects with periportal fibrosis determined by ultrasound. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained by the Ficcol-hypaque gradient and the frequency of T cells expressing the surface markers CD28, CD69, CD25, and CTLA-4 was determined by flow cytometry. Results. The frequency of CD4+CD28+ T lymphocytes was higher in individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis compared to patients with incipient fibrosis. We did not observe any significant difference in the frequency of CD4+ T cells expressing CD69 among groups of individuals. There was also no significant difference in the frequency of CD8+ T cells expressing CD28 or CD69 among the studied groups. Individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis presented a lower frequency of CD8+ T cells, CD4+CD25high T cells, and CD4+CTLA-4+ T cells when compared to patients without fibrosis or incipient fibrosis. The frequency of CD4+CD25low cells did not differ between groups. Conclusion. The high frequency of activated T cells coinciding with a low frequency of putative Treg cells may account for the development of periportal fibrosis in human schistosomiasis.

  20. Behavioral Intervention to Eliminate Socially Mediated Urinary Incontinence in a Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Joseph N.; Luiselli, James K.

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of an 11-year-old boy with autism who demonstrated urinary incontinence that appeared to be maintained by social contingencies (adult attention and escape from activity "demands"). Although he wet himself frequently, he also used the bathroom appropriately and made many self-initiated toileting requests. Intervention was…

  1. Whole genome analysis of a schistosomiasis-transmitting freshwater snail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adema, Coen M; Hillier, Ladeana W; Jones, Catherine S

    2017-01-01

    Biomphalaria snails are instrumental in transmission of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. With the World Health Organization's goal to eliminate schistosomiasis as a global health problem by 2025, there is now renewed emphasis on snail control. Here, we characterize the genome of Biompha...

  2. Schistosomiasis research in the dongting lake region and its impact on local and national treatment and control in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P McManus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease that has often been neglected because it is a disease of poverty, affecting poor rural communities in the developing world. This is not the case in the People's Republic of China (PRC, where the disease, caused by Schistosoma japonicum, has long captured the attention of the Chinese authorities who have, over the past 50-60 years, undertaken remarkably successful control programs that have substantially reduced the schistosomiasis disease burden. The Dongting Lake region in Hunan province is one of the major schistosome-endemic areas in the PRC due to its vast marshland habitats for the Oncomelania snail intermediate hosts of S. japonicum. Along with social, demographic, and other environmental factors, the recent completion and closure of the Three Gorges dam will most likely increase the range of these snail habitats, with the potential for re-emergence of schistosomiasis and increased transmission in Hunan and other schistosome-endemic provinces being a particular concern. In this paper, we review the history and the current status of schistosomiasis control in the Dongting Lake region. We explore the epidemiological factors contributing to S. japonicum transmission there, and summarise some of the key research findings from studies undertaken on schistosomiasis in Hunan province over the past 10 years. The impact of this research on current and future approaches for sustainable integrated control of schistosomiasis in this and other endemic areas in the PRC is emphasised.

  3. Novel therapeutic and prevention approaches for schistosomiasis: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ridi, Rashika A F; Tallima, Hatem A-M

    2013-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease affecting approximately 600 million people in 74 developing countries, with 800 million, mostly children at risk. To circumvent the threat of having praziquantel (PZQ) as the only drug used for treatment, several PZQ derivatives were synthesized, and drugs destined for other parasites were used with success. A plethora of plant-derived oils and extracts were found to effectively kill juvenile and adult schistosomes, yet none was progressed to pre- and clinical studies except an oleo-gum resin extracted from the stem of Commiphora molmol, myrrh, which action was challenged in several trials. We have proposed an essential fatty acid, a component of our diet and cells, the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ARA) as a remedy for schistosomiasis, due to its ability to activate the parasite tegument-bound neutral sphingomyelinase, with subsequent hydrolysis of the apical lipid bilayer sphingomyelin molecules, allowing access of specific antibody molecules, and eventual worm attrition. This concept was convincingly supported using larval and adult Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium worms in in vitro experiments, and in vivo studies in inbred mice and outbred hamsters. Even if ARA proves to be an entirely effective and safe therapy for schistosomiasis, it will not prevent reinfection, and accordingly, the need for developing an effective vaccine remains an urgent priority. Our studies have supported the status of S. mansoni calpain, glutathione-S-transferase, aldolase, triose phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, and 2-cys peroxiredoxin as vaccine candidates, as they are larval excreted-secreted products and, contrary to the surface membrane molecules, are entirely accessible to the host immune system effector elements. We have proposed that the use of these molecules, in conjunction with Th2 cytokines-inducing adjuvants for recruiting and activating eosinophils and basophils

  4. Novel Therapeutic and Prevention Approaches for Schistosomiasis: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashika A.F. El Ridi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease affecting approximately 600 million people in 74 developing countries, with 800 million, mostly children at risk. To circumvent the threat of having praziquantel (PZQ as the only drug used for treatment, several PZQ derivatives were synthesized, and drugs destined for other parasites were used with success. A plethora of plant-derived oils and extracts were found to effectively kill juvenile and adult schistosomes, yet none was progressed to pre- and clinical studies except an oleo-gum resin extracted from the stem of Commiphora molmol, myrrh, which action was challenged in several trials. We have proposed an essential fatty acid, a component of our diet and cells, the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ARA as a remedy for schistosomiasis, due to its ability to activate the parasite tegument-bound neutral sphingomyelinase, with subsequent hydrolysis of the apical lipid bilayer sphingomyelin molecules, allowing access of specific antibody molecules, and eventual worm attrition. This concept was convincingly supported using larval and adult Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium worms in in vitro experiments, and in vivo studies in inbred mice and outbred hamsters. Even if ARA proves to be an entirely effective and safe therapy for schistosomiasis, it will not prevent reinfection, and accordingly, the need for developing an effective vaccine remains an urgent priority. Our studies have supported the status of S. mansoni calpain, glutathione-S-transferase, aldolase, triose phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, and 2-cys peroxiredoxin as vaccine candidates, as they are larval excreted-secreted products and, contrary to the surface membrane molecules, are entirely accessible to the host immune system effector elements. We have proposed that the use of these molecules, in conjunction with Th2 cytokines-inducing adjuvants for recruiting and activating

  5. The incidence of urinary tract cancers is related to preserved diuresis: a single-center report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Vedran; Gamulin, Marija; Coric, Marijana; Jelakovic, Bojan

    2017-12-01

    Residual diuresis progressively decreases with longer dialysis vintage, and higher incidence of renal and urinary tract cancers was often observed in hemodialyzed patients compared to the general population so we hypothesized that patients without preserved residual diuresis have higher risk of renal and urinary tract cancers than patients with preserved residual diuresis. Retrospective clinical data and pathology reports were completed for 307 uremic patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Patients were divided into two subgroups regarding residual diuresis: the first group with residual diuresis  500 mL. Site- and type-specific cancers in our population of ESRD patients were all localized in estrogen-positive receptor organs. The increased risk of all types of urinary tract cancers occurred in the whole group, men and women, when compared to general population. There were a significantly higher number of patients with all types of cancers in the group with residual diuresis  500 mL. Importantly, all urinary tract cancers were present in patients with residual diuresis urinary tract cancers found in ESRD patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis is associated with lost residual diuresis. Residual diuresis in these patients might be considered a risk marker for future urinary tract cancers as well as already established markers.

  6. Superiority of fluorescent in situ hybridization over immunohistochemistry in detection of HER2 gene in carcinoma of the urinary bladder associated with and without schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; Hindawi, All; Mosaad, Maha; Akl, Maha; Khalil, Heba; Al Ganzoury, Hossam; Badawy, Mohamed; Elesaily, Khaled

    2014-12-01

    HER2 is an oncogene encoding a type 1 tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor and the role of HER2 in the development of numerous types of human cancer is still understood and correlates with clinical outcome, poor prognosis, it is a predictor factor for poor response to chemotherapy. HER2 overexpression is associated with reduced disease free and overall survival. Patients who have HER2 negative expression have a poor prognosis. The aim of the present study is to explore the accuracy of detection of expression of HER2 protein by two different techniques of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and gene amplification by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The two techniques were applied to sixty two patients that included different cell types of carcinoma of the bladder, benign bilharzial lesions and control. Characteristics of the 62 patients are: 10 chronic cystitis, 19 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with schistosomiasis, 33 urothelial carcinoma (UC) schistosomal and non-schistosomal, ten healthy individuals without schistosomiasis served as controls. Gene amplification of HER2 was done using FISH and protein expression of HER2 by IHC. The study was applied on archival data of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues and patient clinical data and follow up for 5 years. Overexpression of HER2 protein was found in 30/52 (57.7%). Fourteen cases had score of 2+, and sixteen cases had score of 3+. Using FISH technique it showed more accurate detection of HER2 gene as those fourteen cases who had score of 2+ had been found to be 5 out of 14 were positive for gene over expression, the other sixteen who had score of 3+ all were positive for gene amplification. HER2 protein and gene was found to be significantly overexpressed in carcinoma of the bladder in both cell types SCC and UC with or without schistosomiasis compared to the benign lesions and control groups (P <0.01) by both techniques. There is significant increase in expression of HER2 protein and gene in SCC compared to

  7. [Research on competency building standards of institutions of schistosomiasis prevention and control in Hubei Province I Investigation of institution management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-cheng; Zhong, Chen-hui; Liao, Si-qi; He, Hui

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the current situation of management of institutions of schistosomiasis prevention and control in Hubei Province, so as to explore the probable competency building standards for these institutions at the county and township levels. By using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, the institutions of schistosomiasis prevention and control at county and township levels were investigated for the institutional setup, staffing and fulfillment functions since the reform of 2004. Among 63 schistosomiasis endemic counties (cities, districts) of Hubei Province, there were 26 independent schistosomiasis control institutions (41.27%), there were 24 institutions which were incorporated into CDC (38.10%), and there were no institutions in 13 counties (20.63%). Among 518 endemic towns, there were 299 institutions (57.72%). The total staffing size were 1 932, but there were 1 586 (82.09%) people actually working in the post, and therefore there were 346 (17.91%) empty positions. The average rates of carrying out the six functions were 91.48%-71.19%, but only 19.23% of the institutions participated in the comprehensive schistosomiasis control management project and its effect assessment. According to the management model for schistosomiasis control institutions under the current institutional mechanisms, we need a rigorous industry standard to constrain, guide and standardize the management and capacity-building of the institutions in different historical periods.

  8. Evaluation and Validation of the Questionnaire Approach for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary schistosomiasis is endemic in some parts of Cross River State, in Nigeria. Due to the prohibitive cost of diagnosis and the focal nature of the disease, endemic areas cannot be easily delineated for control operations. In this study, we report the outcome of our assessment of the newly introduced questionnaire ...

  9. 9_45 - 48_BIO 092 Suleiman

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    The overall prevalence of S. haematobium infection in Yamidi was. 76.8% with ... 2015). The study was aimed to assess prevalence of urinary Schistosomiasis in the study area. .... Iwu et al.,. (2015) reported 9.2% prevalence rate among primary school children, which is much lower ... Adewumi, E.O., Christensen, N.O. and.

  10. A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR Study of Neolignan Compounds with Anti-schistosomiasis Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Claúdio N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of eighteen neolignan derivative compounds with anti-schistosomiasis activity was studied by using the quantum mechanical semi-empirical method PM3 and other theoretical methods in order to calculate selected molecular properties (variables or descriptors to be correlated to their biological activities. Exploratory data analysis (principal component analysis, PCA, and hierarchical cluster analysis, HCA, discriminant analysis (DA and the Kth nearest neighbor (KNN method were employed for obtaining possible relationships between the calculated descriptors and the biological activities studied and predicting the anti-schistosomiasis activity of new compounds from a test set. The molecular descriptors responsible for the separation between active and inactive compounds were: hydration energy (HE, molecular refractivity (MR and charge on the C19 carbon atom (Q19. These descriptors give information on the kind of interaction that can occur between the compounds and their respective biological receptor. The prediction study was done with a new set of ten derivative compounds by using the PCA, HCA, DA and KNN methods and only five of them were predicted as active against schistosomiasis.

  11. Considering benefits and harms of duloxetine for treatment of stress urinary incontinence: a meta-analysis of clinical study reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maund, Emma; Guski, Louise Schow; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Medicines Agency makes clinical study reports publicly available and publishes reasons for not approving applications for marketing authorization. Duloxetine has been approved in Europe for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. The reported adverse effects...... of duloxetine include mental health problems and suicidality. We obtained clinical study reports from the European Medicines Agency concerning use of this drug for stress urinary incontinence. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of 4 randomized placebo-controlled trials of duloxetine (involving a total...... of 1913 patients) submitted to the European Medicines Agency for marketing approval for the indication of stress urinary incontinence in women. We used data from the clinical study reports (totalling 6870 pages and including individual patient data) to assess benefits (including frequency of incontinence...

  12. Epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis: present situation and priorities for further research. Scientific Working Group on Schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The article highlights specific aspects of the epidemiology of schistosomiasis where insufficient data are available on which to base appropriate control strategies. Emphasis is placed on the part that immunological techniques might play in improving the baseline epidemiological data. A study of acquired resistance to the disease is also important in relation to epidemiology and control. The clinical manifestations of the disease vary in different areas and further study of the relation between the clinical and pathological manifestations are therefore required. In relation to the intermediate host, the main priority for research concerns the definition of the location and time-patterns of transmission foci within any particular area: variations in transmission are of particular importance in relation to man-made water resources. Although chemotherapy will play an increasing role in control, its importance will depend on local conditions: coordinated and standardized trials are required of chemotherapeutic agents in different regions and in various defined groups of subjects. The effects of chemotherapy on immunity to reinfection and on immunopathology also require study. With all types of snail control-chemical, ecological, and biological-cost-effectiveness aspects are important. With chemicals, it is important to bear in mind other possible effects on the environment. In the field of water supplies and sanitation, several aspects are important in relation to schistosomiasis transmission and community involvement should be encouraged.

  13. CONTROL OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN THE GEZIRA IRRIGATION SCHEME, SUDAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mutamad; Abubaker, Hwiada

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the changing patterns of infection with Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in the Gezira Irrigation Scheme, Sudan. Taking a historical perspective, it shows the way in which factors such as ecology, biology, social and economic variables and politics have shaped patterns of infection, and how different kinds of strategies have been developed to control schistosomal infection over time. Wider political and economic issues at both national and international levels have shaped these strategies, influencing the prevalence and intensity of schistosomal infection at a local level. By highlighting the inter-play between the above-mentioned factors, the article reflects on the wisdom of prioritizing community-directed mass drug administration for the control of schistosomiasis in Gezira and elsewhere. The review demonstrates that not all efforts to control schistosomiasis are sustainable. A comprehensive control strategy involving political commitment, community participation and socioeconomic development is important for sustainable control of schistosomal infection.

  14. Factors relating to eating style, social desirability, body image and eating meals at home increase the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report measures of diet using recovery biomarkers: findings from the Women?s Health Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Tinker, Lesley F; Huang, Ying; Neuhouser, Marian L; McCann, Susan E; Seguin, Rebecca A; Vitolins, Mara Z; Curb, J David; Prentice, Ross L

    2013-01-01

    Background The extent to which psychosocial and diet behavior factors affect dietary self-report remains unclear. We examine the contribution of these factors to measurement error of self-report. Methods In 450 postmenopausal women in the Women?s Health Initiative Observational Study doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen were used as biomarkers of objective measures of total energy expenditure and protein. Self-report was captured from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), four day food rec...

  15. A cross-sectional study on urogenital schistosomiasis in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This becomes important as rapid detection of diseased individuals is necessary for efficient ... Objective: To assess the burden of urogenital schistosomiasis and the diagnostic efficiency of morbidity indicators of the disease in an endemic rural ... depend on streams and rivers for their sources of water for domestic purposes.

  16. Schistosomiasis in Scottish travellers: public health importance of laboratory testing and the need for enhanced surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Claire L; Cottom, Laura; Smith, Kitty; Perrow, Kali; Coyne, Michael; Jones, Brian L

    2018-03-01

    Imported schistosomiasis is of significant public health importance and is likely to be underestimated since infection is often asymptomatic. We describe data from travellers residing in Scotland which includes a subset of group travellers from one of the largest Health Boards in Scotland. Clotted bloods were obtained during the period 2001-15 from a total of 8163 Scottish travellers. This included seven groups comprising of 182 travellers. Sera were examined for the presence of Schistosome species antibody at the Scottish Parasite Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory (SPDRL). Of all, 25% (n = 1623) tested positive with 40% (n = 651) of those patients aged between 20 and 24 years. Although 62% (n = 1006) of those who tested positive reported travel to Africa, important information on the specific region visited was lacking in almost one-third of samples received. Overall, 62 (34%) of group travellers tested positive and 95% (n = 59) reporting travel to Africa. Globalization, affordable air travel and improved awareness, are likely to contribute towards the increasing number of imported schistosomiasis cases. Therefore, enhanced surveillance capturing detailed travel history and fresh water exposures will improve risk stratification, pre-travel advice and optimize testing and treatment regimes for this increasingly important parasitic disease.

  17. Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Intensity of Infection in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries, 1942-2014: A Systematic Review in the Context of a Regional Elimination Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoni, Ana Clara; Catalá, Laura; Ault, Steven K

    2016-03-01

    In 2012 the World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA65.21 on elimination of schistosomiasis, calling for increased investment in schistosomiasis control and support for countries to initiate elimination programs. This study aims to analyze prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection in children in Latin America and the Caribbean countries and territories (LAC), at the second administrative level or lower. A systematic review of schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity of infection was conducted by searching at PubMed, LILACS and EMBASE. Experts on the topic were informally consulted and institutional web pages were reviewed (PAHO/WHO, Ministries of Health). Only SCH infection among children was registered because it can be a 'proxi-indicator' of recent transmission by the time the study is conducted. One hundred thirty two full-text articles met the inclusion criteria and provided 1,242 prevalence and 199 intensity of infection data points. Most of them were from Brazil (69.7%). Only Brazil published studies after 2001, showing several 'hot spots' with high prevalence. Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname and Saint Lucia need to update the epidemiological status of schistosomiasis to re-design their national programs and target the elimination of Schistosoma mansoni transmission by 2020. In Antigua and Barbuda, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat and Puerto Rico schistosomiasis transmission may be interrupted. However the compilation of an elimination dossier and follow-up surveys, per WHO recommendations, are needed to verify that status. Hence, the burden of subtle SCH chronic infection may be still present and even high in countries that may have eliminated transmission. Heterogeneity in the methodologies used for monitoring and evaluating the progress of the schistosomiasis programs was found, making cross-national and chronological comparisons difficult. There is a need for updating the schistosomiasis status in the historically

  18. Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Intensity of Infection in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries, 1942-2014: A Systematic Review in the Context of a Regional Elimination Goal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Zoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 the World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA65.21 on elimination of schistosomiasis, calling for increased investment in schistosomiasis control and support for countries to initiate elimination programs. This study aims to analyze prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection in children in Latin America and the Caribbean countries and territories (LAC, at the second administrative level or lower.A systematic review of schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity of infection was conducted by searching at PubMed, LILACS and EMBASE. Experts on the topic were informally consulted and institutional web pages were reviewed (PAHO/WHO, Ministries of Health. Only SCH infection among children was registered because it can be a 'proxi-indicator' of recent transmission by the time the study is conducted.One hundred thirty two full-text articles met the inclusion criteria and provided 1,242 prevalence and 199 intensity of infection data points. Most of them were from Brazil (69.7%. Only Brazil published studies after 2001, showing several 'hot spots' with high prevalence. Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname and Saint Lucia need to update the epidemiological status of schistosomiasis to re-design their national programs and target the elimination of Schistosoma mansoni transmission by 2020. In Antigua and Barbuda, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat and Puerto Rico schistosomiasis transmission may be interrupted. However the compilation of an elimination dossier and follow-up surveys, per WHO recommendations, are needed to verify that status. Hence, the burden of subtle SCH chronic infection may be still present and even high in countries that may have eliminated transmission. Heterogeneity in the methodologies used for monitoring and evaluating the progress of the schistosomiasis programs was found, making cross-national and chronological comparisons difficult.There is a need for updating the schistosomiasis status in the

  19. HEALTH EDUCATION AND THE CONTROL OF UROGENITAL SCHISTOSOMIASIS: ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF THE JUMA NA KICHOCHO COMIC-STRIP MEDICAL BOOKLET IN ZANZIBAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, J R; Khamis, A N; Khamis, I S; Neo, C H E; Wei, I; Rollinson, D

    2016-09-01

    Endeavours to control urogenital schistosomiasis on Unguja Island (Zanzibar) have focused on school-aged children. To assess the impact of an associated health education campaign, the supervised use of the comic-strip medical booklet Juma na Kichocho by Class V pupils attending eighteen primary schools was investigated. A validated knowledge and attitudes questionnaire was completed at baseline and repeated one year later following the regular use of the booklet during the calendar year. A scoring system (ranging from 0.0 to 5.0) measured children's understandings of schistosomiasis and malaria, with the latter being a neutral comparator against specific changes for schistosomiasis. In 2006, the average score from 751 children (328 boys and 423 girls) was 2.39 for schistosomiasis and 3.03 for malaria. One year later, the score was 2.43 for schistosomiasis and 2.70 for malaria from 779 children (351 boys and 428 girls). As might be expected, knowledge and attitudes scores for schistosomiasis increased (+0.05), but not as much as originally hoped, while the score for malaria decreased (-0.33). According to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, neither change was statistically significant. Analysis also revealed that 75% of school children misunderstood the importance of reinfection after treatment with praziquantel. These results are disappointing. They demonstrate that it is mistaken to assume that knowledge conveyed in child-friendly booklets will necessarily be interpreted, and acted upon, in the way intended. If long-term sustained behavioural change is to be achieved, health education materials need to engage more closely with local understandings and responses to urogenital schistosomiasis. This, in turn, needs to be part of the development of a more holistic, biosocial approach to the control of schistosomiasis.

