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Sample records for self-reported skill level

  1. Exploring the Self-Reported ICT Skill Levels of Undergraduate Science Students

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    Jef C. Verhoeven

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Computers have taken an important place in the training of science students and in the professional life of scientists. It is often taken for granted that most students have mastered basic Information and Communication Technologies (ICT skills; however, it has been shown that not all students are equally proficient in this regard. Starting from theories of socialization and technology acceptance we report how we constructed a structural equation model (SEM to explore the variance in the basic ICT skill levels of science students. We also present the results of a test of this model with university bachelor’s science students. Basic ICT skills were measured using a new, elaborate instrument allowing students to rate their skills in detail. Our results show that science students score high on basic ICT skills and that our SEM explains a large part of the variation in the ICT skill levels of these students. The most explanatory power is coming from four variables: the perceived ease of use and the perceived usefulness of a personal computer, the anxiety for using a personal computer, and students’ belief that ICT is necessary for scientific research.

  2. Exploring the Self-Reported ICT Skill Levels of Undergraduate Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerwegh, Dirk; De Wit, Kurt; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2016-01-01

    Computers have taken an important place in the training of science students and in the professional life of scientists. It is often taken for granted that most students have mastered basic Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) skills; however, it has been shown that not all students are equally proficient in this regard. Starting from…

  3. The Use of Skilled Strategies in Social Interactions by Groups High and Low in Self-Reported Social Skill

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    Channon, Shelley; Collins, Ruth; Swain, Eleanor; Young, Mary-Beth; Fitzpatrick, Sian

    2012-01-01

    Individuals high or low in self-reported social skill were recruited opportunistically. When presented with everyday social scenarios ending with an awkward request or offer, the high social skill participants more often used sophisticated strategies that showed greater consideration for all parties. By contrast, the low skill participants were…

  4. Relations Between Self-reported Executive Functioning and Speech Perception Skills in Adult Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberly, Aaron C; Patel, Tirth R; Castellanos, Irina

    2018-02-01

    As a result of their hearing loss, adults with cochlear implants (CIs) would self-report poorer executive functioning (EF) skills than normal-hearing (NH) peers, and these EF skills would be associated with performance on speech recognition tasks. EF refers to a group of high order neurocognitive skills responsible for behavioral and emotional regulation during goal-directed activity, and EF has been found to be poorer in children with CIs than their NH age-matched peers. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that neurocognitive skills, including some EF skills, contribute to the ability to recognize speech through a CI. Thirty postlingually deafened adults with CIs and 42 age-matched NH adults were enrolled. Participants and their spouses or significant others (informants) completed well-validated self-reports or informant-reports of EF, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult (BRIEF-A). CI users' speech recognition skills were assessed in quiet using several measures of sentence recognition. NH peers were tested for recognition of noise-vocoded versions of the same speech stimuli. CI users self-reported difficulty on EF tasks of shifting and task monitoring. In CI users, measures of speech recognition correlated with several self-reported EF skills. The present findings provide further evidence that neurocognitive factors, including specific EF skills, may decline in association with hearing loss, and that some of these EF skills contribute to speech processing under degraded listening conditions.

  5. Education and Self-Reported Health: Evidence from 23 Countries on the Role of Years of Schooling, Cognitive Skills and Social Capital.

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    Francesca Borgonovi

    Full Text Available We examine the contribution of human capital to health in 23 countries worldwide using the OECD Survey of Adult Skills, a unique large-scale international assessment of 16-65 year olds that contains information about self-reported health, schooling, cognitive skills and indicators of interpersonal trust, which represents the cognitive dimension of social capital. We identify cross-national differences in education, skill and social capital gradients in self-reported health and explore the interaction between human capital and social capital to examine if and where social capital is a mediator or a moderator of years of schooling and cognitive abilities. We find large education gaps in self-reported health across all countries in our sample and a strong positive relationship between self-reported health and both literacy and trust in the majority of countries. Education and skill gradients in self-reported health appear to be largest in the United States and smallest in Italy, France, Sweden and Finland. On average around 5.5% of both the schooling gap in self-reported health and the literacy gap in self-reported health can be explained by the higher levels of interpersonal trust that better educated/more skilled individuals have, although the mediating role of trust varies considerably across countries. We find no evidence of a moderation effect: the relationships between health and years of schooling and health and cognitive skills are similar among individuals with different levels of trust.

  6. The importance and development of ball control and (self-reported) self-regulatory skills in basketball players for different positions.

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    Te Wierike, Sanne Cornelia Maria; Huijgen, Barbara Catharina Helena; Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije Titia; Visscher, Chris

    2018-03-01

    This study first investigated the importance of ball control and (self-reported) self-regulatory skills in achieving the elite level in basketball. The second aim was to gain insight into the development of, and association between ball control and (self-reported) self-regulatory skills that contribute to achieving the elite level, with taking into account positional differences. Talented male players (N = 73; age 16.56 ± 1.96) completed the STARtest to measure ball control and a questionnaire to measure (self-reported) self-regulation from 2008-2012. Results showed that (self-reported) reflective skills were most important to achieve the elite level (OR = 11.76; P self-reported) reflection over time for guards, forwards, and centers. Improvement in ball control was evident for guards (r = -0.65; P self-reported) reflection and ball control, i.e., higher reflection was related to better ball control (guards r = -0.19; forwards r = -0.18) in contrast to centers (r = 0.34). It is concluded that (self-reported) reflective skills are important to achieve the elite level, while ball control seems especially important for guards.

  7. Self-reported confidence and skills of general practitioners in management of mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley Browne, Mark; Lee, Adeline; Prabhu, Radha

    2007-10-01

    To identify the predictors of self-reported confidence and skills of GPs in management of patients with mental health problems. Cross-sectional survey, with questionnaire presented to 246 GPs working in 62 practices throughout Gippsland. Rural general practices in Gippsland. One hundred and thirty-four GPs across Gippsland. GPs completed a questionnaire assessing self-perception of knowledge and skills in recognition and management of common mental health problems. Of 134 GPs, 45% reported that they have a specific interest in mental health, and 39% of GPs reported that they had previous mental health training. Only 22% of GPs describe having both an interest and prior training in mental health care. Age and years since graduation are not significantly related to self-reported confidence and skills. The results of this study highlight that self-professed interest and prior training in mental health are associated. Self-professed interest in mental health care predicts confidence and self-perceived skills in recognition, assessment and management of common mental health disorders. Similarly, prior training in mental health care predicts confidence and self-perceived skills in recognition, assessment and management of common mental health problems. Self-professed interest in mental health issues is also associated with hours of participation in continuing medical education related to mental health care. Unfortunately, only a minority described having both interest and prior training in mental health care.

  8. Emotional skills and competence questionnaire (ESCQ as a self-report measure of emotional intelligence

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    Vladimir Takšić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies of emotional intelligence (EI initially appeared in academic journals in the early 1990s. The majority of studies on emotional intelligence have relied on self-ratings. In spite of the critics of self-report scales, there are a large number of self-report measures of EI present in recent literature. The main aim of this paper is to present the constructing procedure, together with the basic psychometric properties of Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ as a self-report measure of EI. Originally, this measure was developed in Croatian settings, using the theoretical framework from the Mayer-Salovey emotional intelligence model. The ESCQ instrument has been translated into several languages. The results have showed that ESCQ has three subscales with decent reliability. They share some amount of common variance with similar well-established constructs such as alexithymia, social skills, and personality traits, but they are not correlated with cognitive abilities. However, due to its sufficient reliability, a great deal of unique variance remains. This unique variance of the ESCQ scales has an incremental contribution in explaining life satisfaction and empathy (as the crucial criteria for EI, and has significant relations with relevant real-life criteria such as quality of leadership, health risk behaviors, and school achievement.

  9. Evaluation of an online training for improving self-reported evidence-based decision-making skills in cancer control among public health professionals.

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    Morshed, A B; Ballew, P; Elliott, M B; Haire-Joshu, D; Kreuter, M W; Brownson, R C

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the effect of the online evidence-based cancer control (EBCC) training on improving the self-reported evidence-based decision-making (EBDM) skills in cancer control among Nebraska public health professionals. Cross-sectional group comparison. Previously developed EBDM measures were administered via online surveys to 201 public health professionals at baseline (comparison group) and 123 professionals who took part in the training. Respondents rated the importance of and their skill level in 18 EBCC skills. Differences were examined using analysis of variance models adjusted for gender, age, years at agency, and years in position, and stratified by respondent educational attainment. Among professionals without an advanced degree, training participants reported higher overall skill scores (P = .016) than the baseline non-participant group, primarily driven by differences in the partnerships and collaboration and evaluation domains. No differences in importance ratings were observed. Among professionals with advanced degrees, there were no differences in skill scores and small differences in importance scores in the expected direction (P studies. EBCC led to improved self-reported EBDM skills among public health professionals without an advanced degree, though a gap remained between the self-reported skills and the perceived importance of the skills. Further research on training content and modalities for professionals with higher educational attainment and baseline skill scores is needed. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Commercial Truck Driver Health and Safety: Exploring Distracted Driving Performance and Self-Reported Driving Skill.

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    Stavrinos, Despina; Heaton, Karen; Welburn, Sharon C; McManus, Benjamin; Griffin, Russell; Fine, Philip R

    2016-08-01

    Reducing distracters detrimental to commercial truck driving is a critical component of improving the safety performance of commercial drivers, and makes the highways safer for all drivers. This study used a driving simulator to examine effects of cell phone, texting, and email distractions as well as self-reported driver optimism bias on the driving performance of commercial truck drivers. Results revealed that more visually demanding tasks were related to poorer driving performance. However, the cell phone task resulted in less off-the-road eye glances. Drivers reporting being "very skilled" displayed poorer driving performance than those reporting being "skilled." Onboard communication devices provide a practical, yet visually and manually demanding, solution for connecting drivers and dispatchers. Trucking company policies should minimize interaction between dispatchers and drivers when the truck is in motion. Training facilities should integrate driving simulators into the instruction of commercial drivers, targeting over-confident drivers. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M

    2008-01-01

    ) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football...... is recommended. We suggest that self-reported Tegner Activity Scale scores should be adjusted for age, gender and level of competition. In amateur football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender....

  12. Improvement in self-reported confidence in nurses' professional skills in the emergency department.

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    Rautava, Veli-Pekka; Palomäki, Erika; Innamaa, Tapio; Perttu, Mika; Lehto, Päivi; Palomäki, Ari

    2013-03-05

    The aim of this study was to assess nurses' self-reported confidence in their professional skills before and after an extensive Emergency Department (ED) reform in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. Emergency nurses participated in transitional training commencing two years before the establishment of the new organization in 2007. Training was followed by weekly practical educational sessions in the new ED. During this process nurses improved their transition skills, defined house rules for the new clinic and improved their knowledge of new technology and instruments. The main processes involving critically ill ED patients were described and modelled with an electronic flow chart software.During the transitional training nurses compiled lists of practical skills and measures needed in the ED. These were updated after feedback from physicians in primary and secondary care and head physicians in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. The final 189-item list comprised 15 different categories, each containing from 4 to 35 items. Based on the work described above, a questionnaire was developed to reflect ED nurses' skills in clinical measures but also to estimate the need for professional education and practical training. Nurses working in the ED were asked to fill the questionnaire in January 2007 (response rate 97%) and in January 2011 (response rate 98%). Nurses' self-reported confidence in their professional skills improved significally in eight classes out of fifteen. These classes were cannulations, urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring, cardiac patients, equipment, triage and nurse practising, psychiatric patients as well as infection risk. Best results were noted in urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring and infection risk. When studying the group of nurses participating in both surveys in 2007 and 2011, improvements were observed in all fifteen categories. All but two of these changes were significant (pskills of nurses. This improvement was especially

  13. Improvement in self-reported confidence in nurses’ professional skills in the emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess nurses’ self-reported confidence in their professional skills before and after an extensive Emergency Department (ED) reform in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. Methods Emergency nurses participated in transitional training commencing two years before the establishment of the new organization in 2007. Training was followed by weekly practical educational sessions in the new ED. During this process nurses improved their transition skills, defined house rules for the new clinic and improved their knowledge of new technology and instruments. The main processes involving critically ill ED patients were described and modelled with an electronic flow chart software. During the transitional training nurses compiled lists of practical skills and measures needed in the ED. These were updated after feedback from physicians in primary and secondary care and head physicians in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. The final 189-item list comprised 15 different categories, each containing from 4 to 35 items. Based on the work described above, a questionnaire was developed to reflect ED nurses’ skills in clinical measures but also to estimate the need for professional education and practical training. Nurses working in the ED were asked to fill the questionnaire in January 2007 (response rate 97%) and in January 2011 (response rate 98%). Results Nurses’ self-reported confidence in their professional skills improved significally in eight classes out of fifteen. These classes were cannulations, urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring, cardiac patients, equipment, triage and nurse practising, psychiatric patients as well as infection risk. Best results were noted in urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring and infection risk. When studying the group of nurses participating in both surveys in 2007 and 2011, improvements were observed in all fifteen categories. All but two of these changes were significant (pskills of nurses. This

  14. Level validity of self-report whole-family measures.

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    Manders, Willeke A; Cook, William L; Oud, Johan H L; Scholte, Ron H J; Janssens, Jan M A M; De Bruyn, Eric E J

    2007-12-01

    This article introduces an approach to testing the level validity of family assessment instruments (i.e., whether a family instrument measures family functioning at the level of the system it purports to assess). Two parents and 2 adolescents in 69 families rated the warmth in each of their family relationships and in the family as a whole. Family members' ratings of whole-family warmth assessed family functioning not only at the family level (i.e., characteristics of the family as a whole) but also at the individual level of analysis (i.e., characteristics of family members as raters), indicating a lack of level validity. Evidence was provided for the level validity of a latent variable based on family members' ratings of whole-family warmth. The findings underscore the importance of assessing the level validity of individual ratings of whole-family functioning.

  15. Self Reported Physical Activity Levels in Hypertensive Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was mainly described as brisk-walking 179(69.1%), jogging 27(10.4%), gymnasium workouts 13(5.1%), dancing 4(1.5), cycling 4(1.5%) and weight lifting ... There is need to engage hypertensive patients on the relevance of physical activity and encourage them to obtain the known benefits by optimizing their levels of ...

  16. Analysis of Workforce Skills in High School Graduates: Self Report of High School Seniors in Northwest Ohio

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    Jason A. Hedrick

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of workforce competencies at the conclusion of high school graduation are discussed in this paper. Researchers sampled over 875 graduating seniors from 16 high schools within six counties throughout Northwestern Ohio. Results highlight future career and educational goals of these young people and a self-report of skills based on the SCANS competencies and basic foundation skills. When evaluating Foundation Skills of Personal Qualities, Basic Skills, and Thinking Skills, students indicated highest ratings in Personal Qualities and overall lowest ratings in Basic Skills. A series of five Workforce Competencies were also evaluated, including Using Resources, Using Information, Using Technology, Interpersonal Skills, and Working in Systems. Highest ratings for Competencies were reported in Interpersonal Skills and lowest in Using Resources.

  17. Self-reported adherence and biomarker levels of CoQ10 and alpha-tocopherol

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    Vitolins MZ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mara Z Vitolins,1 L Douglas Case,1 Stephen R Rapp,2 Mark O Lively,3 Edward G Shaw,4 Michelle J Naughton,5 Jeffrey Giguere,6 Glenn J Lesser7 1Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Department of Internal Medicine-Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 5Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 6Greenville Community Oncology Research Program of the Carolinas, Greenville, SC, USA; 7Department of Internal Medicine-Hematology and Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Purpose: Women with breast cancer were randomized to receive coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 plus Vitamin E or placebo in a clinical trial. The objective of this evaluation is to examine the association between participant self-reported adherence to the study supplements and changes in plasma biomarker levels.Patients and methods: Correlation coefficients quantified the association between changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels and the association between self-reported adherence and changes in biomarkers. Participants were categorized by self-reported adherence; Kruskal–Wallis tests compared changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels between self-reported adherence groups.Results: Women (N=155 provided baseline and post-treatment biomarkers; 147 completed at least one diary. While changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels were moderately correlated, correlations ranged from 0.40 to 0.48, association between self-reported adherence and plasma alpha-tocopherol or CoQ10 levels was weak; correlations ranged from 0.10 to 0.29 at weeks 8, 16, and 24. Some participants with high self-reported adherence actually

  18. Association between self-reported sleep duration and serum vitamin D level in elderly Korean adults.

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    Kim, Jeong Hong; Chang, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong Young; Kang, Ju Wan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the association between self-reported sleep duration and serum vitamin D level in elderly Korean adults. Cross-sectional data analysis. Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010. Noninstitutionalized adults aged 60 to 80 (N = 1,614). The confounding variables were serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and self-reported daily sun exposure and sleep duration. Self-reported daily sleep duration was divided into four groups: Q1 (≤4 hours), Q2 (5-6 hours), Q3 (7-8 hours), and Q4 (≥9 hours). Mean serum vitamin D levels of subjects in the Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 groups were 44.18, 48.08, 48.83, and 51.78 nmol/L, respectively. On multivariate linear regression analysis, subjects in the Q2 (B = 3.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42-7.19), Q3 (B = 4.89, 95% CI = 1.54-8.24), and Q4 (B = 5.18, 95% CI = 0.78-9.58) groups had significantly higher serum vitamin D levels than subjects in the Q1 group. Serum vitamin D level is positively associated with self-reported daily sleep duration in elderly Korean individuals. These results suggest that inadequate sleep duration may be associated with lower vitamin D levels in elderly adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Levels of Personality Functioning Scale Self-Report Validation Journal of Personality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Evan; Hopwood, Christopher; Morey, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Validation of the Levels of Personality Functioning Scale - Self-Report. Results suggest that the measure has a robust single dimension and that it correlates in a very general manner with a wide range of maladaptive personality variables, consistent with its purpose as a measure of non-specific personality pathology.

  20. Widely Assumed but Thinly Tested: Do Employee Volunteers' Self-Reported Skill Improvements Reflect the Nature of Their Volunteering Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs) to support and coordinate their employees' efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers' self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experiences. Study participants were 74 employee volunteers who completed a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit's records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of 10 work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were moderated by the employee volunteers' self-efficacy about improving their work

  1. Widely Assumed but Thinly Tested: Do Employee Volunteers' Self-Reported Skill Improvements Reflect the Nature of Their Volunteering Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs) to support and coordinate their employees' efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers' self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experiences. Study participants were 74 employee volunteers who completed a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit's records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of 10 work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were moderated by the employee volunteers' self-efficacy about improving their work

  2. Parent- and Self-Reported Social Skills Importance in Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Rankin, James A.; Weber, Rebecca J.; Kang, Erin; Lerner, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    While social skills are commonly assessed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about individuals' and families' beliefs regarding importance of these skills. Seventy-four parents and their children with ASD rated social skills importance and severity, as well as ASD-specific deficit severity. Parents and youth rated social skills as…

  3. Student self-reported communication skills, knowledge and confidence across standardised patient, virtual and traditional clinical learning environments.

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    Quail, Michelle; Brundage, Shelley B; Spitalnick, Josh; Allen, Peter J; Beilby, Janet

    2016-02-27

    Advanced communication skills are vital for allied health professionals, yet students often have limited opportunities in which to develop them. The option of increasing clinical placement hours is unsustainable in a climate of constrained budgets, limited placement availability and increasing student numbers. Consequently, many educators are considering the potentials of alternative training methods, such as simulation. Simulations provide safe, repeatable and standardised learning environments in which students can practice a variety of clinical skills. This study investigated students' self-rated communication skill, knowledge, confidence and empathy across simulated and traditional learning environments. Undergraduate speech pathology students were randomly allocated to one of three communication partners with whom they engaged conversationally for up to 30 min: a patient in a nursing home (n = 21); an elderly trained patient actor (n = 22); or a virtual patient (n = 19). One week prior to, and again following the conversational interaction, participants completed measures of self-reported communication skill, knowledge and confidence (developed by the authors based on the Four Habit Coding Scheme), as well as the Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Health Professionals (student version). All three groups reported significantly higher communication knowledge, skills and confidence post-placement (Median d = .58), while the degree of change did not vary as a function of group membership (Median η (2)  communication skill, knowledge and confidence, though not empathy, following a brief placement in a virtual, standardised or traditional learning environment. The self-reported increases were consistent across the three placement types. It is proposed that the findings from this study provide support for the integration of more sustainable, standardised, virtual patient-based placement models into allied health training programs for the training of

  4. Dialectical behavior therapy skills use and emotion dysregulation in personality disorders and psychopathy: a community self-report study.

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    Neacsiu, Andrada D; Tkachuck, Mathew A

    2016-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a critical transdiagnostic mental health problem that needs to be further examined in personality disorders (PDs). The current study examined dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) skills use, emotion dysregulation, and dysfunctional coping among adults who endorsed symptoms of cluster B PDs and psychopathy. We hypothesized that skills taught in DBT and emotion dysregulation are useful for adults with PDs other than borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using a self-report questionnaire, we examined these constructs in three groups of community adults: those who reported symptoms consistent with borderline personality disorder (BPD; N = 29), those who reported symptoms consistent with any other cluster B PD (N = 22), and those with no reported cluster B PD symptoms (N = 77) as measured by the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 + . Both PD groups reported higher emotion dysregulation and dysfunctional coping when compared to the no PD group. Only the BPD group had significantly lower DBT skills use. DBT skills use was found to be a significant predictor of cluster B psychopathology but only before accounting for emotion dysregulation. When added to the regression model, emotion dysregulation was found to be a significant predictor of cluster B psychopathology but DBT skills use no longer had a significant effect. Across all groups, DBT skills use deficits and maladaptive coping, but not emotion dysregulation, predicted different facets of psychopathy. Emotion dysregulation and use of maladaptive coping are problems in cluster B PDs, outside of BPD, but not in psychopathy. Inability to use DBT skills may be unique to BPD. Because this study relied exclusively on self-report, this data is preliminary and warrants further investigation.

  5. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; use, training and self-confidence in skills. A self-report study among hospital personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopstock Laila A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immediate start of basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and early defibrillation have been highlighted as crucial for survival from cardiac arrest, but despite new knowledge, new technology and massive personnel training the survival rates from in-hospital cardiac arrest are still low. National guidelines recommend regular intervals of CPR training to make all hospital personnel able to perform basic CPR till advanced care is available. This study investigates CPR training, resuscitation experience and self-confidence in skills among hospital personnel outside critical care areas. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed at three Norwegian hospitals. Data on CPR training and CPR use were collected by self-reports from 361 hospital personnel. Results A total of 89% reported training in CPR, but only 11% had updated their skills in accordance with the time interval recommended by national guidelines. Real resuscitation experience was reported by one third of the respondents. Both training intervals and use of skills in resuscitation situations differed among the professions. Self-reported confidence decreased only after more than two years since last CPR training. Conclusion There is a gap between recommendations and reality in CPR training among hospital personnel working outside critical care areas.

  6. The associations among fundamental movement skills, self-reported physical activity and academic performance during junior high school in Finland.

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    Jaakkola, Timo; Hillman, Charles; Kalaja, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the longitudinal associations between (1) fundamental movement skills (FMSs) and academic performance, and (2) self-reported physical activity and academic performance through junior high school in Finland. The participants of the study were 325 Finnish students (162 girls and 163 boys), who were 13 years old at the beginning of the study at Grade 7. Students performed three FMS tests and responded to a self-reported physical activity questionnaire at Grades 7 and 8. Marks in Finnish language, mathematics and history from Grades 7, 8 and 9 were collected. Structural equation modelling with multigroup method demonstrated that in the boys' group, a correlation (0.17) appeared between FMS and academic performance measured at Grade 7. The results also indicated that FMS collected at Grade 8 were significantly but weakly (path coefficient 0.14) associated with academic performance at Grade 9 for both gender groups. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that self-reported physical activity was not significantly related to academic performance during junior high school. The findings of this study suggest that mastery of FMS may contribute to better student achievement during junior high school.

  7. Widely Assumed but Thinly Tested: Do Employee Volunteers’ Self-Reported Skill Improvements Reflect the Nature of their Volunteering Experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Allen Jones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs to support and coordinate their employees’ efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities they provide for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers’ self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experience. Study participants were 74 employees who volunteered a few hours of their time once a week for ten weeks in a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit’s records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of ten work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were

  8. Self-reported smoking habits and serum cotinine levels in women with placental abruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Minna; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Bloigu, Aini; Nuutila, Mika; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Hiilesmaa, Vilho; Paavonen, Jorma

    2010-12-01

    smoking is an important risk factor for placental abruption with strong dose-dependency. Pregnant smokers often underreport tobacco use which can be objectively assessed by measuring serum cotinine levels. We examined the accuracy between self-reported smoking habits and early pregnancy serum cotinine levels in women with or without placental abruption. retrospective case-control study. university Hospital. a total of 175 women with placental abruption and 370 control women. serum samples collected during the first trimester were analyzed for serum cotinine levels. Cotinine concentration over 15 ng/ml was considered as the cutoff indicating active smoking. Smoking habits of the women and their partners were recorded at the same visit. placental abruption. of the cases of women with placental abruption, 27.4% reported smoking compared with 14.3% of the controls (p smoked daily correlated well with the cotinine levels (r = 0.68, p smoking habits correlate well with serum cotinine levels in Finland. Therefore, self-reported smoking can be considered as a risk marker for placental abruption.

  9. Effects of self-reported sensitivity and road-traffic noise levels on the immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahra Kim

    Full Text Available Sensitivity to noise, particularly road traffic noise, can increase cortisol levels and result in changes in immune system biomarkers. Therefore, continuous exposure to noise can have an effect on immune function, hormonal levels, and cardiovascular function, leading to hypertension and stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in stress-and immune system-related biomarkers according to the self-reported sensitivity to noise and exposure to road traffic noise, to ultimately determine the potential effects of noise on health. A survey was conducted through questionnaire (ISO/TS 15666 sent to 172 female subjects in Korea, including 128 from Ulsan and 44 from Seoul. The average noise level was calculated, and blood samples were collected for measurements of cortisol levels, Natural killer (NK / Natural killer T (NKT cell populations, and NK cell activity (through measurements of interleukin-12 (IL-12 and interferon-gamma (INF-γ concentrations. Multivariate linear regression analysis of the measured biomarkers according to the road traffic noise level and self-reported noise sensitivity was conducted adjusting for the effects of age, alcohol status, smoking status, regular exercise, and residence period. IL-12 levels increased, whereas the NKT cell population decreased with increasing noise levels. The results further suggested that cortisol levels are more influenced by the subject's sensitivity to noise than to the level of chronic road traffic noise. Therefore, noise appears to have the largest effect on IL-12 levels as well as the population and activity of NKT cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that low-level road traffic noise and sensitivity to noise can affect health by causing changes in the immune response through mechanisms other than increased cortisol.

  10. Association between self-reported and objectively measured physical fitness level in a middle-aged population in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obling, Kirstine H.; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Overgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    fitness level were cross-tabulated and agreement was quantified by Kappa statistics. Gender differences within categories were investigated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Data from 996 men and 1017 women were analyzed (excluded, n = 303). In both men and women a higher self-reported fitness level......AIM: To investigate the association between self-reported physical fitness level obtained by a single-item question and objectively measured fitness level in 30- to 49-year-old men and women. METHODS: From the Danish 'Check Your Health Preventive Program' 2013-2014 fitness level was assessed...... in 2316 participants using the Aastrand test. Additionally, participants rated their physical fitness as high, good, average, fair or low. The association of self-reported- with objectively measured fitness level was analyzed by linear regression. Categories of self-reported- and objectively measured...

  11. More than just fun and games: the longitudinal relationships between strategic video games, self-reported problem solving skills, and academic grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-07-01

    Some researchers have proposed that video games possess good learning principles and may promote problem solving skills. Empirical research regarding this relationship, however, is limited. The goal of the presented study was to examine whether strategic video game play (i.e., role playing and strategy games) predicted self-reported problem solving skills among a sample of 1,492 adolescents (50.8 % female), over the four high school years. The results showed that more strategic video game play predicted higher self-reported problem solving skills over time than less strategic video game play. In addition, the results showed support for an indirect association between strategic video game play and academic grades, in that strategic video game play predicted higher self-reported problem solving skills, and, in turn, higher self-reported problem solving skills predicted higher academic grades. The novel findings that strategic video games promote self-reported problem solving skills and indirectly predict academic grades are important considering that millions of adolescents play video games every day.

  12. Irish psychiatric nurses' self-reported barriers, facilitators and skills for developing evidence-based practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yadav, B L

    2012-03-01

    Evidence-based practice places an emphasis on integration of clinical expertise with available best evidence, patient\\'s clinical information and preferences, and with local health resources. This paper reports the findings of a study that investigated the barriers, facilitators and skills in developing evidence-based practice among psychiatric nurses in Ireland. A postal survey was conducted among a random sample of Irish psychiatric nurses and survey data were collected using the Development of Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire. Respondents reported that insufficient time to find and read research reports and insufficient resources to change practice were the greatest barriers to the development of evidence-based practice. Practice development coordinators were perceived as the most supportive resource for changing practice. Using the Internet to search for information was the highest-rated skill and using research evidence to change practice was the lowest-rated skill for developing evidence-based practice. Nurses\\' precursor skills for developing evidence-based practice, such as database searching and information retrieval, may be insufficient in themselves for promoting evidence-based practice if they cannot find evidence relating to their particular field of practice or if they do not have the time, resources and supports to develop their practice in response to evidence.

  13. Level of self-reported neck/shoulder pain and biomechanical workload in cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between self-reported pain, muscular activity and postural load during cleaning tasks. Eighteen cleaners performed usual cleaning tasks in both a laboratory and a lecture room. The level of perceived pain in the neck-shoulder region......-axial accelerometer package was mounted on the low back (L5-S1) to measure postural changes during cleaning tasks. The 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the angular distributions were computed to characterize postures and movements. Pain tended to play a significant role on RMS of left/right trapezius and left...... erector spinae muscles (P≤0.08). Cleaners with low pain level exhibited higher muscular activity during cleaning. Pain played or tended to play a significant role on PE of left and right erector spinae muscles (P≤0.08). Pain played a significant role on the 10th, 50th and 90th percentile (P...

  14. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Donne Cinzia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents. Methods The study comprised a total of 2176 adolescents (46.2% male from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using validated 24-h dietary recalls and self-reported questionnaires respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were used to compare the energy and nutrient intake and the food consumption between groups of adolescents with different physical activity levels (1st to 3rd tertile. Results In both sexes no differences were found in energy intake between the levels of physical activity. The most active males showed a higher intake of polysaccharides, protein, water and vitamin C and a lower intake of saccharides compared to less active males. Females with the highest physical activity level consumed more polysaccharides compared to their least active peers. Male and female adolescents with the highest physical activity levels, consumed more fruit and milk products and less cheese compared to the least active adolescents. The most active males showed higher intakes of vegetables and meat, fish, eggs, meat substitutes and vegetarian products compared to the least active ones. The least active males reported the highest consumption of grain products and potatoes. Within the female group, significantly lower intakes of bread and cereal products and spreads were found for those reporting to

  15. The convergence between self-reports and observer ratings of financial skills and direct assessment of financial capabilities in patients with schizophrenia: more detail is not always better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philip D; Stone, Laura; Lowenstein, David; Czaja, Sara J; Heaton, Robert K; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Patterson, Thomas L

    2013-06-01

    Despite multiple lines of evidence suggesting that people with schizophrenia tend to overestimate their ability to perform everyday tasks such as money management, self-report methods are still widely used to assess functioning. In today's technology driven financial world patients are faced with increasingly complex financial management tasks. To meet these challenges adequate financial skills are required. Thus, accurate assessments of these abilities are critical to decisions regarding a patient's need for support such as a financial trustee. As part of the larger VALERO study, 195 patients with schizophrenia were asked to self-report their everyday financial skills (five common financial tasks) with the Independent Living Skills Survey (ILSS). They were also assessed with performance-based measures of neuro-cognition and functional capacity with a focus on financial skills. In addition, a friend, relative, or clinician informant was interviewed with the ILSS and a best estimate rating of functioning was generated. Scores on the performance-based measures of financial skills and neuropsychological tests were uncorrelated with self-reported financial activities. Interviewer and all informant judgments of financial abilities were also minimally correlated with performance on functional skill tests. Discrete financial skills appear to be challenging for clinicians to rate with accuracy without the use of direct assessments. Direct assessment of financial skills seems prudent when making determinations about the need for guardianship or other financial supervision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Put Your Money Where Your Mouth Is: Verbal Self-Reported Tactical Skills Versus On-Line Tactical Performance in Soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nortje, L.; Dicks, M.S.; Coopoo, Y.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to examine whether a relationship existed between self-reported and in situ tactical decision-making in the form of actions for small-sided soccer games, namely 4-vs.-4 and 8-vs.-8 games. Sixteen skilled male soccer players participated and completed the Tactical

  17. More than Just Fun and Games: The Longitudinal Relationships between Strategic Video Games, Self-Reported Problem Solving Skills, and Academic Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    Some researchers have proposed that video games possess good learning principles and may promote problem solving skills. Empirical research regarding this relationship, however, is limited. The goal of the presented study was to examine whether strategic video game play (i.e., role playing and strategy games) predicted self-reported problem…

  18. Electrophysiological Evidence of Atypical Spatial Attention in Those with a High Level of Self-Reported Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Stephanie A.; Freeth, Megan; Milne, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention is atypical in individuals with autism spectrum conditions. Evidence suggests this is also the case for those with high levels of autistic traits. Here we investigated the neural basis of spatial attention in those with high and low levels of self-reported autistic traits via analysis of ERP deflections associated with covert…

  19. Validation of self-reported smoking status by measuring serum cotinine levels: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeemon, P; Agarwal, S; Ramakrishnan, L; Gupta, R; Snehi, U; Chaturvedi, V; Reddy, K S; Prabhakaran, D

    2010-01-01

    Serum cotinine levels are a reliable marker of tobacco use. Few studies have validated questionnaires assessing smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) against serum levels. We undertook such a study in industrial workers in India. We chose 426 individuals by stratified random sampling from a database of 3397 individuals surveyed at New Delhi for the cardiovascular disease surveillance programme in a large industrial setting. Questionnaires assessing details of smoking practices and duration of exposure to ETS (if any) were administered. Cotinine levels were measured in the blood samples of these individuals. The study population comprised 142 nonsmokers not exposed to ETS, 142 non-smokers exposed to ETS and 142 active smokers. Cotinine levels among nonsmokers not exposed to ETS were non-detectable; and for non-smokers exposed to ETS and active smokers, the median (interquartile range) levels were non-detectable (non-detectable to 46.1 ng/ml) and 336 ng/ml (204-500 ng/ml), respectively. The best combined sensitivity (91%) and specificity (87.2%) yielded a cotinine cut-off level of 40.35 ng/ml to differentiate active smokers from non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS (area under the curve 0.902). The cut-off cotinine level was estimated at 10.95 ng/ml using a similar analysis (sensitivity 43%, specificity 82%; area under the curve 0.64) to distinguish non-smokers not exposed to ETS from those exposed to ETS. The misclassification rate was estimated at 19% and 57.1% among self-reported non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS, respectively. Obtaining a history of tobacco use is an accurate method of detecting smokers in epidemiological studies whereas serum cotinine levels accurately differentiate smokers from non-smokers. However, a brief questionnaire assessing passive exposure to smoke has poor sensitivity in distinguishing non-smokers exposed to ETS from those not exposed to ETS.

  20. Developing critical thinking skills from clinical assignments: a pilot study on nursing students' self-reported perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchigiano, Gail; Eduljee, Nina; Harvey, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Clinical assignments in nursing education provide opportunities for students to develop thinking skills vital to the effective delivery of patient care. The purpose of the present study was to examine students' perceived levels of confidence for using thinking skills when completing two types of clinical assignments. Clinical educators and managers are challenged to develop teaching and learning strategies that help students think critically and reflectively and transfer these skills into sound nursing practice. This study is based on the theoretical framework of critical thinking within the nursing process framework. Undergraduate nursing students (n=51) completed surveys indicating their confidence in using seven thinking skills for nursing care. Students indicated significantly more confidence when implementing the journal format as compared with the care plan format when analysing information, determining relevance, making connections, selecting appropriate information, applying relevant knowledge and evaluating outcomes. The findings of the present study propose a new approach for enhancing students' thinking skills. Journaling is an effective strategy for enhancing students' thinking skills. Nursing managers are in key organisational positions for supporting and promoting the use of the journal format and building supportive and collaborative learning environments for students to develop thinking skills for managing patient care. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Specific technological communication skills and functional health literacy have no influence on self-reported benefits from enrollment in the TeleCare North trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilholt, Pernille Heyckendorff; Hæsum, Lisa Korsbakke Emtekær; Ehlers, Lars Holger; Hejlesen, Ole K

    2016-07-01

    The Danish TeleCare North trial has developed a telehealth system, Telekit, which is used for self-management by patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Self-management is the engagement in one's own illness and health by monitoring and managing one's symptoms and signs of illness. The study examines the association between COPD patients' use of Telekit and their functional health literacy and the association between their use of Telekit and their specific technological communication skills. A consecutive sample of participants (n=60) from the TeleCare North trial were recruited. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with each participant to collect demographic data. Functional health literacy was measured with the Danish TOFHLA test. Participants completed a non-standardised questionnaire about their health status, their use of the Telekit system, and their specific technological communication skills. Binary logistic regressions were performed to examine how functional health literacy and specific technological communication skills influenced the use of Telekit by giving users an enhanced sense of freedom, security, control, and a greater awareness of COPD symptoms. Participants (27 women, 33 men) had a mean age of 70 (SD: 8.37) years. Functional health literacy levels were classified as inadequate in 14 (23%) participants, as marginal in 12 (20%), and as adequate in 34 (57%). Participants self-reported a feeling of increased security (72%), greater freedom (27%), more control (62%), and greater awareness of symptoms (50%) when using Telekit. The use of Telekit was not significantly associated with levels of functional health literacy or with the number of specific technological communication skills (p>0.05) based on the binary logistic regressions. The enhanced sense of security, freedom, control, and the greater awareness of COPD symptoms achieved by using Telekit were unassociated both with the patients' score of functional health

  2. Self-Reported Measures Of Strength And Sport-Specific Skills Distinguish Ranking In An International Online Fitness Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Paul R; Feito, Yuri; Mangine, Gerald T

    2017-02-08

    To determine if self-reported performance measures could distinguish ranking during the 2016 CrossFit Open, data from three thousand male (n=1500; 27.2±8.4 y; 85.2±7.9 kg; 177.0±6.5 cm) and female (n=1500, 28.7±4.9 y; 63.7±5.8 kg; 163.7±6.6 cm) competitors was used for this study. Competitors were split by gender and grouped into quintiles (Q1-Q5) based upon their final ranking. Quintiles were compared for one-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, deadlift, clean and jerk (CJ), snatch, 400-m sprint, 5,000-m run, and benchmark workouts (Fran, Helen, Grace, Filthy-50, and Fight-gone-bad). Separate one-way analyses of variance revealed all competitors in Q1 reported greater (p<0.05) 1RM loads for squat (Males: 201.6±19.1 kg; Females: 126.1±13.0 kg), deadlift (Males: 232.4±20.5 kg; Females: 148.3±14.5 kg), CJ (Males: 148.9±12.1 kg; Females: 95.7±8.4 kg), and snatch (Males: 119.4±10.9 kg; Females 76.5±7.6 kg) compared to other quintiles. In addition, Males in Q1 (59.3±5.9 sec) reported faster (p<0.05) 400-m times than Q3 only (62.6±7.3 sec), but were not different from any group in the 5,000-m run. Females in Q2 (67.5 ± 8.8 sec) reported faster (p<0.05) 400-m times than Q3-Q5 (73.5-74.8 sec) and faster (21.3 ± 1.8 min, p<0.02) 5,000-m times than Q4 (22.6±2.2 min) and Q5 (22.6±1.9 min). Faster (p<0.05) Fran times were reported by Q1 (males: 138.2±13.3 sec; females: 159.4±28.3 sec) compared to other groups, while the results of other workouts were variable. These data indicate that the most successful athletes excel in all areas of fitness/skill, while lower-ranking athletes should focus on developing strength and power after achieving sufficient proficiency in sport-specific skills.

  3. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players: the influence of age, gender, history of knee injury and level of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M; Roos, E M

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if self-reported activity level or knee functions are influenced by subject characteristics, level of competition and history of knee injury. Cross-Sectional study using questionnaires distributed at a personal visit. One hundred and eighty-eight (65 women) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football division) were independently associated with lower self-reported Tegner Activity Scale (P history of knee injury had significantly worse KOOS scores (P football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender.

  4. Is there a "Scottish effect" for self reports of health? Individual level analysis of the 2001 UK census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popham Frank

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scotland's overall health record is comparatively poor for a Western European country, particularly amongst people of working age. A number of previous studies have explored why this might be the case by comparing mortality in Scotland with England and Wales. A study in the 1980s showed that the higher prevalence of deprivation in Scotland accounted for Scotland's excess mortality risk. However, more recent studies suggest that deprivation now explains less of this excess. This has led to the suggestion that there is a yet unidentified "Scottish effect" contributing to Scotland's mortality excess. Recent research has also suggested that there could be an unidentified effect influencing Scotland's higher rate of heart disease. This paper explores whether there is also an unexplained Scottish excess, relative to England, in self reports of poor health. Methods Data came from the individual Sample of Anonymised Records, a 3% random sample of the 2001 UK census. Using logistic regression models, self reports of health (limiting illness and general health from the working age populations (aged 25 to 64 of Scotland and England were compared. Account was taken of people's country of birth. Stratified analysis by employment status allowed further exploration of Scotland's excess. Results People born and living in Scotland reported higher levels of poor general health and limiting illness compared to people born and living in England. Adjustment for socioeconomic position and employment status largely explained the higher rates. In the stratified analysis a Scottish excess was seen only amongst the economically inactive born and living in Scotland. For those in employment, people born and living in Scotland actually had slightly lower odds of reporting poor general health and limiting illness than people born and living in England. Conclusion This analysis suggests that higher rates of poor self reported health in Scotland can be

  5. The Relationship between Fundamental Movement Skills and Self-Reported Physical Activity during Finnish Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Timo; Washington, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity are related. Specifically, earlier studies have demonstrated that the ability to perform a variety of FMS increases the likelihood of children participating in a range of physical activities throughout their lives. To date, however, there have not…

  6. Perceived Statistical Knowledge Level and Self-Reported Statistical Practice Among Academic Psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Badenes-Ribera

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Publications arguing against the null hypothesis significance testing (NHST procedure and in favor of good statistical practices have increased. The most frequently mentioned alternatives to NHST are effect size statistics (ES, confidence intervals (CIs, and meta-analyses. A recent survey conducted in Spain found that academic psychologists have poor knowledge about effect size statistics, confidence intervals, and graphic displays for meta-analyses, which might lead to a misinterpretation of the results. In addition, it also found that, although the use of ES is becoming generalized, the same thing is not true for CIs. Finally, academics with greater knowledge about ES statistics presented a profile closer to good statistical practice and research design. Our main purpose was to analyze the extension of these results to a different geographical area through a replication study.Methods: For this purpose, we elaborated an on-line survey that included the same items as the original research, and we asked academic psychologists to indicate their level of knowledge about ES, their CIs, and meta-analyses, and how they use them. The sample consisted of 159 Italian academic psychologists (54.09% women, mean age of 47.65 years. The mean number of years in the position of professor was 12.90 (SD = 10.21.Results: As in the original research, the results showed that, although the use of effect size estimates is becoming generalized, an under-reporting of CIs for ES persists. The most frequent ES statistics mentioned were Cohen's d and R2/η2, which can have outliers or show non-normality or violate statistical assumptions. In addition, academics showed poor knowledge about meta-analytic displays (e.g., forest plot and funnel plot and quality checklists for studies. Finally, academics with higher-level knowledge about ES statistics seem to have a profile closer to good statistical practices.Conclusions: Changing statistical practice is not

  7. Self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise: exposure-response relationships for nighttime equivalent and maximum noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Moum, Torbjorn; Engdahl, Bo

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present survey was to study self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise with respect to nighttime equivalent noise level (L(p,A,eq,night)) and maximum noise level (L(p,A,max)). A sample of 1349 people in and around Oslo in Norway exposed to railway noise was studied in a cross-sectional survey to obtain data on sleep disturbances, sleep problems due to noise, and personal characteristics including noise sensitivity. Individual noise exposure levels were determined outside of the bedroom facade, the most-exposed facade, and inside the respondents' bedrooms. The exposure-response relationships were analyzed by using logistic regression models, controlling for possible modifying factors including the number of noise events (train pass-by frequency). L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) were significantly correlated, and the proportion of reported noise-induced sleep problems increased as both L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) increased. Noise sensitivity, type of bedroom window, and pass-by frequency were significant factors affecting noise-induced sleep disturbances, in addition to the noise exposure level. Because about half of the study population did not use a bedroom at the most-exposed side of the house, the exposure-response curve obtained by using noise levels for the most-exposed facade underestimated noise-induced sleep disturbance for those who actually have their bedroom at the most-exposed facade.

  8. The impact of a structured clinical training course on interns' self-reported confidence with core clinical urology skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, C; Norton, S; Nolan, J M; Whelan, C; Sullivan, J F; Quinlan, M; Sheikh, M; Mc Dermott, T E D; Lynch, T H; Manecksha, R P

    2018-02-01

    Undergraduate training in core urology skills is lacking in many Irish training programmes. Our aim was to assess newly qualified doctors' experience and confidence with core urological competencies. A questionnaire survey covering exposure to urology and confidence with core clinical skills was circulated to all candidates. The group then attended a skills course covering male/female catheterisation, insertion of three-way catheters, bladder irrigation and management of long-term suprapubic catheters. The groups were re-surveyed following the course. Forty-five interns completed the pre-course questionnaire (group 1) and 27 interns completed the post-course questionnaire (group 2). 24/45 (53%) had no experience of catheter insertion on a patient during their undergraduate training. 26/45 (58%) were unsupervised during their first catheter insertion. 12/45 (27%) had inserted a female catheter. 18/45 (40%) had inserted a three-way catheter. 12/45 (27%) had changed a suprapubic catheter. 40/45 (89%) in group 1 reported 'good' or 'excellent' confidence with male urinary catheterisation, compared to 25/27 (92.5%) in group 2. 18/45 (40%) in group 1 reported 'none' or 'poor' confidence with female catheterisation, compared to 7/27 (26%) in group 2. 22/45 (49%) in group 1 reported 'none' or 'poor' confidence with insertion of three-way catheters, compared to 2/27 (7%) in group 2. 32/45 (71%) in group 1 reported 'none' or 'poor' confidence in changing long-term suprapubic catheters, falling to 3/27 (11%) in group 2. This study raises concerns about newly qualified doctors' practical experience in urology. We suggest that this course improves knowledge and confidence with practical urology skills and should be incorporated into intern induction.

  9. Deviation between self-reported and measured occupational physical activity levels in office employees: effects of age and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Katharina; Faude, Oliver; Schwager, Susanne; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Whether occupational physical activity (PA) will be assessed via questionnaires or accelerometry depends on available resources. Although self-reported data collection seems feasible and inexpensive, obtained information could be biased by demographic determinants. Thus, we aimed at comparing self-reported and objectively measured occupational sitting, standing, and walking times adjusted for socio-demographic variables. Thirty-eight office employees (eight males, 30 females, age 40.8 ± 11.4 years, BMI 23.9 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) supplied with height-adjustable working desks were asked to report sitting, standing, and walking times using the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire during one working week. The ActiGraph wGT3X-BT was used to objectively measure occupational PA during the same week. Subjectively and objectively measured data were compared computing the intra-class correlation coefficients, paired t tests and Bland-Altman plots. Furthermore, repeated-measurement ANOVAs for measurement (subjective vs. objective) and socio-demographic variables were calculated. Self-reported data yielded a significant underestimation of standing time (13.3 vs. 17.9%) and an overestimation of walking time (12.7 vs. 5.0%). Significant interaction effects of age and measurement of standing time (F = 6.0, p = .02, ηp(2) = .14) and BMI group and measurement of walking time were found (F = 3.7, p = .04, ηp(2) = .17). Older employees (>39 years) underestimated their standing time, while underweight workers (BMI < 20 kg/m(2)) overestimated their walking time. Self-reported PA data differ from objective data. Demographic variables (age, BMI) affect the amount of self-reported misjudging of PA. In order to improve the validity of self-reported data, a correction formula for the economic assessment of PA by subjective measures is needed, considering age and BMI.

  10. Parent and Self-Report Ratings on the Perceived Levels of Social Vulnerability of Adults with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Emma; Fisher, Marisa H.

    2016-01-01

    The current study took a multi-informant approach to compare parent to self-report ratings of social vulnerability of adults with Williams syndrome (WS). Participants included 102 pairs of adults with WS and their parents. Parents completed the "Social Vulnerability Questionnaire" and adults with WS completed an adapted version of the…

  11. Can we measure daily tobacco consumption in remote indigenous communities? Comparing self-reported tobacco consumption with community-level estimates in an Arnhem Land study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Alan R; MacLaren, David J; Robertson, Jan A; Ivers, Rowena G; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2011-03-01

    In remote Indigenous Australian communities measuring individual tobacco use can be confounded by cultural expectations, including sharing. We compared self-reported tobacco consumption with community-level estimates in Arnhem Land (Northern Territory). In a cross-sectional survey in three communities (population 2319 Indigenous residents, aged ≥16 years), 400 Indigenous residents were interviewed (206 men, 194 women). Eight community stores provided information about tobacco sold during the survey. To gauge the impact of 255 non-Indigenous residents on tobacco turnover, 10 were interviewed (five men, five women). Breath carbon monoxide levels confirmed self-reported smoking. Self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day was compared with daily tobacco consumption per user estimated using amounts of tobacco sold during 12 months before the survey (2007-2008). 'Lighter smokers' (Indigenous study participants, 305 (76%) used tobacco; four chewed tobacco. Of 301 Indigenous smokers, 177 (58%) provided self-reported consumption information; a median of 11-11.5 cigarettes per day in men and 5.5-10 cigarettes per day in women. Men were three times (odds ratio=2.9) more likely to be 'heavier smokers'. Store turnover data indicated that Indigenous tobacco users consumed the equivalent of 9.2-13.1 cigarettes per day; very similar to self-reported levels. Sixty per cent (=6/10) of non-Indigenous residents interviewed were smokers, but with little impact on tobacco turnover overall (2-6%). Smoking levels reported by Indigenous Australians in this study, when sharing tobacco was considered, closely reflected quantities of tobacco sold in community stores. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Extracapsular cataract extraction training: junior ophthalmology residents' self-reported satisfaction level with their proficiency and initial learning barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Tan, Sarah; Lee, Shu Yen; Rosman, Mohamad; Aw, Ai Tee; Yeo, Ian Yew San

    2015-07-01

    To investigate residents' self-reported satisfaction level with their proficiency in extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) surgery and the initial barriers to learning the procedure. This is a single-centre prospective descriptive case series involving eight first-year ophthalmology residents in Singapore National Eye Center. We recorded the demographics, frequency of review by the residents of their own surgical videos and their satisfaction level with their proficiency at each of the ECCE steps using a 5-point Likert scale. All ECCE surgical videos between October 2013 and May 2014 were collected and analysed for the overall time taken for the surgery and the time taken to perform the individual steps of the procedure. The mean age of the residents was 27.6 ± 1.5 years and 62.5% (5/8) were women. More than half (62.5%, 5/8) reviewed their own surgical videos while 37.5% (3/8) discussed the surgical videos with their peers or supervisors. Of the ECCE steps, the residents were most dissatisfied with their proficiency in performing irrigation and aspiration (87.5%, 7/8), followed by suturing (62.5%, 5/8), intraocular lens insertion (62.5%, 5/8) and tin can capsulotomy (62.5%, 5/8). The average time taken for each ECCE case was 55.0 ± 12.2 min and, of all the steps, most time was spent on suturing (20.5 ± 6.8 min), followed by irrigation and aspiration (5.5 ± 3.6 min) and tin can capsulotomy (3.3 ± 1.8 min). The first-year ophthalmology residents were most dissatisfied with their proficiency in irrigation/aspiration, suturing and tin can capsulotomy. More training needs to be directed to these areas during teaching sessions in the operating room, wet laboratory or cataract simulation training sessions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Social Support and Self-Reported Stress Levels in a Predominantly African American Sample of Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Marie Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupus patients should avoid stress because physical or emotional stress can affect overall physical health. It has been suggested that social support has a positive influence on health status, but there is a lack of information in the literature on the association between the two among lupus patients. The current study investigated the association between social support and self-reported stress and coping status among African American women with lupus using data collected from two linked cross-sectional surveys. No social support differences in groups of high and low stress/coping were revealed; a duplicate study with a larger sample size is required.

