There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical neuropsychological test performance in 147 manganese (Mn) exposed residents. These residents were from two Ohio towns exposed to ambient air-Mn from an industrial source with modeled average air-Mn concentrations of 0.54 µg/m3 (range: 0.01-4.58) and were part of a larger study of cognitive, motor, tremor abnormalities and their relationship to Mn exposure.The primarily white (94.6%) participants (aged 30-64) lived in the towns for at least 10 years (range: 10-64) and had 13.9 years of education, on average. In the last 7 days before testing, 94 (64.4%) participants self-reported concentration problems and 105 (71.8%) self-reported memory problems. After adjusting for age and education, participants who self-reported cognitive problems did not perform worse on the objective neuropsychological measures than those who reported not having problems, except on 1 of 17 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Color). Greater levels of depression and female sex predicted having more self-reported cognitive problems. Higher education was associated with fewer self-reported cognitive problems. Measures of Mn in air, blood, hair, and toenails were not associated with subjective cognitive self-reported p
Deacon, S Hélène; Cook, Kathryn; Parrila, Rauno
We used a questionnaire to identify university students with self-reported difficulties in reading acquisition during elementary school (self-report; n=31). The performance of the self-report group on standardized measures of word and non-word reading and fluency, passage comprehension and reading rate, and phonological awareness was compared to that of two other groups of university students: one with a recent diagnosis (diagnosed; n=20) and one with no self-reported reading acquisition problems (comparison group; n=33). The comparison group outperformed both groups with a history of reading difficulties (self-report and diagnosed) on almost all measures. The self-report and diagnosed groups performed similarly on most tasks, with the exception of untimed reading comprehension (better performance for diagnosed) and reading rate (better performance for self-report). The two recruitment methods likely sample from the same underlying population but identify individuals with different adaptive strategies.
Lorains, Felicity K; Stout, Julie C; Bradshaw, John L; Dowling, Nicki A; Enticott, Peter G
Impulsivity is considered a core feature of problem gambling; however, self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control may reflect disparate constructs. We examined self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in 39 treatment-seeking problem gamblers and 41 matched controls using a range of self-report questionnaires and laboratory inhibitory control tasks. We also investigated differences between treatment-seeking problem gamblers who prefer strategic (e.g., sports betting) and nonstrategic (e.g., electronic gaming machines) gambling activities. Treatment-seeking problem gamblers demonstrated elevated self-reported impulsivity, more go errors on the Stop Signal Task, and a lower gap score on the Random Number Generation task than matched controls. However, overall we did not find strong evidence that treatment-seeking problem gamblers are more impulsive on laboratory inhibitory control measures. Furthermore, strategic and nonstrategic problem gamblers did not differ from their respective controls on either self-reported impulsivity questionnaires or laboratory inhibitory control measures. Contrary to expectations, our results suggest that inhibitory dyscontrol may not be a key component for some treatment-seeking problem gamblers.
van der Molen, H. T.
Purpose. To study the self-reports of professional competencies by graduates of a problem-based medical curriculum. Method. All graduates from a medical school and a faculty of health sciences with a problem-based curriculum were sent a questionnaire asking them to compare their own performances in
H.G. Schmidt (Henk); H.M. van der Molen
textabstractPurpose. To study the self-reports of professional competencies by graduates of a problem-based medical curriculum. Method. All graduates from a medical school and a faculty of health sciences with a problem-based curriculum were sent a questionnaire asking them to compare their own
Full Text Available Abstract Background Surprisingly little is known about the frequency, stability, and correlates of school fear and truancy based on self-reported data of adolescents. Methods Self-reported school fear and truancy were studied in a total of N = 834 subjects of the community-based Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS at two times with an average age of thirteen and sixteen years. Group definitions were based on two behavioural items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR. Comparisons included a control group without indicators of school fear or truancy. The three groups were compared across questionnaires measuring emotional and behavioural problems, life-events, self-related cognitions, perceived parental behaviour, and perceived school environment. Results The frequency of self-reported school fear decreased over time (6.9 vs. 3.6% whereas there was an increase in truancy (5.0 vs. 18.4%. Subjects with school fear displayed a pattern of associated internalizing problems and truants were characterized by associated delinquent behaviour. Among other associated psychosocial features, the distress coming from the perceived school environment in students with school fear is most noteworthy. Conclusion These findings from a community study show that school fear and truancy are frequent and display different developmental trajectories. Furthermore, previous results are corroborated which are based on smaller and selected clinical samples indicating that the two groups display distinct types of school-related behaviour.
Full Text Available Background: Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS has recently been included among the gluten-related disorders. As no biomarkers of this disease exist, its frequency has been estimated based on self-reported symptoms, but to date no data are available about self-reported NCWS in teenagers. Aim: To explore the prevalence of self-reported NCWS in a group of high school students and to study their demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: The study was performed between April 2015 and January 2016 in two high schools of a coastal town in the south of Sicily (Italy. A total of 555 students (mean age 17 years, 191 male, 364 female completed a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported NCWS. The subjects who self-reported NCWS were then compared with all the others. Results: Seven individuals (1.26% had an established diagnosis of CD. The prevalence of self-reported NCWS was 12.2%, and 2.9% were following a gluten-free diet (GFD. Only 15 out of 68 (23% NCWS self-reporters had consulted a doctor for this problem and only nine (14% had undergone serological tests for celiac disease. The NCWS self-reporters very often had IBS symptoms (44%. Conclusions: Self-reported NCWS was found to be common in teenagers, with a frequency of 12.2%; the frequency of GFD use was 2.9%, which was much higher than the percentage of known CD in the same population (1.26%. A greater awareness of the possible implications on the part of the subjects involved, and a more thorough medical approach to the study of self-reported wheat-induced symptoms are required.
Chan, Alan H. S.; Chen, K.; Chong, Elaine Y. L.
The present study was developed to comprehensively investigate the occupational health problems among teachers of primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. A random sample of 1,710 respondents was generated from the database of Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union (HKPTU) members. A self-administrated questionnaire was designed and sent by mail to the teachers of primary and secondary schools in HK. The results indicated that comparing with one year and five years ago, 91.6% and 97.3% of the responding teachers reported an increase of perceived stress level, respectively. Heavy workload and time pressure, education reforms, external school review, pursuing further education, and managing students' behaviour and learning were the most frequently reported sources of work stress. The four most frequently reported stress management activities were sleeping, talking to neighbors and friends, self-relaxing, and watching television, while the least frequently reported activity was doing more exercises or sports.
Bridget V Dever
Full Text Available Introduction: A 2009 National Academies of Sciences report on child mental health prevention and treatment concluded that screening for mental health risk is an essential component of service delivery. To date, however, there are few practical assessments available or practices in place that measure individual child risk, or risk aggregated at the school or community level. This study examined the utility of a 30-item paper and pencil student self-report screener of behavioral and emotional risk (BER for surveying community risk among 7 schools. Methods: In 2010, 2,222 students in 3 middle and 4 high schools in a medium-sized school district in Georgia were administered the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Self-Report Child/Adolescent form (BESS Student. The BESS is designed to measure 4 sub-syndromal BER factors for developing mental health disorders: inattention/hyperactivity, internalizing, school problems, and personal adjustment. Analysis of Variance and Chi Square analyses were used to assess the association between adolescent self-reported BER as an indicator of school BER, grade level, child ethnic identification and gender, socioeconomic status, and special education placement status.Results: BESS scores differentiated well between schools for overall BER and special education status, as well as between grade levels, ethnicity, and gender groups. One high school, known by the school administration to have numerous incidents of student behavior problems, had the most deviant 4 BER domain scores of all 7 schools. Girls rated themselves as having a higher prevalence of BER (14% than boys (12%; middle school students reported fewer difficulties than high school students.Conclusion: Middle and high school students were capable of identifying significant differences in their own BER across schools, suggesting that universal mental health risk screening viastudent self-report is potentially useful for identifying aggregated community
Background: This study investigated the validity of self-reported concentration and memory problems (CMP) in residents environmentally exposed to manganese (Mn). Method: Self-report of CMP from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was com...
Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Müller, Nora; Metzke, Christa Winkler
Abstract Background Surprisingly little is known about the frequency, stability, and correlates of school fear and truancy based on self-reported data of adolescents. Methods Self-reported school fear and truancy were studied in a total of N = 834 subjects of the community-based Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS) at two times with an average age of thirteen and sixteen years. Group definitions were based on two behavioural items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Comp...
Arslan, Sevda; Savaser, Sevim; Hallett, Victoria; Balci, Serap
The current study examined the self-reported prevalence and nature of cyberbullying and victimization among second, third, and fourth grade students (N=372) and explored associated features of home and school life. Of the children in the current sample, 27 percent had been victims of cyberbullying, 18 percent had been aggressors, and 15 percent had been both cyberbullies and victims. Boys were significantly more likely to carry out cyberbullying than girls. Cyberbullying exposure (as both a bully and a victim) was significantly associated with low levels of self-reported school satisfaction (bullies odds ratio [OR]: 2.45; victims OR: 2.10; p<0.05) and achievement (bullies OR: 3.85; victims OR: 3.47, p<0.05). Paternal unemployment was also associated with a three-fold increase in the likelihood of being a cyberbully. Increased awareness and regulation is now required within schools and within the home to tackle this escalating problem.
Young Kyung Do
Full Text Available Using a nationally representative sample of 142 783 middle school (13–15 years old and high school (16–18 years old students in South Korea, this study examined whether (1 overweight and obesity are more likely to be associated with lower self-reported school performance; (2 overweight and obese students are more likely to enrol in a vocational high school as opposed to a general high school; (3 the association between obesity and poorer self-reported school performance is mediated through body image stress and health status. We found that excess weight was negatively associated with self-reported school performance among middle and general high school students, and that obese students had a higher probability of being enrolled in a vocational over a general high school. We did not find strong evidence on the mediating role of body image stress and health status.
Do, Young Kyung; Finkelstein, Eric Andrew
Using a nationally representative sample of 142 783 middle school (13–15 years old) and high school (16–18 years old) students in South Korea, this study examined whether (1) overweight and obesity are more likely to be associated with lower self-reported school performance; (2) overweight and obese students are more likely to enrol in a vocational high school as opposed to a general high school; (3) the association between obesity and poorer self-reported school performance is mediated throu...
Aldridge, Jill M.; Ala'i, Kate G.; Fraser, Barry J.
This article reports research into associations between students' perceptions of the school climate and self-reports of ethnic and moral identity in high schools in Western Australia. An instrument was developed to assess students' perceptions of their school climate (as a means of monitoring and guiding schools as they are challenged to become…
Girard, Beverly Lawler
This study determined attitudes of kindergarten through fifth grade teachers about school nutrition environments, their perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Specific objectives were to: (a) identify perceived factors that influence the school nutrition environment, according to teachers…
Magiati, Iliana; Ponniah, Kathryn; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fung, Daniel; Woo, Bernardine
Few studies have examined anxiety and depression experiences of primary (middle) school-aged children from ethnically diverse backgrounds, and most have relied on parents or others as informants. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported anxiety and depression symptoms in Singaporean primary school-aged children. Age, gender, and ethnic differences and interactions were explored as well as similarities and differences between Singaporean children and US norms. A large representative community sample of 1655 8- to 12-year-old Singaporean children (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) as part of a larger epidemiological study of mental health in Singaporean children. Rates of clinically elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression were 9.3% and 16.9% on the MASC and the CDI, respectively. Separation and social anxieties were most common. Evidence of a gender difference in levels of emotional symptoms was most evident in Indian children, with girls reporting more symptoms than boys. The relationship between age and internalizing problems was weak. A substantial minority of primary school-aged Singaporean children reported elevated anxious and depressive symptoms. Better understanding of the factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of these problems can help the development of culture-specific interventions and facilitate the planning of community-tailored services and initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Zhai, L L; Wu, X Y; Xu, S J; Wan, Y H; Zhang, S C; Xu, L; Liu, W; Ma, S S; Zhang, H; Tao, F B
Objective: To examine the relationship between the prevalence of self-reported myopia and outdoor activities among middle school students and to explore the influence factors of the self-reported myopia. Methods: A total of 12 979 participants were recruited from junior and senior middle school students in in Shenzhen, Nanchang, Zhengzhou and Shenyang by random cluster sampling method between December 2015 and March 2016. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire to collect the information of demographic characteristics, self-reported myopia, outdoor activities, etc. 12 603 out of 12 979 copies of questionnaire were valid. The prevalence of self-reported myopia was compared among middle school students with different characteristics. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the relationship between myopia and outdoor activities. Results: The prevalence of self-reported myopia among middle school students was 69.6% (8 766/12 603); which was separately 52.1% (1 216/2 335) in seventh grader, 61.6% (1 459/2 369) in eighth grader, 69.0%(1 470/2 129) in ninth grader, 80.0% (1 812/2 265) in freshmen, 79.4% (1 622/2 042) in sophomore, and 81.1%(1 187/1 463) in junior. The prevalence of self-reported myopia showed an increasing trend with the increase of grade (χ(2)=639.67, Pmiddle school students ( OR= 1.58, 95 %CI: 1.36-1.82). The risk of self-reported myopia were significantly decreased by always physical exercise and recreational activities after school among middle school students: the ORs were separately 0.67 (95 %CI: 0.57-0.78) for physical exercise and 0.77 (95 %CI: 0.64-0.92) for recreational activities. After stratified analysis by the parents' myopia status, in non-myopic parents group, exercise and recreational activities after school among middle school students decreased the risk of myopia: the ORs were separately 0.68 (95 %CI: 0.55-0.82) for physical exercise and 0.76 (95 %CI: 0.61-0.95) for recreational activities; in either myopic parent
. Discrepancies between self-reported and peer-nominated bullying involvement indicates that a person’s social reputation has a stronger association with moral disengagement than so far expected. Implications are discussed, highlighting the importance of further research and theory development.......This study examined the relation between moral disengagement and different self-reported and peer-nominated positions in school bullying. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate moral disengagement among children for whom self-reported and peernominated bully status diverged and (2) compare...... levels of disengagement among self-reported and peer-nominated pure bullies, pure victims, bully–victims, and children not involved in bullying. A sample of 739 Danish sixth grade and seventh grade children (mean age 12.6) was included in the study. Moral disengagement was measured using a Danish version...
Background: Available evidences seem to suggest increasing trend in sleep deficit among teenagers worldwide, and there is limited information on this among Nigerian teenagers. This study was carried out to determine the basic sleep schedule and sleep duration among schooling teenagers in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methods: ...
Hart, Katie C.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Evans, Steven W.; Manos, Michael J.; Hannah, Jane N.; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.