  20. Personal Care Product Use in Men and Urinary Concentrations of Select Phthalate Metabolites and Parabens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassan, Feiby L; Coull, Brent A; Gaskins, Audrey J

    2017-01-01

    : In a prospective cohort, at multiple study visits, men self-reported their use of 14 PCPs and provided a urine sample (2004-2015, Boston, MA). We measured urinary concentrations of 9 phthalate metabolites and methylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. We estimated the covariate-adjusted percent change...... PCP use and concentrations of the other phthalate metabolites were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 10 PCPs of relevance and demonstrated that their use within 6 h of urine collection strongly predicted MEP and paraben urinary concentrations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1374....

  1. KONTRIBUSI HEWAN MAMALIA SAPI, KERBAU, KUDA, BABI DAN ANJING DALAM PENULARAN SCHISTOSOMIASIS DI KECAMATAN LINDU KABUPATEN SIGI PROPINSI SULAWESI TENGAH TAHUN 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSchistosomiasis merupakan penyakit parasitik jaringan yang terabaikan. Schistosomiasis adalah penyakit parasitik yang bersifat zoonosis, selain menginfeksi manusia juga menginfeksi hewan mamalia lainnya. Ada 13 mamalia yang diketahui dapat terinfeksi oleh schistosomiasis antara lain sapi(Bos sundaicus, kerbau (Bubalus bubalis, kuda (Equus cabalus, anjing (Canis familiaris, babi (Sus sp, musang (Vivera tangalunga, rusa (Carvus timorensis, dan berbagai jenis tikus (Rattus exulans, R. hoffmani, R. chysomomusrallus, R. marmosurus, R norvegicus, R palallae. Di Indonesia schistosomiasis disebabkan oleh cacing Schistosoma japonicum dan hanya ditemukan endemik di Sulawesi Tengah yaitu di dataran tinggi Lindu, Napu dan Bada.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kontribusi reservoir dalam penularan schistosomiasis di Kecamatan Lindu, Kabupaten Sigi, Propinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Metode penelitian ini adalah deskriptif observational dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Pengumpulan data primer dilakukan dengan mengobservasi mamalia yang berisiko,dengan pengambilan dan pemeriksaan sampel tinja hewan mamali tersebut. Sejumlah 219 sampel tinja hewan mamalia yang terdiri dari sapi, kerbau, anjing, babi dan kuda diperiksa dengan menggunakan metode sentrifugasi formalin-eter. Dari hasil pemeriksaan tinja yang dilakukan dilaboratorium Parasitologi Balai Litbang P2B2 Donggala sebanyak 54 sampel tinja hewan mamalia (sapi, kerbau, anjing, babi dan kuda positif terinfeksi S.japonicum.Kata kunci : Schistosomiasis, hewan mamalia, Schistosoma japonicumAbstractSchistosomiasis is one of neglected parasitic diseaseds and also a zoonosic disease, in addition to humans it also infect mammals. There were 13 known mammals that can be infected by schistosomiasis, i.e. cattle (Bos sundaicus, buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, horse (Equus Cabalus, dog (Canis familiaris, pig(Sus sp, civet cat(Vivera tangalunga, deer (Cervus timorensis, and various types of rat (Rattus exulans, R

  2. Spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province, East China: Potential effect of the Yangtze River - Huaihe River Water Transfer Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhi-Guo; Li, Si; Zhao, Ya-E; Wang, Tian-Ping; Bergquist, Robert; Huang, Yin-Yin; Gao, Feng-Hua; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Zhi-Jie

    2018-05-09

    Anhui Province has been one of typical epidemic areas of schistosomiasis in East China as a wide range of large lake and marshland regions provide an ideal environment for growth and reproduction of the intermediate snail host. With the completion of the Yangtze River-Huaihe River Water Transfer Project (YHWTP), launched by the end of 2016, the epidemic areas are expected to expand and controlling schistosomiasis remains a challenge. Based on annual surveillance data at the county level in Anhui for the period 2006-2015, spatial and temporal cluster analyses were conducted to assess the pattern of risk through spatial (Local Moran's I and flexible scan statistic) and space-time scan statistic (Kulldorff). It was found that schistosomiasis sero-prevalence was dramatically reduced and maintained at a low level. Cluster results showed that spatial extent of schistosomiasis contracted, but snail distribution remained geographically stable across the study area. Clusters, both for schistosomiasis and snail presence, were common along the Yangtze River. Considering the effect of the ongoing YHWTP on the potential spread of schistosomiasis, Zongyang County and Anqing, which will be transected by the new water-transfer route, should be given a priority for strengthened surveillance and control. Attention should also be paid to Guichi since it is close to one of the planned inlets of the YHWTP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies on vesical schistosomiasis in Abia state Nigeria: Rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of vesical schistosomiasis in 17 Local government areas of Abia State, South Eastern Nigeria was carried out between March 2001 and August 2002 to determine the disease prevalence both by standard parasitological method and rapid assessment using school children as tracers. A total of 10,180 school ...

  4. Female urethral diverticulum presenting with acute urinary retention: Reporting the largest diverticulum with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Pradhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Female urethral diverticulum is a rare entity with diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations. It is a very rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in females presenting with acute urinary retention associated with a vaginal mass. Strong clinical suspicion combined with thorough physical examination and focused radiological investigations are vital for its diagnosis. Herein we report a case of giant urethral diverticulum presenting with acute urinary retention in a young female. It was managed by excision and urethral closure, and is the largest urethral diverticulum reported till date in the literature.

  5. Acute Urinary Retention in A Three Years Old Girl: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoon Tabesh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary retention,a rare childhood problem which is most commonly caused by urinary tract infection. However,neurological neoplasm must also be considered in differential diagnosis.We report here a 3 year old girlthat was referred to the pediatrics department of Kashan University of Medical Sciences (KAUMS with a history of urinary retention for10 days.By insertion of a Foley catheter specimens obtained for urinalysis and culture, and also antibiotics were administered,but no clinical improvement encountered and the patient developed lower limbs weakness.Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed an intramedullary mass lesion at located in T10 to T12.Gradual improvement appeared after surgical excision of an   infected epidermoid cyst and completion of the course of antibiotics.

  6. Risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Gulfareen; Zehra, Nishat; Munir, Aftab Afroze; Haider, Ambreen

    2010-03-01

    To determine the frequency, risk factors and pattern of urinary complaints during pregnancy. A descriptive study was conducted in the Obstetric and Gynaecology Department of Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad from 1st January to 30th August 2008. Total 232 women were selected to ascertain the frequency and pattern of urinary symptoms as well as the risk factors of urinary tract infection (UTI) such as age, parity, education, past history of UTI and haemoglobin among women attending an antenatal clinic. All pregnant women irrespective of age, parity and gestational age were included, while women with known underlying renal pathology, chronic renal disease, renal transplant, diabetes or taking immunosuppressant therapy were excluded. Informed consent was taken and data collected on a self designed proforma. All the women underwent complete examination of urine. Dipstick test was performed on midstream urine and urine was cultured incase of positive dipstick test and women with urinary symptoms. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 11. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated among the categorical parameters by applying the Fisher's exact test. Out of 232 women, 108(46.5%) reported urinary symptoms which were due to pregnancy induced changes on urinary system as no growth was obtained on urine culture, while 10 (4.3%) were due to underlying UTI. Most common urinary symptom in these women was abnormal voiding pattern 85 (40.3%) followed by irritative symptoms and voiding difficulties. Illiteracy, history of sexual activity, low socioeconomic (monthly income UTI and multiparity were found to be risk factors for UTI in these women. On complete urine examination, 222 (95.6%) patients either did not reveal any pus cells or had less than 5 WBC/HPF. Out of 108 cultures, only 10 (4.3%) specimens showed growth. E-coli was the most commonly detected organism 7 (3%) followed by S-aureus in 3 (1.3%). The common urinary symptoms encountered in the studied women were

  7. The Scourge of Tropical Water Resources, Schistosomiasis,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-13

    Western medicine can absorb 50 percent or more of the entire health-care budget of a country like Ethiopia . And in countries unable to spend more than...schistosomiasis, we are actually referring to three distinct diseases caused by three different species to helmninth parasites : Schistosoma mansoni, S...spine. Such eggs become free in the mesenteries and are carried by the blood to the proximity of the large intestine , where they gradually penetrate the

  8. Urinary Retention Associated with Atomoxetine Use: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilfer Sahin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atomoxetine is a well-studied non-stimulant treatment agent, and is also the first-choice non-stimulant drug for the conventional treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder owing to its effectiveness and tolerability. Urinary retention is a type of urological emergency that is associated with the inability to urinate despite the bladder being full and a strong urge to urinate. It is known that urinary retention can also develop due to the use of anticholinergic drugs. In this manuscript, we present a 12-year-old male case who developed acute urinary retention in the period following atomoxetine treatment.

  9. Schistosomiasis control in China: the impact of a 10-year World Bank Loan Project (1992-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianyi, Chen; Liying, Wang; Jiming, Cai; Xiaonong, Zhou; Jiang, Zheng; Jiagang, Guo; Xiaohua, Wu; Engels, D; Minggang, Chen

    2005-01-01

    China has been carrying out large-scale schistosomiasis control since the mid-1950s, but in the early 1990s, schistosomiasis was still endemic in eight provinces. A World Bank Loan Project enabled further significant progress to be made during the period 1992-2001. The control strategy was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy -- primarily to reinforce morbidity control -- while at the same time acting on transmission with the ultimate goal of interrupting it. Chemotherapy was complemented by health education, chemical control of snails and environmental modification where appropriate. A final evaluation in 2002 showed that infection rates in humans and livestock had decreased by 55% and 50%, respectively. The number of acute infections and of individuals with advanced disease had also significantly decreased. Although snail infection rates continued to fluctuate at a low level, the densities of infected snails had decreased by more than 75% in all endemic areas. The original objectives of the China World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control had all been met. One province, Zhejiang, had already fulfilled the criteria for elimination of schistosomiasis by 1995. The project was therefore a success and has provided China with a sound basis for further control.

  10. Penile Cancer Presenting With Acute Urinary Retantion: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan KAZAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is a rare malignancy in our country. Phimosis, , poor hygiene and smoking are major risk factors for penile cancer. Penile cancer in men have a strong correlation with human papilloma virus (HPV infection. Penile cancer is rare in circumcised men, particularly if they are circumcised as newborns. Penile cancer is usually asymptomatic and physical examination is essential for diagnosis. We report a case of penile cancer whose first symptom was acute urinary retention (AUR and review of the literature. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(2.000: 131-134

  11. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Katherine [Graduate School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR (Puerto Rico); National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Burguete-Garcia, Ana [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E. [Departamento de Toxicologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Calafat, Antonia M.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Claudio, Luz [Division of International Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth, E-mail: lizbeth@insp.mx [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. Methods: As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age ({+-}5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.66; 95% CI: 0.97-7.33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. Conclusions: The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. - Highlights: {yields} This study evaluated phthalate exposure and diabetes status among Mexican women. {yields} Urinary phthalates metabolite concentrations were used

  12. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Katherine; Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Burguete-Garcia, Ana; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Needham, Larry L.; Claudio, Luz; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2011-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. Methods: As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age (±5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (OR T3vs.T1 =2.66; 95% CI: 0.97-7.33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR T3vs.T1 =2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. Conclusions: The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. - Highlights: → This study evaluated phthalate exposure and diabetes status among Mexican women. → Urinary phthalates metabolite concentrations were used to determine

  13. A 5-year longitudinal study of schistosomiasis transmission in Shian village, the Anning River Valley, Sichuan Province, the Peoples' Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue-Sheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC, with over one million people infected and another 50 million living in areas at risk of infection. Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors, schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes. It is predicted that the Three Gorges Dam (TGD will impact upon the transmission of schistosomiasis in the PRC, with varying degree across the four transmission modes. We undertook longitudinal surveillance from 2002 to 2006 in sentinel villages both above and below the TGD across five provinces (Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei, Anhui and Sichuan to determine whether there was any impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission during its construction. Here we present the results from a schistosomiasis-endemic village located above the dam in Sichuan Province. Results Baseline results showed a human S. japonicum prevalence of 42.0% (95% CI: 36.6-47.5. At follow-up, results showed that the incidence of S. japonicum infection in the selected human cohort in Shian decreased by three quarters from 46% in 2003 to 11.3% in 2006. A significant (P S. japonicum infection in bovines declined from 11.8% in the first year to zero in the final year of follow-up. Conclusions The substantial decrease in human (75% and bovine (100% incidence observed in Shian village can probably be attributed to the annual human and bovine PZQ treatment of positives; as seen in drug (PZQ intervention studies in other parts of PRC. If an increase in schistosome transmission had occurred as a result of the TGD, it would be of negligible size compared to the treatment induced decline seen here. It appears therefore that the construction of the TGD had virtually no impact on schistosomiasis transmission in Shian village over the period of study. Furthermore, contrary to previous reports from

  14. Profiling Nonrecipients of Mass Drug Administration for Schistosomiasis and Hookworm Infections : A Comprehensive Analysis of Praziquantel and Albendazole Coverage in Community-Directed Treatment in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chami, Goylette F.; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Bulte, Erwin; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Repeated mass drug administration (MDA) with preventive chemotherapies is the mainstay of morbidity control for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, yet the World Health Organization recently reported that less than one-third of individuals who required preventive

  15. The impact of irrigated rice on the transmission of schistosomiasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence and intensity of the infection caused by schistosomiasis and geohelmintiasis were ... high before implementation (Audibert et al., 2001;. Barboza et al., 2012). .... body weight) and with Mebendazole for .... CI = Confidence interval;LRT = lke lihood ratio Test; .... composition of the soil and climatic factors.

  16. Conservative management of post-surgical urinary incontinence in an adolescent using applied kinesiology: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Scott C; Rosner, Anthony L

    2011-06-01

    This case report describes the successful treatment of an adolescent female suffering daily stress and occasional total urinary incontinence with applied kinesiology methods and chiropractic manipulative therapy. A 13-year-old female developed unpredictable urinary incontinence and right hip pain immediately following emergency open appendectomy surgery. The patient was forced to wear an incontinence pad throughout the day and night for 10 months because of unpredictable urinary incontinence. ASSESSMENT AND INTERVENTION: Chiropractic and applied kinesiology (AK) methods - a multi-modal diagnostic technique that utilizes manual muscle tests (MMT) for the detection of musculoskeletal impairments and specific AK techniques for correction of identified issues - were utilized to diagnose and treat this patient for muscle impairments in the lumbar spine and pelvis. Patient experienced a rapid resolution of her urinary incontinence and hip pain. A six-year follow-up confirmed complete resolution of symptoms. In this case, utilization of MMT allowed for the identification of several inhibited muscles. Utilizing the appropriate corrective techniques improved the strength of these muscles and resulted in their being graded as facilitated. Symptoms of urinary incontinence and hip pain resolved with this diagnostic and treatment approach. AK methods were useful for the discovery of a number of apparent causative factors underlying this patient's urinary incontinence and hip pain. Treatment for these pelvic-floor muscle and joint abnormalities resulted in rapid, long-lasting resolution of her urinary incontinence and hip pain.

  17. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder diverticulum: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xu Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a mass with swiftly aggressive and metastatic, and with a poor prognosis. Due to its scarcity, no forward-looking researches assessing the most effective treatment have been issued in the medical literature. It can happen either in connection with urothelial (transitional cell carcinoma or in a pure form. Its treatment should include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this article,we report a case occurring in a mixed form in the urinary bladder diverticulum and we concisely review the published literature with respect to the clinical manifestation, pathology,differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

  18. A Pedagogical approach of schistosomiasis an experience in health education in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lara Massara

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The experience described here is part of an extensive program that aims to stimulate schools to develop health integrated projects from theme generators, i.e., themes that have a meaning for the community. It was developed in Jaboticatubas, a town in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, capital of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the focus was schistosomiasis. The selection was based on the expressive and historical prevalence of this disease in the county, which has been known as the "capital of schistosomiasis", in a national press release since the 1960's. Schistosomiasis is also a theme pointed out by teachers as requiring more information and methodologies to work with their students, most of them living in areas of high risk of transmission. In addition, during the last years, this disease has been transmitted silently through an increasing rural tourism in that region, requiring integrated and effective control actions. The developed strategy included four schools, whose teachers, students, and families took part in the process. It emphasizes in a critical pedagogy approach, which focuses on health issues as themes that may mobilize the school community and awake the population to a work which integrates environment, health, and citizenship. The results demonstrate that teachers and students not only acquired new knowledge and methodological skills, but also gained confidence in their ability to improve their health conditions. Thus, the project promotes a critical education that can result a more permanent effect on the control of schistosomiasis as well as other benefits for the schools and for the population.

  19. A Pedagogical approach of schistosomiasis -- an experience in health education in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Schall, Virgínia Torres

    2004-01-01

    The experience described here is part of an extensive program that aims to stimulate schools to develop health integrated projects from theme generators, i.e., themes that have a meaning for the community. It was developed in Jaboticatubas, a town in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, capital of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the focus was schistosomiasis. The selection was based on the expressive and historical prevalence of this disease in the county, which has been known as the "capital of schistosomiasis", in a national press release since the 1960's. Schistosomiasis is also a theme pointed out by teachers as requiring more information and methodologies to work with their students, most of them living in areas of high risk of transmission. In addition, during the last years, this disease has been transmitted silently through an increasing rural tourism in that region, requiring integrated and effective control actions. The developed strategy included four schools, whose teachers, students, and families took part in the process. It emphasizes in a critical pedagogy approach, which focuses on health issues as themes that may mobilize the school community and awake the population to a work which integrates environment, health, and citizenship. The results demonstrate that teachers and students not only acquired new knowledge and methodological skills, but also gained confidence in their ability to improve their health conditions. Thus, the project promotes a critical education that can result a more permanent effect on the control of schistosomiasis as well as other benefits for the schools and for the population.

  20. Antibody isotype responses to egg antigens in human chronic Schistosomiasis mansoni before and after treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Yara M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present communication we analyzed the levels of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgE isotypes to soluble egg antigen of Schistosoma mansoni by ELISA in individuals from an endemic area for schistosomiasis in Northeast Brazil. The analysis was performed before and after treatment to evaluate the age-dependent pattern, and to identify differences in the reactivities to antigens. Our results suggest that schistosomiasis treatment would not interfere with this sort of immune response.

  1. Geostatistical model-based estimates of schistosomiasis prevalence among individuals aged = 20 years in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Garba, Amadou

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years...... ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis...

  2. Geostatistical Model-Based Estimates of Schistosomiasis Prevalence among Individuals Aged ≤20 Years in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Garba, Amadou; Traoré, Mamadou S.; Ndir, Omar; Ratard, Raoult C.; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis prevalence maps. Methodology We analyzed survey data compiled on a newly established open-access global neglected tropical diseases database (i) to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium for individuals aged ≤20 years in West Africa, including Cameroon, and (ii) to derive country-specific prevalence estimates. We used Bayesian geostatistical models based on environmental predictors to take into account potential clustering due to common spatially structured exposures. Prediction at unobserved locations was facilitated by joint kriging. Principal Findings Our models revealed that 50.8 million individuals aged ≤20 years in West Africa are infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. The country prevalence estimates ranged between 0.5% (The Gambia) and 37.1% (Liberia) for S. mansoni, and between 17.6% (The Gambia) and 51.6% (Sierra Leone) for S. haematobium. We observed that the combined prevalence for both schistosome species is two-fold lower in Gambia than previously reported, while we found an almost two-fold higher estimate for Liberia (58.3%) than reported before (30.0%). Our predictions are likely to overestimate overall country prevalence, since modeling was based on children and adolescents up to the age of 20 years who are at highest risk of infection. Conclusion/Significance We

  3. Labial fusion causing urinary incontinence and recurrent urinary tract infection in a postmenopausal female: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirim, Ayhan; Hasirci, Eray

    2011-01-01

    A 73-year-old postmenopausal woman was admitted with recurrent urinary tract infection and a history of incontinence. General physical examination was normal. Complete labial fusion was noticed on genital examination. Surgical intervention was performed. This therapy alleviated incontinence and recurrent urinary tract infection.

  4. Profiling Nonrecipients of Mass Drug Administration for Schistosomiasis and Hookworm Infections: A Comprehensive Analysis of Praziquantel and Albendazole Coverage in Community-Directed Treatment in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chami, G.; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Bulte, E.H.; Fenwick, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Repeated mass drug administration (MDA) with preventive chemotherapies is the mainstay of morbidity control for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, yet the World Health Organization recently reported that less than one-third of individuals who required preventive

  5. [Epidemiological characteristics and geographical distribution of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, in the State of Sergipe, according to data from the Schistosomiasis Control Program in Sergipe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollemberg, Carla Virginia Vieira; Santos, Cybele Maria Bomfim; Silva, Marília Matos Bezerra Lemos; Souza, Acacia Maria Barros; Silva, Angela Maria da; Almeida, José Antônio Pacheco de; Almeida, Roque Pacheco de; Jesus, Amélia Ribeiro de

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is endemic in Brazil, with high prevalence in the State of Sergipe, despite the existence of the Schistosomiasis Control Program (PCE). The data from Sergipe's PCE between 2005 and 2008 were surveyed. From the raw information, a database was created on a spreadsheet using the Access software. The frequency and geographic distribution of infections due to Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasites were analyzed. These data were exported to the Spring 5.0.5 software for georeferencing and preparation of thematic maps of the spatial and temporal distribution according to year of evaluation. In 2005, 13.6% (14,471/106,287) of the tests were positive for S. mansoni, 11.2% (16,196/145,069) in 2006, 11.8% (10,220/86,824) in 2007 and 10.6% (8,329/78,859) in 2008. Analysis on the maps showed that there was high prevalence of the disease in Sergipe, and particularly in the municipalities of Ilha das Flores, Santa Rosa de Lima, Santa Luzia do Itanhi and São Cristóvão. Furthermore, we evaluated the association between the frequencies of these parasitic diseases and social and developmental indicators in the different municipalities, according to data from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and the Department of Water Resources (SRH). We found that municipalities with schistosomiasis prevalence higher than 15% had lower coverage of sewage systems (hygiene index) (p = 0.05). Additionally, municipalities with hookworm prevalence higher than 10% had lower educational HDI (p = 0.04). The importance of greater control over environmental risk and educational factors needs to be emphasized in attempts to reduce the prevalence of these parasitic diseases.