  14. Teacher Assessment of Practical Skills in A-Level Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R.; Ferguson, Carolyn M.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses a two-year assessment undertaken to evaluate the Nuffield A-Level chemistry course. Secondary teachers selected chemistry experiments for assessment purposes and assessed their students in manipulative skills, observational skills, interpretation skills, creative skills, and attitudes. (MLH)

  15. Teaching Badminton Based on Student Skill Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyu; Moffit, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Badminton has been identified as a lifelong activity. It is an inexpensive sport and everyone--children, seniors, and individuals with disabilities--can reach a level of enjoyment in the game after mastering basic skills and tactics. In teaching badminton, teachers need to understand how students develop game play ability from a low level to an…

  16. Self-reported oral health of a metropolitan homeless population in Australia: comparisons with population-level data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E J; Jamieson, L M; Steffens, M A; Cathro, P; Logan, R M

    2011-09-01

    There is limited information on self-perceived oral health of homeless populations. This study quantified self-reported oral health among a metropolitan homeless adult population and compared against a representative sample of the metropolitan adult population obtained from the National Survey of Adult Oral Health. A total of 248 homeless participants (age range 17-78 years, 79% male) completed a self-report questionnaire. Data for an age-matched, representative sample of metropolitan-dwelling adults were obtained from Australia's second National Survey of Adult Oral Health. Percentage responses and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, with non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals used to identify statistically significant differences between the two groups. Homeless adults reported poorer oral health than their age-matched general population counterparts. Twice as many homeless adults reported visiting a dentist more than a year ago and that their usual reason for dental attendance was for a dental problem. The proportion of homeless adults with a perceived need for fillings or extractions was also twice that of their age-matched general population counterparts. Three times as many homeless adults rated their oral health as 'fair' or 'poor'. A significantly greater proportion of homeless adults in an Australian metropolitan location reported poorer oral health compared with the general metropolitan adult population. © 2011 Australian Dental Association.

  17. Phenotypic, genetic, and environmental relationships between self-reported talents and measured intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Julie Aitken; Johnson, Andrew M; Jang, Kerry L; Vernon, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between self-report abilities and measured intelligence was examined at both the phenotypic (zero-order) level as well as at the genetic and environmental levels. Twins and siblings (N = 516) completed a timed intelligence test and a self-report ability questionnaire, which has previously been found to produce 10 factors, including: politics, interpersonal relationships, practical tasks, intellectual pursuits, academic skills, entrepreneur/business, domestic skills, vocal abilities, and creativity. At the phenotypic level, the correlations between the ability factor scores and intelligence ranged from 0.01 to 0.42 (between self-report academic abilities and verbal intelligence). Further analyses found that some of the phenotypic relationships between self-report ability scores and measured intelligence also had significant correlations at the genetic and environmental levels, suggesting that some of the observed relationships may be due to common genetic and/or environmental factors.

  18. Relevance of physical fitness levels and exercise-related beliefs for self-reported and experimental pain in fibromyalgia: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Saskia T; van Wijck, Albert J M; Geenen, Rinie; Snijders, Tom J; van der Meulen, Wout J T M; Jacobs, Johannes W G; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke Swaantje

    2011-09-01

    It has been suggested that low physical fitness is a contributor to pain in fibromyalgia and that exercise-related beliefs play a role in the persistence of this association. Yet the association between physical fitness and pain is hardly explored in detail. The aim of this exploratory study in patients with fibromyalgia was to investigate the association of physical fitness levels with self-reported and experimental pain as well as with pain catastrophizing and activity-avoidance beliefs. Physical fitness of 18 patients with fibromyalgia was examined using maximal ergocycling and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT). Pain intensity was assessed using self-report scales and quantitative sensory testing. A reduced walking distance on the 6MWT was correlated with more severe self-reported pain on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (r = -0.52, P physically fit and experienced more severe pain. The results demonstrate some associations between physical fitness and pain in fibromyalgia and point to the importance of activity avoidance. Although the causal directionality of the associations needs substantiation in clinical research, the findings support the notion that low fitness and activity-avoidance beliefs should be targeted while treating pain in fibromyalgia.

  19. Sickness-related dysfunction in persons with self-reported multiple chemical sensitivity at four levels of severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Pamela Reed; Vogel, Valerie M

    2009-01-01

    To examine quality of life outcome for persons who self-report chemical sensitivity, often referred to as multiple chemical sensitivity. Multiple chemical sensitivity is poorly understood with few providers specialising in its treatment. This lack of treatment and the ubiquity of chemicals engender severe life impacts such as job loss, financial loss, social isolation and even homelessness for persons who experience these sensitivities. Survey. We examined chemical incitants, symptoms and sickness-related behavioural dysfunction as measured by the Sickness Impact Profile in 254 persons self-identified with multiple chemical sensitivity. Chemicals rated as causing the most symptomatology in respondents were pesticide, formaldehyde, fresh paint, new carpet, diesel exhaust, perfume and air fresheners. The five highest rated symptoms in this sample were tiredness/lethargy, difficulty concentrating, muscle aches, memory difficulties and long-term fatigue. Overall mean Sickness Impact Profile score was 25.25%, showing serious impairment, with the most serious dysfunction in the categories of work (55.36%), alertness behaviour (53.45%) and recreation and pastimes (45.20%). Multiple chemical sensitivity is an important health care issue because it often includes serious dysfunction, is poorly understood by providers and poses extensive financial and treatment obstacles for those who experience it. Persons with multiple chemical sensitivity seek medical treatment in a variety of contexts and informed providers can both avoid iatrogenic harm due to medical exposures and provide any possible treatment for the chemical sensitivities. Understanding the impact of the health condition is crucial to communicate with and treat persons who experience the sensitivities.

  20. Sociodemographic Correlates of Sexlessness Among American Adults and Associations with Self-Reported Happiness Levels: Evidence from the U.S. General Social Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean H; Tam, Wilson S; Muennig, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Although sexual activity is commonly believed to be a key component of emotional well-being, little is known about the factors associated with the absence of sexual activity or its associations with self-reported happiness. Using the U.S. General Social Survey-National Death Index 2008 dataset, a series of nationally representative surveys (1988-2002), this study analyzed the sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with past-year sexlessness and self-reported happiness among American adults (n = 17,744). After adjustment for marital status, there were no significant time trends evident in the proportion of American adults reporting past-year sexlessness. Among participants (age = 18-89 years), 15.2% of males and 26.7% of females reported past-year sexlessness while 8.7% of males and 17.5% of females reported no sex for 5 years or more. For both genders, past-year sexlessness was most strongly associated with older age and being currently non-married in the multivariable models. Among males, the multivariable analysis also showed that sexlessness was associated with providing less than 20% of the household income (OR 2.27). In female participants, sexlessness was associated with very low income, poor health, lower financial satisfaction, absence of children, and having conservative sexual attitudes (OR 1.46-3.60). For both genders, Black race was associated with a much lower likelihood of sexlessness among currently non-married adults. The purported detrimental impact of sexlessness on self-reported happiness levels was not evident in this large, nationally representative study after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Sexless Americans reported very similar happiness levels as their sexually active counterparts.

  1. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  2. Clinical Skills Performed By Iranian Emergency Nurses: Perceived Competency Levels and Attitudes Toward Expanding Professional Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassankhani, Hadi; Hasanzadeh, Firooz; Powers, Kelly A; Dadash Zadeh, Abbas; Rajaie, Rouzbeh

    2018-03-01

    Emergency nurses play an important role in the care of critically ill and injured patients, and their competency to perform clinical skills is vital to safe and effective patient care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of clinical skills performed and perceived competency levels among Iranian emergency nurses. In addition, attitudes toward expanding the professional roles of Iranian emergency nurses were also assessed. In this descriptive correlational study, 319 emergency nurses from 30 hospitals in northwest Iran participated. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to present the findings. Overall competency of the emergency nurses was 73.31 ± 14.2, indicating a good level of perceived competence. The clinical skills most frequently performed were in the domains of organizational and workload competencies (3.43 ± 0.76), diagnostic function (3.25 ± 0.82), and the helping role (3.17 ± 0.83). A higher level of perceived competence was found for skills within these domains. Less frequently, participants performed skills within the domains of effective management of rapidly changing situations (2.70 ± 0.94) and administering and monitoring therapeutic interventions (2.60 ± 0.97); a lower perceived level of competence was noted for these clinical skills. There was a significant correlation between frequency of performing clinical skills and perceived competency level (r = 0.651, P skills. This has implications for nurse managers and educators who may consider offering more frequent experiential and educational opportunities to emergency nurses. Expansion of nurses' roles could also result in increased experience in clinical skills and higher levels of competency. Research is needed to investigate nurses' clinical competence using direct and observed measures. Copyright © 2017 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of threatening visual warnings on tobacco packaging: Measuring the impact of threat level, image size, and type of pack through psychophysiological and self-report methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droulers, Olivier; Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Lacoste-Badie, Sophie; Lajante, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness, in terms of emotional and behavioral reactions, of moderately vs. highly TVWs (Threatening Visual Warnings) displayed on tobacco packs. Given the key role that emotional reactions play in explaining the effect of TVWs on behaviors, psychophysiological and self-report methods were used-for the first time in this context-to measure the emotions provoked by TVWs. The second aim of this research was to determine whether increasing the size of warnings, and their display on plain packaging (compared with branded packaging) would improve their effectiveness. A within-subjects experiment was conducted. Three variables were manipulated: health warning threat level (high vs. moderate), image size (40% vs. 75%) and pack type (plain vs. branded). A convenience sample of 48 French daily smokers participated. They were exposed to eight different packs of cigarettes in a research lab at the University of Rennes. Smokers' emotions and behavioral intentions were recorded through self-reports. Emotions were also evaluated using psychophysiological measurements: electrodermal activity and facial electromyography. The results revealed that TVWs with a high threat level are the most effective in increasing negative emotions (fear, disgust, valence, arousal) and behavioral intentions conducive to public health (desire to quit, etc.). They also highlight the appeal of increasing the size of the warnings and displaying them on plain packs, because this influences emotions, which is the first step toward behavioral change. Increasing the threat level of TVWs from moderate to high seems beneficial for public health. Our results also confirm the relevance of recent governmental decisions to adopt plain packaging and larger TVWs (in the UK, France, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Hungary, etc.).

  4. The influence of threatening visual warnings on tobacco packaging: Measuring the impact of threat level, image size, and type of pack through psychophysiological and self-report methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droulers, Olivier; Lacoste-Badie, Sophie; Lajante, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness, in terms of emotional and behavioral reactions, of moderately vs. highly TVWs (Threatening Visual Warnings) displayed on tobacco packs. Given the key role that emotional reactions play in explaining the effect of TVWs on behaviors, psychophysiological and self-report methods were used–for the first time in this context–to measure the emotions provoked by TVWs. The second aim of this research was to determine whether increasing the size of warnings, and their display on plain packaging (compared with branded packaging) would improve their effectiveness. A within-subjects experiment was conducted. Three variables were manipulated: health warning threat level (high vs. moderate), image size (40% vs. 75%) and pack type (plain vs. branded). A convenience sample of 48 French daily smokers participated. They were exposed to eight different packs of cigarettes in a research lab at the University of Rennes. Smokers’ emotions and behavioral intentions were recorded through self-reports. Emotions were also evaluated using psychophysiological measurements: electrodermal activity and facial electromyography. The results revealed that TVWs with a high threat level are the most effective in increasing negative emotions (fear, disgust, valence, arousal) and behavioral intentions conducive to public health (desire to quit, etc.). They also highlight the appeal of increasing the size of the warnings and displaying them on plain packs, because this influences emotions, which is the first step toward behavioral change. Increasing the threat level of TVWs from moderate to high seems beneficial for public health. Our results also confirm the relevance of recent governmental decisions to adopt plain packaging and larger TVWs (in the UK, France, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Hungary, etc.). PMID:28910317

  5. The influence of threatening visual warnings on tobacco packaging: Measuring the impact of threat level, image size, and type of pack through psychophysiological and self-report methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Droulers

    Full Text Available The first aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness, in terms of emotional and behavioral reactions, of moderately vs. highly TVWs (Threatening Visual Warnings displayed on tobacco packs. Given the key role that emotional reactions play in explaining the effect of TVWs on behaviors, psychophysiological and self-report methods were used-for the first time in this context-to measure the emotions provoked by TVWs. The second aim of this research was to determine whether increasing the size of warnings, and their display on plain packaging (compared with branded packaging would improve their effectiveness. A within-subjects experiment was conducted. Three variables were manipulated: health warning threat level (high vs. moderate, image size (40% vs. 75% and pack type (plain vs. branded. A convenience sample of 48 French daily smokers participated. They were exposed to eight different packs of cigarettes in a research lab at the University of Rennes. Smokers' emotions and behavioral intentions were recorded through self-reports. Emotions were also evaluated using psychophysiological measurements: electrodermal activity and facial electromyography. The results revealed that TVWs with a high threat level are the most effective in increasing negative emotions (fear, disgust, valence, arousal and behavioral intentions conducive to public health (desire to quit, etc.. They also highlight the appeal of increasing the size of the warnings and displaying them on plain packs, because this influences emotions, which is the first step toward behavioral change. Increasing the threat level of TVWs from moderate to high seems beneficial for public health. Our results also confirm the relevance of recent governmental decisions to adopt plain packaging and larger TVWs (in the UK, France, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Hungary, etc..

  6. Examining the Level of Convergence among Self-Regulated Learning Microanalytic Processes, Achievement, and a Self-Report Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Callan, Gregory L.; Malatesta, Jaime; Adams, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the convergent and predictive validity of self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic measures. Specifically, theoretically based relations among a set of self-reflection processes, self-efficacy, and achievement were examined as was the level of convergence between a microanalytic strategy measure and a SRL self-report…

  7. Association between self-reported and objectively measured physical fitness level in a middle-aged population in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstine H. Obling

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: A single-item question is a cost-effective way of measuring physical fitness level, but the method has low association and fair agreement when compared to the Aastrand test. Men tend to overestimate physical fitness more than women, which should be accounted for if using the question in primary care settings.

  8. Analyzing of the self reported ICT literacy level of Slovakian and Serbian Students in the higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Gabor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The students generally use technology for communication in the European Union and outside of the Union. First of all we have to see in this research the ICT knowledge level of the students in the higher education to make decision about the application and retraining methods. It is important to know can we find any difference in ICT literacy between the Slovakian and the Serbian students to see how long is the way to finish the ICT revolution in these countries. On the other hand is it important to see which topic need more attention from the teachers in the high school to give a good knowledge for the student before they go in the higher education. We measured the ICT literacy level with a tool consisting of 15 items (Likert scaled. The data analysis was performed with SPSS software using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney test.

  9. Pesticide use, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase level and self-reported acute intoxication symptoms among vegetable farmers in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; Jors, E.; Brandt, L.

    2014-01-01

    : The majority of pesticides used were WHO class II, classified as moderately hazardous. The mean numbers of personal protective equipment used by farmers were 2.22 (95% CI: 1.89; 2.54). Out of five hygienic practices asked, farmers followed 3.63 (95% CI: 3.40; 3.86) hygienic practices on the average. Farmers...... of healthy individuals. A lower mean haemoglobin-adjusted AChE level was seen among farmers compared to the controls. The use of highly toxic pesticides, inadequate use of personal protective equipment and poor hygienic practices might explain the reason for symptoms of pesticide intoxication and a lower ACh...

  10. Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that distinguish ... players' perceived ability to be psychologically well prepared for competitions. ... reference to practical implications for future sport psychological skills training

  11. The effects of single-session music therapy interventions on the observed and self-reported levels of pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation of hospice patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krout, R E

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the process and results of a three-month music therapy clinical effectiveness study conducted with terminally ill patients. The purpose of this study was to quantify and evaluate the effectiveness of single-session music therapy interventions with hospice patients in three patient problem areas: pain control; physical comfort; and relaxation. Data from a total of 90 sessions conducted with a total of 80 subjects served by Hospice of Palm Beach County, Florida, were included in the study. Music therapy services were provided by five board-certified music therapists and one music therapist eligible for board certification. The subjects in this study were receiving regularly scheduled music therapy services from the hospice organization. The study used both behavioral observation and subject's self-reporting as methods of data reporting and recording. Subjects were observed for, or self-reported, their levels of pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation, both before and after each music therapy session. The subjects were served in the environments where music therapy services would normally be delivered (i.e., home, hospital, nursing home, or inpatient acute-care unit of the hospice organization). Music therapy services included live active and passive music-based experiences. These were designed to build and to establish rapport with patient or family, to facilitate family interaction and patient control, to provide support and comfort, to facilitate relaxation, to enable reminiscence and life review, to provide a frame-work for spiritual exploration and validation, and to encourage the identification and expression of feelings of anticipatory mourning and grief. A total of six hypotheses stated that there would be significant pre- to postsession differences in each of the three variables: pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation, as measured during two different session and data collection scenarios. These scenarios included the

  12. Skill level, Cognitive Ability, Unemployment and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    -biasedtechnological shocks increase unemployment, this may explain why themarket it-self cannot respond to this by making it sufficiently attractiveto acquire skills. Consequently, the trade-off in-between subsidizing educationand thereby reducing unemployment and optimizing welfare maybe eliminated. We analyse this issue...... in a simple educational model andnext in a search equilibrium model including a skill choice decision.Keywords: Education, subsidies, efficiency, unemployment.JEL codes: I20, J64....

  13. Stress management skills, neuroimmune processes and fatigue levels in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattie, Emily G; Antoni, Michael H; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Penedo, Frank; Czaja, Sara; Lopez, Corina; Perdomo, Dolores; Sala, Andreina; Nair, Sankaran; Fu, Shih Hua; Klimas, Nancy

    2012-08-01

    Stressors and emotional distress responses impact chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) symptoms, including fatigue. Having better stress management skills might mitigate fatigue by decreasing emotional distress. Because CFS patients comprise a heterogeneous population, we hypothesized that the role of stress management skills in decreasing fatigue may be most pronounced in the subgroup manifesting the greatest neuroimmune dysfunction. In total, 117 individuals with CFS provided blood and saliva samples, and self-report measures of emotional distress, perceived stress management skills (PSMS), and fatigue. Plasma interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and diurnal salivary cortisol were analyzed. We examined relations among PSMS, emotional distress, and fatigue in CFS patients who did and did not evidence neuroimmune abnormalities. Having greater PSMS related to less fatigue (p=.019) and emotional distress (pfatigue levels most strongly in CFS patients in the top tercile of IL-6, and emotional distress mediated the relationship between PSMS and fatigue most strongly in patients with the greatest circulating levels of IL-6 and a greater inflammatory (IL-6):anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine ratio. CFS patients having greater PSMS show less emotional distress and fatigue, and the influence of stress management skills on distress and fatigue appear greatest among patients who have elevated IL-6 levels. These findings support the need for research examining the impact of stress management interventions in subgroups of CFS patients showing neuroimmune dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Level of motor Skills of the First Grade Pupils

    OpenAIRE

    HEJLOVÁ, Kateřina

    2011-01-01

    The thesis focuses on motor abilities of children from birth to the age of eight years. It outlines the development of gross motor skills, fine motor skills and micromotor skills, and methods how to help children develop these particular areas. The level of motor skills is determined by method of testing in first graders from Stonařov, Pavlov, Třešť and České Budějovice.

  15. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error of the self-report version of the social skills rating system in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available The social skills rating system (SSRS is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187, from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports, not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID.

  16. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error of the self-report version of the social skills rating system in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Andreou, Pantelis; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    The social skills rating system (SSRS) is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US) are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME) of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF) in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187), from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC) of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy) on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating) for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating) was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports), not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID).

  17. Helpful Entry Level Skills Checklist--Revised Manual [and] Helpful Entry Level Skill Checklist--Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Development Centers of the Bluegrass, Lexington, KY.

    The Helpful Entry Level Skills Checklist was designed to assist preschool teachers in selecting functional skills that children (including children with disabilities) may need to make a successful transition into the public schools. These skills, for the most part, deal with attending, compliance, ability to follow directions, turn taking, ability…

  18. The level of physical exercise is associated with self-reported health status (EQ-5D) in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Camilla; Engström, Karl Gunnar; Dellborg, Mikael; Thilén, Ulf; Wadell, Karin; Johansson, Bengt

    2015-02-01

    The prognosis in adults with congenital aortic valve disease is usually favourable; nevertheless, a number of medical and social factors might hamper long-term prognosis and quality of life. With a focus on physical exercise level, data from the Swedish National Registry on Congenital Heart Disease (SWEDCON) were analysed and variables associated with health-related quality of life in adults with congenital aortic valve disease were identified. In this registry study, SWEDCON was searched for adult patients with isolated congenital aortic valve disease and valid EuroQol-5Dimensions health questionnaire (EQ-5D) data. This study identified 315 patients. The majority (n = 202, 64%) reported best possible health status (EQ-5D(index) = 1) whereas 113 (35%) reported some impairment (EQ-5D(index)  3 h/week was independently associated with best possible health status (EQ-5D(index) = 1; p = 0.013). Moreover presence of cardiovascular symptoms (p 3 h/week was, as a single variable, associated with best possible health status in adults with congenital aortic valve disease. In contrast, a number of medical and social factors are associated with worse self-reported health status. Among these, symptoms, smoking, and educational level are potential targets for modification and intervention. There is a need for studies investigating the effect of increased level of physical exercise in patients with congenital aortic valve disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Skill Levels of Prospective Physics Teachers on Problem Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cildir, Sema; Sezen, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    Problem posing is one of the topics which the educators thoroughly accentuate. Problem posing skill is defined as an introvert activity of a student's learning. In this study, skill levels of prospective physics teachers on problem posing were determined and their views on problem posing were evaluated. To this end, prospective teachers were given…

  20. Reading Processing Skills among EFL Learners in Different Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Yamada, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand how EFL learners in different reading proficiency levels comprehend L2 texts, using five-component skills involving measures of (1) vocabulary knowledge, (2) drawing inferences and predictions, (3) knowledge of text structure and discourse organization, (4) identifying the main idea and summarizing skills, and (5)…

  1. Emotional Intelligence Levels and Counselling Skills of Prospective Psychological Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaci, Hatice; Degerli, Fatma Irem; Bolat, Neslihan

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the correlation between emotional intelligence (EI) and counselling skills of Turkish prospective psychological counsellors and to investigate differences in both EI and counselling skills in terms of sex, previous experience of group studies, and class levels. Within a correlational pattern, the sample of the…

  2. Elementary School Students Perception Levels of Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Günes; Yasemin, Deringöl; Arslan, Çigdem

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the perception levels of problem solving skills of elementary school students. The sample of the study is formed by totally 264 elementary students attending to 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade in a big city in Turkey. Data were collected by means of "Perception Scale for Problem Solving Skills" which…

  3. Relationship of level of physical skills and academic achievemnts

    OpenAIRE

    Doubková, Karolína

    2010-01-01

    The thesis aims to investigate whether there is dependence between the level of physical skills and achievements in school. By means of test I will analyze the level of physical skills for pupils in lower multi-annual gymnasium. Based on the measured results I try to find and compare the level of physical skills and students academic achievemnt dependence in the first semester of that year. Subsequently I also detect, by using my pre-prepared questionnaire, the relationship of students to spo...

  4. Patients' level of satisfaction and self-reports of intention to comply following consultation with nurses and midwives with prescriptive authority: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Jonathan; Naughton, Corina; Allen, Deirdre; Hyde, Abbey; O'Boyle, Kathy; Felle, Patrick; Treacy, Margaret Pearl; Butler, Michelle

    2011-07-01

    Prescriptive authority for nurses and midwives was introduced in Ireland in 2007. This allows nurses and midwives who have completed a prescribing preparation programme to independently prescribe a wide-range of medications. To date little is known of patient outcomes such as satisfaction with the consultation process and intention to comply as a consequence of the introduction of nurse and midwife prescribing. There are four principal objectives within this study: (1) to measure the level of patients' satisfaction with education and advice received from a nurse or midwife with a prescribing remit; (2) to measure patients' satisfaction with the consultation process; (3) to measure patients' self-reports of their intention to comply with the prescriber's prescription and advice; and (4) to identify the variables that predict patients' intention to comply with the prescription and advice provided by a nurse or midwife with prescriptive authority. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. A total of one hundred and forty respondents completed the survey. Respondents consisted of adult patients who had received a prescription from a nurse prescriber in a general hospital, women who had received a prescription from a midwife in a maternity hospital and parents whose child received a prescription from a nurse in a children's hospital. Instruments used to measure patient outcomes included the Consultation Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) and the compliance intent subscale of the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS). A linear multiple regression model was performed to identify the variables that predicted patients' intent to comply. Patients and parents surveyed were highly satisfied with the care they received from nurses and midwives with prescriptive authority. Respondents also reported that they received comprehensive education and advice. Predictors of compliance intent included patient satisfaction with the time spent with the nurse or midwife during the prescribing

  5. The influence of threatening visual warnings on tobacco packaging: Measuring the impact of threat level, image size, and type of pack through psychophysiological and self-report methods

    OpenAIRE

    Droulers, Olivier; Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Lacoste-Badie, Sophie; Lajante, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness, in terms of emotional and behavioral reactions, of moderately vs. highly TVWs (Threatening Visual Warnings) displayed on tobacco packs. Given the key role that emotional reactions play in explaining the effect of TVWs on behaviors, psychophysiological and self-report methods were used-for the first time in this context-to measure the emotions provoked by TVWs. The second aim of this research was to determine whether increasing th...

  6. Medical students’ perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) discrimination in their learning environment and their self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients: a survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Nama, Nassr; MacPherson, Paul; Sampson, Margaret; McMillan, Hugh J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Historically, medical students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered (LGBT) report higher rates of social stress, depression, and anxiety, while LGBT patients have reported discrimination and poorer access to healthcare. Objective: The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess if medical students have perceived discrimination in their learning environment and; (2) to determine self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients. Design: Medical students ...

  7. SKILLS MISMATCH OF THE YOUNG PEOPLE AT THE EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatos Roxana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transition from school to work is a main issue with many fields of study. Studies on transition from school to work, have highlight the importance of two categories of factors at the level of the individual formal proceedings which may affect how easy it is to graduate to integrate into the labor market: 1 so far as the educational systems are transmitting specific competences as compared with those general and 2 so far as there are direct links between employers and the education system. In this way, are reduced the costs of selection and allocation for employers. A poor articulation between educational institutions and the labor market produce a high level of unmatched competences of assimilated by formal education and competencies required of the labor market (skill mismatch (Parodi et al., 2012. The surveys with European employers reflect particular difficulties that they are experiencing in employment vacancies. Investigation on the European companies in the spring of 2013 found that 40% of the firms in the EU have difficulty in finding employees with suitable qualification (CEDEFOP-European Center for the Development of the Vocational Training, 2014. Skills mismatch is a generic term that refers to various types of imbalances between skills and competences offered and those required in the labor market. Concept has become one intensely discussed and submitted to measurement in international research on the background concerns the under-utilization human resource. Numerous opinion polls with employers come to the same unexpected conclusion - that despite high unemployment many posts can't find occupants satisfactorily prepared and identify the causes: most of them criticized the lack of skills of the candidates or the absence of skills specific to the workplace. Based on the latest studies on international databases have built a set of questions that, through secondary analysis, we tried to find answers. Questions that we try to give answer

  8. Level of Skill Argued Students on Physics Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanti, V.; Cari, C.; Sunarno, W.; Prasetyo, Z. K.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to analyze the prior knowledge of students to map the level of skills to argue floating and sinking material. Prior knowledge is the process of concept formation in cognitive processes spontaneously or based on student experience. The study population is high school students of class XI. The sample selection using cluster random sampling, obtained the number of sampel as many as 50 student. The research used descriptive survey method. The data were obtained through a multiple choice test both grounded and interviewed. The data analyzed refers to: alignment the concept and the activity of developing the skill of the argument. The result obtained by the average level of skill argue in terms of the prior knowladge of on “Level 2”. The data show that students have difficulty expressing simple arguments consisting of only one statement. This indicates a lack of student experience in cultivating argumentative skills in their learning. The skill level mapping argued in this study to be a reference for researchers to provide feedback measures to obtain positive change in cognitive conflict argued.

  9. Is there a second level divide in students Internet skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Purushothaman, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses on the insu......The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses...... on the insufficient level of skills which students have in making the best use of available Internet technology. Varying online skills of the students in higher education from two countrywide scenarios - Denmark and India are discussed. The paper emphasizes on the reflective and conceptual issues which the students...... face to take information from the Internet that brings a second level of divide. Through a cross-national comparison the paper hopes to contribute to the literature to learn from each other´s experiences and giving insights to researchers on digital divide. The digital divide in Internet skills...

  10. System Thinking Skills at the Elementary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Orion, Nir

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the development of system thinking skills at the elementary school level. It addresses the question of whether elementary school students can deal with complex systems. The sample included 40 4th grade students from one school in a small town in Israel. The students studied an inquiry-based earth systems curriculum that…

  11. MEASURING INSTRUMENT CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION IN ESTIMATING UNICYCLING SKILL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Granić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Riding the unicycle presupposes the knowledge of the set of elements which describe motoric skill, or just part of that set with which we could measure the level of that knowledge. Testing and evaluation of the elements is time consuming. In order to design a unique, composite measuring instrument, to facilitate the evaluation of the initial level of unicycling skill, we tested 17 recreative subjects who were learning to ride the unicycle in 15 hours of training, without any previous knowledge or experience what was measured before the beginning of the training. At the beginning and at the end of the training they were tested with the set of the 12 riding elements test that was carried out to record only successful attempts, followed by unique SLALOM test which include previously tested elements. It was found that the unique SLALOM test has good metric features and a high regression coefficient showed that the SLALOM could be used instead of the 12 elements of unicycle riding skill, and it could be used as a uniform test to evaluate learned or existing knowledge. Because of its simplicity in terms of action and simultaneous testing of more subjects, the newly constructed test could be used in evaluating the unicycling recreational level, but also for monitoring and programming transformation processes to develop the motor skills of riding of unicycle. Because of its advantages, it is desirable to include unicycling in the educational processes of learning new motor skills, which can be evaluated by the results of this research. The obtained results indicate that the unicycle should be seriously consider as a training equipment to “refresh” or expand the recreational programs, without any fear that it is just for special people. Namely, it was shown that the previously learned motor skills (skiing, roller-skating, and cycling had no effect on the results of final testing.

  12. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on

  13. Teaching information literacy skills to sophomore-level biology majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Leigh; Blankinship, Lisa Ann

    2015-05-01

    Many undergraduate students lack a sound understanding of information literacy. The skills that comprise information literacy are particularly important when combined with scientific writing for biology majors as they are the foundation skills necessary to complete upper-division biology course assignments, better train students for research projects, and prepare students for graduate and professional education. To help undergraduate biology students develop and practice information literacy and scientific writing skills, a series of three one-hour hands-on library sessions, discussions, and homework assignments were developed for Biological Literature, a one-credit, one-hour-per-week, required sophomore-level course. The embedded course librarian developed a learning exercise that reviewed how to conduct database and web searches, the difference between primary and secondary sources, source credibility, and how to access articles through the university's databases. Students used the skills gained in the library training sessions for later writing assignments including a formal lab report and annotated bibliography. By focusing on improving information literacy skills as well as providing practice in scientific writing, Biological Literature students are better able to meet the rigors of upper-division biology courses and communicate research findings in a more professional manner.

  14. Self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...

  15. Validation of Self-Reported Cognitive Problems with Objective ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical neuropsychological test performance in 147 manganese (Mn) exposed residents. These residents were from two Ohio towns exposed to ambient air-Mn from an industrial source with modeled average air-Mn concentrations of 0.54 µg/m3 (range: 0.01-4.58) and were part of a larger study of cognitive, motor, tremor abnormalities and their relationship to Mn exposure.The primarily white (94.6%) participants (aged 30-64) lived in the towns for at least 10 years (range: 10-64) and had 13.9 years of education, on average. In the last 7 days before testing, 94 (64.4%) participants self-reported concentration problems and 105 (71.8%) self-reported memory problems. After adjusting for age and education, participants who self-reported cognitive problems did not perform worse on the objective neuropsychological measures than those who reported not having problems, except on 1 of 17 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Color). Greater levels of depression and female sex predicted having more self-reported cognitive problems. Higher education was associated with fewer self-reported cognitive problems. Measures of Mn in air, blood, hair, and toenails were not associated with subjective cognitive self-reported p

  16. Changes in self-reported driving intentions and attitudes while learning to drive in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, S; Kinnear, N A D; McKenna, F P; Allsop, R E; Horswill, M S

    2013-10-01

    Novice drivers are overrepresented in traffic collisions, especially in their first year of solo driving. It is widely accepted that some driving behaviours (such as speeding and thrill-seeking) increase risk in this group. Increasingly research is suggesting that attitudes and behavioural intentions held in the pre-driver and learning stage are important in determining later driver behaviour in solo driving. In this study we examine changes in several self-reported attitudes and behavioural intentions across the learning stage in a sample of learner drivers in Great Britain. A sample of 204 learner drivers completed a self-report questionnaire near the beginning of their learning, and then again shortly after they passed their practical driving test. Results showed that self-reported intentions regarding speed choice, perceptions regarding skill level, and intentions regarding thrill-seeking (through driving) became less safe over this time period, while self-reported intentions regarding following distance and overtaking tendency became safer. The results are discussed with reference to models of driver behaviour that focus on task difficulty; it is suggested that the manner in which behind-the-wheel experience relates to the risk measures of interest may be the key determining factor in how these change over the course of learning to drive. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Validade da hipertensão autorreferida associa-se inversamente com escolaridade em brasileiros Validity of self-reported hypertension is inversely associated with the level of education in Brazilian individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro Selem

    2012-01-01

    .BACKGROUND: Self-reported hypertension is an important piece of information for public health that is available in epidemiological studies. For proper use of this information, such studies should be validated. OBJECTIVE: To validate self-reported hypertension and associated factors in adults and elderly individuals in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Participants were selected from the sample of a population-based cross-sectional health survey carried out in São Paulo (ISA Capital-2008. Their age was 20 years or older, they were from both genders, and had their blood pressure measured (n = 535. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg and/or use of medication for hypertension. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and Kappa coefficient were calculated. Poisson regression was used to identify factors associated with sensitivity of self-reported hypertension. RESULTS: Sensitivity of self-reported hypertension was 71.1% (95%CI: 64.8 to 76.9, specificity 80.5% (95%CI: 75.6 to 84.8, PPV 73.7% (95%CI: 67.4 to 79.3, and NPV 78.5% (95%CI: 73.5 to 82.9. There was moderate agreement between self-reported hypertension and hypertension as diagnosed by blood pressure measurement (kappa = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.45 to 0.59. Body mass index and level of education were independently associated with sensitivity (body mass index > 25 kg/m²: PR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.76; schooling > 9 years: PR = 0.71 95%CI: 0.54-0.94. CONCLUSION: Self-reported hypertension was shown to be valid in adults and the elderly in the city of São Paulo, and is thus an appropriate indicator for the surveillance of hypertension prevalence in the absence of blood pressure measurement. Overweight was positively associated with validity of self-reported hypertension. Further studies are needed to elucidate the inverse association between the validity of self-reported hypertension and level of education.

  18. Validade da hipertensão autorreferida associa-se inversamente com escolaridade em brasileiros Validity of self-reported hypertension is inversely associated with the level of education in Brazilian individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro Selem

    2013-01-01

    .BACKGROUND: Self-reported hypertension is an important piece of information for public health that is available in epidemiological studies. For proper use of this information, such studies should be validated. OBJECTIVE: To validate self-reported hypertension and associated factors in adults and elderly individuals in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Participants were selected from the sample of a population-based cross-sectional health survey carried out in São Paulo (ISA Capital-2008. Their age was 20 years or older, they were from both genders, and had their blood pressure measured (n = 535. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg and/or use of medication for hypertension. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and Kappa coefficient were calculated. Poisson regression was used to identify factors associated with sensitivity of self-reported hypertension. RESULTS: Sensitivity of self-reported hypertension was 71.1% (95%CI: 64.8 to 76.9, specificity 80.5% (95%CI: 75.6 to 84.8, PPV 73.7% (95%CI: 67.4 to 79.3, and NPV 78.5% (95%CI: 73.5 to 82.9. There was moderate agreement between self-reported hypertension and hypertension as diagnosed by blood pressure measurement (kappa = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.45 to 0.59. Body mass index and level of education were independently associated with sensitivity (body mass index > 25 kg/m²: PR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.76; schooling > 9 years: PR = 0.71 95%CI: 0.54-0.94. CONCLUSION: Self-reported hypertension was shown to be valid in adults and the elderly in the city of São Paulo, and is thus an appropriate indicator for the surveillance of hypertension prevalence in the absence of blood pressure measurement. Overweight was positively associated with validity of self-reported hypertension. Further studies are needed to elucidate the inverse association between the validity of self-reported hypertension and level of education.

  19. District magnitude and voter turnout a multi-level analysis of self-reported voting in the 32 Dominican Republic districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, K.T.E.; Spierings, N.

    2010-01-01

    Although studies of electoral participation in established democracies are abundant, little attention has been devoted to Latin American democracies and few studies combine individual-level and contextual-level variables. We focus on electoral participation in 32 districts of a Latin American

  20. The impact of self-reported psychological stress levels on changes to peripheral blood immune biomarkers in recreational marathon runners during training and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Kristina E; Elci, Okan U; Hahn, Kathryn; Marshall, Gailen D

    2013-01-01

    Marathon training is both physically and psychologically stressful, both of which can lead to altered immunity. The purpose of this study was to determine if the overall immunoregulatory changes associated with the physical stress of marathon training are affected by psychological stress. Nineteen recreational marathoners completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), and had levels of T cell subpopulations and cytokine (IFNγ, IL4 and IL10) production determined 4 weeks before (baseline), 24-48 h before (prerace) and 1 week after (recovery) participation in a marathon. PSS scores decreased at the prerace visit compared to baseline and remained low at recovery. Compared to baseline, there were significant changes to numerous immune measures at the prerace visit, including decreases in Th1/Th2 ratio, Tc1/Tc2 ratio, Tr1 and Th3 cell populations as well as decreases in IFNγ/IL4 cytokine ratio and IL10 production. Most immune parameters had returned to near baseline values at the recovery visit. Higher levels of perceived stress, anxiety and worry exacerbated many of the alterations in immunity that were observed at the prerace visit. Higher levels of perceived stress and worry had significant effects on changes to Treg, IL4 production and the IFNγ/IL4 cytokine ratio. Stress had an additional impact on changes in IL10 production. High anxiety levels resulted in significant changes to Treg, Tr1 and Th3. These data suggest that recreational marathon runners with higher levels of psychological stress may be more at risk for the immune alterations that are common during periods of prolonged physical training. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Authoritative School Climate and High School Student Risk Behavior: A Cross-sectional Multi-level Analysis of Student Self-Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Dewey; Huang, Francis

    2016-11-01

    Many adolescents engage in risk behaviors such as substance use and aggression that jeopardize their healthy development. This study tested the hypothesis that an authoritative school climate characterized by strict but fair discipline and supportive teacher-student relationships is conducive to lower risk behavior for high school students. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze cross-sectional, student-report survey data from a statewide sample of 47,888 students (50.6 % female) in 319 high schools. The students included ninth (26.6 %), tenth (25.5 %), eleventh (24.1 %) and twelfth (23.8 %) grade with a racial/ethnic breakdown of 52.2 % White, 18.0 % Black, 13.1 % Hispanic, 5.9 % Asian, and 10.8 % reporting another or two or more race/ethnicities. Schools with an authoritative school climate had lower levels of student-reported alcohol and marijuana use; bullying, fighting, and weapon carrying at school; interest in gang membership; and suicidal thoughts and behavior. These results controlled for demographic variables of student gender, race, grade, and parent education level as well as school size, percentage of minority students, and percentage of low income students. Overall, these findings add new evidence that an authoritative school climate is associated with positive student outcomes.

  2. The Influence of Feedback of Diagnosis and Executive Function Skills on Rates of False Positive and False Negative Outcomes for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Stacy L.; Privitera, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive function (EF) skills and self-reported symptoms of ADHD. EF skills were measured to determine whether skills were different between groups that reported clinical levels of ADHD symptoms (clinical group) and nonclinical levels of ADHD symptoms (nonclinical group). EF skills in the nonclinical group were also…

  3. Examining the associations of perceived community racism with self-reported physical activity levels and health among older racial minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael; Cunningham, George

    2013-09-01

    Racial health disparities are more pronounced among older adults. Few studies have examined how racism influences health behaviors. This study's purpose was to examine how opportunities for physical activity (PA) and community racism are associated with older racial minorities' reported engagement in PA. We also investigated how PA levels influenced health. We analyzed survey data obtained from a health assessment conducted in 3360 households in Texas, USA, which included items pertaining to PA, community characteristics, and health. Our sample contained 195 women and 85 men (mean age 70.16), most of whom were African American. We found no direct relationship between opportunities and PA. Results suggested that perceived community racism moderated this association. When community racism was low, respondents found ways to be active whether they perceived opportunities or not. When community racism was high, perceived lack of opportunities significantly impeded PA engagement. We found the expected association between PA and health. Results suggested that negative effects of community racism were counteracted through increased opportunities for PA.

  4. Reviewing the relation between the problem solving skills of school of health students and their social skill levels

    OpenAIRE

    Gül Ergün; Buket Şimşek Arslan

    2017-01-01

    This research aims at reviewing the relation between the problem solving skills of health high school students and their social skill levels.  It was planned to be descriptive. The universe of the research was composed of nursing students in the health high school. The sample was determined to be the whole of the universe. A written permission was taken from the management of the health high school regarding the research. Problem Solving Inventory and Social Skill Inventory; the form towards ...

  5. The importance of integumentary knowledge and skill in physical therapist entry-level education: are they prepared for practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Karen A; Furney, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Physical therapist practice is grounded in patient management principles encompassing all body systems and focuses on prevention, education, and functional outcomes. As such, management of the integumentary system crosses all practice settings, emphasizing the importance that basic integumentary content be adequately addressed during entry-level education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to compare the self-reported integumentary knowledge and skill of recent graduates to profession-determined expectations for education. Participants were 7 licensed physical therapists experienced in wound management. Semi-structured interview data were recorded, transcribed, and coded. A matrix compiling professional expectations for integumentary education was utilized to identify topics as absent, covered only briefly, or covered only during clinical rotations. Compression, vascular screening, infection, factors impacting healing, modalities, dressings, wound measurements, topicals, and sutures/staples were among the most commonly reported areas of deficiency. While integumentary care makes up a small percentage of physical therapy practice, it is a significant part of a comprehensively educated therapist. This study found participants did not perceive themselves to have received the minimum entry-level integumentary knowledge and skill deemed necessary by the profession. Study results are supported by current literature and demonstrate the need for integumentary curriculum review in entry-level programs.

  6. Changes in Badminton Game Play across Developmental Skill Levels among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao

    2012-01-01

    The study examined changes in badminton game play across developmental skill levels among high school students in a physical education setting. Videotapes of badminton game play of 80 students (40 boys and 40 girls) in the four developmental skill levels (each skill level had 10 boys and 10 girls) were randomly selected from a database associated…

  7. Quality and Equality: Basic Skill Requirements at the University Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskin, Alan E.; Greenebaum, Ben

    1979-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Parkside's comprehensive collegiate skills program is described from proposal to implementation. Junior year students must demonstrate competence in: writing, reading, mathematics, research paper writing, and library skills. (MLW)

  8. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluation of a Brief Self-Report Questionnaire for the Assessment of the DSM-5 level of Personality Functioning Scale: The LPFS Brief Form (LPFS-BF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dine J; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2016-04-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) introduced a new paradigm for the assessment of PDs that includes levels of personality functioning indexing the severity of personality pathology irrespective of diagnosis. In this study, we describe the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a newly developed brief self-report questionnaire to assess levels of personality functioning, the Level of Personality Functioning Scale-Brief Form (LPFS-BF; Bender, Morey, & Skodol, 2011). Patients (N = 240) referred to a specialized setting for the assessment and treatment of PDs completed the LPFS-BF, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; Derogatis, 1975), the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008), and were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Personality Disorders (SCID-I; APA, 1994; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997) and the SCID Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, Williams, & Benjamin, 1996). When constrained to a 2-factor oblique solution, the LPFS-BF yielded a structure that corresponded well to an interpretation of Self- and Interpersonal Functioning scales. The instrument demonstrated fair to satisfactory internal consistency and promising construct validity. The LPFS-BF constitutes a short, user-friendly instrument that provides a quick impression of the severity of personality pathology, specifically oriented to the DSM-5 model. Clearly, more research is needed to test its validity and clinical utility. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Developing a capability to classify technical skill levels within a Cyber Range

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, William A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in technology adoption, quality assurance in terms of the technical skill level of cybersecurity experts working on a task is crucial. Educating employees and ensuring that they have the necessary tools and skills required...

  10. Human Value And Soft Skill In Diploma Level Architectural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sarita Dash

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In todays economic scenario the rising incomes and expectations in the wake of rapid urbanization has created a crying need for creation of value concept in the appropriate climate which will encourage emergence of good human-beings a band of worthy as well as socially responsible professionals and will eventually lead to the creation of a good society. So this paper has been designed to look at the present status of Architectural Education at Diploma level in a dynamic society. To meet the demands of the changing needs of the changing society the future architectural education should address some pertinent issues regarding soft skills which has been discussed in this paper. A little measure has been taken to explain that the innovations and practices in architectural education will impose new demands on the teachers who are mainly responsible for the rectification of the foundation at root level to cultivate the human values as a part of their teachings. The paper has also talked about the outcome of evaluation that necessitates the change in education to express the qualitative significance to human consciousness.

  11. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS USAGE AND THE COMPETITIVE ANXIETY RESPONSE AS A FUNCTION OF SKILL LEVEL IN RUGBY UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Neil

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the intensity and direction of competitive anxiety symptoms and psychological skill usage in rugby union players of different skill levels. Elite (n=65 and nonelite (n=50 participants completed measures of competitive anxiety, self- confidence, and psychological skills. The elite group reported more facilitative interpretations of competitive anxiety symptoms, higher levels of self-confidence, lower relaxation usage, and greater imagery and self-talk use than their nonelite counterparts. The findings suggest that nonelite performers primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce anxiety intensity. In contrast, elite athletes appear to maintain intensity levels and adopt a combination of skills to interpret symptoms as facilitative to performance. Potential mechanisms for this process include the use of imagery and verbal persuasion efficacy-enhancement techniques to protect against debilitating symptom interpretations

  12. The impact of Michigan's Dr Ron Davis smoke-free air law on levels of cotinine, tobacco-specific lung carcinogen and severity of self-reported respiratory symptoms among non-smoking bar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teri; Shamo, Farid; Boynton, Katherine; Kiley, Janet

    2012-11-01

    To determine the impact on bar employee's health and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) before and after the implementation of Michigan's Dr Ron Davis smoke-free air law that went into effect on 1 May 2010, prohibiting smoking in places of work, including bars. This study used a pre/postintervention experimental design. The setting was bars in 12 Michigan counties. Subjects were bar employees, recruited through flyers and individual discussions with local health department staff. Participants completed a screening questionnaire to determine eligibility. A total of 40 eligible employees completed a demographic survey, provided urine samples for analysis of cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and completed questionnaires on respiratory and general health status 6 weeks before and 6-10 weeks after the law went into effect. The main outcome measures were urine samples for total cotinine and total NNAL and data from a self-administered respiratory and general health status questionnaire collected during the pre-law and post-law study periods. There was a significant decrease in the mean cotinine levels from 35.9 ng/ml to a non-quantifiable value (plevel from 0.086 pmol/ml to 0.034 pmol/ml (plaw. There was also a significant improvement in all six self-reported respiratory symptoms (plaw is protecting bar employee health.

  13. What's Working: Program Factors Influencing California Community College Basic Skills Mathematics Students' Advancement to Transfer Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiero, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which basic skills program factors were exhibited by successful basic skills programs that helped students advance to transfer-level mathematics. This study specifically examined California community college basic skills programs that assist students who place in mathematics courses 2 levels…

  14. Psychological skills usage and the competitive anxiety response as a function of skill level in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Richard; D Mellalieu, Stephen; Hanton, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the intensity and direction of competitive anxiety symptoms and psychological skill usage in rugby union players of different skill levels. Elite (n=65) and nonelite (n=50) participants completed measures of competitive anxiety, self- confidence, and psychological skills. The elite group reported more facilitative interpretations of competitive anxiety symptoms, higher levels of self-confidence, lower relaxation usage, and greater imagery and self-talk use than their nonelite counterparts. The findings suggest that nonelite performers primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce anxiety intensity. In contrast, elite athletes appear to maintain intensity levels and adopt a combination of skills to interpret symptoms as facilitative to performance. Potential mechanisms for this process include the use of imagery and verbal persuasion efficacy-enhancement techniques to protect against debilitating symptom interpretations. Key PointsNonelite performers primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce anxiety intensity.Elite athletes maintain intensity levels and adopt a combination of psychological skills to interpret symptoms as facilitative.This process occurs through imagery and verbal persuasion efficacy-enhancement techniques.Nonelite performers who are debilitators should implement relaxation-based programs. However, in high activation level sports performers should reduce symptom intensity, restructure cognitions, and then raise activation states again to appropriate levels.Elite performers who are debilitators should implement cognitive restructuring techniques to interpret their anxiety as facilitative via a combination of goal setting, self-talk, and imagery.

  15. Medical students’ perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) discrimination in their learning environment and their self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients: a survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Nassr; MacPherson, Paul; Sampson, Margaret; McMillan, Hugh J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Historically, medical students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered (LGBT) report higher rates of social stress, depression, and anxiety, while LGBT patients have reported discrimination and poorer access to healthcare. Objective: The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess if medical students have perceived discrimination in their learning environment and; (2) to determine self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients. Design: Medical students at the University of Ottawa (N = 671) were contacted via email and invited to complete a confidential web-based survey. Results: Response rate was 15.4% (103/671). This included 66 cis-gender heterosexuals (64.1%) and 37 LGBT students (35.9%). Anti-LGBT discrimination had been witnessed by 14.6% and heterosexism by 31.1% of respondents. Anti-LGBT discrimination most often originated from fellow medical students. Respondents who self-identified as LGBT were more likely to have perceived heterosexism (favoring opposite-sex relationships) (OR = 8.2, p LGBT discrimination (OR = 6.6, p = 0.002). While half of LGBT students shared their status with all classmates (51.4%), they were more likely to conceal this from staff physicians (OR = 27.2, p = 0.002). Almost half of medical students (41.7%) reported anti-LGBT jokes, rumors, and/or bullying by fellow medical students and/or other members of the healthcare team. Still, most respondents indicated that they felt comfortable with and capable of providing medical care to LGBT patients (≥83.5%), and were interested in further education around LGBT health issues (84.5%). Conclusion: Anti-LGBT discrimination and heterosexism are noted by medical students, indicating a suboptimal learning environment for LGBT students. Nonetheless, students report a high level of comfort and confidence providing health care to LGBT patients. PMID:28853327

  16. Medical students' perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) discrimination in their learning environment and their self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Nassr; MacPherson, Paul; Sampson, Margaret; McMillan, Hugh J

    2017-01-01

    Historically, medical students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered (LGBT) report higher rates of social stress, depression, and anxiety, while LGBT patients have reported discrimination and poorer access to healthcare. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess if medical students have perceived discrimination in their learning environment and; (2) to determine self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients. Medical students at the University of Ottawa (N = 671) were contacted via email and invited to complete a confidential web-based survey. Response rate was 15.4% (103/671). This included 66 cis-gender heterosexuals (64.1%) and 37 LGBT students (35.9%). Anti-LGBT discrimination had been witnessed by 14.6% and heterosexism by 31.1% of respondents. Anti-LGBT discrimination most often originated from fellow medical students. Respondents who self-identified as LGBT were more likely to have perceived heterosexism (favoring opposite-sex relationships) (OR = 8.2, p LGBT discrimination (OR = 6.6, p = 0.002). While half of LGBT students shared their status with all classmates (51.4%), they were more likely to conceal this from staff physicians (OR = 27.2, p = 0.002). Almost half of medical students (41.7%) reported anti-LGBT jokes, rumors, and/or bullying by fellow medical students and/or other members of the healthcare team. Still, most respondents indicated that they felt comfortable with and capable of providing medical care to LGBT patients (≥83.5%), and were interested in further education around LGBT health issues (84.5%). Anti-LGBT discrimination and heterosexism are noted by medical students, indicating a suboptimal learning environment for LGBT students. Nonetheless, students report a high level of comfort and confidence providing health care to LGBT patients.

  17. Effects of a hops (Humulus lupulus L.) dry extract supplement on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in apparently healthy young adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrou, Ioannis; Christou, Aimilia; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Skenderi, Katerina; Katsana, Konstantina; Tsigos, Constantine

    2017-04-01

    The Humulus lupulus L. plant (hops) is used as a herbal medicinal product for anxiety/mood disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of a hops dry extract on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in young adults. Apparently healthy young adults from our university completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and those reporting at least mild depression, anxiety and stress were invited to complete the study intervention. This followed a randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design with two 4-week intervention periods (Melcalin hops or placebo; two 0.2 gr capsules once daily) separated by a 2-week wash-out. Anthropometric measurements, DASS-21 assessments and measurements of morning cortisol plasma levels were performed at the beginning and the end of the 4-week treatment periods. 36 participants (Females/Males: 31/5; age: 24.7±0.5 years) completed the study intervention (attrition: 6/42). No significant changes in body weight and composition or morning circulating cortisol were noted with the hops or placebo. Significantly decreased DASS-21 anxiety, depression and stress scores were documented with hops (9.2±7.3 vs. 5.1±5.9, 11.9±7.9 vs. 9.2±7.4, and 19.1±8.1 vs. 11.6±8.1; all p values depression, anxietyand stress symptoms, daily supplementation with a hops dry extract can significantly improve all these symptoms over a 4-week period. These beneficial effects agree with the indication of hops for anxiety/mood disorders and restlessness, as approved by the German Commission E.