This study examined elementary and middle school teachers' self-reported use of behavioral supports for students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from a national sample of teachers. This information is important given increased attention and emphasis on universal and targeted strategies within problem-solving models in schools.…
Holmström, Malin Rising; Olofsson, Niclas; Asplund, Kenneth; Kristiansen, Lisbeth
To explore three school based transitions and their impact on positive self-reported-health (SRH), pre-school to elementary school (6-10 y), elementary school to junior high school (10-13 y), and junior high school to upper secondary school/high school (13-16 y), in a long-term longitudinal population based study. The study followed three cohorts through one school transition each. A longitudinal study with data from 6693 Health Dialogue questionnaires were used. Data were collected in the middle of Sweden during 2007-2012 with school children age 6-16 years old. Several significant factors were identified with an impact for a positive self-reported-health among children age 6-16 y; not feeling sad or depressed, afraid or worried, positive school environment (schoolyard and restrooms), not bullied, good sleep, daily physical activity and ability to concentrate. There was no single factor identified, the factors differed according to gender and age. The study have identified several gender and age specific factors for successful school transitions relevant for a positive SRH. This is valuable information for school staff, parents and school children and provides a possibility to provide support and assistance when needed.
Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena
Some researchers have proposed that video games possess good learning principles and may promote problem solving skills. Empirical research regarding this relationship, however, is limited. The goal of the presented study was to examine whether strategic video game play (i.e., role playing and strategy games) predicted self-reported problem solving skills among a sample of 1,492 adolescents (50.8 % female), over the four high school years. The results showed that more strategic video game play predicted higher self-reported problem solving skills over time than less strategic video game play. In addition, the results showed support for an indirect association between strategic video game play and academic grades, in that strategic video game play predicted higher self-reported problem solving skills, and, in turn, higher self-reported problem solving skills predicted higher academic grades. The novel findings that strategic video games promote self-reported problem solving skills and indirectly predict academic grades are important considering that millions of adolescents play video games every day.
Pablo J Chalita
Full Text Available School dropout has significant consequences for both individuals and societies. Only 21% of adults in Mexico achieve the equivalent of a high school education. We examined the relationship between school dropout and self-reported psychiatric symptoms in a middle school in a suburb of Mexico City. We used binomial logistic regression to examine the odd ratio of school dropout associated with student’s self-reported psychopathology. Two-hundred thirty seven students participated in the study. Psychosis (Odds Ratio (OR=8.0 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.7-37.2, depression (OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.2-9.7, tic disorders (OR=3.7 (95%CI: 1.4-9.5, ADHD (OR=3.2 (95%CI:1.5-6.4, and social phobia (OR=2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.8 were associated with increased risk of school dropout after controlling for age and gender as covariates. Our study suggested that students’ self-reported psychopathology is associated with increased school dropout in Mexico.
Cinar, A B; Kosku, N; Sandalli, N
To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds.......To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds....
Kapi, Aikaterini; Veltsista, Alexandra; Sovio, Ulla; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bakoula, Chryssa
To compare self-reported emotional and behavioural problems among Greek and Finnish adolescents. Youth Self-Report scores were analysed for 3373 Greek adolescents aged 18 years and 7039 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 years from the general population in both countries. The impact of country, gender, place of residence, socioeconomic status (SES) and family stability on the scores was evaluated. Only country and gender yielded small to medium effect on the scores. Greek boys scored significantly higher than Finns on 10 of the 11 YSR syndromes, particularly on the anxious/depressed scale. Greek girls scored significantly lower than Finnish girls on the somatic complaints and delinquent behaviour scales. In general, girls scored higher than boys on both internalising and externalising problems. The gender by country interaction revealed that Finnish girls reported more externalising problems. The main differences marked in this comparison were the higher level of anxiety and depression in Greeks than Finns and the higher level of externalising problems in Finnish girls than boys. Cultural standards could play an important role in explaining these differences. Overall, it seems that only a small number of differences exist between a northern and southern European region.
Brooks, Brian L; Iverson, Grant L; Atkins, Joseph E; Zafonte, Ross; Berkner, Paul D
Amateur athletic programs often use computerized cognitive testing as part of their concussion management programs. There is evidence that athletes with preexisting attention problems will have worse cognitive performance and more symptoms at baseline testing. The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention problems affect assessments differently for male and female athletes. Participants were drawn from a database that included 6,840 adolescents from Maine who completed Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) at baseline (primary outcome measure). The final sample included 249 boys and 100 girls with self-reported attention problems. Each participant was individually matched for sex, age, number of past concussions, and sport to a control participant (249 boys, 100 girls). Boys with attention problems had worse reaction time than boys without attention problems. Girls with attention problems had worse visual-motor speed than girls without attention problems. Boys with attention problems reported more total symptoms, including more cognitive-sensory and sleep-arousal symptoms, compared with boys without attention problems. Girls with attention problems reported more cognitive-sensory, sleep-arousal, and affective symptoms than girls without attention problems. When considering the assessment, management, and outcome from concussions in adolescent athletes, it is important to consider both sex and preinjury attention problems regarding cognitive test results and symptom reporting.
Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; George, Sanju; Thennarasu, K; Srinath, Shoba
To study the prevalence and correlates of self-reported ADHD symptoms among school-going adolescents from Kerala, India. Seven thousand five hundred sixty students from Classes 8, 10, and 12, aged 12 to 19 years, across 73 schools selected by cluster random sampling, were invited to participate, but only 7,150 successfully completed the questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments. Three hundred five (4.3%) self-reported symptoms for ADHD combined type, 131 (1.8%) for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type, and 102 (1.4%) for ADHD inattentive type with a male predominance. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that those with symptoms of ADHD (combined type) compared with the non-ADHD group had poorer academic performance, significantly higher substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and sexual abuse. The high prevalence of self-reported ADHD symptoms and its association with negative correlates previously reported in literature in those with a diagnosis of ADHD suggests that clinically significant self-reported ADHD symptoms could be as disabling as ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.
Smith-Spark, James H; Zięcik, Adam P; Sterling, Christopher
Short-term and working memory problems in dyslexia are well-documented, but other memory domains have received little empirical scrutiny, despite some evidence to suggest that they might be impaired. Prospective memory is memory for delayed intentions, whilst retrospective memory relates to memory for personally experienced past events. To gain an understanding of subjective everyday memory experience, a self-report measure designed to tap prospective and retrospective memory was administered to 28 adults with dyslexia and 26 IQ-matched adults without dyslexia. Adults with dyslexia reported experiencing significantly more frequent problems with memory than the adults without dyslexia. Group differences were found across seven out of the eight questionnaire scales. Further to these analyses, the participants' own ratings were compared with proxy ratings provided by close associates. The perception of poorer memory abilities in the participants did not differ between respondent types. The self-reported difficulties are, thus, unlikely to be the result of lowered self-esteem or metacognitive awareness. More frequent difficulties with both types of memory would seem, therefore, to be experienced by adults with dyslexia in everyday life. Further laboratory-based research is recommended to explore both memory domains in dyslexia and to identify the cognitive mechanisms by which these problems occur. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W
This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Typologies of sleep problems have usually relied on identifying underlying causes or symptom clusters. In this study the value of using the patient's own reasons for sleep disturbance are explored. Using secondary data analysis of a nationally representative psychiatric survey the patterning of the various reasons respondents provided for self-reported sleep problems were examined. Over two thirds (69.3% of respondents could identify a specific reason for their sleep problem with worry (37.9% and illness (20.1% representing the most commonly reported reasons. And while women reported more sleep problems for almost every reason compared with men, the patterning of reasons by age showed marked variability. Sleep problem symptoms such as difficulty getting to sleep or waking early also showed variability by different reasons as did the association with major correlates such as worry, depression, anxiety and poor health. While prevalence surveys of 'insomnia' or 'poor sleep' often assume the identification of an underlying homogeneous construct there may be grounds for recognising the existence of different sleep problem types particularly in the context of the patient's perceived reason for the problem.
Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria
Objective: We examined students’ self-reported step data and discussed the feasibility of using these data in a local school policy process. Methods: For 5 days during school hours, 281 stu- dents from grades 5–7 participating in a health education program, measured their steps using a pedometer......: Student-collected data showed similar patterns as reported in the literature, and therefore, a feasible perspective could be to use students’ self-reported step data in a local school policy process....
Fleming, Theresa M; Merry, Sally N; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Denny, Simon J; Watson, Peter D
To examine associations between individual, family, school and community characteristics and rates of suicide attempts in a national population sample of New Zealand secondary school students. A total of 9570 randomly selected 9- to 13-year-old students from 114 schools were surveyed, using the New Zealand Adolescent Health Survey. This is a 523-item anonymous self-report comprehensive questionnaire delivered by Multi-Media Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing. Multivariate analyses were used to examine correlates of self-reported suicide attempts within the last 12 months. In total, 739 participants (4.7% of males and 10.5% of females) reported having made a suicide attempt within the last 12 months. Depressive symptoms, alcohol abuse, -having a friend or family member attempt suicide, family violence and non-heterosexual attractions were independently associated with increased rates of suicide attempts while parents caring, other family members caring, teachers being fair and feeling safe at school were independently associated with decreased rates of suicide attempts. Caring friendships, attending worship frequently, possible sexual abuse and anxiety symptoms were not independently associated with suicide attempts. Risk and protective factors operated in the same way for male and female students and for those with and without other suicide predictors. New Zealand secondary school students, particularly female students, report high rates of suicide attempts. Risk of suicide attempts is lower in students reporting caring home and fair, safe school environments and this effect remains once depression is taken into account. This study confirms the importance of depression, substance use, problem behaviour, negative life events, exposure to suicide behaviour by others and the significance of sexual orientation in suicidal behaviour among school students and provides evidence of the importance of the family and school environments in reducing risk among this group.
Darom, Efraim; Rich, Yisrael
To measure pupils' inconsistency in replying to a self-report questionnaire regarding attitudes toward school, 6,000 elementary and secondary school students participated in a nation-wide project to construct and validate the Israeli Quality of School Life Questionnaire (IQSL). (PN)
Seichepine, Daniel R.; Stamm, Julie M.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Riley, David O.; Baugh, Christine M.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.
Abstract Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE. PMID:23421745
Seichepine, Daniel R; Stamm, Julie M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Riley, David O; Baugh, Christine M; Gavett, Brandon E; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE.
Majowicz, Shannon E; Diplock, Kenneth J; Leatherdale, Scott T; Bredin, Chad T; Rebellato, Steven; Hammond, David; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Dubin, Joel A
To measure the food safety knowledge, attitudes and self-reported practices of high school students in Ontario. We administered a school-wide paper survey to the student body (n = 2,860) of four Ontario high schools. We developed the survey by selecting questions from existing, validated questionnaires, prioritizing questions that aligned with the Canadian Partnership for Consumer Food Safety Education's educational messages and the food safety objectives from the 2013 Ontario High School Curriculum. One in five students reported currently handling food in commercial or public-serving venues; of these, 45.1% had ever taken a course that taught them how to prepare food (e.g., food and nutrition classes, food handler certification). Food safety knowledge among respondents was low. For example, 17.3% knew that the best way to determine whether hamburgers were cooked enough to eat was to measure the temperature with a food thermometer. Despite low knowledge, most respondents (72.7%) reported being confident that they could cook safe, healthy meals for themselves and their families. Safe food handling practices were frequently self-reported. Most students (86.5%) agreed that being able to cook safe, healthy meals was an important life skill, although their interest in learning about safe food handling and concern about foodborne disease were less pronounced. Our findings suggest that food safety knowledge is low, yet confidence in preparing safe, healthy meals is high, among high school students. Because work and volunteer opportunities put students in contact with both the public and food, this group is important to target for increased education about safe food handling.
Fillis, Michelle Moreira Abujamra; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; González, Alberto Durán; Melanda, Francine Nesello; Mesas, Arthur Eumann
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported vocal problems among primary schoolteachers and to identify associated occupational factors, using a cross-sectional design and face-to-face interviews with 967 teachers in 20 public schools in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. Prevalence of self-reported vocal problems was 25.7%. Adjusted analyses showed associations with characteristics of the employment relationship (workweek ≥ 40 hours and poor perception of salaries and health benefits), characteristics of the work environment (number of students per class and exposure to chalk dust and microorganisms), psychological factors (low job satisfaction, limited opportunities to express opinions, worse relationship with superiors, and poor balance between professional and personal life), and violence (insults and bullying). Vocal disorders affected one in four primary schoolteachers and were associated with various characteristics of the teaching profession (both structural and work-related).
Hansen, Andrew R; Pritchard, Tony; Melnic, Irina; Zhang, Jian
The purpose of this study was to examine how lifestyle behaviors in the context of physical activity levels and screen time are associated with school absenteeism. We analyzed 2005-2008 NHANES data of proxy interviews for 1048 children aged 6-11 years and in-person self-reports of 1117 adolescents aged 12-18 years. Missing 10% of school days during the past school year was defined as severe school absenteeism (SSA). Watching TV ≥2 hours a day was significantly associated with SSA among both children (OR = 3.51 [1.03-12.0]) and adolescents (OR = 3.96 [1.84-8.52]) compared with their peers watching Absenteeism was not validated with report cards. Unable to account for the absence type or frequency of illness or injury. No psychometric properties provided for subjective measures regarding participants' attitudes and characteristic traits towards physical activity, TV viewing, and school attendance. Excessive TV watching among children and adolescents, and inactivity and high activity levels (≥7 times per week) among children are independently associated with severe school absenteeism.
Holmström, Malin Rising; Olofsson, Niclas; Asplund, Kenneth; Kristiansen, Lisbeth
Background To explore three school based transitions and their impact on positive self- reported- health (SRH), pre-school to elementary school (6–10 y), elementary school to junior high school (10-13y), and junior high school to upper secondary school/high school (13-16y), in a long-term longitudinal population based study. Methods The study followed three cohorts through one school transition each. A longitudinal study with data from 6693 Health Dialogue questionnaires were used. Data were ...