  6. [Pyelonephritis with massive renal tissue necrosis in child with urinary tract malformation--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak-Bratkowska, Monika; Finke, Daria; Olejniczak, Dariusz; Midel, Anna; Tkaczyk, Marcin

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the case report is presentation of unusual and heavy clinical course of pyelonephritis with renal tissue necrosis in a child with urinary tract malformation. Nine month old girl was admitted to hospital in heavy clinical status due to pyelonephritis--urosepsis. It was complicated by acute renal insufficiency. Patient was treated by broad-spectrum antibiotics and parenteral nutrition. She was feverish for 14 days. Computed tomography done in order to exclude abdominal abscess showed massive renal tissue necrosis of on both sides. Antibiotic treatment was successful after 6 weeks. Urological evaluation revealed bilateral vesico-ureteral refluxes grade IV. Scintigraphy showed multiple scars. Patient was treated Deflux injections (twice). We noted 5 urinary tract recurrences despite antibiotic profilaxis. GFR of 75 ml/min/1.73 m2 was estimated at age of 16 m. Immunodeficiency or malignancy as background of clinical course were excluded. The case we describe presents severe clinical course of pyelonephritis due to complex urinary tract malformation that is to be considered despite based on modern publications "sparing" strategies of diagnosis and profilaxis in urinary tract malformations.

  7. Giant Urinary Bladder and Bilateral Giant Hydronephrosis due to Bladder Neck Obstruction: One Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Fadl Tazi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to urinary obstruction leads to a buildup of back pressure in the urinary tract and may lead to impairment of renal function. Cases of giant hydronephrosis are rare and usually contain no more than 1-2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. Here, we report a rarely seen case with giant urinary bladder and bilateral giant hydronephrosis due to bladder neck obstruction which contains 4000 mL fluid in the collecting system of the kidney mimicking an ascites in an adult male.

  8. Urinary incontinence: the role of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trutnovsky, Gerda; Rojas, Rodrigo Guzman; Mann, Kristy Pamela; Dietz, Hans P

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of menopause and hormone therapy on the symptoms and signs of stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. Records of women who attended a tertiary urogynecological unit were reviewed retrospectively. A standardized interview included evaluations of symptoms, menopause age (ie, time since last menstrual period or onset of menopausal symptoms), current or previous hormone use, and visual analogue scales for bother. Multichannel urodynamics, including urethral pressure profilometry and determination of abdominal leak point pressure, was performed. Of 382 women seen during the inclusion period, 62% were postmenopausal. Current systemic or local hormone use was reported by 7% and 6%, respectively. Two hundred eighty-eight women (76%) reported symptoms of stress urinary incontinence, with a mean bother of 5.7, and 273 women (72%) reported symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, with a mean bother of 6.4. On univariate analysis, symptoms and bother of urge incontinence were significantly related to menopause age, whereas this relationship was not found for stress incontinence. After calendar age was controlled for, length of menopause showed no significant relationship with any symptom or sign of urinary incontinence. Hormone deficiency after menopause is unlikely to play a major role in urinary incontinence.

  9. Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the urinary bladder: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, T.; Masters, J.; Chan, K.; Jose, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the urinary bladder is a rare condition. The best treatment approach for this disease is controversial. A case report on a patient with MALT lymphoma of the urinary bladder. The relevant current literature was reviewed. A 79 year old lady presented with haematuria in 2002. Ultrasound of the pelvis showed a large tumour in the bladder. Cystoscopy revealed a mass arising from the bladder. Transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. Histology showed Non Hodgkin's lymphoma of MALT type. CT showed a 8.9 X 7.6 cm solid tumour involving almost whole of the bladder. The patient could not tolerate anti helicobacter treatment and was then treated with radiotherapy. The pelvis was treated with 18 MV photons with a 3 field technique in 2 phases, with CT planning. In phase 1, the pelvis was treated to 24 Gy in 12 fractions, over 2.5 weeks. Phase 2 was treated to a reduced pelvic field, to a dose of 16 Gy in 8 fractions over 1.5 weeks. Five months after radiotherapy, repeat cystoscopy and biopsy of bladder base showed no evidence of malignancy. MALT lymphoma of the urinary bladder responds well to radiotherapy and permits bladder preservation. The current literature in management of MALT lymphoma of urinary bladder is reviewed

  10. Use of an ecologically relevant modelling approach to improve remote sensing-based schistosomiasis risk profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Walz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a widespread water-based disease that puts close to 800 million people at risk of infection with more than 250 million infected, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and the frequency, duration and extent of human bodies exposed to infested water sources during human water contact. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. Since schistosomiasis risk profiling based on remote sensing data inherits a conceptual drawback if school-based disease prevalence data are directly related to the remote sensing measurements extracted at the location of the school, because the disease transmission usually does not exactly occur at the school, we took the local environment around the schools into account by explicitly linking ecologically relevant environmental information of potential disease transmission sites to survey measurements of disease prevalence. Our models were validated at two sites with different landscapes in Côte d’Ivoire using high- and moderateresolution remote sensing data based on random forest and partial least squares regression. We found that the ecologically relevant modelling approach explained up to 70% of the variation in Schistosoma infection prevalence and performed better compared to a purely pixelbased modelling approach. Furthermore, our study showed that model performance increased as a function of enlarging the school catchment area, confirming the hypothesis that suitable environments for schistosomiasis transmission rarely occur at the location of survey measurements.

  11. Effects of in vitro cultivated Calculus Bovis compound on pulmonary lesions in rabbits with schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Yang, Zhen; Cai, Hong-Jiao; Song, Li-Wei; Lu, Ke-Yu; Zhou, Zheng; Wu, Zai-De

    2010-02-14

    To explore the interventional effects and mechanism of in vitro cultivated Calculus Bovis compound preparation (ICCBco) on pulmonary lesions in portal hypertensive rabbits with schistosomiasis. The experimental group included 20 portal hypertensive rabbits with schistosomiasis treated by ICCBco. The control group included 20 portal hypertensive rabbits with schistosomiasis treated by praziquantel. The morphological changes of the pulmonary tissues were observed under light and electron microscopy. The expression of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN) in the lung tissues was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Under light microscope, the alveolar exudation in the lung tissue was more frequently observed in the control group, while the alveolar space was fairly dry in the lung tissue of ICCBco group. Under electron microscope, more alveolar exudation in the lung tissue, and more macrophages, alveolar angiotelectasis and the blurred three-tier structure of alveolar-capillary barrier could be seen in the control group. In ICCBco group, fibers within the alveolar interspace slightly increased in some lung regions, and the structure of type I epithelium, basement membrane and endodermis was complete, and no obvious exudation from the alveolar space, and novascular congestion could be observed. There was a positive or strong positive expression of FN and LN in the lung tissue of the control group, while there was a negative or weak positive expression of FN and LN in ICCBco group. ICCBco can effectively prevent pulmonary complications in portal hypertensive rabbits with schistosomiasis by means of improving lung microcirculation and lowering the content of extracellular matrix.

  12. IgG4 antibodies in Egyptian patients with schistosomiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iskander, R.; Das, P. K.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins were determined in 40 Egyptian patients with schistosomiasis. In addition to the well-established elevation in total IgE, a striking imbalance in the IgG subclass levels was found: IgG3 and IgG4 levels were markedly elevated, whereas IgG2 levels were normal. The IgG4 level did

  13. Distribution of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminthiasis in Zimbabwe: towards a national plan of action for control and elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Chimbari, Moses J; Tshuma, Clement; Charimari, Lincoln; Mhlanga, Gibson; Manangazira, Portia; Munyati, Shungu M; Phiri, Isaac; Mutambu, Susan L; Midzi, Stanley S; Ncube, Anastancia; Muranzi, Lawrence P; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Mutapi, Francisca

    2014-08-01

    Schistosomiasis and STH are among the list of neglected tropical diseases considered for control by the WHO. Although both diseases are endemic in Zimbabwe, no nationwide control interventions have been implemented. For this reason in 2009 the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care included the two diseases in the 2009-2013 National Health Strategy highlighting the importance of understanding the distribution and burden of the diseases as a prerequisite for elimination interventions. It is against this background that a national survey was conducted. A countrywide cross-sectional survey was carried out in 280 primary schools in 68 districts between September 2010 and August 2011. Schistosoma haematobium was diagnosed using the urine filtration technique. Schistosoma mansoni and STH (hookworms, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides) were diagnosed using both the Kato Katz and formol ether concentration techniques. Schistosomiasis was more prevalent country-wide (22.7%) than STH (5.5%). The prevalence of S. haematobium was 18.0% while that of S. mansoni was 7.2%. Hookworms were the most common STH with a prevalence of 3.2% followed by A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with prevalence of 2.5% and 0.1%, respectively. The prevalence of heavy infection intensity as defined by WHO for any schistosome species was 5.8% (range 0%-18.3% in districts). Only light to moderate infection intensities were observed for STH species. The distribution of schistosomiasis and STH varied significantly between provinces, districts and schools (p<0.001). Overall, the prevalence of co-infection with schistosomiasis and STH was 1.5%. The actual co-endemicity of schistosomiasis and STH was observed in 43 (63.2%) of the 68 districts screened. This study provided comprehensive baseline data on the distribution of schistosomiasis and STH that formed the basis for initiating a national control and elimination programme for these two neglected tropical diseases in Zimbabwe.

  14. Case–Control Study of Posttreatment Regression of Urinary Tract Morbidity among Adults in Schistosoma haematobium–Endemic Communities in Kwale County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magak, Philip; Chang-Cojulun, Alicia; Kadzo, Hilda; Ireri, Edmund; Muchiri, Eric; Kitron, Uriel; King, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous population-based studies have examined treatment impact on Schistosoma-associated urinary tract disease among children, but much less is known about longer-term treatment benefits for affected adult populations in areas where risk of recurrent infection is high. In communities in Msambweni, along the Kenya coast, we identified, using a portable ultrasound, 77 adults (aged 17–85) with moderate-to-severe obstructive uropathy or bladder disease due to Schistosoma haematobium. Treatment response was assessed by repeat ultrasound 1–2 years after praziquantel (PZQ) therapy and compared with interval changes among age- and sex-matched infected/treated control subjects who did not have urinary tract abnormalities at the time of initial examination. Of the 77 affected adults, 62 (81%) had improvement in bladder and/or kidney scores after treatment, 14 (18%) had no change, and one (1.3%) had progression of disease. Of the 77 controls, 75 (97%) remained disease free by ultrasound, while two (3%) had apparent progression with abnormal findings on follow-up examination. We conclude that PZQ therapy for S. haematobium is effective in significantly reducing urinary tract morbidity from urogenital schistosomiasis among adult age groups, and affected adults stand to benefit from inclusion in mass treatment campaigns. PMID:26013375

  15. Sex differences in the malnourished status of Chinese children due to schistosomiasis infections and inadequate dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; He, Yongkang; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2005-01-01

    Based on nutritional and parasitological examinations of 389 children aged 10-13 years in five primary schools in the schistosomiasis endemic Dongting Lake region of China, the causal factors of their retarded growth, represented by height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference and body mass index, were investigated. Among the four parasites, schistosomiasis infection due to Schistosoma japonicum played a significant role, with higher rates in girls than in boys. Praziquantel treatment of schistosomiasis decreased the infection rate and improved the children's growth. For dietary intake factors, the contribution of protein to total energy intake, which was lower in girls than in boys, had the greatest effect on the growth patterns. The sex difference in growth retardation is judged to be attributable to the traditional norms, such as girls spending more time in infested environments and gender discrimination in food distribution.

  16. Retroperitoneal migration of a self-inflicted ballpoint pen via the urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Cury

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous accounts documenting the introduction of foreign bodies into the urinary bladder have been reported. These foreign bodies are typically self-inserted via urethral but migration from adjacent organs by an ulcerative process and penetrating injuries are also reported. However, "contrary" migration of a self-inflicted vesical foreign body to the retroperitoneum was not previously reported in literature. We report here a case of a ballpoint pen self-inserted via urethral by a female patient, which was identified in retroperitoneal position years later.

  17. Study and implementation of urogenital schistosomiasis elimination in Zanzibar (Unguja and Pemba islands using an integrated multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knopp Stefanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that continues to be a major public health problem in many developing countries being responsible for an estimated burden of at least 1.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs in Africa alone. Importantly, morbidity due to schistosomiasis has been greatly reduced in some parts of the world, including Zanzibar. The Zanzibar government is now committed to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis. Over the next 3–5 years, the whole at-risk population will be administered praziquantel (40 mg/kg biannually. Additionally, snail control and behaviour change interventions will be implemented in selected communities and the outcomes and impact measured in a randomized intervention trial. Methods/Design In this 5-year research study, on both Unguja and Pemba islands, urogenital schistosomiasis will be assessed in 45 communities with urine filtration and reagent strips in 4,500 schoolchildren aged 9–12 years annually, and in 4,500 first-year schoolchildren and 2,250 adults in years 1 and 5. Additionally, from first-year schoolchildren, a finger-prick blood sample will be collected and examined for Schistosoma haematobium infection biomarkers. Changes in prevalence and infection intensity will be assessed annually. Among the 45 communities, 15 were randomized for biannual snail control with niclosamide, in concordance with preventive chemotherapy campaigns. The reduction of Bulinus globosus snail populations and S. haematobium-infected snails will be investigated. In 15 other communities, interventions triggering behaviour change have been designed and will be implemented in collaboration with the community. A change in knowledge, attitudes and practices will be assessed annually through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with schoolchildren, teachers, parents and community leaders. In all 45 communities, changes in the health system, water and sanitation infrastructure will

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oyeyi, T.I. Vol 2, No 1 (2009) - Articles The role of Jakara dam in the transmission of schistosomiasi. Abstract PDF · Vol 2, No 1 (2009) - Articles Prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis among primary school pupils in minjibir local government area ofKano state. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2006-6996. AJOL African ...

  19. Urogenital schistosomiasis in Cabo Delgado, northern Mozambique: baseline findings from the SCORE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna E; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro H; Aurelio, Herminio O; Dhanani, Neerav; Ferro, Josefo; Nala, Rassul; Deol, Arminder; Fenwick, Alan

    2018-01-10

    The results presented here are part of a five-year cluster-randomised intervention trial that was implemented to understand how best to gain and sustain control of schistosomiasis through different preventive chemotherapy strategies. This paper presents baseline data that were collected in ten districts of Cabo Delgado province, northern Mozambique, before treatment. A cross-sectional study of 19,039 individuals was sampled from 144 villages from May to September 2011. In each village prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium were investigated in 100 children first-year students (aged 5-8 years), 100 school children aged 9-12 years (from classes 2 to 7) and 50 adults (20-55 years). Prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection were evaluated microscopically by two filtrations, each of 10 ml, from a single urine specimen. Given that individual and community perceptions of schistosomiasis influence control efforts, community knowledge and environmental risk factors were collected using a face-to-face interview. Data were entered onto mobile phones using EpiCollect. Data summary was made using descriptive statistics. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to determine the association between dependent and independent variables. The overall prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis was 60.4% with an arithmetic mean intensity of infection of 55.8 eggs/10 ml of urine. Heavy infections were detected in 17.7%, of which 235 individuals (6.97%) had an egg count of 1000 eggs/10 ml or more. There was a significantly higher likelihood of males being infected than females across all ages (62% vs 58%; P Cabo Delgado. In addition, poor community knowledge about the causes of schistosomiasis and how to prevent it increases the significant public health challenge for the national control program. This was the first study in Mozambique that examined infection levels among adults, where results showed that S. haematobium infection was also extremely high. Given

  20. Aeromonas hydrophila urinary tract infection in pregnancy- Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Ragunathan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A case of a pregnant woman without previous or concomitant disease, who developed an Aeromonas hydrophila urinarytract infection (UTI at 12 weeks gestation, is reported. A brief review of the literature on the association and incidenceof Aeromonas spp in urinary infections and also in association with pregnancy is presented. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012;2(1: 26-28

  1. Can low urinary tract symptoms influence postprostatectomy urinary incontinence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienza, Antonio; Hevia, Mateo; Merino, Imanol; Diez-Caballero, Fernando; Rosell, David; Pascual, Juan I; Zudaire, Juan J; Robles, José E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze what kind of urinary symptoms patients have before receiving treatment by radical prostatectomy (RP), and to evaluate their influence on urinary incontinence (UI). Between 2002 and 2012, 758 consecutive patients underwent RP for clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa). Surgery was carried out by open retropubic RP in 545 (73.1%) of patients and laparoscopic RP in 201 (27%) by 5 surgeons who were excluded from data collection and analysis. The following symptoms were collected from the last urological check-ups or pre-operative consultation and classified as: storage symptoms, voiding symptoms, post micturition symptoms, history of acute urinary retention, benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment, history of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). A total of 661 patients were included on analysis: 136 (20.6%) patients reported low urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), 162 (24.5%) were considered incontinent after RP, and 45 (33.1%) of them reported LUTS before surgery. Postprostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPUI) was significantly different in patients with LUTS (117 [22.3%] vs. 45 [33.1%], P=0.009). The presence of any LUTS influence significantly in the appearance of PPUI (OR=1.72 [95% CI: 1.14-2.6), P=0.01). TURP is independently influential in PPUI (OR=6.13 [95% CI: 1.86-20.18], P=0.003). A patient with LUTS before surgery has an increased risk of 70% or even 200% to suffer PPUI and a patient who received treatment by TURP is 6 times at higher risk of PPUI. In conclusion, patients with LUTS are likely to present PPUI. History of TURP is influential by itself over PPUI. A good preoperative consultation is important to assess continence status and to create realistic expectations to patients before RP.

  2. Leiomyoma of urinary bladder with bladder stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farouk, K.; Gondal, M.; Khan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder is a rare benign mesenchymal tumour. We describe here a case of leiomyoma of the urinary bladder in a 65-year-old gentleman who presented with haematuria, passage of clots and combined obstructive and irritative urinary symptoms. The investigations revealed a vesical calculus and a mass on the left lateral wall of the urinary bladder. Cystolitholapaxy and transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. Histopathological report of the resected tumour revealed a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder. So far, a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder and a concomitant vesical calculus have not been described in literature. (author)

  3. [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Tovar, Anel Rogelio; Pineda-Rodríguez, Marco Elí; Puente-Gallegos, Francisco Edgardo; Zavala-Pompa, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an infrequent lesion. We present the case of a 68-year-old male who arrived at the emergency room with a history of 24-h gross hematuria. Imaging studies show a urinary bladder tumor with a 218 cc volume that during a 20-day period increased to 426 cc. Histopathological images with hematoxylin-eosin show an infiltrating solid mass with uneven borders. It is composed of neoplastic cells with evident nuclei predominance and scant cytoplasm (small cells). Chromogranin immunohistochemical staining shows a diffusely positive cytoplasmic granular pattern on neoplastic cells. High molecular weight cytokeratin staining shows a negative pattern on neoplastic cells along with a positive pattern on reporsurrounding normal urothelium. Tumoral mass is positive for synaptophysin and CD-56 and negative for CK-7 and CK-20. Patient therapy was based on radiation plus chemotherapy. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represents 0.35-0.70% of urinary bladder tumors. Histological and immunohistochemical identification are key elements in the diagnosis. Treatment approach is based on cisplatin-based chemotherapy plus radical cystectomy, except when metastatic disease is present.

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with urinary incontinence in climacteric

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    Máyra Cecilia Dellú

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To estimate the prevalence and identify associated factors to urinary incontinence (UI in climacteric women. Method: In a cross-sectional study with a stratified random sample, 1,200 women aged between 35 and 72 years were studied, enrolled in the Family Health Strategy in the city of Pindamonhangaba, São Paulo. Urinary incontinence was investigated using the International Consultation of Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form, while associated factors were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire with socio-demographic, obstetric and gynecological history, morbidities and drug use. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was estimated with a 95% confidence interval (95CI and the associated factors were identified through multiple logistic regression model performed using Stata software, version 11.0. Results: Women had a mean age of 51.9 years, most were in menopause (59.4%, married (87.5%, Catholic (48.9%, and declared themselves black or brown (47.2%. The mean age of menopause of women with UI was 47.3 years. The prevalence of UI was 20.4% (95CI: 17.8-23.1%. The factors associated with UI were urinary loss during pregnancy (p=0.000 and after delivery (p=0.000, genital prolapse (p=0.000, stress (p=0.001, depression (p=0.002, and obesity (p=0.006. Conclusion: The prevalence of UI was lower but similar to that found in most similar studies. Factors associated with the genesis of UI were urinary loss during pregnancy and after delivery, genital prolapse and obesity.