  18. The Effect of Response Style on Self-Reported Conscientiousness Across 20 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mõttus, René; Allik, Jüri; Realo, Anu; Rossier, Jérôme; Zecca, Gregory; Ah-Kion, Jennifer; Amoussou-Yéyé, Dénis; Bäckström, Martin; Barkauskiene, Rasa; Barry, Oumar; Bhowon, Uma; Björklund, Fredrik; Bochaver, Aleksandra; Bochaver, Konstantin; de Bruin, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Rankings of countries on mean levels of self-reported Conscientiousness continue to puzzle researchers. Based on the hypothesis that cross-cultural differences in the tendency to prefer extreme response categories of ordinal rating scales over moderate categories can influence the comparability of self-reports, this study investigated possible effects of response style on the mean levels of self-reported Conscientiousness in 22 samples from 20 countries. Extreme and neutral responding were es...

  19. Validation of self-reported erythema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B; Thieden, E; Lerche, C M

    2013-01-01

    Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data.......Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data....

  20. Self-Report Measures of Family Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family…

  1. Improving listening skills of tertiary level students for effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Listening is essential to the leaming process. Students in tertiary institutions of learning need to acquire effective listening and note-taking skiils in order to benefit from lectures. This paper focused on factors militating against effective listening during lectures such as poor rate of presentation, poor communication skills, ...

  2. Exploring Finnish university students' perceived level of critical thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Orszag, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is believed to be a 21 st century skill that many employers consider crucial when hiring recent graduates. However, it is debated whether critical thinking should be taught in academic foreign language courses at the tertiary level, which primarily aim to develop students’ language and communication skills. This localized, exploratory research examines Finnish university students’ self-reported critical thinking skills a...

  3. The Effect of Different Metacognitive Skill Levels on Preservice Chemistry Teachers' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Senol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the metacognitive skill levels and motivation of preservice chemistry teachers and to investigate the effect of different metacognitive skill levels on their motivation. The study was conducted during 2014-2015 spring semester. In this research, survey method was used to reveal the effect of different…

  4. Children's self-reported pain at the dentist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, J.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to get an insight into the pain report of children over two sequential dental visits. Furthermore, it was studied whether age, previous dental experience, level of dental anxiety and injection site were of influence on the self-reported pain of children during the

  5. Self-Report and Psychophysiological Responses to Fear Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonana, Juan R.; Gonzalez-Javier, Francisca; Espin-Lopez, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relationship between self-report and psychophysiological responses to fear appeals and behavioral changes elicited by these. Ninety-two subjects watched one of four messages that varied in level of threat (high vs. low) and efficacy (high vs. low). Concomitantly, psychophysiological measures (heart rate and…

  6. Can Assertiveness be Distinguished From Aggressiveness Using Self Report Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Paul A.; And Others

    The differences between aggressiveness and assertiveness were examined using the Interpersonal Behavior Survey (IBS), a 136-item self-report questionnaire which was developed to distinguish between assertive and aggressive behaviors. Item level factor analysis was used in scale construction. Results indicated that: (1) the correlation between the…

  7. Population-level associations between preschool vulnerability and grade-four basic skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo D'Angiulli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a predictive validity study examining the extent to which developmental vulnerability at kindergarten entry (as measured by the Early Development Instrument, EDI is associated with children's basic skills in 4th grade (as measured by the Foundation Skills Assessment, FSA.Relative risk analysis was performed on a large database linking individual-level EDI ratings to the scores the same children obtained on a provincial assessment of academic skills (FSA--Foundation Skills Assessment four years later. We found that early vulnerability in kindergarten is associated with the basic skills that underlie populations of children's academic achievement in reading, writing and math, indicating that the Early Development Instrument permits to predict achievement-related skills four years in advance.The EDI can be used to predict children's educational trends at the population level and can help select early prevention and intervention programs targeting pre-school populations at minimum cost.

  8. Technical and tactical skills related to performance levels in tennis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, Nikki S; Kramer, Tamara; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Visscher, Chris

    2018-06-11

    The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of outcome measures and instruments identified in the literature for examining technical and tactical skills in tennis related to performance levels. Such instruments can be used to identify talent or the specific skill development training needs of particular players. Searches for this review were conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycInfo databases. Out of 733 publications identified through these searches, 40 articles were considered relevant and included in this study. They were divided into three categories: (1) technical skills, (2) tactical skills and (3) integrated technical and tactical skills. There was strong evidence that technical skills (ball velocity and to a lesser extent ball accuracy) and tactical skills (decision making, anticipation, tactical knowledge and visual search strategies) differed among players according to their performance levels. However, integrated measurement of these skills is required, because winning a point largely hinges on a tactical decision to perform a particular stroke (i.e., technical execution). Therefore, future research should focus on examining the relationship between these skills and tennis performance and on the development of integrated methods for measuring these skills.

  9. The Relation Between Skill Levels and the Cyclical Variability of Employment, Hours, and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Keane; Eswar S Prasad

    1993-01-01

    This paper uses micro data to examine differences in the cyclical variability of employment, hours, and wages for skilled and unskilled workers. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that, at the aggregate level, skilled and unskilled workers are subject to essentially the same degree of cyclical variation in wages. That is, relative offer wage differentials between skilled and unskilled workers are acyclical. However, we do find important differences in the patterns of employment and hour...

  10. Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...

  11. Prediction of habitual physical activity level and weight status from fundamental movement skill level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth Sarah; James, Rob S; Birch, Samantha Louise; Duncan, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) have been assessed in children in order to investigate the issues of the low proportion of children who meet physical activity (PA) guidelines and rising levels of obesity. The aim of this research was to identify whether previous or current FMS level is a better predictor of PA levels and weight status in children. In January 2012 (year 1), 281 children were recruited from one primary school in the West Midlands, UK. Children performed eight FMS three times, which were videoed and assessed using a subjective checklist. Sprint speed and jump height were measured objectively. Height and mass were measured to calculate the body mass index to determine the weight status. Skinfold calliper readings were used to calculate body fat percentage. One year later, in January 2013, all these tests were repeated on the same children, with the additional collection of PA data via the use of pedometers. Following multiple linear regression, it was identified that prior mastery in FMS was a better predictor of current PA, whereas current FMS was a better predictor of current weight status. Overall, FMS mastery is needed in childhood to be able to participate in PA and maintain a healthy weight status.

  12. Comparing levels of physical ability and basketball skills of girls in Prague and outsider of Prague

    OpenAIRE

    Tesaříková, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The diploma thesis comparing the level of physical abilities and basketball skills of girls in basketball and basketball outfits in Prague and abroad outlines a short history of both world and Czech basketball, the current organization of basketball in the Czech Republic, age specificities of children aged 11, stage of sports training in basketball, Ability. The practical part deals with the question of the level of motor skills of girls at the age of 11, the question of the level of basketba...

  13. Development of Speaking Skills through Activity Based Learning at the Elementary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, Zahoor; Khurram, Bushra Ahmed; Bangash, Arshad Khan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses an effective instructional method called "activity based learning" that can be used to develop the speaking skills of students in the elementary school level. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of activity based learning on the development of the speaking skills of low and high achievers…

  14. Analysis of Skills Requirement for Entry-Level Programmer/Analysts in Fortune 500 Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong Kwon; Han, Hyo-Joo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the most up-to-date skill requirements for programmer/analyst, one of the most demanded entry-level job titles in the Information Systems (IS) field. In the past, several researchers studied job skills for IS professionals, but few have focused especially on "programmer/analyst." The authors conducted an extensive empirical…

  15. Discrepancies between self-reported smoking and carboxyhemoglobin: an analysis of the second national health and nutrition survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesges, L M; Klesges, R C; Cigrang, J A

    1992-01-01

    Environmental, self-report, and demographic factors mediated the relationship between self-reported cigarette smoking and carboxyhemoglobin among 2114 smokers and 3918 nonsmokers. Self-reported nonsmokers with carboxyhemoglobin levels between 2% and 3% were more likely to be self-reported ex-smokers, to live in a larger community, and to be younger, less educated, and male than were self-reported nonsmokers with carboxyhemoglobin levels of less than 2%. Self-reported nonsmokers with strong evidence of cigarette consumption (carboxyhemoglobin level greater than 3%) were more likely to be self-reported ex-smokers, younger, less educated, and non-White than were nonsmokers with carboxyhemoglobin levels of less than 2%. PMID:1609905

  16. A critical assessment of the perceptions of graduates regarding their generic skills level: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elroy Eugene Smith

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the perceptions of potential Business Management graduates regarding their generic skills level.  To achieve the aim of this article, a literature study and empirical research were undertaken.  A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 205 potential Business Management graduates at a tertiary institution. To investigate the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, thirteen null-hypotheses were tested.  The results revealed some significant relationships between these variables.  Seven predetermined generic skills factors, namely basic, communication, management, environmental awareness, intellectual, self and career management as well as interpersonal skills, were identified and empirically tested in this article.  Skills development should take place within an overall framework providing for the coordination and progression of skills development from first to final year of study.  Future curricula development should specifically focus on developing those skills lacking most by potential graduates as identified in this article.

  17. Level of Soft Skill in the Implementation of Work-Based Learning among Community College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azita Binti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of graduate unemployment often crops up in the mass media; and more often than not, the discussions have centred on the failure of tertiary educational institutions to churn out quality graduates. Thus, the method of work-based learning (WBL is seen as a way to improve the soft skills of the graduates. The study was conducted using quantitative research survey; the design of the study used an adapted questionnaire as an instrument. Data were analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20. The respondents consisted of 97 students who attended WBL programmes at a community college. Descriptive statistics was used to extract data from the questionnaires for the calculation of mean. The findings reveal that the level of soft skills among community college students was high, and they include these abilities: communication skills, problem-solving skills, learning and information management, professional ethics skills and leadership skills.

  18. Are general surgeons able to accurately self-assess their level of technical skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizan, C; Ansell, J; Tilston, T W; Warren, N; Torkington, J

    2015-11-01

    Self-assessment is a way of improving technical capabilities without the need for trainer feedback. It can identify areas for improvement and promote professional medical development. The aim of this review was to identify whether self-assessment is an accurate form of technical skills appraisal in general surgery. The PubMed, MEDLINE(®), Embase(™) and Cochrane databases were searched for studies assessing the reliability of self-assessment of technical skills in general surgery. For each study, we recorded the skills assessed and the evaluation methods used. Common endpoints between studies were compared to provide recommendations based on the levels of evidence. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria from 22,292 initial papers. There was no level 1 evidence published. All papers compared the correlation between self-appraisal versus an expert score but differed in the technical skills assessment and the evaluation tools used. The accuracy of self-assessment improved with increasing experience (level 2 recommendation), age (level 3 recommendation) and the use of video playback (level 3 recommendation). Accuracy was reduced by stressful learning environments (level 2 recommendation), lack of familiarity with assessment tools (level 3 recommendation) and in advanced surgical procedures (level 3 recommendation). Evidence exists to support the reliability of self-assessment of technical skills in general surgery. Several variables have been shown to affect the accuracy of self-assessment of technical skills. Future work should focus on evaluating the reliability of self-assessment during live operating procedures.

  19. Level of Transformation of Motor Skills in Female Volleyball Players Influenced by Training Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifet Mahmutović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the level of improvement of motor skills of female volleyball players influenced by kinesiology operators in a period of 6 months. Research was conducted on sample subject of 130 female volleyball players aged from 13±0.6 (mean±SD. Sample variables are divided in two groups: 9 variables of assessment of basic motor skills and 5 variables of assessment of situational motor skills. Analysing difference of arithmetic means between of initial and final measures of treated variables it is determined that there is statistically significant difference on the level Sig=0.001, except for variables of Jelka test which determinates speed duration of female volleyball players. Analysis of quantity changes of basic motor skills, shows that the most important projections on selected discriminative function of basic motor skills have the following variables: body lifting in 30 sec; dynamometry of a hand, hand tapping; pull-up; throwing a 1 kg ball from lying position; side defence movement; push-up on bars and situational motor skill are the variables: precision of tactic serving; consecutive bumping; wall-spikes. Comprehensive development of female volleyball players and diversity in the level of volleyball specialization of the development will depend on systematic work on treated motor skills. This program appeared to be efficient. However, it is necessary to gradually increase the demands for the female volleyball players and to put the accent on performance of acquired situational motor skills in future work.

  20. Attitudes and anxiety levels of medical students towards the acquisition of competencies in communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Elizabete M; Severo, Milton; Bettencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Maria A

    2011-12-01

    Results of third year medical students' attitudes and stress levels towards the acquisition of communication skills before and after a Communication and Clinical Skills Course (CCSC) at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto (FMUP), Portugal, are presented. 115 students attending third-year CCSC completed a demographic questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Communication Skills Attitudes Scale and Interpersonal Behavior Survey. Significant negative correlation was found between anxiety levels and attitudes towards learning communication skills in general as well as the teaching and learning process. At the end of the Course students reported that when compared to the start, their communication skills are less sufficient. At the end of this CCSC at FMUP, students recognized its major importance and how they need to invest and improve communication skills. However, it seems important to monitor the attitudes and anxiety levels of students towards patient care and communication during the medical course and to identify ways of overcoming barriers towards learning communication skills. It is recommended that there should be a complete (transversal and vertical) integration of communication skills, including effective teaching methods, assessments, and examinations in order to be valued by the students. This would necessitate curricular changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Student Skill Level on Knowledge, Decision Making, Skill Execution and Game Performance in a Mini-Volleyball Sport Education Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahedero, Pilar; Calderón, Antonio; Arias-Estero, José Luis; Hastie, Peter A.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to examine the effects of student skill level on knowledge, decision making, skill execution and game performance in a mini-volleyball Sport Education season. Forty-eight secondary school students from two classes participated in a 12 lesson season. Knowledge, decision-making and skill execution (components of game…

  2. The association between pre-treatment occupational skill level and mood and symptom burden in early-stage, postmenopausal breast cancer survivors during the first year of anastrozole therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Bethany D; Sereika, Susan M; Rosenzweig, Margaret; McCue, Michael; Merriman, John D; Bender, Catherine M

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has explored occupational activity of breast cancer survivors but has not examined the influence of occupational level on symptoms prospectively. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between occupational classification and changes in mood and symptom burden for postmenopausal breast cancer survivors during the first year of anastrozole therapy. This was an exploratory secondary analysis in 49 postmenopausal women receiving anastrozole therapy for early-stage breast cancer. Participants reported their occupation at baseline and completed self-report questionnaires measuring mood and symptom burden at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Occupation was classified according to four major skill levels delineated by the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). Breast cancer survivors employed at occupational skill levels 1 through 3 reported significantly higher depressive symptoms, fatigue, and total symptoms on average than those employed at ISCO skill level 4. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, this pattern remained for the musculoskeletal, vasomotor, and gastrointestinal symptom subscales. Breast cancer survivors employed at lower skill levels (i.e., ISCO 1-3) reported poorer mood and greater symptom burden than breast cancer survivors employed at a higher skill level (i.e., ISCO 4). Assessing baseline occupation of occupationally active breast cancer survivors may improve understanding of the association between types of occupations and mood and symptom trajectories and may inform development of interventions to mitigate symptom severity in order to help breast cancer survivors maintain optimal occupational function and adherence to therapy.

  3. Striatal volume predicts level of video game skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Neider, Mark B; Prakash, Ruchika S; Voss, Michelle W; Graybiel, Ann M; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-11-01

    Video game skills transfer to other tasks, but individual differences in performance and in learning and transfer rates make it difficult to identify the source of transfer benefits. We asked whether variability in initial acquisition and of improvement in performance on a demanding video game, the Space Fortress game, could be predicted by variations in the pretraining volume of either of 2 key brain regions implicated in learning and memory: the striatum, implicated in procedural learning and cognitive flexibility, and the hippocampus, implicated in declarative memory. We found that hippocampal volumes did not predict learning improvement but that striatal volumes did. Moreover, for the striatum, the volumes of the dorsal striatum predicted improvement in performance but the volumes of the ventral striatum did not. Both ventral and dorsal striatal volumes predicted early acquisition rates. Furthermore, this early-stage correlation between striatal volumes and learning held regardless of the cognitive flexibility demands of the game versions, whereas the predictive power of the dorsal striatal volumes held selectively for performance improvements in a game version emphasizing cognitive flexibility. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical basis for the superiority of training strategies that promote cognitive flexibility and transfer to untrained tasks.

  4. Readability and comprehension of self-report binge eating measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lauren K; McHugh, R Kathryn; Pratt, Elizabeth M; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2013-04-01

    The validity of self-report binge eating instruments among individuals with limited literacy is uncertain. This study aims to evaluate reading grade level and multiple domains of comprehension of 13 commonly used self-report assessments of binge eating for use in low-literacy populations. We evaluated self-report binge eating measures with respect to reading grade levels, measure length, formatting and linguistic problems. All measures were written at a reading grade level higher than is recommended for patient materials (above the 5th to 6th grade level), and contained several challenging elements related to comprehension. Correlational analyses suggested that readability and comprehension elements were distinct contributors to measure difficulty. Individuals with binge eating who have low levels of educational attainment or limited literacy are often underrepresented in measure validation studies. Validity of measures and accurate assessment of symptoms depend on an individual's ability to read and comprehend instructions and items, and these may be compromised in populations with lower levels of literacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Language Skills and Level of Experience among Arabic-Speaking Healthcare Interpreters in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itani, Nada; Khalil, Mohammad; Sodemann, Morten

    2017-01-01

    services has recently been discussed by politicians and the media. The present explorative study investigated the sociodemographic characteristics, level of experience and linguistic skills of Arabic-speaking healthcare interpreters in Denmark. Method: Snowball sampling (including social media) was used...

  6. Mental skill levels of South African male student field hockey players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mental skill levels of South African male student field hockey players in different playing positions. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The positional results were compared by means of effect sizes (expressed as ...

  7. Relationship between self-reported adherence, antiretroviral drug concentration measurement and self-reported symptoms in patients treated for HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Cingolani, Antonella; Fanti, Iuri; Colafigli, Manuela; Tamburrini, Enrica; Cauda, Roberto; Navarra, Pierluigi; De Luca, Andrea; Murri, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore relationships between self-reported adherence, antiretroviral drug concentration measurement (TDM) and self-reported symptoms. We systematically administered to human immunodeficiency (HIV)-infected outpatients a questionnaire evaluating measures of self-reported adherence (missing doses during last week, deviations from the prescribed timing of therapy, self-initiated discontinuations for > 24 or 48 h, exhausting drugs and present sense of how patients are taking therapy) and a panel of referred symptoms (a symptom score was built summing self-reported scores for each listed symptom). We selected patients who completed the questionnaire and also had a TDM (mainly reflecting adherence in the past few days or weeks), thus comparing these two tools as measures of adherence. A total of 130 patients (64.6% males, median age 44 years, 76.2% with HIV RNA HIV RNA symptom score was associated with a lower self-reported adherence and with a higher proportion of undetectable drug levels. Self-reported adherence and TDM showed a correlation and seemed to be comparable tools for adherence estimation. Self-reported symptoms were associated with lower adherence and undetectable drug levels.

  8. Crossroads language skills development at First Certificate level

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Crossroads is an imaginative course for students at First Certificate Level which will improve reading, oral/aural and written competence through a wide range of communicative tasks and provide a good grounding in exam related techniques.

  9. Self-reported skin morbidity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Zarchi, Kian; Ellervik, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Skin diseases are thought to be common in the general population. In 2004, a cross-sectional study in Norway, using a validated questionnaire for 18,770 individuals, revealed a high prevalence of skin diseases in the general population. To describe the prevalence of self-reported skin morbidities...... questionnaire. In total, 17.2% self-reported skin complaints. The most prominent self-reported skin complaint was itch with an overall prevalence of 6.5%. The skin morbidity most influenced by age was pimples. There was a uniform pattern showing fewer skin complaints with increasing education. Women reported...... skin morbidities more frequently than men. Participants in employment reported fewer skin morbidities compared to unemployed participants. Skin morbidities in Denmark are common, and the distribution of prevalence estimates in the Danish population parallel those of the Norwegian population, although...

  10. Self-Reported Digital Literacy of the Pharmacy Workforce in North East Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie MacLure

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In their day-to-day practice, pharmacists, graduate (pre-registration pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, dispensing assistants and medicines counter assistants use widely available office, retail and management information systems alongside dedicated pharmacy management and electronic health (ehealth applications. The ability of pharmacy staff to use these applications at home and at work, also known as digital literacy or digital competence or e-skills, depends on personal experience and related education and training. The aim of this research was to gain insight into the self-reported digital literacy of the pharmacy workforce in the North East of Scotland. A purposive case sample survey was conducted across NHS Grampian in the NE of Scotland. Data collection was based on five items: sex, age band, role, pharmacy experience plus a final question about self-reported digital literacy. The study was conducted between August 2012 and March 2013 in 17 community and two hospital pharmacies. With few exceptions, pharmacy staff perceived their own digital literacy to be at a basic level. Secondary outcome measures of role, age, gender and work experience were not found to be clear determinants of digital literacy. Pharmacy staff need to be more digitally literate to harness technologies in pharmacy practice more effectively and efficiently.

  11. ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL OF TEACHING SKILLS IN THE CONCLUSION PROFORDEMS ITSON AND IMPACT ON SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Nallely López-Lugo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Teacher Training Program of Higher Education Media (PROFORDEMS, aims to contribute to the educational profile in skills development. This study aims to determine the level of achievement reached graduates considered teachers regarding teaching skills training process to conclude the paragraph after performing the analysis of as it impacts on society. The method was quantitative, applied for UN compound instrument teaching skills and attributes, with Likert scale Establishing the four levels of Tobon, 76 graduate teachers of the seventh generation of the Technological Institute of Sonora, of which Were Significantly of the headquarters of Navojoa and Obregón, Navojoa Being 47 with the participation of 20 women and 27 men, regarding Obregon Participants were 17 women and 12 men. Were the results satisfactory, over 65% of graduates found in the teachers considered autonomous and strategic levels, competition four is the one that obtained the lowest percentage. To conclude that the PROFORMDES contributes to teaching skills.

  12. Innovative Training Experience for Advancing Entry Level, Mid-Skilled and Professional Level URM Participation in the Geosciences Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, M. H.; Johnson, A.

    2015-12-01

    The representation of URMs in the U.S. Geosciences workforce remains proportionally low compared to their representation in the general population (Bureau of Labor Sta.s.cs, 2014). Employment in this and related industries is projected to grow 32% by 2030 for minority workers (Gillula and Fullenbaum, 2014), corresponding to an additional 48,000 jobs expected to be filled by minorities (National Research Council, 2014). However, there is a shortage of employees with proper training in the hard sciences (Holeywell, 2014; Ganzglass, 2011), as well as craft skills (Hoover and Duncan, 2013), both important for middle skill employment. Industry recognizes the need for developing and retaining a diverse workforce, therefore we hightlight a program to serve as a potential vanguard initative for developing an innovative training experience for URM and underserved middle skilled workers with essential knowledge, experience and skills necessary to meet the demands of the Geosciences industry's growing need for a safe, productive and diverse workforce. Objectives are for participants to achieve the following: understanding of geosciences workforce trends and associated available opportunities; mastery of key environmental, health and safety topics; improvements in decision making skills and preparedness for responding to potential environmental, health and safety related situations; and engagement in one-on-one coaching sessions focused on resume writing, job interviewing and key "soft skills" (including conflict resolution, problem solving and critical observation, representing 3 major skills that entry- level workers typically lack.

  13. Employability Skills among Students and Employers’ Perceptions: An Assessment of Levels of Employability Skills Acquired by Business Students at Ishik University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayeq Ali Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skills are prerequisite for managers and employees success, especially for newly graduate students. This study is to evaluate the employability skills of business students at Ishik University and to assess how employability skills are perceived by potential employers. Three sets of employability skills have been used in this study such as basic academic skills, high-order thinking, and personal qualities. A questionnaire has been developed which included above dimensions and was distributed among students in the faculty of administrative sciences and economics at Ishik University, Kurdistan Region. Respondents’ opinions were assessed using a Likert scale analysis that shows divergent opinions between two extremes of levels of agreement and disagreement. Another technique of an open-ended questionnaire was used when conducting interviews with a few of the potential employers in some private sector companies. Study focuses on the common employability skills of business graduates by evaluating the faculty of administrative sciences and economics courses. Study find out that communication skills, team working skills, computer skills, and critical thinking were among the employability skills which are expected by potential employers. The paper concludes that business graduates have developed an adequate level of employability skill through their years of academic training at business department in Ishik University. Thus, the curriculum of business department at Ishik University is adequately developed to prompt the employability skills that are sought by potential employers that every business student should acquire to stand out in the aggressively competitive job market.

  14. Are self-reports of health and morbidities in developing countries misleading? Evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S V; Subramanyam, Malavika A; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Self-reported measures of poor health and morbidities from developing countries tend to be viewed with considerable skepticism. Examination of the social gradient in self-reported health and morbidity measures provides a useful test of the validity of self-reports of poor health and morbidities. The prevailing view, in part influenced by Amartya Sen, is that socially disadvantaged individuals will fail to perceive and report the presence of illness or health-deficits because an individual's assessment of their health is directly contingent on their social experience. In this study, we tested whether the association between self-reported poor health/morbidities and socioeconomic status (SES) in India follows the expected direction or not. Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses were carried out on a nationally representative population-based sample from the 1998 to 1999 Indian National Family Health Survey (INFHS); and 1995-1996 and 2004 Indian National Sample Survey (INSS). Four binary outcomes were analyzed: any self-reported morbidity; self-reported sickness in the last 15 days; self-reported sickness in the past year; and poor self-rated health. In separate adjusted models, individuals with no education reported higher levels of any self-reported, self-reported sickness in the last 15 days, self-reported sickness in the last year, and poor self-rated health compared to those with most education. Contrary to the prevailing thesis, we find that the use of self-rated ill-health has face validity as assessed via its relationship to SES. A less dismissive and pessimistic view of health data obtained through self-reports seems warranted.

  15. Only Behavioral But Not Self-Report Measures of Speech Perception Correlate with Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A

    2016-01-01

    Good speech perception and communication skills in everyday life are crucial for participation and well-being, and are therefore an overarching aim of auditory rehabilitation. Both behavioral and self-report measures can be used to assess these skills. However, correlations between behavioral and self-report speech perception measures are often low. One possible explanation is that there is a mismatch between the specific situations used in the assessment of these skills in each method, and a more careful matching across situations might improve consistency of results. The role that cognition plays in specific speech situations may also be important for understanding communication, as speech perception tests vary in their cognitive demands. In this study, the role of executive function, working memory (WM) and attention in behavioral and self-report measures of speech perception was investigated. Thirty existing hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate hearing loss aged between 50 and 74 years completed a behavioral test battery with speech perception tests ranging from phoneme discrimination in modulated noise (easy) to words in multi-talker babble (medium) and keyword perception in a carrier sentence against a distractor voice (difficult). In addition, a self-report measure of aided communication, residual disability from the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile, was obtained. Correlations between speech perception tests and self-report measures were higher when specific speech situations across both were matched. Cognition correlated with behavioral speech perception test results but not with self-report. Only the most difficult speech perception test, keyword perception in a carrier sentence with a competing distractor voice, engaged executive functions in addition to WM. In conclusion, any relationship between behavioral and self-report speech perception is not mediated by a shared correlation with cognition.

  16. What's in a Self-report?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Else Marie

    2016-01-01

    of ED recorded in the health registers. Women with self-reported ED were comparable with women with hospital diagnosed ED on most reproductive and health characteristics, while they differed from women without ED concerning all characteristics studied. Our findings highlight that women with self...

  17. Examining of social skill levels of university students in terms of certain Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim GÜLLÜ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between certain demographic variables and social skill levels of university students. Material and Methods: There were 100 participants (n=51 female, n=49 male in the study group who were the students at the department of Sport Sciences Faculty of Istanbul University in the 2015-2016 academic year. Of the study group 28 participants were between 18-20 years old, 27 participants were between 21-23 years old, 23 participants were between 24-26 years old and 22 participants were above 27 years old. After the demographic information of the participants was formed, the Social Skill Scale was applied which was developed by Matson, Rotarory and Hessel (1983 and adopted to Turkish. In order to measure their social skill levels, the reliability analysis of that scale was done. Cronbach Alpha value is 0.777; about the subscales, the results were found as such; positive social behaviour subscale 0.924, negative social behaviour subscale 0.904. Significance level was accepted as p<0.05. Results: Gender, age, class, whether or not to play sports with a licence, education level of parents, how many years they have been doing sports, and the level of social skills and subscales of their students were not significantly different. Conclusion: As a result; the demographic variables examined within our study did not make a difference in the level of social skills of the participants.

  18. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Jari; Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (pbruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects.

  19. An interview study of how clinical teachers develop skills to attend to different level learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Carrie; Fogh, Shannon; Kobashi, Brent; Teherani, Arianne; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    One clinical teaching challenge is the engagement of learners at different levels. Faculty development offerings mostly address general strategies applicable to all learners. This study examined how clinical faculty members develop the skills to work with different level learners. We conducted semi-structured interviews with medical school faculty members identified as excellent clinical teachers teaching multiple levels of learners. They discussed how they developed their approach to teaching different level learners and how their teaching evolved over time. We performed thematic analysis of the interview transcripts using open and axial coding. We interviewed 19 faculty members and identified three themes related to development of teaching practices: teacher agency and work-based learning of teaching strategies, developmental trajectory of clinical teachers, and interplay between clinical confidence and teaching skills. Faculty members were proactive in using on-the-job experiences to develop their teaching practices. Their teaching practices followed a developmental trajectory towards learner centeredness, and this evolution was associated with the development of clinical skills and confidence. Learning skills to teach multi-level learners requires workplace learning. Faculty development should include workplace learning opportunities and use a developmental approach that accounts for the trajectory of teaching as well as clinical skills attainment.

  20. Muscle utilization patterns vary by skill levels of the practitioners across specific yoga poses (asanas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Meng; Mooney, Kiersten; Balachandran, Anoop; Richards, Luca; Harriell, Kysha; Signorile, Joseph F

    2014-08-01

    To compare muscle activation patterns in 14 dominant side muscles during different yoga poses across three skill levels. Mixed repeated-measures descriptive study. University neuromuscular research laboratory, Miami, US. A group of 36 yoga practitioners (9 M/27 F; mean ± SD, 31.6 ± 12.6 years) with at least 3 months yoga practice experience. Each of the 11 surya namaskar poses A and B was performed separately for 15s and the surface electromyography for 14 muscles were recorded. Normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (NrmsEMG) for 14 muscles (5 upper body, 4 trunk, 5 lower body). There were significant main effects of pose for all fourteen muscles except middle trapezius (p<.02) and of skill level for the vastus medialis; p=.027). A significant skill level × pose interaction existed for five muscles (pectoralis major sternal head, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, upper rectus abdominis and gastrocnemius lateralis; p<.05). Post hoc analyses using Bonferroni comparisons indicated that different poses activated specific muscle groups; however, this varied by skill level. Our results indicate that different poses can produce specific muscle activation patterns which may vary due to practitioners' skill levels. This information can be used in designing rehabilitation and training programs and for cuing during yoga training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differences on the Level of Social Skills between Freshman Computer Gamers and Non-Gamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B. Campit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer games play a large role in socialization and the consequences of playing them have been a topic of debates. This observation led the researcher to conduct the study about the influence of computer games on the social skills of the BSIT first year students of Pangasinan State University, Bayambang Campus, during school year 2012-2013. This study determined the profile of the 115 BSIT first year students according to: preferred computer games and frequency of playing. It investigated the level of social skills among playing and non-playing gamers. This study used the descriptive-comparative method of research. It was found out that crossfire was the most preferred computer game played at least once a week. Computer gamers had lower social skills than non-computer gamers. Gamers have more negative social behaviors compared to non-gamers and there is a negative effect of playing computer games on the level of social skills among first year students. There is a significant difference in the level of social skills of the students when grouped according to frequency of playing computer games. Students who play computer games everyday had significantly lower social skills than who play once a week. Thus, parents and teachers should give proper guidance in the limitation of playing computer games and the choice of games. Teachers should organize seminars on the awareness of the influence and negative effects of violent computer games on social skills. And students should choose educational over violent games to enhance their knowledge and social skills.

  2. Factors in the development of higher levels of reading literacy: Argumentation skills in educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branković Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The highest levels of reading literacy, as defined within PISA study, include the ability to use various cognitive skills, with argumentative skills being one of the most important among them. In the present study our goal was to reveal some of the factors that influence the development of argumentative skills in Serbian schools. We investigated the extent to which argumentative skills are required in PISA reading literacy tasks, as well as the specific difficulties our students have faced on these tasks, through an analysis of student performance. We also conducted an analysis of the educational practice - by doing in-depth interviews with teachers and content analysis of students' textbooks. The results revealed that: 1 Argumentations skills are an important requirement within PISA tasks; 2 Serbian students are mostly successful at basic tasks of recognizing arguments or providing arguments for the given position; they face difficulties answering the tasks which require precise formulation of relevant arguments as well as those demanding meta-cognitive skills (e.g. recognizing persuasive strategies in the given text. Their performance is particularly poor on tasks requiring the combination of information from different sources or information presented in different formats (text, tables, or graphs; 3 There is a significant gap between the requirements for argumentation skills our students usually encounter and PISA reading literacy tasks. In this paper we discuss some of the difficulties and obstacles to encouraging the development of argumentative thinking.

  3. The comparison of social skill levels of team sports athletes and individual sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Çepikkurt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study is to compare the level of social skills scores of undergraduate students at Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports according to sport types, gender and class levels. Material and Methods: To test the main hypothesis, a total of 112 student- athletes (47 female and 65 male, performing individual and team sports from the Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports were involved in this study. Data were collected by ‘Social Skills Inventory” developed by Riggio (1986, 1989 and adapted to Turkish by Yüksel (1998. Results: T -test results showed that the mean scores of 6 sub-dimensions of social skills scale does not change with regard to types of sports. But, there were significant differences of mean scores of social control changes with respect to gender and this score was higher for female athletes compared to male counterparts. Moreover, the results of Kruskal Wallis Analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in all sub dimensions except emotional awareness subscale compared to class level. First year students had the highest scores in terms of emotional expressivity, emotional control, social expressivity, social awareness, and social control. Conclusion: It could be stated that women are more successful in social skills, although the level of social skills of student-athletes does not differ according to sport.

  4. Driver style and driver skill – Clustering sub-groups of drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ consistency or judgment of their own self-reported driving ability...... based on a combined use of the DBQ and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic (as measured by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether...... the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers are consistent in their reporting of driving ability, as the self-reported driving skill level...

  5. Cross-Country Variation in Adult Skills Inequality: Why Are Skill Levels and Opportunities so Unequal in Anglophone Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy; Green, Francis; Pensiero, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This article examines cross-country variations in adult skills inequality and asks why skills in Anglophone countries are so unequal. Drawing on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's recent Survey of Adult Skills and other surveys, it investigates the differences across countries and country groups in inequality in both…

  6. Daily Living Skills at Your Fingertips. Daily Living Skills for 0-4 Level Adult Basic Education Students. Curriculum and Teacher Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Margret

    A curriculum and teacher guide are provided for a program to teach daily living skills to 0-4 level adult basic education students. The guide presents a method of instruction and lists the materials provided. Teaching plans (content outlines) are provided for these areas: cooking, housekeeping, laundry, leisure skills, and medication awareness. A…

  7. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Training Program via Peer Tutoring on Aggression Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail YELPAZE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of social skills intervention program via peer tutoring on aggression level of secondary school students. The study was a semi-experimental model using experimental group with pre and post-tests. Eleven (eighth class students were selected to have skills for being peer helper. The population of this research consisted 56 secondary school students at Kahramanmaraş. In order to evaluate aggression level of students, Aggression Scale developed by Tuzgöl (1998 was used. . Additionally, a Personal Information Sheet developed by the researcher was used to record certain demographic variables. Researcher applied social skills invention program to 11 students (peer helpers for eight weeks. Later, peer helpers applied intervention program to selected 56 students as well. After application, last-test was applied to selected 56 students, again. To analyze the data collected, SPSS 15 for computer was used. Results of the research revealed that the social skill program via peer helping (peer guidance considerably decreased the level of aggression of students at secondary school students. Students’ aggression level differentiated according to their sex, but not their class levels. Results were discussed in the light of literature

  8. "Trying to Get a Grip": Language Competence and Self-Reported Satisfaction With Social Relationships Three Decades Post-Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atay, Christina; Ryan, Sarah J; Lewis, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    (1) To investigate outcomes in language competence and self-reported satisfaction with social relationships in long-term survivors of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI); and (2) to establish whether language competence contributes to self-reported satisfaction with social relationships decades after sustaining childhood TBI. Twelve females and 8 males aged 30 to 55 (mean = 39.80, standard deviation = 7.54) years who sustained a TBI during childhood and were on average 31 years postinjury (standard deviation = 9.69). An additional 20 participants matched for age, sex, handedness, years of education, and socioeconomic status constituted a control group. Test of Language Competence-Expanded Edition and the Quality of Life in Brain Injury questionnaire. Individuals with a history of childhood TBI performed significantly poorer than their non-injured peers on 2 (Ambiguous Sentences and Oral Expression: Recreating Sentences) out of the 4 Test of Language Competence-Expanded Edition subtests used and on the Quality of Life in Brain Injury subscale assessing satisfaction with social relationships. In the TBI group, scores obtained on the Ambiguous Sentences subtest were found to be a significant predictor of satisfaction with social relationships, explaining 25% of the variance observed. The implication of high-level language skills to self-reported satisfaction with social relationships many decades post-childhood TBI suggests that ongoing monitoring of emerging language skills and support throughout the school years and into adulthood may be warranted if adult survivors of childhood TBI are to experience satisfying social relationships.

  9. Self-report and long-term field measures of MP3 player use: how accurate is self-report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnuff, C D F; Fligor, B J; Arehart, K H

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the usage patterns of portable listening device (PLD) listeners, and the relationships between self-report measures and long-term dosimetry measures of listening habits. This study used a descriptive correlational design. Participants (N = 52) were 18-29 year old men and women who completed surveys. A randomly assigned subset (N = 24) of participants had their listening monitored by dosimetry for one week. Median weekly noise doses reported and measured through dosimetry were low (9-93%), but 14.3% of participants reported exceeding a 100% noise dose weekly. When measured by dosimetry, 16.7% of participants exceeded a 100% noise dose weekly. The self-report question that best predicted the dosimetry-measured dose asked participants to report listening duration and usual listening level on a visual-analog scale. This study reports a novel dosimetry system that can provide accurate measures of PLD use over time. When not feasible, though, the self-report question described could provide a useful research or clinical tool to estimate exposure from PLD use. Among the participants in this study, a small but substantial percentage of PLD users incurred exposure from PLD use alone that increases their risk of music-induced hearing loss.

  10. Women's experiences of self-reporting health online prior to their first midwifery visit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Helle; Clausen, Jette Aaroe; Hvidtjørn, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    personal health', 'Reducing and generating risk', and 'Bridges and gaps'. Compared to reporting physical health information, more advanced levels of health literacy might be needed to self-assess mental health and personal needs. Self-reporting health can induce feelings of being normal but also increase...... perceptions of pregnancy-related risk and concerns of being judged by the midwife. Although women want to have their self-reported information addressed, they also have a need for the midwife's expert knowledge and advice, and of not being perceived as a demanding client. CONCLUSION: Self-reported health...

  11. Reliability and validity enhancement: a treatment package for increasing fidelity of self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, P H; Hamilton, S B; Miller, R K; Quevillon, R P; Spitzform, M

    1977-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of reliability and validity "enhancers" on fidelity of self-report data in an analogue therapy situation. Under the guise of a Concentration Skills Training Program, 57 Ss were assigned randomly to one of the following conditions: (a) Reliability Enhancement; (b) Truth Talk; (c) No Comment Control. Results indicated significant differences among groups (p less than .05). In addition, tests of multiple comparisons revealed that Reliability Enhancement was significantly different from Truth Talk in occurrences of unreliability (p less than .05). These findings are discussed in light of the increased reliance on self-report data in behavioral intervention, and recommendations are made for future research.

  12. Internet skill levels increase, but gaps widen: a longitudinal cross-sectional analysis (2010–2013) among the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the current contribution, we investigated how (1) the levels of operational, formal, information, and strategic internet skills changed between 2010 and 2013, and how (2) the observed skill patterns differ across gender, age, and education. All internet skills are measured among representative

  13. Internet Addiction Levels and Problem-Solving Skills in the Teaching Profession: An Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibili, Emin

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the relationship between Internet addiction levels among teaching candidates and their problem-solving aptitude and self-efficacy perceptions towards the teaching profession was investigated. In addition, the effects of gender, department, Internet use and sporting habits on the Internet addiction, problem-solving skills and…

  14. Antecedent and Concurrent Psychosocial Skills That Support High Levels of Achievement within Talent Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation and emotional regulation are important for the sustained focused study and practice required for high levels of achievement and creative productivity in adulthood. Using the talent development model proposed by the authors as a framework, the authors discuss several important psychosocial skills based on the psychological research…

  15. An Integrated Skills Approach Using Feature Movies in EFL at Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Hidayet

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case study based on an integrated skills approach using feature movies (DVDs) in EFL syllabi at the tertiary level. 100 students took part in the study and the data was collected through a three - section survey questionnaire: demographic items, 18 likert scale questions and an open-ended question. The data…

  16. The Relationship between Maternal Acceptance-Rejection Levels and Preschoolers' Social Competence and Emotion Regulation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayindir, Dilan; Güven, Gülçin; Sezer, Türker; Aksin-Yavuz, Ezgi; Yilmaz, Elif

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between maternal acceptance-rejection levels and preschool children's social competence and emotion regulation skills. The study group of the research, which was designed in survey method, consisted of 303 voluntary mother-child dyad. The participant children were attending a preschool…

  17. Physical activity levels and motor skills of 5 th to 7 th grade students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical activity (PA) and motor skill levels (MS) (flexibility, balance, speed, sit-up, hand grip strength, standing long jump) were determined for 5th to 7th grade students from central schools in Nigde Province, Turkey according to age and gender and to investigate the relationships. PAL was determined by means of ...

  18. Developing Skills for Employability at the Secondary Level: Effective Models for Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Shubha; Engmann, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Globally, enormous gains have been made towards the goal of universal primary education, leading to increased demands for secondary education. Consequently, more youth and young adults are now entering the formal and informal labour markets from the secondary level, which makes it important to ensure that secondary schools teach skills relevant to…

  19. Relationship between Lifelong Learning Levels and Information Literacy Skills in Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Dilek Yaliz

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between lifelong learning levels and information literacy skills in teacher candidates. The research group consists of 127 physical education and sports teacher candidates. Data were collected by means of "Lifelong Learning Scale (LLL)" and "Information Literacy Scale". In the data…

  20. Bridging Theory and Practice: Developing Lower-Level Skills in L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    Studies on L2 reading have provided extensive evidence for the significant contribution of lower-level processing skills in learning to read and the critical impact on the overall development of L2 reading of more accurate and fluent connections between three sub-lexical components: phonology, orthography and semantics. The broad consensus among…

  1. Students' level of skillfulness and use of the internet in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined level of skillfulness and the use of the Internet for learning among secondary school students in Lagos State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey research method was adopted for the study. A sample of 450 students was randomly selected from the three secondary schools. One intact arm was selected from ...

  2. Interpersonal stress, performance level, and parental support : A Longitudinal study among highly skilled young soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    This study of 65 highly skilled young male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years) employed a 7-month longitudinal design to examine the causal relationship between performance level and interpersonal stress within the team. Particular attention was paid to the moderating effect of parental support.

  3. Linguistic skills of adult native speakers, as a function of age and level of education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.; Hulstijn, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed, in a sample of 98 adult native speakers of Dutch, how their lexical skills and their speaking proficiency varied as a function of their age and level of education and profession (EP). Participants, categorized in terms of their age (18-35, 36-50, and 51-76 years old) and the

  4. Evaluation of Students' Mathematical Problem Solving Skills in Relation to Their Reading Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Gökhan; Kuruyer, Hayriye Gül; Çakiroglu, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the correlation between students' reading levels and mathematical problem solving skills. The present study was conducted in line with a qualitative research method, i.e., the phenomenological method. The study group of the current research is composed of six third grade students with different…

  5. Social Problem-Solving Skills of Children in Terms of Maternal Acceptance-Rejection Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepeli, Kezban; Yilmaz, Elif

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to find an answer to the question of "Do social problem-solving skills of 5-6 years old children differentiate depending on the levels of maternal acceptance rejection?" The participants of the study included 359 5-6 years old children and their mothers. Wally Social Problem-Solving Test and PARQ (Parental…

  6. Validity of self-reported adult secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Grossman, William; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Benowitz, Neal L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of adults to secondhand smoke (SHS) has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease. The current study evaluated brief self-report screening measures for accurately identifying adult cardiology patients with clinically significant levels of SHS exposure in need of intervention. A cross-sectional study conducted in a university-affiliated cardiology clinic and cardiology inpatient service. Participants were 118 non-smoking patients (59% male, mean age=63.6 years, SD=16.8) seeking cardiology services. Serum cotinine levels and self-reported SHS exposure in the past 24 h and 7 days on 13 adult secondhand exposure to smoke (ASHES) items. A single item assessment of SHS exposure in one's own home in the past 7 days was significantly correlated with serum cotinine levels (r=0.41, p85% and correct classification rates >85% at cotinine cut-off points of >0.215 and >0.80 ng/mL. The item outperformed multi-item scales, an assessment of home smoking rules, and SHS exposure assessed in other residential areas, automobiles and public settings. The sample was less accurate at self-reporting lower levels of SHS exposure (cotinine 0.05-0.215 ng/mL). The single item ASHES-7d Home screener is brief, assesses recent SHS exposure over a week's time, and yielded the optimal balance of sensitivity and specificity. The current findings support use of the ASHES-7d Home screener to detect SHS exposure and can be easily incorporated into assessment of other major vital signs in cardiology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. CONSISTENCY IN ACCELERATION PATTERNS OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS WITH DIFFERENT SKILL LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Arpinar-Avsar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to compare the consistency in the lower limb acceleration patterns during inside and instep kicks performed by players with different skill levels, and to investigate the correlation between subjective rating scores for skill level relative to their kicking performance and knee acceleration repeatability. Thirteen club-level male soccer players of ages between 15-16 years participated in this study. Skill levels of individual players were quantified previously by evaluating shooting performance as a numerical value ranging from 1 to 10. Further evaluations were held through tri-axial acceleration data recorded at proximal tibial tuberosity beneath each patella on the players' knees, in a procedure in which players were asked to complete four randomly ordered shooting trials of inside and instep kicks with 2-minute resting intervals. Hence, the mainstream data used in consistency calculations are in the form 4 by 1200 matrices (acceleration vs. time per subject. In order to evaluate the consistency of acceleration data, the mean of the standard deviations (mSD were calculated, and the associated Pearson-r correlation coefficients were incorporated to obtain mSD vs. skill correlations. As a result, repeatability was found to increase with skill level at z-axis acceleration for instep kicks only. However, it is possible to find the most appropriate orientation (for the two kicks for meaningful correlations using vector rotations on the 3 orthogonal acceleration data, and this study shows that, after such suitable vector rotations, positive repeatability results could also be acquired for the inside kicks.

  8. University Students’ Web 2.0 Technologies Usage, Skill Levels and Educational Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Baran, Bahar; Ata, Figen

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to find out university students’ use of Web 2.0 technologies in terms of frequencies, skill levels and educational use and to understand whether or not these variables differ for gender, foreign language levels, computer ownership and the Internet connection duration. Accessible population of this study is the entire Dokuz Eylul University students. In the sample, the researchers collected data from 2776 university students of the university. In the context of the study, blog,...

  9. Progressive Tinnitus Management Level 3 Skills Education: A 5-Year Clinical Retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Catherine M; Ribbe, Cheri; Thielman, Emily J; Henry, James A

    2017-09-18

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether progressive tinnitus management Level 3 skills education workshops conducted at the Bay Pines and Boston Veterans Affairs hospitals result in consistent use of the presented tinnitus management strategies by patients 1-5 years after completing the workshops. In fiscal year (FY) 2015, the tinnitus workshop follow-up form was mailed to all veterans who completed the Level 3 workshops between FY 2010 and FY 2014. Data were compiled to determine which, if any, of the skills taught in the workshops were being used 1-5 years after completion of the workshops and the impact on quality-of-life indicators. All self-management skills were being utilized up to 5 years postcompletion; therapeutic sound was utilized the most. The majority of patients reported an improved ability to manage reactions to tinnitus and improved quality-of-life indicators. Over 90% of patients from both sites recommended the program to others with tinnitus. The self-management skills taught in the progressive tinnitus management Level 3 workshops are sustained over time even when limited resources prevent the full complement of workshops or the involvement of mental health services. The workshops can also be successfully implemented through remote delivery via videoconferencing (telehealth). https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5370883.

  10. Correction of self-reported BMI based on objective measurements: a Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieskens, S; Demarest, S; Bel, S; De Ridder, K; Tafforeau, J

    2018-01-01

    Based on successive Health Interview Surveys (HIS), it has been demonstrated that also in Belgium obesity, measured by means of a self-reported body mass index (BMI in kg/m 2 ), is a growing public health problem that needs to be monitored as accurately as possible. Studies have shown that a self-reported BMI can be biased. Consequently, if the aim is to rely on a self-reported BMI, adjustment is recommended. Data on measured and self-reported BMI, derived from the Belgian Food Consumption Survey (FCS) 2014 offers the opportunity to do so. The HIS and FCS are cross-sectional surveys based on representative population samples. This study focused on adults aged 18-64 years (sample HIS = 6545 and FCS = 1213). Measured and self-reported BMI collected in FCS were used to assess possible misreporting. Using FCS data, correction factors (measured BMI/self-reported BMI) were calculated in function of a combination of background variables (region, gender, educational level and age group). Individual self-reported BMI of the HIS 2013 were then multiplied with the corresponding correction factors to produce a corrected BMI-classification. When compared with the measured BMI, the self-reported BMI in the FCS was underestimated (mean 0.97 kg/m 2 ). 28% of the obese people underestimated their BMI. After applying the correction factors, the prevalence of obesity based on HIS data significantly increased (from 13% based on the original HIS data to 17% based on the corrected HIS data) and approximated the measured one derived from the FCS data. Since self-reported calculations of BMI are underestimated, it is recommended to adjust them to obtain accurate estimates which are important for decision making.

  11. Consistency between Self-Reported and Recorded Values for Clinical Measures

    OpenAIRE

    III, Joseph Thomas; Paulet, Mindy; Rajpura, Jigar R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated consistency between self-reported values for clinical measures and recorded clinical measures. Methods. Self-reported values were collected for the clinical measures: systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, glucose level, height, weight, and cholesterol from health risk assessments completed by enrollees in a privately insured cohort. Body mass index (BMI) was computed from reported height and weight. Practitioner recorded values for the clinical me...

  12. Impression Management and Self-Report among Violent Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.

    2006-01-01

    Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…

  13. Learning and remembering strategies of novice and advanced jazz dancers for skill level appropriate dance routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, P P; Rodgers, W M

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the influence of the challenge level of to-be-learned stimulus on learning strategies in novice and advanced dancers. In Study 1, skill-level appropriate dance routines were developed for novice and advanced jazz dancers. In Study 2, 8 novice and 9 advanced female jazz dancers attempted to learn and remember the two routines in mixed model factorial design, with one between-participants factor: skill level (novice or advanced) and two within-participants factors: routine (easy or difficult) and performance (immediate or delayed). Participants were interviewed regarding the strategies used to learn and remember the routines. Results indicated that advanced performers used atypical learning strategies for insufficiently challenging stimuli, which may reflect characteristics of the stimuli rather than the performer. The qualitative data indicate a clear preference of novice and advanced performers for spatial compatibility of stimuli and response.

  14. Literacy skills gaps: A cross-level analysis on international and intergenerational variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suehye

    2018-02-01

    The global agenda for sustainable development has centred lifelong learning on UNESCO's Education 2030 Framework for Action. The study described in this article aimed to examine international and intergenerational variations in literacy skills gaps within the context of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). For this purpose, the author examined the trend of literacy gaps in different countries using multilevel and multisource data from the OECD's Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) and UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning survey data from the third edition of the Global Report on Adult Learning and Education (GRALE III). In this article, particular attention is paid to exploring the specific effects of education systems on literacy skills gaps among different age groups. Key findings of this study indicate substantial intergenerational literacy gaps within countries as well as different patterns of literacy gaps across countries. Young generations generally outscore older adults in literacy skills, but feature bigger gaps when examined by gender and social origin. In addition, this study finds an interesting tendency for young generations to benefit from a system of Recognition, Validation and Accreditation (RVA) in closing literacy gaps by formal schooling at country level. This implies the potential of an RVA system for tackling educational inequality in initial schooling. The article concludes with suggestions for integrating literacy skills as a foundation of lifelong learning into national RVA frameworks and mechanisms at system level.

  15. [Psychosocial work factors and self-reported health in the French national SUMER survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuffleur, Thomas; Chastang, Jean-François; Cavet, Marine; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the associations between psychosocial work factors, using well-known theoretical models and emerging concepts, and self-reported health in the national population of French employees. This study was based on the data of the French national representative SUMER 2010 survey. The sample included 46,962 employees, 26,883 men and 20,079 women, with an 87% participation rate. Self-reported health was measured by means of a single question and was analysed as a binary variable. Psychosocial work factors included factors related to job strain and effort-reward imbalance models, workplace violence and working hours. Associations between psychosocial work factors and self-reported health were studied using weighted logistic regression models adjusted for covariates (age, occupation, economic activity, and other types of occupational exposure). Low decision latitude (skill discretion and decision authority), high psychological demands, low social support (from supervisors for men), low reward (low esteem and low job promotion for both genders and job insecurity for men), bullying and verbal abuse for both genders were associated with self-reported health. This study emphasizes the role of psychosocial work factors as risk factors for poor self-reported health and suggests that the implementation of preventive measures to reduce exposure to psychosocial work factors should be an objective for the improvement of health at work.