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Martinsen, Kristin D; Neumer, Simon-Peter; Holen, Solveig; Waaktaar, Trine; Sund, Anne Mari; Kendall, Philip C
Anxiety and depressive symptoms are common in childhood, however problems in need of intervention may not be identified. Children at risk for developing more severe problems can be identified based on elevated symptom levels. Quality of life and self-esteem are important functional domains and may provide additional valuable information. Schoolchildren (n = 915), aged 9-13, who considered themselves to be more anxious or sad than their peers, completed self-reports of anxiety (Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for children (MASC-C), depression (The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire; SMFQ), quality of life (Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen; KINDL) and self-esteem (Beck self-concept inventory for youth (BSCI-Y) at baseline of a randomized controlled indicative study. Using multivariate analyses, we examined the relationships between internalizing symptoms, quality of life and self-esteem in three at-risk symptom groups. We also examined gender and age differences. 52.1 % of the screened children scored above the defined at-risk level reporting elevated symptoms of either Anxiety and Depression (Combined group) (26.6 %), Depression only (15.4 %) or Anxiety only (10.2 %). One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant mean differences between the symptom groups on self-reported quality of life and self-esteem. Regression analysis predicting quality of life and self-esteem showed that in the Depression only group and the Combined group, symptom levels were significantly associated with lower self-reported scores on both functional domains. In the Combined group, older children reported lower quality of life and self-esteem than younger children. Internalizing symptoms explained more of the variance in quality of life than in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression explained more of the variance than anxious symptoms. Female gender was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms, but there was no gender difference in quality of life and self
Singhammer, John; Bancila, Delia
The aim of the present paper is to investigate the relationships of stressful events with self-reported mental health problems in the general population, comparing non-western immigrants with Danish nationals. 11.500 individuals aged 18-64 years from eight ethnic groups were invited to participat...
DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.
Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…
Hastings, R P; Petalas, M A
There are few published research studies in which siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide self-reports about their own behavioural and emotional problems and their sibling relationships. Reliance on parent reports may lead to incomplete conclusions about the experiences of siblings themselves. Siblings 7-17 years and their mothers from 94 families of children with ASD were recruited. Mothers reported on family demographics, the behavioural and emotional problems of their child with ASD, and on their own symptoms of depression. Siblings reported on their relationship with their brother or sister with ASD, and siblings 11+ years of age also self-reported on their behavioural and emotional problems. Compared with normative British data, siblings reported very slightly elevated levels of behavioural and emotional problems. However, none of the mean differences were statistically significant and all group differences were associated with small or very small effect sizes - the largest being for peer problems (effect size = 0.31). Regression analysis was used to explore family systems relationships, with sibling self-reports predicted by the behaviour problems scores for the child with ASD and by maternal depression. Maternal depression did not emerge as a predictor of siblings' self-reported sibling relationships or their behavioural and emotional problems. Higher levels of behaviour problems in the child with ASD predicted decreased warmth/closeness and increased conflict in the sibling relationship. These data support the general findings of recent research in that there was little indication of clinically meaningful elevations in behavioural and emotional problems in siblings of children with ASD. Although further research replication is required, there was some indication that sibling relationships may be at risk where the child with ASD has significant behaviour problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Morbitzer, Petra; Spröber, Nina; Hautzinger, Martin
In this study we examine the reliability and validity of students' self-reports about bullying and victimization in schools. 208 5th class students of four "middle schools" in Southern Germany filled in the Bully-Victim-Questionnaire (Olweus, 1989, adapted by Lösel, Bliesener, Averbeck, 1997) and the School Climate Survey (Brockenborough, 2001) to assess the prevalence of bullying/victimization, and to evaluate attitudes towards aggression and support for victims. By using reliability and validity criteria, one third (31%) of the questionnaires was classified as "unreliable/invalid". Mean comparisons of the "unreliable/invalid" group and the "valid" group of the subscales concerning bullying/victimization found significant differences. The "unreliable/invalid" group stated higher values of bullying and victimization. Based on the "unreliable/invalid" questionnaires more students could be identified as bullies/victims or bully-victims. The prevalence of bullying/victimization in the whole sample was reduced if "unreliable/invalid" questionnaires were excluded. The results are discussed in the framework of theories about the presentation of the self ("impression management', "social desirability") and systematic response patterns ("extreme response bias").
Stewart, C. E.; And Others
Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…
Full Text Available Estimates of contact among children, used for infectious disease transmission models and understanding social patterns, historically rely on self-report logs. Recently, wireless sensor technology has enabled objective measurement of proximal contact and comparison of data from the two methods. These are mostly small-scale studies, and knowledge gaps remain in understanding contact and mixing patterns and also in the advantages and disadvantages of data collection methods. We collected contact data from a middle school, with 7th and 8th grades, for one day using self-report contact logs and wireless sensors. The data were linked for students with unique initials, gender, and grade within the school. This paper presents the results of a comparison of two approaches to characterize school contact networks, wireless proximity sensors and self-report logs. Accounting for incomplete capture and lack of participation, we estimate that "sensor-detectable", proximal contacts longer than 20 seconds during lunch and class-time occurred at 2 fold higher frequency than "self-reportable" talk/touch contacts. Overall, 55% of estimated talk-touch contacts were also sensor-detectable whereas only 15% of estimated sensor-detectable contacts were also talk-touch. Contacts detected by sensors and also in self-report logs had longer mean duration than contacts detected only by sensors (6.3 vs 2.4 minutes. During both lunch and class-time, sensor-detectable contacts demonstrated substantially less gender and grade assortativity than talk-touch contacts. Hallway contacts, which were ascertainable only by proximity sensors, were characterized by extremely high degree and short duration. We conclude that the use of wireless sensors and self-report logs provide complementary insight on in-school mixing patterns and contact frequency.
Leecaster, Molly; Toth, Damon J A; Pettey, Warren B P; Rainey, Jeanette J; Gao, Hongjiang; Uzicanin, Amra; Samore, Matthew
Estimates of contact among children, used for infectious disease transmission models and understanding social patterns, historically rely on self-report logs. Recently, wireless sensor technology has enabled objective measurement of proximal contact and comparison of data from the two methods. These are mostly small-scale studies, and knowledge gaps remain in understanding contact and mixing patterns and also in the advantages and disadvantages of data collection methods. We collected contact data from a middle school, with 7th and 8th grades, for one day using self-report contact logs and wireless sensors. The data were linked for students with unique initials, gender, and grade within the school. This paper presents the results of a comparison of two approaches to characterize school contact networks, wireless proximity sensors and self-report logs. Accounting for incomplete capture and lack of participation, we estimate that "sensor-detectable", proximal contacts longer than 20 seconds during lunch and class-time occurred at 2 fold higher frequency than "self-reportable" talk/touch contacts. Overall, 55% of estimated talk-touch contacts were also sensor-detectable whereas only 15% of estimated sensor-detectable contacts were also talk-touch. Contacts detected by sensors and also in self-report logs had longer mean duration than contacts detected only by sensors (6.3 vs 2.4 minutes). During both lunch and class-time, sensor-detectable contacts demonstrated substantially less gender and grade assortativity than talk-touch contacts. Hallway contacts, which were ascertainable only by proximity sensors, were characterized by extremely high degree and short duration. We conclude that the use of wireless sensors and self-report logs provide complementary insight on in-school mixing patterns and contact frequency.
Harper, Christopher R.; Liddon, Nicole; Dunville, Richard; Habel, Melissa A.
Access to school health clinics and nurses has been linked with improved student achievement and health. Unfortunately, no studies have examined how many students report using school clinics or nurses and for which services. This study addressed this gap with data from a nationally representative sample of 15- to 25-year-olds. Respondents who…
Peiser, Nadine C.; Heaven, Patrick C. L.
Analyzes the effect of certain family processes on adolescents' self-reported delinquency and investigates whether self-esteem and locus of control mediate these effects. Results indicate that parental discipline style predicts self-reported delinquency. Also, a link between positive family relations and high self-esteem among males emerged. (RJM)
Jason A. Hedrick
Full Text Available Analysis of workforce competencies at the conclusion of high school graduation are discussed in this paper. Researchers sampled over 875 graduating seniors from 16 high schools within six counties throughout Northwestern Ohio. Results highlight future career and educational goals of these young people and a self-report of skills based on the SCANS competencies and basic foundation skills. When evaluating Foundation Skills of Personal Qualities, Basic Skills, and Thinking Skills, students indicated highest ratings in Personal Qualities and overall lowest ratings in Basic Skills. A series of five Workforce Competencies were also evaluated, including Using Resources, Using Information, Using Technology, Interpersonal Skills, and Working in Systems. Highest ratings for Competencies were reported in Interpersonal Skills and lowest in Using Resources.
Full Text Available Background: Oral health has strong biological, psychological, and social projections, which influence the quality of life. Thus, developing a common vision and a comprehensive approach to address children′s social, emotional, and behavioral health needs is an integral part of the child and adolescent′s overall health. Aim: To assess and compare the behavior and emotional difficulties among 15-year-olds and to correlate it with their dentition status based on gender. Study Settings and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study among 15-year-old schoolgoing children in six private schools in Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India. Materials and Methods: The behavior and emotional difficulties were assessed using self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The dentition status was recorded by the criteria given by the World Health Organization (WHO in the Basic Oral Health Survey Assessment Form (1997. Statistical Analysis: Independent Student′s t-test was used for comparison among the variables. Correlation between scales of SDQ and dentition status was done using Karl Pearson′s correlation coefficient method. Results: Girls reported more emotional problems and good prosocial behavior and males had more conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and total difficulty problems. Total decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT and decayed component were significantly and positively correlated with total difficulty, emotional symptom, and conduct problems scale while missing component was correlated with the hyperactivity scale and filled component with prosocial behavior. Conclusion: DMFT and its components showed an association with all scales of SDQ except for peer problem scale. Thus, the oral health of children was significantly influenced by behavioral and emotional difficulties; so, changes in the mental health status will affect the oral health of children.
Srilatha, Adepu; Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, Madupu Padma; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, Bandari Srikanth
Oral health has strong biological, psychological, and social projections, which influence the quality of life. Thus, developing a common vision and a comprehensive approach to address children's social, emotional, and behavioral health needs is an integral part of the child and adolescent's overall health. To assess and compare the behavior and emotional difficulties among 15-year-olds and to correlate it with their dentition status based on gender. Study Settings and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study among 15-year-old schoolgoing children in six private schools in Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India. The behavior and emotional difficulties were assessed using self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The dentition status was recorded by the criteria given by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Basic Oral Health Survey Assessment Form (1997). Independent Student's t-test was used for comparison among the variables. Correlation between scales of SDQ and dentition status was done using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient method. Girls reported more emotional problems and good prosocial behavior and males had more conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and total difficulty problems. Total decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed component were significantly and positively correlated with total difficulty, emotional symptom, and conduct problems scale while missing component was correlated with the hyperactivity scale and filled component with prosocial behavior. DMFT and its components showed an association with all scales of SDQ except for peer problem scale. Thus, the oral health of children was significantly influenced by behavioral and emotional difficulties; so, changes in the mental health status will affect the oral health of children.
Eshoj, Henrik; Ingwersen, Kim Gordon; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Kjaer, Birgitte Hougs; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit
First, to investigate the intertester reliability of clinical shoulder instability and laxity tests, and second, to describe the mutual dependency of each test evaluated by each tester for identifying self-reported shoulder instability and laxity. A standardised protocol for conducting reliability studies was used to test the intertester reliability of the six clinical shoulder instability and laxity tests: apprehension, relocation, surprise, load-and-shift, sulcus sign and Gagey. Cohen's kappa (κ) with 95% CIs besides prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK), accounting for insufficient prevalence and bias, were computed to establish the intertester reliability and mutual dependency. Forty individuals (13 with self-reported shoulder instability and laxity-related shoulder problems and 27 normal shoulder individuals) aged 18-60 were included. Fair (relocation), moderate (load-and-shift, sulcus sign) and substantial (apprehension, surprise, Gagey) intertester reliability were observed across tests (κ 0.39-0.73; 95% CI 0.00 to 1.00). PABAK improved reliability across tests, resulting in substantial to almost perfect intertester reliability for the apprehension, surprise, load-and-shift and Gagey tests (κ 0.65-0.90). Mutual dependencies between each test and self-reported shoulder problem showed apprehension, relocation and surprise to be the most often used tests to characterise self-reported shoulder instability and laxity conditions. Four tests (apprehension, surprise, load-and-shift and Gagey) out of six were considered intertester reliable for clinical use, while relocation and sulcus sign tests need further standardisation before acceptable evidence. Furthermore, the validity of the tests for shoulder instability and laxity needs to be studied. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Esmaeeli, Zahra; Lundetrae, Kjersti; Kyle, Fiona E
Research has linked family risk (FR) of reading difficulties (RD) with children's difficulties in emergent literacy development. This study is the first to apply parents' self-report of RD as a proxy for FR in a large sample (n = 1171) in order to test group differences in children's emergent literacy. Emergent literacy, the home literacy environment and children's interest in literacy and letters were compared across different groups of FR children around the school entry. The FR children performed lower in emergent literacy compared with not-FR children. Furthermore, when comparing FR children with one parent reporting RD and children with both parents reporting RD, moderate group differences were found in Emergent Literacy. Finally, parents' self-report of RD was a significant contributor of emergent literacy after controlling for the home literacy environment, children's gender, their interest in literacy and letters, months in kindergarten, vocabulary and parents' education. Our findings suggest that schools should monitor the reading development of children with parents self-reporting RD closely - especially if both parents self-report RD. © 2017 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jaakkola, Timo; Hillman, Charles; Kalaja, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo
The purpose of this study was to analyse the longitudinal associations between (1) fundamental movement skills (FMSs) and academic performance, and (2) self-reported physical activity and academic performance through junior high school in Finland. The participants of the study were 325 Finnish students (162 girls and 163 boys), who were 13 years old at the beginning of the study at Grade 7. Students performed three FMS tests and responded to a self-reported physical activity questionnaire at Grades 7 and 8. Marks in Finnish language, mathematics and history from Grades 7, 8 and 9 were collected. Structural equation modelling with multigroup method demonstrated that in the boys' group, a correlation (0.17) appeared between FMS and academic performance measured at Grade 7. The results also indicated that FMS collected at Grade 8 were significantly but weakly (path coefficient 0.14) associated with academic performance at Grade 9 for both gender groups. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that self-reported physical activity was not significantly related to academic performance during junior high school. The findings of this study suggest that mastery of FMS may contribute to better student achievement during junior high school.