  5. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the urinary bladder as a post-radiation secondary cancer: a case report

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    Nimmanon Thirayost

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Malignant fibrous histiocytomas have been periodically reported as the primary tumor in various organs including the urinary bladder, and is the second most frequent sarcoma of the urinary tract in adults. This report discusses a case of the well established diagnosis of a malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bladder occurring as a post-radiation cancer after the treatment of a cervical carcinoma. Our findings support those of many previous studies and make the view of the nature of the disease clearer. Case presentation We report the case of a 54-year-old Thai woman who had been treated with radiation therapy for cervical cancer, who presented to our facility with urinary incontinence. Initially, our patient was diagnosed as having a high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Subsequent radical surgery rendered the final pathological diagnosis, confirmed histologically and immunohistochemically as malignant fibrous histiocytoma, with clinical and pathological staging of T4b N0 M0. Adjuvant chemotherapy was provided for our patient. Conclusions This type of malignancy is very aggressive and easily misdiagnosed due to its rarity. Therefore, in a patient with a prior history of irradiation in the pelvic area, this should be considered as a differential diagnosis to ensure early correct diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Adenowo, Abiola Fatimah; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Ogunyinka, Bolajoko Idiat; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. ...

  7. Schistosomiasis mansoni in Bananal (State of São Paulo, Brazil): IV. Study on the public awareness of its risks in the Palha District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rubens Antonio; de Carvalho, Maria Esther; Zacharias, Fabiana; de Lima, Valquíria R; Teles, Horacio M S

    2002-01-01

    A rather high prevalence of mansoni schistosomiasis has been observed in some localities of Bananal, State of São Paulo, during the past decade. The highest prevalence of schistosomiasis was found in the Palha District; it was thus considered adequate for an evaluation of public awareness of the risks involved in acquiring schistosomiasis, a likely outcome of certain behavior patterns. We interviewed 542 district-dwellers. The 5-to-39 age-group constituted 65.5% of the whole sample. Concerning the infection, 69.2% had hearsay information; 46.1% know the infection; 69.6% know how it is acquired; 31.5% know about the symptoms and 57.1% know what can be done to avoid infection; 17.7% declared to have acquired the infection at least once in their lifetime; 62.3% reported total or partial immersion in collections of water of Bananal, once or twice a week, 53.9% of these for bathing or fishing. Although most (91.7%) households have treated running water, are connected to the sewage network or have septic tanks, 9% of the people interviewed use to defecate on the field. It became clear that the educational messages aimed at this population had not been adequate, having failed to fulfil any expectations. The local people received only piecemeal and subjective information about their problem. The control of schistosomiasis requires an integrated practice, which includes the analysis of macro-determinant factors, such as basic sanitation, habitation, education and health care. In short, we require a multidisciplinary vision of the mechanisms of transmission of the infection, which depends upon adequate planning and well trained personnel, intent on their educational work, to attain satisfactory results.

  8. Schistosomiasis: predisposing cause for the formation of hepatic abscesses? Case report Esquistossomose: causa predisponente para a formação de abscessos hepáticos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Carvalho Pedroso de Lima

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available An adult patient with chronic schistosomiasis from an endemic area, complained about a seven day fever, along with jaundice and lumbar backache on the right side. Image exams showed multiple pyogenic liver abscesses. All the classic etiologies were discarded through clinical, radiological and laboratorial criteria. Schistosomiasis can cause pylephlebitis as a complication, along with immunesuppression, granulomatous reaction with central lobular liver necrosis and a greater risk of infection. The authors suggest that schistosomiasis in its chronic form may be the predisposing cause of multiple pyogenic liver abscesses, especially in endemic areas.Paciente adulto, natural de região endêmica para esquistossomose e portador crônico da doença, apresentava queixa de febre há sete dias, associada à ictericia e dor lombar em região direita. Os exames radiológicos mostraram abscessos hepáticos piogênicos múltiplos, cuja causa predisponente é conhecida, segundo trabalhos da literatura, em 100% dos casos. Através de parâmetros clínicos, laboratoriais e radiológicos todas as etiologias clássicas foram afastadas. Sabe-se que a esquistossomose pode provocar, como complicação, a pileflebite, além de depressão imunológica e reação granulomatosa com necrose lobular central e maior risco de infecção. Os autores deste relato de caso sugerem ser a esquistossomose, na sua forma crônica, causa predisponente para formação de abscessos hepáticos piogênicos múltiplos, principalmente em regiões endêmicas.

  9. Miltefosine Lipid Nanocapsules for Single Dose Oral Treatment of Schistosomiasis Mansoni: A Preclinical Study.

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    Maha M Eissa

    Full Text Available Miltefosine (MFS is an alkylphosphocholine used for the local treatment of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer and oral therapy of visceral leishmaniasis. Recently, the drug was reported in in vitro and preclinical studies to exert significant activity against different developmental stages of schistosomiasis mansoni, a widespread chronic neglected tropical disease (NTD. This justified MFS repurposing as a potential antischistosomal drug. However, five consecutive daily 20 mg/kg doses were needed for the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni in mice. The present study aims at enhancing MFS efficacy to allow for a single 20mg/kg oral dose therapy using a nanotechnological approach based on lipid nanocapsules (LNCs as oral nanovectors. MFS was incorporated in LNCs both as membrane-active structural alkylphospholipid component and active antischistosomal agent. MFS-LNC formulations showed high entrapment efficiency (EE%, good colloidal properties, sustained release pattern and physical stability. Further, LNCs generally decreased MFS-induced erythrocyte hemolytic activity used as surrogate indicator of membrane activity. While MFS-free LNCs exerted no antischistosomal effect, statistically significant enhancement was observed with all MFS-LNC formulations. A maximum effect was achieved with MFS-LNCs incorporating CTAB as positive charge imparting agent or oleic acid as membrane permeabilizer. Reduction of worm load, ameliorated liver pathology and extensive damage of the worm tegument provided evidence for formulation-related efficacy enhancement. Non-compartmental analysis of pharmacokinetic data obtained in rats indicated independence of antischistosomal activity on systemic drug exposure, suggesting possible gut uptake of the stable LNCs and targeting of the fluke tegument which was verified by SEM. The study findings put forward MFS-LNCs as unique oral nanovectors combining the bioactivity of MFS and biopharmaceutical advantages of LNCs

  10. Travel-related schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis: the risk of infection and the diagnostic relevance of blood eosinophilia

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    Sonder Gerard J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study prospectively assessed the occurrence of clinical and subclinical schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis, and the screening value of eosinophilia in adult short-term travelers to helminth-endemic countries. Methods Visitors of a pre-travel health advice centre donated blood samples for serology and blood cell count before and after travel. Samples were tested for eosinophilia, and for antibodies against schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis. Previous infection was defined as seropositivity in pre- and post-travel samples. Recent infection was defined as a seroconversion. Symptoms of parasitic disease were recorded in a structured diary. Results Previous infection was found in 112 of 1207 subjects: schistosomiasis in 2.7%, strongyloidiasis in 2.4%, filariasis in 3.4%, and toxocariasis in 1.8%. Recent schistosomiasis was found in 0.51% of susceptible subjects at risk, strongyloidiasis in 0.25%, filariasis in 0.09%, and toxocariasis in 0.08%. The incidence rate per 1000 person-months was 6.4, 3.2, 1.1, and 1.1, respectively. Recent infections were largely contracted in Asia. The positive predictive value of eosinophilia for diagnosis was 15% for previous infection and 0% for recent infection. None of the symptoms studied had any positive predictive value. Conclusion The chance of infection with schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis during one short-term journey to an endemic area is low. However, previous stay leads to a cumulative risk of infection. Testing for eosinophilia appeared to be of no value in routine screening of asymptomatic travelers for the four helminthic infections. Findings need to be replicated in larger prospective studies.

  11. Schistosomiasis, Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis, and Sociodemographic Factors Influence Quality of Life of Adults in Côte d'Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Thomas; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Ouattara, Mamadou; N'Goran, Dje N.; Adiossan, Lukas G.; N'Guessan, Yao; Zouzou, Fabian; Koné, Siaka; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Background Burden of disease estimates are widely used for priority setting in public health and disability-adjusted life years are a powerful “currency” nowadays. However, disability weights, which capture the disability incurred by a typical patient of a certain condition, are fundamental to such burden calculation and their determination remains a widely debated issue. Methodology A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted in the recently established Taabo health demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, to provide new, population-based evidence on the disability caused by schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Parasitological results from stool, urine, and blood examinations were juxtaposed to quality of life (QoL) questionnaire results from 187 adults. A multivariable linear regression model with stepwise backward elimination was used to identify significant associations, considering also sociodemographic characteristics obtained from the Taabo HDSS database. Principal Findings Prevalences for hookworm, Plasmodium spp., Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni were 39.0%, 18.2%, 2.7%, 2.1% and 2.1%, respectively. S. mansoni and T. trichiura infections of any intensity reduced the participants' self-rated QoL by 16 points (95% confidence interval (CI): 4–29 points) and 13 points (95% CI: 1–24 points), respectively, on a scale from 0 (worst QoL) to 100 points (best QoL). The only other statistically significant effect was a 1-point (95% CI: 0.1–2 points) increase on the QoL scale per one unit increase in a calculated wealth index. Conclusions/Significance We found consistent and significant results on the negative effects of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis on adults' self-rated QoL, also when taking sociodemographic characteristics into account. Our results warrant further investigation on the disability incurred by helmintic infections and the

  12. Schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, and sociodemographic factors influence quality of life of adults in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Thomas; Silué, Kigbafori D; Ouattara, Mamadou; N'Goran, Dje N; Adiossan, Lukas G; N'Guessan, Yao; Zouzou, Fabian; Koné, Siaka; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Burden of disease estimates are widely used for priority setting in public health and disability-adjusted life years are a powerful "currency" nowadays. However, disability weights, which capture the disability incurred by a typical patient of a certain condition, are fundamental to such burden calculation and their determination remains a widely debated issue. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted in the recently established Taabo health demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, to provide new, population-based evidence on the disability caused by schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Parasitological results from stool, urine, and blood examinations were juxtaposed to quality of life (QoL) questionnaire results from 187 adults. A multivariable linear regression model with stepwise backward elimination was used to identify significant associations, considering also sociodemographic characteristics obtained from the Taabo HDSS database. Prevalences for hookworm, Plasmodium spp., Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni were 39.0%, 18.2%, 2.7%, 2.1% and 2.1%, respectively. S. mansoni and T. trichiura infections of any intensity reduced the participants' self-rated QoL by 16 points (95% confidence interval (CI): 4-29 points) and 13 points (95% CI: 1-24 points), respectively, on a scale from 0 (worst QoL) to 100 points (best QoL). The only other statistically significant effect was a 1-point (95% CI: 0.1-2 points) increase on the QoL scale per one unit increase in a calculated wealth index. We found consistent and significant results on the negative effects of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis on adults' self-rated QoL, also when taking sociodemographic characteristics into account. Our results warrant further investigation on the disability incurred by helmintic infections and the usefulness of generic QoL questionnaires in this endeavor.

  13. Development of the Brazilian anti Schistosomiasis vaccine based on the recombinant FABP Sm14 +GLA-SE

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    Miriam eTendler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Data herein reported and discussed refer to vaccination with the recombinant Fatty Acid Binding protein family member of the Schistosomes, called Sm14, discovered and developed under a Brazilian platform leaded by the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, from the Health Ministry in Brazil, undertaken to assess safety and immunogenicity in healthy volunteers. This paper reviews past and recent outcomes of developmental phases of the Sm14 based anti Schistosomiasis vaccine addressed to, ultimately, impact transmission of the second most prevalent parasitic endemic disease worldwide.

  14. in human Africa South The importance of animals schistosomiasis in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa. South. The importance of animals schistosomiasis in. J. A. VAN WYK. Suinmary. The importance of animals in human schistosomia- sis in South Africa is reviewed. The prevalence of animal schistosome species in humans, the role of animals as reservoir hosts of .... that it is not of pure origin? More work is necessary, ...

  15. A malacological survey in the Manso Power Plant, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil: new records of freshwater snails, including transmitters of schistosomiasis and exotic species

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    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Power Plant. Methods Mollusks were collected in 18 municipalities in the State of Mato Grosso between February 2002 and February 2004 (qualitative study and from April 2009 to February 2011 (quantitative study. Results Thirty-one species of mollusks were collected, including newly recorded species (Antillorbis nordestensis and Burnupia ingae. In addition, the geographic distributions of known species, including Biomphalaria straminea, a snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, were expanded. A total of 4,507 specimens were collected in the APM Manso reservoir (Usina Hidrelétrica de Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso during the quantitative study, and Biomphalaria amazonica was found in six of the 10 localities analyzed. The Afroasiatic species Melanoides tuberculata, introduced after February 2009, was the dominant species (relative abundance 94.96%. Conclusions The study area is epidemiologically important due to the occurrence of B. straminea and B. amazonica, which are vectors of schistosomiasis, and M. tuberculata, a snail host of Centrocestus formosanus, which is responsible for centrocestiasis transmission. Observations of M. tuberculata and the exotic freshwater clams Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula largillierti raise concerns about biodiversity.

  16. The epidemiology of human and animal schistosomiasis in the Senegal River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, J; Southgate, V R; Rollinson, D

    1985-09-01

    The results of four field surveys in Senegal are reported. 1. A snail survey in various parts of the Senegal River Basin, including the Senegal River, temporary rain-fed pools, swamps, irrigation canals and drains, ricefields and Lac de Guier was carried out. Three species of snails were commonly found: Bulinus guernei was the most common, occurring in permanent habitats, Bulinus senegalensis occurring in laterite pools in the eastern part of the Middle Valley, and also in the ricefields of Guédé Chantier and Lampsar; B. forskalii was found in small numbers in Lac de Guier and Richard Toll. Three B. guernei were found to be naturally infected with S. bovis. Neither B. jousseaumei, B. globosus nor B. umbilicatus were found in our surveys. 2. A survey for urinary schistosomiasis was carried out in 100 villages (walo, near the Senegal River) and 11 villages (diéré, away from the river) by delivering questionnaires in schools and by direct examinations of haematuria samples. The prevalence of haematuria varied between 0 and 33%. Generally, walos showed low rates of haematuria with the exception of Lampsar and Guédé Chantier, and diérés showed higher rates of haematuria. 3. Examination of 400 cattle at the abattoir St. Louis, revealed a prevalence of 80% of schistosome infection. Two species were present, S. bovis and less commonly S. curassoni. Sometimes high worm burdens were seen, but lesions appeared to be minimal because of high ratio of male to female worms. 4. Examinations of 5722 sheep and 1752 goats in the abattoir, Dakar revealed an overall prevalence of 2.1%. Of the infected animals, 97.3% were infected with S. curassoni and 2.7% with S. curasonni and S. bovis. Laboratory snail infection experiments showed that S. curassoni is marginally compatible with B. senegalensis, but incompatible with B. guernei.

  17. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of centre, East and West Cameroon.

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    Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH are widely distributed in Cameroon. Although mass drug administration (MDA of mebendazole is implemented nationwide, treatment with praziquantel was so far limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon, based on previous mapping conducted 25 years ago. To update the disease distribution map and determine where treatment with praziquantel should be extended, mapping surveys were conducted in three of the seven southern regions of Cameroon, i.e. Centre, East and West. METHODOLOGY: Parasitological surveys were conducted in April-May 2010 in selected schools in all 63 health districts of the three targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 5.53%, followed by S. haematobium (1.72% and S. guineensis (0.14%. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the three regions was 7.31% (95% CI: 6.86-7.77%. The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 11.48 (95% CI: 10.93-12.04%, Trichuris trichiura 18.22% (95% CI: 17.56-18.90% and hookworms 1.55% (95% CI: 1.35-1.78%, with an overall STH prevalence of 24.10% (95% CI: 23.36-24.85% across the three regions. STH was more prevalent in the East region (46.57%; 95% CI: 44.41-48.75% in comparison to the Centre (25.12; 95% CI: 24.10-26.17% and West (10.49%; 95% CI: 9.57-11.51% regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In comparison to previous data, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an

  18. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of centre, East and West Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kamwa Ngassam, Romuald Isaka; Sumo, Laurentine; Ngassam, Pierre; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Nzu, Deguy D'or Luogbou; Dankoni, Esther; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Akame, Julie; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi; Angwafo, Fru Fobuzski

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are widely distributed in Cameroon. Although mass drug administration (MDA) of mebendazole is implemented nationwide, treatment with praziquantel was so far limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon, based on previous mapping conducted 25 years ago. To update the disease distribution map and determine where treatment with praziquantel should be extended, mapping surveys were conducted in three of the seven southern regions of Cameroon, i.e. Centre, East and West. Parasitological surveys were conducted in April-May 2010 in selected schools in all 63 health districts of the three targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 5.53%, followed by S. haematobium (1.72%) and S. guineensis (0.14%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the three regions was 7.31% (95% CI: 6.86-7.77%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 11.48 (95% CI: 10.93-12.04%), Trichuris trichiura 18.22% (95% CI: 17.56-18.90%) and hookworms 1.55% (95% CI: 1.35-1.78%), with an overall STH prevalence of 24.10% (95% CI: 23.36-24.85%) across the three regions. STH was more prevalent in the East region (46.57%; 95% CI: 44.41-48.75%) in comparison to the Centre (25.12; 95% CI: 24.10-26.17%) and West (10.49%; 95% CI: 9.57-11.51%) regions. In comparison to previous data, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an extension of praziquantel in identified moderate and high risk communities for

  19. Distribution of Schistosomiasis and Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis in Zimbabwe: Towards a National Plan of Action for Control and Elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Chimbari, Moses J.; Tshuma, Clement; Charimari, Lincoln; Mhlanga, Gibson; Manangazira, Portia; Munyati, Shungu M.; Phiri, Isaac; Mutambu, Susan L.; Midzi, Stanley S.; Ncube, Anastancia; Muranzi, Lawrence P.; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Mutapi, Francisca

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis and STH are among the list of neglected tropical diseases considered for control by the WHO. Although both diseases are endemic in Zimbabwe, no nationwide control interventions have been implemented. For this reason in 2009 the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care included the two diseases in the 2009–2013 National Health Strategy highlighting the importance of understanding the distribution and burden of the diseases as a prerequisite for elimination interventions. It is against this background that a national survey was conducted. Methodology A countrywide cross-sectional survey was carried out in 280 primary schools in 68 districts between September 2010 and August 2011. Schistosoma haematobium was diagnosed using the urine filtration technique. Schistosoma mansoni and STH (hookworms, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides) were diagnosed using both the Kato Katz and formol ether concentration techniques. Main findings Schistosomiasis was more prevalent country-wide (22.7%) than STH (5.5%). The prevalence of S. haematobium was 18.0% while that of S. mansoni was 7.2%. Hookworms were the most common STH with a prevalence of 3.2% followed by A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with prevalence of 2.5% and 0.1%, respectively. The prevalence of heavy infection intensity as defined by WHO for any schistosome species was 5.8% (range 0%–18.3% in districts). Only light to moderate infection intensities were observed for STH species. The distribution of schistosomiasis and STH varied significantly between provinces, districts and schools (p<0.001). Overall, the prevalence of co-infection with schistosomiasis and STH was 1.5%. The actual co-endemicity of schistosomiasis and STH was observed in 43 (63.2%) of the 68 districts screened. Conclusion and recommendations This study provided comprehensive baseline data on the distribution of schistosomiasis and STH that formed the basis for initiating a national control and elimination programme

  20. Schistosomiasis mansoni incidence data in Rwanda can improve prevalence assessments, by providing high-resolution hotspot and risk factors identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyandwi, E; Veldkamp, A; Amer, S; Karema, C; Umulisa, I

    2017-10-25

    Schistosomiasis mansoni constitutes a significant public health problem in Rwanda. The nationwide prevalence mapping conducted in 2007-2008 revealed that prevalence per district ranges from 0 to 69.5% among school children. In response, mass drug administration campaigns were initiated. However, a few years later some additional small-scale studies revealed the existence of areas of high transmission in districts formerly classified as low endemic suggesting the need for a more accurate methodology for identification of hotspots. This study investigated if confirmed cases of schistosomiasis recorded at health facility level can be used to, next to existing prevalence data, detect geographically more accurate hotspots of the disease and its associated risk factors. A GIS-based spatial and statistical analysis was carried out. Confirmed cases, recorded at primary health facilities level, were combined with demographic data to calculate incidence rates for each of 367 health facility service area. Empirical Bayesian smoothing was used to deal with rate instability. Incidence rates were compared with prevalence data to identify their level of agreement. Spatial autocorrelation of the incidence rates was analyzed using Moran's Index, to check if spatial clustering occurs. Finally, the spatial relationship between schistosomiasis distribution and potential risk factors was assessed using multiple regression. Incidence rates for 2007-2008 were highly correlated with prevalence values (R 2  = 0.79), indicating that in the case of Rwanda incidence data can be used as a proxy for prevalence data. We observed a focal distribution of schistosomiasis with a significant spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I > 0: 0,05-0.20 and p ≤ 0,05), indicating the occurrence of hotspots. Regarding risk factors, it was identified that the spatial pattern of schistosomiasis is significantly associated with wetland conditions and rice cultivation. In Rwanda the high density of health

  1. Transient Pseudohypoaldosteronism due to Urinary Tract Infection in Infancy: A Report of 4 Cases

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    Kaplowitz Paul

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia with hyperkalemia in infancy is an uncommon but life-threatening occurrence. In the first weeks of life, this scenario is often associated with aldosterone deficiency due to salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia. However, alternative diagnoses involving inadequate mineralocorticoid secretion or action must be considered, particularly for infants one month of age or older. We report four infants who presented with profound hyponatremia accompanied by urinary tract infection, ultimately leading to the diagnosis of transient pseudohypoaldosteronism. Our cases provide support for the idea that the renal tubular resistance to aldosterone is due to urinary tract infection itself rather than to underlying urinary tract anomalies typically found in these infants. Awareness of this condition is important so that serum aldosterone, urine sodium, and urine cultures may be obtained immediately in any infant presenting with hyponatremia and hyperkalemia in whom a diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not found. Adequate replacement with intravenous saline and antibiotic therapy is sufficient to correct sodium levels over 24–48 hours.