  16. Assessing the relationship between the Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory: Revealing sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to identify sub-groups of drivers that potentially act dangerously in traffic (as measured...... self-reported driving skills and whether the reported skill level was reflected in the reported aberrant driving behaviors. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. K-means cluster analysis revealed four distinct sub-groups that differed in driving skills and frequency of aberrant driving...... by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether the sub-groups differ in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. Furthermore, the joint analysis of the two instruments was used to test drivers’ assessment of their own...

  17. Moral disengagement in self-reported and peer-nominated school bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obermann, Marie-Louise

    2011-01-01

    . Discrepancies between self-reported and peer-nominated bullying involvement indicates that a person’s social reputation has a stronger association with moral disengagement than so far expected. Implications are discussed, highlighting the importance of further research and theory development.......This study examined the relation between moral disengagement and different self-reported and peer-nominated positions in school bullying. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate moral disengagement among children for whom self-reported and peernominated bully status diverged and (2) compare...... levels of disengagement among self-reported and peer-nominated pure bullies, pure victims, bully–victims, and children not involved in bullying. A sample of 739 Danish sixth grade and seventh grade children (mean age 12.6) was included in the study. Moral disengagement was measured using a Danish version...

  18. Self-reported versus behavioral self-handicapping: empirical evidence for a theoretical distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, E R; Deppe, R K; Gordon, L J

    1991-12-01

    The present study was an investigation of how Ss would respond when given 2 self-handicapping options, 1 behavioral (withdrawal of practice effort) and 1 self-reported (reporting high levels of stress). Ss anticipating a diagnostic test of intellectual ability were given different instructions regarding the effects of stress and practice on test performance. Ss were told that (a) stress only, (b) practice only, (c) both stress and practice, or (d) neither stress nor practice affected test scores. Ss were then given the opportunity to self-report a handicap on a stress inventory and to behaviorally self-handicap by failing to practice before the test. High self-handicapping men and women showed evidence of self-reported handicapping, but only high self-handicapping men behaviorally self-handicapped. However, when both self-handicaps were viable, both high self-handicapping men and women preferred the self-reported over the behavioral self-handicap.

  19. Identification of Determinants of Sports Skill Level in Badminton Players Using the Multiple Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski Janusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate somatic and functional determinants of sports skill level in badminton players at three consecutive stages of training. Methods. The study examined 96 badminton players aged 11 to 19 years. The scope of the study included somatic characteristics, physical abilities and neurosensory abilities. Thirty nine variables were analysed in each athlete. Coefficients of multiple determination were used to evaluate the effect of structural and functional parameters on sports skill level in badminton players. Results. In the group of younger cadets, quality and effectiveness of playing were mostly determined by the level of physical abilities. In the group of cadets, the most important determinants were physical abilities, followed by somatic characteristics. In this group, coordination abilities were also important. In juniors, the most pronounced was a set of the variables that reflect physical abilities. Conclusions. Models of determination of sports skill level are most noticeable in the group of cadets. In all three groups of badminton players, the dominant effect on the quality of playing is due to a set of the variables that determine physical abilities.

  20. Accuracy of Professional Self-Reports: Medical Student Self-Report and the Scoring of Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter Lagha, Regina Anne

    2014-01-01

    Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…

  1. Process-oriented guided inquiry learning strategy enhances students' higher level thinking skills in a pharmaceutical sciences course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Robert; Verlinden, Nathan; Kruger, Nicholas; Carroll, Ailey; Trumbo, Tiffany

    2015-02-17

    To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting.

  2. "Is There a Second Level Divide in Student’s Internet Skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna; Dau, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a digital divide has moved beyond only physical disparities in technology usage and now also encompasses issues impeding access such as human social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies. This paper focuses on students......’ insufficient skill levels in making the best use of available Internet technology, discussing students in higher education in scenarios in Denmark and India. The paper emphasizes the reflective and conceptual issues which the students face in retrieving information from the Internet, which result in a second......-level divide. Through a cross-national comparison, the paper hopes to contribute to the literature through experiences of students in the two countries, providing researchers with insights into the digital divide. This divide in Internet skills is illuminated from different perspectives in the context of two...

  3. [Low level auditory skills compared to writing skills in school children attending third and fourth grade: evidence for the rapid auditory processing deficit theory?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptok, M; Meisen, R

    2008-01-01

    The rapid auditory processing defi-cit theory holds that impaired reading/writing skills are not caused exclusively by a cognitive deficit specific to representation and processing of speech sounds but arise due to sensory, mainly auditory, deficits. To further explore this theory we compared different measures of auditory low level skills to writing skills in school children. prospective study. School children attending third and fourth grade. just noticeable differences for intensity and frequency (JNDI, JNDF), gap detection (GD) monaural and binaural temporal order judgement (TOJb and TOJm); grade in writing, language and mathematics. correlation analysis. No relevant correlation was found between any auditory low level processing variable and writing skills. These data do not support the rapid auditory processing deficit theory.

  4. Validity of self-reported weight and height: a cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Kee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported weight and height are commonly used in lieu of direct measurements of weight and height in large epidemiological surveys due to inevitable constraints such as budget and human resource. However, the validity of self-reported weight and height, particularly among adolescents, needs to be verified as misreporting could lead to misclassification of body mass index and therefore overestimation or underestimation of the burden of BMI-related diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the validity of self-reported weight and height among Malaysian secondary school children. Methods Both self-reported and directly measured weight and height of a subgroup of 663 apparently healthy schoolchildren from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB survey 2013/2014 were analysed. Respondents were required to report their current body weight and height via a self-administrative questionnaire before they were measured by investigators. The validity of self-reported against directly measured weight and height was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, the Bland-Altman plot and weighted Kappa statistics. Results There was very good intraclass correlation between self-reported and directly measured weight [r = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.93, 0.97] and height (r = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.96. In addition the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between self-reported and direct measurement was relatively small. The mean difference (self-reported minus direct measurements was, for boys: weight, −2.1 kg; height, −1.6 cm; BMI, −0.44 kg/m2 and girls: weight, −1.2 kg; height, −0.9 cm; BMI, −0.3 kg/m2. However, 95% limits of agreement were wide which indicated substantial discrepancies between self-reported and direct measurements method at the individual level. Nonetheless, the weighted Kappa statistics demonstrated a substantial agreement between BMI

  5. Validity of self-reported weight and height: a cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, C C; Lim, K H; Sumarni, M G; Teh, C H; Chan, Y Y; Nuur Hafizah, M I; Cheah, Y K; Tee, E O; Ahmad Faudzi, Y; Amal Nasir, M

    2017-06-02

    Self-reported weight and height are commonly used in lieu of direct measurements of weight and height in large epidemiological surveys due to inevitable constraints such as budget and human resource. However, the validity of self-reported weight and height, particularly among adolescents, needs to be verified as misreporting could lead to misclassification of body mass index and therefore overestimation or underestimation of the burden of BMI-related diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the validity of self-reported weight and height among Malaysian secondary school children. Both self-reported and directly measured weight and height of a subgroup of 663 apparently healthy schoolchildren from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB) survey 2013/2014 were analysed. Respondents were required to report their current body weight and height via a self-administrative questionnaire before they were measured by investigators. The validity of self-reported against directly measured weight and height was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the Bland-Altman plot and weighted Kappa statistics. There was very good intraclass correlation between self-reported and directly measured weight [r = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 0.97] and height (r = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.96). In addition the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between self-reported and direct measurement was relatively small. The mean difference (self-reported minus direct measurements) was, for boys: weight, -2.1 kg; height, -1.6 cm; BMI, -0.44 kg/m 2 and girls: weight, -1.2 kg; height, -0.9 cm; BMI, -0.3 kg/m 2 . However, 95% limits of agreement were wide which indicated substantial discrepancies between self-reported and direct measurements method at the individual level. Nonetheless, the weighted Kappa statistics demonstrated a substantial agreement between BMI status categorised based on self-reported weight and height

  6. Delivering high-level food industry skills for future food security through Advanced Training Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Frazier, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council’s Advanced Training Partnerships initiative represents a significant investment in the provision of high-level skills for the UK food industry sector to address global food security from farm to fork. This paper summarises the background, aims and scope of the Advanced Training Partnerships, their development so far, and offers a view on future directions and evaluation of impact.

  7. Validity of self-reported exposure to shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härmä, Mikko; Koskinen, Aki; Ropponen, Annina; Puttonen, Sampsa; Karhula, Kati; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the validity of widely used questionnaire items on work schedule using objective registry data as reference. A cohort study of hospital employees who responded to a self-administered questionnaire on work schedule in 2008, 2012 and 2014 and were linked to individual-level pay-roll-based records on work shifts. For predictive validity, leisure-time fatigue was assessed. According to the survey data in 2014 (n=8896), 55% of the day workers had at least 1 year of earlier shift work experience. 8% of the night shift workers changed to day work during the follow-up. Using pay-roll data as reference, questions on 'shift work with night shifts' and 'permanent night work' showed high sensitivity (96% and 90%) and specificity (92% and 97%). Self-reported 'regular day work' showed moderate sensitivity (73%), but high specificity (99%) and 'shift work without night shifts' showed low sensitivity (62%) and moderate specificity (87%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the age-adjusted, sex-adjusted and baseline fatigue-adjusted association between 'shift work without night shifts' and leisure-time fatigue was lower for self-reported compared with objective assessment (1.30, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.82, n=1707 vs 1.89, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.39, n=1627). In contrast, shift work with night shifts, compared with permanent day work, was similarly associated with fatigue in the two assessments (2.04, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.57, n=2311 vs 1.82, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.58, n=1804). The validity of self-reported assessment of shift work varies between work schedules. Exposure misclassification in self-reported data may contribute to bias towards the null in shift work without night shifts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Attitude and skill levels of graduate health professionals in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebreegziabher Gebremedhn E

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endale Gebreegziabher Gebremedhn,1 Gebremedhn Berhe Gebregergs,2 Bernard Bradley Anderson,3,† Vidhya Nagaratnam1 1Department of Anaesthesia, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, 2Department of Public Health, Bahir Dar College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, 3Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia †Dr Bernard Bradley Anderson passed away on January 2, 2014 Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is an emergency procedure used to treat victims following cardiopulmonary arrest. Graduate health professionals at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital manage many trauma and critically ill patients. The chance of survival after cardiopulmonary arrest may be increased with sufficient attitude and skill levels. The study aimed to assess the attitude and skill levels of graduate health professionals in performing CPR.Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1 to 30, 2013, at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. The mean attitude and skill scores were compared for sex, original residence, and department of the participants using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (Scheffe’s test. P-values <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.Results: Of the 506 graduates, 461 were included in this study with a response rate of 91.1%. The mean attitude scores of nurse, interns, health officer, midwifery, anesthesia, and psychiatric nursing graduates were 1.15 (standard deviation [SD] =1.67, 8.21 (SD =1.24, 7.2 (SD =1.49, 6.69 (SD =1.83, 8.19 (SD =1.77, and 7.29 (SD =2.01, respectively, and the mean skill scores were 2.34 (SD =1.95, 3.77 (SD =1.58, 1.18 (SD =1.52, 2.16 (SD =1.93, 3.88 (SD =1.36, and 1.21 (SD =1.77, respectively.Conclusion and recommendations: Attitude and skill level of graduate health professionals with regard

  9. Prospective Evaluation of Self-Reported Aggression in Transgender Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defreyne, Justine; T'Sjoen, Guy; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Arcelus, Jon

    2018-05-01

    Although research on the relation between testosterone and aggression in humans is inconclusive, guidelines (including the World Professional Association for Transgender Health Standards of Care, edition 7) have warned for an increase in aggression in transgender men taking testosterone treatment. To investigate the association between levels of testosterone and aggression in treatment-seeking transgender people and explore the role of mental health psychopathology (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and social support in aggression in this population. Every transgender person invited for assessment at a national transgender health clinic in the United Kingdom during a 3-year period (2012-2015) completed self-report measures for interpersonal problems, including levels of aggression (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems [IIP-32]), symptoms of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and experiences of transphobia before and 1 year after the initiation of gender-affirming hormonal therapy. Correlations between prospective scores for the IIP-32 factor "too aggressive" and prospective levels of sex steroids, prospective psychological (HADS), and baseline psychosocial measurements were tested. Prospective scores for the factor "too aggressive" were not correlated to prospective serum testosterone levels. Results of 140 people (56 transgender men, 84 transgender women) were analyzed. A prospective increase in scores for the factor "too aggressive" of the IIP-32 in transgender men 1 year after being treated with testosterone treatment or a decrease of the IIP-32 aggression scores in transgender women 1 year after gender-affirming hormonal therapy was not found. However, a positive correlation was found between increasing HADS anxiety scores and increasing scores for the IIP-32 "too aggressive" score in the entire study population and a positive correlation with lower support

  10. Differences in self-reported physical limitation among older women and men in Ismailia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadr, Zeinab; Yount, Kathryn

    2012-09-01

    This study explores the reasons for gender differences in self-reported physical limitation among older adults in Ismailia, Egypt. 435 women and 448 men, 50 years and older in Ismailia, Egypt, participated in a social survey and tests of physical performance. Ordered logit models were estimated to compare unadjusted gender differences in reported disability with these differences adjusted sequentially for (a) age and objective measures of physical performance, (b) self-reported morbidities and health care use, and (c) social and economic attributes. Compared with men, women more often reported higher levels of limitation in activities of daily living (ADLs), upper-extremity range of motion (ROM), and lower-extremity gross mobility (GM). Adjusting for age and objective measures of physical performance, women and men had similar odds of self-reporting difficulty with ADLs. With sequential adjustments for the remaining variables, women maintained significantly higher odds of self-reported difficulty with upper-extremity ROM and lower-extremity GM. Cross-culturally, gender differences in self-reported disability may arise from objective and subjective perceptions of disability. Collectively, these results and those from prior studies in Bangladesh and the United States suggest that gender gaps in self-reported physical limitation may be associated with the degree of gender equality in society.

  11. The reliability, validity, and accuracy of self-reported absenteeism from work: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Gary; Miraglia, Mariella

    2015-01-01

    Because of a variety of access limitations, self-reported absenteeism from work is often employed in research concerning health, organizational behavior, and economics, and it is ubiquitous in large scale population surveys in these domains. Several well established cognitive and social-motivational biases suggest that self-reports of absence will exhibit convergent validity with records-based measures but that people will tend to underreport the behavior. We used meta-analysis to summarize the reliability, validity, and accuracy of absence self-reports. The results suggested that self-reports of absenteeism offer adequate test-retest reliability and that they exhibit reasonably good rank order convergence with organizational records. However, people have a decided tendency to underreport their absenteeism, although such underreporting has decreased over time. Also, self-reports were more accurate when sickness absence rather than absence for any reason was probed. It is concluded that self-reported absenteeism might serve as a valid measure in some correlational research designs. However, when accurate knowledge of absolute absenteeism levels is essential, the tendency to underreport could result in flawed policy decisions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. An evaluation of fitness for practice curricula: self-efficacy, support and self-reported competence in preregistration student nurses and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, William; Watson, Roger; Topping, Keith; Holland, Karen; Johnson, Martin; Porter, Mary; Roxburgh, Michelle; Behr, Aga

    2008-07-01

    This element of the larger Scottish evaluation aimed to explore differences between access routes, cohorts and higher education institutes (HEI) (universities and colleges) in levels of self-efficacy, student support and self-reported competence in a nationally representative sample of student nurses and midwives. This paper reports findings from the National Review of Pre-Registration Nursing and Midwifery Programmes in Scotland. Fitness for practice curricula have been the heart of many recent developments in nurse and midwifery education. Fitness for practice set out to map out the future direction of preregistration nursing and midwifery education with the aim of ensuring fitness for practice based on healthcare need. There have been no national evaluations of the effectiveness of this strategic objective. Previous major evaluations in the 1990s suggested that students may not have had the skills needed to be fit for practice. The study design was a cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of student nurses and midwives (n = 777). Data collected included demographic information, generalised perceived self-efficacy, student support and self-reported competency. Students reported high levels of self-reported competency. There were no significant differences between two cohorts or between students with different access routes. Students rated support from family and friends highest and support from HEI lowest. There was a significant difference in support levels between HEI. Self-efficacy scores were similar to other population means and showed small-moderate correlations with self-report competence. Similarly, self-reported competency appears to be at the higher end of the spectrum, although older students may have a more realistic perception of their competence. However, support from HEI was seen as less satisfactory and varied from one institution to another. This study portrays a relatively positive picture of preregistration fitness for practice

  13. The Level of Difficulty and Discrimination Power of the Basic Knowledge and Skills Examination (EXHCOBA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Backhoff Escudero

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The Basic Knowledge and Skills Examination (EXHCOBA is one of the few great-scale examinations in Mexico which has been publishing its psychometric parameters.  In this paper we describe the  item analysis results, regarding the exam’s difficulty level and discrimination power.  Results show that most of the items have a medium difficulty and a high discrimination power.  They also reveal that the mathematics items have better discrimination power levels than the ones which belong to social science.

  14. The Effect of a Surgical Skills Course on Confidence Levels of Rural General Practitioners: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Pippa; Ward, Olga; Hamdorf, Jeffrey

    2016-10-01

    Objective  To investigate the effect of a short surgical skills course on general practitioners' confidence levels to perform procedural skills. Design  Prospective observational study. Setting  The Clinical Evaluation and Training Centre, a practical skills-based educational facility, at The University of Western Australia. Participants  Medical practitioners who participated in these courses. Nurses, physiotherapists, and medical students were excluded. The response rate was 61% with 61 participants providing 788 responses for pre- and postcourse confidence levels regarding various surgical skills. Intervention  One- to two-day surgical skills courses consisting of presentations, demonstrations, and practical stations, facilitated by specialists. Main Outcome Measures  A two-page precourse and postcourse questionnaire was administered to medical practitioners on the day. Participants rated their confidence levels to perform skills addressed during the course on a 4-point Likert scale. Results  Of the 788 responses regarding confidence levels, 621 were rated as improved postcourse, 163 were rated as no change, and 4 were rated as lower postcourse. Seven of the courses showed a 25% median increase in confidence levels, and one course demonstrated a 50% median increase. All courses showed statistically significant results ( p  skills course resulted in a statistically significant improvement in the confidence levels of rural general practitioners to perform these skills.

  15. The Role of Psychosocial and Belief Factors in Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking Among University Students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Alshagga, Mustafa; Hawash, Aamenah; Wajih, Wahid; Kassim, Saba

    2014-01-13

    This study aimed to explore factors associated, specifically belief factors, with self-reported tobacco smoking status. A sample of 300 students was recruited from a private university in Malaysia. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administrated questionnaire that investigated various factors including socio-demographics, socio-economic status, smoking behavior and beliefs on tobacco smoking. The main tobacco use in this study sample was cigarettes and the estimated prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking was 10.3%. In bivariate analysis, self-reported cigarette smoking was significantly associated with socio-demographic, behavioral factors and faculty of study (Pcigarette smoking. Social and interpersonal factors were associated with self-reported cigarette smoking status. A comprehensive health model focusing on changing the social norms of parent and sibling tobacco smoking and students' beliefs, alongside nurturing skills of dealing with stressful situations, warrant implementation.

  16. Influence of the Level of the Development of Skills on Labour Potential, its Implementation and Choice of Work Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya Aleksandrovna Ustinova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the sociological assessment of the skills level and identification of its influence on some aspects of labour activity: the realization of labour potential, choice of the scope of activity, position and occupation. It suggests an approach based on the subjective evaluation of the population as an instrument of the skills level assessment. The received results are compared with the indirect estimates allowing to characterize some particular components of labour potential which are similar to the considered skills. A specific feature of the research is not only the determination of the professional sphere, occupation and position on the skills level, but also the accounting of the reverse effect. The methodological tools including the methods for the assessment of skills level, labour potential and extent of its implementation in a labour activity have been approved in the Vologda region. The study revealed that, at the present time, the most developed skills are the teamwork, communication and mutual understanding while the least developed ones are the initiative and creativity as well as ability to be retrained and readiness to increase the professional level. It shows that the employees of socially oriented spheres and also the representatives of state structures have more developed skills. At the same time, the development of innovative skills not only leads to the growth of labour potential, but also creates conditions for the employment in workplaces with higher skills requirements. The paper shows that higher skills level along with higher skills requirements leads to more complete implementation of cumulative potential in the labour activity. The received results can be used by regional authorities for the development of the analytical system of labour market, the development of labour force and the labour potential of the population.

  17. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluation of a Brief Self-Report Questionnaire for the Assessment of the DSM-5 level of Personality Functioning Scale : The LPFS Brief Form (LPFS-BF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutsebaut, J.; Feenstra, D.J.; Kamphuis, J.H.

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) introduced a new paradigm for the assessment of PDs that includes levels of personality functioning indexing the severity of

  18. Reliability and validity of two self-report measures of cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnco, Carly; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Rapee, Ronald M

    2014-12-01

    Neuropsychological testing currently represents the gold standard in assessing cognitive flexibility. However, this format presents some challenges in terms of time and skills required for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Two self-report measures of cognitive flexibility have been developed to measure aspects of cognitive flexibility in everyday settings, although neither has been validated in an older sample. In this study, we investigated the psychometric properties of 2 self-report measures of cognitive flexibility, the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI; Dennis & Vander Wal, 2010) and the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS; Martin & Rubin, 1995), against neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility in a clinical sample of 47 older adults with comorbid anxiety and depression and a nonclinical sample of 53 community-dwelling older adults. Internal consistency was good for the CFS and CFI in all samples. The clinical sample reported poorer cognitive flexibility than did the nonclinical sample on self-report measures and performed more poorly on some neuropsychological measures. There was evidence of convergent validity between the 2 self-report measures but little relationship between the self-report and neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility, suggesting that self-report measures assess a different aspect of cognitive flexibility than does neuropsychological testing. Divergent validity was weak from measures of anxiety and depression in the combined and nonclinical samples but acceptable in the clinical sample. Results suggest that these measures are suitable for use with an older adult sample but do not assess the same aspects of cognitive flexibility as are assessed by neuropsychological assessment. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Trends in levels of self-reported psychological distress among individuals who seek psychiatric services over eight years: a comparison between age groups in three population surveys in Stockholm County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosidou, Kyriaki; Lundin, Andreas; Lewis, Glyn; Fredlund, Peeter; Dal, Henrik; Dalman, Christina

    2017-10-11

    Psychiatric service use has increased in Sweden and in other developed countries, particularly among young people. Possible explanations include lower threshold for help-seeking among young people, but evidence is scarce. We analysed the 2002, 2006 and 2010 Stockholm public health surveys for changes in the mean level of psychological distress among adult users of psychiatric in- and outpatient services in four age groups: 18-24, 25-44, 45-64 and ≥65 years. Psychological distress was measured via the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), using the Likert scoring method 0-1-2-3. In- and out-patient psychiatric service use within 6 months from the surveys was obtained from registers. The mean level of distress among young adults 18-24 years who utilize psychiatric services decreased between 2002 (mean GHQ-12 score, 95% confidence interval 20.5, 18.1-23.0) and 2010 (16.2, 14.6-17.7), while it remained fairly stable in older age groups. Results were similar in sex-stratified analyses, although the decrease was statistically significant only among young women 18-24 years. At the end of the follow-up, the level of distress among patients was similar for all age-groups. There were no differences between age groups in the level of distress when seeking care at the end of the follow-up period, supporting that there is no age-specific over- or under-consumption of psychiatric care in later years. However, the lowered threshold for help-seeking among young adults over time might have contributed to increases in psychiatric service use in the young age group. Public health policy and service delivery planning should consider the needs of the widening group of young users of psychiatric services.

  20. Validating a Methodology for Establishing a Criteria and Proficiency Levels in Surgical Skills Simulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heinrichs, LeRoy; Lukoff, Brian; Youngblood, Patricia; Dev, Parvati; Shavelson, Richard

    2006-01-01

    .... To establish training criteria, we have assessed the performance of 18 experienced laparoscopic surgeons basic technical surgical skills of recorded electronically in 26 basic skills modules selected...

  1. THINKING OUTSIDE OF THE BOX: DETERMINING STUDENTS’ LEVEL OF CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifah Fadhlullah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the level of critical thinking skills adapted from The Cornell Critical Thinking Test Level X (CCTTX by Ennis and Milan (1985 among final year diploma students from the Faculty of Business Management, UiTM Melaka taking the course of Office Administration and Introduction to Critical Thinking. This paper aims to encourage students to become critical thinkers and to provide lecturers with the best approach to develop students’ critical thinking skills at tertiary level. Findings have shown that their critical thinking ability ranged from low to moderate level. Thus, strategies of teaching and learning which stresses on student-centered learning must be adopted to stimulate student’s thinking by encouraging critical and creative thinking and the construction of new knowledge. 61 students taking Diploma in Office Management and Technology were chosen as samples of this study. The data was collected through observation and classroom based activities namely debates, discussions, article analysis, problem-solving situations and case studies.

  2. Employers' Perception of Graduates with Entry-Level Technical Skills from Construction Industry Programs in Ghana and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative study was to identify the technical skills and abilities needed by prospective employees of construction industries in Ghana and Nigeria. Potential employees were defined here as recent graduates of construction industry programs with entry-level technical skills. The continuous growth in and expansion of these two…

  3. Reading Comprehension, Working Memory and Higher-Level Language Skills in Children with SLI and/or Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; McBride, Catherine; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined (1) whether working memory and higher-level languages skills--inferencing and comprehension monitoring--accounted for individual differences among Chinese children in Chinese reading comprehension, after controlling for age, Chinese word reading and oral language skills, and (2) whether children with specific language…

  4. Explaining and inducing savant skills: privileged access to lower level, less-processed information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Allan

    2009-01-01

    I argue that savant skills are latent in us all. My hypothesis is that savants have privileged access to lower level, less-processed information, before it is packaged into holistic concepts and meaningful labels. Owing to a failure in top-down inhibition, they can tap into information that exists in all of our brains, but is normally beyond conscious awareness. This suggests why savant skills might arise spontaneously in otherwise normal people, and why such skills might be artificially induced by low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. It also suggests why autistic savants are atypically literal with a tendency to concentrate more on the parts than on the whole and why this offers advantages for particular classes of problem solving, such as those that necessitate breaking cognitive mindsets. A strategy of building from the parts to the whole could form the basis for the so-called autistic genius. Unlike the healthy mind, which has inbuilt expectations of the world (internal order), the autistic mind must simplify the world by adopting strict routines (external order). PMID:19528023

  5. Skills in clinical communication: Are we correctly assessing them at undergraduate level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Zamora Cervantes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Communicating with the patient in clinical practice refers to the way in which the doctor and the patient interact both verbally and nonverbally, in order to achieve a shared understanding of problems and solutions. Traditional learning and assessment systems are overwhelmed when it comes to addressing the complex and multi-dimensional problems of professional practice. Problem Based Learning (PBL has been put forward as an alternative to the mere reproduction of knowledge and pre-established patterns, enabling students to develop their own learning strategies to overcome problems in their future professional practice. The challenge is to determine how to assess the acquisition of clinical communication skills. The authors have recommended a summative assessment of clinical communication skills based on the combination of different methods. It highlights the importance of feedback-based formative assessment. This raises the need to develop and validate assessment scales in clinical communication at an undergraduate level. Based on this work, the authors put forward a "fanned out" assessment in terms of clinical communication skills in Medicine degrees, with the use of different instruments in a "spiraled" manner, where the greater the contact with clinical practice in the various degree and integral courses, the greater difficulty experienced, with the participation of all the stakeholders involved (self, hetero and peer assessment without precluding the involvement of patients (real or simulated in the design of assessment instruments.

  6. Accuracy of self-reported drinking: observational verification of 'last occasion' drink estimates of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcote, Jeremy; Livingston, Michael

    2011-01-01

    As a formative step towards determining the accuracy of self-reported drinking levels commonly used for estimating population alcohol use, the validity of a 'last occasion' self-reporting approach is tested with corresponding field observations of participants' drinking quantity. This study is the first known attempt to validate the accuracy of self-reported alcohol consumption using data from a natural setting. A total of 81 young adults (aged 18-25 years) were purposively selected in Perth, Western Australia. Participants were asked to report the number of alcoholic drinks consumed at nightlife venues 1-2 days after being observed by peer-based researchers on 239 occasions. Complete observation data and self-report estimates were available for 129 sessions, which were fitted with multi-level models assessing the relationship between observed and reported consumption. Participants accurately estimated their consumption when engaging in light to moderate drinking (eight or fewer drinks in a single session), with no significant difference between the mean reported consumption and the mean observed consumption. In contrast, participants underestimated their own consumption by increasing amounts when engaging in heavy drinking of more than eight drinks. It is suggested that recent recall methods in self-report surveys are potentially reasonably accurate measures of actual drinking levels for light to moderate drinkers, but that underestimating of alcohol consumption increases with heavy consumption. Some of the possible reasons for underestimation of heavy drinking are discussed, with both cognitive and socio-cultural factors considered.

  7. Research of hands' strength and endurance indications of arm sport athletes having different levels of skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Podrigalo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : comparative study of indicators of hands’ strength and endurance at athletes of arm sport of different skill levels. Material : the study involved 50 athletes. Athletes were divided into two groups: 1 - 15 athletes with high skill levels (age 25,25 ± 0,62 years and 2 - 35 athletes and fans of mass categories (age 22,21 ± 0,35 years. Results : it is shown that the results of carpal dynamometry right and left hands were significantly higher in group 1 (respectively: 60,50 ± 0,91 kg and 53,75 ± 0,83 kg against 52,35 ± 0,51 kg and 48 53 ± 0,46 kg. Strength endurance was significantly higher in group 2 (respectively: 32,97 ± 0,61 sec 33,09 ± 0,62 sec against 23,78 ± 0,85 sec and 24,66 ± 0,78 sec. Found that carpal dynamometry has a maximum contribution to the system (in group 1 for the right hand - 18.17, for the left - 23.50, in group 2 - 7.44 and 7.10. Correlation coefficients dynamometry in group 1 were significantly higher. Strength endurance had almost no connection with the study of reliable performance. Conclusions : it is proved that the level of carpal dynamometry is an important informative and adequate criterion. This indicator is characterized by a maximum contribution backbone.

  8. Athlete Self-Report Measure Use and Associated Psychological Alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Saw

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The experience of athletes and practitioners has led to the suggestion that use of an athlete self-report measure (ASRM may increase an athlete’s self-awareness, satisfaction, motivation, and confidence. This study sought to provide empirical evidence for this assertion by evaluating psychological alterations associated with ASRM use across a diverse athlete population. Athletes (n = 335 had access to an ASRM for 16 weeks and completed an online survey at baseline, and weeks 4, 8, and 16. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the associations between ASRM compliance and outcome measures. Compared to baseline, confidence and extrinsic motivation were most likely increased at weeks 4, 8, and 16. Satisfaction and intrinsic motivation were most likely decreased at week 4, but no different to baseline values at weeks 8 and 16. Novice athletes and those who were instructed to use an ASRM (rather than using one autonomously were less responsive to ASRM use. This study provides preliminary evidence for ASRM to prompt initial dissatisfaction and decreased intrinsic motivation which, along with increased confidence and extrinsic motivation, may provide the necessary stimulus to improve performance-related behaviors. Novice and less autonomous athletes may benefit from support to develop motivation, knowledge, and skills to use the information gleaned from an ASRM effectively.

  9. An initial look at sibling reports on children's behavior: comparisons with children's self-reports and relations with siblings' self-reports and sibling relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epkins, C C; Dedmon, A M

    1999-10-01

    The authors examined siblings' reports of children's depression, anxiety, and aggression, and their reports of the sibling relationship, and compared them with children's self-reports. In two samples, including 169 sibling pairs (age M = 9.98 years, SD = 1.51), no significant differences emerged in the levels of depression and anxiety found in siblings' reports of children's behavior and children's self-reports, although siblings reported children to have significantly higher levels of aggression than the children self-reported. Age, the difference in ages between siblings, sex, and sibling sex were not related to siblings' reports of children's behavior. The relations between children's and siblings' reports of children's behavior were significant, yet moderate (average r = .22). Both siblings' self-reports of internalizing behavior and their perceptions of aspects of the sibling relationship (affection, rivalry, hostility, and satisfaction with the sibling relationship) explained significant, and unique, variance in siblings' reports of children's internalizing behavior. The findings for aggressive behavior were similar, although siblings' perceptions of affection in the sibling relationship were not significantly related to their reports of children's aggression. The potential uses and benefits of sibling reports of children's behavior, and sibling and family relationships, are discussed.

  10. The International Health Partnership Plus: rhetoric or real change? Results of a self-reported survey in the context of the 4th high level forum on aid effectiveness in Busan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorten Tim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which provides an international agreement on how to deliver aid, has recently been reviewed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD. Health sector aid effectiveness is important, given the volume of financial aid and the number of mechanisms through which health assistance is provided. Recognizing this, the international community created the International Health Partnership (IHP+, to apply the Paris Declaration to the health sector. This paper, which presents findings from an independent monitoring process (IHP+Results, makes a valuable contribution to the literature in the context of the recent 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan, Korea. Methods IHP+Results monitored commitments made under the IHP + using an agreed framework with twelve measures for IHP + Development Partners and ten for IHP + recipient country governments. Data were collected through self-administered survey tools. IHP+Results analyzed these data, using transparent criteria, to produce Scorecards as a means to highlight progress against commitments and thereby strengthen mutual accountability amongst IHP + signatories. Results There have been incremental improvements in the strengthening of national planning processes and principles around mutual accountability. There has also been progress in Development Partners aligning their support with national budgets. But there is a lack of progress in the use of countries’ financial management and procurement systems, and in the integration of duplicative performance reporting frameworks and information systems. Discussion and Conclusions External, independent monitoring is potentially useful for strengthening accountability in health sector aid. While progress in strengthening country ownership, harmonisation and alignment seems evident, there are ongoing challenges. In spite of some useful findings, there are

  11. The International Health Partnership Plus: rhetoric or real change? Results of a self-reported survey in the context of the 4th high level forum on aid effectiveness in Busan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which provides an international agreement on how to deliver aid, has recently been reviewed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Health sector aid effectiveness is important, given the volume of financial aid and the number of mechanisms through which health assistance is provided. Recognizing this, the international community created the International Health Partnership (IHP+), to apply the Paris Declaration to the health sector. This paper, which presents findings from an independent monitoring process (IHP+Results), makes a valuable contribution to the literature in the context of the recent 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan, Korea. Methods IHP+Results monitored commitments made under the IHP + using an agreed framework with twelve measures for IHP + Development Partners and ten for IHP + recipient country governments. Data were collected through self-administered survey tools. IHP+Results analyzed these data, using transparent criteria, to produce Scorecards as a means to highlight progress against commitments and thereby strengthen mutual accountability amongst IHP + signatories. Results There have been incremental improvements in the strengthening of national planning processes and principles around mutual accountability. There has also been progress in Development Partners aligning their support with national budgets. But there is a lack of progress in the use of countries’ financial management and procurement systems, and in the integration of duplicative performance reporting frameworks and information systems. Discussion and Conclusions External, independent monitoring is potentially useful for strengthening accountability in health sector aid. While progress in strengthening country ownership, harmonisation and alignment seems evident, there are ongoing challenges. In spite of some useful findings, there are limitations with IHP

  12. Cross-sectional study of anxiety symptoms and self-report of awake and sleep bruxism in female TMD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Luisa Maria Faria; da Silva Parente Macedo, Leonora Cristina; Duarte, Cristina Maria Rabelais; de Goffredo Filho, Gilberto Senechal; de Souza Tesch, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between levels of anxiety symptoms and prevalence of self-report of awake and sleep bruxism in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). One hundred and eighty-one female patients, aged 19-77 years, were consecutively evaluated. The patients were selected from among those who sought treatment at the TMD and Orofacial Pain Outpatient Clinic of the Petrópolis School of Medicine. All patients completed the questionnaire and underwent clinical examination, both components of the RDC/TMD, in addition to answering questions pertaining to the assessment of levels of anxiety symptoms, taken from the Symptom Check List 90 self-report instrument. The subjects were classified according to the presence of self-reported only awake bruxism, only sleep bruxism, both, or none. A logistic regression procedure was performed to evaluate the possible association through odds ratio between anxiety symptoms and self-reported awake or sleep bruxism. The cofactors for each outcome were age, self-reported bruxism during the circadian period other than the one being evaluated, and the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It was possible to demonstrate the presence of a positive and statistically significant relationship between anxiety levels and self-reported awake bruxism. This finding was not observed in those subjects who reported sleep bruxism. A positive relationship was found between self-reported awake bruxism and levels of anxiety symptoms, but not between sleep bruxism and anxiety.

  13. Severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Rasmussen, Niels Kristian; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    , more frequently than males, reported on all symptoms and all disease groups except injuries. People with relatively low levels of education reported most diseases, especially musculoskeletal and cardiovascular diseases, more frequently than people with higher education. Age-adjusted mean SF-36 scores...... for all dimensions combined showed that the symptoms of melancholy/depression and breathing difficulties, psychiatric disorders and respiratory diseases scored lowest (i.e. were most often associated with worse health). Females had lower SF-36 combined scores (worse health) than males on all symptoms. We......OBJECTIVE: To estimate and rank the relative severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark. METHOD: The 1994 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey collected data from 5,472 Danes older than 16 years of age. Interviews (response frequency: 79%) gave information on diseases and symptoms...

  14. Agent Orange exposure and prevalence of self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Hong, Jae-Seok; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans. A postal survey of 114 562 Vietnam veterans was conducted. The perceived exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based Agent Orange exposure indices were constructed using division/brigade-level and battalion/company-level unit information. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age and other confounders were calculated using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of all self-reported diseases showed monotonically increasing trends as the levels of perceived self-reported exposure increased. The ORs for colon cancer (OR, 1.13), leukemia (OR, 1.56), hypertension (OR, 1.03), peripheral vasculopathy (OR, 1.07), enterocolitis (OR, 1.07), peripheral neuropathy (OR, 1.07), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.14), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.24), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), psychotic diseases (OR, 1.07) and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the division/brigade-level proximity-based exposure analysis, compared to the low exposure group. The ORs for cerebral infarction (OR, 1.08), chronic bronchitis (OR, 1.05), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.07), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.16), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the battalion/company-level analysis. Korean Vietnam veterans with high exposure to Agent Orange experienced a higher prevalence of several self-reported chronic diseases compared to those with low exposure by proximity-based exposure assessment. The strong positive associations between perceived self-reported exposure and all self-reported diseases should be evaluated with discretion because the likelihood of reporting diseases was directly related to the perceived intensity of Agent Orange exposure.

  15. Impact of Androgen Deprivation Therapy on Self-Reported Cognitive Function in Men with Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Shireen; Naglie, Gary; Tomlinson, George; Duff Canning, Sarah; Breunis, Henriette; Timilshina, Narhari; Alibhai, Shabbir M H

    2018-03-01

    Although androgen deprivation therapy is widely used to treat prostate cancer, its effects on cognitive function are unclear. To our knowledge no prior report has examined the impact of androgen deprivation therapy on self-reported cognitive function. Three groups of men 50 years old or older who were matched on age and education were enrolled in the study, including 81 with prostate cancer starting on continuous androgen deprivation therapy, 84 controls with prostate cancer not receiving androgen deprivation therapy and 85 healthy controls. Two scales from the FACT-Cog (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive subscale) version 3 were used to assess self-reported cognitive function. Changes in cognitive scores with time were analyzed by 2 approaches, including 1) multivariable regression and 2) calculation of the proportion of subjects per group with a decrease of 1 SD or more. Multivariable regression was applied to assess predictors of a decline in self-reported cognitive function. We also examined relationships between the FACT-Cog and a neuropsychological battery of 15 tests. Mean participant age was 69 years (range 50 to 87). The mean educational level was 15 years (range 8 to 24). FACT-Cog scores were similar at baseline across the cohorts. Neither analytical approach revealed that androgen deprivation therapy was associated with changes in self-reported cognitive function on either FACT-Cog scale. Mood and fatigue correlated with changes in self-reported cognitive function. The relationship between self-reported and objective cognitive measures was weak (maximum Spearman correlation coefficient 0.14) and only 2 of 30 correlations were statistically significant. A total of 12 months of androgen deprivation therapy were not associated with self-reported cognitive function changes in older men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. Using Self-reports or Claims to Assess Disease Prevalence: It's Complicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Patricia; Gaudette, Étienne; Zhao, Henu; Tysinger, Bryan; Seyedin, Roxanna; Goldman, Dana P

    2017-08-01

    Two common ways of measuring disease prevalence include: (1) using self-reported disease diagnosis from survey responses; and (2) using disease-specific diagnosis codes found in administrative data. Because they do not suffer from self-report biases, claims are often assumed to be more objective. However, it is not clear that claims always produce better prevalence estimates. Conduct an assessment of discrepancies between self-report and claims-based measures for 2 diseases in the US elderly to investigate definition, selection, and measurement error issues which may help explain divergence between claims and self-report estimates of prevalence. Self-reported data from 3 sources are included: the Health and Retirement Study, the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Claims-based disease measurements are provided from Medicare claims linked to Health and Retirement Study and Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey participants, comprehensive claims data from a 20% random sample of Medicare enrollees, and private health insurance claims from Humana Inc. Prevalence of diagnosed disease in the US elderly are computed and compared across sources. Two medical conditions are considered: diabetes and heart attack. Comparisons of diagnosed diabetes and heart attack prevalence show similar trends by source, but claims differ from self-reports with regard to levels. Selection into insurance plans, disease definitions, and the reference period used by algorithms are identified as sources contributing to differences. Claims and self-reports both have strengths and weaknesses, which researchers need to consider when interpreting estimates of prevalence from these 2 sources.

  17. Self-reported hearing performance in workers exposed to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fuente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.

  18. Effect of skill level on recall of visually presented patterns of musical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalakoski, Virpi

    2007-04-01

    Expertise effects in music were studied in a new task: the construction of mental representations from separate fragments. Groups of expert musicians and non-musicians were asked to recall note patterns presented visually note by note. Skill-level, musical well-formedness of the note patterns and presentation mode were varied. The musicians recalled note patterns better than the non-musicians, even though the presentation was visual and successive. Furthermore, only musicians' performance was affected by musical well-formedness of the note patterns when visual gestalt properties, verbal rehearsability, and familiarity of the stimuli were controlled. Musicians were also able to use letter names referring to notes as efficiently as visual notes, which indicates that the better recall of musicians cannot be explained by perceptual visual chunking. These results and the effect of skill level on the distribution of recall errors indicate that the ability to chunk incoming information into meaningful units does not require that complete familiar patterns are accessible to encoding processes, yet previous knowledge stored in long-term memory affects representation construction in working memory. The present method offers a new reliable tool, and its implications to the research on construction of representations and musical imagery are discussed.

  19. Interest level in 2-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder predicts rate of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2 years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3 years. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9 months, were scored using Interest Level Sco...

  20. Detecting Careless Responses to Self-Reported Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountur, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The use of self-report questionnaires may lead to biases such as careless responses that distort the research outcomes. Early detection of careless responses in self-report questionnaires may reduce error, but little guidance exists in the literature regarding techniques for detecting such careless or random responses in…

  1. Deaf college students' mathematical skills relative to morphological knowledge, reading level, and language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ronald R; Gaustad, Martha G

    2007-01-01

    This study of deaf college students examined specific relationships between their mathematics performance and their assessed skills in reading, language, and English morphology. Simple regression analyses showed that deaf college students' language proficiency scores, reading grade level, and morphological knowledge regarding word segmentation and meaning were all significantly correlated with both the ACT Mathematics Subtest and National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) Mathematics Placement Test scores. Multiple regression analyses identified the best combination from among these potential independent predictors of students' performance on both the ACT and NTID mathematics tests. Additionally, the participating deaf students' grades in their college mathematics courses were significantly and positively associated with their reading grade level and their knowledge of morphological components of words.

  2. Three-dimensional motion tracking correlates with skill level in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Sif H.; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Konge, Lars

    2015-01-01

    untrained medical students) were tested using a virtual reality simulator. A motion sensor was used to collect data regarding the distance between the hands, and height and movement of the scope hand. Test characteristics between groups were explored using Kruskal-Wallis H and Man-Whitney U exact tests......Background and study aim: Feedback is an essential part of training in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Virtual reality simulators provide limited feedback, focusing only on visual recognition with no feedback on the procedural part of training. Motion tracking identifies patterns of movement......, and this study aimed to explore the correlation between skill level and operator movement using an objective automated tool. Methods: In this medical education study, 37 operators (12 senior doctors who performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, 13 doctors with varying levels of experience, and 12...

  3. Are population health surveys reliable for self-reporting conditions and relative well-being for those with asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Whiffen

    2018-06-01

    Linkage of survey data can provide useful insights into relative levels of self-reported illnesses and subjective well-being but can also be used effectively to explore the risks that other morbidities present to mental wellbeing.

  4. Designing hunting regulation under population uncertainty and self-reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2016-01-01

    A number of methods exist for estimating the size of animal populations. All methods generate an uncertain estimate of population size, and have different properties, which can be taken into account when designing regulation. We consider hunting regulation when the population size is uncertain...... and when the self-reported bag is used to estimate the population size. The properties of a population tax and a tax on self-reported bag are analyzed and we begin by considering a baseline situation with full certainty and no use of self-reporting for population size estimation. Here individual hunters...... self-report a bag on zero and a population tax alone can secure an optimum. Next we show that when facing uncertain population size, a risk-averse hunter will self-report part of the bag to reduce the uncertain population tax payment, making both tax instruments necessary for reaching an optimum...

  5. Evaluation of constructivist pedagogy: Influence on critical thinking skills, science fair participation and level of performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, Robbie Evelyn

    Science education reform, driven by a rapidly advancing technological society, demands the attention of both elementary and middle school curriculum-developers. Science education training in current standards (National Research Council [NRC] Standards 1996) emphasize inquiry, which is reported to be a basic tenet of the theory known as constructivism (NAASP, 1996; Cohen, 1988; Conley, 1993; Friedman, 1999; Newman, Marks, & Gamoran, 1996; Smerdon & Burkam 1999; Sizer 1992; Talbert & McLaughlin 1993; Tobin & Gallagher, 1987; Yager, 1991, 2000). Pedagogy focusing on the tenets of constructivist theory, at the intermediate level, can address current science standards. Many science educators believe participation in science fairs helps students develop the attitudes, skills, and knowledge that will help them to be comfortable and successful in the scientific and technological society (Czerniak, 1996). Competing in science fairs is one vehicle which allows students to apply science to societal issues, solve problems and model those things scientists do. Moreover, constructing a science fair project is suggested as being an excellent means to foster the development of concepts necessary in promoting scientific literacy (Czerniak, 1996). Research further suggests that through science fairs or other inquiry activities, students construct their knowledge with fewer misconceptions as they explore and discover the nature of science (NRC 1996). Tohn 's study (as cited in Bellipanni, 1994) stated that science fairs are a major campaign to increase student skills and to allow students a chance to have fun with science. The purpose of this research was twofold: (1) to assess science problem solving skills of students instructed using constructivist pedagogy, and (2) to explore the effects of constructivist pedagogy's influence(s) on science fair participation/placement. Students' attitudes resulting from these experiences were examined as well.

  6. The validity of parental reports on motor skills performance level in preschool children: a comparison with a standardized motor test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysset, Annina E; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Meyer, Andrea H; Stülb, Kerstin; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S; Schmutz, Einat A; Arhab, Amar; Ferrazzini, Valentina; Kriemler, Susi; Munsch, Simone; Puder, Jardena J; Jenni, Oskar G

    2018-05-01

    Motor skills are interrelated with essential domains of childhood such as cognitive and social development. Thus, the evaluation of motor skills and the identification of atypical or delayed motor development is crucial in pediatric practice (e.g., during well-child visits). Parental reports on motor skills may serve as possible indicators to decide whether further assessment of a child is necessary or not. We compared parental reports on fundamental motor skills performance level (e.g., hopping, throwing), based on questions frequently asked in pediatric practice, with a standardized motor test in 389 children (46.5% girls/53.5% boys, M age = 3.8 years, SD = 0.5, range 3.0-5.0 years) from the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY). Motor skills were examined using the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment 3-5 (ZNA3-5), and parents filled in an online questionnaire on fundamental motor skills performance level. The results showed that the answers from the parental report correlated only weakly with the objectively assessed motor skills (r = .225, p skills would be desirable, the parent's report used in this study was not a valid indicator for children's fundamental motor skills. Thus, we may recommend to objectively examine motor skills in clinical practice and not to exclusively rely on parental report. What is Known: • Early assessment of motor skills in preschool children is important because motor skills are essential for the engagement in social activities and the development of cognitive abilities. Atypical or delayed motor development can be an indicator for different developmental needs or disorders. • Pediatricians frequently ask parents about the motor competences of their child during well-child visits. What is New: • The parental report on fundamental motor skills performance level used in this study was not a reliable indicator for describing motor development in the preschool age. • Standardized examinations of motor skills are

  7. Marijuana Use and Self-reported Quality of Eyesight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akano, Obinna F

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing use of marijuana among young adults and more states in the United States are legalizing medical marijuana use. A number of studies have revealed both the beneficial and harmful effects of marijuana to the human system. Despite some beneficial effects, studies have shown marijuana to have a lot of deleterious effects on the visual system, which subsequently reduces the quality of eyesight. The aim of this study was to investigate if heavy marijuana smoking is associated with a poor quality of eyesight compared with light/no use of marijuana. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youths (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young men and women surveyed in 1979 to 2010 was used for this study. The quality of eyesight of 1304 heavy marijuana users was compared with 1304 respondents with light or no marijuana use. The t test, multivariate and weighted logistic regression were used in the data analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in the self-reported quality of eyesight among heavy marijuana smokers compared with youths who never used marijuana or are light marijuana users. Among heavy marijuana smokers, males and high school graduates have decreased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight, whereas blacks have increased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight. The self-reported quality of eyesight among marijuana users can aid clinicians and other health practitioners facilitate the development of sex-, racial/ethnic-, and educational level-informed prevention and early intervention programs and also help characterize public opinions regarding cannabis, which are particularly relevant given the ongoing debate concerning the medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the United States.

  8. Association between chronic urticaria and self-reported penicillin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Susanna; Localio, Russell; Apter, Andrea J

    2016-04-01

    Penicillin allergy is the most commonly reported drug allergy and often presents with cutaneous symptoms. Other common diagnoses, such as chronic urticaria, may be falsely attributed to penicillin allergy. Because chronic urticaria is fairly common in the general population, evaluation of its prevalence in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was of interest. Similarly, the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria is not well known and also becomes interesting in light of the high prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in the general population. To determine the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and the prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. This was a retrospective medical record review of 11,143 patients completed using the electronic health record of the University of Pennsylvania Allergy and Immunology clinic. The prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria was found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the general population. The prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was also found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the population. This link between chronic urticaria and self-reported penicillin allergy highlights the need for clinicians to inquire about self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and to consider penicillin skin testing. Furthermore, patients who report penicillin allergy might actually have chronic urticaria, indicating the importance of inquiring about chronic urticaria symptoms in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Disparity in Frontal Lobe Connectivity on a Complex Bimanual Motor Task Aids in Classification of Operator Skill Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Leff, Daniel Richard; Shetty, Kunal; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2016-06-01

    Objective metrics of technical performance (e.g., dexterity, time, and path length) are insufficient to fully characterize operator skill level, which may be encoded deep within neural function. Unlike reports that capture plasticity across days or weeks, this articles studies long-term plasticity in functional connectivity that occurs over years of professional task practice. Optical neuroimaging data are acquired from professional surgeons of varying experience on a complex bimanual coordination task with the aim of investigating learning-related disparity in frontal lobe functional connectivity that arises as a consequence of motor skill level. The results suggest that prefrontal and premotor seed connectivity is more critical during naïve versus expert performance. Given learning-related differences in connectivity, a least-squares support vector machine with a radial basis function kernel is employed to evaluate skill level using connectivity data. The results demonstrate discrimination of operator skill level with accuracy ≥0.82 and Multiclass Matthew's Correlation Coefficient ≥0.70. Furthermore, these indices are improved when local (i.e., within-region) rather than inter-regional (i.e., between-region) frontal connectivity is considered (p = 0.002). The results suggest that it is possible to classify operator skill level with good accuracy from functional connectivity data, upon which objective assessment and neurofeedback may be used to improve operator performance during technical skill training.

  10. Women's experiences of self-reporting health online prior to their first midwifery visit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Helle; Clausen, Jette Aaroe; Hvidtjørn, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information and communication technologies are increasingly used in health care to meet demands of efficiency, safety and patient-centered care. At a large Danish regional hospital, women report their physical, mental health and personal needs prior to their first antenatal visit....... Little is known about the process of self-reporting health, and how this information is managed during the client-professional meeting. AIM: To explore women's experiences of self-reporting their health status and personal needs online prior to the first midwifery visit, and how this information may...... personal health', 'Reducing and generating risk', and 'Bridges and gaps'. Compared to reporting physical health information, more advanced levels of health literacy might be needed to self-assess mental health and personal needs. Self-reporting health can induce feelings of being normal but also increase...