Wenzel, H G; Bakken, I J; Johansson, A; Götestam, K G; Øren, Anita
Computer games are the most advanced form of gaming. For most people, the playing is an uncomplicated leisure activity; however, for a minority the gaming becomes excessive and is associated with negative consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate computer game-playing behaviour in the general adult Norwegian population, and to explore mental health problems and self-reported consequences of playing. The survey includes 3,405 adults 16 to 74 years old (Norway 2007, response rate 35.3%). Overall, 65.5% of the respondents reported having ever played computer games (16-29 years, 93.9%; 30-39 years, 85.0%; 40-59 years, 56.2%; 60-74 years, 25.7%). Among 2,170 players, 89.8% reported playing less than 1 hr. as a daily average over the last month, 5.0% played 1-2 hr. daily, 3.1% played 2-4 hr. daily, and 2.2% reported playing > 4 hr. daily. The strongest risk factor for playing > 4 hr. daily was being an online player, followed by male gender, and single marital status. Reported negative consequences of computer game playing increased strongly with average daily playing time. Furthermore, prevalence of self-reported sleeping problems, depression, suicide ideations, anxiety, obsessions/ compulsions, and alcohol/substance abuse increased with increasing playing time. This study showed that adult populations should also be included in research on computer game-playing behaviour and its consequences.
Brugman, E.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Spee-Wekke, A. van der; Beuker, R.J.; Radder, J.J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
Objectives: To provide national figures on the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity (S-FH), and the association with socio-demographic variables and some health indicators in schoolchildren in The Netherlands. Design: As part of the Child Health Monitoring System, data were collected
Parcel, G S; Simons-Morton, B; O'Hara, N M; Baranowski, T; Wilson, B
The Go For Health Program included classroom health education and environmental changes in school lunch and physical education to foster healthful diet and exercise among elementary school children. Interventions were based on social learning theory and implementation was based on an organizational change strategy for school innovations. Two schools were assigned to intervention and two to control conditions. Cognitive measures (behavioral capability, self-efficacy, behavioral expectations) and self-reported diet and exercise behavior were assessed at baseline and following intervention. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the student and then the school as the unit of analysis. Statistically significant changes were observed for diet behavioral capability, self-efficacy, and behavioral expectations, use of salt, and exercise behavioral capability (fourth grade), self-efficacy (fourth grade) and frequency of participation in aerobic activity. The results provide evidence for program impact on learning outcomes and student behavior.
Alicea, Carly C. M.; Doherty, Karen A.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the motivation to change in relation to hearing problems in adults with normal hearing thresholds but who report hearing problems and that of adults with a mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Factors related to their motivation were also assessed. Method: The motivation to change in…
Skotheim, Siv; Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Øyen, Jannike; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Baste, Valborg; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth
There is a growing body of evidence linking fish consumption and n-3 LCPUFAs to mental health. Still, the results from randomized trials with n-3 LCPUFAs show conflicting results, and it is possible that the combined effect of several nutrients in fish may explain the observed associations. To aim of the present study was to investigate if school meals with fatty fish three times per week for 12 weeks could alter mental health in a sample of typically developing adolescents. In the Fish Intervention Studies-TEENS (FINS-TEENS), adolescents from eight secondary schools (n=425) in Norway, were randomized to receive school meals with fatty fish, meat or n-3 LCPUFA supplements. Mental health was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the differences between the groups were assessed with linear mixed effect models, unadjusted and adjusted for baseline and dietary compliance. The results showed no effects of school meals with fatty fish compared to similar meals with meat or n-3 LCPUFAs on the adolescents' self-reported symptom scores for mental health. Among adolescents scoring above the SDQ cut-offs (high-scorers), the fish- improved less than the meat group in the self-reported symptom scores for total difficulties- and emotional problems. However, the findings should be regarded as preliminary, as the analyses for the high-scorer group were underpowered. In conclusion, serving school meals with fatty fish did not alter mental health in a typically developing sample of adolescents. It is possible that serving healthy school meals with meat is more beneficial than similar meals with fatty fish in adolescents scoring high on mental health problems. However, the results should be seen as preliminary, as the dietary compliance in the fish group was low and the analyses in the high score group underpowered. Thus, further studies should investigate the associations between fish consumption and adolescents' mental health.
E N Zamri
Full Text Available Musculoskeletal pain is common among teachers. Work-related psychosocial factors are found to be associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain, however psychological distress may also play an important role.To assess the prevalence of self-reported low back pain (LBP, and neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP among secondary school teachers; and to evaluate the association of LBP and NSP with psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors.This was a cross-sectional study conducted among teachers in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The participants were recruited via a two stage sampling method. Information on demographic, psychological distress, work-related psychosocial factors, and musculoskeletal pain (LBP and NSP in the past 12 months was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR for the associations between psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors with LBP and NSP.The prevalence of self-reported LBP and NSP among 1482 teachers in the past 12 months was 48.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI 45.2%, 50.9% and 60.1% (95% CI 57.4%, 62.9% respectively. From the multivariate analysis, self-reported LBP was associated with teachers who reported severe to extremely severe depression (PR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.25, 2.32, severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.46, 95% CI 1.22, 1.75, high psychological job demand (1.29, 95% CI 1.06, 1.57, low skill discretion (1.28, 95% CI 1.13, 1.47 and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99. Self-reported NSP was associated with mild to moderate anxiety (1.18, 95% CI 1.06, 1.33, severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.25, 95% CI 1.09, 1.43, low supervisory support (1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.25 and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99.Self-reported LBP and NSP were common among secondary school teachers. Interventions targeting psychological distress and work-related psychosocial characteristics may reduce
Jaakkola, Timo; Washington, Tracy; Yli-Piipari, Sami
The main purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the role of motivational climates, perceived competence and motivational regulations as antecedents of self-reported physical activity during junior high school years. The participants included 237 Finnish students (101 girls, 136 boys) that were 13 years old at the first stage of the…
Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Grandner, Michael A; Garland, Sheila N; Henry, Elizabeth; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Burish, Thomas G
Cancer and its treatments can deleteriously affect memory. Cardiac function and insomnia can exacerbate memory problems. To examine the relationships among cardiovascular disease, insomnia, and self-reported memory problems (SRMP) in adult-onset cancer survivors. We included data from participants (41-64 year-old) of the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative probability sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the US. We excluded participants with brain cancer/stroke history since these conditions are expected to cause cognitive problems. Using binary logistic regression, we determined the prevalence of SRMP relative to cardiac problems and insomnia by weighting our results proportionally. We adjusted for predictors of memory problems: age, sex, race, education and general health. The sample included 2289 adults (49% females), 9% with a cancer history. The results pertain only to cancer survivors. Those with insomnia were 16 times as likely to have SRMP. Only insomnia symptoms (OR, 15.74; 95% CI, 1.73-143.30; p Insomnia accounted for 18.8% of the association between cardiac issues and SRMP, demonstrating mediation (Sobel p insomnia were not associated with SRMP (p > 0.05). We could not determine severity and time-related changes in SRMP. Likelihood of SRMP was higher in cancer survivors with a history of cardiovascular disease and insomnia symptoms. Future studies are needed to delineate the cardiac-insomnia-memory interrelationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available During economic recession people with mental health problems have higher risk of losing their job. This paper analyses the issue by considering the Italian rates of unemployment amongst individuals with and without mental health problems in 2005 and 2013, that is prior and during the economic crisis.We used data from the National surveys on "Health conditions and use of health services" carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT for the years 2005 and 2013. The surveys collected information on the health status and socioeconomic conditions of the Italian population. Self-reported unemployment status was analysed amongst individuals with and without reported mental health problems. In addition, descriptive statistics were performed in order to detect possible differences in the risk of unemployment within different regional contexts characterised by different socio-economic conditions.The recession determined increased disparities in unemployment rates between people with and without mental health problems. Regardless to the presence of mental health problems, young people were more likely to be unemployed. Among people who reported mental health problems, males were more likely to be unemployed than females. People with low education level were more likely to be unemployed, particularly during the recession and in presence of mental health problems. Changes in unemployment rates due to the crisis showed different patterns across different regions of the Country.These analyses confirm that in periods of economic crisis people with mental health problems are at risk of experiencing exclusion from labour market. In addition, the impact is even worse within the group with low education and younger age. These findings emphasise the importance of specific interventions aimed at promoting labour market participation and reintegration for people with mental health problems.
Starace, Fabrizio; Mungai, Francesco; Sarti, Elena; Addabbo, Tindara
Purpose During economic recession people with mental health problems have higher risk of losing their job. This paper analyses the issue by considering the Italian rates of unemployment amongst individuals with and without mental health problems in 2005 and 2013, that is prior and during the economic crisis. Methods We used data from the National surveys on “Health conditions and use of health services” carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) for the years 2005 and 2013. The surveys collected information on the health status and socioeconomic conditions of the Italian population. Self-reported unemployment status was analysed amongst individuals with and without reported mental health problems. In addition, descriptive statistics were performed in order to detect possible differences in the risk of unemployment within different regional contexts characterised by different socio-economic conditions. Results The recession determined increased disparities in unemployment rates between people with and without mental health problems. Regardless to the presence of mental health problems, young people were more likely to be unemployed. Among people who reported mental health problems, males were more likely to be unemployed than females. People with low education level were more likely to be unemployed, particularly during the recession and in presence of mental health problems. Changes in unemployment rates due to the crisis showed different patterns across different regions of the Country. Conclusions These analyses confirm that in periods of economic crisis people with mental health problems are at risk of experiencing exclusion from labour market. In addition, the impact is even worse within the group with low education and younger age. These findings emphasise the importance of specific interventions aimed at promoting labour market participation and reintegration for people with mental health problems. PMID:28376098
Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z
Little research has explored same-sex parents' school engagement, although there is some evidence that same-sex parents' perceptions of openness versus exclusion in the school setting -as well as other interrelated contexts - may have implications for their relationships with and perceptions of their children's schools. The current cross-sectional study used multilevel modeling to examine the relationship between same-sex parents' perceptions of stigma in various contexts and their self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, using a sample of 68 same-sex adoptive couples (132 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who perceived their communities as more homophobic reported higher levels of school-based involvement. Parents who perceived lower levels of sexual orientation-related stigma at their children's schools reported higher levels of school satisfaction. Parents who perceived lower levels of exclusion by other parents reported higher levels of school-based involvement and better relationships with teachers. However, perceived exclusion interacted with parents' level of outness with other parents, such that parents who were very out and reported high levels of exclusion reported the lowest quality relationships with teachers. Our findings have implications for scholars who study same-sex parent families at various stages of the life cycle, as well as for teachers and other professionals who work with diverse families.
Full Text Available We examine the contribution of human capital to health in 23 countries worldwide using the OECD Survey of Adult Skills, a unique large-scale international assessment of 16-65 year olds that contains information about self-reported health, schooling, cognitive skills and indicators of interpersonal trust, which represents the cognitive dimension of social capital. We identify cross-national differences in education, skill and social capital gradients in self-reported health and explore the interaction between human capital and social capital to examine if and where social capital is a mediator or a moderator of years of schooling and cognitive abilities. We find large education gaps in self-reported health across all countries in our sample and a strong positive relationship between self-reported health and both literacy and trust in the majority of countries. Education and skill gradients in self-reported health appear to be largest in the United States and smallest in Italy, France, Sweden and Finland. On average around 5.5% of both the schooling gap in self-reported health and the literacy gap in self-reported health can be explained by the higher levels of interpersonal trust that better educated/more skilled individuals have, although the mediating role of trust varies considerably across countries. We find no evidence of a moderation effect: the relationships between health and years of schooling and health and cognitive skills are similar among individuals with different levels of trust.
Wagenblast, Lene; Laessoe, Line; Printzlau, Andreas
, since some of the patients will experience problems due to excess skin. Foreign studies estimate that ∼30% of all bariatric surgery patients will at some point seek plastic surgical correction of excess skin. The aim of this study is to investigate to what extent the GB patients themselves consider......In the affluent part of the world, there is an increasing occurrence of obesity with Body Mass Index (BMI) above 40, which has resulted in an increasing number of operations such as gastric bypass (GB). After massive weight loss there will often be a need for subsequent plastic surgical correction...... plastic surgery for removal of excess skin, and their reasons and motivations for this. The investigation was performed as an anonymous questionnaire handed out to 150 patients at the 1-year standard consultation for GB patients at a private hospital. The questionnaire contained information about...
Swartz, Johnna R.; Knodt, Annchen R.; Radtke, Spenser R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.
Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors. PMID:27717769
Swartz, Johnna R; Knodt, Annchen R; Radtke, Spenser R; Hariri, Ahmad R
Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wheaton, Anne G; Perry, Geraldine S; Chapman, Daniel P; Croft, Janet B
To determine if self-reported sleep duration was associated with weight-control behaviors among US high school students. National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. United States, 2007. US high school students (N = 12,087). Students were asked if they had engaged in several weight-control behaviors during the 30 days before the survey to lose or maintain weight. Self-reported sleep duration categories included very short (≤ 5 h), short (6 or 7 h), referent moderate (8 or 9 h), and long (≥ 10 h). Sex-specific logistic regression analyses with race/ethnicity, grade, and body mass index category as covariates were conducted using SUDAAN to account for complex study design. Approximately half the students reported short sleep duration (51.8% of males and 54.3% of females), whereas very short sleep durations were reported by another 14.8% of males and 16.9% of females. Among males, very short sleepers were significantly (P sleep duration was associated with dieting and three unhealthy weight-control behaviors in this population. If our findings are confirmed, intervention studies should be conducted to examine the effect of educational interventions.
Whittlesey-Jerome, Wanda K.
Recent proposed legislation to change the public school funding formula has not taken the social work profession into account. There has been a lack of participation from professional associations in creating this legislation--critical legislation that enables school districts to determine what ancillary school support staff they will or will not…
Filipe Ferreira da Costa
Physical activity and diet are related to several health outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze physical activity (PA and diet patterns among Brazilian schoolchildren attending private or public schools. A cross-sectional, school-based study of elementary schoolchildren aged 7-10 years old (n = 2,936 was carried out in Florianopolis (southern Brazil. Self-reported food consumption and PA patterns were assessed by means of a questionnaire. A higher percentage of girls than boys met the recommendations for consumption of fruits and vegetables and limited their consumption of sweets and soft drinks. Boys reported higher PA levels than girls (P < 0.001. Children attending private schools were more likely to be in the highest tertile of PA (odds ratio = 1.53, 1.14-2.05 and 80% less likely to be active in commuting to school compared to public school students. Private schoolchildren were more likely to meet recommendations for fruits and vegetables, limit sweet consumption, report adequate meal frequency and no consumption of fast food or soft drinks. In summary, girls and private schoolchildren reported better eating patterns, while boys and private schoolchildren reported higher PA levels. Such results highlight the public school setting as a target for health promotion initiatives, along with other strategies, in developing countries.
AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Inam, Sarah S; AlEissa, Majid A; Noor, Ismail K; Almuneef, Maha A
The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying those in danger or at risk. The objective of this study is to identify school professional's awareness of child maltreatment and the existing national policies and procedures to examine the extent of efforts made in Saudi Arabia and to activate the roles of schools and school professionals in protecting children from violence and implementation of Article 19 of the CRC. This was a cross-sectional study, where school professionals from randomly selected schools throughout the country were invited to participate in a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 3,777 school professionals participated in the study. Fifty-five percent of professionals had at least 10 years of work experience. A low-level of awareness of child maltreatment was found in about 1/3 of school professionals. Only 1.9% of school professionals had ever attended any sort of specific training on child maltreatment, though 69.3% of those who had not, were willing to attend future training. With regards to awareness of CRC Article 19 or policies and procedures addressing child maltreatment, only 22% reported being aware of it. The majority of school professionals in Saudi Arabia have a low-intermediate level of awareness of child maltreatment, ratification of CRC, and related national policies and procedures, yet most are willing to attend training programs on this subject matter. Efforts need to be made in the country to fill this gap. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pronk, Marieke; Deeg, Dorly J H; Kramer, Sophia E
The purpose of this study is to determine which demographic, health-related, mood, personality, or social factors predict discrepancies between older adults' functional speech-in-noise test result and their self-reported hearing problems. Data of 1,061 respondents from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used (ages ranged from 57 to 95 years). Functional hearing problems were measured using a digit triplet speech-in-noise test. Five questions were used to assess self-reported hearing problems. Scores of both hearing measures were dichotomized. Two discrepancy outcomes were created: (a) being unaware: those with functional but without self-reported problems (reference is aware: those with functional and self-reported problems); (b) reporting false complaints: those without functional but with self-reported problems (reference is well: those without functional and self-reported hearing problems). Two multivariable prediction models (logistic regression) were built with 19 candidate predictors. The speech reception threshold in noise was kept (forced) as a predictor in both models. Persons with higher self-efficacy (to initiate behavior) and higher self-esteem had a higher odds to being unaware than persons with lower self-efficacy scores (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13 and 1.11, respectively). Women had a higher odds than men (OR = 1.47). Persons with more chronic diseases and persons with worse (i.e., higher) speech-in-noise reception thresholds in noise had a lower odds to being unaware (OR = 0.85 and 0.91, respectively) than persons with less diseases and better thresholds, respectively. A higher odds to reporting false complaints was predicted by more depressive symptoms (OR = 1.06), more chronic diseases (OR = 1.21), and a larger social network (OR = 1.02). Persons with higher self-efficacy (to complete behavior) had a lower odds (OR = 0.86), whereas persons with higher self-esteem had a higher odds to report false complaints (OR = 1.21). The explained variance
Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena
Some researchers have proposed that video games possess good learning principles and may promote problem solving skills. Empirical research regarding this relationship, however, is limited. The goal of the presented study was to examine whether strategic video game play (i.e., role playing and strategy games) predicted self-reported problem…
Kayombo, C M; Mumghamba, E G
Aim. To assess self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions, general health problems, sociodemographic factors, and behavioural and psychological characteristics among workers in Ilala and Temeke municipals. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Four hundred workers were recruited using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results. Self-reported tooth brushing practice was 100%, tongue cleaning 58.5%, dental flossing 4.3%, gum bleeding on tooth brushing 79.3%, presence of hard deposits on teeth 32%, mobile teeth 15.3%, and self-reported halitosis (SRH) 48.5%. Tea users were 95%, coffee users 75.8%, smokers 21%, and alcohol consumers 47%. The SRH was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard deposits, and mobile and malaligned teeth. Tongue cleaning and regular change of toothbrush were associated with low prevalence of SRH ( P promotion are recommended.
Chang, Chieh Ting; Garg, Prerna; Giddon, Donald B
To determine the influence of boarding school on self-perceived body and facial morphology, the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and exploratory questions about the orofacial area (OFA) were administered to female boarding (B) and nonboarding (NB) students at two Catholic schools in Taiwan. The mean total BSQ scores of Bs were significantly higher than NBs, with both being significantly higher than the published normative score but lower than probable bulimics with no significant B vs. NB difference in mean total OFA scores. Because the Bs were significantly taller and reported more orthodontic treatment than NBs, the possible confounding by the higher economic status of the Bs was minimized by finding similar significantly higher BSQ scores for the small number of Bs (5%) than the remaining NBs (95%) in the documented lower socio-economic school. In summary, the experience of boarding in religion-dominated schools significantly increases body image concerns of adolescent females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.
Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…
The high levels of violence in South African and other communities have ... the widespread violence in the school context is an area of concern, because it impacts on .... in delinquency based on the power play going on in the family structure, ...
Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Lalor, Aislinn; Farnworth, Louise; Pallant, Julie F; Knightbridge, Elizabeth; McLelland, Gayle
Lifestyle may influence many health-related issues currently facing Australian women. The extent to which women with school-aged children attend to their own health is unknown and the associations between health behaviours and health status requires investigation. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of health behaviours (alcohol consumption, health-promoting activities) and their impact on self-reported health (weight, sleep quality, mental health) among mothers of school-aged children in Victoria. Mail-out survey design (n=263) including the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) and Health Promoting Activities Scale was used to explore issues. The results indicated that substantial numbers of mothers reported moderate to extreme DASS scores: depression (n=45, 17%); anxiety (n=41, 15.6%); stress (n=57, 21.7%). The majority participated in physical activity less often than daily. High rates of daily alcohol use (20%) and poor sleep quality were reported. Nearly one-half (n=114, 46%) of the sample were overweight or obese and also reported poorer mental health than other women in the sample (Pmaternal weight, mental health and participation in health-promoting activities. The findings indicate that there is a need for increased health education and services for women with school-aged children. Direct services and population-based health promotion strategies may be required to address healthy lifestyle issues and educate mothers about the possible health legacy of poor health behaviours.
Muthuri, Stella K; Wachira, Lucy-Joy M; Onywera, Vincent O; Tremblay, Mark S
Previous work has shown little association between self-report and directly measured physical activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-reported and directly assessed measures of physical activity and sedentary time by weight status in Kenyan children. Direct assessment of body weight, physical activity and sedentary time of 563 children was collected through anthropometry and accelerometry, while self-reported assessment was achieved by administering a questionnaire. Under/healthy weight children had significantly higher directly measured mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to overweight/obese children (39 vs 20 minutes); had lower mean weekend-day minutes of sedentary time (346 vs 365 minutes); had a higher proportion who met accepted physical activity guidelines (15.3% vs 2.6%); and a higher number reported using active transportation to/from school (49.2% vs 32.4%). Self-reported time spent outside before and after school and active transport to/from school were significantly associated with mean weekday minutes of MVPA (r-value range = 0.12-0.36), but only for the under/healthy weight children. The results of this study found a number of differences in the accumulation of MVPA and sedentary time by weight status and weak-to-moderate correlations between self-report and direct measures of weekday and weekend-day physical activity among the under/healthy weight children.
Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.
Background Although shopping behavior among adolescents is normal, for some the shopping becomes problematic. An assessment of adolescent shopping behavior along a continuum of severity and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. Methods A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, shopping behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. Results The overall prevalence of problem shopping was 3.5% (95%CI: 2.93–4.07). Regular smoking, marijuana and other drug use, sadness and hopelessness, and antisocial behaviors (e.g., fighting, carrying weapons) were associated with problem shopping behavior in both boys and girls. Heavy alcohol use was significantly associated with problem shopping only in girls. Conclusion Problem shopping appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with symptoms of depression and a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that excessive shopping may often have significant associated morbidity. Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for adolescents who report problems with shopping. PMID:21497217
Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A; Desai, Rani A
Although shopping behavior among adolescents is normal, for some, the shopping becomes problematic. An assessment of adolescent shopping behavior along a continuum of severity and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n = 3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, shopping behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of problem shopping was 3.5% (95% CI, 2.93-4.07). Regular smoking, marijuana and other drug use, sadness and hopelessness, and antisocial behaviors (e.g., fighting, carrying weapons) were associated with problem shopping behavior in both boys and girls. Heavy alcohol use was significantly associated with problem shopping only in girls. Problem shopping appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with symptoms of depression and a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that excessive shopping may often have significant associated morbidity. Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for adolescents who report problems with shopping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dowdy, Erin; Harrell-Williams, Leigh; Dever, Bridget V.; Furlong, Michael J.; Moore, Stephanie; Raines, Tara; Kamphaus, Randy W.
Increasingly, schools are implementing school-based screening for risk of behavioral and emotional problems; hence, foundational evidence supporting the predictive validity of screening instruments is important to assess. This study examined the predictive validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening…
Bouman, T.; van der Meulen, M.M.; Goossens, F.A.; Olthof, T.; Vermande, M.M.; Aleva, E.A.
Researchers typically employ either peer or self-reports to assess involvement in bullying. In this study, we examined the merits of each method for the identification of child characteristics related to victimization and bullying others. Accordingly, we investigated the difference between these two
A 32-item standardized multiple-choice and open-ended questionnaire was completed by nearly 500 male and female secondary school students in two rapidly developing Nigerian towns. About two thirds of the students reported some exposure to alcohol, and about one quarter reported some experience with tobacco. There was much less use of caffeine, methaqualone in combination with diphenhydramine, 2-ethylamino-3-phenylorcamphane in combination with vitamins, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, cannabis and dexamphetamine. Many students fell into the "past use" category. Parents were extremely disapproving of the use of almost any drug. Many students supported stronger penalties for the use of cannabis. Non-users claimed that drugs were dangerous to health. In addition, religious beliefs were associated with abstinence from drugs.
Alice M Braden
Full Text Available Music performance anxiety (MPA can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomised to a cognitive behavioural (CB group-delivered intervention or a waitlist condition. The intervention consisted of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and relaxation techniques, identification of strengths, goal-setting, imagery and visualisation techniques to support three solo performances in front of judges. Significant reductions in self-rated MPA were found in both groups following the intervention and compared to their baseline MPA. This reduction was maintained at two-months follow-up. There appeared to be inconsistent effects of the intervention upon judge-rated MPA, however the presence of floor effects precluded meaningful reductions in MPA. There appeared to be no effect of the intervention upon judge-rated performance quality. This study highlights the potential for group-based CB programs to be delivered within school music curricula to help young musicians develop skills to overcome the often debilitating effects of MPA.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe the self-reported sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of a sample of South African multi-ethnic primary schoolchildren and consider the roles of sex and skin type as well as school sun...
The purpose of this study was to examine relations between mother-child attachment and social initiative and withdrawal in Chinese urban children. Participants were 487 school-aged children (247 boys, 240 girls) in Shanghai, the People's Republic of China. Data on mother-child attachment styles were collected from children's self-reports.…
Verpoorten, Dominique; Glahn, Christian; Chatti, Amine; Westera, Wim; Specht, Marcus
Verpoorten, D., Glahn, C., Chatti, A., Westera, W., & Specht, M. (2011). Self-Reported Learning Effects of a Tagging Activity Carried out in a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) by Secondary-School Pupils. International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education, 2(1), 276-284.
C. M. Kayombo
Full Text Available Aim. To assess self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions, general health problems, sociodemographic factors, and behavioural and psychological characteristics among workers in Ilala and Temeke municipals. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Four hundred workers were recruited using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results. Self-reported tooth brushing practice was 100%, tongue cleaning 58.5%, dental flossing 4.3%, gum bleeding on tooth brushing 79.3%, presence of hard deposits on teeth 32%, mobile teeth 15.3%, and self-reported halitosis (SRH 48.5%. Tea users were 95%, coffee users 75.8%, smokers 21%, and alcohol consumers 47%. The SRH was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard deposits, and mobile and malaligned teeth. Tongue cleaning and regular change of toothbrush were associated with low prevalence of SRH (P<0.001. Higher occurrence of SRH was significantly related to low education and smoking. Conclusion. Self-reported halitosis was prevalent among workers and was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard dental deposits, mobile teeth, and smoking. All participants brushed their teeth and cleaned the tongue regularly but use of dental floss was extremely low. Oral health education and health promotion are recommended.
Hunsberger, Monica; Pena, Pablo; Lissner, Lauren; Grafström, Lisen; Vanaelst, Barbara; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pala, Valeria; Eiben, Gabriele
Previous studies have suggested that young children are inaccurate reporters of dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to validate a single recall of the previous day's school lunch reported by 6-8 year old Swedish children and to assess teacher-recorded intake of the same meal in a standardized food journal. An additional research question was whether parents could report their child's intake of the previous day's lunch. Subjects constituted a convenience sample from the large, multi-country study Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS). Validations of both children's recalls and teachers' records were made by comparing results with the duplicate plate reference method. Twenty-five children (12 boys/13 girls) aged 6-8 years participated in the validation study at one school in western Sweden. Children were accurate self-reporters of their dietary intake at lunch, with no significant difference between reported and weighed intake (Mean difference (SD): 7(50) kcals, p=0.49). Teachers significantly over-reported intake (Mean difference (SD): 65(79) kcals, p=0.01). For both methods, child-reported and teacher-recorded, correlations with weighed intake were strong (Pearson's correlations r=0.92, pteacher-records and weighed intakes. Foods were recalled by children with a food-match rate of 90%. In all cases parents themselves were unable to report on quantities consumed and only four of 25 children had parents with knowledge regarding food items consumed. Children 6-8 years of age accurately recalled their school lunch intake for one occasion while teachers recorded with less accuracy. Our findings suggest that children as young as six years of age may be better able to report on their dietary intake than previously suggested, at least for one main meal at school. Teacher-recorded intake provides a satisfactory estimate but with greater systematic deviation from the weighed intake
Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Andersen, Rikke
school meal study, 8- to 11-year-old children (n 834) were served the New Nordic Diet (NND) for lunch. The present study examined the accuracy of self-reported intake of signature foods (berries, cabbage, root vegetables, legumes, herbs, potatoes, wild plants, mushrooms, nuts and fish) characterising......Bias in self-reported dietary intake is important when evaluating the effect of dietary interventions, particularly for intervention foods. However, few have investigated this in children, and none have investigated the reporting accuracy of fish intake in children using biomarkers. In a Danish...... the NND. Children, assisted by parents, self-reported their diet in a Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children during the intervention and control (packed lunch) periods. The reported fish intake by children was compared with their ranking according to fasting whole-blood EPA and DHA...
Full Text Available In this article, we try to analyze two things: (1 the characteristics of the neoliberal attack on school in general, in the age of “human capital”, and (2 what form this attack has acquired in our society. Today, one can see the subjugation of the school to economy in all developed capitalist countries, but if this subjugation is going on in some of the most developed countries, with unabated investment in education, then this attack is much more direct and raw in our society where government expects the subjugation of the school to the market while minimizing input into it. In both cases, it is a fact that this attack, which subordinates school to capital, could not have happened, or at least would have been less likely to occur, if it had not been accompanied by a new school discourse, to which teachers themselves contribute, either by remaining passive or by misunderstanding the contemporary school reality. The article mainly relies on the work of Christian Laval – L'École n'est pas une entreprise: Le néo-libéralisme à l'assaut de l'enseignement public.