  2. The colposcopic atlas of schistosomiasis in the lower female genital tract based on studies in Malawi, Zimbabwe, Madagascar and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norseth, Hanne M; Ndhlovu, Patricia D; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Randrianasolo, Bodo S; Jourdan, Peter M; Roald, Borghild; Holmen, Sigve D; Gundersen, Svein G; Bagratee, Jayanthilall; Onsrud, Mathias; Kjetland, Eyrun F

    2014-01-01

    Schistosoma (S.) haematobium is a neglected tropical disease which may affect any part of the genital tract in women. Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) may cause abnormal vaginal discharge, contact bleeding, genital tumours, ectopic pregnancies and increased susceptibility to HIV. Symptoms may mimic those typical of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and women with genital schistosomiasis may be incorrectly diagnosed. An expert consensus meeting suggested that the following findings by visual inspection should serve as proxy indicators for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis of the lower genital tract in women from S. haematobium endemic areas: sandy patches appearing as (1) single or clustered grains or (2) sandy patches appearing as homogenous, yellow areas, or (3) rubbery papules. In this atlas we aim to provide an overview of the genital mucosal manifestations of schistosomiasis in women. Photocolposcopic images were captured from women, between 1994 and 2012 in four different study sites endemic for S. haematobium in Malawi, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Madagascar. Images and specimens were sampled from sexually active women between 15 and 49 years of age. Colposcopic images of other diseases are included for differential diagnostic purposes. This is the first atlas to present the clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis in the lower female genital tract. It will be freely available for online use, downloadable as a presentation and for print. It could be used for training purposes, further research, and in clinical practice.

  3. Prevalence of Snail Vectors of Schistosomiasis in the Kpong Head ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by the blood fluke Schistosoma sp. became a serious public health problem in Ghana after the Volta River was dammed in Akosombo in 1964. The formation of the Kpong head pond, about 25 km below the Akosombo dam, as a result of a second dam built at Kpong became an ...

  4. Nephrotic syndrome associated with hepatointestinal schistosomiasis Síndrome nefrótica associada à esquistossomose hepatointestinal

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    H. Abensur

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomal nephropathy has long been related to the hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis. In the last few years, 24 patients with hepatointestinal schistosomiasis and the nephrotic syndrome were studied. Aiming at evaluating a possible etiologic participation of schistosomiasis in the development of the nephropathy, this group was comparatively studied with a group of 37 patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Both groups had a different distribution of the histologic lesions. In the group with schistosomiasis there was a statistically significant prevalence of proliferative mesangial glomerulonephritis (33.3%, whereas in the control group there was prevalence of membranous glomerulonephritis (32.4%. On immunofluorescence, IgM was positive in 94.4% of the patients with schistosomiasis versus 55.0% in the control group (pA nefropatia esquistossomótica está classicamente vinculada à fornia hepatoesplênica da esquistossomose. Ao longo dos últimos anos 24 casos de pacientes esquistossomóticos hepato-intestinais e portadores de síndrome nefrótica foram estudados. Com o objetivo de verificar a possível participação etiológica da esquistossomose na gênese da nefropatia, analisamos este grupo comparativamente ao grupo de 37 doentes portadores de síndrome nefrótica idiopática. Ambos os grupos apresentaram distribuição distinta dos tipos histológicos de glomerulopatia. No grupo de esquistossomóticos houve predomínio estatisticamente significante de glomerulonefrite proliferativa mesangial (33.3%, enquanto no grupo controle houve predomínio da glomerulonefrite membranosa (32.4%. A positividade para IgM à imunofluorescência foi de 94.4% nos doentes esquistossomóticos versus 55.0% no grupo controle (p<0.01. No grupo de esquistossomóticos 8 pacientes evidenciaram glomerulonefrite proliferativa mesangial e 5, glomerulonefrite membranoproliferativa. Em ambos os tipos histológicos a imunofluorescência mostrou dep

  5. Dynamics of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in the Yangtze River Valley at the end of and following the World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Ward, Michael; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-06-01

    The 10-year (1992-2001) World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) contributed greatly to schistosomiasis control in China. However, the re-emergence of schistosomiasis in recent years challenged the long-term progress of the WBLP strategy. In order to gain insight in the long-term progress of the WBLP, the spatial pattern of the epidemic was investigated in the Yangtze River Valley between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008. Two spatial cluster methods were jointly used to identify spatial clusters of cases. The magnitude and number of clusters varied during 1999-2001. It was found that prevalence of schistosomiasis had been greatly reduced and maintained at a low level during 2007-2008, with little change. Besides, spatial clusters most frequently occurred within 16 counties in the Dongting Lake region and within 5 counties in the Poyang Lake region. These findings precisely pointed out the prior places for future public health planning and resource allocation of schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Perceptions about interventions to control schistosomiasis among the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda.

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    Richard E Sanya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel-based mass treatment is the main approach to controlling schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. Interventions such as provision and use of safe water, minimising contact with infested water, disposal of stool in latrines and snail control provide key avenues to break the transmission cycle and can sustain the benefits of mass treatment in the long term. Efforts are also being made to develop a schistosomiasis vaccine which, if effective, might reduce the incidence of re-infection after treatment. However, any interventions deployed need to be acceptable to, and sustainable by, the target communities.In this qualitative study, we investigated the perceptions of six Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda, about interventions to control Schistosoma mansoni infection and their willingness to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Thirty-two in-depth interviews, 12 key informant interviews and 10 focus group discussions were conducted. Data were analysed using a thematic content approach.Intestinal schistosomiasis was not regarded as a serious health problem because a mass treatment programme is in place. However, the communities lack safe water sources and latrines. Mass treatment with praziquantel, safe water supplies and use of toilets were deemed the most acceptable interventions by the participants. The communities are willing to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials.Knowledge of a community's perception about interventions to control schistosomiasis can be valuable to policy makers and programme implementers intending to set up interventions co-managed by the community members. In this study, the views of the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome are presented. This study also provides data to guide further work on alternative interventions such as Schistosoma vaccine trials in these communities.

  7. Perceptions about interventions to control schistosomiasis among the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanya, Richard E; Tumwesige, Edward; Elliott, Alison M; Seeley, Janet

    2017-10-01

    Praziquantel-based mass treatment is the main approach to controlling schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. Interventions such as provision and use of safe water, minimising contact with infested water, disposal of stool in latrines and snail control provide key avenues to break the transmission cycle and can sustain the benefits of mass treatment in the long term. Efforts are also being made to develop a schistosomiasis vaccine which, if effective, might reduce the incidence of re-infection after treatment. However, any interventions deployed need to be acceptable to, and sustainable by, the target communities. In this qualitative study, we investigated the perceptions of six Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda, about interventions to control Schistosoma mansoni infection and their willingness to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Thirty-two in-depth interviews, 12 key informant interviews and 10 focus group discussions were conducted. Data were analysed using a thematic content approach. Intestinal schistosomiasis was not regarded as a serious health problem because a mass treatment programme is in place. However, the communities lack safe water sources and latrines. Mass treatment with praziquantel, safe water supplies and use of toilets were deemed the most acceptable interventions by the participants. The communities are willing to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Knowledge of a community's perception about interventions to control schistosomiasis can be valuable to policy makers and programme implementers intending to set up interventions co-managed by the community members. In this study, the views of the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome are presented. This study also provides data to guide further work on alternative interventions such as Schistosoma vaccine trials in these communities.

  8. Cytokine Pattern of T Lymphocytes in Acute Schistosomiasis mansoni Patients following Treated Praziquantel Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Fernandes Costa-Silva, Matheus; Cardoso de Oliveira Silveira, Amanda; Azevedo Batista, Mauricio; Alves Oliveira-Fraga, Lúcia; Soares Silveira, Alda Maria; Barbosa Alvarez, Maria Carolina; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Gazzinelli, Giovanni; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Acute schistosomiasis is associated with a primary exposure and is more commonly seen in nonimmune individuals traveling through endemic regions. In this study, we have focused on the cytokine profile of T lymphocytes evaluated in circulating leukocytes of acute Schistosomiasis mansoni-infected patients (ACT group) before and after praziquantel treatment (ACT-TR group). Our data demonstrated increased values of total leukocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes in both groups. Interestingly, we have observed that patients treated with praziquantel showed increased values of lymphocytes as compared with noninfected group (NI) or ACT groups. Furthermore, a decrease of neutrophils in ACT-TR was observed when compared to ACT group. Analyses of short-term in vitro whole blood stimulation demonstrated that, regardless of the presence of soluble Schistosoma mansoni eggs antigen (SEA), increased synthesis of IFN-γ and IL-4 by T-cells was observed in the ACT group. Analyses of cytokine profile in CD8 T cells demonstrated higher percentage of IFN-γ and IL-4 cells in both ACT and ACT-TR groups apart from increased percentage of IL-10 cells only in the ACT group. This study is the first one to point out the relevance of CD8 T lymphocytes in the immune response induced during the acute phase of schistosomiasis. PMID:23401741

  9. Cytokine Pattern of T Lymphocytes in Acute Schistosomiasis mansoni Patients following Treated Praziquantel Therapy

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    Denise Silveira-Lemos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute schistosomiasis is associated with a primary exposure and is more commonly seen in nonimmune individuals traveling through endemic regions. In this study, we have focused on the cytokine profile of T lymphocytes evaluated in circulating leukocytes of acute Schistosomiasis mansoni-infected patients (ACT group before and after praziquantel treatment (ACT-TR group. Our data demonstrated increased values of total leukocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes in both groups. Interestingly, we have observed that patients treated with praziquantel showed increased values of lymphocytes as compared with noninfected group (NI or ACT groups. Furthermore, a decrease of neutrophils in ACT-TR was observed when compared to ACT group. Analyses of short-term in vitro whole blood stimulation demonstrated that, regardless of the presence of soluble Schistosoma mansoni eggs antigen (SEA, increased synthesis of IFN-γ and IL-4 by T-cells was observed in the ACT group. Analyses of cytokine profile in CD8 T cells demonstrated higher percentage of IFN-γ and IL-4 cells in both ACT and ACT-TR groups apart from increased percentage of IL-10 cells only in the ACT group. This study is the first one to point out the relevance of CD8 T lymphocytes in the immune response induced during the acute phase of schistosomiasis.

  10. US, CT and MR imaging findings of leiomyoma of urinary bIadder: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Sung Woo

    2004-01-01

    Leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors of the uterus, and although they can occur at any site in the genitourinary tract, they very rarely originate from the urinary bladder. We report a case in which leiomyoma occurred at that site, describing the US, CT, and MRI findings

  11. US, CT and MR imaging findings of leiomyoma of urinary bIadder: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Sung Woo [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-01

    Leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors of the uterus, and although they can occur at any site in the genitourinary tract, they very rarely originate from the urinary bladder. We report a case in which leiomyoma occurred at that site, describing the US, CT, and MRI findings.

  12. A Behavioral Weight Loss Program and Nonurinary Incontinence Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Overweight and Obese Women with Urinary Incontinence: A Secondary Data Analysis of PRIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Benjamin N; Creasman, Jennifer M; Richter, Holly E; Myers, Deborah; Burgio, Kathryn L; Wing, Rena R; West, Delia Smith; Kusek, John W; Subak, Leslee L

    2018-01-01

    We sought to determine whether a behavioral weight reduction intervention would improve nonurinary incontinence lower urinary tract storage symptoms at 6 months, including urinary frequency, nocturia and urgency, compared to a structured education program serving as the control group among overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. PRIDE (Program to Reduce Incontinence by Diet and Exercise) was a randomized clinical trial performed in 338 overweight or obese women with urinary incontinence. Participants were randomized, including 226 to 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention and 112 to the control group. All participants received a self-help behavioral treatment booklet to improve bladder control. On this secondary data analysis we examined changes in nonurinary incontinence lower urinary tract storage symptoms from baseline to 6 months and the impact of treatment allocation (intervention vs control), weight loss and physical activity. Nonurinary incontinence lower urinary tract storage symptoms were common at baseline, varying from 48% to 62%. In the 2 groups combined women experienced significant improvement in nocturia, urgency and International Prostate Symptom Score at 6 months (all p urinary tract storage symptom outcomes at 6 months did not differ between the intervention and control groups. Similarly no difference was observed in the amount of weight lost (5% or greater vs less than 5%) or physical activity (1,500 kcal or greater expenditure per week compared to less than 1,500 kcal). Lower urinary tract storage symptoms were common among overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. The prevalence decreased significantly after 6 months independent of treatment group assignment, amount of weight lost or physical activity. These improvements may have been due to self-help behavioral educational materials, trial participation or repeat assessment of symptoms. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  13. Immunoglobulin G4-associated inflammatory pseudotumor of urinary bladder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghui; Ro, Jae Y; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Choi, Sun Young; Koo, Heasoo

    2013-12-01

    A previously healthy 72-year old woman was admitted with a chief complaint of gross hematuria and fecaluria for 4 months. On initial computed tomographic examination, a lobulated shaped intravesical protruding mass with adhesion to the sigmoid colon was identified. Under a clinical diagnosis of bladder cancer with vesicosigmoid fistula vs sigmoid colon cancer with vesicosigmoid fistula, a frozen section evaluation of the bladder mass was performed to determine the origin of the tumor. Because the frozen section diagnosis of the bladder mass was an inflammatory origin, a partial cystectomy with segmental resection of the adherent sigmoid colon was elected. The microscopic examination of the partial resection of the urinary bladder revealed suburothelial inflammatory mass lesion, involving the entire wall of bladder with extension to the sigmoid colon, which was composed of spindle cells without significant atypia admixed with many lymphocytes, plasma cells, and some scattered eosinophils. Chronic inflammation around nerve bundles, sclerotic fibrosis, and prominent lymphoid follicles with plasma cells were the main features of the mass. No urothelial dysplasia or malignancy was seen. An average of 57 plasma cells per 1 high-power field was immunoreactive for immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 with IgG4/IgG ratio of more than 40%, a diagnostic feature of IgG4-associated inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT), arising in the bladder with the secondary involvement of the sigmoid colon. Recent studies reported many IPTs associated with IgG4 in other locations; however, to the best of our knowledge, IgG4-associated IPT in the urinary bladder has not been reported. We describe herein the first case of IgG4-associated IPT, lymphoplasmacytic type in the urinary bladder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Methodologic issues in the measurement of urinary renin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C.W. Roksnoer (Lodi); K. Verdonk (Koen); I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); J.M. van Gool (Jeanette); R. Zietse (Bob); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); A.H.J. Danser (Jan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground and objectives Alge et al. recently reported that urinary renin may be a prognostic biomarker for AKI after cardiac surgery. However, their urinary renin levels far exceeded published plasma renin levels, whereas normally, urinary renin is,10%of plasma renin. This result

  15. The Last Fifteen Years of Schistosomiasis in Venezuela: Features and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkisyolé Alarcón de Noya

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Control of schistosomiasis in Venezuela has been a topic of major interest and controversy among the metaxenic parasitosis. A small area of transmission of approximately 15,000 km2 was thought to be eradicated some years ago. However, some epidemiological characteristics of our transmission area have limited the success on the way toward eradication. Since 1945, when the Schistosomiasis Control Program started, the prevalence in the endemic area has decreased from 14% in 1943 to 1.4% in 1996. Until 1982, the surveillance of active cases was based on massive stool examination. Since then, the Schistosomiasis Research Group (SRG recommended the additional use of serologic tests in the Control Program and the selective or massive chemotherapy depending on serological and parasitological prevalence of each community. At present, the real prevalence is underestimated due to the fact that approximately 80% of the individuals eliminate less than 100 eggs/g of feces. Those persons could be responsible for the maintenance of the foci going on and therefore limiting the impact of the control measures. Efforts of the SRG are being oriented toward improvement of immunodiagnostic tests by using defined antigens (enzymes and chemically synthesized peptides, derived from relevant molecules of the parasite, either for antibodies or antigens search. On the other hand, introduction of snail competitors has been a biological weapon in the control of the intermediate host in certain areas. However, the recent reinfestation of water courses by Biomphalaria glabrata, the increased prevalence in some areas, together with important administrative changes at the Control Program of the Minister of Health, have arisen new questions and doubts, challenging the eradication strategy proposed during the last decade.

  16. Kocuria Kristinae in Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tewari, Rachna; Dudeja, Mridu; Das, Ayan K.; Nandy, Shyamasree

    2013-01-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a gram positive coccus of the family of Micrococcacae. It inhabits the skin and mucous membranes, but it has rarely been isolated from clinical specimens and is thus considered to be a non-pathogenic commensal. However, it may cause opportunistic infections in patients with indwelling devices and severe underlying diseases. We are reporting an unusual case of a Kocuria kristinae urinary tract infection in a catheterized, 20-years old male. To the best of our knowledge, th...

  17. A cross-sectional study on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in Mbita district, western Kenya using different copromicroscopic techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ng?etich, Annette I.; Rawago, Fredrick O.; Jura, Walter G. Z. O.; Mwinzi, Pauline N.; Won, Kimberly Y.; Odiere, Maurice R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of populations to be targeted for individual treatment and broad-spectrum therapy in schistosomiasis-endemic areas, assessment of therapy efficacy, morbidity, and evaluation of control strategies need to be based on reliable diagnostic tools. Kato-Katz is routinely used and remains the standard diagnostic technique for schistosomiasis, despite its many challenges. This study was conducted in Nyamanga village, Mbita, western Kenya, and evaluated the diagnostic perform...

  18. Existence of Periodic Solutions and Stability of Zero Solution of a Mathematical Model of Schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model on schistosomiasis governed by periodic differential equations with a time delay was studied. By discussing boundedness of the solutions of this model and construction of a monotonic sequence, the existence of positive periodic solution was shown. The conditions under which the model admits a periodic solution and the conditions under which the zero solution is globally stable are given, respectively. Some numerical analyses show the conditional coexistence of locally stable zero solution and periodic solutions and that it is an effective treatment by simply reducing the population of snails and enlarging the death ratio of snails for the control of schistosomiasis.

  19. Accuracy of Professional Self-Reports: Medical Student Self-Report and the Scoring of Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter Lagha, Regina Anne

    2014-01-01

    Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…

  20. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  1. Towards the Elimination of Schistosomiasis japonica through Control of the Disease in Domestic Animals in The People's Republic of China: A Tale of over 60Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Z-G; Zhao, Y-E; Lee Willingham, A; Wang, T-P

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica, an endemic, zoonotic tropical parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma japonicum, remains an important public health concern in The People's Republic of China. Unlike other species of Schistosoma, over 40 species of wild and domestic animals can act as reservoir hosts of S. japonicum, which increases the difficulty for the control of this tropical disease. It is widely recognized that domestic animals, particularly water buffaloes and cattle, play an important role in the transmission of S. japonicum. Hence, since the 1950s when The People's Republic of China commenced fight against the disease, the control of animal schistosomiasis has been carried out almost synchronously with that of human schistosomiasis, such that great strides have been made over the past six decades. In this chapter, we review the history and current status of schistosomiasis control in domestic animals in The People's Republic of China. We thoroughly analyse the prevalence of domestic animal schistosomiasis at different stages of schistosomiasis control and the role of different species of domestic animals in transmission of the disease, summarize the control strategies and assess their effectiveness. Furthermore, the challenges ahead are discussed and recommendations for future direction are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Angiogenesis in Schistosoma haematobium-associated urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dematei, Anderson; Fernandes, Rúben; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim; Botelho, Monica C

    2017-12-01

    Schistosoma haematobium, a parasitic flatworm that infects more than 100 million people, mostly in the developing world, is the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis, and is associated with a high incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder. During infection, eggs are deposited in the bladder causing an intense inflammatory reaction. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting ones and is recognized as a key event in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis and spread of malignant lesions. A growing amount of evidence points to angiogenesis playing a key role in schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer. Thus, identifying biomarkers of this process plays an important role in the study of cancer. Here, we review recent findings on the role of angiogenesis in bladder cancer and the growth factors that induce and assist in their development, particularly SCC of the bladder associated to urogenital schistosomiasis. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Post traumatic urinary extravasation in occult urinary obstruction: Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bothra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary extravastion after blunt abdominal trauma is seen often and generally treated conservatively. However a blunt renal trauma causing huge amount of extravasations and symptoms disproportionate to the severity of trauma should alarm the surgeon towards an underlying occult renal pathology usually an obstruction. In this case series, we share three such experiences and their management.

  4. Duplication of the Hindgut and Lower Urinary. Tract. Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Vanessa; Tamayo, Margarita; Montoya, Claudia; Acosta, Federico; Cano, Julian; Mejia, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    A 13 year female consulted to Heatup Pad's surgery department with a history of pelvic malformations since she was born and complaining about a colostomy done five years ago. On clinical examination an anal fistula was seen as well as perineal organs duplicated including: vulva - four labia, clitoris, vaginal canal, urethra, also double gluteal cleft. Several diagnostic modalities were performed (voiding cystourethrography, urodynamic, renal scan, CT and MRI) having a diagnosis of complete duplication of the hindgut and lower urinary tract, a rare congenital anomaly that has fewer than 50 cases reported in the literature. During hospitalization she underwent successful abdominopelvic surgical Correction.