  11. Determinants of Internet skills, use and outcomes : A systematic review of the second- and third-level digital divide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerder, Anique; van Deursen, Alexander; van Dijk, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Recently, several digital divide scholars suggested that a shift is needed from a focus on binary Internet access (first-level digital divide) and Internet skills and use (second-level digital divide) to a third-level digital divide in which the tangible outcomes of Internet use are highlighted. A

  12. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari, Walid El; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential...... associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary...

  13. Validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke in hospitality venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Iñaki; Mayo, Elga; López, María J; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Schiaffino, Anna; Moncada, Albert; Montes, Agustín; Nebot, Manel; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to assess the validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in 50 hospitality venues of Madrid (Spain) in 2010, taking as a reference vapour-phase nicotine measured by active sampling. The questions posed in the questionnaire permitted distinguishing between the different levels of SHS. However, the moderate relationship found (Spearman׳s correlation=0.387, phospitality venues, based solely on self-reported information, should be used with caution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Students Do Not Need High-Level Skills in Today's Job Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the "high-skills hoax"--the notion that everyone must have high skills to be employable. While he recognizes the civil rights issue in the debate--everyone should have the opportunity to develop the skills to land a high-paying job--the law of supply and demand dictates that more high-skilled workers would…

  15. Comparison of CO breath testing and women's self-reporting of smoking behaviour for identifying smoking during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipton Deborah

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare services often use a carbon monoxide (CO breath test to validate self-reported smoking and to assess reductions in smoking habit. A cut-off level of ≥ 8 parts per million (p.p.m. is used to identify smoking. This cut-off requires further validation in pregnant women. Methods Data on self-reported smoking were assessed in conjunction with breath CO levels. Subjects in the study were 2548 women attending antenatal booking during 12 months. Results 546/2584 (21.4% women self-reported as current smokers. A cut-off of 8 ppm identified only 325/546 self-reported smokers (sensitivity 59.4%. 27/2002 self-reported non-smokers had levels greater than 8 ppm (specificity 98.7%. Sensitivity and specificity analysis revealed that CO cut-off levels of 2 or 3 p.p.m. resulted in the best sensitivity and specificity for discriminating apparent smokers and non-smokers. A cut-off of 2 p.p.m. would have identified 468/546 of self-reported smokers (sensitivity 86%. 206/2002 self-reported non-smokers had levels > 2 ppm (specificity 90 %. If all these women were 'true' smokers, the real prevalence of smoking in pregnancy was 26.5% (752/2548 and 27% of true smokers provided false answers to the self-reported question at maternity booking. Conclusion At 8 ppm, many smokers are missed and there may be gross underestimating of levels of smoking in a pregnant population. Results emphasise the need to support a lower cut-off level for the breath CO test closer to 2 or 3 p.p.m. These cut-offs may be more appropriate in the antenatal clinic setting, and are in line with recent recommendations in the non-pregnant population.

  16. Social determinants of self-reported health for Canada's indigenous peoples: a public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethune, R; Absher, N; Obiagwu, M; Qarmout, T; Steeves, M; Yaghoubi, M; Tikoo, R; Szafron, M; Dell, C; Farag, M

    2018-04-14

    In Canada, indigenous peoples suffer from a multitude of health disparities. To better understand these disparities, this study aims to examine the social determinants of self-reported health for indigenous peoples in Canada. This study uses data from Statistics Canada's Aboriginal Peoples Survey 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine how selected social determinants of health are associated with self-reported health among off-reserve First Nations and Métis peoples in Canada. Our analysis shows that being older, female, and living in urban settings were significantly associated with negative ratings of self-reported health status among the indigenous respondents. Additionally, we found that higher income and levels of education were strongly and significantly associated with positive ratings of self-reported health status. Compared with indigenous peoples with an education level of grade 8 or lower, respondents with higher education were 10 times (5.35-22.48) more likely to report 'excellent' and 'very good' health. Respondents who earned more than $40,000 annually were three times (2.17-4.72) more likely to report 'excellent' and 'very good' health compared with those who earned less than $20,000 annually. When interacted with income, we also found that volunteering in the community is associated with better self-reported health. There are known protective determinants (income and education) and risk determinants (location of residence, gender, and age) which are associated with self-reported health status among off-reserve First Nations and Métis peoples. For indigenous-specific determinants, volunteering in the community appears to be associated with self-perceived health status. Thus, addressing these determinants will be necessary to achieve better health outcomes for indigenous peoples in Canada. Next steps include developing indigenous-specific social determinants of health indicators that adequately measure culture, connection

  17. Validation of self-reported cannabis dose and potency: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

    2013-10-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cannabis dose and potency measures. Cross-sectional study comparing self-reports with objective measures of amount of cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration. Ecological study with assessments at participants' homes or in a coffee shop. Young adult frequent cannabis users (n = 106) from the Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study. The objectively measured amount of cannabis per joint (dose in grams) was compared with self-reported estimates using a prompt card and average number of joints made from 1 g of cannabis. In addition, objectively assessed THC concentration in the participant's cannabis was compared with self-reported level of intoxication, subjective estimate of cannabis potency and price per gram of cannabis. Objective estimates of doses per joint (0.07-0.88 g/joint) and cannabis potency (1.1-24.7%) varied widely. Self-reported measures of dose were imprecise, but at group level, average dose per joint was estimated accurately with the number of joints made from 1 g [limit of agreement (LOA) = -0.02 g, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.29; 0.26], whereas the prompt card resulted in serious underestimation (LOA = 0.14 g, 95% CI = -0.10; 0.37). THC concentration in cannabis was associated with subjective potency ['average' 3.77% (P = 0.002) and '(very) strong' 5.13% more THC (P cannabis] and with cannabis price (about 1% increase in THC concentration per euro spent on 1 g of cannabis, P cannabis use appear at best to be associated weakly with objective measures. Of the self-report measures, number of joints per gram, cannabis price and subjective potency have at least some validity. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. LEVEL OF SELF-RESPECT AND ASSERTIVENESS SKILLS AND TEACHERS’ EDUCATIONAL COMPETENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Romanowska-Tolloczko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determining of self-respect level and assertiveness of teachers. Verification of whether there is a relationship between the measured trait and the correlation of educational competence. Material and methods: the study used three tools: Polish adaptation of SES M.Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale, a questionnaire to determine the levels of assertiveness - P.Majewicz's Scale "I and others" and a questionnaire to examine the professional competence of teachers by A.Romanowska-Tołłoczko. The study examined 275 primary school teachers of different subjects. Results: after the statement of the research’s results in the field of self-respect and assertiveness, it turns out that there is some regularity in relation to the level of the studied traits. People with high self-respect also receive higher scores assertive skills compared with those of average and low self-respect. This pattern is seen in all groups of teachers. Conclusions: although the observed differences are not great and statistically significant, they show some evidence of the occurrence trend of interdependence in a range of predispositions. Moreover, a positive correlation between the level of self-respect and assertiveness and parental perception of their competence was noted.

  19. Evaluation of Spatial Perspective Taking Skills using a Digital Game with Different Levels of Immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Freina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the results of an experiment aimed at assessing the impact of different levels of immersion on performance in a Spatial Perspective Taking (SPT task. Since SPT is an embodied skill, the hypothesis was that the more immersive a tool is, the better the performance should be. Ninety-eight students from a local primary school have played with three different versions of a game: (i completely immersive with a Head Mounted Display, (ii semi immersive on a computer screen and (iii non-immersive where no movements were possible for the player. Results showed that in the immersive versions of the game, players obtained higher scores than in the non-immersive version, suggesting that an immersive tool can better support performance in a SPT task.

  20. The Relationship between Interparental Conflict and Self-Reported Grade Point Average among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, S. Jane; Krueger, Lacy E.; Limberg, Dodie

    2017-01-01

    Interparental conflict has been shown to have a negative effect on the academic success of children and adolescents. This study examined the relationship between college students' (N = 143) perceived levels of interparental conflict, their living arrangement, and their current self-reported grade point average. Participants who experienced more…

  1. Measuring Cognitive Load: A Comparison of Self-Report and Physiological Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    This study explored three methods to measure cognitive load in a learning environment using four logic puzzles that systematically varied in level of intrinsic cognitive load. Participants' perceived intrinsic load was simultaneously measured with a self-report measure-a traditional subjective measure-and two objective, physiological measures…

  2. Self-Reported Work and Family Stress of Female Primary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Narelle; Clarke, Valerie; Lavery, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Results of a self-report questionnaire indicated that female primary teachers in Australia report moderate levels of global, work, and family stress. Time and workload pressure was the major work stressor, and responsibility for child rearing the major family stressor. Work stress and home stress both impacted on each other. (EV)

  3. Examining the Validity of Self-Reports on Scales Measuring Students' Strategic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelstuen, Marit S.; Braten, Ivar

    2007-01-01

    Background: Self-report inventories trying to measure strategic processing at a global level have been much used in both basic and applied research. However, the validity of global strategy scores is open to question because such inventories assess strategy perceptions outside the context of specific task performance. Aims: The primary aim was to…

  4. Predictors of Self-Reported Likelihood of Working with Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.; Gross, Patricia E.; Satrom, Tatum

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported likelihood of working with older adults in a future career among 237 college undergraduates at a midsized Midwestern university. Although aging anxiety was not significantly related to likelihood of working with older adults, those students who had a greater level of death anxiety were less likely than other…

  5. Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Strategy Enhances Students’ Higher Level Thinking Skills in a Pharmaceutical Sciences Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Nathan; Kruger, Nicholas; Carroll, Ailey; Trumbo, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Design. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Assessment. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. Conclusion. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting. PMID:25741027

  6. Self Reported Perceptions of Physical Demands on Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Jeffrey K.; Babcock, Garth; Little, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Context: According to the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) Standards for the Accreditation of Entry-Level Athletic Training Education Programs, athletic training students (ATSs) must complete clinical experiences that provide opportunities to integrate cognitive function, psychomotor skills, and affective…

  7. How reliable are self-reports of HIV status disclosure? Evidence from couples in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Amy A; Wong, Lauren H

    2015-11-01

    The majority of research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disclosure utilizes the perspective from a single individual, which cannot be substantiated in the absence of supporting data such as from a primary partner. The objectives of this study were to evaluate: (1) the extent to which self-reported HIV disclosure was confirmed by a primary partner; (2) individual and relationship-level predictors of self-reported versus confirmed disclosure; and (3) whether confirmed disclosure was a stronger predictor of correctly assessing a partner's HIV status compared to self-reported disclosure. As part of an 8-wave longitudinal study from 2009 to 2011 in southern Malawi, 366 individuals (183 couples) were interviewed about their primary relationship (wave 3), individually tested for HIV (wave 4), and then asked whether they disclosed to their primary partner (wave 5). While 93% of respondents reported that they disclosed, only 64% of respondents had confirmed reports from their partner. Having communicated with partner about HIV was positively associated with self-reported disclosure; this association remained significant but became more precise in the models for confirmed disclosure. Confirmed disclosure, but not self-report, was a significant predictor of correctly assessing a partner's HIV status. Being male, having lower perceived partner infidelity, having higher relationship unity, and testing HIV-negative were positively and significantly associated with correct assessment. Dyadic data from two partners provide an improved measure of disclosure as compared to a single individual's self-report and could be used to identify behavioral and biomedical opportunities to prevent HIV transmission within couples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-Reported and FEMA Flood Exposure Assessment after Hurricane Sandy: Association with Mental Health Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wil Lieberman-Cribbin

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy caused extensive physical and economic damage; the long-term mental health consequences are unknown. Flooding is a central component of hurricane exposure, influencing mental health through multiple pathways that unfold over months after flooding recedes. Here we assess the concordance in self-reported and Federal Emergency Management (FEMA flood exposure after Hurricane Sandy and determine the associations between flooding and anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Self-reported flood data and mental health symptoms were obtained through validated questionnaires from New York City and Long Island residents (N = 1231 following Sandy. Self-reported flood data was compared to FEMA data obtained from the FEMA Modeling Task Force Hurricane Sandy Impact Analysis. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to determine the relationship between flooding exposure and mental health outcomes. There were significant discrepancies between self-reported and FEMA flood exposure data. Self-reported dichotomous flooding was positively associated with anxiety (ORadj: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.1-1.9], depression (ORadj: 1.7 [1.3-2.2], and PTSD (ORadj: 2.5 [1.8-3.4], while self-reported continuous flooding was associated with depression (ORadj: 1.1 [1.01-1.12] and PTSD (ORadj: 1.2 [1.1-1.2]. Models with FEMA dichotomous flooding (ORadj: 2.1 [1.5-2.8] or FEMA continuous flooding (ORadj: 1.1 [1.1-1.2] were only significantly associated with PTSD. Associations between mental health and flooding vary according to type of flood exposure measure utilized. Future hurricane preparedness and recovery efforts must integrate micro and macro-level flood exposures in order to accurately determine flood exposure risk during storms and realize the long-term importance of flooding on these three mental health symptoms.

  9. Self-reported physical activity is associated with cognitive function in lean, but not obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galioto Wiedemann, R; Calvo, D; Meister, J; Spitznagel, M B

    2014-12-01

    Convergent evidence demonstrates that greater physical activity is associated with better cognitive functioning across many patient and healthy samples. However, this relationship has not been well examined among obese individuals and remains unclear. The present study examined the relationship between performance-based measures of attention/executive function and self-reported physical activity, as measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, among lean (n = 36) and obese (n = 36) college students. Lean individuals performed better than obese individuals on measures of attention/executive function. No significant differences in self-reported physical activity emerged between weight groups. Higher self-reported physical activity was related to faster reaction time in lean individuals but slower reaction time in obese individuals. Additionally, in lean individuals, higher levels of self-reported physical activity were related to more errors on a task of speeded inhibitory control. The results are consistent with previous research demonstrating that greater physical activity is associated with faster attention and executive function abilities in healthy samples and highlight the importance of examining reaction time and accuracy indices separately on these measures. The lack of association among obese individuals may be due in part to inaccurate self-report in the current study. Additionally, the cognitive consequences of obesity may outweigh the benefits of physical activity in this group. Future work should investigate these associations in obese individuals using physical activity interventions, as well as a combination of self-report and objective measures to investigate discrepancies in reporting. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  10. The Critical Care Communication project: improving fellows' communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert M; Back, Anthony L; Barnato, Amber E; Prendergast, Thomas J; Emlet, Lillian L; Karpov, Irina; White, Patrick H; Nelson, Judith E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an evidence-based communication skills training workshop to improve the communication skills of critical care fellows. Pulmonary and critical care fellows (N = 38) participated in a 3-day communication skills workshop between 2008 and 2010 involving brief didactic talks, faculty demonstration of skills, and faculty-supervised small group skills practice sessions with simulated families. Skills included the following: giving bad news, achieving consensus on goals of therapy, and discussing the limitations of life-sustaining treatment. Participants rated their skill levels in a pre-post survey in 11 core communication tasks using a 5-point Likert scale. Of 38 fellows, 36 (95%) completed all 3 days of the workshop. We compared pre and post scores using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Overall, self-rated skills increased for all 11 tasks. In analyses by participant, 95% reported improvement in at least 1 skill; with improvement in a median of 10 of 11 skills. Ninety-two percent rated the course as either very good/excellent, and 80% recommended that it be mandatory for future fellows. This 3-day communication skills training program increased critical care fellows' self-reported family meeting communication skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Steps for arm and trunk actions of overhead forehand stroke used in badminton games across skill levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Moffit, Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine arm and trunk actions in overhead forehand strokes used in badminton games across skill levels. The participants were 80 students (40 boys, 40 girls) who were randomly selected from video recordings of 300 students ages 16 to 19 years. The videotaped performances of overhead forehand strokes were coded based on three steps of arm action (elbow flexion, elbow and humeral flexion, and upward backswing) and three steps of trunk action (no trunk action, forward-backward movement, and trunk rotation). Students across the four skill levels exhibited different patterns of arm and trunk actions. Students at advanced levels used more mature arm and trunk actions.

  12. Do Perceptions of Competence Mediate The Relationship Between Fundamental Motor Skill Proficiency and Physical Activity Levels of Children in Kindergarten?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Jeff R; Naylor, Patti J; Cook, Ryan; Temple, Viviene A

    2015-07-01

    Perceptions of competence mediate the relationship between motor skill proficiency and physical activity among older children and adolescents. This study examined kindergarten children's perceptions of physical competence as a mediator of the relationship between motor skill proficiency as a predictor variable and physical activity levels as the outcome variable; and also with physical activity as a predictor and motor skill proficiency as the outcome. Participants were 116 children (mean age = 5 years 7 months, 58% boys) from 10 schools. Motor skills were measured using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and physical activity was monitored through accelerometry. Perceptions of physical competence were measured using The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children, and the relationships between these variables were examined using a model of mediation. The direct path between object control skills and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was significant and object control skills predicted perceived physical competence. However, perceived competence did not mediate the relationship between object control skills and MVPA. The significant relationship between motor proficiency and perceptions of competence did not in turn influence kindergarten children's participation in physical activity. These findings support concepts of developmental differences in the structure of the self-perception system.

  13. Evidence for skill level differences in the thought processes of golfers during high and low pressure situations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Elizabeth Whitehead

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined differences in the cognition of golfers with differing levels of expertise in high and low pressure situations. In study 1, six high skill and six low skill golfers performed six holes of golf, while verbalizing their thoughts using Think Aloud (TA protocol. Higher skilled golfers’ cognitive processes centered more on planning in comparison to lower skilled golfers. Study 2 investigated whether thought processes of golfers changed in response to competitive pressure. Eight high skill and eight moderate skilled golfers, completed a practice round and a competition round whilst verbalizing thoughts using TA. To create pressure in the competition condition, participants were instructed that monetary prizes would be awarded to the top three performers and scores of all golfers would be published in a league table in the club house. When performing under competitive pressure, it was found that higher skilled golfers were more likely to verbalize technical rules compared to practice conditions, especially during putting performance. This shift in cognition toward more technical aspects of motor performance was strongly related to scores on the Decision Specific Reinvestment Scale, suggesting individuals with a higher propensity for reinvestment show the largest changes in cognition under pressure. From a practical perspective, TA can aid a player, coach or sport psychologist by allowing thought processes to be identified and investigate a performer’s thoughts when faced with the pressure of a competition.

  14. Framework of Assessment for the Evaluation of Thinking Skills of Tertiary Level Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Swee Heng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, students are required to master thinking skills in order to deal with many situations that arise in the tertiary environment which later would translate into the workplace. Nowadays, thinking skills play a vital role in tertiary education. To provide an approach for teachers, this paper identifies a 4-step model that can be implemented in test design with reference to Bloom’s Taxonomy for thinking skills. This model illustrates a feasible procedure of test construction built upon existing resource. The procedures can easily be applied to different fields of study. It provides an appropriate way for teachers who may want to add more ideas to their repertoire skills in addressing the learning of HOT (higher-order thinking skills. Keywords: thinking skills, Bloom’s Taxonomy, 4-step model

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. ... checklist to approximate a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) ADHD diagnosis ...

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret ... divided into two parts. ... representatives prior to the start of whole-class activities and.

  17. The effects of hand gestures on verbal recall as a function of high- and low-verbal-skill levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick-Horbury, Donna

    2002-04-01

    The author examined the effects of cueing for verbal recall with the accompanying self-generated hand gestures as a function of verbal skill. There were 36 participants, half with low SAT verbal scores and half with high SAT verbal scores. Half of the participants of each verbal-skill level were cued for recall with their own gestures, and the remaining half was given a free-recall test. Cueing with self-generated gestures aided the low-verbal-skill participants so that their retrieval rate equaled that of the high-verbal-skill participants and their loss of recall over a 2-week period was minimal. This effect was stable for both concrete and abstract words. The findings support the hypothesis that gestures serve as an auxiliary code for memory retrieval.

  18. Self-reported empathy and neural activity during action imitation and observation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, William P; Iacoboni, Marco; Cross, Katy A; Korb, Alex; Lee, Junghee; Nori, Poorang; Quintana, Javier; Wynn, Jonathan K; Green, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Although social cognitive impairments are key determinants of functional outcome in schizophrenia their neural bases are poorly understood. This study investigated neural activity during imitation and observation of finger movements and facial expressions in schizophrenia, and their correlates with self-reported empathy. 23 schizophrenia outpatients and 23 healthy controls were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they imitated, executed, or simply observed finger movements and facial emotional expressions. Between-group activation differences, as well as relationships between activation and self-reported empathy, were evaluated. Both patients and controls similarly activated neural systems previously associated with these tasks. We found no significant between-group differences in task-related activations. There were, however, between-group differences in the correlation between self-reported empathy and right inferior frontal (pars opercularis) activity during observation of facial emotional expressions. As in previous studies, controls demonstrated a positive association between brain activity and empathy scores. In contrast, the pattern in the patient group reflected a negative association between brain activity and empathy. Although patients with schizophrenia demonstrated largely normal patterns of neural activation across the finger movement and facial expression tasks, they reported decreased self perceived empathy and failed to show the typical relationship between neural activity and self-reported empathy seen in controls. These findings suggest that patients show a disjunction between automatic neural responses to low level social cues and higher level, integrative social cognitive processes involved in self-perceived empathy.

  19. Occupational therapy evaluation: use of self-report and/or observation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM) serves to guide occupational therapists in their professional reasoning. The OTIPM prescribes evaluation of task performance based on both self-report and observation. Although this approach seems ideal, many clinicians raise......-I) and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that participants both reported and demonstrated increased effort and/or fatigue, increased use of time, need for assistance, and safety problems. However, little relationship was found between measures of self...

  20. Self-reported and Observed Quality of ADL Task Performance in Adults with Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva

    diagnosed with depression (range 19-79, median 45,5) Procedure In order to evaluate the participants’ self-reported and observed quality of ADL task performance the ADL-Interview (ADL-I) and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) were chosen. Both instruments are developed to evaluate and measure...... the quality of ADL task performance. The ADL-I was conducted first and thereby formed the basis for identifying relevant tasks for the AMPS evaluation. Both evaluations were conducted on the same day by trained and calibrated occupational therapists. Results The results indicated that the participants both...

  1. Relating Language and Music Skills in Young Children: A First Approach to Systemize and Compare Distinct Competencies on Different Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrdes, Caroline; Grolig, Lorenz; Schroeder, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed toward substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study, we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and music skills as well

  2. Relating language and music skills in young children: a first approach to systemize and compare distinct competencies on different levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cohrdes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed towards substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and

  3. The role of psychosocial and belief factors in self-reported cigarette smoking among university students in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Al-Dubai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore factors associated, specifically belief factors, with self-reported tobacco smoking status. A sample of 300 students was recruited from a private university in Malaysia. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administrated questionnaire that investigated various factors including socio-demographics, socio-economic status, smoking behavior and beliefs on tobacco smoking. The main tobacco use in this study sample was cigarettes and the estimated prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking was 10.3%. In bivariate analysis, self-reported cigarette smoking was significantly associated with socio-demographic, behavioral factors and faculty of study (P<0.05. In multivariate modeling, being male and a non-medical student, did not exercise, having a smoker father and brother or sister, suffering from financial difficulties and having the belief that smokers had more friends, all had statistically significant associations (P<0.05 with self-reported cigarette smoking. Social and interpersonal factors were associated with self-reported cigarette smoking status. A comprehensive health model focusing on changing the social norms of parent and sibling tobacco smoking and students’ beliefs, alongside nurturing skills of dealing with stressful situations, warrant implementation.

  4. The relationships among work stress, strain and self-reported errors in UK community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S J; O'Connor, E M; Jacobs, S; Hassell, K; Ashcroft, D M

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the UK community pharmacy profession including new contractual frameworks, expansion of services, and increasing levels of workload have prompted concerns about rising levels of workplace stress and overload. This has implications for pharmacist health and well-being and the occurrence of errors that pose a risk to patient safety. Despite these concerns being voiced in the profession, few studies have explored work stress in the community pharmacy context. To investigate work-related stress among UK community pharmacists and to explore its relationships with pharmacists' psychological and physical well-being, and the occurrence of self-reported dispensing errors and detection of prescribing errors. A cross-sectional postal survey of a random sample of practicing community pharmacists (n = 903) used ASSET (A Shortened Stress Evaluation Tool) and questions relating to self-reported involvement in errors. Stress data were compared to general working population norms, and regressed on well-being and self-reported errors. Analysis of the data revealed that pharmacists reported significantly higher levels of workplace stressors than the general working population, with concerns about work-life balance, the nature of the job, and work relationships being the most influential on health and well-being. Despite this, pharmacists were not found to report worse health than the general working population. Self-reported error involvement was linked to both high dispensing volume and being troubled by perceived overload (dispensing errors), and resources and communication (detection of prescribing errors). This study contributes to the literature by benchmarking community pharmacists' health and well-being, and investigating sources of stress using a quantitative approach. A further important contribution to the literature is the identification of a quantitative link between high workload and self-reported dispensing errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Employability Skills Valued by Employers as Important for Entry-Level Employees with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Song; Zhang, Dalun; Pacha, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities face persistent challenges in gaining meaningful employment. One of the barriers to successful employment is a lack of employability skills. The purpose of this study was to identify employability skills that employers value as being important and to examine whether employers have different expectations for…

  6. A Comparison of Urban, Suburban, and Rural Principal Leadership Skills by Campus Student Achievement Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Susan; Winn, Pam; Erwin, John

    2011-01-01

    Because of the importance of developing highly skilled school leaders, statewide assessments of 784 Texas public school administrators were compared in a causal-comparison study to determine how leadership skills varied by type of campus (urban, suburban and rural) and by campus student achievement ratings. Data were collected from a 2006-2008…

  7. Framework of Assessment for the Evaluation of Thinking Skills of Tertiary Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Chan Swee; Ziguang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st century, students are required to master thinking skills in order to deal with many situations that arise in the tertiary environment which later would translate into the workplace. Nowadays, thinking skills play a vital role in tertiary education. To provide an approach for teachers, this paper identifies a 4-step model that can be…

  8. Self-report measures of Executive Functioning are a determinant of academic performance in first-year students at a university of applied sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A.E. Baars

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in late adolescents (age 17+ show that brain development may proceed till around the 25th year of age. This implies that study performance in higher education could be dependent upon the stage of brain maturation and neuropsychological development. Individual differences in development of neuropsychological skills may thus have a substantial influence on the outcome of the educational process. This hypothesis was evaluated in a large survey of 1760 first-year students at a University of Applied Sciences, of which 1332 are included in the current analyses. This was because of their fit within the age range we pre-set (17-20 years’ old at start of studies. Student characteristics and three behavioural ratings of executive functioning (EF were evaluated with regard to their influence on academic performance. Self-report measures were used: self-reported attention, planning, and self-control & self-monitoring. Results showed that students with better self-reported EF at the start of the first year of their studies obtained more study credits at the end of that year than students with a lower EF self-rating. The correlation between self-control & self-monitoring on the one hand, and study progress on the other, appeared to differ for male and female students and to be influenced by the level of prior education. The results of this large-scale study could have practical relevance. The profound individual differences between students may at least partly be a consequence of their stage of development as an adolescent. Students who show lower levels of attention control, planning and self-control/self-monitoring can be expected to have a problem in study planning and study progress monitoring and hence study progress. The findings imply that interventions directed at the training of these (executive functions should be developed and used in higher education in order to improve academic achievement, learning attitude and motivation.

  9. Accuracy of young male drivers’ self-assessments of driving skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Accurate self-assessment of skill is important because it creates an appropriate level of confidence and hence behaviour. Inaccurate self-assessment of driving ability has been linked to reckless driving and accidents. Inaccurate self-assessment of driving skills may be a contributing factor...... to the over-representation of young male drivers in accident statistics. Most previous research on self-assessment of driving skills did not compare self-reported skills to objectively measured driving skills, so the aims of this study were: (1) to test the accuracy of young male drivers’ self......-assessments of specific driving skills by comparing them with performance in a driving simulator; (2) to test whether self-assessment accuracy varied with driving skill, driving experience and sensation-seeking propensity. We found that young male drivers’ self-assessments were inconsistent with their driving performance...

  10. Chinese carless young drivers' self-reported driving behavior and simulated driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Zuhua; Zheng, Dongpeng; Man, Dong; Xu, Xunnan

    2013-01-01

    Carless young drivers refers to those drivers aged between 18 and 25 years who have a driver's license but seldom have opportunities to practice their driving skills because they do not have their own cars. Due to China's lower private car ownership, many young drivers become carless young drivers after licensure, and the safety issue associated with them has raised great concern in China. This study aims to provide initial insight into the self-reported driving behaviors and simulated driving performance of Chinese carless young drivers. Thirty-three carless young drivers and 32 young drivers with their own cars (as a comparison group) participated in this study. A modified Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) with a 4-factor structure (errors, violations, attention lapses, and memory lapses) was used to study carless young drivers' self-reported driving behaviors. A simulated driving experiment using a low-cost, fixed-base driving simulator was conducted to measure their simulated driving performance (errors, violations, attention lapses, driving maintenance, reaction time, and accidents). Self-reported DBQ outcomes showed that carless young drivers reported similar errors, more attention lapses, fewer memory lapses, and significantly fewer violation behaviors relative to young drivers with their own cars, whereas simulated driving results revealed that they committed significantly more errors, attention lapses, and violation behaviors than the comparison group. Carless young drivers had a lower ability to maintain the stability of speed and lane position, drove more cautiously approaching and passing through red traffic lights, and committed more accidents during simulated driving. A tendency to speed was not found among carless young drivers; their average speed and speeding frequency were all much lower than that of the comparison group. Lifetime mileage was the only significant predictor of carless young drivers' self-reported violations, simulated violations

  11. Los niveles de ferritina y los marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular se correlacionan con mayor tiempo sedentario auto-reportado en hombres aparentemente sanos Ferritin levels and cardiovascular risk markers correlate with higher self-reported sedentary time in apparently healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton F Suárez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar la correlación entre las concentraciones séricas de ferritina y los marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular con el tiempo de actividad física y sedentarismo auto-reportados en hombres aparentemente sanos. Métodos: se incluyeron 69 hombres pertenecientes a tres empresas de servicio privado y público del área metropolitana de Cali, Colombia, con edades entre 25 y 64 años. Se aplicó la versión corta del International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ y se agruparon cuatro categorías de actividad física: 1. Minutos actividad física intensa (AFI/semana. 2. Minutos actividad física moderada (AFM/semana. 3. Minutos caminata/semana. 4. Minutos sentado/día. Los marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular se definieron con base en los criterios del ATP-III y la Federación Internacional de Diabetes. Resultados: se encontraron correlaciones positivas en los sujetos que auto-reportaban mayor tiempo en actividades sedentarias según la categoría del IPAQ (minutos promedio sentado/día en los indicadores antropométricos: porcentaje de grasa corporal (rho=0,249, pObjective: to evaluate the correlation between serum ferritin and cardiovascular risk markers with the time of self-reported physical activity and sedentary life style in apparently healthy men. Methods: we included 69 men from three private and public companies in the metropolitan area of Cali, Colombia, aged between 25 and 64. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied, and were grouped in four categories of physical activity: 1. Minutes of intense physical activity (IFA/week. 2. Minutes of moderate physical activity (MFA/week. 3. Minutes of walk/week. 4. Minutes of sitting/day. Cardiovascular risk markers were defined based on the criteria of the ATP-III and the International Diabetes Federation. Results: positive correlations were found in subjects who self-reported more time in sedentary activities according to the IPAQ

  12. Self-reported leisure time physical activity: a useful assessment tool in everyday health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödjer, Lars; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H; Rosengren, Annika; Björck, Lena; Grimby, Gunnar; Thelle, Dag S; Lappas, Georgios; Börjesson, Mats

    2012-08-24

    The individual physical activity level is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death, as well as a possible target for improving health outcome. However, today's widely adopted risk score charts, typically do not include the level of physical activity. There is a need for a simple risk assessment tool, which includes a reliable assessment of the level of physical activity. The aim of this study was therefore, to analyse the association between the self-reported levels of physical activity, according to the Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS) question, and cardiovascular risk factors, specifically focusing on the group of individuals with the lowest level of self-reported PA. We used cross sectional data from the Intergene study, a random sample of inhabitants from the western part of Sweden, totalling 3588 (1685 men and 1903 women, mean age 52 and 51). Metabolic measurements, including serum-cholesterol, serum-triglycerides, fasting plasma-glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure and resting heart rate, as well as smoking and self-reported stress were related to the self-reported physical activity level, according to the modernized version of the SGPALS 4-level scale. There was a strong negative association between the self-reported physical activity level, and smoking, weight, waist circumference, resting heart rate, as well as to the levels of fasting plasma-glucose, serum-triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and self-reported stress and a positive association with the levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The individuals reporting the lowest level of PA (SGPALS, level 1) had the highest odds-ratios (OR) for having pre-defined levels of abnormal risk factors, such as being overweight (men OR 2.19, 95% CI: 1.51-3.19; women OR 2.57, 95 % CI: 1.78-3.73), having an increased waist circumference (men OR 3.76, 95 % CI: 2.61-5.43; women OR 2.91, 95% CI: 1.94-4.35) and for reporting stress (men OR 3.59, 95 % CI: 2

  13. Self-reported leisure time physical activity: a useful assessment tool in everyday health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödjer Lars

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The individual physical activity level is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death, as well as a possible target for improving health outcome. However, today´s widely adopted risk score charts, typically do not include the level of physical activity. There is a need for a simple risk assessment tool, which includes a reliable assessment of the level of physical activity. The aim of this study was therefore, to analyse the association between the self-reported levels of physical activity, according to the Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS question, and cardiovascular risk factors, specifically focusing on the group of individuals with the lowest level of self-reported PA. Methods We used cross sectional data from the Intergene study, a random sample of inhabitants from the western part of Sweden, totalling 3588 (1685 men and 1903 women, mean age 52 and 51. Metabolic measurements, including serum-cholesterol, serum-triglycerides, fasting plasma-glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure and resting heart rate, as well as smoking and self-reported stress were related to the self-reported physical activity level, according to the modernized version of the SGPALS 4-level scale. Results There was a strong negative association between the self-reported physical activity level, and smoking, weight, waist circumference, resting heart rate, as well as to the levels of fasting plasma-glucose, serum-triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins (LDL, and self-reported stress and a positive association with the levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL. The individuals reporting the lowest level of PA (SGPALS, level 1 had the highest odds-ratios (OR for having pre-defined levels of abnormal risk factors, such as being overweight (men OR 2.19, 95% CI: 1.51-3.19; women OR 2.57, 95 % CI: 1.78-3.73, having an increased waist circumference (men OR 3.76, 95 % CI: 2.61-5.43; women OR 2.91, 95% CI: 1

  14. Self-report measure of financial exploitation of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Kendon J; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W; Langley, Kate; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2010-12-01

    this study was designed to improve the measurement of financial exploitation (FE) by testing psychometric properties of the older adult financial exploitation measure (OAFEM), a client self-report instrument. rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches were used. Questionnaires were administered by 22 adult protective services investigators from 7 agencies in Illinois to 227 substantiated abuse clients. Analyses included tests for dimensionality, model fit, and additional construct validation. Results from the OAFEM were also compared with the substantiation decision of abuse and with investigators' assessments of FE using a staff report version. Hypotheses were generated to test hypothesized relationships. the OAFEM, including the original 79-, 54-, and 30-item measures, met stringent Rasch analysis fit and unidimensionality criteria and had high internal consistency and item reliability. The validation results were supportive, while leading to reconsideration of aspects of the hypothesized theoretical hierarchy. Thresholds were suggested to demonstrate levels of severity. the measure is now available to aid in the assessment of FE of older adults by both clinicians and researchers. Theoretical refinements developed using the empirically generated item hierarchy may help to improve assessment and intervention.

  15. Are there meaningful individual differences in temporal inconsistency in self-reported personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-11-01

    The current project had three goals. The first was to examine whether it is meaningful to refer to across-time variability in self-reported personality as an individual differences characteristic. The second was to investigate whether negative affect was associated with variability in self-reported personality, while controlling for mean levels, and correcting for measurement errors. The third goal was to examine whether variability in self-reported personality would be larger among young adults than among older adults, and whether the relation of variability with negative affect would be stronger at older ages than at younger ages. Two moderately large samples of participants completed the International Item Pool Personality questionnaire assessing the Big Five personality dimensions either twice or thrice, in addition to several measures of negative affect. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that within-person variability in self-reported personality is a meaningful individual difference characteristic. Some people exhibited greater across-time variability than others after removing measurement error, and people who showed temporal instability in one trait also exhibited temporal instability across the other four traits. However, temporal variability was not related to negative affect, and there was no evidence that either temporal variability or its association with negative affect varied with age.

  16. Errors in self-reports of health services use: impact on alzheimer disease clinical trial designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Christopher M; Tu, Wanzhu; Stump, Timothy E; Clark, Daniel O; Unroe, Kathleen T; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2015-01-01

    Most Alzheimer disease clinical trials that compare the use of health services rely on reports of caregivers. The goal of this study was to assess the accuracy of self-reports among older adults with Alzheimer disease and their caregiver proxy respondents. This issue is particularly relevant to Alzheimer disease clinical trials because inaccuracy can lead both to loss of power and increased bias in study outcomes. We compared respondent accuracy in reporting any use and in reporting the frequency of use with actual utilization data as documented in a comprehensive database. We next simulated the impact of underreporting and overreporting on sample size estimates and treatment effect bias for clinical trials comparing utilization between experimental groups. Respondents self-reports have a poor level of accuracy with κ-values often below 0.5. Respondents tend to underreport use even for rare events such as hospitalizations and nursing home stays. In analyses simulating underreporting and overreporting of varying magnitude, we found that errors in self-reports can increase the required sample size by 15% to 30%. In addition, bias in the reported treatment effect ranged from 3% to 18% due to both underreporting and overreporting errors. Use of self-report data in clinical trials of Alzheimer disease treatments may inflate sample size needs. Even when adequate power is achieved by increasing sample size, reporting errors can result in a biased estimate of the true effect size of the intervention.

  17. Using multi-level Bayesian lesion-symptom mapping to probe the body-part-specificity of gesture imitation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, Elisabeth I S; Weiss, Peter H; Fink, Gereon R; Binder, Ellen; Price, Cathy J; Hope, Thomas M H

    2017-11-01

    Past attempts to identify the neural substrates of hand and finger imitation skills in the left hemisphere of the brain have yielded inconsistent results. Here, we analyse those associations in a large sample of 257 left hemisphere stroke patients. By introducing novel Bayesian methods, we characterise lesion symptom associations at three levels: the voxel-level, the single-region level (using anatomically defined regions), and the region-pair level. The results are inconsistent across those three levels and we argue that each level of analysis makes assumptions which constrain the results it can produce. Regardless of the inconsistencies across levels, and contrary to past studies which implicated differential neural substrates for hand and finger imitation, we find no consistent voxels or regions, where damage affects one imitation skill and not the other, at any of the three analysis levels. Our novel Bayesian approach indicates that any apparent differences appear to be driven by an increased sensitivity of hand imitation skills to lesions that also impair finger imitation. In our analyses, the results of the highest level of analysis (region-pairs) emphasise a role of the primary somatosensory and motor cortices, and the occipital lobe in imitation. We argue that this emphasis supports an account of both imitation tasks based on direct sensor-motor connections, which throws doubt on past accounts which imply the need for an intermediate (e.g. body-part-coding) system of representation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-reported empathy and neural activity during action imitation and observation in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Horan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Although patients with schizophrenia demonstrated largely normal patterns of neural activation across the finger movement and facial expression tasks, they reported decreased self perceived empathy and failed to show the typical relationship between neural activity and self-reported empathy seen in controls. These findings suggest that patients show a disjunction between automatic neural responses to low level social cues and higher level, integrative social cognitive processes involved in self-perceived empathy.

  19. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona C Fang

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in public multi-unit housing (MUH is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear.We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD 0.02 ng/ml and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng. Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine.Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively. Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml, with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%. TSE in the home, car, and other peoples' homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15-0.25, while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161, a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6% compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4% (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3 (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%.Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population.

  20. THE EVALUATION OF LEARNING BASED ON SKILLS AT THE PRESCHOOL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oralia Ortiz Varela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research is about learning evaluation based on competencies in a mixed group of Preschool level: Melchor Ocampo in Delicias Chihuahua city. The most important theoretical foundations were provided by Casanova (1998, in relation to the assessment, and Diaz Barriga (2003 and 2006, with teaching in competencies and didactic strategies. The research objective is to track systematically the evaluation of competencies as well as design and experiment alternatives for evaluation in preschool level. The research methodology was conducted from the qualitative approach, dialectical critical paradigm and an action research method; integral assessment projects were designed, implemented and analyzed. Inquiry processes were performed using the techniques of observation and interview, instruments like the field diary and questionnaire (Hernández et. Al., 2006 and the method of systematization of practice proposed by Gagneten (1987. In the results it was observed that the instruments and techniques used to assess competencies were: observation, field notes, checklists, interviews with children, identification cards, children’s work, immediate group records and other evidence of work. The theoretical knowledge of the assessment of a variety of techniques and instruments to particularize the process, made clear that every teacher requires not only theoretical knowledge, the use of the range of possibilities to get information of the process that children have in their learning, not limited to one of them. It is also needed to develop both the skill and creativity of use, and the vision of what can potentially contribute. It concludes that it is possible to evaluate the 50 competencies that raises the curriculum, by using a evolution folder for each child, making a general school cycle plan, considering the assessment from teaching situations and apply the techniques and instruments at different points in the process, as well as create an awareness of self

  1. Mirror Visual Feedback Training Improves Intermanual Transfer in a Sport-Specific Task: A Comparison between Different Skill Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Steinberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror training therapy is a promising tool to initiate neural plasticity and facilitate the recovery process of motor skills after diseases such as stroke or hemiparesis by improving the intermanual transfer of fine motor skills in healthy people as well as in patients. This study evaluated whether these augmented performance improvements by mirror visual feedback (MVF could be used for learning a sport-specific skill and if the effects are modulated by skill level. A sample of 39 young, healthy, and experienced basketball and handball players and 41 novices performed a stationary basketball dribble task at a mirror box in a standing position and received either MVF or direct feedback. After four training days using only the right hand, performance of both hands improved from pre- to posttest measurements. Only the left hand (untrained performance of the experienced participants receiving MVF was more pronounced than for the control group. This indicates that intermanual motor transfer can be improved by MVF in a sport-specific task. However, this effect cannot be generalized to motor learning per se since it is modulated by individuals’ skill level, a factor that might be considered in mirror therapy research.

  2. Sleep Characteristics of Self-Reported Long Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Blackwell, Terri; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Stone, Katie L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-reported long habitual sleep durations (≥ 9 h per night) consistently predict increased mortality. We compared objective sleep parameters of self-reported long versus normal duration sleepers to determine whether long sleepers truly sleep more or have an underlying sleep abnormality. Methods: Older men participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) were recruited for a comprehensive sleep assessment, which included wrist actigraphy, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and a question about usual nocturnal sleep duration. Results: Of the 3134 participants (mean age 76.4 ± 5.6; 89.9% Caucasian), 1888 (60.2%) reported sleeping 7-8 h (normal sleepers) and 174 (5.6%) reported ≥ 9 h (long sleepers). On actigraphy, long sleepers spent on average 63.0 min more per night in bed (P sleep stage distribution did not differ. After adjusting for differences in demographics, comorbidities, and medication usage, self-reported long sleepers continued to spend more time in bed and sleep more, based on both actigraphy and PSG. Each additional 30 min in bed or asleep as measured by actigraphy increased the odds of being a self-reported long-sleeper 1.74-fold and 1.33-fold, respectively (P sleep disorders. Citation: Patel SR; Blackwell T; Ancoli-Israel S; Stone KL. Sleep characteristics of self-reported long sleepers. SLEEP 2012;35(5):641-648. PMID:22547890

  3. Occlusal factors are not related to self-reported bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Visscher, Corine M; Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the contribution of various occlusal features of the natural dentition that may identify self-reported bruxers compared to nonbruxers. Two age- and sex-matched groups of self-reported bruxers (n = 67) and self-reported nonbruxers (n = 75) took part in the study. For each patient, the following occlusal features were clinically assessed: retruded contact position (RCP) to intercuspal contact position (ICP) slide length ( 4 mm, a deep bite), horizontal overlap (> 4 mm was considered a large horizontal overlap), incisor dental midline discrepancy (bruxism (dependent variable). Accuracy values to predict self-reported bruxism were unacceptable for all occlusal variables. The only variable remaining in the final regression model was laterotrusive interferences (P = .030). The percentage of explained variance for bruxism by the final multiple regression model was 4.6%. This model including only one occlusal factor showed low positive (58.1%) and negative predictive values (59.7%), thus showing a poor accuracy to predict the presence of self-reported bruxism (59.2%). This investigation suggested that the contribution of occlusion to the differentiation between bruxers and nonbruxers is negligible. This finding supports theories that advocate a much diminished role for peripheral anatomical-structural factors in the pathogenesis of bruxism.

  4. Sexual Orientation, Objective Height, and Self-Reported Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    Studies that have used mostly self-reported height have found that androphilic men and women are shorter than gynephilic men and women, respectively. This study examined whether an objective height difference exists or whether a psychosocial account (e.g., distortion of self-reports) may explain these putative height differences. A total of 863 participants, recruited at a Canadian university, the surrounding region, and through lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) events across Canada, self-reported their height and had their height measured. Androphilic men were shorter, on average, than gynephilic men. There was no objective height difference between gynephilic, ambiphilic, and androphilic women. Self-reported height, statistically controlling for objective height, was not related to sexual orientation. These findings are the first to show an objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. Also, the findings suggest that previous studies using self-reported height found part of a true objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. These findings have implications for existing biological theories of men's sexual orientation development.

  5. Self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorains, Felicity K; Stout, Julie C; Bradshaw, John L; Dowling, Nicki A; Enticott, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is considered a core feature of problem gambling; however, self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control may reflect disparate constructs. We examined self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in 39 treatment-seeking problem gamblers and 41 matched controls using a range of self-report questionnaires and laboratory inhibitory control tasks. We also investigated differences between treatment-seeking problem gamblers who prefer strategic (e.g., sports betting) and nonstrategic (e.g., electronic gaming machines) gambling activities. Treatment-seeking problem gamblers demonstrated elevated self-reported impulsivity, more go errors on the Stop Signal Task, and a lower gap score on the Random Number Generation task than matched controls. However, overall we did not find strong evidence that treatment-seeking problem gamblers are more impulsive on laboratory inhibitory control measures. Furthermore, strategic and nonstrategic problem gamblers did not differ from their respective controls on either self-reported impulsivity questionnaires or laboratory inhibitory control measures. Contrary to expectations, our results suggest that inhibitory dyscontrol may not be a key component for some treatment-seeking problem gamblers.

  6. Dimensions of Discourse Level Oral Language Skills and Their Relation to Reading Comprehension and Written Composition: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Cheahyung; Park, Younghee

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relations of discourse-level oral language skills [i.e., listening comprehension, and oral retell and production of narrative texts (oral retell and production hereafter)] to reading comprehension and written composition. Korean-speaking first grade students (N = 97) were assessed on listening comprehension, oral retell and…

  7. A New Approach of an Intelligent E-Learning System Based on Learners' Skill Level and Learners' Success Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hafidi; Lamia, Mahnane

    2015-01-01

    Learners usually meet cognitive overload and disorientation problems when using e-learning system. At present, most of the studies in e-learning either concentrate on the technological aspect or focus on adapting learner's interests or browsing behaviors, while, learner's skill level and learners' success rate is usually neglected. In this paper,…

  8. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from…

  9. Interest Level in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder Predicts Rate of Verbal, Nonverbal, and Adaptive Skill Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill…

  10. Pairing Learners by Companionship: Effects on Motor Skill Performance and Comfort Levels in the Reciprocal Style of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoupis, Constantine

    2015-01-01

    Mosston and Ashworth's (2008) reciprocal style of teaching gives learners the opportunity to work in pairs to support each other's learning (one practices a task and the other gives feedback). The effects of pairing learners by companionship (friend and nonacquaintance) on 8-year-old children's motor skill performance and comfort levels were…

  11. Market oriented and rational use of energy and power. Level of competence and need of skill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Andrei Z.; Groenli, Helle

    2001-03-01

    This report surveys the existing research and development (R and D) skill in Norway in the field of ''Market oriented and rational use of energy and power''. The need for skills upgrading and future R and D is discussed. Four areas for R and D are identified as especially important: (1) external conditions, (2) end user behavior, (3) the interplay of all issues related to the end user's competence, and (4) information and communication technology

  12. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS,AT THE ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL, RELEVANT IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu Manoela; Crenicean Luminiţa Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The approach of organizational issues as communication problems are at least one trend in era of the knowledge economy. The globalization process greatly contributes to consider the communication both as a source and as a solution to the problems faced by legal entities. The conducted study reveals, however, that interpersonal communication skills make the difference between success and failure of organizational communication. Premises of interpersonal communication skills analysis reveals co...

  13. Children's high-level writing skills: development of planning and revising and their contribution to writing quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpo, Teresa; Alves, Rui A; Fidalgo, Raquel

    2014-06-01

    It is well established that the activity of producing a text is a complex one involving three main cognitive processes: Planning, translating, and revising. Although these processes are crucial in skilled writing, beginning and developing writers seem to struggle with them, mainly with planning and revising. To trace the development of the high-level writing processes of planning and revising, from Grades 4 to 9, and to examine whether these skills predict writing quality in younger and older students (Grades 4-6 vs. 7-9), after controlling for gender, school achievement, age, handwriting fluency, spelling, and text structure. Participants were 381 students from Grades 4 to 9 (age 9-15). Students were asked to plan and write a story and to revise another story by detecting and correcting mechanical and substantive errors. From Grades 4 to 9, we found a growing trend in students' ability to plan and revise despite the observed decreases and stationary periods from Grades 4 to 5 and 6 to 7. Moreover, whereas younger students' planning and revising skills made no contribution to the quality of their writing, in older students, these high-level skills contributed to writing quality above and beyond control predictors. The findings of this study seem to indicate that besides the increase in planning and revising, these skills are not fully operational in school-age children. Indeed, given the contribution of these high-level skills to older students' writing, supplementary instruction and practice should be provided from early on. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Ambulatory Care Skills: Do Residents Feel Prepared?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Bonds

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine resident comfort and skill in performing ambulatory care skills. Methods: Descriptive survey of common ambulatory care skills administered to internal medicine faculty and residents at one academic medical center. Respondents were asked to rate their ability to perform 12 physical exam skills and 6 procedures, and their comfort in performing 7 types of counseling, and obtaining 6 types of patient history (4 point Likert scale for each. Self-rated ability or comfort was compared by gender, status (year of residency, faculty, and future predicted frequency of use of the skill. Results: Residents reported high ability levels for physical exam skills common to both the ambulatory and hospital setting. Fewer felt able to perform musculoskeletal, neurologic or eye exams easily alone. Procedures generally received low ability ratings. Similarly, residents’ comfort in performing common outpatient counseling was also low. More residents reported feeling very comfortable in obtaining history from patients. We found little variation by gender, year of training, or predicted frequency of use. Conclusion: Self-reported ability and comfort for many common ambulatory care skills is low. Further evaluation of this finding in other training programs is warranted.

  15. Self-reported Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Older Chinese Adults in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lydia W; Dong, XinQi

    2017-07-01

    Discrimination is part of life for many Americans, especially ethnic minorities. Focusing on older Chinese Americans, this study examines the association between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms and identifies subgroups that are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of data collected from adults (age 60+ years) of Chinese origin residing in the Greater Chicago area (N = 3,004). Self-reported discrimination was assessed by the Experiences of Discrimination instrument and was dichotomized (yes vs no). Depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Logistic regression of self-reported discrimination and negative binominal regression of depressive symptoms were conducted. About 21.5% of the sample reported having experienced discrimination. The odds of reporting discrimination are higher for those who are younger, have higher education and income, are more acculturated, have been in the United States longer, live outside Chinatown, and have higher levels of neuroticism and conscientiousness. Self-reported discrimination is significantly and positively associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, migration-related variables, and personality factors. Findings suggest a robust relationship between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms in older Chinese Americans. They further suggest that the relatively advantaged groups-younger, higher socioeconomic status, more acculturated, and living outside Chinatown-are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Are Self-report Measures Able to Define Individuals as Physically Active or Inactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Donnelly, Alan E; Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-02-01

    Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in 1713 healthy individuals from nine European countries using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ), short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and short European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPIC-PAQ). Individuals were categorized as active (e.g., reporting ≥150 min of MVPA per week) or inactive, based on the information derived from the different measures. Sensitivity and specificity analyses and Kappa statistics were performed to evaluate the ability of the three PA questionnaires to correctly categorize individuals as active or inactive. Prevalence estimates of being sufficiently active varied significantly (P for all PAQ 39.9% [95% CI, 37.5-42.1] and objective measure 48.5% [95% CI, 41.6-50.9]. All self-report methods showed low or moderate sensitivity (IPAQ 20.0%, RPAQ 18.7%, and EPIC-PAQ 69.8%) to correctly classify inactive people and the agreement between objective and self-reported PA was low (ĸ = 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.12], 0.12 [95% CI, 0.06-0.18], and 0.19 [95% CI, 0.13-0.24] for IPAQ, RPAQ, and EPIC-PAQ, respectively). The modest agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA suggests that population levels of PA derived from self-report should be interpreted cautiously. Implementation of objective measures in large-scale cohort studies and surveillance systems is recommended.