Bluyssen, Philomena; Zhang, Dadi; Kurvers, Stanley; Overtoom, Marjolein; Ortiz Sanchez, Marco
Background While the indoor environmental quality of classrooms is a potential issue because it may affect the wellbeing of school children, the relations are still poorly studied. This study aimed to investigate the relations between classroom characteristics and health and comfort of school
Bluijssen, P.M.; Zhang, D.; Kurvers, S.R.; Overtoom, M.E.; Ortiz Sanchez, M.A.
While the indoor environmental quality of classrooms is a potential issue because it may affect the wellbeing of school children, the relations are still poorly studied. This study aimed to investigate the relations between classroom characteristics and health and comfort of school
Hackworth, Rhonda S.
This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…
Lowe, Robert B.; Gervais, Robert L.
Case study of a new principal who turns around an elementary school with a misbehaving student body and and apathetic staff by setting, publicizing, and consistently enforcing clear rules; documenting infractions; involving parents; encouraging student responsibility; and requiring lesson plans. (DCS)
Paquet, Lise; Verma, Shailendra; Collins, Barbara; Chinneck, Anne; Bedard, Marc; Song, Xinni
A puzzling observation pertaining to the impact of breast cancer on memory is the frequently reported dissociation between breast cancer survivors' self-reported memory problems and memory performance. We evaluated the hypothesis that the dissociation is related to the fact that the objective memory measures previously used assessed retrospective memory (RM) and did not tap prospective memory (PM), a domain about which survivors are complaining. In a case-healthy-control (N = 80) cross-sectional study, the Memory for Intention Screening Test was used to assess PM and the Wechsler Logical Memory Test was used to evaluate RM. Self-reported problems were assessed with the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire. Measures of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and fatigue (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy: Fatigue) were also administered. Both groups reported more PM than RM problems (P memory problems than controls (all P memory problems. Although unrelated to performance, memory complaints should not be dismissed, as they are closely associated with depression and fatigue and reveal an important facet of the cancer experience. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Atefi, Mohammad; Kholghi, Fatemeh
Background: The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. Methods: A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school) healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Results: Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of children to exhibit
Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi
Full Text Available Background: The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. Methods: A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Results: Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of
Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Atefi, Mohammad; Kholghi, Fatemeh
The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school) healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. RESULTS obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of children to exhibit symptoms from using mobile phones. The
Titova, Olga E; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Jacobsson, Josefin A; Feldman, Inna; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian
To examine associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and short sleep duration with the risk for academic failure. A cohort of ~40,000 adolescents (age range: 12-19 years) who were attending high school grades 7, 9, and 2nd year of upper secondary school in the Swedish Uppsala County were invited to participate in the Life and Health Young Survey (conducted between 2005 and 2011 in Uppsala County, Sweden). In addition to the question how many subjects they failed during the school year (outcome variable), subsamples of adolescents also answered questions related to subjective sleep disturbance (n = 20,026) and habitual sleep duration (n = 4736) (exposure variables). Binary logistic regression analysis was utilized to explore if self-reported sleep disturbances and habitual short sleep duration (defined as less than 7-8 h sleep per night) increase the relative risk to fail subjects during the school year (controlled for possible confounders, e.g. body-mass-index). Adolescents with self-reported sleep disturbances had an increased risk for academic failure (i.e., they failed at least one subject during the school year; OR: boys, 1.68; girls, 2.05, both P sleep disturbances. In addition, adolescents who reported short sleep duration on both working and weekend days were more likely to fail at least one subject at school than those who slept at least 7-8 h per night (OR: boys, 4.1; girls, 5.0, both P sleep disturbance and short sleep duration are linked to academic failure in adolescents. Based on our data, causality cannot be established. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Louwerse, Frances H.
A self-report instrument (questionnaire/reaction scale) was developed and administered to students in grades 9-12 to: (1) determine the number of science courses taken by each grade level; (2) estimate the number of science courses requested for future years and indicate where recruitment efforts would be needed; (3) examine other-directed reasons…
Auchter, Melissa; Le Prell, Colleen G
Hearing loss prevention has always been an important issue for audiologists. The importance of hearing loss prevention education for young musicians is now recognized by the National Association for Music Education as well as the National Association of Schools of Music. Adopt-a-Band is a commercial program designed to foster hearing loss prevention behavior in young musicians. This study assessed changes in earplug use, measured using self-report surveys, after Adopt-a-Band training. Participants were members of 2 high school marching bands who viewed an informational DVD and reviewed fact sheets. Flat-attenuation earplugs were distributed, and training was provided. In addition, study participants engaged in discussion of hearing loss with a doctor of audiology student. Before training, 23% of participants reported they had previously used hearing protection. Immediately after training, 94% of participants reported they planned to use hearing protection at least occasionally. In a final end-of-season survey, earplug use had reliably increased; 62% of participants reported they used earplugs at least occasionally. Earplug use increased, but self-reported behavioral change was not as robust as predicted from self-reported participant intentions. Participant comments regarding factors that influenced their earplug use decisions suggest opportunities to improve training.
Rescorla, Leslie A.; Ginzburg, Sofia; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Begovac, Ivan; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chahed, Myriam; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Minaei, Asghar; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Petot, Djaouida; Petot, Jean-Michel; Pomalima, Rolando; Rudan, Vlasta; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zhang, Eugene Yuqing; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.
We used population sample data from 25 societies to answer the following questions: (a) How consistently across societies do adolescents report more problems than their parents report about them? (b) Do levels of parent-adolescent agreement vary among societies for different kinds of problems? (c) How well do parents and adolescents in different…
Rescorla, Leslie A; Ginzburg, Sofia; Achenbach, Thomas M
We used population sample data from 25 societies to answer the following questions: (a) How consistently across societies do adolescents report more problems than their parents report about them? (b) Do levels of parent-adolescent agreement vary among societies for different kinds of problems? (c...
Zygmunt, Austin; Asada, Yukiko; Burge, Frederick
As in many jurisdictions, the delivery of primary care in Canada is being transformed from solo practice to team-based care. In Canada, team-based primary care involves general practitioners working with nurses or other health care providers, and it is expected to improve equity in access to care. This study examined whether team-based care is associated with fewer access problems and less unmet need and whether socioeconomic gradients in access problems and unmet need are smaller in team-based care than in non-team-based care. Data came from the 2008 Canadian Survey of Experiences with Primary Health Care (sample size: 10,858). We measured primary care type as team-based or non-team-based and socioeconomic status by income and education. We created four access problem variables and four unmet need variables (overall and three specific components). For each, we ran separate logistic regression models to examine their associations with primary care type. We examined socioeconomic gradients in access problems and unmet need stratified by primary care type. Primary care type had no statistically significant, independent associations with access problems or unmet need. Among those with non-team-based care, a statistically significant education gradient for overall access problems existed, whereas among those with team-based care, no statistically significant socioeconomic gradients existed.
María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo
Full Text Available School violence is one type of violence that reflects the breakdown of current society. It is impossible to speak of school violence as an isolated phenomenon without establishing nexuses between public and private life, between collective and individual behaviors, between family and community aspects, without making reference to differences in gender and the life stories of those who are the aggressors or the victims, and without considering the patriarchal culture and interpersonal relationships. When all these factor are interrelated, they make the problem of violence a very complex one that requires us to know the different factors in order to understand it and deal with it.
Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, Niels
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between patients' own recognition of skin problems using consumer products and the results of patch testing with markers of fragrance sensitization. Eight hundred and eighty-four consecutive eczema patients, 18-69 years of age, filled...
Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, Niels
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between patients' own recognition of skin problems using consumer products and the results of patch testing with markers of fragrance sensitization. Eight hundred and eighty-four consecutive eczema patients, 18-69 years of age, fill...
Violence has probably always been part of the human experience. Its impact can be seen, in various forms, in all parts of the world. In 1996, WHO:s Forty-Ninth World Health Assembly adopted a resolution, declaring violence a major and growing public health problem around the world. Public health work centers around health promotion and disease prevention activities in the population and public health is an expression of the health status of the population taking into account both the level and the distribution of health. Exposure to violence can have many aspects, differing throughout the life course - deprivation of autonomy, financial exploitation, psychological and physical neglect or abuse - but all types share common characteristics: the use of destructive force to control others by depriving them of safety, freedom, health and, in too many instances, life; the epidemic proportions of the problem, particularly among vulnerable groups; a devastating impact on individuals, families, neighborhoods, communities, and society. There is considerable evidence that stressful early life events influence a variety of physical and/or psychological health problems later in life. Childhood adversity has been linked to elevated rates of morbidity and mortality from number of chronic diseases. A model outlining potential biobehavioural pathways is put forward that may be a potential explanation of how exposure to violence among both men and women work as an important risk factor for ill health and should receive greater attention in public health work.
Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, N; Avnstorp, C; Andersen, K E; Menné, T
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between patients' own recognition of skin problems using consumer products and the results of patch testing with markers of fragrance sensitization. Eight hundred and eighty-four consecutive eczema patients, 18-69 years of age, filled in a questionnaire prior to patch testing with the European standard series. The questionnaire contained questions about skin symptoms from the use of scented and unscented products as well as skin reactions from contact with spices, flowers and citrus fruits that could indicate fragrance sensitivity. A highly significant association was found between reporting a history of visible skin symptoms from using scented products and a positive patch test to the fragrance mix, whereas no such relationship could be established to the Peru balsam in univariate or multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that the role of Peru balsam in detecting relevant fragrance contact allergy is limited, while most fragrance mix-positive patients are aware that the use of scented products may cause skin problems.
de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J
This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents.
Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, N
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between patients' own recognition of skin problems using consumer products and the results of patch testing with markers of fragrance sensitization. Eight hundred and eighty-four consecutive eczema patients, 18-69 years of age, filled...... in a questionnaire prior to patch testing with the European standard series. The questionnaire contained questions about skin symptoms from the use of scented and unscented products as well as skin reactions from contact with spices, flowers and citrus fruits that could indicate fragrance sensitivity. A highly...... significant association was found between reporting a history of visible skin symptoms from using scented products and a positive patch test to the fragrance mix, whereas no such relationship could be established to the Peru balsam in univariate or multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that the role...
Alizor, John O.
The purpose of this quantitative study, using the three-way repeated measures ANOVA, was to identify certain leadership styles used by effective and ineffective charter high school principals that impact the students' academic achievement. Principal ratings and school demographic characteristics were gathered from 19 charter schools. The study's…
Full Text Available The association of wind turbine noise (WTN with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012: 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.
Kageyama, Takayuki; Yano, Takashi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Sueoka, Shinichi; Tachibana, Hideki
The association of wind turbine noise (WTN) with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012): 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR) of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.
Nijs, Miesje M; Bun, Clothilde J E; Tempelaar, Wanda M; de Wit, Niek J; Burger, Huibert; Plevier, Carolien M; Boks, Marco P M
School environment is an important determinant of psychosocial function and may also be related to mental health. We therefore investigated whether perceived school safety, a simple measure of this environment, is related to mental health problems. In a population-based sample of 11,130 secondary school students, we analysed the relationship of perceived school safety with mental health problems using multiple logistic regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Mental health problems were defined using the clinical cut-off of the self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. School safety showed an exposure-response relationship with mental health problems after adjustment for confounders. Odds ratios increased from 2.48 ("sometimes unsafe") to 8.05 ("very often unsafe"). The association was strongest in girls and young and middle-aged adolescents. Irrespective of the causal background of this association, school safety deserves attention either as a risk factor or as an indicator of mental health problems.
Priest, Naomi; Perry, Ryan; Ferdinand, Angeline; Kelaher, Margaret; Paradies, Yin
Racism and racial discrimination are increasingly acknowledged as a critical determinant of health and health inequalities. However, patterns and impacts of racial discrimination among children and adolescents remain under-investigated, including how different experiences of racial discrimination co-occur and influence health and development over time. This study examines associations between self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination experiences and loneliness and depressive symptoms over time among Australian school students. Across seven schools, 142 students (54.2% female), age at T1 from 8 to 15 years old (M = 11.14, SD = 2.2), and from diverse racial/ethnic and migration backgrounds (37.3% born in English-speaking countries as were one or both parents) self-reported racial discrimination experiences (direct and vicarious) and mental health (depressive symptoms and loneliness) at baseline and 9 months later at follow up. A full cross-lagged panel design was modelled using MPLUS v.7 with all variables included at both time points. A cross-lagged effect of perceived direct racial discrimination on later depressive symptoms and on later loneliness was found. As expected, the effect of direct discrimination on both health outcomes was unidirectional as mental health did not reciprocally influence reported racism. There was no evidence that vicarious racial discrimination influenced either depressive symptoms or loneliness beyond the effect of direct racial discrimination. Findings suggest direct racial discrimination has a persistent effect on depressive symptoms and loneliness among school students over time. Future work to explore associations between direct and vicarious discrimination is required.
Witkowska, Eva; Menckel, Ewa
Sexual harassment in schools is recognized as a public-health problem detrimental to girls' psychosomatic health. This study examines the magnitude of sexual harassment and types of behaviours related to sexual harassment that female students are exposed to in a school environment, and their perceptions of them as problems in school. A random sample of 540 female high school students, from all over Sweden, responded to an anonymous self-report mail questionnaire consisting of items related to personal experiences of different behaviours related to sexual harassment during the previous school year. Sexual harassment was identified by 49% of the female students as a problem present in their schools. The most common types were verbal behaviours, such as: sexualized conversations, attractiveness rating, demeaning comments about gender, name-calling, and sexual personal comments. The most common non-verbal displays were: sexualized contact seeking and sexual looks. Behaviours in the sexual assault and teacher-to-student categories were less prevalent. In all four categories, the respondents who reported exposure to a particular behaviour were significantly more likely to identify that behaviour as a problem in their school. However, many non-exposed respondents also perceived such behaviours as problems in their school. Female high-school students in Sweden are exposed to a variety of inappropriate and/or unacceptable behaviours of a sexual nature, or based on sex, that may infringe their right to a supportive, respectful and safe learning environment or their dignity. Greater efforts are needed to analyse and prevent sexual harassment in schools.