  5. Biomonitoring Human Exposure to Household Air Pollution and Association with Self-reported Health Symptoms – A Stove Intervention Study in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Commodore, Adwoa; Hartinger, Stella; Lewin, Michael; Sjödin, Andreas; Pittman, Erin; Trinidad, Debra; Hubbard, Kendra; Lanata, Claudio F.; Gil, Ana I.; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Naeher, Luke P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Household air pollution (HAP) from indoor biomass stoves contains harmful pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and is a leading risk factor for global disease burden. We used biomonitoring to assess HAP exposure and association with self-reported symptoms in 334 non-smoking Peruvian women to evaluate the efficacy of a stove intervention program. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study within the framework of a community randomized control trial. Using urinary PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) as the exposure biomarkers, we investigated whether the intervention group (n = 155, with new chimney-equipped stoves) were less exposed to HAP compared to the control group (n = 179, with mostly open-fire stoves). We also estimated associations between the exposure biomarkers, risk factors, and self-reported health symptoms, such as recent eye conditions, respiratory conditions, and headache. Results We observed reduced headache and ocular symptoms in the intervention group than the control group. Urinary 2-naphthol, a suggested biomarker for inhalation PAH exposure, was significantly lower in the intervention group (GM with 95% CI: 13.4 [12.3, 14.6] μg/g creatinine) compared to control group (16.5 [15.0, 18.0] μg/g creatinine). Stove type and/or 2-naphthol was associated with a number of self-reported symptoms, such as red eye (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 3.80 [1.32, 10.9]) in the past 48 h. Conclusions Even with the improved stoves, the biomarker concentrations in this study far exceeded those of the general populations and were higher than a no-observed-genotoxic-effect-level, indicating high exposure and a potential for increased cancer risk in the population. PMID:27680405

  6. A Google Earth-based surveillance system for schistosomiasis japonica implemented in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Le-Ping

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the success of the national schistosomiasis control programme in China, transmission has been sufficiently reduced in many areas to severely limit identification of areas at risk by conventional snail surveys only. In this study, we imported Google Earth technology and a Global Positioning System (GPS into the monitoring system for schistosomiasis surveillance of the banks of the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China. Methods A total of 45 sites were selected and the risk was assessed monthly by water exposure of sentinel mice at these sites from May to September in 2009 and 2010. The results were assembled and broadcast via the Google Earth platform. Results The intensity of schistosomiasis transmission showed peaks of risk in June and September of 2009, while there was only one small peak in June in 2010 as the number of detected positive transmission sites dropped dramatically that year thanks to improved mollusciciding. River ports were found to be areas of particular risk, but ferry terminals and other centres of river-related activities were also problematic. Conclusions The results confirm that the surveillance system can be rapidly updated and easily maintained, which proves the Google Earth approach to be a user-friendly, inexpensive warning system for schistosomiasis risk.

  7. [Investigation on satisfaction of replacement of bovine with machine for schistosomiasis control of residents in Jiangling County, Hubei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, De-Gao; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Li, Shi-Zhu

    2012-12-01

    To understand the satisfaction and the awareness rate of the replacement of bovine with machine for schistosomiasis control among residents in Jiangling County, Hubei Province. Three villages, Yugu, Jinqi and Huazhang, were chosen randomly to be investigated, each family filled a questionnaire, and 363 questionnaires were obtained at the end of the survey. The data were analyzed with SPSS 11.5. Among 363 households, 210 (68.0%) households raised bovine during the last 3 years. There were no significant differences in the awareness rates of the replacement of bovine with machine and the knowledge of schistosomiasis control between the bovine-raising families and non-raising families (P > 0.05), while the satisfaction rates between the bovine-raising families and non-raising showed a statistically significant difference (P replacement of bovine with machine of residents in schistosomiasis endemic areas are relatively perfect.

  8. Role of Regulatory Immune Responses in the Pathogenesis of Schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-15

    world’s population, suffer from helminth (worm) infections (Colley et al., 2001). Schistosomiasis, a helminth infection caused by trematode parasites of...roughly one tenth of all helminth infections (Organization, 1993). Similar to other parasites , schistosomes have evolved mechanisms to evade...the TGF- -like receptor/Smad signaling pathway in parasitic helminths themselves has been shown to be important in regulating schistosome

  9. Sigmoid colon cancer arising in a diverticulum of the colon with involvement of the urinary bladder: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Yasumichi; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Shozo; Yoshikawa, Akemi; Tsukioka, Yuji; Fukushima, Wataru; Hirosawa, Hisashi; Izumi, Ryohei; Saito, Katsuhiko

    2014-05-13

    Colon cancer can arise from the mucosa in a colonic diverticulum. Although colon diverticulum is a common disease, few cases have been previously reported on colon cancer associated with a diverticulum. We report a rare case of sigmoid colon cancer arising in a diverticulum with involvement of the urinary bladder, which presented characteristic radiographic images. A 73-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for macroscopic hematuria. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sigmoid colon tumor that protruded into the urinary bladder lumen. The radiographs showed a tumor with a characteristic dumbbell-shaped appearance. Colonoscopy showed a type 1 cancer and multiple diverticula in the sigmoid colon. A diagnosis of sigmoid colon cancer with involvement of the urinary bladder was made based on the pathological findings of the biopsied specimens. We performed sigmoidectomy and total resection of the urinary bladder with colostomy and urinary tract diversion. Histopathological findings showed the presence of a colovesical fistula due to extramurally growing colon cancer. Around the colon cancer, the normal colon mucosa was depressed sharply with lack of the muscular layer, suggesting that the colon cancer was arising from a colon diverticulum. The present case is the first report of sigmoid colon cancer arising in a diverticulum with involvement of the urinary bladder. Due to an accurate preoperative radiological diagnosis, we were able to successfully perform a curative resection for sigmoid colon cancer arising in a diverticulum with involvement of the urinary bladder.

  10. Validity of the international consultation on incontinence questionnaire-pediatric lower urinary tract symptoms: a screening questionnaire for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gennaro, Mario; Niero, Mauro; Capitanucci, Maria Luisa; von Gontard, Alexander; Woodward, Mark; Tubaro, Andrea; Abrams, Paul

    2010-10-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms are common in pediatric patients. To our knowledge no validated instruments properly designed to screen lower urinary tract symptoms in the pediatric population have been published to date. In the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Committee the psychometric properties of a screening questionnaire for pediatric lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed. The 12-item International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms was developed in child and parent self-administered versions, and produced in English, Italian and German using a standard cross-cultural adaptation process. The questionnaire was self-administered to children 5 to 18 years old and their parents presenting for lower urinary tract symptoms (cases) or to pediatric/urological clinics for other reasons (controls). A case report form included history, urinalysis, bladder diary, flowmetry/post-void residual urine volume and clinician judgment on whether each child did or did not have lower urinary tract symptoms. Questionnaire psychometric properties were evaluated and data were stratified into 3 age groups, including 5 to 9, 10 to 13 and 14 to 18 years. A total of 345 questionnaires were completed, of which 147 were negative and 198 were positive for lower urinary tract symptoms. A mean of 1.67% and 2.10% of items were missing in the child and parent versions, respectively. Reliability (Cronbach's α) was unacceptable in only the 5 to 9-year-old group. The high ICC of 0.847 suggested fair child/parent equivalence. Sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 76% in the child version, and 91% and 73.5% in the parent version, respectively. The questionnaire is an acceptable, reliable tool with high sensitivity and specificity to screen for lower urinary tract symptoms in pediatric practice. Problems related to literacy suggest use of the child versions for patients older than 9 years. In research this questionnaire

  11. Ultrasonic and x-ray tomographic findings of Schistosomiasis Japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Osamu; Uto, Koji; Sugihara, Hisayo; Takii, Masaru; Nohara, Yumiko; Tominaga, Hidetoshi; Kaji, Masaro; Koga, Teruto.

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, attempts were made to classify the ultrasonic patterns of the liver infected with Schistosoma Japonicum. The calcification and fibrosis of the liver were evaluated by comparative investigation with an ultrasonogram and computed tomography (CT). Schistosomiasis Japonica was examined in 23 patients who were more than 45 years of age. It was diagnosed by liver needle biopsy, an intracutaneous test, or autopsy. The cases with a fish scale and network pattern had attenuation of the liver on ultrasonography and were unspecific on CT. Histological findings demonstrated moderate liver fibrosis. The cases with a sieve pattern had attenuation on ultrasonography, and the CT disclosed a retractive liver and the CT number of that liver was increased. Histological findings demonstrated a severe fibrotic liver. The cases with a mottled pattern had increased reflective spotty echo with an acoustic shadow, and the CT disclosed calcification. The histological findings demonstrated a marked calcification of the eggs. The cases with a mixed pattern, which consisted of mottled and sieve based on fish scale and network, had no retraction with less increase in the CT number. These results suggest that the peculiar reflective echo pattern of Schistosomiasis Japonica was due to not only calcification but also fibrosis of the liver. (author)

  12. Adult female urinary incontinence and childhood bedwetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional random population sample of women 30 to 59 years old was sent a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and, among other things, childhood bedwetting. Among 2,613 responders 17.0% reported prevalent urinary incontinence (14.7% stress provoked, 8.3% associated with urge, 6.8% stress...... and urge overlap, 2.2% occurring especially during sleep and 3.9% occurring especially when anxious), and 6.5% reported childhood bedwetting after age 5 years and 3.3% after age 10 years. Childhood bedwetting was associated with prevalent urge urinary incontinence (p ... during sleep (p anxiety (p

  13. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Rørtveit, Guri; Bø, Kari; Hunskår, Steinar

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate incidence and prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy, and associated risk factors.Method: The data collection was conducted as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We present questionnaire data about urinary incontinence obtained from 43,279 women (response rate 45%) by week 30. We report data on any incontinence in addition to type, frequency and amount of incontinence. Po...

  14. Evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA strip for diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis in Hassoba school children, Afar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayele B.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 206 urine samples collected from Hassoba Elementary schoolchildren, Afar, Ethiopia, a low Schistosoma haematobium endemic setting, was diagnosed to evaluate the performance of CCA strip using double references, urine filtration technique and urinalysis dipstick (Combur 10 Test® that detect schistosome eggs and blood in urine, respectively. The former was used as a gold standard reference method. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the CCA were 52%, 63.8%, 56.7% and 59% respectively, with reference to urine filtration technique whereas these parameters were 50.4%, 62.4%, 55.6% and 57.5% respectively, with reference to Combur 10 Test®. 47 S. haematobium egg-positive children were found negative by CCA strip while 38 egg-negative children were found positive by CCA strip. Moreover, among the pre-tests done in duplicate, inconsistent results were also recorded. Assays were also compared with regard to the cost of equipment and reagents, speed and simplicity of use. Though CCA strip was found to be rapid and could be performed with minimal training, it was found to be expensive (US $ 4.95 per test to use it for large-scale field use even if its diagnostic value would have been satisfactory. Further development and standardization of the CCA strip are required for its applicability for field use. It is also recommended that its cost per strip should be substantially cut down if it is to be used in poor schistosomiasis endemic countries.

  15. The female urinary microbiome in urgency urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Meghan M; Zilliox, Michael J; Rosenfeld, Amy B; Thomas-White, Krystal J; Richter, Holly E; Nager, Charles W; Visco, Anthony G; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Barber, Matthew D; Schaffer, Joseph; Moalli, Pamela; Sung, Vivian W; Smith, Ariana L; Rogers, Rebecca; Nolen, Tracy L; Wallace, Dennis; Meikle, Susan F; Gai, Xiaowu; Wolfe, Alan J; Brubaker, Linda

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the urinary microbiota in women who are planning treatment for urgency urinary incontinence and to describe clinical associations with urinary symptoms, urinary tract infection, and treatment outcomes. Catheterized urine samples were collected from multisite randomized trial participants who had no clinical evidence of urinary tract infection; 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was used to dichotomize participants as either DNA sequence-positive or sequence-negative. Associations with demographics, urinary symptoms, urinary tract infection risk, and treatment outcomes were determined. In sequence-positive samples, microbiotas were characterized on the basis of their dominant microorganisms. More than one-half (51.1%; 93/182) of the participants' urine samples were sequence-positive. Sequence-positive participants were younger (55.8 vs 61.3 years old; P = .0007), had a higher body mass index (33.7 vs 30.1 kg/m(2); P = .0009), had a higher mean baseline daily urgency urinary incontinence episodes (5.7 vs 4.2 episodes; P urinary incontinence episodes, -4.4 vs -3.3; P = .0013), and were less likely to experience urinary tract infection (9% vs 27%; P = .0011). In sequence-positive samples, 8 major bacterial clusters were identified; 7 clusters were dominated not only by a single genus, most commonly Lactobacillus (45%) or Gardnerella (17%), but also by other taxa (25%). The remaining cluster had no dominant genus (13%). DNA sequencing confirmed urinary bacterial DNA in many women with urgency urinary incontinence who had no signs of infection. Sequence status was associated with baseline urgency urinary incontinence episodes, treatment response, and posttreatment urinary tract infection risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Patient-reported lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence, and quality of life after external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer - 15 years' follow-up. A comparison with age-matched controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransson, Per

    2008-01-01

    Background. To prospectively examine the urinary toxicity and quality of life (QOL) in patients 15 years after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for localized prostate cancer (LPC) and compare the outcomes with results for age-matched controls. Material and methods. Urinary symptoms were assessed using the symptom-specific Prostate Cancer Symptom Scale (PCSS) questionnaire, and QOL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)'s Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). Both questionnaires were sent to the surviving 41 patients (25%) and the PCSS questionnaire was sent to 69 age-matched controls for comparison. Results. The response rate was 71% in the patient group and 59% in the control group. Two patients and four controls were excluded due to other cancer diagnoses, resulting in a total of 27 patients and 37 controls for inclusion in the analyses. The mean age in both groups was 78 years. In the patient group, incontinence had increased between the 8-year (mean=0.6) and the 15-year follow-up (mean=2.1; p=0.038). No other differences in urinary problems were seen between these two follow-ups. Increased incontinence, stress incontinence, and pain while urinating were reported by the patients in comparison with the controls at 15 years. Role function was worse in the patient group (mean=67.3) compared with the controls (mean=82.4; p=0.046). The patients also reported more appetite loss, diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, and pain than the controls. Conclusion. EBRT for LPC has divergent effects on urinary symptoms and QOL in comparison with age-matched controls. In our patient population, urinary incontinence increased between 8 and 15 years of follow-up. Otherwise, no differences in urinary symptoms were seen between 4 and 15 years. Incontinence, stress incontinence, and pain while urinating were increased after EBRT in comparison with the controls. Conventional EBRT did not result in a major deterioration in QOL 15 years after

  17. Mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in the Regions of Centre, East and West Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kamwa Ngassam, Romuald Isaka; Sumo, Laurentine; Ngassam, Pierre; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Nzu, Deguy D'or Luogbou; Dankoni, Esther; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Akame, Julie; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi; Angwafo, Fru Fobuzski

    2012-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are widely distributed in Cameroon. Although mass drug administration (MDA) of mebendazole is implemented nationwide, treatment with praziquantel was so far limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon, based on previous mapping conducted 25 years ago. To update the disease distribution map and determine where treatment with praziquantel should be extended, mapping surveys were conducted in three of the seven southern regions of Cameroon, i.e. Centre, East and West. Methodology Parasitological surveys were conducted in April–May 2010 in selected schools in all 63 health districts of the three targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. Principal Findings The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 5.53%, followed by S. haematobium (1.72%) and S. guineensis (0.14%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the three regions was 7.31% (95% CI: 6.86–7.77%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 11.48 (95% CI: 10.93–12.04%), Trichuris trichiura 18.22% (95% CI: 17.56–18.90%) and hookworms 1.55% (95% CI: 1.35–1.78%), with an overall STH prevalence of 24.10% (95% CI: 23.36–24.85%) across the three regions. STH was more prevalent in the East region (46.57%; 95% CI: 44.41–48.75%) in comparison to the Centre (25.12; 95% CI: 24.10–26.17%) and West (10.49%; 95% CI: 9.57–11.51%) regions. Conclusions/Significance In comparison to previous data, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an

  18. Villous adenoma of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Villous adenoma is a known entity in the gastrointestinal tract, but very rare in the urinary tract. It is a benign tumor with excellent prognosis, but its progression to adenocarcinoma is not established. Here, we report an additional case of villous adenoma of the urinary bladder.

  19. Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. associated with chronic and self-medicated urinary tract infections in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Bisgaard, Magne; Son, Nguyen Thai; Trung, Nguyen Vu; An, Hoang Manh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-11-23

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common infections among women worldwide. E. coli often causes more than 75% of acute uncomplicated UTI, however, little is known about how recurrent UTIs and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials affect the aetiology of UTIs. This study aimed to establish the aetiology of UTI in a population of recurrent and self-medicated patients referred from pharmacies to a hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam and to describe genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of the associated bacterial pathogens. The aetiology of bacterial pathogens associated with UTI (defined as ≥ 104 CFU/ml urine) was established by phenotypic and molecular methods. Enterococcus faecalis isolates were typed by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Urine samples from 276 patients suffering symptoms of urinary tract infection were collected and cultured on Flexicult agar® allowing for detection of the most common urine pathogens. Patients were interviewed about underlying diseases, duration of symptoms, earlier episodes of UTI, number of episodes diagnosed by doctors and treatment in relation to UTI. All tentative E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were identified to species level by PCR, 16S rRNA and partial sequencing of the groEL gene. E. faecalis isolates were further characterized by Multi Locus Sequence Typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Mean age of 49 patients was 48 yrs (range was 11-86 yrs) and included 94% women. On average, patients reported to have suffered from UTI for 348 days (range 3 days-10 years, and experienced 2.7 UTIs during the previous year). Cephalosporins were reported the second drug of choice in treatment of UTI at the hospital. E. faecalis (55.1%), E. coli (12.2%) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (8.2%) were main bacterial pathogens. MIC testing of E. faecalis showed susceptibility to ampicillin, penicillin and

  20. Sacral Nerve Stimulation For Urinary Urge Incontinence, Urgency-Frequency, Urinary Retention, and Fecal Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    implanted in the abdomen or buttock to stimulate the sacral nerves in an attempt to manage urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. The device was originally developed to manage urinary urge incontinence; however, it has also been used in patients with urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. SNS is intended for patients who are refractory to behaviour, drug, and/or interventional therapy. There are 2 phases in the SNS process: first, patients must undergo a test stimulation phase to determine if they respond to sacral nerve stimulation. If there is a 50% or greater improvement in voiding function, then the patient is considered a candidate for the next phase, implantation. Review Strategy The standard Medical Advisory Secretariat search strategy was used to locate international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles published from 2000 to November 2004. The Medical Advisory Secretariat also conducted Internet searches of Medscape (1) and the manufacturer’s website (2) to identify product information and recent reports on trials that were unpublished but that were presented at international conferences. In addition, the Web site Current Controlled Trials (3) was searched for ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the role of sacral nerve stimulation in the management of voiding conditions. Summary of Findings Four health technology assessments were found that reviewed SNS in patients with urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and/or urinary retention. One assessment was found that reviewed SNS in patients with fecal incontinence. The assessments consistently reported that SNS was an effective technology in managing these voiding conditions in patients who did not respond to drug or behaviour therapy. They also reported that there was a substantial complication profile associated with SNS. Complication rates ranged from 33% to 50%. However, none of the

  1. The COUNTDOWN Study Protocol for Expansion of Mass Drug Administration Strategies against Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in Ghana

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    Suzy J. Campbell

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Current international policy for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH control emphasises mass administration of deworming drugs in school-based programmes. However, this approach is insufficient to control the transmission of these diseases, and their burden in non-school cohorts is recognised, albeit under-researched. This research will investigate the feasibility and acceptability of expanding access to praziquantel (PZQ against schistosomiasis, and albendazole (ALB against STH, to communities in selected transmission settings in Ghana. (2 Methods: A three-site longitudinal study will be implemented to investigate the effectiveness of expanding treatment strategies for PZQ and ALB to community members. In the context of community mass drug administration (to preschool children, school non-attending children, and adults, including pregnant women, the intervention will be assessed in a random sample of community members, at baseline with follow-up at 6, 12, and 18 months. In each community, 658 participants will be enrolled, and 314 followed up at each time point. The primary outcome measure is the prevalence of infection of Schistosoma haematobium and/or S. mansoni at study endpoint, as assessed by longitudinal surveys. Secondary outcomes are to quantify the infection of schistosomiasis and STH infections in non-treated cohorts, reductions in prevalence of STH, and intensity of schistosomiasis and STH, and treatment coverage. Nested within this study will be qualitative, cost-benefit, and cost-effectiveness evaluations that will explore accessibility, feasibility, and economic impact of expanded treatment from different complementary perspectives. (3 Discussion: Using a multidisciplinary approach, this study will generate evidence for improved availability, acceptability, affordability, and accessibility to deworming drugs against schistosomiasis and STH to individuals and communities in Ghana. This is likely

  2. Urinary concentrations of PAH and VOC metabolites in marijuana users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Binnian; Alwis, K Udeni; Li, Zheng; Wang, Lanqing; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Sosnoff, Connie S; Xia, Yang; Conway, Kevin P; Blount, Benjamin C

    2016-03-01

    Marijuana is seeing increased therapeutic use, and is the world's third most-popular recreational drug following alcohol and tobacco. This widening use poses increased exposure to potentially toxic combustion by-products from marijuana smoke and the potential for public health concerns. To compare urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among self-reported recent marijuana users and nonusers, while accounting for tobacco smoke exposure. Measurements of PAH and VOC metabolites in urine samples were combined with questionnaire data collected from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012 in order to categorize participants (≥18years) into exclusive recent marijuana users and nonusers. Adjusted geometric means (GMs) of urinary concentrations were computed for these groups using multiple regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Adjusted GMs of many individual monohydroxy PAHs (OH-PAHs) were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers (pmarijuana users than in nonusers. We found elevated levels of biomarkers for potentially harmful chemicals among self-identified, recent marijuana users compared with nonusers. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the potential health risks to humans from the exposure to these agents when smoking marijuana. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. [Establishment of policy indicators of adaptation to the impact of climate change on the transmission of schistosomiasis and malaria in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ying-Jun; Li, Shi-Zhu; Xu, Jun-Fang; Zhang, Li; Fu, Qing; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-12-01

    To set up a framework of indicators for schistosomiasis and malaria to guide the formulation and evaluation of vector-borne disease control policies focusing on adaptation to the negative impact of climate change. A 2-level indicator framework was set up on the basis of literature review, and Delphi method was applied to a total of 22 and 19 experts working on schistosomiasis and malaria, respectively. The result was analyzed to calculate the weight of various indicators. A total of 41 questionnaires was delivered, and 38 with valid response (92.7%). The system included 4 indicators at first level, i.e. surveillance, scientific research, disease control and intervention, and adaptation capacity building, with 25 indicators for schistosomiasis and 21 for malaria at the second level. Among indicators at the first level, disease surveillance ranked first with a weight of 0.32. Among the indicators at the second level, vector monitoring scored the highest in terms of both schistosomiasis and malaria. The indicators set up by Delphi method are practical,universal and effective ones using in the field, which is also useful to technically support the establishment of adaptation to climate change in the field of public health.