  17. Predicting Growth in Word Level Reading Skills in Children With Developmental Dyslexia Using an Object Rhyming Functional Neuroimaging Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Emily A; Ring, Jeremiah; Black, Jeffrey; Lyon, G Reid; Odegard, Timothy N

    2016-04-01

    An object rhyming task that does not require text reading and is suitable for younger children was used to predict gains in word level reading skills following an intensive 2-year reading intervention for children with developmental dyslexia. The task evoked activation in bilateral inferior frontal regions. Growth in untimed pseudoword reading was associated with increased pre-intervention activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, and growth in timed word reading was associated with pre-intervention activation of the left and right inferior frontal gyri. These analyses help identify pre-intervention factors that facilitate reading skill improvements in children with developmental dyslexia.

  18. First grade classroom-level adversity: Associations with teaching practices, academic skills, and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abry, Tashia; Granger, Kristen L; Bryce, Crystal I; Taylor, Michelle; Swanson, Jodi; Bradley, Robert H

    2018-05-24

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and a model-building approach, the authors examined direct and indirect associations between first-grade (G1) classroom-level adversity (CLA), G1 teaching practices, and student (N = 1,073; M = 6.64 years; 49% girls; 82% White) academic skills and executive functioning in G1 and third grades (G3). Teachers reported the prevalence of adversity among their students (e.g., poor home/family life, poor academic/social readiness). Observers rated G1 teaching practices: teachers' classroom management, controlling instruction, and amount of academic instruction (classroom observation system). Children completed literacy and math assessments at 54 months, G1, and G3 (Woodcock Johnson Letter-Word Identification and Applied Problems), and executive functioning at G1 and G3 (Tower of Hanoi). Direct associations emerged between CLA and controlling instruction (positive), classroom management, and academic instruction (both negative). In addition, CLA was related to G1 literacy (but not math) directly and indirectly via classroom management (negatively) and controlling instruction (positively). The addition of G3 outcomes revealed a negative direct longitudinal association between CLA and G3 executive functioning, and indirect associations with G3 literacy and math through G1 teaching practices and literacy. Results support the notion that collective student characteristics influence student outcomes in part through teaching practices and suggest that teachers and students may benefit from the diffusion of high-adversity classroom compositions when possible. Moreover, in high-adversity classrooms teachers and students may benefit from supports targeting classroom management and foundational student competencies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Plyometric Training Improves Sprinting, Jumping and Throwing Capacities of High Level Female Volleyball Players Better Than Skill-Based Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjinovci, Bahri; Idrizovic, Kemal; Uljevic, Ognjen; Sekulic, Damir

    2017-01-01

    There is an evident lack of studies on the effectiveness of plyometric- and skill-based-conditioning in volleyball. This study aimed to evaluate effects of 12-week plyometric- and volleyball-skill-based training on specific conditioning abilities in female volleyball players. The sample included 41 high-level female volleyball players (21.8 ± 2.1 years of age; 1.76 ± 0.06 cm; 60.8 ± 7.0 kg), who participated in plyometric- (n = 21), or skill-based-conditioning-program (n = 20). Both programs were performed twice per week. Participants were tested on body-height, body-mass (BM), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing broad jump (SBJ), medicine ball throw, (MBT) and 20-m sprint (S20M). All tests were assessed at the study baseline (pre-) and at the end of the 12-week programs (post-testing). Two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements showed significant (pvolleyball players. Future studies should evaluate differential program effects in less experienced and younger players. Key points Plyometric- and skill-based-conditioning resulted in improvements in jumping and throwing capacities, but plyometric training additionally induced positive changes in anthropometrics and sprint-capacity The changes induced by plyometric training were larger in magnitude than those achieved by skill-based conditioning. The higher intensity together with possibility of more accurate adjustment of training load in plyometric training are probably the most important determinant of such differential influence. It is likely that the skill-based conditioning program did not result in changes of higher magnitude because of the players’ familiarity with volleyball-related skills. PMID:29238253

  20. Influence of riders' skill on plasma cortisol levels of horses walking on forest and field trekking courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ayaka; Matsuura, Akihiro; Yamazaki, Yumi; Sakai, Wakako; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakanowatari, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Irimajiri, Mami; Hodate, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of rider's skill on the plasma cortisol levels of trekking horses on two courses, walking on field and forest courses (about 4.5 to 5.1 km each). Three riders of different skills did horse trekking (HT) in a tandem line under a fixed order: advanced-leading, beginner-second and intermediate-last. A total of six horses were used and they experienced all positions in both courses; a total of 12 experiments were done. Blood samples were obtained before HT, immediately after and 2 h after HT. As a control, additional blood samples were obtained from the same horses on non-riding days. Irrespective of the course and the rider's skill, the cortisol level before HT was higher than that of control (P stress of trekking horse was not sufficient to disturb the circadian rhythm of the cortisol level, irrespective of the course and the rider's skill. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Level of Immersion in Virtual Environments Impacts the Ability to Assess and Teach Social Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnariu, Nicoleta L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Virtual environments (VEs) may be useful for delivering social skills interventions to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Immersive VEs provide opportunities for individuals with ASD to learn and practice skills in a controlled replicable setting. However, not all VEs are delivered using the same technology, and the level of immersion differs across settings. We group studies into low-, moderate-, and high-immersion categories by examining five aspects of immersion. In doing so, we draw conclusions regarding the influence of this technical manipulation on the efficacy of VEs as a tool for assessing and teaching social skills. We also highlight ways in which future studies can advance our understanding of how manipulating aspects of immersion may impact intervention success. PMID:26919157

  2. Self-reported Physical Activity Predicts Pain Inhibitory and Facilitatory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Kelly M.; Riley, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests regular physical activity can reduce chronic pain symptoms. Dysfunction of endogenous facilitatory and inhibitory systems has been implicated in multiple chronic pain conditions. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between levels of physical activity and descending pain modulatory function. Purpose This study’s purpose was to determine whether self-reported levels of physical activity in healthy adults predicted 1) pain sensitivity to heat and cold stimuli, 2) pain facilitatory function as tested by temporal summation of pain (TS), and 3) pain inhibitory function as tested by conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and offset analgesia. Methods Forty-eight healthy adults (age range 18–76) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the following pain tests: heat pain thresholds (HPT), heat pain suprathresholds, cold pressor pain (CPP), temporal summation of heat pain, conditioned pain modulation, and offset analgesia. The IPAQ measured levels of walking, moderate, vigorous and total physical activity over the past seven days. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to determine the relationship between each pain test and self-reported levels of physical activity, while controlling for age, sex and psychological variables. Results Self-reported total and vigorous physical activity predicted TS and CPM (p’s pain and greater CPM. The IPAQ measures did not predict any of the other pain measures. Conclusion Thus, these results suggest that healthy older and younger adults who self-report greater levels of vigorous and total physical activity exhibit enhanced descending pain modulatory function. Improved descending pain modulation may be a mechanism through which exercise reduces or prevents chronic pain symptoms. PMID:23899890

  3. Transforming Spatial Reasoning Skills in the Upper-Level Undergraduate Geoscience Classroom Through Curricular Materials Informed by Cognitive Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormand, C. J.; Shipley, T. F.; Dutrow, B. L.; Goodwin, L. B.; Hickson, T. A.; Tikoff, B.; Atit, K.; Gagnier, K. M.; Resnick, I.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial visualization is an essential skill in the STEM disciplines, including the geosciences. Undergraduate students, including geoscience majors in upper-level courses, bring a wide range of spatial skill levels to the classroom. Students with weak spatial skills may be unable to understand fundamental concepts and to solve geological problems with a spatial component. However, spatial thinking skills are malleable. As a group of geoscience faculty members and cognitive psychologists, we have developed a set of curricular materials for Mineralogy, Sedimentology & Stratigraphy, and Structural Geology courses. These materials are designed to improve students' spatial skills, and in particular to improve students' abilities to reason about spatially complex 3D geological concepts and problems. Teaching spatial thinking in the context of discipline-based exercises has the potential to transform undergraduate STEM education by removing one significant barrier to success in the STEM disciplines. The curricular materials we have developed are based on several promising teaching strategies that have emerged from cognitive science research on spatial thinking. These strategies include predictive sketching, making visual comparisons, gesturing, and the use of analogy. We have conducted a three-year study of the efficacy of these materials in strengthening the spatial skills of students in upper-level geoscience courses at three universities. Our methodology relies on a pre- and post-test study design, with several tests of spatial thinking skills administered at the beginning and end of each semester. In 2011-2012, we used a "business as usual" approach to gather baseline data, measuring how much students' spatial thinking skills improved in response to the existing curricula. In the two subsequent years we have incorporated our new curricular materials, which can be found on the project website: http://serc.carleton.edu/spatialworkbook/activities.html Structural Geology

  4. Self-reported occupational skin contact with cleaning agents and the risk of disability pension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feveile, Helene; Christensen, Karl Bang; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational skin diseases often affect the hands and can lead to consequences at both the individual and the social level. OBJECTIVES: To investigate and quantify the association between self-reported occupational skin contact with cleaning agents and subsequent transition to disabil......BACKGROUND: Occupational skin diseases often affect the hands and can lead to consequences at both the individual and the social level. OBJECTIVES: To investigate and quantify the association between self-reported occupational skin contact with cleaning agents and subsequent transition...... in Denmark. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the impact of occupational exposure to cleaning agents on subsequent disability pension. RESULTS: Among women, 11% of the disability pension cases were attributable to exposure to cleaning agents and/or disinfectants. CONCLUSIONS: The study...

  5. Exploring students’ adaptive reasoning skills and van Hiele levels of geometric thinking: a case study in geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizki, H. T. N.; Frentika, D.; Wijaya, A.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to explore junior high school students’ adaptive reasoning and the Van Hiele level of geometric thinking. The present study was a quasi-experiment with the non-equivalent control group design. The participants of the study were 34 seventh graders and 35 eighth graders in the experiment classes and 34 seventh graders and 34 eighth graders in the control classes. The students in the experiment classes learned geometry under the circumstances of a Knisley mathematical learning. The data were analyzed quantitatively by using inferential statistics. The results of data analysis show an improvement of adaptive reasoning skills both in the grade seven and grade eight. An improvement was also found for the Van Hiele level of geometric thinking. These results indicate the positive impact of Knisley learning model on students’ adaptive reasoning skills and Van Hiele level of geometric thinking.

  6. A Comparison of Self-Reported Hearing Handicap and Audiometric Thresholds in Nursing Home Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematolla Rouhbakhsh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Self-reported and questionaire method for hearing impairment assessment allow us to study and to detect the invisible related issues, while They can not be done by traditional audiometry procedures. The purpose of this study is to compare measurement of hearing handicap using self-reported and staff version of NHHI and hearing thresholds in nursing home residents. Materials and Method: The study participants were 43 individuals, 23 males and 20 females, aged 45-95 years. Pure tone average were calculated after conventional Pure tone audiometry . the self- and staff- reported questionnaire were also fulfilled. Results: Nine (20.9% individuals have normal hearing, 6 (14% have slight, 10 (23.3% mild, 7 (16.3% moderate, 6 (16.3% moderate to severe, 4 (9.3% severe, and 1 (2.3% profound hearing loss. Mean score of self and of staff reported versions were 32.22 % +29.31 and 32.67% +30.98, respectively. According to Kruskal-wallis test, there were significant correlation between self-reported and hearing level and between staff-reported and hearing level. The Pierson coefficient variation test between self and staff-reported, and self-reported and hearing level, staff-reported and hearing level showed significant correlation. Conclusion: The NHHI self assessment associated with other equipments significantly improved the identification and assessment of adults and elderly hearing handicap in nursing home residents. According to the study condition, it may be concluded that the self and staff version of NHHI questionnaire are significantly identical and can be used instead.

  7. Peer perceptions of social skills in socially anxious and nonanxious adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miers, Anne C; Blöte, Anke W; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies using adult observers are inconsistent with regard to social skills deficits in nonclinical socially anxious youth. The present study investigated whether same age peers perceive a lack of social skills in the socially anxious. Twenty high and 20 low socially anxious adolescents (13-17 years old) were recorded giving a 5-min speech. Unfamiliar peer observers (12-17 years old) viewed the speech samples and rated four social skills: speech content, facial expressions, posture and body movement, and way of speaking. Peer observers perceived high socially anxious adolescents as significantly poorer than low socially anxious adolescents on all four social skills. Moreover, for all skills except facial expressions, group differences could not be attributed to adolescents' self-reported level of depression. We suggest that therapists take the perceptions of same age peers into account when assessing the social skills of socially anxious youth.

  8. Recruitment into diabetes prevention programs: what is the impact of errors in self-reported measures of obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, Andrea; Philpot, Benjamin; Janus, Edward D; Dunbar, James A

    2012-07-08

    Error in self-reported measures of obesity has been frequently described, but the effect of self-reported error on recruitment into diabetes prevention programs is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of using self-reported obesity data from the Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC) on recruitment into the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project (GGT DPP). The GGT DPP was a structured group-based lifestyle modification program delivered in primary health care settings in South-Eastern Australia. Between 2004-05, 850 FINDRISC forms were collected during recruitment for the GGT DPP. Eligible individuals, at moderate to high risk of developing diabetes, were invited to undertake baseline tests, including anthropometric measurements performed by specially trained nurses. In addition to errors in calculating total risk scores, accuracy of self-reported data (height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI)) from FINDRISCs was compared with baseline data, with impact on participation eligibility presented. Overall, calculation errors impacted on eligibility in 18 cases (2.1%). Of n = 279 GGT DPP participants with measured data, errors (total score calculation, BMI or WC) in self-report were found in n = 90 (32.3%). These errors were equally likely to result in under- or over-reported risk. Under-reporting was more common in those reporting lower risk scores (Spearman-rho = -0.226, p-value recruit participants at moderate to high risk of diabetes, accurately categorising levels of overweight and obesity using self-report data. The results could be generalisable to other diabetes prevention programs using screening tools which include self-reported levels of obesity.

  9. International survey of self-reported medicine use among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ebba H; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine gender, age, and country variations in adolescents' self-reported medicine use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional school surveys of representative samples of 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys were used. The 1997/1998 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was referenced. A sta...

  10. Self-reported acne is not associated with prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, R.G.; Aben, K.K.; Verrneulen, S.H.; den Heijer, M.; van Oort, I.M.; van de Kerkhof, P.C.; Schalken, JA; Kiemeney, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Some studies have suggested an inverse association between acne vulgaris and the acne-related bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and prostate cancer (PCa). Self-reported acne might be an easily obtainable marker to identify men at relatively low risk of PCa and might be incorporated into

  11. Self-reported acne is not associated with prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Oort, I.M. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Schalken, J.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Some studies have suggested an inverse association between acne vulgaris and the acne-related bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and prostate cancer (PCa). Self-reported acne might be an easily obtainable marker to identify men at relatively low risk of PCa and might be incorporated into

  12. Readability of Self-Report Measures of Depression and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Behar, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    As the demand for accountability in service provision settings increases, the need for valid methods for assessing clinical outcomes is of particular importance. Self-report measures of functioning are particularly useful in the assessment of psychological functioning, but a vital factor in their validity and transportability is the reading level…

  13. Validation of self-reported cellular phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now there is ......BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now...... there is very little information published on this subject. METHODS: We conducted a study to validate the questionnaire used in an ongoing international case-control study on cellular phone use, the "Interphone study". Self-reported cellular phone use from 68 of 104 participants who took part in our study...... was compared with information derived from the network providers over a period of 3 months (taken as the gold standard). RESULTS: Using Spearman's rank correlation, the correlation between self-reported phone use and information from the network providers for cellular phone use in terms of the number of calls...

  14. Smoking Habit and Self Reported Periodontal Treatment Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study ai 's to determine by questionnaire the prevalence of smoking and its associated sociodemographic factors in adult dentate populations in Southwestern Nigeria and to examine self reported periodontal treatment experience between smokers and nonsmokers. A descriptive study of prevalence of smoking and ...

  15. Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes and associated risk factors among university employees in Jos, Nigeria. ... Concerted efforts to implement NCD prevention measures will serve to reduce the high burden of NCDs. Keywords: Non-communicable disease, Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Lifestyle, risk ...

  16. Self-reported adverse effects as barriers to adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: In conclusion, self-reported barriers to optimal adherence included the use of non-prescribed drugs, and the presence of side effects such as insomnia, headaches and abdominal pain; while eating well was a facilitator. These findings emphasise the need for better communication between patients and ...

  17. A Self-Report Measure of Assertiveness in Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jane M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reported a self-report measure of adolescents' assertiveness. Items for the scale were presented to sixth-grade students. Factor analysis revealed factors of submissiveness, aggressiveness, and assertiveness. After the validational study, a small assertiveness training program indicated that training effects were obtained and could be generalized…

  18. Reliability of self-reported eating disorders : Optimizing population screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Sihvola, Elina; Raevuori, Anu; Kaukoranta, Jutta; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess whether short self-report eating disorder screening questions are useful population screening methods. Method: We screened the female participants (N = 2881) from the 1975-1079 birth cohorts of Finnish twins for eating disorders, using several

  19. The Self-Report Family Inventory: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Selig, James P.; Trahan, Don P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers explored the factor structure of the Self-Report Family Inventory with a sample of heterosexual parents who have a son or daughter who self-identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Results suggest that a two-factor solution is appropriate. Research and clinical implications are offered. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  20. Personality, Organizational Orientations and Self-Reported Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, David; Castka, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To identify competencies connecting personality, organizational orientations and self-reported learning outcomes (as measured by concise Likert-type scales), for individuals who are learning for their organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Five concise factor scales were constructed to represent aspects of personality. Three further…

  1. Assessing the Accuracy of Self-Reported Self-Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Brinthaupt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-Talk Scale (STS; Brinthaupt, Hein, & Kramer, 2009 is a self-report measure of self-talk frequency that has been shown to possess acceptable reliability and validity. However, no research using the STS has examined the accuracy of respondents’ self-reports. In the present paper, we report a series of studies directly examining the measurement of self-talk frequency and functions using the STS. The studies examine ways to validate self-reported self-talk by (1 comparing STS responses from 6 weeks earlier to recent experiences that might precipitate self-talk, (2 using experience sampling methods to determine whether STS scores are related to recent reports of self-talk over a period of a week, and (3 comparing self-reported STS scores to those provided by a significant other who rated the target on the STS. Results showed that (1 overall self-talk scores, particularly self-critical and self-reinforcing self-talk, were significantly related to reports of context-specific self-talk; (2 high STS scorers reported talking to themselves significantly more often during recent events compared to low STS scorers, and, contrary to expectations, (3 friends reported less agreement than strangers in their self-other self-talk ratings. Implications of the results for the validity of the STS and for measuring self-talk are presented.

  2. Cultural values: can they explain self-reported health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roudijk, B.; Donders, R.; Stalmeier, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Self-reported health (SRH) is a measure widely used in health research and population studies. Differences in SRH have been observed between countries and cultural values have been hypothesized to partly explain such differences. Cultural values can be operationalized by two cultural

  3. Cognitive Abilities Relate to Self-Reported Hearing Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…

  4. Cognitive abilities relate to self-reported hearing disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zekveld, A.A.; George, E.L.J.; Houtgast, T.; Kramer, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH;

  5. Correlation between self-reported gestational age and ultrasound measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Thomsen, Sten Grove

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We studied the agreement between different measurements of gestational age, i.e. self-reported gestational age in the Danish National Birth Cohort Study, ultrasound-estimated gestational age from the medical records in one Danish county and gestational age from the Danish National...

  6. Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croon Marcel A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI. This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.. ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009, social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011, and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048 predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures.

  7. Psychiatric Diagnoses of Self-Reported Child Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    1993-01-01

    Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)

  8. Self-reported sexual behaviour among adolescent girls in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Information about risk factors revealed in individual interviews and by the midwives taking a history was incongruent. Any approach for management of STIs, which is built on self-reported risk factors, needs careful assessment of reliability. Keywords: Adolescents, Risk factors, reliability, STI, Uganda

  9. Self-reported Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among university students in Eldoret, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all students who gave consent to participate in the study. Setting: Moi University's Town Campus, comprising the ...

  10. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined. Results. Average ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among employed South African adults. Participant ... acquired information on physical activity habits. Questions ..... How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and ...

  11. Predicting anxiety diagnoses with the youth self-report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Empirical studies that assess which items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) are the best predictors of anxiety disorders in adolescents are lacking, whereas several attempts have been made to construct an anxiety scale for the YSR. It is important to gap the bridge between existing YSR and DSM-IV

  12. Blouse sizing using self-reported body dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Byvoet, Michel B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The challenge for companies selling clothing over the internet is to combine a minimal requested effort of the visitor in entering (body) information with low-percentage no-fit returns. The purpose of this paper is to present a method that converts self-reported information to individual

  13. Clinical skills required of ophthalmic nurse practitioners in tertiary level public hospitals in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kyriacos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a 32-year history of training ophthalmic nurse practitioners (ONPs. The role and required skills and competencies of ONPs are not well documented in the international literature and are also absent from South African publications, including South African Nursing Council publications. Aim: This study aims to inform curriculum development and human resource planning by reporting on the clinical skills expected of ONPs by members of multidisciplinary ophthalmology teams. Method: A limited survey was undertaken in the ophthalmology wards and outpatient departments of three tertiary level hospitals in the Western Cape Province. A researcher-designed structured self-completion questionnaire was distributed to 30 ophthalmology practitioners: doctors, nurses and technicians. Respondents were asked to indicate the expected clinical skills of ONPs. Findings: All questionnaires were completed. All respondents favoured ONPs taking histories and performing emergency eye irrigations. There was less support for more complex procedures, such as B-scans. One-third of respondents did not expect ONPs to have skills in eight key areas, including examination of the anterior chamber angle for glaucoma. No statistically significant differences were found between responses of doctors and nurses, with one exception: more nurses (15/18 than doctors (4/10 had confidence in the ONP undertaking basic eye examinations for ocular motility (Fisher‘s exact test, P = 0 .035. Conclusion: In the study settings, ONPs are not using their specialist skills to the full. Not all practitioners were receptive to ONPs using the skills that they had acquired during their postgraduate diploma, threatening the educational effectiveness of this initiative.

  14. Unexpected Benefits of Pre-University Skills Training for A-Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H. L.; Gaskell, E. H.; Prendergast, J. R.; Bavage, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    First-year undergraduates can find the transition from the prescriptive learning environment at school to one of self-directed learning at university, a considerable challenge. A Pre-university Skills Course (PSC) was developed to address this issue by preparing sixth formers for the university learning style. It was piloted with students in the…

  15. The Effect of Skill Level on the Timing of Childbearing and Number of Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.W. Alders (Peter)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the effect of differences in ability on the timing and number of children. Higher skilled women have less disutility of labor and have relatively less utility of raising children. Motherhood has a negative effect on the accumulation of human capital by

  16. CPAs in Mississippi: Communication Skills and Software Needed by Entry-Level Accountants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Phyllis C.; Barfit, Laurie A.; Cooper, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine what communication skills are considered most important by employers in the accounting profession as well as to determine the general office, income tax, and bookkeeping software packages used by CPA firms in Mississippi. The data was collected by means of an electronic five-point Likert-type survey…

  17. Handling the Cerebral Palsied Child: Multi-Level Skills Transfer in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, M.; Frizzell, Yvonne

    1990-01-01

    The majority of children with cerebral palsy in developing countries have no access to trained therapists; for example, in Pakistan, there is less than one trained general physiotherapist per million population. In Pakistan, cerebral palsy handling skills were taught to a group of parents, teachers, and paraprofessionals in a series of practical…

  18. Literacy Skills Gaps: A Cross-Level Analysis on International and Intergenerational Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suehye

    2018-01-01

    The global agenda for sustainable development has centred lifelong learning on UNESCO's Education 2030 Framework for Action. The study described in this article aimed to examine international and intergenerational variations in literacy skills gaps within the context of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). For this purpose, the…

  19. Psychosocial support and resilience building among health workers in Sierra Leone: interrelations between coping skills, stress levels, and interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesel, Linda; Waller, Kathryn; Dowden, Justine; Fotso, Jean Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, a shortage of properly trained, supervised, motivated and equitably distributed health workers often hinder the delivery of lifesaving interventions. Various health workforce bottlenecks can be addressed by tackling well-being and interpersonal relationships of health workers with their colleagues and clients. This paper uses data from the Helping Health Workers Cope (HHWC) project in a rural district of Sierra Leone to achieve three objectives. First, we describe the effect of counseling and psychosocial training on coping skills, stress levels, and provider-provider and provider-client relationships. Second, we examine whether a change in coping skills is associated with a change in relationships. Finally, we qualitatively identify key ways through which the uptake of coping skills is linked to a change in relationships. The HHWC project was implemented from February 2012 to June 2013 in Kono district in the Eastern province of Sierra Leone, with the neighboring district of Tonkolili selected as the control site. The evaluation followed a mixed-methods approach, which included a quantitative survey, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health workers and clients. Mean values of the variables of interest were compared across sub-populations, and correlation analyses were performed between changes in coping skills, stress levels, and changes in relationships. Overall, the results demonstrate that the HHWC intervention had a positive effect on coping skills, stress levels and provider-provider and provider-client relationships. Furthermore, associations were observed between changes in coping skills and changes in relationships as well as changes in stress management skills and changes in relationships. Psychosocial education can have major impacts on health worker well-being and the quality of health care delivery. Integrating psychosocial counseling and training interventions into health worker pre-service and

  20. Self-reported hearing loss in baby boomers from the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study: audiometric correspondence and predictive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, De Wet; Eikelboom, Robert H; Hunter, Michael L; Friedland, Peter L; Atlas, Marcus D

    2013-06-01

    The baby boomer population will become high users of the health-care system in coming years. Self-report of hearing loss at a primary health-care visit may offer timely referrals to audiological services, but there has been no population-based study of self-reported hearing loss in the baby boomer generation. To determine the clinical value and audiometric correspondence of self-reported hearing loss as a screening tool for the baby boomer population. A population-based study, Busselton Healthy Ageing Study (BHAS), surveying baby boomers born between 1946 and 1964 from the shire of Busselton, Western Australia. A randomized sample of noninstitutionalized baby-boomers listed on the electoral roll (n = 6690) and resident in the shire are eligible to participate. This study reports on data from the first 1004 attendees (53.5% female) with a mean age of 56.23 (SD = 5.43). Data from a self-report question on hearing loss and diagnostic pure tone audiometry was utilized for this study. Analysis included screening performance measures of self-report compared to audiometric cut-offs, receiver operator curve (ROC) to determine optimal level, analysis of variance to compare hearing status to self-report, and binary logistic regression to determine best audiometric predictors. Of the sample, 16% self-reported hearing loss (72.1% males). Logistic regression indicated 4000 Hz as the most important individual frequency related to self-report while the four-frequency average (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) >25 dB in the worse ear was the most significant averaged cutoff with 68% sensitivity and 87% specificity. Of those who self-reported a hearing loss, 80% had either a four-frequency average hearing loss >25 dB in the worse ear or a high-frequency average (4000 and 8000 Hz) hearing loss greater than 35 dB in the worse ear. Baby boomer adults who self-report hearing impairment on direct inquiry are most likely to have a hearing loss. A simple question at a primary health care

  1. "Let's Pick Him!" : Ratings of Skill Level on the Basis of In-Game Playing Behaviour in Bantam League Junior Ice Hockey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, E. J. Yvonne; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Lyons, Jim; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Rating a player's skill level is an essential task for coaches to select the players with greatest potential to reach the top and to further be able to adjust the training program to the skill level of the player in order to most optimally facilitate the player's learning and performance. However,

  2. Psychosocial work conditions, unemployment and self-reported psychological health: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the association between psychosocial conditions at work, unemployment and self-reported psychological health. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire for the 2000 public health survey in Scania was administered to both working and unemployed people aged 18-64 years. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between psychosocial factors at work/unemployment and self-reported psychological health (General Health Questionnaire 12). Psychosocial conditions at work were classified according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive and job strain. The multivariate analyses included age, country of origin, education, economic stress and social participation. A total of 5180 people returned their questionnaire, giving a participation rate of 59%. Fifteen per cent of men and 20% of women reported poor psychological health. Those with high demands and high control (active category), those with high demands and low control (job strain category) and the unemployed had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health compared to those with low demands and high control (relaxed category). Those with low demands and low control (passive category) did not differ significantly from the relaxed category. The associations remained in the multivariate analyses. The study found that certain psychosocial work factors are associated with higher levels of self-reported psychological ill-health and illustrates the great importance of psychosocial conditions in determining psychological health at the population level. As found elsewhere, being unemployed was an even stronger predictor of psychological ill-health.

  3. Self-Reported Empathy in Adult Women with Autism Spectrum Disorders - A Systematic Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Francien M; Groen, Yvonne; Becke, Miriam; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    There is limited research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in females. Although the empathy construct has been examined thoroughly in autism, little attention has been paid to empathy in adult women with this condition or to gender differences within the disorder. Self-reported empathy in adult women with ASD was examined and compared to that of typically developed men and women as well as to men with this condition. Online databases were searched for articles investigating self-reported empathy among adult women with ASD. Only six studies comparing women to men were identified. All studies found women with an ASD to report lower levels of empathy than typically developed women, and typically developed men, but similar levels to men with this condition. The self-reported empathic ability of women diagnosed with ASD resembles that of their male counterparts most closely; they show a hypermasculinisation in empathy. This is particularly surprising considering the large gender difference in empathy in the general population. One of the limitations of this review is that the current diagnostic criteria for ASD are oriented towards male-specific behaviour and fail to integrate gender specific characteristics. Hence, women diagnosed with ASD are likely to be at the male end of the continuum. The suggested hypermasculinisation of women on the spectrum, as evident from this review, may therefore be exaggerated due to a selection bias.

  4. Collecting Sensitive Self-Report Data with Laptop Computers: Impact on the Response Tendencies of Adolescents in a Home Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supple, Andrew J.; Aquilino, William S.; Wright, Debra L.

    1999-01-01

    Explored effects of computerized, self-administered data collection techniques in research on adolescents' self-reported substance use and psychological well-being. Adolescents completing sensitive questions on only laptop computers reported higher levels of substance use and indicated higher levels of depression and irritability; they perceived…

  5. Masculinity/femininity of the generations: as self-reported and as stereotypically appraised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, P

    1976-01-01

    Three hundred seventeen adults divided among the younger adult, middle aged, and old generations were asked (a) to judge which of the three generations was most and least masculine/feminine in overall personality style, masculine/feminine in interests and possession of gender skills, and pressured by society to do masculine/feminine sorts of things; and (b) to rate self along each of these dimensions on a Likert scale. Self-reports and beliefs about the generations did not vary as a function of membership in a generation. Young adults and middle aged were belived to be the most feminine and middle aged the most masculine in overall personality style. The middle aged were judged as possessed of the most feminine and masculine interests and the most skilled in feminine endeavors. Middle aged and young adults were judged equally possessed of masculine skills. Social pressure to do masculine and feminine activities was seen as falling equally heavily on younger adults and middle aged. The old were judged as next-most possessed of feminine skills while judged least along the other dimensions.

  6. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification Systems, and manual function was measured using the Manual Ability Classification System. [Results] Motor skills in daily activities were significantly different on Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Manual Ability Classification System level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, children categorized as Gross Motor Function Classification System level III scored lower in terms of performance based motor skills than Gross Motor Function Classification System level I children. Also, when analyzed with respect to Manual Ability Classification System level, level II was lower than level I, and level III was lower than level II in terms of performance based motor skills. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that performance-based motor skills differ among children categorized based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels of cerebral palsy.

  7. The level of physical and social skills after completion of the training program for children aged 9-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Francová

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to determine changes in physical and social indicators in participants of a table tennis training program lasting 10 months. Physical and social indicators were compared within two different research groups. Methods: Two research groups were created. The first one comprised beginners with intellectual disabilities and the reference group was created by non-disabled participants. Altogether 15 participants, aged 9-11, were included in each group. A pre-test was introduced at the beginning of the study and was followed by a post-test 10 months later. Physical parameters were evaluated with the help of individual skills tests designed for table tennis. The area of social indicators was determined according to the Scales for Assessing Coping Skills by Whelan and Speake (1979. Results: As far as physical indicators (e.g. individual skills used in table tennis are concerned, individuals with intellectual disabilities improved by 24.5%. The improvement of non-disabled population reached 11%. Positive changes in social indicators, which include self-help socio-educational issues and interpersonal skills, were seen in individuals with intellectual disabilities - the improvement reached 7%; whereas the improvement in non-disabled participants was only 2%. The obtained results were evaluated separately for each group, due to the default level in pre-tests. Having compared the two groups we learnt that individuals with intellectual disabilities reached on average 63% of the non-disabled participants. Conclusions: The training programme has brought positive changes into the lives of individuals with intellectual disabilities in all of the studied parameters, social and physical skills included. In accord with our comparative findings it has been recommended to reduce sport demands to the observed level. Also, a number, of methodological skills required for table tennis, has been modified in accordance with our

  8. Measuring and decomposing inequity in self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenko Alexandra

    2007-12-01

    recent and chronic illness, while residence in the rural Northeast was the major contributor to the tendency of the poor to report lower levels of self-assessed health compared to peers. Conclusion The findings confirm that substantial socioeconomic inequalities in health as measured by self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health exist in Thailand. Decomposition analysis shows that inequalities in health status are associated with particular demographic, socioeconomic and geographic population subgroups. Vulnerable subgroups which are prone to both ill health and relative poverty warrant targeted policy attention.

  9. The impact of the SAGE & THYME foundation level workshop on factors influencing communication skills in health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Michael; Thomas, Joanne M; Orford, Julie A; Schofield, Nicola; Whiteside, Sigrid; Morris, Julie; Heaven, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    The "SAGE & THYME Foundation Level Workshop" delivers evidence-based communication skills training to 30 health care workers in 3 hours. It teaches a structured approach (the SAGE & THYME model) to discuss patient/carer concerns. The aim of this study was to determine whether the workshop had a positive outcome on factors that influence communication skills. The study had a pragmatic, mixed methods design. Workshops were run in an acute hospital. One hundred seventy health care workers completed questionnaires pre- and post-workshop; 141 were sent follow-up questionnaires at 2 weeks and 2 months; and 9 were filmed talking to a simulated patient pre- and post-workshop. From pre- to post-workshop, there was a significant increase in knowledge (p communication skills knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy of hospital health care workers who are predominantly white, female, nursing, or nonclinical staff. This suggests that the workshop may have a positive impact on some factors influencing communication skills in this group. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  10. Social capital, political trust and self-reported psychological health: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Martin; Mohseni, Mohabbat

    2009-02-01

    This study investigates the association between political trust (an aspect of institutional trust) in the Riksdag (the national parliament in Sweden) and self-reported psychological health, taking generalized (horizontal) trust in other people into account. The 2004 public health survey in Skåne in Southern Sweden is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study that was answered by 27,757 respondents aged 18-80 yielding a 59% response rate. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the associations between political trust and self-reported psychological health adjusting for possible confounders (age, country of origin, education, economic stress and generalized trust in other people i.e. horizontal trust). We found that 13.0% of the men and 18.9% of the women reported poor psychological health. A total of 17.3% and 11.6% of the male and female respondents, respectively, reported that they had no trust at all in the national parliament, and another 38.2% and 36.2%, respectively, reported that their political trust was not particularly high. Respondents in younger age groups, born abroad, with high education, high levels of economic stress, low horizontal trust and low political trust had significantly higher levels of self-reported poor psychological health. There was a significant association between low political trust and low horizontal trust. After adjustments for age, country of origin, education and economic stress, the inclusion of horizontal trust reduced the odds ratios of self-reported poor psychological health in the "no political trust at all" category compared to the "very high political trust" category from 1.6 to 1.4 among men and from 1.7 to 1.4 among women. It is concluded that low political trust in the Riksdag seems to be significantly and positively associated with poor mental health.

  11. A cross-sectional study of self-reported general health, lifestyle factors, and disease: the Hordaland Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Jepsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Information on self-reported health is important for health professionals, and the aim of this study was to examine associations between lifestyle factors and self-reported health and the mediating effect of disease in a Norwegian population.Methods and Materials. The data collection was conducted as part of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK 1997–99, which was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. All individuals in Hordaland county born in 1953–1957 were invited to participate (aged 40–44 years. Complete information for the present study was obtained from 12,883 individuals (44% response rate. Height and weight were measured at a physical examination. Information on lifestyle factors, self-reported health, disease (heart attack, apoplexy, angina pectoris, and diabetes, and socio-demographic variables was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported health was measured with a one-item question. Odds ratios for fair or poor self-reported health were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for disease and socio-demographic variables.Results. Respondents reporting adverse lifestyle behaviours (obesity (odds ratio (OR 1.7, p < 0.001, smoking (OR 1.2, p < 0.001, or excessive intake of alcohol (OR 3.3, p < 0.001 showed an increased risk of poor self-reported health. Furthermore, a moderate intake of wine (OR 0.6, p < 0.001 or strenuous physical activity (OR 0.5, p < 0.001 decreased the risk of poor health. Disease did not mediate the effect.Conclusion. A one-item question measuring self-reported health may be a suitable measure for health professionals to identify levels of subjective health and reveal a need to target lifestyle factors in relatively young individuals with or without disease.

  12. The effect of anger management levels and communication skills of Emergency Department staff on being exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz Das, Gozde; Aydin Avci, Ilknur

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of anger management levels and communication skills of emergency department staff on their frequency of being exposed to violence. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey between 11 April and 15 October 2013 by using a questionnaire including descriptive features, anger management scale, and communication skills scale applied to 283 health personnel working in children and adult emergency department clinics. Statistically significant differences were found between the health workers' ages and their anger control levels, marital status and anger-in and anger control levels, working position and anger-in levels, and between anger-in, anger-out and anger control levels based on their level of education. Statistically significant differences were also found between age and communication levels based on the personnel's working position. Statistically significant difference between the anger-in subscale of health personnel based on their state of being exposed to violence was found (78.4% of the health workers had been exposed to violence). In the in-service programs of institutions, there should be trainings conducted about anger management and effective communication techniques so that the health personnel can be aware of their own feelings and express anger in a suitable way

  13. The effect of anger management levels and communication skills of Emergency Department staff on being exposed to violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GozdeYildiz Das

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine the effect of anger management levels and communication skills of emergency department staff on their frequency of being exposed to violence. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey between 11 April and 15 October 2013 by using a questionnaire including descriptive features, anger management scale, and communication skills scale applied to 283 health personnel working in children and adult emergency department clinics. Results Statistically significant differences were found between the health workers’ ages and their anger control levels, marital status and anger-in and anger control levels, working position and anger-in levels, and between anger-in, anger-out and anger control levels based on their level of education. Statistically significant differences were also found between age and communication levels based on the personnel’s working position. Statistically significant difference between the anger-in subscale of health personnel based on their state of being exposed to violence was found (78.4% of the health workers had been exposed to violence. Conclusion In the in-service programs of institutions, there should be trainings conducted about anger management and effective communication techniques so that the health personnel can be aware of their own feelings and express anger in a suitable way.

  14. Relationship between empathy skill levels and job selection: A study on business administration students

    OpenAIRE

    TATARLAR, Ceren Deniz; CERİT, A.Güldem

    2016-01-01

    Every person needs to earn money and take care of themselves in order to obtain and maintain their standards of living by finding a job that suits their needs and qualifications. Since their first educational period, each person has chosen different paths in their professional/educational life. In professional life, different jobs have different requirements. For example some jobs require more social and people skills than others. Empathy, which is our concern in this paper, is one of these p...

  15. Differences on the Level of Social Skills between Freshman Computer Gamers and Non-Gamers

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph B. Campit

    2015-01-01

    Computer games play a large role in socialization and the consequences of playing them have been a topic of debates. This observation led the researcher to conduct the study about the influence of computer games on the social skills of the BSIT first year students of Pangasinan State University, Bayambang Campus, during school year 2012-2013. This study determined the profile of the 115 BSIT first year students according to: preferred computer games and frequency of playing. It in...

  16. Evaluation of Listening Skill of ELT Textbook at Secondary School Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Textbook evaluation means development of textbook that is based on rigorous research. In Pakistan text books are designed on communicative language teaching which focuses on communication. Morley (1991 has asserted that listening has a critical role in communication and in language acquisition because the better the students understand, the better they will be able to speak. In our text books, listening practices (text and activities are missing, and listening plays a secondary role as compared to speaking, as it is part of oral work that are dialogues and role play, neglecting that during conversation in English our students face hurdles in quick thinking and accurate predicting because of ignoring listening skill which help in learning sound, rhythm, intonation, pronunciation, vocabulary and grammatical details. The researchers’ intention here is to put different views on importance of listening skill and to evaluate English Text Books prescribed in Punjab government school whether they contain listening material, corresponding activities and related audio video material in text books. Keywords: Evaluation, listening skill, ELT, textbook, Punjab Textbook Board (PTB

  17. Effect of communication skill training using group psychoeducation method on the stress level of psychiatry ward nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazavi, Zahra; Lohrasbi, Fatemeh; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2010-12-01

    Nursing is a dynamic and supportive job, with the main role of taking care of patients. Maintaining appropriate communication of the nurse with the patients is particularly known as the main core of care in mental health. However, in spite of the importance of providing communication, one of the main sources of stress in nurses of psychiatry wards is communication with the patients. Some important reasons for inappropriate relationship between the nurse and patient can be lack of necessary skills to communicate with patients because of insufficient training. Although training communication skills is an important part of the education of medical and paramedical students, in recent studies it has been demonstrated that the communication skills learned in theoretical courses would not necessarily be transferred to clinical settings, and proving training in clinical settings is a must. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of training communication skills using psychoeducation method on the stress level of nurses of psychiatry wards in 2010. This is a quasi-experimental study. The participants were 45 nurses; 23 and 22 in the experiment and control groups, respectively, working in psychiatry wards of Noor and Farabi hospitals, Isfahan, Iran. The sampling was carried out by the census method, and then the participants were randomly assigned to the two groups of experiment and control, using random number table. The two groups filled out the demographic data form and also the questionnaire on nurses' occupational stress, designed by the researcher. The questionnaire was filled out three times; before, immediately after, and one month after the training. Training of communication skills was carried out using group psychoeducation method, in six sessions, each lasted for 1.5 hours. The training sessions of the experiment group were held in Farabi Hospital. The findings indicated that before the intervention, the members of the two groups had a high

  18. Plyometric Training Improves Sprinting, Jumping and Throwing Capacities of High Level Female Volleyball Players Better Than Skill-Based Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Gjinovci, Kemal Idrizovic, Ognjen Uljevic, Damir Sekulic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an evident lack of studies on the effectiveness of plyometric- and skill-based-conditioning in volleyball. This study aimed to evaluate effects of 12-week plyometric- and volleyball-skill-based training on specific conditioning abilities in female volleyball players. The sample included 41 high-level female volleyball players (21.8 ± 2.1 years of age; 1.76 ± 0.06 cm; 60.8 ± 7.0 kg, who participated in plyometric- (n = 21, or skill-based-conditioning-program (n = 20. Both programs were performed twice per week. Participants were tested on body-height, body-mass (BM, countermovement jump (CMJ, standing broad jump (SBJ, medicine ball throw, (MBT and 20-m sprint (S20M. All tests were assessed at the study baseline (pre- and at the end of the 12-week programs (post-testing. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements showed significant (p<0.05 “Group x Time” effects for all variables but body-height. Plyometric group significantly reduced body-mass (trivial effect size [ES] differences; 1% average pre- to post-measurement changes, and improved their performance in S20M (moderate ES; 8%, MBT (very large ES; 25%, CMJ (large ES; 27%, and SBJ (moderate ES; 8%. Players involved in skill-based-conditioning significantly improved CMJ (large ES; 18%, SBJ (small ES; 3%, and MBT (large ES; 9%. The changes which occurred between pre- and post-testing were more inter-correlated in plyometric-group. Although both training-modalities induced positive changes in jumping- and throwing-capacities, plyometric-training is found to be more effective than skill-based conditioning in improvement of conditioning capacities of female senior volleyball players. Future studies should evaluate differential program effects in less experienced and younger players.

  19. Plyometric Training Improves Sprinting, Jumping and Throwing Capacities of High Level Female Volleyball Players Better Than Skill-Based Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjinovci, Bahri; Idrizovic, Kemal; Uljevic, Ognjen; Sekulic, Damir

    2017-12-01

    There is an evident lack of studies on the effectiveness of plyometric- and skill-based-conditioning in volleyball. This study aimed to evaluate effects of 12-week plyometric- and volleyball-skill-based training on specific conditioning abilities in female volleyball players. The sample included 41 high-level female volleyball players (21.8 ± 2.1 years of age; 1.76 ± 0.06 cm; 60.8 ± 7.0 kg), who participated in plyometric- (n = 21), or skill-based-conditioning-program (n = 20). Both programs were performed twice per week. Participants were tested on body-height, body-mass (BM), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing broad jump (SBJ), medicine ball throw, (MBT) and 20-m sprint (S20M). All tests were assessed at the study baseline (pre-) and at the end of the 12-week programs (post-testing). Two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements showed significant (pPlyometric group significantly reduced body-mass (trivial effect size [ES] differences; 1% average pre- to post-measurement changes), and improved their performance in S20M (moderate ES; 8%), MBT (very large ES; 25%), CMJ (large ES; 27%), and SBJ (moderate ES; 8%). Players involved in skill-based-conditioning significantly improved CMJ (large ES; 18%), SBJ (small ES; 3%), and MBT (large ES; 9%). The changes which occurred between pre- and post-testing were more inter-correlated in plyometric-group. Although both training-modalities induced positive changes in jumping- and throwing-capacities, plyometric-training is found to be more effective than skill-based conditioning in improvement of conditioning capacities of female senior volleyball players. Future studies should evaluate differential program effects in less experienced and younger players.

  20. Comparison of Loneliness and Social Skill Levels of Children with Specific Learning Disabilities in Terms of Participation in Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atike Yılmaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to compare loneliness and social skill levels of children with specific learning disabilities in terms of participation in sports. For this study, a screening model was used. The study group was composed of 56 children who were aged between 7 and 14 years and diagnosed with a specific learning disability (30 boys and 26 girls. “Personal Information Form”, “Children’s Loneliness Scale”, “Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters (MESSY” were used in this study. For the data processes and data analyses, SPSS 22 was used. According to the test of normality, non-parametric tests were employed for those data that did not follow a normal distribution and the correlations among variables were tested with correlation analysis at p < 0.05 while differences among variables were tested with Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests at p < 0.05. According to the findings obtained in this study, there were no significant differences in terms of sex, the number of family members and the number of brothers and sisters while there were significant correlations in terms of age, sports status, MESSY-subscales and loneliness. In sum, it may be concluded that sports played a positive role in social skill and loneliness levels among children with specific learning disabilities.

  1. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and associated features in German adolescents: A self-report survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möllmann, Anne; Dietel, Fanny A; Hunger, Antje; Buhlmann, Ulrike

    2017-08-01

    Prior research has not yet investigated the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in adolescents and young adults based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). In the current study, the point prevalence of BDD, comorbid symptoms, and associated features, such as appearance-related suicidality, level of insight or history of plastic surgeries, were examined in a non-clinical sample of German adolescents and young adults (n=308), between 15 and 21 years old, using self-report measures. Eleven participants (3.6%; 95% CI=[1.9, 5.8]) met DSM-5 criteria for BDD. Self-reported BDD (vs. no-BDD) was related to respondents showing significantly more obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and lower degrees of insight regarding appearance concerns. Significantly more adolescents and young adults with vs. without self-reported BDD (36.4% vs. 8.8%) reported appearance-related suicidal ideation. In conclusion, body dysmorphic symptoms are common in adolescents and young adults and are associated with high rates of comorbid symptoms and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. General trust impedes perception of self-reported primary psychopathy in thin slices of social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joseph H; Gervais, Matthew M; Bryant, Gregory A

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about people's ability to detect subclinical psychopathy from others' quotidian social behavior, or about the correlates of variation in this ability. This study sought to address these questions using a thin slice personality judgment paradigm. We presented 108 undergraduate judges (70.4% female) with 1.5 minute video thin slices of zero-acquaintance triadic conversations among other undergraduates (targets: n = 105, 57.1% female). Judges completed self-report measures of general trust, caution, and empathy. Target individuals had completed the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy (LSRP) scale. Judges viewed the videos in one of three conditions: complete audio, silent, or audio from which semantic content had been removed using low-pass filtering. Using a novel other-rating version of the LSRP, judges' ratings of targets' primary psychopathy levels were significantly positively associated with targets' self-reports, but only in the complete audio condition. Judge general trust and target LSRP interacted, such that judges higher in general trust made less accurate judgments with respect to targets higher in primary and total psychopathy. Results are consistent with a scenario in which psychopathic traits are maintained in human populations by negative frequency dependent selection operating through the costs of detecting psychopathy in others.

  4. General trust impedes perception of self-reported primary psychopathy in thin slices of social interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H Manson

    Full Text Available Little is known about people's ability to detect subclinical psychopathy from others' quotidian social behavior, or about the correlates of variation in this ability. This study sought to address these questions using a thin slice personality judgment paradigm. We presented 108 undergraduate judges (70.4% female with 1.5 minute video thin slices of zero-acquaintance triadic conversations among other undergraduates (targets: n = 105, 57.1% female. Judges completed self-report measures of general trust, caution, and empathy. Target individuals had completed the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy (LSRP scale. Judges viewed the videos in one of three conditions: complete audio, silent, or audio from which semantic content had been removed using low-pass filtering. Using a novel other-rating version of the LSRP, judges' ratings of targets' primary psychopathy levels were significantly positively associated with targets' self-reports, but only in the complete audio condition. Judge general trust and target LSRP interacted, such that judges higher in general trust made less accurate judgments with respect to targets higher in primary and total psychopathy. Results are consistent with a scenario in which psychopathic traits are maintained in human populations by negative frequency dependent selection operating through the costs of detecting psychopathy in others.

  5. Accuracy of self-reported versus actual online gambling wins and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Julia; Tom, Matthew A; Shaffer, Howard J

    2014-09-01

    This study is the first to compare the accuracy of self-reported with actual monetary outcomes of online fixed odds sports betting, live action sports betting, and online casino gambling at the individual level of analysis. Subscribers to bwin.party digital entertainment's online gambling service volunteered to respond to the Brief Bio-Social Gambling Screen and questions about their estimated gambling results on specific games for the last 3 or 12 months. We compared the estimated results of each subscriber with his or her actual betting results data. On average, between 34% and 40% of the participants expressed a favorable distortion of their gambling outcomes (i.e., they underestimated losses or overestimated gains) depending on the time period and game. The size of the discrepancy between actual and self-reported results was consistently associated with the self-reported presence of gambling-related problems. However, the specific direction of the reported discrepancy (i.e., favorable vs. unfavorable bias) was not associated with gambling-related problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Laboratory and Self-Report Methods to Assess Reappraisal and Distraction in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, Alexandra H; Henry, Lauren; Prussien, Kemar V; Vreeland, Allison; Smith, Michele; Adery, Laura H; Compas, Bruce E

    2018-06-07

    Coping and emotion regulation are central features of risk and resilience in childhood and adolescence, but research on these constructs has relied on different methods of assessment. The current study aimed to bridge the gap between questionnaire and experimental methods of measuring secondary control coping strategies, specifically distraction and cognitive reappraisal, and examine associations with symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth. A community sample of 70 youth (ages 9-15) completed a novel experimental coping and emotion regulation paradigm and self-report measures of coping and emotion regulation and symptoms. Findings indicate that use of distraction and reappraisal during the laboratory paradigm was associated with lower levels of negative emotion during the task. Youth emotion ratings while implementing distraction, but not reappraisal, during the laboratory task were associated with youth self-reported use of secondary control coping in response to family stress. Youth symptoms of anxiety and depression were also significantly positively associated with negative emotion ratings during the laboratory task, and both laboratory task and self-reported coping and emotion regulation accounted for significant variance in symptoms in youth. Both questionnaire and laboratory methods to assess coping and emotion regulation in youth are important for understanding these processes as possible mechanisms of risk and resilience and continued integration of these methods is a priority for future research.

  7. Efficient replication of over 180 genetic associations with self-reported medical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Joyce Y; Do, Chuong B; Hinds, David A; Kiefer, Amy K; Macpherson, J Michael; Chowdry, Arnab B; Francke, Uta; Naughton, Brian T; Mountain, Joanna L; Wojcicki, Anne; Eriksson, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    While the cost and speed of generating genomic data have come down dramatically in recent years, the slow pace of collecting medical data for large cohorts continues to hamper genetic research. Here we evaluate a novel online framework for obtaining large amounts of medical information from a recontactable cohort by assessing our ability to replicate genetic associations using these data. Using web-based questionnaires, we gathered self-reported data on 50 medical phenotypes from a generally unselected cohort of over 20,000 genotyped individuals. Of a list of genetic associations curated by NHGRI, we successfully replicated about 75% of the associations that we expected to (based on the number of cases in our cohort and reported odds ratios, and excluding a set of associations with contradictory published evidence). Altogether we replicated over 180 previously reported associations, including many for type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, cholesterol levels, and multiple sclerosis. We found significant variation across categories of conditions in the percentage of expected associations that we were able to replicate, which may reflect systematic inflation of the effects in some initial reports, or differences across diseases in the likelihood of misdiagnosis or misreport. We also demonstrated that we could improve replication success by taking advantage of our recontactable cohort, offering more in-depth questions to refine self-reported diagnoses. Our data suggest that online collection of self-reported data from a recontactable cohort may be a viable method for both broad and deep phenotyping in large populations.