Amory H. Danek
Full Text Available Magic tricks usually remain a mystery to the observer. For the sake of science, we offered participants the opportunity to discover the magician’s secret method by repeatedly presenting the same trick and asking them to find out how the trick worked. In the context of insightful problem solving, the present work investigated the emotions that participants experience upon solving a magic trick. We assumed that these emotions form the typical Aha! experience that accompanies insightful solutions to difficult problems. We aimed to show that Aha! experiences can be triggered by magic tricks and to systematically explore the phenomenology of the Aha! experience by breaking it down into five previously postulated dimensions. 34 video clips of different magic tricks were presented up to three times to 50 participants who had to find out how the trick was accomplished, and to indicate whether they had experienced an Aha! during the solving process. Participants then performed a comprehensive quantitative and qualitative assessment of their Aha! experiences which was repeated after 14 days to control for its reliability. 41% of all suggested solutions were accompanied by an Aha! experience. The quantitative assessment remained stable across time in all five dimensions. Happiness was rated as the most important dimension. This primacy of positive emotions was also reflected in participants’ qualitative self-reports which contained more emotional than cognitive aspects. Implementing magic tricks as problem solving task, we could show that strong Aha! experiences can be triggered if a trick is solved. We could at least partially capture the phenomenology of Aha! by identifying one prevailing aspect (positive emotions, a new aspect (release of tension upon gaining insight into a magic trick and one less important aspect (impasse.
Katz, Deirdre A.; Harris, Alexis R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Greenberg, Mark T.
Educators are exposed to a variety of stressors, which can lead to poorer teaching performance, burnout, and increased student misbehavior (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009). Although self-report measures of stress are most commonly used in education research, physiological measures of stress may also contribute to the understanding of educators'…
Altenstein-Yamanaka, David; Zimmermann, Johannes; Krieger, Tobias; Dörig, Nadja; Grosse Holtforth, Martin
Interpersonal factors play a major role in causing and maintaining depression. This study sought to investigate how patients' self-perceived interpersonal problems and impact messages as perceived by significant others are interrelated, change over therapy, and differentially predict process and outcome in psychotherapy of depression. For the present study, we used data from 144 outpatients suffering from major depression that were treated within a psychotherapy study. Interpersonal variables were assessed pre- and posttherapy with the self-report Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scale (IIP-32; Thomas, Brähler, & Strauss, 2011) and with the informant-based Impact Message Inventory (Caspar, Berger, Fingerle, & Werner, 2016). Patients' levels on the dimensions of Agency and Communion were calculated from both measures; their levels on Interpersonal Distress were measured with the IIP. Depressive and general symptomatology was assessed at pre-, post-, and at 3-month follow-up; patient-reported process measures were assessed during therapy. The Agency scores of IIP and IMI correlated moderately, but the Communion scores did not. IIP Communion was positively associated with the quality of the early therapeutic alliance and with the average level of cognitive-emotional processing during therapy. Whereas IIP Communion and IMI Agency increased over therapy, IIP Distress decreased. A pre-post-decrease in IIP Distress was positively associated with pre-postsymptomatic change over and above the other interpersonal variables, but pre-post-increase in IMI Agency was positively associated with symptomatic improvement from post- to 3-month follow-up. These findings suggest that significant others seem to provide important additional information about the patients' interpersonal style. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Peterman, Karen; Pan, Yi; Robertson, Jane; Lee, Shelley Glenn
Biotechnology constitutes one of the most challenging, cutting-edge, and rapidly growing fields in science today. Both the practical implications and the hands-on nature of this "modern science" make the topic of biotechnology an attractive addition to the high school science curriculum. The current study is the first of its kind to…
Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth
The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....
Oral appliance therapy versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems
Nikolopoulou, M.; Byraki, A.; Ahlberg, J.; Heymans, M. W.; Hamburger, H. L.; de Lange, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Aarab, G.
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with several sleep disorders and sleep-related problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of a mandibular advancement device (MAD) with those of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on self-reported
Nicole E Spruijt
Full Text Available BackgroundSpeech problems are a common clinical feature of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The objectives of this study were to inventory the speech history and current self-reported speech rating of adolescents and young adults, and examine the possible variables influencing the current speech ratings, including cleft palate, surgery, speech and language therapy, intelligence quotient, and age at assessment.MethodsIn this cross-sectional cohort study, 50 adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (ages, 12-26 years, 67% female filled out questionnaires. A neuropsychologist administered an age-appropriate intelligence quotient test. The demographics, histories, and intelligence of patients with normal speech (speech rating=1 were compared to those of patients with different speech (speech rating>1.ResultsOf the 50 patients, a minority (26% had a cleft palate, nearly half (46% underwent a pharyngoplasty, and all (100% had speech and language therapy. Poorer speech ratings were correlated with more years of speech and language therapy (Spearman's correlation= 0.418, P=0.004; 95% confidence interval, 0.145-0.632. Only 34% had normal speech ratings. The groups with normal and different speech were not significantly different with respect to the demographic variables; a history of cleft palate, surgery, or speech and language therapy; and the intelligence quotient.ConclusionsAll adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome had undergone speech and language therapy, and nearly half of them underwent pharyngoplasty. Only 34% attained normal speech ratings. Those with poorer speech ratings had speech and language therapy for more years.
Borup, Ina; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
of the health dialogue and to examine the effect of social class on this response controlled for the effect of other relevant social factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is a survey. The population were all pupils in the fifth, seventh and ninth grade (11, 13 and 15 years old) in a random sample of schools...... the nurse's advice, 77% had made their own autonomous decisions based on the health dialogue, and 11% had returned to the nurse for further advice. Pupils from the lower social classes had more often followed the nurse's advice (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.99-1.37) and returned to the nurse (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.......12-1.90). Pupils from the middle and lower social classes had more often made their own autonomous decisions (middle social classes: OR =1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.39, lower social classes: OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.95-1.34). CONCLUSION: Most pupils reported an outcome of the health dialogue with the school health nurse...
Johnson, Kaprea; Hannon, Michael D.
This study investigates the relationship between academic achievement and reports of student problem behavior from teachers, parents, and child self-reports. Participants included 108 teachers, 113 parents/caregivers, and 129 students from an urban school in the Northeast region of the United States. Results suggest parent and child reports were…
Ferguson, Earl E.; Killingsworth, Jerry
The school dropout problem is discussed, with suggestions for parents on ensuring that their children do not become part of the dropout population, including; monitoring children's school attendance patterns; making sure children understand how important school and attendance is; maintaining close contact with teachers; and helping children…
Fisher, M. Bryon
The speaker, a school board attorney, outlines four legal problems he has had to deal with. The cases concern teacher dismissal, the district's responsibility in the case of "hazardous transportation," school district purchases for student activities (student photographs), and school bus leasing. (IRT)
Yew, Wun Thiam; Lian, Lim Hooi; Meng, Chew Cheng
The purpose of this article was to examine problem solving strategies among primary school teachers. The researchers employed survey research design to examine their problem solving strategies. The participants of this study consisted of 120 primary school teachers from a public university in Peninsula Malaysia who enrolled in a 4-year Graduating…
Shek, Daniel T L; Zhu, Xiaoqin
Based on the six-wave data collected from Grade 7 to Grade 12 students ( N = 3,328 at Wave 1), this pioneer study examined the development of problem behaviors (risk and delinquent behavior and problem behavioral intention) and the predictors (moral competence and spirituality) among adolescents in Hong Kong. Individual growth curve models revealed that while risk and delinquent behavior accelerated and then slowed down in the high school years, adolescent problem behavioral intention slightly accelerated over time. After controlling the background socio-demographic factors, moral competence and spirituality were negatively associated with risk and delinquent behavior as well as problem behavioral intention across all waves as predicted. Regarding the rate of change in the outcome measures, while the initial level of spirituality was positively linked to the growth rate of risk and delinquent behavior, the initial level of moral competence was negatively associated with the growth rate of problem behavioral intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the present findings are discussed with reference to the role of moral competence and spirituality in the development of adolescent problem behavior.
Shek, Daniel T. L.; Zhu, Xiaoqin
Based on the six-wave data collected from Grade 7 to Grade 12 students (N = 3,328 at Wave 1), this pioneer study examined the development of problem behaviors (risk and delinquent behavior and problem behavioral intention) and the predictors (moral competence and spirituality) among adolescents in Hong Kong. Individual growth curve models revealed that while risk and delinquent behavior accelerated and then slowed down in the high school years, adolescent problem behavioral intention slightly accelerated over time. After controlling the background socio-demographic factors, moral competence and spirituality were negatively associated with risk and delinquent behavior as well as problem behavioral intention across all waves as predicted. Regarding the rate of change in the outcome measures, while the initial level of spirituality was positively linked to the growth rate of risk and delinquent behavior, the initial level of moral competence was negatively associated with the growth rate of problem behavioral intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the present findings are discussed with reference to the role of moral competence and spirituality in the development of adolescent problem behavior. PMID:29651269
Factors Associated With Participation and Change Over Time in Domestic Life, Peer Relations, and School for Adolescents With and Without Self-Reported Neurodevelopmental Disorders. A Follow-Up Prospective Study
Full Text Available Even though participation in everyday events is a vital part in the fulfillment of human rights, adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD often face participation restrictions in every-day activities. Few studies have investigated the predictors for participation in different contexts, over time and in relation to the same outcome variables.Objective: Objective of the current study was therefore to investigate predictors of change in participation operationalized as frequency of attendance and perceived importance in domestic life activities, peer related activities, and school activities as experienced by adolescents with and without self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders.Method: Associations with participation, both in terms of frequency and perceived importance, in domestic life, peer relations, and the school setting were investigated using six independent variables measuring experience of time and self, sex, age, stress, support from siblings, and atmosphere in family at two-time (with ~2 years in between. The sample consisted of adolescents with and without self-reported NDD (n = 916. Adolescents with self-reported NDD were n = 154 and adolescents without self-reported NDD was n = 762. Data was collected via self-reported questionnaires administered in schools.Results: Three key findings are presented. (1 more factors were associated with participation outcomes at time1 for adolescents without NDD than for adolescents with NDD, but this difference in the number of factors decreases with time; (2 few associations were related to time for both adolescents with and without NDD; and (3 patterns of predicting variables were different for adolescents with and without NDD.Conclusion: The findings indicate that the factors related to participation in and outside school differs between groups, when the impairment or disability is not considered as a predictor for participation. This study supports the need for using a multidimensional
Full Text Available Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. Results: Having breakfast regularly was significantly associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems (OR: 0.29 (0.15 − 0.55, p≤0.001. A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06 − 7.42, p=0.03 and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39 − 4.98, p=0.003, was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10 − 0.87, p=0.03. All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. Conclusions: This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research by the authors found evidence that up to 10% of particular household categories may be exposed to elevated carbon monoxide (CO concentrations from poor quality gas appliance installations. The literature suggests certain neurological symptoms are linked to exposure to low levels of CO. This paper addresses the hypothesis that certain self-reported neurological symptoms experienced by a householder are linked to an estimate of their CO exposure. Methods Between 27 April and 27 June 2006, 597 homes with a mains supply of natural gas were surveyed, mainly in old, urban areas of London. Qualified gas engineers tested all gas appliances (cooker, boiler, gas fire, and water heater and reported, according to the Gas Industry Unsafe Situations Procedure, appliances considered At Risk (AR, Immediately Dangerous (ID or Not to Current Standards (NCS. Five exposure risk categories were defined based on measurement of CO emitted by the appliance, its features and its use, with "high or very high" exposure category where occupants were considered likely to be exposed to levels greater than 26 ppm for one hour. The prevalence of symptoms at each level of exposure was compared with that at lowest level of exposure. Results Of the households, 6% were assessed as having a "high or very high" risk of exposure to CO. Of the individuals, 9% reported at least one neurological symptom. There was a statistically significant association between "high or very high" exposure risk to CO and self-reported symptoms compared to "no exposure" likelihood, for households not in receipt of benefit, controlling for "number of residents" and presence of pensioners, OR = 3.23 (95%CI: 1.28, 8.15. Risk ratios across all categories of exposure likelihood indicate a dose-response pattern. Those households in receipt of benefit showed no dose-response pattern. Conclusion This study found an association between risk of CO exposure at low concentration
Cornell, Dewey; Huang, Francis
Many adolescents engage in risk behaviors such as substance use and aggression that jeopardize their healthy development. This study tested the hypothesis that an authoritative school climate characterized by strict but fair discipline and supportive teacher-student relationships is conducive to lower risk behavior for high school students. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze cross-sectional, student-report survey data from a statewide sample of 47,888 students (50.6 % female) in 319 high schools. The students included ninth (26.6 %), tenth (25.5 %), eleventh (24.1 %) and twelfth (23.8 %) grade with a racial/ethnic breakdown of 52.2 % White, 18.0 % Black, 13.1 % Hispanic, 5.9 % Asian, and 10.8 % reporting another or two or more race/ethnicities. Schools with an authoritative school climate had lower levels of student-reported alcohol and marijuana use; bullying, fighting, and weapon carrying at school; interest in gang membership; and suicidal thoughts and behavior. These results controlled for demographic variables of student gender, race, grade, and parent education level as well as school size, percentage of minority students, and percentage of low income students. Overall, these findings add new evidence that an authoritative school climate is associated with positive student outcomes.
Mann, Georgianna; Hosig, Kathy; Zhang, Angang; Shen, Sumin; Serrano, Elena
To assess the effects of the national Smart Snacks in School standards, which include nutrient and ingredient limitations for school competitive foods and beverages effective July, 2014, on student intake in low-income rural Appalachian middle schools. Food-frequency questionnaires were administered to students before and after implementation. Multiple ordinal logistic regression models were conducted to examine effects from year of data collection, grade, and free or reduced price lunch participation rates. No significant changes were observed after implementation except a decrease in consumption of 1% or nonfat flavored milk at school. Smart Snacks in School standards did not result in significant dietary changes in this study. Longitudinal studies could evaluate long-term impacts of nutrition standards. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McWilliam, Vicki L; Koplin, Jennifer J; Field, Michael J; Sasaki, Mari; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Sawyer, Susan M; Peters, Rachel L; Allen, Katrina J
Adolescents are at the highest risk of death from anaphylaxis, yet few population-based studies have described the frequencies and risk factors for allergic reactions caused by accidental allergen ingestion in this group. We describe the prevalence, frequency, and associated risk factors for recent adverse food reactions in 10- to 14-year-olds in Melbourne, Australia, recruited from a stratified, random, population-based sample of schools (SchoolNuts, n = 9663; 48% response rate). Self-reported food allergy and adverse reaction details, including anaphylaxis, were identified by using a student questionnaire over the past year. Of 547 students with possible IgE-mediated food allergy, 243 (44.4%; 95% CI, 40.3% to 48.7%) reported a reaction to a food. Fifty-three (9.7%; 95% CI, 7.2% to 12.2%) students reported 93 anaphylaxis episodes. Peanut and tree nuts were the most common food triggers. Among students with current IgE-mediated food allergy, those with resolved or current asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.9 [95% CI, 1.1-1.3] and 1.7 [95% CI, 1.1-2.6]) and those with more than 2 food allergies (aOR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.1-3.1]) were at greatest risk of any adverse food reaction, and those with nut allergy were most at risk of severe reactions (aOR, 2.9 [95% CI, 1.1-4.4]). Resolved or current asthma was not associated with increased risk of severe reactions (aOR, 0.8 [95% CI, 0.3-2.2] and 1.6 [95% CI, 0.7-3.7]). Adolescents with food allergy are frequently exposed to food allergens. Those with asthma and more than 2 food allergies were at the greatest risk for adverse food reactions. Those with nut allergies were most at risk of severe reactions. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open problems (i.e., problem fields. Next we discuss the objectives of the Finnish curriculum that are connected with problem solving. Some examples and research results are taken from a Finnish–Chilean research project that monitors the development of problem-solving skills in third grade pupils. Finally, some ideas on “teacher change” are put forward. It is not possible to change teachers, but only to provide hints for possible change routes: the teachers themselves should work out the ideas and their implementation.