  4. Diagnosis of coinfection by schistosomiasis and viral hepatitis B or C using 1H NMR-based metabonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Liana Ribeiro; Santos, Joelma Carvalho; Silva, Ronaldo Dionísio; Batista, Andrea Dória; Domingues, Ana Lúcia Coutinho; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa de Almeida; Silva, Ricardo Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of liver involvement due to schistosomiasis in asymptomatic patients from endemic areas previously diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) and periportal fibrosis is challenging. H-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics strategy is a powerful tool for providing a profile of endogenous metabolites of low molecular weight in biofluids in a non-invasive way. The aim of this study was to diagnose periportal fibrosis due to schistosomiasis mansoni in patients with chronic HBV or HCV infection through NMR-based metabonomics models. The study included 40 patients divided into two groups: (i) 18 coinfected patients with schistosomiasis mansoni and HBV or HCV; and (ii) 22 HBV or HCV monoinfected patients. The serum samples were analyzed through H-1 NMR spectroscopy and the models were based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). Ultrasonography examination was used to ascertain the diagnosis of periportal fibrosis. Exploratory analysis showed a clear separation between coinfected and monoinfected samples. The supervised model built from PLS-DA showed accuracy, R2 and Q2 values equal to 100%, 98.1% and 97.5%, respectively. According to the variable importance in the projection plot, lactate serum levels were higher in the coinfected group, while the signals attributed to HDL serum cholesterol were more intense in the monoinfected group. The metabonomics models constructed in this study are promising as an alternative tool for diagnosis of periportal fibrosis by schistosomiasis in patients with chronic HBV or HCV infection from endemic areas for Schistosoma mansoni.

  5. [Application of degree of portal systemic shunting in assessing upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with schistosomiasis cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Ju; Ying, Li; Chang-Xue, Ji; Biao, Zhang

    2017-03-27

    To discuss the application of the degree of portal systemic shunting in assessing the upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with hepatic schistosomiasis. Thirty-three patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by hepatic schistosomiasis (a bleeding group) and 29 schistosomiasis cirrhosis patients without bleeding (a non-bleeding group) were enrolled as investigation subjects in Jinshan Hospital. The subjects were scanned by the 128 abdominal slice spiral CT. The portal systemic shunting vessels were reconstructed by using thin slab maximum intensity projection (TSMIP) and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). The degrees of the shunting vessels of the subjects were evaluated and compared, and the relationship between upper gastrointestinal bleeding and the degree of the shunting was analyzed. In the bleeding group, the occurrence rates of the shunting vessels were found as follows: 86.4% in left gastric varices, 68.2% in short gastric varices, 50.0% in esophageal varices, 50.0% in para-esophageal varices, 37.9% in gastric varices, 69.7% in gastric-renal varices, 51.5% in spleen-renal varices, 25.8% in abdominal wall varices, 15.2% in omentum varices, 63.6% in para-splenic varices, 34.8% in umbilical varices, 40.9% in retroperitoneal-paravertebral varices, and 36.4% in mesenteric varices. In the bleeding group, the occurrence rates and the degree of shunt were significantly higher than those in the non-bleeding group in esophageal varices, esophageal vein, left gastric vein and gastric varices (all P upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with hepatic schistosomiasis. The patents with higher degree of the shunting vessels have a higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  6. Climate change and institutional determinants of malaria and schistosomiasis In Gwanda District, Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furu, Peter; Chimbari, Moses; Makuratirwa, Samson

    2016-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of malaria and schistosomiasis are determined by a series of environmental, biological and social factors including institutional determinants of health. A gap in knowledge exists for some specific institutional determinants and their direct or indirect influ...

  7. Hemostatic dysfunction is increased in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni and advanced periportal fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis mansoni is an endemic parasitic disease and a public health problem in Northeast Brazil. In some patients, hepatic abnormalities lead to periportal fibrosis and result in the most severe clinical form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This study aimed to evaluate whether abnormal blood coagulation and liver function tests in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (n = 55 correlate with the severity of their periportal fibrosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples were used for liver function tests, hemogram and prothrombin time (International Normalized Ratio, INR. The blood coagulation factors (II, VII, VIII, IX and X, protein C and antithrombin IIa (ATIIa, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 and D-dimer were measured by photometry or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Hyperfibrinolysis was defined on the basis of PAI-1 levels and a D-dimer concentration greater than a standard cut-off of 483 ng/mL. Standard liver function tests were all abnormal in the patient group compared to healthy controls (n = 29, including raised serum transaminases (p<0.001 and lower levels of albumin (p = 0.0156. Platelet counts were 50% lower in patients, while for coagulation factors there was a 40% increase in the INR (p<0.001 and reduced levels of Factor VII and protein C in patients compared to the controls (both p<0.001. Additionally, patients with more advanced fibrosis (n = 38 had lower levels of protein C compared to those with only central fibrosis (p = 0.0124. The concentration of plasma PAI-1 in patients was one-third that of the control group (p<0.001, and D-dimer levels 2.2 times higher (p<0.001 with 13 of the 55 patients having levels above the cut-off. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms that hemostatic abnormalities are associated with reduced liver function and increased liver fibrosis. Of note was the finding that a quarter of patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and

  8. A national survey of the prevalence of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths in Malaŵi

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    Shaba Bina

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past estimates have put the prevalence of schistosomiasis between 40% and 50% in the Malawi population overall based on studies undertaken ten years or more ago. More recent surveys in known high risk areas find similar levels. However control measures, changing ecology and migration may have led to changes in the prevalence of schistosomiasis in different parts of Malawi. A national schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH survey was undertaken to measure the distribution, prevalence and intensity of infection in November 2002. Methods A school was selected randomly from a random sample of 30 Traditional Authorities stratified by six distinct ecological zones, and 1,664 year 3 pupils (9–10 year olds were questioned about recent illnesses and "red urine". Samples of urine and faeces were examined for the presence of eggs using the standard Kato-Katz technique for soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal schistosomiasis and urine samples using the filtration technique for Schistosoma haematobium. Results The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni is 0.4% (95% CI 0–1.3%, S. haematobium 6.9% (95% CI 1.9 – 11.9%, hookworm 1.3% (95% CI 0.4–2.3%, Ascariasis 0.5% (95% CI 0.1–1.0% and trichuriasis 0% in year 3 pupils (modal age 10 years of age. Intensity of infection is low for all infections except for 2.5% who have high intensity S. haematobium infection. The "red urine" question is 67% sensitive and 80% specific for positive S. haematobium microscopy. Conclusions The reduction in prevalences may be real as a result of recent control measures, or false if historical results were based on surveys of high risk populations. Another explanation is that this survey used an unrepresentative sample of schools. Detailed analysis suggests this is unlikely. Recommendations include the use of a 30% positive threshold for the "red urine" screening question to be used in schoolchildren in high prevalence areas. This survey

  9. Availability of two self-administered diet history questionnaires for pregnant Japanese women: A validation study using 24-hour urinary markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Murayama, Ryoko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Accurate and easy dietary assessment methods that can be used during pregnancy are required in both epidemiological studies and clinical settings. To verify the utility of dietary assessment questionnaires in pregnancy, we examined the validity and reliability of a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) and a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) to measure energy, protein, sodium, and potassium intake among pregnant Japanese women. The research was conducted at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan, between 2010 and 2011. The urinary urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium levels were used as reference values in the validation study. For the reliability assessment, participants completed the questionnaires twice within a 4-week interval. For the DHQ (n = 115), the correlation coefficients between survey-assessed energy-adjusted intake and urinary protein, sodium, and potassium levels were 0.359, 0.341, and 0.368, respectively; for the BDHQ (n = 112), corresponding values were 0.302, 0.314, and 0.401, respectively. The DHQ-measured unadjusted protein and potassium intake levels were significantly correlated with the corresponding urinary levels (r s  = 0.307 and r s  = 0.342, respectively). The intra-class correlation coefficients for energy, protein, sodium, and potassium between the time 1 and time 2 DHQ (n = 58) and between the time 1 and time 2 BDHQ (n = 54) ranged from 0.505 to 0.796. Both the DHQ and the BDHQ were valid and reliable questionnaires for assessing the energy-adjusted intake of protein, sodium, and potassium during pregnancy. In addition, given the observed validity of unadjusted protein and potassium intake measures, the DHQ can be a useful tool to estimate energy intake of pregnant Japanese women. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Availability of two self-administered diet history questionnaires for pregnant Japanese women: A validation study using 24-hour urinary markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Shiraishi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate and easy dietary assessment methods that can be used during pregnancy are required in both epidemiological studies and clinical settings. To verify the utility of dietary assessment questionnaires in pregnancy, we examined the validity and reliability of a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ and a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ to measure energy, protein, sodium, and potassium intake among pregnant Japanese women. Methods: The research was conducted at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan, between 2010 and 2011. The urinary urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium levels were used as reference values in the validation study. For the reliability assessment, participants completed the questionnaires twice within a 4-week interval. Results: For the DHQ (n = 115, the correlation coefficients between survey-assessed energy-adjusted intake and urinary protein, sodium, and potassium levels were 0.359, 0.341, and 0.368, respectively; for the BDHQ (n = 112, corresponding values were 0.302, 0.314, and 0.401, respectively. The DHQ-measured unadjusted protein and potassium intake levels were significantly correlated with the corresponding urinary levels (rs = 0.307 and rs = 0.342, respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficients for energy, protein, sodium, and potassium between the time 1 and time 2 DHQ (n = 58 and between the time 1 and time 2 BDHQ (n = 54 ranged from 0.505 to 0.796. Conclusions: Both the DHQ and the BDHQ were valid and reliable questionnaires for assessing the energy-adjusted intake of protein, sodium, and potassium during pregnancy. In addition, given the observed validity of unadjusted protein and potassium intake measures, the DHQ can be a useful tool to estimate energy intake of pregnant Japanese women.

  11. The impact of lower urinary tract symptoms on health-related quality of life among patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Kristin M; Coyne, Karin S; Globe, Denise R; Malone, Daniel C; Armstrong, Edward P; Patel, Vaishali; Burks, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms are commonly experienced among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), however, their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has not been well characterized. Herein the incremental impact of lower urinary tract symptoms on HRQOL among patients with MS has been evaluated. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to US residents with a self-reported MS diagnosis. Data pertaining to demographics, disease history, urinary symptoms, and HRQOL, including the Short Form 36, version 2 (SF-36v2), were collected. Patients were stratified into four urinary symptom groups: no/minimal urinary symptoms, urinary urgency (UU), urinary urgency incontinence (UUI), and other lower urinary tract symptoms. Multiple linear regression models evaluated the impact of these symptoms. Out of the 1,052 respondents, mean age was 47.8 ± 10.6 years; mean time since MS diagnosis was 8.5 ± 7.8 years. UUI and UU subgroups showed the greatest adjusted HRQOL decrement compared with the no/minimal urinary symptoms group, scoring 2.8 (SE ± 0.7, UUI) and 3.5 (SE ± 0.8, UU) points lower on SF-36v2 Physical Component Summary, respectively, and 3.7 (SE ± 1.0, UUI) and 5.0 (SE ± 1.2, UU) points lower on SF-36v2 Mental Component Summary (P decrement in HRQOL among patients with MS. The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Self-reported versus behavioral self-handicapping: empirical evidence for a theoretical distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, E R; Deppe, R K; Gordon, L J

    1991-12-01

    The present study was an investigation of how Ss would respond when given 2 self-handicapping options, 1 behavioral (withdrawal of practice effort) and 1 self-reported (reporting high levels of stress). Ss anticipating a diagnostic test of intellectual ability were given different instructions regarding the effects of stress and practice on test performance. Ss were told that (a) stress only, (b) practice only, (c) both stress and practice, or (d) neither stress nor practice affected test scores. Ss were then given the opportunity to self-report a handicap on a stress inventory and to behaviorally self-handicap by failing to practice before the test. High self-handicapping men and women showed evidence of self-reported handicapping, but only high self-handicapping men behaviorally self-handicapped. However, when both self-handicaps were viable, both high self-handicapping men and women preferred the self-reported over the behavioral self-handicap.

  13. Effects of diuretics on urinary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xundou

    2015-01-01

    Biomarker is the measurable change associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood which has mechanisms to keep the internal environment homeostatic, urine is more likely to reflect changes of the body. As a result, urine is likely to be a better biomarker source than blood. However, since the urinary proteome is affected by many factors, including diuretics, careful evaluation of those effects is necessary if urinary proteomics is used for biomarker discovery. The human orthologs of most of these 14 proteins affected are stable in the healthy human urinary proteome, and 10 of them are reported as disease biomarkers. Thus, our results suggest that the effects of diuretics deserve more attention in future urinary protein biomarker studies. Moreover, the distinct effects of diuretics on the urinary proteome may provide clues to the mechanisms of diuretics.

  14. Coinfection of intestinal schistosomiasis and malaria and association with haemoglobin levels and nutritional status in school children in Mara region, Northwestern Tanzania: a cross-sectional exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Dunne, David W; Kepha, Stella; Kaatano, Godfrey; Kishamawe, Coleman; Ndokeji, Samuel; Angelo, Teckla; Nuwaha, Fred

    2017-11-09

    Schistosomiasis represents a major public health problem in Tanzania despite ongoing national control efforts. This study examined whether intestinal schistosomiasis is associated with malaria and assessed the contribution of intestinal schistosomiasis and malaria on anaemia and undernutrition in school children in Mara region, North-western Tanzania. Stool samples were collected from each of 928 school children randomly selected from 5 schools and examined for intestinal schistosomiasis using the Kato Katz method. Finger prick blood samples were collected and examined for malaria parasites and haemoglobin concentrations using the Giemsa stain and Haemocue methods, respectively. Nutritional status was assessed by taking anthropometric measurements. The overall prevalence and infection intensity of S. mansoni was 85.6% (794/928) and 192 (100-278), respectively. The prevalence of malaria was 27.4% (254/928) with significant differences among villages (χ 2  = 96.11, p malaria are prevalent in Mara region. Coinfections of these parasites as well as chronic undernutrition were also common. We recommend Mara region to be included in national schistosomiasis control programmes.

  15. Neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souka, N.; Souka, S.; Sanad, W.; Abdel-Rassoul, A.A.

    1974-01-01

    Urinary calculi resulting from disorders in the urinary system are mostly composed of uric acid, urates, calcium oxalate, alkaline earth phosphates (Ca and Mg), triple phosphate (magnesium ammonium phosphate), calcium carbonate, cystine, xanthine, and traces of proteins. The determination of these macro-constituents has been carried out by different analytical procedures. No attempts however, have been reported regarding the determination of trace elements in urinary stones, apart from that of Herring et al., who investigated the consumption of strontium by urolithiasis patients. The present work is a non-destructive neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi, to search the variation in concentration of certain trace elements with the chemical composition of the calculus

  16. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors affecting the self-perception period of lower urinary tract symptoms of international prostate symptom score items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Shim, S R; Lee, W J; Kim, H J; Kwon, S-S; Bae, J H

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on the lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) self-perception period and International Prostate Symptom Score. This cross-sectional study examined 209 men aged ≥ 40 years with non-treated LUTS who participated in a prostate examination survey. Questions included International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) items with self-perception periods for each item. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were also assessed. Participants were divided by mild LUTS (IPSS less than 8) and moderate-to-severe LUTS (IPSS 8 or higher). Self-perception period of the moderate-to-severe LUTS (n = 110) was affected by BMI; the self-perception period of the mild LUTS (n = 90) was affected by age, income, occupation and concomitant disease. Moderate-to-severe LUTS were affected by self-perception period (p = 0.03). Self-perception period was affected by concern for health (p = 0.005) by multivariate analysis, and self-perception period of mild LUTS was affected by BMI (p = 0.012). Moderate-to-severe LUTS were affected by age, number of family members, concern for health and drinking (p self-perception period. In moderate-to-severe LUTS, age, concern for health and drinking were affecting factors of self-perception period. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. [Strategy of comprehensive control for schistosomiasis and its effect in key areas of Jiangsu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Le-Ping; Tian, Zeng-Xi; Yang, Kun; Hong, Qing-Biao; Gao, Yang; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Lian-Heng; Yang, Guo-Jing; Min, Jie; Ge, Jun; Wu, Hong-Hui; Huang, Yi-Xin; Liang, You-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive control for schistosomiasis in key areas of Jiangsu Province. The basic data and the data of implementation of comprehensive control measures were collected from the key areas of Jiangsu Province, including 30 townships, 87 marshlands and 78 anchor points. A field survey was carried out to investigate the Oncomelania snail status by using the systematic sampling method and schistosomiasis morbidity in humans and animals in the 12 key counties (districts). The changes of snail status and morbidity of humans and animals were statistically analyzed in key counties (districts) where comprehensive control measures was implemented, and the effects of schistosomiasis control before and after the implementation of the comprehensive control were compared. From 2008 to 2010, a total of 84 100 harmless latrines were constructed, 339 600 persons were examined, 2.6938 million people received health education, 112 000 protective creams and 798 000 publicity materials were allocated, 9 085 domestic animals were reared in pens, 11 800 domestic animals were examined, 130 high-risk cattle were eliminated in 30 key townships of 12 countries (districts), Jiangsu Province. A total of 19 640.78 hm2 were controlled with molluscicides, 798 warning tablets were placed, 116.07 hm2 of farmlands were ploughed up and planted, 306.80 hm2 were dug for fish culture, and 506.74 hm2 were planted with trees for snail control in 87 high-risk marshlands. A total of 118.83 million Yuan were invested into the water resources development projects, 39.82 km-long rivers were dredged, 70.04 km-long bank were concreted, 30 culvert gates were re-constructed, and 22 snail sedimentation tanks were built. In the 78 anchor points, 95 harmless public toilets were built, 3 192 stool container were allocated, 28 700 boatmen were examined, 71 600 protective creams and 53 200 publicity materials were allocated, and 46 600 persons received health education. Following the

  18. No. 250-Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Annette; Larochelle, Annick

    2017-10-01

    To provide an update of the definition, epidemiology, clinical presentation, investigation, treatment, and prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital antibiotic prophylaxis, and acute self-treatment are all efficient alternatives to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection. Vaginal estrogen and cranberry juice can also be effective prophylaxis alternatives. A search of PubMed and The Cochrane Library for articles published in English identified the most relevant literature. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date restrictions. This update is the consensus of the Sub-Committee on Urogynaecology of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Recurrent urinary tract infections need careful investigation and can be efficiently treated and prevented. Different prophylaxis options can be selected according to each patient's characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Patient-reported lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence, and quality of life after external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer - 15 years' follow-up. A comparison with age-matched controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, Per (Dept. of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    Background. To prospectively examine the urinary toxicity and quality of life (QOL) in patients 15 years after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for localized prostate cancer (LPC) and compare the outcomes with results for age-matched controls. Material and methods. Urinary symptoms were assessed using the symptom-specific Prostate Cancer Symptom Scale (PCSS) questionnaire, and QOL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)'s Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). Both questionnaires were sent to the surviving 41 patients (25%) and the PCSS questionnaire was sent to 69 age-matched controls for comparison. Results. The response rate was 71% in the patient group and 59% in the control group. Two patients and four controls were excluded due to other cancer diagnoses, resulting in a total of 27 patients and 37 controls for inclusion in the analyses. The mean age in both groups was 78 years. In the patient group, incontinence had increased between the 8-year (mean=0.6) and the 15-year follow-up (mean=2.1; p=0.038). No other differences in urinary problems were seen between these two follow-ups. Increased incontinence, stress incontinence, and pain while urinating were reported by the patients in comparison with the controls at 15 years. Role function was worse in the patient group (mean=67.3) compared with the controls (mean=82.4; p=0.046). The patients also reported more appetite loss, diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, and pain than the controls. Conclusion. EBRT for LPC has divergent effects on urinary symptoms and QOL in comparison with age-matched controls. In our patient population, urinary incontinence increased between 8 and 15 years of follow-up. Otherwise, no differences in urinary symptoms were seen between 4 and 15 years. Incontinence, stress incontinence, and pain while urinating were increased after EBRT in comparison with the controls. Conventional EBRT did not result in a major deterioration in QOL 15 years