  8. Efficient replication of over 180 genetic associations with self-reported medical data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Y Tung

    Full Text Available While the cost and speed of generating genomic data have come down dramatically in recent years, the slow pace of collecting medical data for large cohorts continues to hamper genetic research. Here we evaluate a novel online framework for obtaining large amounts of medical information from a recontactable cohort by assessing our ability to replicate genetic associations using these data. Using web-based questionnaires, we gathered self-reported data on 50 medical phenotypes from a generally unselected cohort of over 20,000 genotyped individuals. Of a list of genetic associations curated by NHGRI, we successfully replicated about 75% of the associations that we expected to (based on the number of cases in our cohort and reported odds ratios, and excluding a set of associations with contradictory published evidence. Altogether we replicated over 180 previously reported associations, including many for type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, cholesterol levels, and multiple sclerosis. We found significant variation across categories of conditions in the percentage of expected associations that we were able to replicate, which may reflect systematic inflation of the effects in some initial reports, or differences across diseases in the likelihood of misdiagnosis or misreport. We also demonstrated that we could improve replication success by taking advantage of our recontactable cohort, offering more in-depth questions to refine self-reported diagnoses. Our data suggest that online collection of self-reported data from a recontactable cohort may be a viable method for both broad and deep phenotyping in large populations.

  9. Age differences in cognitive performance in later life: relationships to self-reported health and activity life style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, D F; Hammer, M; Small, B J

    1993-01-01

    The predictive relationships among individual differences in self-reported physical health and activity life style and performance on an array of information processing and intellectual ability measures were examined. A sample of 484 men and women aged 55 to 86 years completed a battery of cognitive tasks measuring verbal processing time, working memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency, world knowledge, word recall, and text recall. Hierarchical regression was used to predict performance on these tasks from measures of self-reported physical health, alcohol and tobacco use, and level of participation in everyday activities. The results indicated: (a) individual differences in self-reported health and activity predicted performance on multiple cognitive measures; (b) self-reported health was more predictive of processing resource variables than knowledge-based abilities; (c) interaction effects indicated that participation in cognitively demanding activities was more highly related to performance on some measures for older adults than for middle-aged adults; and (d) age-related differences in performance on multiple measures were attenuated by partialing individual differences in self-reported health and activity.

  10. Unintentional injury and its prevention in infant: knowledge and self-reported practices of main caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdzan, Siti Nurkamilla; Liew, Su May; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2014-05-29

    Unintentional injuries are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Prevention of unintentional injuries has been shown to be effective with education. Understanding the level of knowledge and practices of caregivers in infant safety would be useful to identify gaps for improvement. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban government health clinic in Malaysia among main caregivers of infants aged 11 to 15 months. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a semi-structured self-designed questionnaire. Responses to the items were categorised by the percentage of correct answers: poor (70%). A total of 403 caregivers participated in the study. Of the 21 items in the questionnaire on knowledge, 19 had good-to-moderate responses and two had poor responses. The two items on knowledge with poor responses were on the use of infant walkers (26.8%) and allowing infants on motorcycles as pillion riders (27.3%). Self-reported practice of infant safety was poor. None of the participants followed all 19 safety practices measured. Eight (42.1%) items on self-reported practices had poor responses. The worst three of these were on the use of baby cots (16.4%), avoiding the use of infant walkers (23.8%) and putting infants to sleep in the supine position (25.6%). Better knowledge was associated with self-reported safety practices in infants (p safety was good but self-reported practice was poor. Further research in the future is required to identify interventions that target these potentially harmful practices.

  11. Association between urban green space and self-reported lifestyle-related disorders in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilla, Ihlebæk; Geir, Aamodt; Renata, Aradi; Bjørgulf, Claussen; Halvorsen, Thorén Kine

    2017-10-01

    The need for studies from more countries on the relationship between urban green space and health has been emphasized. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between two types of measurement of urban green space and self-reported lifestyle-related disorders in Oslo, Norway. Self-reported measures on mental disorders, asthma, type 2 diabetes and musculoskeletal pain of 8638 participants in the Oslo Health Study (HUBRO) were linked to two types of green space variables: the vegetation cover greenness derived from satellite data, which shows the city's vegetation cover regardless of property boundaries, and the land use greenness derived from municipal plans showing information about publicly accessible vegetation-covered areas. Associations between greenness and health measures were analysed by logistic regression models controlling for possible individual and contextual confounders. Increasing vegetation cover greenness was associated with fewer self-reported mental disorders for both men and women after controlling for possible confounders. The proportion of women who reported high levels of musculoskeletal pain increased with increasing degrees of both of the greenness measurements, but no significant association was observed for men. No association was found for asthma and diabetes type 2 for either men or women. Although there was a positive association between vegetation cover greenness and self-reported mental disorders, the main findings showed mixed results. The lack of clear associations between urban green space and lifestyle-related health disorders in Oslo might have been influenced by a large proportion of the inhabitants having easy access to green areas.

  12. Accurate assessment of adherence: self-report and clinician report vs electronic monitoring of nebulizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Tracey; Goodacre, Lynne; Sutton, Chris; Pollard, Kim; Conway, Steven; Peckham, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    People with cystic fibrosis have a high treatment burden. While uncertainty remains about individual patient level of adherence to medication, treatment regimens are difficult to tailor, and interventions are difficult to evaluate. Self- and clinician-reported measures are routinely used despite criticism that they overestimate adherence. This study assessed agreement between rates of adherence to prescribed nebulizer treatments when measured by self-report, clinician report, and electronic monitoring suitable for long-term use. Seventy-eight adults with cystic fibrosis were questioned about their adherence to prescribed nebulizer treatments over the previous 3 months. Self-report was compared with clinician report and stored adherence data downloaded from the I-Neb nebulizer system. Adherence measures were expressed as a percentage of the prescribed regimen, bias was estimated by the paired difference in mean (95% CI) patient and clinician reported and actual adherence. Agreement between adherence measures was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (95% CI), and disagreements for individuals were displayed using Bland-Altman plots. Patient-identified prescriptions matched the medical record prescription. Median self-reported adherence was 80% (interquartile range, 60%-95%), whereas median adherence measured by nebulizer download was 36% (interquartile range, 5%-84.5%). Nine participants overmedicated and underreported adherence. Median clinician report ranged from 50% to 60%, depending on profession. Extensive discrepancies between self-report and clinician report compared with nebulizer download were identified for individuals. Self- and clinician-reporting of adherence does not provide accurate measurement of adherence when compared with electronic monitoring. Using inaccurate measures has implications for treatment burden, clinician prescribing practices, cost, and accuracy of trial data.

  13. Self-reported delinquency in a probation service in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lylla Cysne Frota D'Abreu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International research shows that self-reported delinquency is a successful strategy to improve data collection on the identification of the so-called "dark figure", ie, offenses that are not reported to the justice system. This technique, however, is still little used in Brazil. Through documentary research from data archive, this study described the socio-demographic variables and the severity of unofficial delinquency of a sample of 211 adolescents who attended a probation service in Brazil. The results showed that adolescents in conflict with the law have delinquent engagement with higher polymorphism and intensity than the official data are able to identify. Self-reported delinquency can improve data collection, provide more reliable rates and guide more assertive intervention actions in these services.

  14. The Percentage of Body Fat in Children and the Level of their Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prskalo, Ivan; Badrić, Marko; Kunješić, Mateja

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary education pupils and to identify differences in motor skills between normal weight, excessive and obese pupils. Partial aim was to determine differences in motor status of girls and boys and their anthropometric characteristics (Body Mass Index, body fat percentage). The study was conducted in two primary schools in Zagreb, Ivan Goran Kovačić and Davorin Trstenjak. Total of 333 pupils, aged 7-11, were measured (178 boys and 155 girls). Four anthropometric and seven motor variables were used to analyze differences in motor abilities of children. Children were divided into three groups within gender based on their body fat measures. We established a statistically significant difference in motor abilities between groups of subjects in three subsamples (1st-2nd class girls and 3rd-4th boys and girls). Children with normal weight have better results in explosive strength, coordination, static strength of arm and shoulder than children who are overweight and obese. The differences are not observed in motor variables where body weight is not a requisite for efficient execution of movement. Differences in motor skills by gender showed that boys are better in coordination, speed of the simple movements, explosive and repetitive strength, and girls are better in flexibility. The conclusion of this study confirmed the existence of differences in the development of motor skills in children with normal body weight compared to children who are overweight or obese. These facts prove that excessive body weight has negative repercussions on motor performance.

  15. Self-Reported bruxism and associated factors in Israeli adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emodi Perlman, A; Lobbezoo, F; Zar, A; Friedman Rubin, P; van Selms, M K A; Winocur, E

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the epidemiological characteristics of sleep and awake bruxism (SB and AB) in adolescents. The aims of the study were: to assess the prevalence rates of self-reported SB and AB in Israeli adolescents; to determine the associations between SB/AB and several demographical, exogenous and psychosocial factors in Israeli adolescents; and to investigate the possible concordance between SB and AB. The study made use of a questionnaire. The study population included 1000 students from different high schools in the centre of Israel. Prevalence of self-reported SB and AB in the Israeli adolescents studied was 9·2% and 19·2%, respectively. No gender difference was found regarding the prevalence of SB and AB. Multiple variable regression analysis revealed that the following predicting variables were related to SB: temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002) and feeling stressed (P = 0·001). The following predicting variables were related to AB: age (P = 0·018), temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002), oro-facial pain (P = 0·006), and feeling stressed (P = 0·002) or sad (P = 0·006). A significant association was found between SB and AB; that is, an individual reporting SB had a higher probability of reporting AB compared with an individual who did not report SB (odds ratio = 5·099). Chewing gum was the most common parafunction reported by adolescents. The results of this study demonstrate that self-reports of AB and SB are common in the Israeli adolescents population studied and are not related to gender. The significant correlation found between SB and AB may be a confounding bias that affects proper diagnosis of bruxism through self-reported questionnaires only. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fundamental movement skills and physical fitness as predictors of physical activity: A 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, T; Yli-Piipari, S; Huotari, P; Watt, A; Liukkonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which fundamental movement skills and physical fitness scores assessed in early adolescence predict self-reported physical activity assessed 6 years later. The sample comprised 333 (200 girls, 133 boys; M age = 12.41) students. The effects of previous physical activity, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were controlled in the main analyses. Adolescents' fundamental movement skills, physical fitness, self-report physical activity, and BMI were collected at baseline, and their self-report energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents: METs) and intensity of physical activity were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire 6 years later. Results showed that fundamental movement skills predicted METs, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity levels, whereas fitness predicted METs, moderate, and vigorous physical activity levels. Hierarchical regression analyses also showed that after controlling for previous levels of physical activity, sex, and BMI, the size of the effect of fundamental movement skills and physical fitness on energy expenditure and physical activity intensity was moderate (R(2) change between 0.06 and 0.15), with the effect being stronger for high intensity physical activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification S...

  18. Text mining a self-report back-translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2016-06-01

    There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. A Self-report of reading disabilities for adults: ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Giménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a self-report questionnaire on reading-writing difficulties for adults in Spanish (ATLAS is presented. Studies that use self-report questionnaires as a tool for screening of reading-writing difficulties in adults were reviewed. Two studies were carried out to determine the validity and reliability of ATLAS. The first study was aimed to select the critical items and to assess their reliability and their ability to discriminate. In the second study the assessment reported through the answers to the questionnaire was contrasted with the results of psychometric tests. Results showed that (a items were suitable descriptors for adult difficulties, (b there were significant correlations between self-report scores and reading measures, and (c the items discriminate between good and poor readers. The results of this study demonstrated that ATLAS is a sensitive tool to screen adults with reading difficulties. As a further advantage, ATLAS is an easy-to-use and time-saving instrument.

  20. An interprofessional approach to teaching communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Joan; MacLeod, Tanya; Murray, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that effective interprofessional communication and collaboration can positively influence patient satisfaction and outcomes. Health professional communication skills do not necessarily improve over time but can improve with formal communication skills training (CST). This article describes the development, evaluation, and lessons learned for a novel theater-based role-play CST program designed to improve community cancer care for patients and families by enhancing health care professionals' communication skills. Four 2-hour interprofessional communication skills workshops for Nova Scotia health professionals were developed. Topics were (1) Essential Communication Skills, (2) Delivering Difficult News and Providing Support, (3) When Patients and Families Are Angry, and (4) Managing Conflict in the Workplace. Strategies for enhancing communication skills based on the science (evidence-based practice and teaching) and the art (interactive theater) of communication skills were included. Facilitators included professional actors, communication skills facilitators, and trained health professionals. We used a mixed-methods evaluation design assessing 4 levels of educational outcomes at 3 points: pre- and post-workshop and follow-up. Five hundred eighteen professionals representing over 20 health professions attended 17 workshops. Data showed the workshops were well received, despite some discomfort with role-playing. Pre/post paired t-tests of self-reported communication skills showed significant improvement after all workshops (p ≤ 0.05); 92% indicated intended changes to their communication practice immediately following the workshops. Of 68 respondents to the follow-up, 59 (87%) reported positive changes in the responses of their patients. Both positive and negative lessons learned are described. Copyright © 2011 The Alliance for Continuing Medical Education, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME

  1. Perceptions of community, social capital, and how they affect self-reported health: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadkowiec, O; Meissen, G J; Merkle, E C

    2017-11-01

    The link between social capital and self-reported health has been widely explored. On the other hand, we know less about the relationship between social capital, community socioeconomic characteristics, and non-social capital-related individual differences, and about their impact on self-reported health in community settings. Cross-sectional study design with a proportional sample of 7965 individuals from 20 US communities were analyzed using multilevel linear regression models, where individuals were nested within communities. The response rates ranged from 13.5% to 25.4%. Findings suggest that perceptions of the community and individual level socioeconomic characteristics were stronger predictors of self-reported health than were social capital or community socioeconomic characteristics. Policy initiatives aimed at increasing social capital should first assess community member's perceptions of their communities to uncover potential assets to help increase social capital. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition profiles and their relationship to self-reported outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman-Smith, Yasmin E; Mathias, Jane L; Bowden, Stephen C; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Bigler, Erin D

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments of outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often unrelated to self-reported problems after TBI. The current study cluster-analyzed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) subtest scores from mild, moderate, and severe TBI (n=220) and orthopedic injury control (n=95) groups, to determine whether specific cognitive profiles are related to people's perceived outcomes after TBI. A two-stage cluster analysis produced 4- and 6-cluster solutions, with the 6-cluster solution better capturing subtle variations in cognitive functioning. The 6 clusters differed in the levels and profiles of cognitive performance, self-reported recovery, and education and injury severity. The findings suggest that subtle cognitive impairments after TBI should be interpreted in conjunction with patient's self-reported problems.

  3. The Relationship between Self-Reported Executive Functioning and Risk-Taking Behavior in Urban Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Joshua; Kaylegian, Jaeson; Smith, Dale; Hunter, Scott J

    2018-01-03

    Introduction: Almost 2 million U.S. youth are estimated to live on the streets, in shelters, or in other types of temporary housing at some point each year. Both their age and living situations make them more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, particularly during adolescence, a time of increased risk taking. Much of self-control appears related to the development of the prefrontal cortex, which is at a particularly crucial period of elaboration and refinement during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Executive processes like decision-making, inhibition, planning, and reasoning may be vulnerable to adversity experienced as a result of homelessness and related impoverishment during childhood and adolescence. No study to date, to our knowledge, has directly investigated differences in risk-taking by homeless youth as it relates to their developing executive control. Objective: Examine the relationship between the level of self-reported executive function (EF) and engagement in risk taking behaviors among a sample of shelter-living urban homeless youth. We predicted that homeless youth who have lower levels of self-reported EF would more readily engage in risky behaviors that could lead to negative outcomes. Participants: One hundred and forty-nine youths between 18 and 22 years of age were recruited from homeless agencies in Chicago. Of this study sample, 53% were female and 76% African American. Measures: All participants completed, as part of a broader neuropsychological assessment, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Analyses: Groups were separated based on level of self-reported EF, with two groups identified: High self-reported EF fell >1 SD above the normative average, and low self-reported EF fell >1 SD below the normative average. All analyses utilized Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results and

  4. Prenatal exposure to low-level methylmercury alters the child's fine motor skills at the age of 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prpić, Igor; Milardović, Ana; Vlašić-Cicvarić, Inge; Špiric, Zdravko; Radić Nišević, Jelena; Vukelić, Petar; Snoj Tratnik, Janja; Mazej, Darja; Horvat, Milena

    2017-01-01

    To compare motor, cognitive and language characteristics in children aged 18 months who were prenatally exposed to low-level methyl-mercury (MeHg), and to analyze the eventual differences in these characteristics in relation to cord blood THg concentration. The total number of 205 child-mother pairs was included in the study, and total cord blood mercury was measured in 198 of them. Out of the 198 already measured samples, 47 of them have also been tested for methyl-mercury in cord blood. Data regarding the 47 samples of MeHg levels has been used for calculating the correlation between cord blood THg and cord blood MeHg. MeHg and THg showed a significant correlation (r=0.95, pmotor, cognitive and language skills were conducted on 168 children using The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). Regarding the cord blood THg concentration, 135 children were divided in 4 quartile groups. Their neurodevelopmental characteristics have been compared. The cord blood THg concentration median and inter-quartile range was 2.98ng/g (1.41-5.61ng/g). There was a negative correlation between cord blood THg concentration and fine motor skills (rho=-0.22, p=0.01). It is evident that children grouped in 2nd ,3rd and 4th quartile had statistically significant lower fine motor skills assessment related to those grouped in 1st quartile (2nd quartile -1.24, p=0.03; 3rd quartile -1.28, p=0.03; 4th quartile -1.45, p=0.01). The differences in fine motor skills assessments between children in 2nd and 3rd and 3rd and 4th quartile were not statistically significant. Intrauterine exposure to low-level THg (MeHg) is associated with alterations in fine motor skills at the age of 18 months. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Self-reported assertiveness in Swedish and Turkish adolescents: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, Mehmet

    2003-02-01

    The present cross-cultural study compared self-reported assertiveness in 652 Swedish and 654 Turkish high school students by using a multi-dimensional measure called the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (SIB). Four hypotheses were tested in the study. First, the hypothesis that Swedish adolescents would be more assertive than their Turkish counterparts was supported by the data. Second, the expectation that Turkish boys would be more assertive than Turkish girls, while there would be no differences between Swedish girls and boys, was not confirmed. In general, girls were found to be more skilled than boys in expressing and dealing with personal limitations. Third, as expected, more assertive adolescents in both Sweden and Turkey reported having more friends and receiving more social support than their less assertive peers. Finally, the data supported the expectation that older adolescents would be more assertive than younger ones. The results are discussed in terms of cultural and gender differences.

  6. How indicative is a self-reported driving behaviour profile of police registered traffic law offences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    of reliable predictors of safe or unsafe driving behaviour. Given this background, the aim of this study was to test whether driver sub-groups identified based on self-reported driving behaviour and skill differed in registered traffic law offences and accidents, and whether group membership was predictive...... from the Danish Driving License Register. Results show that the driver sub-groups differed significantly in registered traffic offences but not in registered accidents. In a logistic regression analysis, the sub-group “Violating unsafe drivers” was found predictive of having a traffic offence, even...... when socio-demographic variables and exposure were controlled for. The most important predictive factor, however, was having a criminal record for non-traffic offences, while gender, living without a partner, and being self-employed also had a significant effect. The study confirms the use of the DBQ...

  7. "Become a Reporter", the Four Skills News Project: Applying and Practising Language Skills Using Digital Tools for Level C1/C2 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magedera-Hofhansl, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    The Four Skills News Project is an example of communicative language learning, developed for final year German students at the University of Liverpool. It focuses on how students use and practise their reading, writing, listening and speaking skills via the creative use of news reports and digital technology. Each student creates an avatar using…

  8. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189. For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables, a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students’ nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI. Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms. Multiple linear regression tested the association of students’ eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints.

  9. Trends in self-reported prevalence and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in Swiss adults, 1997-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Switzerland has a low mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, but little is known regarding prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CV RFs: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes) in the general population. In this study, we assessed 10-year trends in self-reported prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland. Methods data from three national health interview surveys conducted between 1997 and 2007 in representative samples of the Swiss adult population (49,261 subjects overall). Self-reported CV RFs prevalence, treatment and control levels were computed. The sample was weighted to match the sex - and age distribution, geographical location and nationality of the entire adult population of Switzerland. Results self-reported prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes increased from 22.1%, 11.9% and 3.3% in 1997 to 24.1%, 17.4% and 4.8% in 2007, respectively. Prevalence of self-reported treatment among subjects with CV RFs also increased from 52.1%, 18.5% and 50.0% in 1997 to 60.4%, 38.8% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Self-reported control levels increased from 56.4%, 52.9% and 50.0% in 1997 to 80.6%, 75.1% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Finally, screening during the last 12 months increased from 84.5%, 86.5% and 87.4% in 1997 to 94.0%, 94.6% and 94.1% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Conclusion in Switzerland, the prevalences of self-reported hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes have increased between 1997 and 2007. Management and screening have improved, but further improvements can still be achieved as over one third of subjects with reported CV RFs are not treated. PMID:21332996

  10. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students’ nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students’ eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints. PMID:26473918

  11. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-10-14

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students' eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints.

  12. Validity of a Protocol for Adult Self-Report of Dyslexia and Related Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret; Dawes, Piers; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an increased prevalence of reading and related difficulties in children of dyslexic parents. In order to understand the causes of these difficulties, it is important to quantify the risk factors passed from parents to their offspring. Method 417 adults completed a protocol comprising a 15-item questionnaire rating reading and related skills and a scale assessing ADHD symptoms; 344 completed reading, nonword reading and spelling tests. Results A confirmatory factor analysis with four factors (Reading, Word Finding, Attention and Hyperactivity) provided a reasonable fit to the data. The Reading Factor showed robust correlations with measured literacy skills. Adults who reported as dyslexic, or rated their reading difficulties as more severe, gained lower scores on objective measures of literacy skills. Although the sensitivity of the new scale was acceptable, it tended to miss some cases of low literacy. Conclusions Self-report scales of reading and of attention difficulties are useful for identifying adults with reading and attention difficulties which may confer risks on their children of related problems. It is important for research following children at family risk of dyslexia to be aware of these effects. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22271419

  13. Effect of Kolb's Experiential Learning Strategy on Enhancing Pedagogical Skills of Pre-Service Teachers of Secondary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshmad'sa, Laveena; Vijayakumari, S. N.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of Kolb's Experiential Learning Strategy on enhancing the pedagogical skills of pre-service teachers of secondary school level. Kolb's Experiential Learning is a method of acquiring knowledge, skills, and experiences by creating situation to gain first hand experiences. According to Kolb optimal…

  14. A Composite Self-Report: Reasons for Taking Science Courses as Given by Cocoa High School Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Frances H.

    A self-report instrument (questionnaire/reaction scale) was developed and administered to students in grades 9-12 to: (1) determine the number of science courses taken by each grade level; (2) estimate the number of science courses requested for future years and indicate where recruitment efforts would be needed; (3) examine other-directed reasons…

  15. Further Issues in Determining the Readability of Self-Report Items: Comment on McHugh and Behar (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinka, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Issues regarding the readability of self-report assessment instruments, methods for establishing the reading ability level of respondents, and guidelines for development of scales designed for marginal readers have been inconsistently addressed in the literature. A recent study by McHugh and Behar (2009) provided new findings relevant…

  16. Size Constancy Is Preserved but Afterimages Are Prolonged in Typical Individuals with Higher Degrees of Self-Reported Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Irene; Unwin, Katy L.; Landry, Oriane; Chouinard, Philippe A.

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in perceptual constancies from early infancy have been proposed to contribute to autism and exacerbate its symptoms (Hellendoorn et al., "Frontiers in Psychology" 6:1-16, 2015). Here, we examined size constancy in adults from the general population (N = 106) with different levels of self-reported autistic traits using an…

  17. Can Teachers' Self-Reported Efficacy, Concerns, and Attitudes toward Inclusion Scores Predict Their Actual Inclusive Classroom Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Sokal, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This research was undertaken to determine if significant relationships exist between teachers' self-reported attitudes, concerns, and efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms and their actual classroom behaviour in Winnipeg, Canada. Five teachers completed 3 scales measuring their attitudes to inclusion, their level of concerns about teaching in…

  18. Measurement of overall quality of life in nursing homes through self report : the role of cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, Debby Lydia; Steverink, Nardi; Ooms, Marcel E.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; Ribbe, Miel W.

    Measuring quality of life is a necessity for adequate interventions. This paper concerns the usefulness of six self-report measures for overall quality of life for nursing home residents with various levels of cognitive impairment. It was investigated which proportion of residents from four

  19. Self-reported Cognitive Biases Moderate the Associations Between Social Stress and Paranoid Ideation in a Virtual Reality Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot-Kolder, Roos; Veling, Wim; Counotte, Jacqueline; van der Gaag, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive biases are associated with psychosis liability and paranoid ideation. This study investigated the moderating relationship between pre-existing self-reported cognitive biases and the occurrence of paranoid ideation in response to different levels of social stress in a virtual

  20. Associations among Middle School Students' Bullying Roles and Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Fredrick, Stephanie Secord; Summers, Kelly Hodgson

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relations among self-reported bully participant role behaviors (i.e., bullying, assisting, experiencing victimization, defending, and outsider behavior) and self-reported social skills (i.e., cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self-control) among boys and girls. The sample consisted of 636 middle school students (52%…

  1. Self-reported racism and experience of toothache among pregnant Aboriginal Australians: the role of perceived stress, sense of control, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Jehonathan; Paradies, Yin; Priest, Naomi; Parker, Eleanor Jane; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Lawrence, Herenia P; Broughton, John; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that the psychosocial factors perceived stress and sense of personal control mediated the relationship between self-reported racism and experience of toothache. We hypothesized that social support moderated this relationship. Data from 365 pregnant Aboriginal Australian women were used to evaluate experience of toothache, socio-demographic factors, psychosocial factors, general health, risk behaviors, and self-reported racism exposure. Hierarchical logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CIs) for experience of toothache. Perceived stress and sense of personal control were examined as mediators of the association between self-reported racism and experience of toothache. Social support was examined as a moderator. Self-reported racism persisted as a risk indicator for experience of toothache (OR 1.99, 95 percent CI 1.07-3.72) after controlling for age, level of education, and difficulty paying a $100 dental bill. The relationship between self-reported racism and experience of toothache was mediated by sense of control. The direct effect of self-reported racism on experience of toothache became only marginally significant, and the indirect effect was significant (β coefficient=0.04, bias-corrected 95 percent CI 0.004-0.105, 21.2 percent of effect mediated). Stress was insignificant as a mediator. Social support was insignificant as a moderator. The findings indicate that high levels of self-reported racism were associated with experience of toothache and that sense of control, but not perceived stress, mediated the association between self-reported racism and experience of toothache among this sample of pregnant Aboriginal Australian women. Social support did not moderate the association between self-reported racism and experience of toothache. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  2. Relationship between meditative practice and self-reported mindfulness: the MINDSENS composite index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Soler

    Full Text Available Mindfulness has been described as an inherent human capability that can be learned and trained, and its improvement has been associated with better health outcomes in both medicine and psychology. Although the role of practice is central to most mindfulness programs, practice-related improvements in mindfulness skills is not consistently reported and little is known about how the characteristics of meditative practice affect different components of mindfulness. The present study explores the role of practice parameters on self-reported mindfulness skills. A total of 670 voluntary participants with and without previous meditation experience (n = 384 and n = 286, respectively responded to an internet-based survey on various aspects of their meditative practice (type of meditation, length of session, frequency, and lifetime practice. Participants also completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ. The group with meditation experience obtained significantly higher scores on all facets of FFMQ and EQ questionnaires compared to the group without experience. However different effect sizes were observed, with stronger effects for the Observing and Non-Reactivity facets of the FFMQ, moderate effects for Decentering in EQ, and a weak effect for Non-judging, Describing, and Acting with awareness on the FFMQ. Our results indicate that not all practice variables are equally relevant in terms of developing mindfulness skills. Frequency and lifetime practice--but not session length or meditation type--were associated with higher mindfulness skills. Given that these 6 mindfulness aspects show variable sensitivity to practice, we created a composite index (MINDSENS consisting of those items from FFMQ and EQ that showed the strongest response to practice. The MINDSENS index was able to correctly discriminate daily meditators from non-meditators in 82.3% of cases. These findings may contribute to the understanding

  3. Relationship between meditative practice and self-reported mindfulness: the MINDSENS composite index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Joaquim; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Demarzo, Marcelo M P; Pascual, Juan C; Baños, Rosa; García-Campayo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness has been described as an inherent human capability that can be learned and trained, and its improvement has been associated with better health outcomes in both medicine and psychology. Although the role of practice is central to most mindfulness programs, practice-related improvements in mindfulness skills is not consistently reported and little is known about how the characteristics of meditative practice affect different components of mindfulness. The present study explores the role of practice parameters on self-reported mindfulness skills. A total of 670 voluntary participants with and without previous meditation experience (n = 384 and n = 286, respectively) responded to an internet-based survey on various aspects of their meditative practice (type of meditation, length of session, frequency, and lifetime practice). Participants also completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ). The group with meditation experience obtained significantly higher scores on all facets of FFMQ and EQ questionnaires compared to the group without experience. However different effect sizes were observed, with stronger effects for the Observing and Non-Reactivity facets of the FFMQ, moderate effects for Decentering in EQ, and a weak effect for Non-judging, Describing, and Acting with awareness on the FFMQ. Our results indicate that not all practice variables are equally relevant in terms of developing mindfulness skills. Frequency and lifetime practice--but not session length or meditation type--were associated with higher mindfulness skills. Given that these 6 mindfulness aspects show variable sensitivity to practice, we created a composite index (MINDSENS) consisting of those items from FFMQ and EQ that showed the strongest response to practice. The MINDSENS index was able to correctly discriminate daily meditators from non-meditators in 82.3% of cases. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the

  4. Self-reported mood, general health, wellbeing and employment status in adults with suspected DCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda; Williams, Natalie; Thomas, Marie; Hill, Elisabeth L

    2013-04-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affects around 2-6% of the population and is diagnosed on the basis of poor motor coordination in the absence of other neurological disorders. Its psychosocial impact has been delineated in childhood but until recently there has been little understanding of the implications of the disorder beyond this. This study aims to focus on the longer term impact of having DCD in adulthood and, in particular, considers the effect of employment on this group in relation to psychosocial health and wellbeing. Self-reported levels of life satisfaction, general health and symptoms of anxiety and depression were investigated in a group of adults with a diagnosis of DCD and those with suspected DCD using a number of published self-report questionnaire measures. A comparison between those in and out of employment was undertaken. As a group, the unemployed adults with DCD reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Whilst there was no significant difference between those who were employed and unemployed on General Health Questionnaire scores; both groups reported numbers of health related issues reflective of general health problems in DCD irrespective of employment status. While both groups reported high levels of depressive symptoms and rated their satisfaction with life quite poorly, the unemployed group reported significantly more depressive symptoms and less satisfaction. Additionally, the results identified high levels of self-reported anxiety in both groups, with the majority sitting outside of the normal range using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. These findings add to the small but increasing body of literature on physical and mental health and wellbeing in adults with DCD. Furthermore, they are the first to provide insight into the possible mediating effects of employment status in adults with DCD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Self-reporting of road traffic accidents in a national survey of urban population in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paolo; Gutiérrez, César; Romaní, Franco

    2010-06-01

    To estimate the frequency of self-reporting of road traffic accidents in the previous year in the general population and to determine the associated factors. We conducted a secondary analysis of the data of the III National Survey of Drug Use in the General Population of Peru, 2006. We measured socio-demographical variables: age, gender, place of origin, educational level and marital status. We also evaluated the use of legal, illegal and medical drugs. The independent variable was the self-reporting of a road traffic accident. We performed the descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis of the socio-demographical variables and the drug use (legal and illegal), together with the self-reporting of the traffic accident. The frequency of reporting of road traffic accidents in the last year according to the survey was 2.93% (95%CI: 2.92-2.94). The associated factors for self-reporting of a road traffic accident were: to live in the jungle areas (OR: 2.03; 95%CI:1.55-2.65), male gender (OR: 1.79; 95%CI: 1.46-2.22), legal drugs use in the last year (OR: 1.98, 95%CI: 1.53-2.55), alcohol consumption in the last year (OR: 1.82; 95%CI: 1.44-2.32) and medical drugs use in the last year (OR: 2.45, 95%CI 1.63-3.68). The prevalence of self-reporting of road traffic accidents in the last year was very high compared to similar studies and other reporting sources. The variables associated with having had a traffic accident were: living in the jungle area, being male, legal drug use in the last month, especially alcohol and medical drug use in the last month. It is necessary to think carefully about the information system of the road traffic accidents in order to achieve a better picture of the problem putting emphasis in the legal drugs use.

  6. Level of movement skills and dexterity in relation to movement activities of pre-school children in their ordinary lives

    OpenAIRE

    Kubátová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    and keywords The level of movement skills and dexterity in relation to movement activities of pre- school children in their ordinary lives. The diploma thesis deals with the issue of movement activity of pre-school children. Movement activities are vital part of healthy life, especially for children. It should be an essential part of every activity, no matter if it is sport, game, relaxation or just a walk to school. It should be a common part of every pre-school child daily programme. The ac...

  7. Just the facts? Introductory undergraduate biology courses focus on low-level cognitive skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momsen, Jennifer L; Long, Tammy M; Wyse, Sara A; Ebert-May, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Introductory biology courses are widely criticized for overemphasizing details and rote memorization of facts. Data to support such claims, however, are surprisingly scarce. We sought to determine whether this claim was evidence-based. To do so we quantified the cognitive level of learning targeted by faculty in introductory-level biology courses. We used Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives to assign cognitive learning levels to course goals as articulated on syllabi and individual items on high-stakes assessments (i.e., exams and quizzes). Our investigation revealed the following: 1) assessment items overwhelmingly targeted lower cognitive levels, 2) the cognitive level of articulated course goals was not predictive of the cognitive level of assessment items, and 3) there was no influence of course size or institution type on the cognitive levels of assessments. These results support the claim that introductory biology courses emphasize facts more than higher-order thinking.

  8. Differences in self-regulatory skills among talented athletes: the significance of competitive level and type of sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Research has shown that talented athletes outscore their mainstream peers on the basis of self-regulation. Although valuable, this does not tell us more about the distinction between good athletes and the best, which is a prerequisite in talent development. Therefore, we examined the self-regulatory skills of 222 male and female talented athletes aged 12-16 years as a function of competitive sport level (junior international or junior national athletes) and type of sport (individual or team sports). Multivariate analyses of covariance in combination with a discriminant function analysis revealed that "reflection" distinguishes between athletes at the highest levels of excellence. Furthermore, athletes playing individual sports had higher scores on "planning" and "effort" than team sport athletes, highlighting the importance of differences between types of sport. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of reflection as a self-regulatory skill. Reflection facilitates the development of sport-specific characteristics, which may vary by type of sport. This means that an advanced sense of reflection may help talented athletes to acquire desirable characteristics during their "talent" years to ultimately reach adult elite levels of competition.

  9. The association between self-reported versus nicotine metabolite-confirmed smoking status and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2018-05-01

    There are no data comparing the relationship between coronary artery calcification and self-reported and cotinine-verified smoking. This study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and urinary cotinine or self-reported smoking status in Korean adults. Study participants included 22 797 individuals (19 181 men; mean age±SD 39.2±7.1 years) who were enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study between 2011 and 2013, and who had urinary cotinine and CAC measurements. Cotinine-verified current smokers were defined as having a urinary cotinine level of above 50 ng/ml. The prevalence of never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers according to the self-reported questionnaires was 44.6, 24.2, and 31.2%, respectively, and that of cotinine-verified current smokers was 30.2%. The prevalence of the presence of CAC in self-reported current smokers was higher than that in self-reported never/former smokers (13.7 vs. 10.2%, P<0.001), and that in cotinine-verified current smokers was higher than that in cotinine-verified never smokers (14.0 vs. 10.2%, P<0.001). A multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for the variables with univariate relationships showed that self-reported former smokers and current smokers had significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for the presence of CAC compared with self-reported never smokers [OR (95% confidence interval): 1.20 (1.03-1.40) in former smokers and 1.29 (1.11-1.50) in current smokers]. Cotinine-verified current smokers also showed a significant association with the presence of CAC [1.23 (1.12-1.35)]. Furthermore, log-transformed cotinine levels increased the OR for the presence of CAC [1.03 (1.01-1.05)]. This study is the first large cohort study to show that both self-reported and cotinine-verified smoking is associated independently with the presence of CAC in Korean adults.

  10. A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardt Jill

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment is required to assess current and changing physical activity levels, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase activity levels. This study systematically reviewed the literature to determine the extent of agreement between subjectively (self-report e.g. questionnaire, diary and objectively (directly measured; e.g. accelerometry, doubly labeled water assessed physical activity in adults. Methods Eight electronic databases were searched to identify observational and experimental studies of adult populations. Searching identified 4,463 potential articles. Initial screening found that 293 examined the relationship between self-reported and directly measured physical activity and met the eligibility criteria. Data abstraction was completed for 187 articles, which described comparable data and/or comparisons, while 76 articles lacked comparable data or comparisons, and a further 30 did not meet the review's eligibility requirements. A risk of bias assessment was conducted for all articles from which data was abstracted. Results Correlations between self-report and direct measures were generally low-to-moderate and ranged from -0.71 to 0.96. No clear pattern emerged for the mean differences between self-report and direct measures of physical activity. Trends differed by measure of physical activity employed, level of physical activity measured, and the gender of participants. Results of the risk of bias assessment indicated that 38% of the studies had lower quality scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that the measurement method may have a significant impact on the observed levels of physical activity. Self-report measures of physical activity were both higher and lower than directly measured levels of physical activity, which poses a problem for both reliance on self-report measures and for attempts to correct for self-report – direct measure differences. This review reveals

  11. Characterizing the Business Skills of the Public Health Workforce: Practical Implications From the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld, Julie; Sznol, Joshua; Lee, David

    2015-01-01

    Public health financial competencies are often overlooked or underrepresented in public health training programs. These skills are important for public health workforce members who are involved in managing resources and strategic planning and have been defined as key competencies by several national entities. To characterize business skills among state health agency employees and examine self-reported skill levels and their association with job satisfaction, worksite training and development opportunities, and annual salary. A cross-sectional survey, the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS), of state health agency central office employees was conducted in 2014. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for job classification, supervisory status, years of public health practice, annual compensation, educational attainment, geographic region, and sociodemographic status, were used to assess the relationship between business skills and training environment and job satisfaction. Linear regression was used to correlate business skills and annual compensation. A total of 10,246 state health agency staff completed a Web-based survey. Self-reported proficiency in business skills, job satisfaction, opportunities for training, and annual salary. The workforce reported high levels of proficiency in applying quality improvement concepts and managing change (67.5% and 69.2%, respectively). Half of the respondents reported proficiency in budget skills (49.3%). Participants who were proficient in applying quality improvement concepts were significantly more likely to report job satisfaction (OR = 1.27). A supportive training environment was significantly associated with business competencies (range of OR = 1.08-1.11). Managing change (β = .15) and budget skill proficiency (β = .37) were significantly associated with increased yearly compensation. Public health workers who self-report proficiency with business skills report increased job

  12. Self-reported cognitive inconsistency in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhill, Susan; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A; Strauss, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Insight into one's own cognitive abilities, or metacognition, has been widely studied in developmental psychology. Relevance to the clinician is high, as memory complaints in older adults show an association with impending dementia, even after controlling for likely confounds. Another candidate marker of impending dementia under study is inconsistency in cognitive performance over short time intervals. Although there has been a recent proliferation of studies of cognitive inconsistency in older adults, to date, no one has examined adults' self-perceptions of cognitive inconsistency. Ninety-four community-dwelling older adults (aged 70-91) were randomly selected from a parent longitudinal study of short-term inconsistency and long-term cognitive change in aging. Participants completed a novel 40-item self-report measure of everyday cognitive inconsistency, including parallel scales indexing perceived inconsistency 5 years ago and at present, yielding measures of past, present, and 5-year change in inconsistency. The questionnaire showed acceptable psychometric characteristics. The sample reported an increase in perceived inconsistency over time. Higher reported present inconsistency and greater 5-year increase in inconsistency were associated with noncognitive (e.g., older age, poorer ADLs, poorer health, higher depression), metacognitive (e.g., poorer self-rated memory) and neuropsychological (e.g., poorer performance and greater 5-year decline in global cognitive status, vocabulary, and memory) measures. Correlations between self-reported inconsistency and neuropsychological performance were attenuated, but largely persisted when self-rated memory and age were controlled. Observed relationships between self-reported inconsistency and measures of neuropsychological (including memory) status and decline suggest that self-perceived inconsistency may be an area of relevance in evaluating older adults for memory disorders.

  13. Self-reported Medication Adherence and CKD Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Cedillo-Couvert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the general population, medication nonadherence contributes to poorer outcomes. However, little is known about medication adherence among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We evaluated the association of self-reported medication adherence with CKD progression and all-cause death in patients with CKD. Methods: In this prospective observational study of 3305 adults with mild-to-moderate CKD enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC Study, the baseline self-reported medication adherence was assessed by responses to 3 questions and categorized as high, medium, and low. CKD progression (50% decline in eGFR or incident end-stage renal disease and all-cause death were measured using multivariable Cox proportional hazards. Results: Of the patients, 68% were categorized as high adherence, 17% medium adherence, and 15% low adherence. Over a median follow-up of 6 years, there were 969 CKD progression events and 675 deaths. Compared with the high-adherence group, the low-adherence group experienced increased risk for CKD progression (hazard ratio = 1.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.54 after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical factors, cardiovascular medications, number of medication types, and depressive symptoms. A similar association existed between low adherence and all-cause death, but did not reach standard statistical significance (hazard ratio = 1.14 95% confidence interval = 0.88, 1.47. Conclusion: Baseline self-reported low medication adherence was associated with an increased risk for CKD progression. Future work is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying this association and to develop interventions to improve adherence. Keywords: CKD, death, medication adherence, progression

  14. Which skills and factors better predict winning and losing in high-level men's volleyball?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Javier; Rodríguez-Guerra, Jorge; Buscà, Bernat; Serra, Núria

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which skills and factors better predicted the outcomes of regular season volleyball matches in the Spanish "Superliga" and were significant for obtaining positive results in the game. The study sample consisted of 125 matches played during the 2010-11 Spanish men's first division volleyball championship. Matches were played by 12 teams composed of 148 players from 17 different nations from October 2010 to March 2011. The variables analyzed were the result of the game, team category, home/away court factors, points obtained in the break point phase, number of service errors, number of service aces, number of reception errors, percentage of positive receptions, percentage of perfect receptions, reception efficiency, number of attack errors, number of blocked attacks, attack points, percentage of attack points, attack efficiency, and number of blocks performed by both teams participating in the match. The results showed that the variables of team category, points obtained in the break point phase, number of reception errors, and number of blocked attacks by the opponent were significant predictors of winning or losing the matches. Odds ratios indicated that the odds of winning a volleyball match were 6.7 times greater for the teams belonging to higher rankings and that every additional point in Complex II increased the odds of winning a match by 1.5 times. Every reception and blocked ball error decreased the possibility of winning by 0.6 and 0.7 times, respectively.

  15. Gender as a variable in the assessment of final year degree-level communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskin, Connie M D; Allan, Teresa F; Skelton, John R

    2004-02-01

    To investigate possible bias due to gender combination of students, role players and examiners in a high-stakes assessment. Valid oral interactive contextualized examinations (VOICEs) is a long-station OSCE-style exam in general practice (GP). At the time of writing it consisted of 65% of the student's final GP mark. In the VOICE, students undertake six tasks--four vivas and two role-plays. "Patient" roles are taken by professional role players who work regularly on the undergraduate curriculum. During the role-play, the student's clinical competence is assessed by an observing GP examiner. The communication skills marks are awarded by the role player and the examiner together, by negotiation. Data have been recorded detailing the role player's initial marks, the examiner's initial marks and their final (awarded) agreed marks for 1024 consultations. 512 final year medical students, 28 role players and 48 examiners. There were no inclusion or exclusion criteria. All those present on exam day became part of the data. There was a significant relationship between gender and performance for some, but not all, stations. Correlations for multiple comparisons removed the significance. Female students perform better across the board than male students. While not always significant, this did affect grading. There was no significant association between the genders of role players and examiners with the question choices. There has been a significant worsening of male results since 1999. Differences exist in the way that pairs of mixed or single genders score students.

  16. Just the Facts? Introductory Undergraduate Biology Courses Focus on Low-Level Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momsen, Jennifer L.; Long, Tammy M.; Wyse, Sara A.; Ebert-May, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Introductory biology courses are widely criticized for overemphasizing details and rote memorization of facts. Data to support such claims, however, are surprisingly scarce. We sought to determine whether this claim was evidence-based. To do so we quantified the cognitive level of learning targeted by faculty in introductory-level biology courses.…

  17. Self-reported quality of life and self-esteem in sad and anxious school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Kristin D; Neumer, Simon-Peter; Holen, Solveig; Waaktaar, Trine; Sund, Anne Mari; Kendall, Philip C

    2016-09-13

    Anxiety and depressive symptoms are common in childhood, however problems in need of intervention may not be identified. Children at risk for developing more severe problems can be identified based on elevated symptom levels. Quality of life and self-esteem are important functional domains and may provide additional valuable information. Schoolchildren (n = 915), aged 9-13, who considered themselves to be more anxious or sad than their peers, completed self-reports of anxiety (Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for children (MASC-C), depression (The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire; SMFQ), quality of life (Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen; KINDL) and self-esteem (Beck self-concept inventory for youth (BSCI-Y) at baseline of a randomized controlled indicative study. Using multivariate analyses, we examined the relationships between internalizing symptoms, quality of life and self-esteem in three at-risk symptom groups. We also examined gender and age differences. 52.1 % of the screened children scored above the defined at-risk level reporting elevated symptoms of either Anxiety and Depression (Combined group) (26.6 %), Depression only (15.4 %) or Anxiety only (10.2 %). One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant mean differences between the symptom groups on self-reported quality of life and self-esteem. Regression analysis predicting quality of life and self-esteem showed that in the Depression only group and the Combined group, symptom levels were significantly associated with lower self-reported scores on both functional domains. In the Combined group, older children reported lower quality of life and self-esteem than younger children. Internalizing symptoms explained more of the variance in quality of life than in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression explained more of the variance than anxious symptoms. Female gender was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms, but there was no gender difference in quality of life and self

  18. Self-reported eHealth literacy among undergraduate nursing students in South Korea: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Lee, Eunjoo

    2015-02-01

    With the Internet being the preferred primary source for information seekers, 9 out of 10 Internet users report that they have looked online for health information in South Korea. Nurses as well as nursing students need to be knowledgeable about online health information resources and able to evaluate relevant information online in order to assist patients and patients' families' access. The purpose of the study was to assess eHealth literacy among undergraduate nursing students in South Korea. The specific aims were to: 1) identify the self-reported eHealth literacy levels, and 2) determine differences in levels of eHealth literacy between pre-nursing and nursing students. This study used a descriptive comparison design. One hundred and seventy-six undergraduate nursing students in South Korea participated. Participants were asked to complete the eHealth Literacy Scale. Collected data were analyzed using a descriptive statistical method and t-tests. Participants responded that the Internet is a useful or very useful tool in helping them make health-related decisions. Furthermore, participants felt that it is important to be able to access health resources on the Internet. The majority of the participants either agreed or strongly agreed that they felt comfortable using the Internet with awareness of what information is available and of their skill to find information. Only a few respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they had the ability to differentiate between a high quality and a low quality health resource on the Internet. Students enrolled in nursing scored higher means in all eHealth literacy items than students enrolled in pre-nursing. Six out of ten eHealth literacy items showed significant differences between two groups. Findings from this study provide fundamental data for education administrators and educators to begin supporting students with appropriate education programs to enhance their eHealth literacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. The effects of self-report cognitive failures and cognitive load on antisaccade performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick eBerggren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals reporting high levels of distractibility in everyday life show impaired performance in standard laboratory tasks measuring selective attention and inhibitory processes. Similarly, increasing cognitive load leads to more errors/distraction in a variety of cognitive tasks. How these two factors interact is currently unclear; highly distractible individuals may be affected more when their cognitive resources are taxed, or load may linearly affect performance for all individuals. We investigated the relationship between self-reported levels of cognitive failuresin daily life and performance in the antisaccade task, a widely used tool examining attentional control. Levels of concurrent cognitive demand were manipulated using a secondary auditory discrimination task. We found that both levels of self-reported cognitive failures and task load increased antisaccade latencies while having no effect on prosaccade eye-movements. However individuals rating themselves as suffering few daily life distractions showed a comparable load cost to those who experience many. These findings suggest that the likelihood of distraction is governed by the addition of both internal susceptibility and the external current load placed on working memory.

  20. The effects of 12 weeks exercise program on the level of gross motor skill of the children with Atypical autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Arslan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effects of the 12- weeks-exercise program on the level of grossmotor skills of children with Atypical Autism. Material and Method: 14 male children, who were diagnosed with Atypical Autism, were recruitted for the study (Mean Age was 10.07±0.25 years, weight 24.97±0.64kg, length was126.79±1.33cm. They were divided into two groups. 1st group was defined as Autistic Exercise Group (AEG, n= 7, 2nd group was defined as Autistic Control Group (ACG, n=7. In this study, the tests related with running speed and fleetness, balance, bilateral coordination and strength of the parameters of Bruininks-Oseretsky Rough Motor Sufficiency Test (BOT2 were applied. Exercise program was applied to the children in exercise group for 12 weeks’ period, 60 minutes each day and three days a week, conducting a teaching technique based on reduction of the clues gradually. Data were analyzed by Paired Sample Wilcoxon test and Mann-Whitney U test was used. The significance level of p 0.05. Besides, no difference was seen at the statistical comparison of the data of pre and final tests for the control group (p>0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion it can be emphasized that exercises, which are done regularly, can have important contributions on the developments of parameters of rough motor skills of children with Atypical Autistism

  1. Contributions of physical and cognitive impairments to self-reported driving difficulty in chronic whiplash-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Treleaven, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Jull, Gwendolen

    2013-08-15

    Cross-sectional. To conduct a preliminary analysis of the physical, cognitive, and psychological domains contributing to self-reported driving difficulty after adjusting for neck pain, dizziness, and relevant demographics in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) using hierarchical regression modeling. Pain is a risk factor for car crashes, and dizziness may affect fitness to drive. Both symptoms are common in chronic WAD and difficulty driving is a common complaint in this group. Chronic WAD is often accompanied by physical, cognitive, and psychological impairments. These impairments may contribute to self-reported driving difficulty beyond neck pain, dizziness, and relevant demographics. Forty individuals with chronic WAD participated. Dependent variables were the magnitude of self-reported driving difficulty assessed in the strategic, tactical, and operational levels of the Neck Pain Driving Index. Three models were developed to assess the contributions of independent variables (physical, cognitive, and psychological domains) to each of the 3 dependent variables after adjusting for neck pain intensity, dizziness, and driving demographics. The measures included were: physical domain-range and maximum speed of head rotation, performances during gaze stability, eye-head coordination, and visual dependency tests; cognitive domain-self-reported cognitive symptoms including fatigue and the trail making tests; and psychological domain-general stress, traumatic stress, depression, and fear of neck movements and driving. Symptom duration was relevant to driving difficulty in the strategic and tactical levels. The cognitive domain increased statistical power to estimate the strategic and operational levels (P < 0.1) beyond other contributors. The physical domain increased statistical power to estimate the tactical level (P < 0.1) beyond other contributors. Physical and cognitive impairments independently contributed to self-reported driving difficulty in chronic WAD

  2. Self-reported mental health and its gender differences as a predictor of suicide in the middle-aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Walby, Fredrik A; Hjellvik, Vidar; Selmer, Randi; Tverdal, Aage

    2010-07-15

    Studies of clinical cohorts and retrospective reports have identified psychiatric disorders as paramount risk factors for suicide. Much less is known about how self-reported mental health is related to completed suicide. To study the relation between self-reported mental health and risk of completed suicide, the authors prospectively followed a population-based Norwegian cohort of 61,588 men and 69,774 women aged 39-44 years for an average of 10.4 years between 1994 and 2007. Self-reported mental health was measured using an instrument based on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and the General Health Questionnaire. Completed suicides were registered in the official Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Females reported higher levels of mental distress than males. In comparison with persons reporting the fewest mental health symptoms, the adjusted hazard ratio for suicide increased from 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 2.9) in the moderately depressed group to 8.9 (95% CI: 4.4, 18.2) in the most depressed group. The risk difference was greatest in males. At each level of the mental health index, males had double the risk of suicide of females (hazard ratio = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.3). This study shows a dose-response effect of self-reported mental health problems on completed suicide and replicates the gender paradox observed in the general population with prospective data.

  3. Women's education level, antenatal visits and the quality of skilled antenatal care: a study of three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella

    2014-02-01

    Many pregnant women in Africa who access professional antenatal care do not receive all the WHO-recommended components of care. Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Kenya, Malawi and Nigeria, this study assesses the relationship of education level with the quality of antenatal care received and highlights how the number of antenatal visits mediates this relationship. The results show that a large proportion of the effect of education level on quality of care is direct, while only a small portion is mediated through the number of antenatal visits. Efforts to improve pregnancy outcomes for under-privileged women should focus on removing structural barriers to access, strengthening the technical and interpersonal skills of providers, and addressing providers' biases and discriminatory practices towards these women. Such efforts should also seek to empower underprivileged women to insist on quality antenatal care by explaining what to expect during an antenatal visit.