  20. Improvement in self-reported confidence in nurses' professional skills in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautava, Veli-Pekka; Palomäki, Erika; Innamaa, Tapio; Perttu, Mika; Lehto, Päivi; Palomäki, Ari

    2013-03-05

    The aim of this study was to assess nurses' self-reported confidence in their professional skills before and after an extensive Emergency Department (ED) reform in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. Emergency nurses participated in transitional training commencing two years before the establishment of the new organization in 2007. Training was followed by weekly practical educational sessions in the new ED. During this process nurses improved their transition skills, defined house rules for the new clinic and improved their knowledge of new technology and instruments. The main processes involving critically ill ED patients were described and modelled with an electronic flow chart software.During the transitional training nurses compiled lists of practical skills and measures needed in the ED. These were updated after feedback from physicians in primary and secondary care and head physicians in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. The final 189-item list comprised 15 different categories, each containing from 4 to 35 items. Based on the work described above, a questionnaire was developed to reflect ED nurses' skills in clinical measures but also to estimate the need for professional education and practical training. Nurses working in the ED were asked to fill the questionnaire in January 2007 (response rate 97%) and in January 2011 (response rate 98%). Nurses' self-reported confidence in their professional skills improved significally in eight classes out of fifteen. These classes were cannulations, urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring, cardiac patients, equipment, triage and nurse practising, psychiatric patients as well as infection risk. Best results were noted in urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring and infection risk. When studying the group of nurses participating in both surveys in 2007 and 2011, improvements were observed in all fifteen categories. All but two of these changes were significant (pskills of nurses. This improvement was especially

  1. Improvement in self-reported confidence in nurses’ professional skills in the emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess nurses’ self-reported confidence in their professional skills before and after an extensive Emergency Department (ED) reform in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. Methods Emergency nurses participated in transitional training commencing two years before the establishment of the new organization in 2007. Training was followed by weekly practical educational sessions in the new ED. During this process nurses improved their transition skills, defined house rules for the new clinic and improved their knowledge of new technology and instruments. The main processes involving critically ill ED patients were described and modelled with an electronic flow chart software. During the transitional training nurses compiled lists of practical skills and measures needed in the ED. These were updated after feedback from physicians in primary and secondary care and head physicians in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. The final 189-item list comprised 15 different categories, each containing from 4 to 35 items. Based on the work described above, a questionnaire was developed to reflect ED nurses’ skills in clinical measures but also to estimate the need for professional education and practical training. Nurses working in the ED were asked to fill the questionnaire in January 2007 (response rate 97%) and in January 2011 (response rate 98%). Results Nurses’ self-reported confidence in their professional skills improved significally in eight classes out of fifteen. These classes were cannulations, urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring, cardiac patients, equipment, triage and nurse practising, psychiatric patients as well as infection risk. Best results were noted in urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring and infection risk. When studying the group of nurses participating in both surveys in 2007 and 2011, improvements were observed in all fifteen categories. All but two of these changes were significant (pskills of nurses. This

  2. Exploring relationships of catheter-associated urinary tract infection and blockage in people with long-term indwelling urinary catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Mary H; McMahon, James M; Crean, Hugh F; Brasch, Judith

    2017-09-01

    To describe and explore relationships among catheter problems in long-term indwelling urinary catheter users, including excess healthcare use for treating catheter problems. Long-term urinary catheter users experience repeated problems with catheter-related urinary tract infection and blockage of the device, yet little has been reported of the patterns and relationships among relevant catheter variables. Secondary data analysis was conducted from a sample in a randomised clinical trial, using data from the entire sample of 202 persons over 12 months' participation. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise the sample over time. Zero-inflated negative binomial models were employed for logistic regressions to evaluate predictor variables of the presence/absence and frequencies of catheter-related urinary tract infection and blockage. Catheter-related urinary tract infection was marginally associated with catheter blockage. Problems reported at least once per person in the 12 months were as follows: catheter-related urinary tract infection 57%, blockage 34%, accidental dislodgment 28%, sediment 87%, leakage (bypassing) 67%, bladder spasms 59%, kinks/twists 42% and catheter pain 49%. Regression analysis demonstrated that bladder spasms were significantly related to catheter-related urinary tract infection and sediment amount, and catheter leakages were marginally significantly and positively related to catheter-related urinary tract infection. Frequencies of higher levels of sediment and catheter leakage were significantly associated with higher levels of blockage, and being female was associated with fewer blockages. Persons who need help with eating (more disabled) were also more likely to have blockages. Catheter-related urinary tract infection and blockage appear to be related and both are associated with additional healthcare expenditures. More research is needed to better understand how to prevent adverse catheter outcomes and patterns of problems in

  3. commu ity's aware ess about i testi al schistosomiasis ad the prevale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    despite high awareness about the source and mode of transmission of schistosomiasis, people living in endemic areas do not avoid exposure because lack of other alternatives as well as low impact of the disease on their daily activities (9). Several factors such as socio- economic status, cultural beliefs, lack of specific.

  4. Associations between patterns of human intestinal schistosomiasis and snail and mammal species richness in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, ecological research has suggested several mechanisms by which biodiversity might affect the risk of acquiring infectious diseases (i.e., the decoy, dilution or amplification effects), but the topic remains controversial. While many experimental studies suggest a negative relation......In recent years, ecological research has suggested several mechanisms by which biodiversity might affect the risk of acquiring infectious diseases (i.e., the decoy, dilution or amplification effects), but the topic remains controversial. While many experimental studies suggest a negative...... richness and schistosomiasis risk. We discuss the limitations of the data and methods used to test the decoy hypothesis for schistosomiasis, and highlight key future research directions that can facilitate more powerful tests of the decoy effect in snail-borne infections, at geographical scales...

  5. Preventing urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Diane K; Cardozo, Linda; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich

    2013-10-01

    This review examines the evidence to date, analyzes specific risk factors and assesses the ability to prevent urinary incontinence in women, while providing clinical recommendations. More extraordinary risk factors such as ethnicity and race, mixed and fecal incontinence, iatrogenic and neurogenic factors should be discussed in a follow-up report. Studies have revealed that certain factors place women at risk for developing urinary incontinence, including age, obesity, diabetes, pregnancy and delivery, high-impact physical exercise factors and estrogen deficiency. Healthcare providers should screen women who are at risk for developing urinary incontinence and institute specific interventions, specifically behavioral and even rehabilitative techniques, to prevent this prevalent and distressing condition.

  6. Acute urinary retention in a 23-year-old woman with mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobe Hideyuki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Patients with clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion present with relatively mild central nervous system disturbances. Although the exact etiology of the condition remains poorly understood, it is thought to be associated with infective agents. We present a case of a patient with mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion, who had the unusual feature of acute urinary retention. Case presentation A 23-year-old Japanese woman developed mild confusion, gait ataxia, and urinary retention seven days after onset of fever and headache. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated T2 prolongation in the splenium of the corpus callosum and bilateral cerebral white matter. These magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities disappeared two weeks later, and all of the symptoms resolved completely within four weeks. Except for the presence of acute urinary retention (due to underactive detrusor without hyper-reflexia, the clinical and radiologic features of our patient were consistent with those of previously reported patients with mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of acute urinary retention recognized in a patient with mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion. Conclusion Our findings suggest that mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion can be associated with impaired bladder function and indicate that acute urinary retention in this benign disorder should be treated immediately to avoid bladder injury.

  7. Use of American urological association symptom index of measuring urinary symptoms in radiotherapy as a quality of life instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Misa M.; Mamo, Carol; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    1997-01-01

    difference in pre- and post-radiotherapy urinary symptoms. AUASI for all 18 patients scored prior to the radiotherapy ranged from 1 to 26 with an average score of 8.9. However, for 8 patients whose post-therapy AUASI scores were available for comparison, there was an average pre-therapy score of 10.75(range:1-26) measured at the time of consultation. This was no different from an average post-therapy score of 10.75(range:3-21) measured at an average 4.4mo.(range:3-6mo.) post-therapy. Overall, 4 patients reported mild worsening of the symptoms while 3 patients reported mild improvement and 1 without any change after the radiotherapy. The patient response to the questionnaire was favorable and self-understood, requiring no additional education or interpretation by the health care workers. CONCLUSION: AUASI is easily administered, responsive instrument in measuring and pre- and post-radiotherapy urinary symptoms in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. In our study, there was no difference in urinary symptoms when pre- and post-therapy AUASIscores were compared. Given this potential role of AUASI as an objective and evaluative measurement in defining the radiotherapy induced urinary symptoms versus an individual's pre-existing symptom, we are continuing to study the use of AUASI measurements in larger group of prostate cancer patients undergoing a definitive radiotherapy to draw more robust, statistically valid conclusions

  8. An International Continence Society (ICS) report on the terminology for adult neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (ANLUTD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Jerzy B; Schurch, Brigitte; Hamid, Rizwan; Averbeck, Márcio; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Agrò, Enrico F; Dickinson, Tamara; Payne, Christopher K; Drake, Marcus J; Haylen, Bernie T

    2018-03-01

    The terminology for adult neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (ANLUTD) should be defined and organized in a clinically based consensus Report. This Report has been created by a Working Group under the auspices and guidelines of the International Continence Society (ICS) Standardization Steering Committee (SSC) assisted at intervals by external referees. All relevant definitions for ANLUTD were updated on the basis of research over the last 14 years. An extensive process of 18 rounds of internal and external review was involved to exhaustively examine each definition, with decision-making by collective opinion (consensus). A Terminology Report for ANLUTD, encompassing 97 definitions (42 NEW and 8 CHANGED, has been developed. It is clinically based with the most common diagnoses defined. Clarity and user-friendliness have been key aims to make it interpretable by practitioners and trainees in all the different groups involved not only in lower urinary tract dysfunction but additionally in many other medical specialties. A consensus-based Terminology Report for ANLUTD has been produced to aid clinical practice and research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. CT presentations of colorectal cancer with chronic schistosomiasis: A comparative study with pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: zhangwei976@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Wang, Pei-Jun, E-mail: peijunwang_tongji@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Shen, Xing, E-mail: shenxing1997@163.com [Department of Radiology, Traditional Chinese Hospital, No. 189, Chaoyangxi Road, Kun Shan 215300, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Guo-liang, E-mail: glwang1960@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Zhao, Xiao-hu, E-mail: tiger1968@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Seema, S.F., E-mail: saaaamaaaa@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Zheng, Shao-qiang, E-mail: shaoqiangzh@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China); Li, Ming-hua, E-mail: minghuali@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, No. 389, Xincun Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200065 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: To clarify pathological basis of computed tomography (CT) presentations of colorectal cancer (CRC) with schistosomiasis for the purpose of improving the accuracy of CT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the condition. Materials and methods: 130 patients (87 male and 43 female; age range 49-86 years, mean 71.1) were selected whose diagnoses were pathologically confirmed as CRC with schistosomiasis. All the patients underwent abdominal plain CT and contrast enhanced scanning. The location, morphology, size, calcification features and enhancement modalities (patterns) were evaluated and compared with the pathological findings by two radiologists in a blind way. Results: CT showed that in 130 patients, the tumors occurred in the large intestine, among which 109 (83.9%) were solitary and 21 (16.1%) were multifocal. The intestinal wall was irregularly thickened in 123 patients, with soft tissue masses in 7 patients. Linear, spotty and small patchy calcifications were seen in 104 (80.0%) patients, with unclear margins in 96 patients. The tumors were markedly unevenly enhanced in 92 patients. Pathological examination revealed adenocarcinoma in 114 patients and in 104 patients, calcified Shistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) ova inside the tumors, 15 patients were mucinous adenocarcinoma, and one patient was that of adenosquamous carcinoma. Conclusion: Irregular thickening of the intestinal wall, soft tissue masses, multiple S. japonicum ova calcifications inside the tumor with obscured margins and multiple intestinal masses in some patients are important CT features of CRC with schistosomiasis.

  10. Acute urinary retention as a late complication of subcutaneous liquid silicone injection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luongo de Matos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute urinary retention is characterized by a sudden interruption of urinary output; urine is retained in the bladder due to either functional or obstructive anatomic factors, and cannot be voided. The main causes of acute urinary obstruction are benign prostatic hyperplasia, constipation, prostate adenocarcinoma, urethral stenosis, clot retention, neurological disorders, following surgery, calculi, drugs, or urinary tract infections. A transvestite patient, aged 55 years, described having had liquid silicone subcutaneously injected in various parts of the body, the last one four years ago. He complained of absent urinary output during the last 14 hours. The physical examination revealed skin deformation due to migration of implants; a hard nodule (characterized as a foreign body was present in the preputium and a diagnosis of acute urinary retention was made; an unsuccessful attempt to exteriorize the glans for urinary catheterization, was followed by therapeutic cystostomy. Acute urinary retention has not been mentioned in the medical literature as a complication of liquid silicone subcutaneous injection.

  11. [On the reversal of schistosomiasis hepatic fibrosis after specific therapy. Histopathologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapadeiro, E; Pitanga, L C

    1997-01-01

    Surgical liver biopsies of patients of both sexes, between 18 and 72 years old, with the compensated hepatoesplenic form of schistosomiasis mansoni, previously treated with oxaminique (Mansil) were studied by histological and immunohistochemical methods. Although the search for parasites and/or granulomas was negative in all specimen studied, the portal fibrosis remained.

  12. Reoperation for urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    for urinary incontinence (retropubic midurethral tape, transobturator tape, urethral injection therapy, Burch colposuspension, pubovaginal slings, and miscellaneous operations). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for factors......BACKGROUND: The synthetic midurethral slings were introduced in the 1990s and were rapidly replaced the Burch colposuspension as the gold standard treatment for urinary incontinence. It has been reported that the retropubic midurethral tape has an objective and subjective cure rate of 85% at 5...... years of follow-up, but the rate of reoperation after retropubic midurethral tape at the long-term follow-up is less well described. The existing literature specifies an overall lifetime rate of reoperation of about 8-9% after an initial operation for urinary incontinence. There are, however...

  13. Chronic hepatosplenomegaly in African school children: a common but neglected morbidity associated with schistosomiasis and malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Wilson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatosplenomegaly, which is known to have a complex aetiology, is common amongst children who reside in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Two of the more common infectious agents of hepatosplenomegaly amongst these children are malarial infections and schistosomiasis. The historical view of hepatosplenomegaly associated with schistosomiasis is that it is caused by gross periportal fibrosis and resulting portal hypertension. The introduction of ultrasound examinations into epidemiology studies, used in tandem with clinical examination, showed a dissociation within endemic communities between presentation with hepatosplenomegaly and ultrasound periportal fibrosis, while immuno-epidemiological studies indicate that rather than the pro-fibrotic Th2 response that is associated with periportal fibrosis, childhood hepatosplenomegaly without ultrasound-detectable fibrosis is associated with a pro-inflammatory response. Correlative analysis has shown that the pro-inflammatory response is also associated with chronic exposure to malarial infections and there is evidence of exacerbation of hepatosplenomegaly when co-exposure to malaria and schistosomiasis occurs. The common presentation with childhood hepatosplenomegaly in rural communities means that it is an important example of a multi-factorial disease and its association with severe and subtle morbidities underlies the need for well-designed public health strategies for tackling common infectious diseases in tandem rather than in isolation.

  14. Exploring the potential of host-environment relationship in the control of schistosomiasis in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, C.; Syampungani, S.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    A number of human disease prevalences are supported by host-parasite-environment interactions. One such disease is schistosomiasis. Schistosoma parasites are transmitted between the snail intermediate hosts and mammalian definitive hosts in an aquatic environment. This host-environment link

  15. Assessment of oltipraz in schistosomiasis mansoni clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftale Katz

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy three children (6-15 years and 75 adults (18-47 years with active schistosomiasis mansoni were treated with oltipraz. All cases had at least 100 eggs per gram of feces as determined by the Kato-Katz technique. Children and adults were divided in two groups receiving respectively 25 or 30 mg/kg, as a single oral dose. Clinical examination, laboratories tests (haemogram, urinalysis, hepatic and kidney functions tests, glycemia, cholesterol, triglicerides, lipoprotein — HLD and LDL and ECG were performed before, 3 or 7 days and 1 month after treatment. Parasitological control with 3 daily coprological examinations, was done on the 1st, 3rd j 6th month after drug administration. Giddiness, somnolence, headache, nausea, vomiting and abdominal distress were the most frequent side effects. Pain in the finger tips that need further investigations also occurred. No significant alteration in complementary tests were observed, whereas eosinophilia 1 month after treatment was detected, probably indicating worm death. The cure rate in children was 81.8% and 74.2% with 25 and 30 mg/kg respectively, and in adults 75.0% and 81.2% of the patients. No statistical significant difference was observed between cure rate and side effects at different dosages employed, neither between adults nor children. In all groups the percentage of egg reduction in feces in the non cured patients was higher than 96.0%. Further investigation with this new compound is necessary to accomplish the real value of oltipraz in the schistosomiasis chemotherapy.

  16. Leech in urinary bladder causing hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shadrul; Das Choudhary, Mrigen Kumar; Islam, Kabirul

    2008-02-01

    To estimate efficacy of normal saline in the management of hematuria caused by accidental entry of a leech per urethra into the urinary bladder. An intervention study was carried out in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College between January 1998 and December 2003. A total of 43 boys (mean age 8 years, SD+/-2.6) were enrolled. In all cases, a leech had entered the urinary bladder through the urethra causing hematuria. All patients were equipped with a self-retaining Foley catheter. They were managed by infusing 50ml of normal saline into the urinary bladder through the catheter that was then clamped for 3h. After removing the catheter, in all cases the whole leech was spontaneously expelled intact, dead or alive, within 2-24h during the subsequent act of micturition. Hematuria gradually diminished to a clear flow within the next 6h in 27 cases, 12h in 14 cases and 24h in two cases. All patients were followed up for 2 weeks, and none developed recurrent hematuria. Catheterization and irrigation of the urinary bladder with normal saline is a relatively simple, safe and inexpensive method of removing the leech and controlling hematuria.

  17. Agrochemicals increase risk of human schistosomiasis by supporting higher densities of intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Neal T; Hoover, Christopher M; Arakala, Arathi; Civitello, David J; De Leo, Giulio A; Gambhir, Manoj; Johnson, Steve A; Jouanard, Nicolas; Loerns, Kristin A; McMahon, Taegan A; Ndione, Raphael A; Nguyen, Karena; Raffel, Thomas R; Remais, Justin V; Riveau, Gilles; Sokolow, Susanne H; Rohr, Jason R

    2018-02-26

    Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne parasitic disease that ranks among the most important water-based diseases of humans in developing countries. Increased prevalence and spread of human schistosomiasis to non-endemic areas has been consistently linked with water resource management related to agricultural expansion. However, the role of agrochemical pollution in human schistosome transmission remains unexplored, despite strong evidence of agrochemicals increasing snail-borne diseases of wildlife and a projected 2- to 5-fold increase in global agrochemical use by 2050. Using a field mesocosm experiment, we show that environmentally relevant concentrations of fertilizer, a herbicide, and an insecticide, individually and as mixtures, increase densities of schistosome-infected snails by increasing the algae snails eat and decreasing densities of snail predators. Epidemiological models indicate that these agrochemical effects can increase transmission of schistosomes. Identifying agricultural practices or agrochemicals that minimize disease risk will be critical to meeting growing food demands while improving human wellbeing.

  18. Quality of life in women with urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DraLjiljana Mladenović Segedi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine the characteristics of urinary incontinence and its impact on the quality of life in adult women with urinary incontinence who presented to a tertiary care clinic of Vojvodina from September 2008 to May 2009 for treatment Methods We used a prospective case-control study. Cases were defined as patients (47 with urinary incontinence symptoms. Controls(50 were defined as patients without urinary incontinence who presented to a tertiary care gynecology clinic for other reasons. Both, cases and controls, completed two questionnaires recommended for the evaluation of symptoms, The Urinary Distress Inventory, and quality of life impact The Urinary Impact Questionnaire. Results There was a significant correlation between aging(r=0.614; p<0.01, body mass index (r=0.357; p<0.01 and menopause(r= -0.572; p<0.01 and urinary incontinence. All patients had symptoms of stress incontinence, 61.7% had urge incontinence symptoms, 21.3% voiding difficulty and 85.1% dysuria. Ninety-four patients believed that urinary incontinence impaired their quality of life: 50% of patients reported an impaired ability to do household activities, 59.1% avoided social activities, 70.4% reported an impaired ability to travel more than 30 minutes by car or bus, 88.6% avoided leisure activities, 45.5% of patients had impaired emotional health and 34% felt frustrated. Conclusion The dominant type of urinary incontinence in more than half of the respondents was a mixed type, with moderate to very severe problems. Symptoms of urinary incontinence interfere with the performance of everyday household and social activities, causing the appearance of anxiety, depression and frustration, and in more than 50% of women leads to reduced quality of life.

  19. Schistosomiasis mansoni and paddy-rice growing in Uganda: an emerging new problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukenya, G B; Nsungwa, J L; Makanga, B; Salvator, A

    1994-08-01

    In Eastern Uganda, paddy-rice growing, which has only become popular in recent years, seems to be associated with the emergence of schistosomiasis mansoni as a new problem in public health. To estimate the magnitude of this problem, a cross-sectional, baseline survey was carried out in six villages of the Kibimba Rice Scheme. The overall prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was found to be 20%. The highest prevalences and intensities of infection were seen in those aged 5-29 years, with more males infected than females. An attempt was then made to identify the important factors in the aetiology of S. mansoni in this area. Odds ratios indicated that working regularly in the rice paddies, fishing with baskets, and being male were statistically associated with an increased risk of S. mansoni infection. It is clear that schistosomiasis mansoni which is