  4. Exploring socioeconomic disparities in self-reported oral health among adolescents in california.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Claire; Coulter, Ian; Murray, Liam

    2011-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors are associated with disparities in oral health among adolescents; however, the underlying reasons are not clear. The authors conducted a study to determine if known indicators of oral health can explain such disparities. The authors examined data from a 2007 California Health Interview Survey of adolescents. The outcome of interest was self-reported condition of the teeth; covariates were socioeconomic status (SES) (that is, family poverty level and parental education) and a range of other variables representing health-influencing behaviors, dental care and other social factors. The authors conducted analyses by using logistic regression to explain disparities in self-reported condition of the teeth associated with SES. The authors found that socioeconomic disparities decreased substantially after they added all potential explanatory variables to the model, leaving poverty level as the only variable associated with differences in the self-reported condition of the teeth. Adolescents living below the federal poverty guidelines were more likely to report that the condition of their teeth was fair or poor than were adolescents who were least poor (odds ratio = 1.58; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04-2.41). In multivariate analyses, further oral health disparities existed in relation to behaviors that influence health, social environment and dental care. The results of this study showed that a number of factors decreased, but did not eliminate, the observed relationship between SES and oral health in Californian adolescents. Most of these explanatory factors are modifiable, indicating that socioeconomic differences associated with oral health among adolescents may be amenable to change. Practice Implications. By promoting a healthy lifestyle (including healthy diet, exercise and regular dental attendance) and conveying to patients in languages other than English how to maintain oral health, dentists may be able to ameliorate the effects of

  5. Association of gender and specialty interest with video-gaming, three-dimensional spatial analysis, and entry-level laparoscopic skills in third-year veterinary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Heather R; Towle Millard, Heather A; Millard, Ralph P; Constable, Peter D; Freeman, Lyn J

    2016-06-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether gender or interest in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine or surgery was associated with video-gaming, 3-D spatial analysis, or entry-level laparoscopic skills in third-year veterinary students. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE A convenience sample of 68 (42 female and 26 male) third-year veterinary students. PROCEDURES Participants completed a survey asking about their interest in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine or surgery. Subsequently, participants' entry-level laparoscopic skills were assessed with 3 procedures performed in box trainers, their video-gaming skills were tested with 3 video games, and their 3-D spatial analysis skills were evaluated with the Purdue University Visualization of Rotations Spatial Test. Scores were assigned for laparoscopic, video-gaming, and 3-D spatial analysis skills. RESULTS Significantly more female than male students were interested in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine (23/42 vs 7/26), and significantly more male than female students were interested in pursuing specialty certification in surgery (19/26 vs 19/42). Males had significantly higher video-gaming skills scores than did females, but spatial analysis and laparoscopic skills scores did not differ between males and females. Students interested in pursuing specialty certification in surgery had higher video-gaming and spatial analysis skills scores than did students interested in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine, but laparoscopic skills scores did not differ between these 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For this group of students, neither gender nor interest in specialty certification in internal medicine versus surgery was associated with entry-level laparoscopy skills.

  6. Self-Reported Health Among Recently Incarcerated Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    We examined self-reported health among formerly incarcerated mothers. We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 4096), a longitudinal survey of mostly unmarried parents in urban areas, to estimate the association between recent incarceration (measured as any incarceration in the past 4 years) and 5 self-reported health conditions (depression, illicit drug use, heavy drinking, fair or poor health, and health limitations), net of covariates including health before incarceration. In adjusted logistic regression models, recently incarcerated mothers, compared with their counterparts, have an increased likelihood of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 2.17), heavy drinking (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.19, 2.68), fair or poor health (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.06), and health limitations (OR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.50). This association is similar across racial/ethnic subgroups and is larger among mothers who share children with fathers who have not been recently incarcerated. Recently incarcerated mothers struggle with even more health conditions than expected given the disadvantages they experience before incarceration. Furthermore, because incarceration is concentrated among those who are most disadvantaged, incarceration may increase inequalities in population health.

  7. Self-Reported Acute and Chronic Voice Disorders in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The dependent variable, self-reported dysphonia, was determined via a single question, "Have you noticed changes in your voice quality?" and if so, a follow-up question queried the duration of this change, acute or chronic. The independent variables were dichotomized and divided into five categories: sociodemographic and economic data; lifestyle; organizational and environmental data; health-disease processes; and voice. Analyses of associated factors were performed via a hierarchical multiple logistic regression model. The present study included 226 teachers, of whom 38.9% reported no voice disorders, 35.4% reported an acute disorder, and 25.7% reported a chronic disorder. Excessive voice use daily, consuming more than one alcoholic drink per time, and seeking medical treatment because of voice disorders were associated factors for acute and chronic voice disorders. Consuming up to three glasses of water per day was associated with acute voice disorders. Among teachers who reported chronic voice disorders, teaching for over 15 years and the perception of disturbing or unbearable noise outside the school were both associated factors. Identification of organizational, environmental, and predisposing risk factors for voice disorders is critical, and furthermore, a vocal health promotion program may address these issues. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Smartphone addiction, daily interruptions and self-reported productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éilish Duke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N=262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.

  9. Smartphone addiction, daily interruptions and self-reported productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Éilish; Montag, Christian

    2017-12-01

    The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N  = 262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.

  10. Self-Reported Disability in Adults with Severe Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kyrou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-reported disability in performing daily life activities was assessed in adults with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ. 262 participants were recruited into three BMI groups: Group I: 35–39.99 kg/m2; Group II: 40–44.99 kg/m2; Group III: ≥45.0 kg/m2. Progressively increasing HAQ scores were documented with higher BMI; Group I HAQ score: 0.125 (median (range: 0–1.75; Group II HAQ score: 0.375 (0–2.5; Group III HAQ score: 0.75 (0–2.65 (Group III versus II P 0. The prevalence of this degree of disability increased with increasing BMI and age. It also correlated to type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and clinical depression, but not to gender. Our data suggest that severe obesity is associated with self-reported disability in performing common daily life activities, with increasing degree of disability as BMI increases over 35 kg/m2. Functional assessment is crucial in obesity management, and establishing the disability profiles of obese patients is integral to both meet the specific healthcare needs of individuals and develop evidence-based public health programs, interventions, and priorities.

  11. Self-reported occupational physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether workers with the combination of high occupational physical activity (OPA) and low cardiorespiratory fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. METHODS: Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards......) and cardiorespiratory fitness (low, same and higher as peers) at baseline. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 18.5 years, 257 and 852 individuals died from CVD and any cause, respectively. In the fully-adjusted model, an increased risk for CVD mortality was found for those with low compared to high self......-reported cardiorespiratory fitness [hazard ratio (HR) 2.17, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.40-3.38), for those with high compared to low OPA (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.05-2.00), and for those with high compared to low OPA within the strata of low self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (HR 2.83, 95% CI 1.24-6.46). Moreover...

  12. The effect of using digital mind mapping on cognitive achievement and performance level of some basic skills in handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Thabet Awad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the effect of using digital mind maps to on the cognitive achievement and the performance level of some basic skills in handball. Research population includes the first-year students at the Faculty of Physical Education in Port Said consisting of 200 students. Research Sample both researchers randomly selected the sample of first year students. The total sample size reaches 180 students with a 90.00%, after excluding failed students, re-registered students, the students of other levels of curriculum, practitioners to previous experiences and irregular students. The total number was 20 students with a percentage of (10.00%. They were divided into: Basic Sample: includes 80 students with a 44.44%. They were divided into two equal groups of 40 students. First Exploratory Sample: includes 60 students from the same research population and from outside the basic sample in order to find Tests Validity of the tests with a 33.33%. Second Exploratory Sample: includes 40 students from the same research population and from outside the basic sample in order to find Tests Reliability of the tests and identify the extent of pilot program appropriateness for the sample under discussion with a 22.22%. The first-year students were selected, according to the study plan, which contains a handball curriculum for the students of this educational level. Statistical Treatments: Both researchers conducted data statistically processes, using a statistical package for Social Sciences, SPSS ver. 20.0, in order to identify: arithmetic mean, standard deviation, median, skewness coefficient, correlation coefficient, discriminant validity coefficient, "t" test per one group, "t" test per two groups. The use of mind maps has a positive effect better than (explanation and model method on the cognitive achievement and the performance level of some basic skills in handball. Active learning techniques, such as the method of digital mind maps in teaching

  13. Surveillane of Middle and High School Mental Health Risk by Student Self-Report Screener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget V Dever

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A 2009 National Academies of Sciences report on child mental health prevention and treatment concluded that screening for mental health risk is an essential component of service delivery. To date, however, there are few practical assessments available or practices in place that measure individual child risk, or risk aggregated at the school or community level. This study examined the utility of a 30-item paper and pencil student self-report screener of behavioral and emotional risk (BER for surveying community risk among 7 schools. Methods: In 2010, 2,222 students in 3 middle and 4 high schools in a medium-sized school district in Georgia were administered the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Self-Report Child/Adolescent form (BESS Student. The BESS is designed to measure 4 sub-syndromal BER factors for developing mental health disorders: inattention/hyperactivity, internalizing, school problems, and personal adjustment. Analysis of Variance and Chi Square analyses were used to assess the association between adolescent self-reported BER as an indicator of school BER, grade level, child ethnic identification and gender, socioeconomic status, and special education placement status.Results: BESS scores differentiated well between schools for overall BER and special education status, as well as between grade levels, ethnicity, and gender groups. One high school, known by the school administration to have numerous incidents of student behavior problems, had the most deviant 4 BER domain scores of all 7 schools. Girls rated themselves as having a higher prevalence of BER (14% than boys (12%; middle school students reported fewer difficulties than high school students.Conclusion: Middle and high school students were capable of identifying significant differences in their own BER across schools, suggesting that universal mental health risk screening viastudent self-report is potentially useful for identifying aggregated community

  14. Beyond symptom self-report: use of a computer "avatar" to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Catherine E; Radell, Milen L; Shind, Christine; Ebanks-Williams, Yasheca; Beck, Kevin D; Gilbertson, Mark W

    2016-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur in the wake of exposure to a traumatic event. Currently, PTSD symptoms are assessed mainly through self-report in the form of questionnaire or clinical interview. Self-report has inherent limitations, particularly in psychiatric populations who may have limited awareness of deficit, reduced attention span, or poor vocabulary and/or literacy skills. Diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy would be aided by behavioral measures. A viable alternative may be virtual environments, in which the participant guides an on-screen "avatar" through a series of onscreen events meant to simulate real-world situations. Here, a sample of 82 veterans, self-assessed for PTSD symptoms was administered such a task, in which the avatar was confronted with situations that might evoke avoidant behavior, a core feature of PTSD. Results showed a strong correlation between PTSD symptom burden and task performance; in fact, the ability to predict PTSD symptom burden based on simple demographic variables (age, sex, combat exposure) was significantly improved by adding task score as a predictor variable. The results therefore suggest that virtual environments may provide a new way to assess PTSD symptoms, while avoiding at least some of the limitations associated with symptom self-report, and thus might be a useful complement to questionnaire or clinical interview, potentially facilitating both diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy.

  15. “We Learn by Doing”: Teaching and Learning Knowledge Translation Skills at the Graduate Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. Breen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge Translation (KT is increasingly a requirement for scholars and non-academics working in applied settings. However, few programs provide explicit training in KT. In this article we systematically explore our experiences as a multi-disciplinary group of course facilitators and students in a newly redeveloped graduate course in Evidence Based Practice and Knowledge Translation. The course was designed to emphasize handson learning, collaboration and community engagement. We reflect on the challenges we faced and the skills, knowledge and opportunities that students gained as they developed and implemented community-based KT strategies relating to refugee resettlement, young carers, and consumer attitudes, behaviour and values around food purchasing decisions. We conclude by providing recommendations for instructors and institutions for implementing learning experiences in KT that are designed for real-world impact. L’application des connaissances (AC est devenue une exigence de plus en plus fréquente pour les chercheurs et les personnes qui travaillent dans les milieux non universitaires. Toutefois, peu de programmes offrent une formation explicite en AC. Dans cet article, nous explorons systématiquement nos expériences en tant que groupe pluridisciplinaire formé de responsables de cours et d’étudiants dans un cours de cycle supérieur nouvellement remanié portant sur la pratique fondée sur les données probantes et l’application des connaissances. Le cours a été conçu pour mettre en valeur l’apprentissage pratique, la collaboration et l’engagement communautaire. Nous réfléchissons aux défis auxquels nous avons été confrontés ainsi qu’aux compétences, aux connaissances et aux opportunités que les étudiants ont acquis en développant et mettant en pratique des stratégies d’AC en milieu communautaire sur les thèmes de la réinstallation des réfugiés, des jeunes aidants et des attitudes, comportements et

  16. Self-reported and laboratory evaluation of late pregnancy nicotine exposure and drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E S; Wexelblatt, S L; Greenberg, J M

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of late pregnancy nicotine exposures, including secondhand smoke exposures, and to evaluate the associated risk of exposure to drugs of abuse. The study was a retrospective single-center cohort analysis of more than 18 months. We compared self-reported smoking status from vital birth records with mass spectrometry laboratory results of maternal urine using a chi-square test. Logistic regression estimated adjusted odds for detection of drugs of abuse based on nicotine detection. Compared with 8.6% self-reporting cigarette use, mass spectrometry detected high-level nicotine exposures for 16.5% of 708 women (Pdrugs of abuse, presented as adjusted odds ratios, (95% confidence interval (CI), for both low-level (5.69, CI: 2.09 to 15.46) and high-level (13.93, CI: 7.06 to 27.49) nicotine exposures. Improved measurement tactics are critically needed to capture late pregnancy primary and passive nicotine exposures from all potential sources.

  17. The Cortisol Awakening Response Mediates the Relationship Between Acculturative Stress and Self-Reported Health in Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Antonio F; Wilborn, Kristin; Mangold, Deborah L

    2017-12-01

    The assessment of acculturative stress as synonymous with acculturation level overlooks the dynamic, interactive, and developmental nature of the acculturation process. An individual's unique perception and response to a range of stressors at each stage of the dynamic process of acculturation may be associated with stress-induced alterations in important biological response systems that mediate health outcomes. Evidence suggests the cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a promising pre-clinical biomarker of stress exposure that may link acculturative stress to self-reported health in Mexican Americans. The aim of the current study was to examine whether alterations in the CAR mediate the relationship between acculturative stress and self-reported health in Mexican Americans. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from a sample of adult Mexican Americans. Acculturative stress and self-reported health were assessed. Data were aggregated and analyzed (n = 89) using a mixed effects regression model and path analysis. Poorer self-reported health was associated with attenuated CAR profiles (primarily due to a diminished post-awakening rise in cortisol) predicted by both moderate and high levels of exposure to acculturative stress. Stress-induced alterations in the CAR mediated the relationship between exposure to acculturative stressors and self-reported health. Findings demonstrate that different levels of acculturative stress are associated with distinct CAR profiles and suggest the CAR is one possible biological pathway through which exposure to culturally unique stressors may be linked to health disparities.

  18. Cultivating Advanced Technical Writing Skills through a Graduate-Level Course on Writing Research Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Brian D.; Dempsey, Jillian L.

    2017-01-01

    A graduate-level course focused on original research proposals is introduced to address the uneven preparation in technical writing of new chemistry graduate students. This course focuses on writing original research proposals. The general course structure features extensive group discussions, small-group activities, and regular in-class…

  19. Entry Level Skills for the Event Management Profession: Implications for Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Donna; Dunn, Julie; Prince, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    The rapid growth of the event industry has resulted in a world-wide demand for education and training programs in event management. While the professional associations in event management have provided providing quality training and credentialing for their members, the 140 colleges and universities preparing students for entry level positions in…

  20. Developing A-level physics students' mathematical skills - a way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raw, A. J.

    1999-09-01

    This article outlines research that details the mathematical difficulties of physics students and it also discusses various projects to overcome these difficulties. The successes of these projects are very encouraging and show a way forward for A-level physics teaching.

  1. Ethnicity, desirable responding, and self-reports of abuse: a comparison of European- and Asian-ancestry undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meston, C M; Heiman, J R; Trapnell, P D; Carlin, A S

    1999-02-01

    One thousand fifty-two (582 non-Asian, 470 Asian) university students were assessed regarding levels of physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and socially desirable responding. Differences between Asian-ancestry and European-ancestry students in self-reported incidence and expression of abuse were evaluated, as was gender and the relation between self-reported abuse and socially desirable responding. Asian-ancestry men and women reported higher levels of physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect than did their Euro-ancestry counterparts, and Euro-ancestry women reported a higher incidence of sexual abuse than did Asian-ancestry women. Across ethnicity, men reported higher levels of physical abuse and neglect but lower levels of sexual abuse than did women. Socially desirable responding was not related to measures of abuse. Findings are discussed in terms of cultural influences on child-rearing and disciplinary practices.

  2. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toar, Magzoub; O'Brien, Kirsty K; Fahey, Tom

    2009-06-30

    Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups for use of dentists, medication, hospitalisation or mental health services. Asylum seekers have a higher level of self reported

  3. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toar, Magzoub

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. METHODS: Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety\\/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. RESULTS: Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression\\/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression\\/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression\\/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P < 0.001).In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups

  4. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Tom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. Methods Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60 and refugees (n = 28 from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36, presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. Results Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2–17.9 and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2–15.4, while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3–12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2–10.1, high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1–11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0–10.4 or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9–60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.3 were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (χ2 = 19.74, df = 1, P In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found

  5. IQ discrepancy differentiates levels of fine motor skills and their relationship in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2018-02-01

    VIQ had significant positive correlations with the fine motor domain and fine motor subtests of the CDIIT (r=0.18–0.29, p<0.05. Conclusion: The IQD can identify different levels of fine motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. This study suggests important implications for clinicians, therapists, and researchers: discrepantly higher PIQ could be related to better visual–motor coordination, and discrepantly higher VIQ could be related to poor visual–motor coordination. Furthermore, the results support that when therapists are working with preschool-aged children with ASD who are developing fine motor skills or undertaking fine motor tasks related to visual–motor coordination, they may need to pay attention to the children’s IQD. Keywords: intelligence discrepancy, autistic disorder, motor development, child

  6. Do higher levels of education and skills in an area benefit wider society?

    OpenAIRE

    Winters, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Formal schooling increases earnings and provides other individual benefits. However, societal benefits of education may exceed individual benefits. Research finds that increased average education levels in an area are correlated with higher earnings, even for locals with relatively little education. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduates appear to have especially strong external effects, due to their role in stimulating innovation and economic growth. Several strat...

  7. THE EVALUATION OF LEARNING BASED ON SKILLS AT THE PRESCHOOL LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Oralia Ortiz Varela; Efrén Viramontes Anaya; Alma Delia Campos Arroyo

    2013-01-01

    The research is about learning evaluation based on competencies in a mixed group of Preschool level: Melchor Ocampo in Delicias Chihuahua city. The most important theoretical foundations were provided by Casanova (1998), in relation to the assessment, and Diaz Barriga (2003 and 2006), with teaching in competencies and didactic strategies. The research objective is to track systematically the evaluation of competencies as well as design and experiment alternatives for evaluation in pres...

  8. Undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students' self-reported confidence in learning about patient safety in the classroom and clinical settings: an annual cross-sectional study (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukewich, Julia; Edge, Dana S; Tranmer, Joan; Raymond, June; Miron, Jennifer; Ginsburg, Liane; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    Given the increasing incidence of adverse events and medication errors in healthcare settings, a greater emphasis is being placed on the integration of patient safety competencies into health professional education. Nurses play an important role in preventing and minimizing harm in the healthcare setting. Although patient safety concepts are generally incorporated within many undergraduate nursing programs, the level of students' confidence in learning about patient safety remains unclear. Self-reported patient safety competence has been operationalized as confidence in learning about various dimensions of patient safety. The present study explores nursing students' self-reported confidence in learning about patient safety during their undergraduate baccalaureate nursing program. Cross-sectional study with a nested cohort component conducted annually from 2010 to 2013. Participants were recruited from one Canadian university with a four-year baccalaureate of nursing science program. All students enrolled in the program were eligible to participate. The Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey was administered annually. The Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey captures how the six dimensions of the Canadian Patient Safety Institute Safety Competencies Framework and broader patient safety issues are addressed in health professional education, as well as respondents' self-reported comfort in speaking up about patient safety issues. In general, nursing students were relatively confident in what they were learning about the clinical dimensions of patient safety, but they were less confident about the sociocultural aspects of patient safety. Confidence in what they were learning in the clinical setting about working in teams, managing adverse events and responding to adverse events declined in upper years. The majority of students did not feel comfortable speaking up about patient safety issues. The nested cohort analysis confirmed these

  9. Student's Perceived Level and Teachers' Teaching Strategies of Higher Order Thinking Skills: A Study on Higher Educational Institutions in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Divya; Dungsungnoen, Aj Pattaradanai

    2016-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has portrayed immense industry demand and the major goal of educational institution in imparting education is to inculcate higher order thinking skills. This compiles and mandate the institutions and instructor to develop the higher order thinking skills among students in order to prepare them for effective…

  10. Hair cortisol and self-reported stress in healthy, working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlow, Christopher J; Randall, Jason; Gillman, Jamie; Silk, Steven; Jones, Marc V

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress can be important in the pathology of chronic disease. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are proposed to reflect long term cortisol secretion from exposure to stress. To date, inconsistencies in the relationship between HCC and self-reported stress have been attributed to variation and limitations of perceived stress measurement. We report data from employees of two large public sector worksites (n=132). Socio-demographic, health, lifestyle, perceived stress scale (PSS), and work-related effort reward imbalance (ERI) were collected at baseline. Participants were asked to respond to mobile text messages every two days, asking them to report current stress levels (Ecological momentary assessment, EMA), and mean stress was determined overall, during work hours, and out of work hours. At 12 weeks, the appraisal of stressful life events scale (ALES) was completed and 3 cm scalp hair samples were taken, from which HCC was determined (to reflect cortisol secretion over the past 12 weeks). Mean response rate to EMA was 81.9 ± 14.9%. Associations between HCC and the various self-reported stress measures (adjusted for use of hair dye) were weak (allwork hours (ρ=.196, p=.013) and ALES Loss subscale (ρ=.241, p=.003), and two individual items from ERI (relating to future work situation). In regression analysis adjusting for other possible confounders, only the HCC-ALES Loss association remained significant (p=.011). Overall, our study confirms that EMA provides a useful measurement tool that can gather perceived stress measures in real-time. But, there was no relationship between self-reported stress collected in this way, and HCC. The modest association between HCC and stress appraisal does however, provide some evidence for the role of cognitive processes in chronic stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Burnout on Self-Reported Patient Care Among Emergency Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave W. Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout is a syndrome of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and sense of low personal accomplishment. Emergency physicians (EPs experience the highest levels of burnout among all physicians. Burnout is associated with greater rates of self-reported suboptimal care among surgeons and internists. The association between burnout and suboptimal care among EPs is unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate burnout rates among attending and resident EPs and examine their relationship with self-reported patient care practices. Methods: In this cross-sectional study burnout was measured at two university-based emergency medicine residency programs with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. We also measured depression, quality of life (QOL and career satisfaction using validated questionnaires. Six items assessed suboptimal care and the frequency with which they were performed. Results: We included 77 out of 155 (49.7% responses. The EP burnout rate was 57.1%, with no difference between attending and resident physicians. Residents were more likely to screen positive for depression (47.8% vs 18.5%, p=0.012 and report lower QOL scores (6.7 vs 7.4 out of 10, p=0.036 than attendings. Attendings and residents reported similar rates of career satisfaction (85.2% vs 87.0%, p=0.744. Burnout was associated with a positive screen for depression (38.6% vs 12.1%, p=0.011 and lower career satisfaction (77.3% vs 97.0%, p=0.02. EPs with high burnout were significantly more likely to report performing all six acts of suboptimal care. Conclusion: A majority of EPs demonstrated high burnout. EP burnout was significantly associated with higher frequencies of self-reported suboptimal care. Future efforts to determine if provider burnout is associated with negative changes in actual patient care are necessary.

  12. Clinical retrospective study of self-reported penicillin allergy on dental implant failures and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, David; Noroozi, Mehdi; Shariati, Batoul; Larjava, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether self-reported allergy to penicillin may contribute to a higher rate of postsurgical infection and implant failure. This retrospective, non-interventional, open cohort study reports on implant survival and infection complications of 5,576 implants placed in private practice by one periodontist, and includes 4,132 implants that were followed for at least 1 year. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported allergy to penicillin and implant survival, while controlling for potential confounders such as smoking, implant site, bone augmentation, loading protocol, immediate implantation, and bone level at baseline. The cumulative survival rate (CSR) was calculated according to the life table method and the Cox proportional hazard model was fitted to data. Out of 5,106 implants placed in patients taking penicillin it was found that 0.8% failed, while 2.1% failed of the 470 implants placed for patients with self-reported allergy to penicillin (P = .002). Odds of failure for implants placed in penicillin-allergic patients were 3.1 times higher than in non-allergic patients. For immediate implant placement, penicillin-allergic patients had a failure rate 10-times higher than the non-allergic cohort. Timing of implant failure occurring within 6 months following implantation was 80% in the penicillin-allergic group versus 54% in the non-allergic group. From the 48 implant sites showing postoperative infection: penicillin-allergic patients had an infection rate of 3.4% (n = 16/470) versus 0.6% in the non-allergic group (n = 32/5,106) (P penicillin allergy was associated with a higher rate of infection, and primarily affected early implant failure.

  13. Health care among adults with self-reported diabetes mellitus in Brazil, National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Chueiri, Patricia Sampaio; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2015-12-01

    To describe the care measurements provided to patients with self-reported diabetes mellitus in Brazil. Data from the Brazilian National Health Survey (2013) were used. This is a cross-sectional population-based study in which the subjects with self-reported diabetes mellitus answered questions concerning their use of health services and access to medicine. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes mellitus was 6.2%, while 11.5% of the population had never undergone a glucose testing. From the adults with diabetes mellitus, 80.2% had taken medications two weeks before the interview, 57.4% used the Popular Pharmacy Program, 73.2% received medical care, and 47.1% were cared for in the Health Basic Units. In 65.2%, the physician who cared for them in the last appointment was the same from previous ones, 95.3% of the patients were able to perform the required complementary examinations, and 83.3% could go to the appointments with a specialist. About 35.6 and 29.1% of the subjects with diabetes mellitus reported feet and eyes examination, respectively. About 13.4% declared previous hospitalization owing to diabetes or any complications, and 7.0% mentioned limitations in their daily activities owing to the disease. In general, women and the elderly people, those with higher education levels, white, and those living in the south and southeastern regions showed a higher prevalence of the disease and greater access to services, medicine, and appointments. The care reported by patients with diabetes, which is essential to maintain their quality of life and prevent serious outcomes, seemed, in most cases, to be adequate.

  14. Objectively measured residential environment and self-reported health: a multilevel analysis of UK census data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dunstan

    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between health and the quality of the residential environment. What is known is often based on subjective assessments of the environment rather than on measurements by independent observers. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the association between self-reported general health and an objectively assessed measure of the residential environment. We studied over 30,000 residents aged 18 or over living in 777 neighbourhoods in south Wales. Built environment quality was measured by independent observers using a validated tool, the Residential Environment Assessment Tool (REAT, at unit postcode level. UK Census data on each resident, which included responses to a question which assessed self-reported general health, was linked to the REAT score. The Census data also contained detailed information on socio-economic and demographic characteristics of all respondents and was also linked to the Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation. After adjusting for both the individual characteristics and area deprivation, respondents in the areas of poorest neighbourhood quality were more likely to report poor health compared to those living in areas of highest quality (OR 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.49. The particular neighbourhood characteristics associated with poor health were physical incivilities and measures of how well the residents maintained their properties. Measures of green space were not associated with self-reported health. This is the first full population study to examine such associations and the results demonstrate the importance for health of the quality of the neighbourhood area in which people live and particularly the way in which residents behave towards their own and their neighbours' property. A better understanding of causal pathways that allows the development of interventions to improve neighbourhood quality would offer significant potential health gains.

  15. Self-reported illness and household strategies for coping with health-care payments in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Saito, Eiko; Sultana, Papia; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate self-reported illness and household strategies for coping with payments for health care in a city in Bangladesh. Methods A cluster-sampled probability survey of 1593 households in the city of Rajshahi, Bangladesh, was conducted in 2011. Multilevel logistic regression – with adjustment for any clustering within households – was used to examine the risk of self-reported illness in the previous 30 days. A multilevel Poisson regression model, with adjustment for clustering within households and individuals, was used to explore factors potentially associated with the risk of health-care-related “distress” financing (e.g. paying for health care by borrowing, selling, reducing food expenditure, removing children from school or performing additional paid work). Findings According to the interviewees, about 45% of the surveyed individuals had suffered at least one episode of illness in the previous 30 days. The most frequently reported illnesses among children younger than 5 years and adults were common tropical infections and noncommunicable diseases, respectively. The risks of self-reported illness in the previous 30 days were relatively high for adults older than 44 years, women and members of households in the poorest quintile. Distress financing, which had been implemented to cover health-care payments associated with 13% of the reported episodes, was significantly associated with heart and liver disease, asthma, typhoid, inpatient care, the use of public outpatient facilities, and poverty at the household level. Conclusion Despite the subsidization of public health services in Bangladesh, high prevalences of distress financing – and illness – were detected in the surveyed, urban households. PMID:24052682

  16. Dendritic cell populations in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lied GA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Gülen A Lied1,3,4,*, Petra Vogelsang2,*, Arnold Berstad1,4, Silke Appel2 1Institute of Medicine, 2Broegelmann Research Laboratory, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Norway; 3Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine; 4Section of Clinical Allergology, Department of Occupational Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Self-reported hypersensitivity to food is a common condition and many of these patients have indications of intestinal immune activation. Dendritic cells (DCs are recognized as the most potent antigen-presenting cells involved in both initiating immune responses and maintaining tolerance. The aims of this study were to evaluate the DC populations with their phenotype and T cell stimulatory capacity in patients with food hypersensitivity and to study its relationship with atopic disease. Blood samples from 10 patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity, divided into atopic and nonatopic subgroups, and 10 gender- and age-matched healthy controls were analyzed by flow cytometry using the Miltenyi Blood Dendritic cells kit. Monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs were evaluated concerning their phenotype and T cell stimulatory capacity. DC populations and cell surface markers were not significantly different between patients and healthy controls, but moDCs from atopic patients expressed significantly more CD38 compared to moDCs from nonatopic patients. Moreover, lipopolysaccharide stimulated moDCs from atopic patients produced significantly more interleukin-10 compared to nonatopic patients. CD38 expression was correlated to total serum immunoglobulin E levels. These findings support the notion of immune activation in some patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity. They need to be confirmed in a larger cohort.Keywords: food hypersensitivity, atopy, dendritic cells, CD38

  17. The Association Between Trait Gratitude and Self-Reported Sleep Quality Is Mediated by Depressive Mood State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Kotzin, Megan D; Waugaman, Debby L; Killgore, William D S

    2017-01-27

    It has been shown that higher levels of trait gratitude are associated with better self-reported sleep quality, possibly due to differences in presleep cognitions. However previous studies have not taken into account the role of depressive symptoms in this relationship. In this study, 88 nonclinical 18-29-year-olds completed the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT) as a measure of trait gratitude. The Glasgow Content of Thought Inventory (GCTI) was used to measure the intrusiveness of cognitions prior to sleep onset, the Motivation and Energy Inventory (MEI) assessed daytime fatigue, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess self-reported sleep quality. The BDI-II assessed self-reported depressive symptoms. Consistent with previous work, GRAT scores were positively associated with higher daytime energy and greater number of hours of sleep per night. Importantly, however, we further observed that depressive symptoms mediated the relationships between gratitude scores and sleep metrics. Depressive mood state appears to mediate the association between gratitude and self-reported sleep quality metrics. We suggest, as one plausible model of these phenomena, that highly grateful individuals have lower symptoms of depression, which in turn leads to fewer presleep worries, resulting in better perceived sleep quality. Future work should aim to disentangle the causal nature of these relationships in order to better understand how these important variables interact.

  18. Soft skills, hard skills, and individual innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendarman, Achmad Fajar; Cantner, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    of Indonesian firms from different industries are used from an online survey on manager and worker perceptions related to individual innovation performance on the one hand and individual skills on the other hand. The results show that soft skills and hard skills are significantly and positively associated...... with individual level innovativeness. However, no complementarity (positive interaction effect) is found between soft skills and hard skills....

  19. Optimal skill distribution under convex skill costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Cheuk Leung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies optimal distribution of skills in an optimal income tax framework with convex skill constraints. The problem is cast as a social planning problem where a redistributive planner chooses how to distribute a given amount of aggregate skills across people. We find that optimal skill distribution is either perfectly equal or perfectly unequal, but an interior level of skill inequality is never optimal.

  20. Food safety knowledge, attitudes and self-reported practices among Ontario high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majowicz, Shannon E; Diplock, Kenneth J; Leatherdale, Scott T; Bredin, Chad T; Rebellato, Steven; Hammond, David; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Dubin, Joel A

    2016-03-16

    To measure the food safety knowledge, attitudes and self-reported practices of high school students in Ontario. We administered a school-wide paper survey to the student body (n = 2,860) of four Ontario high schools. We developed the survey by selecting questions from existing, validated questionnaires, prioritizing questions that aligned with the Canadian Partnership for Consumer Food Safety Education's educational messages and the food safety objectives from the 2013 Ontario High School Curriculum. One in five students reported currently handling food in commercial or public-serving venues; of these, 45.1% had ever taken a course that taught them how to prepare food (e.g., food and nutrition classes, food handler certification). Food safety knowledge among respondents was low. For example, 17.3% knew that the best way to determine whether hamburgers were cooked enough to eat was to measure the temperature with a food thermometer. Despite low knowledge, most respondents (72.7%) reported being confident that they could cook safe, healthy meals for themselves and their families. Safe food handling practices were frequently self-reported. Most students (86.5%) agreed that being able to cook safe, healthy meals was an important life skill, although their interest in learning about safe food handling and concern about foodborne disease were less pronounced. Our findings suggest that food safety knowledge is low, yet confidence in preparing safe, healthy meals is high, among high school students. Because work and volunteer opportunities put students in contact with both the public and food, this group is important to target for increased education about safe food handling.

  1. Accuracy of self-reported family history is strongly influenced by the accuracy of self-reported personal health status of relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, A.C.J.W.; Henneman, L.; Detmar, S.B.; Khoury, M.J.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Mushkudiani, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van; MacKenbach, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the accuracy of self-reported family history for diabetes, hypertension, and overweight against two reference standards: family history based on physician-assessed health status of relatives and on self-reported personal health status of relatives. Study Design and

  2. Identifying high-functioning dyslexics: is self-report of early reading problems enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S Hélène; Cook, Kathryn; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-07-01

    We used a questionnaire to identify university students with self-reported difficulties in reading acquisition during elementary school (self-report; n=31). The performance of the self-report group on standardized measures of word and non-word reading and fluency, passage comprehension and reading rate, and phonological awareness was compared to that of two other groups of university students: one with a recent diagnosis (diagnosed; n=20) and one with no self-reported reading acquisition problems (comparison group; n=33). The comparison group outperformed both groups with a history of reading difficulties (self-report and diagnosed) on almost all measures. The self-report and diagnosed groups performed similarly on most tasks, with the exception of untimed reading comprehension (better performance for diagnosed) and reading rate (better performance for self-report). The two recruitment methods likely sample from the same underlying population but identify individuals with different adaptive strategies.

  3. How Common is Men's Self-Reported Sexual Interest in Prepubescent Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombert, Beate; Schmidt, Alexander F; Banse, Rainer; Briken, Peer; Hoyer, Jürgen; Neutze, Janina; Osterheider, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence exists for sexual interest in children in nonclinical/nonforensic male populations. However, prevalences for community men's self-reported sexual interest in children have been based on indiscriminate definitions including postpubescent individuals, age-restricted samples, and/or small convenience samples. The present research assessed men's self-reported sexual interest in children (including child prostitution and child sex tourism) on the community level and examined the link between strictly defined sexual fantasies and behaviors involving prepubescent children. In an online survey of 8,718 German men, 4.1% reported sexual fantasies involving prepubescent children, 3.2% reported sexual offending against prepubescent children, and 0.1% reported a pedophilic sexual preference. Sexual fantasies involving prepubescent children were positively related to sexual offending against prepubescent children. Sexual interest in children was associated with subjectively perceived need for therapeutic help. In contrast to findings from forensic samples, men who reported child pornography use exclusively were identified as a subgroup differing from contact sexual offenders against prepubescent children and men who reported both child pornography use and contact sexual offenses against prepubescent children. The empirical link between child-related sexual fantasies and sexual victimization of prepubescent children and high levels of subjective distress from this inclination underscore the importance of evidence-based child sexual abuse prevention approaches in the community. Findings are discussed in terms of their relation to pedophilic disorder.

  4. Comparison of self-reported emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents from Greece and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapi, Aikaterini; Veltsista, Alexandra; Sovio, Ulla; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2007-08-01

    To compare self-reported emotional and behavioural problems among Greek and Finnish adolescents. Youth Self-Report scores were analysed for 3373 Greek adolescents aged 18 years and 7039 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 years from the general population in both countries. The impact of country, gender, place of residence, socioeconomic status (SES) and family stability on the scores was evaluated. Only country and gender yielded small to medium effect on the scores. Greek boys scored significantly higher than Finns on 10 of the 11 YSR syndromes, particularly on the anxious/depressed scale. Greek girls scored significantly lower than Finnish girls on the somatic complaints and delinquent behaviour scales. In general, girls scored higher than boys on both internalising and externalising problems. The gender by country interaction revealed that Finnish girls reported more externalising problems. The main differences marked in this comparison were the higher level of anxiety and depression in Greeks than Finns and the higher level of externalising problems in Finnish girls than boys. Cultural standards could play an important role in explaining these differences. Overall, it seems that only a small number of differences exist between a northern and southern European region.

  5. Self-report vs. objectively assessed physical activity: which is right for public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, Tom; Standage, Martyn; Thompson, Dylan; Sebire, Simon J; Cumming, Sean

    2011-01-01

    To examine the agreement between self-reported and objectively assessed physical activity (PA) according to current public health recommendations. One-hundred and fourteen British University students wore a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart; AHR) to estimate 24-hour energy expenditure over 7 consecutive days. Data were extracted based on population-based MET-levels recommended to improve and maintain health. On day 8, participants were randomly assigned to complete either the short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) or the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ). Estimates of duration (IPAQ; N = 46) and frequency (LTEQ; N = 41) of PA were compared with those recorded by the AHR. Bland-Altman analysis showed the mean bias between the IPAQ and AHR to be small for moderate-intensity and total PA, however the 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were wide. The mean number of moderate bouts of PA estimated by the LTEQ was similar to those derived by the AHR but the 95% LOA between the 2 measures were large. Although self-report questionnaires may provide an approximation of PA at a population level, they may not determine whether an individual is participating in the type, intensity, and amount of PA advocated in current public health recommendations. ©2011 Human Kinetics, Inc.

  6. A self-report critical incident assessment tool for army night vision goggle helicopter operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Peter F; Wiggins, Mark W

    2007-04-01

    The present study sought to examine the utility of a self-report tool that was designed as a partial substitute for a face-to-face cognitive interview for critical incidents involving night vision goggles (NVGs). The use of NVGs remains problematic within the military environment, as these devices have been identified as a factor in a significant proportion of aircraft accidents and incidents. The self-report tool was structured to identify some of the cognitive features of human performance that were associated with critical incidents involving NVGs. The tool incorporated a number of different levels of analysis, ranging from specific behavioral responses to broader cognitive constructs. Reports were received from 30 active pilots within the Australian Army using the NVG Critical Incident Assessment Tool (NVGCIAT). The results revealed a correspondence between specific types of NVG-related errors and elements of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). In addition, uncertainty emerged as a significant factor associated with the critical incidents that were recalled by operators. These results were broadly consistent with previous research and provide some support for the utility of subjective assessment tools as a means of extracting critical incident-related data when face-to-face cognitive interviews are not possible. In some circumstances, the NVGCIAT might be regarded as a substitute cognitive interview protocol with some level of diagnosticity.

  7. Suicidal behavior, negative affect, gender, and self-reported delinquency in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Arata, Catalina; Bowers, David; O'Brien, Natalie; Morgan, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The associations among suicidal behavior, negative affect, and delinquency were assessed via an anonymous self-report survey administered to male and female college students ( N = 383). Contrary to our hypothesized results, there were no gender differences in rates of suicidal ideation and attempts. Confirming our hypotheses about gender differences, college men did report significantly more delinquent behavior than college women. College men also scored higher on the suicide-proneness scale, which contained a mixture of death-related, risk-related, and negative self- and health-related items. Furthermore, as predicted, college students with a history of depression, suicide ideation, and/or suicide attempts all reported significantly more delinquent behavior. Self-reported delinquency and current levels of depressive symptomology emerged as significant predictors of suicide-prone behavior for both college men and women, explaining 34% of the variance for women and 17% for men. Levels of engagement in suicide-prone behavior and feelings of depression were elevated in college students with any type of juvenile arrest history. Students with an arrest history were also more likely to have had a diagnosis of depression and to have engaged in suicide ideation in their past. These findings suggest there are complex links between depression, delinquency, and suicidal behavior in college men and women.

  8. Relapse Risk Assessment for Schizophrenia Patients (RASP): A New Self-Report Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velligan, Dawn; Carpenter, William; Waters, Heidi C; Gerlanc, Nicole M; Legacy, Susan N; Ruetsch, Charles

    2018-01-01

    The Relapse Assessment for Schizophrenia Patients (RASP) was developed as a six-question self-report screener that measures indicators of Increased Anxiety and Social Isolation to assess patient stability and predict imminent relapse. This paper describes the development and psychometric characteristics of the RASP. The RASP and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were administered to patients with schizophrenia (n=166) three separate times. Chart data were collected on a subsample of patients (n=81). Psychometric analyses of RASP included tests of reliability, construct validity, and concurrent validity of items. Factors from RASP were correlated with subscales from PANSS (sensitivity to change and criterion validity [agreement between RASP and evidence of relapse]). Test-retest reliability returned modest to strong agreement at the item level and strong agreement at the questionnaire level. RASP showed good item response curves and internal consistency for the total instrument and within each of the two subscales (Increased Anxiety and Social Isolation). RASP Total Score and subscales showed good concurrent validity when correlated with PANSS Total Score, Positive, Excitement, and Anxiety subscales. RASP correctly predicted relapse in 67% of cases, with good specificity and negative predictive power and acceptable positive predictive power and sensitivity. The reliability and validity data presented support the use of RASP in settings where addition of a brief self-report assessment of relapse risk among patients with schizophrenia may be of benefit. Ease of use and scoring, and the ability to administer without clinical supervision allows for routine administration and assessment of relapse risk.

  9. [Self-reported substance abuse related emergencies: frequency and nature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, G; Smoltczyk, H; Dengler, W; Buchkremer, G

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency and nature of self-reported and drug-related emergencies. 47 patients of a ward for opiate detoxification were interviewed about their experiences with drug-related emergencies. Typical categories had to be found like overdoses, seizures, accidents and suicide attempts respectively. 68% had own experience with drug-related emergency. A majority suffered opiate overdose with different extensions as unconsciousness or breath-depression. Alcohol and polydrug use was associated with overdose. Drug-related accidents were only reported by men. Half the number of drug-related emergencies were treated in hospital. Most emergencies occurred alone either in a home environment or outside. Harm reduction interventions like observed user rooms should be established. Furthermore other strategies to reduce the number of emergencies as sharing naloxon or resuscitation programs in wards for detoxification could also be an effective method to prevent near fatal or fatal overdoses in dependent subjects.

  10. Self-reported quality care for knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerås, N; Jordan, K P; Clausen, B

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare patient perceived quality of osteoarthritis (OA) management in primary healthcare in Denmark, Norway, Portugal and the UK. METHODS: Participants consulting with clinical signs and symptoms of knee OA were identified in 30 general practices and invited to complete...... a cross-sectional survey including quality indicators (QI) for OA care. A QI was considered as eligible if the participant had checked 'Yes' or 'No', and as achieved if the participant had checked 'Yes' to the indicator. The median percentage (with IQR and range) of eligible QIs achieved by country...... was determined and compared in negative binominal regression analysis. Achievement of individual QIs by country was determined and compared using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 354 participants self-reported QI achievement. The median percentage of eligible QIs achieved (checked 'Yes') was 48...

  11. Self-reported non-severe hypoglycaemic events in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östenson, C G; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P; Lahtela, J

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Hypoglycaemia presents a barrier to optimum diabetes management but data are limited on the frequency of hypoglycaemia incidents outside of clinical trials. The present study investigated the rates of self-reported non-severe hypoglycaemic events, hypoglycaemia awareness and physician...... discussion of events in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus or insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: People in seven European countries aged >15 years with Type 1 diabetes or insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes (basal-only, basal-bolus and other insulin regimens) were recruited via consumer panels......, nurses, telephone recruitment and family referrals. Respondents completed four online questionnaires. The first questionnaire collected background information on demographics and hypoglycaemia-related behaviour, whilst all four questionnaires collected data on non-severe hypoglycaemic events...

  12. High prevalence of self-reported photophobia in adult ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise eBijlenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many adult outpatients with ADHD report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N=494. Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms. The ADHD (symptoms group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.

  13. Physical activity in police beyond self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Moon, Mikyung; Tseng, Hui-Chen; Wilson, Annerose; Hein, Maria; Hood, Kristin; Franke, Warren D

    2014-03-01

    Police officers have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Reductions in occupational physical activity may contribute to the risk, yet there have been few efforts to characterize the physical demands of police work beyond self-report. To compare measured physical activity between work and off-duty hours and assess the effects of stress on physical activity. Officers (n = 119) from six departments wore a pattern recognition monitor for 96 hours to measure total energy expenditure (kilocalorie per hour) (1k/cal = 4184 joules), activity intensity, and step count per hour. Participants were more active on their off-duty days than at work; the effects of stress on physical activity seemed moderated by sex. Police work is primarily a sedentary occupation, and officers tend to be more active on their off-duty days than during their work hours.

  14. The relationship between self-reported tobacco exposure and cotinines in urine and blood for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien-Tsai; Isaac Wu, Hong-Dar; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2008-11-15

    To explore the relationship of self-reported exposure to tobacco smoke and the cotinine levels in the urine and blood over the follow-up period for pregnant women. Three hundred ninety-eight pregnant women undergoing prenatal care were interviewed in different trimesters at three hospitals in central Taiwan using a structured questionnaire. Based on their self-reported smoking experience, the participants were classified into three groups (25 smokers, 191 passive smokers, and 182 non-smokers) and were tracked in this study up to the time of delivery. Cotinine levels were tested for the maternal blood and urine at the end of each trimester and for the umbilical cord-blood of the newborns. All specimens were measured using a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique. In general, urinary cotinine levels were higher in subjects who smoked (including current- and ex-smokers) than those who never smoked. The pattern of distribution of cotinine levels among smoking/ETS exposure group in the urine sample was similar to that in the blood sample. The umbilical cord-blood cotinine levels was found to be highest in the active smoking group, followed by the ETS group exposed to ETS both at home and in the workplace. Over the course of the pregnancies, there was an increase in cotinine levels in urine and maternal blood for each of 3 exposure groups. Exposure to smoking by self-reported information in pregnant women has been found to be directly related to the levels of cotinine in the umbilical cord-blood of the fetus. Cotinine is a sensitive measure of ETS exposure, but if biochemical analysis is not available or convenient for a pregnant woman, then self-reported exposure to ETS can provide a good estimate if the information is gathered by a well-trained interviewer in a structured way.

  15. Distribution and Correlates of Self-Reported Crimes of Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G.; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to “conventional” property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11–18 years old in 1976–77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36–44) in 2002–2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002–2003 (total age range 11–88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes. PMID:22347761

  16. Body awareness: construct and self-report measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf E Mehling

    Full Text Available Heightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct.PubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database.Abstracts were screened; potentially relevant instruments were obtained and systematically reviewed. Instruments were excluded if they exclusively measured anxiety, covered emotions without related physical sensations, used observer ratings only, or were unobtainable. We restricted our study to the proprioceptive and interoceptive channels of body awareness. The psychometric properties of each scale were rated using a structured evaluation according to the method of McDowell. Following a working definition of the multi-dimensional construct, an inter-disciplinary team systematically examined the items of existing body awareness instruments, identified the dimensions queried and used an iterative qualitative process to refine the dimensions of the construct.From 1,825 abstracts, 39 instruments were screened. 12 were included for psychometric evaluation. Only two were rated as high standard for reliability, four for validity. Four domains of body awareness with 11 sub-domains emerged. Neither a single nor a compilation of several instruments covered all dimensions. Key domains that might potentially differentiate adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness were missing in the reviewed instruments.Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations. Restricting the construct to its proprio- and interoceptive channels, we explore the current understanding

  17. Multi-segmental movement patterns reflect juggling complexity and skill level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Pacifici, Ilaria; Lovecchio, Nicola; Galli, Manuela; Federolf, Peter Andreas; Sforza, Chiarella

    2017-08-01

    The juggling action of six experts and six intermediates jugglers was recorded with a motion capture system and decomposed into its fundamental components through Principal Component Analysis. The aim was to quantify trends in movement dimensionality, multi-segmental patterns and rhythmicity as a function of proficiency level and task complexity. Dimensionality was quantified in terms of Residual Variance, while the Relative Amplitude was introduced to account for individual differences in movement components. We observed that: experience-related modifications in multi-segmental actions exist, such as the progressive reduction of error-correction movements, especially in complex task condition. The systematic identification of motor patterns sensitive to the acquisition of specific experience could accelerate the learning process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Cognitive Factors in Childhood Social Anxiety: Social Threat Thoughts and Social Skills Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Rianne E; Klein, Anke M; Allart-van Dam, Esther; Hudson, Jennifer L; Rinck, Mike; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M; Becker, Eni S

    2017-01-01

    Models of cognitive processing in anxiety disorders state that socially anxious children display several distorted cognitive processes that maintain their anxiety. The present study investigated the role of social threat thoughts and social skills perception in relation to childhood trait and state social anxiety. In total, 141 children varying in their levels of social anxiety performed a short speech task in front of a camera and filled out self-reports about their trait social anxiety, state anxiety, social skills perception and social threat thoughts. Results showed that social threat thoughts mediated the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety after the speech task, even when controlling for baseline state anxiety. Furthermore, we found that children with higher trait anxiety and more social threat thoughts had a lower perception of their social skills, but did not display a social skills deficit. These results provide evidence for the applicability of the cognitive social anxiety model to children.

  19. Applying the cube model to pediatric psychology: development of research competency skills at the doctoral level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan-Swain, Avi; Hankins, Shirley L; Gilliam, Margaux Barnes; Ross, Kelly; Reynolds, Nina; Milby, Jesse; Schwebel, David C

    2012-03-01

    This article considers the development of research competencies in professional psychology and how that movement might be applied to training in pediatric psychology. The field of pediatric psychology has a short but rich history, and experts have identified critical competencies. However, pediatric psychology has not yet detailed a set of research-based competencies. This article initially reviews the competency initiative in professional psychology, including the cube model as it relates to research training. Next, we review and adapt the knowledge-based/foundational and applied/functional research competencies proposed by health psychology into a cube model for pediatric psychology. We focus especially on graduate-level training but allude to its application throughout professional development. We present the cube model as it is currently being applied to the development of a systematic research competency evaluation for graduate training at our medical/clinical psychology doctoral program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Based on the review and synthesis of the literature on research competency in professional psychology we propose future initiatives to develop these competencies for the field of pediatric psychology. The cube model can be successfully applied to the development of research training competencies in pediatric psychology. Future research should address the development, implementation, and assessment of the research competencies for training and career development of future pediatric psychologists.

  20. Effects of Wind Turbine Noise on Self-Reported and Objective Measures of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Keith, Stephen E; Voicescu, Sonia A; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; Murray, Brian J; Weiss, Shelly K; Villeneuve, Paul J; van den Berg, Frits; Bower, Tara

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between self-reported and objective measures of sleep and wind turbine noise (WTN) exposure. The Community Noise and Health Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, included an in-house computer-assisted interview and sleep pattern monitoring over a 7 d period. Outdoor WTN levels were calculated following international standards for conditions that typically approximate the highest long-term average levels at each dwelling. Study data were collected between May and September 2013 from adults, aged 18-79 y (606 males, 632 females) randomly selected from each household and living between 0.25 and 11.22 kilometers from operational wind turbines in two Canadian provinces. Self-reported sleep quality over the past 30 d was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Additional questions assessed the prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders and the magnitude of sleep disturbance over the previous year. Objective measures for sleep latency, sleep efficiency, total sleep time, rate of awakening bouts, and wake duration after sleep onset were recorded using the wrist worn Actiwatch2® from a subsample of 654 participants (289 males, 365 females) for a total of 3,772 sleep nights. Participant response rate for the interview was 78.9%. Outdoor WTN levels reached 46 dB(A) with an arithmetic mean of 35.6 and a standard deviation of 7.4. Self-reported and objectively measured sleep outcomes consistently revealed no apparent pattern or statistically significant relationship to WTN levels. However, sleep was significantly influenced by other factors, including, but not limited to, the use of sleep medication, other health conditions (including sleep disorders), caffeine consumption, and annoyance with blinking lights on wind turbines. Study results do not support an association between exposure to outdoor WTN up to 46 dB(A) and an increase in the prevalence of disturbed sleep. Conclusions are based on WTN levels averaged over 1 y and, in