Tenison, Caitlin; Fincham, Jon M; Anderson, John R
This research explores how to determine when mathematical problems are solved by retrieval versus computation strategies. Past research has indicated that verbal reports, solution latencies, and neural imaging all provide imperfect indicators of this distinction. Participants in the current study solved mathematical problems involving two distinct problem types, called 'Pyramid' and 'Formula' problems. Participants were given extensive training solving 3 select Pyramid and 3 select Formula problems. Trained problems were highly practiced, whereas untrained problems were not. The distinction between untrained and trained problems was observed in the data. Untrained problems took longer to solve, more often used procedural strategies and showed a greater activation in the horizontal intraparietal sulcus (HIPS) when compared to trained problems. A classifier fit to the neural distinction between trained-untrained problems successfully predicted training within and between the two problem types. We employed this classifier to generate a prediction of strategy use. By combining evidence from the classifier, problem solving latencies, and retrospective reports, we predicted the strategy used to solve each problem in the scanner and gained unexpected insight into the distinction between different strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In Japanese school, elementary and junior- and senior-high, it is widely agreed that teaching of energy and environment is desirable, as has been adopted in a course of study of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. This paper reports the present state of affairs on these problems from elementary schools to high schools, describing of each school year or grade and each lessons separately. It contains the results of the author's investigation on curriculum and syllabus including some classroom practices and measurement of natural radioactivity and radiation with the help of adequate measuring instruments and visits to some related facilities. Methods of learning and teaching are also studied together with some future prospect. (S. Ohno)
seventy-six (3.3% junior and 396 (4.3% senior high school students reported having self-harmed. Of these, 40.6% of adolescents in junior and 37.6% in senior high schools were classified as poor help-seeking. Poor help-seeking with regard to self-harm was significantly more common in those who reported not having consulted anyone about psychological problems (odds ratio 9.2, 95% confidence interval 4.6–18.4 in juniors; odds ratio 9.9, confidence interval 5.5–17.9 in seniors and in those with current suicidal ideation (odds ratio 2.0, confidence interval 1.0–3.7 in juniors; odds ratio 1.9, confidence interval 1.1–3.4 in seniors. Family members were approached significantly less often as a resource for help by students who self-harmed than by those who did not, and school nurses were more often consulted by those who did self-harm.Conclusion: Around 40% of adolescents who self-harmed in the previous year did not seek help. School-based mental health should screen students at risk of self-harm, and educate school nurses about preventative care.Keywords: self-harm, adolescence, help-seeking, prevention, Japan
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
Jennifer L. Docktor
Full Text Available Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers’ implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I.
School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined young adult externalizing and internalizing problems (aged 18-19 years) and adolescent protective factors related to self-reported bullying perpetrat...
Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger; Björk, Jonas; Albin, Maria; Jakobsson, Kristina; Östergren, Per-Olof; Ardö, Jonas
To examine the risk of sleep problems associated with work stress (job strain, job demands, and decision authority), worries and pain and to investigate the synergistic interaction between these factors and traffic noise. Sleep problems and predictor variables were assessed in a cross-sectional public health survey with 12,093 respondents. Traffic noise levels were assessed using modelled A-weighted energy equivalent traffic sound levels at the residence. The risk of sleep problems was modell...
Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger; Björk, Jonas; Albin, Maria; Jakobsson, Kristina; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Ardö, Jonas
To examine the risk of sleep problems associated with work stress (job strain, job demands, and decision authority), worries and pain and to investigate the synergistic interaction between these factors and traffic noise. Sleep problems and predictor variables were assessed in a cross-sectional public health survey with 12,093 respondents. Traffic noise levels were assessed using modelled A-weighted energy equivalent traffic sound levels at the residence. The risk of sleep problems was modelled using multiple logistic regression analysis. With regard to sleep problems not attributed to any external source (general sleep problems), independent main effects were found for traffic noise (women), decision authority (women), job strain, job demands, suffering from pain or other afflictions, worries about losing the job, experiencing bullying at work, having troubles paying the bills, and having a sick, disabled, or old relative to take care of (women). Significant synergistic effects were found for traffic noise and experiencing bullying at work in women. With regard to sleep problems attributed to traffic noise, strong synergistic interactions were found between traffic noise and, respectively, job demands (men), having pain or other afflictions, taking care of a sick, old, or disabled relative, and having troubles paying the bills. Main effects were found for worries about losing the job, experiencing bullying at work, job strain (men), and decision authority (men). Synergistic interactions could potentially contribute with 10-20% of the sleep problems attributed to traffic noise in the population. Work stress, pain, and different worries were independently associated with general sleep problems and showed in general no synergistic interaction with traffic noise. In contrast, synergistic effects between traffic noise and psychological factors were found with regard to sleep problems attributed to traffic noise. The synergy may contribute significantly to sleep
Oral appliance therapy versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems.
Nikolopoulou, M; Byraki, A; Ahlberg, J; Heymans, M W; Hamburger, H L; De Lange, J; Lobbezoo, F; Aarab, G
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with several sleep disorders and sleep-related problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of a mandibular advancement device (MAD) with those of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems in mild and moderate OSAS patients. In this randomised placebo-controlled trial, sixty-four OSAS patients (52·0 ± 9·6 years) were randomly assigned to an MAD, nCPAP or an intra-oral placebo appliance in a parallel design. All participants filled out the validated Dutch Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SDQ) twice: one before treatment and one after six months of treatment. With 88 questions, thirteen scales were constructed, representing common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to study differences between the groups for the different SDQ scales over time. The MAD group showed significant improvements over time in symptoms corresponding with 'insomnia', 'excessive daytime sleepiness', 'psychiatric sleep disorder', 'periodic limb movements', 'sleep apnoea', 'sleep paralysis', 'daytime dysfunction', 'hypnagogic hallucinations/dreaming', 'restless sleep', 'negative conditioning' and 'automatic behaviour' (range of P values: 0·000-0·014). These improvements in symptoms were, however, not significantly different from the improvements in symptoms observed in the nCPAP and placebo groups (range of P values: 0·090-0·897). It can be concluded that there is no significant difference between MAD and nCPAP in their positive effects on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems in mild and moderate OSAS patients. These beneficial effects may be a result of placebo effects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Henderson, Jane; Jomeen, Julie; Redshaw, Maggie
mental health problems in pregnancy and the postnatal period are relatively common and, in pregnancy, are associated with an increase in adverse outcome. It is recommended that all women are asked about their emotional and mental health and offered treatment if appropriate. to describe the care received by women self-identifying with mental health problems in pregnancy, and to describe the effects of support, advice and treatment on outcomes in the postnatal period. this study used cross-sectional survey data collected in 2014 which described women's experience of maternity care. England PARTICIPANTS: a random sample of women who had a live birth in January 2014. the questionnaire asked about sociodemographic characteristics, whether women were asked about emotional and mental health in pregnancy, support and treatment offered, about postnatal wellbeing, and questions relating to attachment to their baby. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to examine the associations between mental health and outcomes taking account of sociodemographic characteristics. the survey response rate was 47%. Women with antenatal mental health problems were significantly more worried at the prospect of labour and birth, had lower satisfaction with the experience of birth, worse postnatal mental health, and indications of poorer attachment to their baby. They received substantially more care than other women but they did not always view this positively. Support, advice and treatment for mental health problems had mixed effects. this study describes the significant additional care provided to women self-identifying with mental health problems in pregnancy, the mixed effects of support, advice and treatment, and the poor perception of staff interaction among women with mental health problems. health care professionals may need additional training to effectively support women with mental health problems during the perinatal period. Copyright © 2017 The Authors
Problem Statement: The use of self-report questionnaires may lead to biases such as careless responses that distort the research outcomes. Early detection of careless responses in self-report questionnaires may reduce error, but little guidance exists in the literature regarding techniques for detecting such careless or random responses in…
Sarajlic Vukovic, Iris; Boricevic Maršanic, Vlatka; Aukst Margetic, Branka; Paradžik, Ljubica; Vidovic, Domagoj; Buljan Flander, Gordana
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male veterans has been linked with impaired family relationships and psychopathology in their children. Less is known about symptoms in children of veterans with partial PTSD. Objective: To compare mental health problems, family functioning and parent-child bonding among adolescent offspring of…
Bowen, Catherine; Ashburn, Ann; Cole, Mark; Donovan-Hall, Margaret; Burnett, Malcolm; Robison, Judy; Mamode, Louis; Pickering, Ruth; Bader, Dan; Kunkel, Dorit
Ill-fitting shoes have been implicated as a risk factor for falls but research to date has focused on people with arthritis, diabetes and the general older population; little is known about people with neurological conditions. This survey for people with stroke and Parkinson's explored people's choice of indoor and outdoor footwear, foot problems and fall history. Following ethical approval, 1000 anonymous postal questionnaires were distributed to health professionals, leads of Parkinson's UK groups and stroke clubs in the wider Southampton area, UK. These collaborators handed out survey packs to people with a confirmed diagnosis of stroke or Parkinson's. Three hundred and sixty three completed surveys were returned (218 from people with Parkinson's and 145 from people with stroke). Most respondents wore slippers indoors and walking shoes outdoors and considered comfort and fit the most important factors when buying footwear. Foot problems were reported by 43 % (95 % confidence intervals 36 to 52 %; stroke) and 53 % (95 % confidence interval 46 to 59 %; Parkinson's) of respondents; over 50 % had never accessed foot care support. Fifty percent of all respondents reported falls. In comparison to non-fallers, a greater proportion of fallers reported foot problems (57 %), with greater proportions reporting problems impacting on balance and influencing choice of footwear ( p footwear habits and choice of footwear; however many did not receive foot care support. These findings highlight that further exploration of footwear and foot problems in these populations is warranted to provide evidence based advice on safe and appropriate footwear to support rehabilitation and fall prevention.
Tarescavage, Anthony M; Fischler, Gary L; Cappo, Bruce M; Hill, David O; Corey, David M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S
The current study examined the predictive validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) scores in police officer screenings. We utilized a sample of 712 police officer candidates (82.6% male) from 2 Midwestern police departments. The sample included 426 hired officers, most of whom had supervisor ratings of problem behaviors and human resource records of civilian complaints. With the full sample, we calculated zero-order correlations between MMPI-2-RF scale scores and scale scores from the California Psychological Inventory (Gough, 1956) and Inwald Personality Inventory (Inwald, 2006) by gender. In the hired sample, we correlated MMPI-2-RF scale scores with the outcome data for males only, owing to the relatively small number of hired women. Several scales demonstrated meaningful correlations with the criteria, particularly in the thought dysfunction and behavioral/externalizing dysfunction domains. After applying a correction for range restriction, the correlation coefficient magnitudes were generally in the moderate to large range. The practical implications of these findings were explored by means of risk ratio analyses, which indicated that officers who produced elevations at cutscores lower than the traditionally used 65 T-score level were as much as 10 times more likely than those scoring below the cutoff to exhibit problem behaviors. Overall, the results supported the validity of the MMPI-2-RF in this setting. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed. 2015 APA, all rights reserved
Miniauskienė, Dalia; Jurgaitienė, Dalia; Strukčinskienė, Birutė
Cannabis use is widespread among young people in Europe. The aim of this study was to analyze and to compare the associations between the self-reported consumption of cannabis products and other illicit drugs among older schoolchildren in 2006 and in 2012. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2006 and 2012 in Northern Lithuania. In total 3447 young people aged 17-19 years were investigated (1585 male and 1862 female). For this survey, the ESPAD questionnaire was used. In Northern Lithuania, the schoolchildren aged 17-19 years self-reported that 16.7% in 2006 and 23.9% in 2012 of them tried cannabis products. The consumption of cannabis products in the age group of 17 years increased from 14.9% in 2006 to 21.5% in 2012. The consumption of cannabis together with alcohol increased from 7.6% to 14.3%. Cannabis consumers more often tried amphetamines, heroin, LSD, cocaine, crack, ecstasy, hallucinogenic mushrooms, and injective drugs. In 2012, cannabis consumers girls less than boys used only crack and injective drugs; all other illicit drugs they used the same often as boys. The cannabis products consumption in schoolchildren has increased by 7%. Nearly twofold increase was observed in the consumption of cannabis together with alcohol. Young people who used cannabis products more often tried other illicit drugs. There were no differences by gender in the consumption of illicit drugs among cannabis consumers. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Sleegers, Peter; Wassink, Hartger; van Veen, Klaas; Imants, Jeroen
In addition to cognitive research on school leaders' problem solving, this study focuses on the situated and personal nature of problem framing by combining insights from cognitive research on problem solving and sense-making theory. The study reports the results of a case study of two school leaders solving problems in their daily context by…
Zwijze-Koning, Karen H.; de Jong, Menno D. T.
Purpose: Over the past ten years, most Dutch high schools have been confronted with mergers, curriculum reforms, and managerial changes. As a result, the pressure on the schools' communication systems has increased and several problems have emerged. This paper aims to examine recurring clusters of communication problems in high schools.…
Hansen, Ebba H; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille
OBJECTIVE: To examine gender, age, and country variations in adolescents' self-reported medicine use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional school surveys of representative samples of 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys were used. The 1997/1998 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was referenced. A sta...
Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn
BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...
Ross, Amélie; Dion, Jacinthe; Cantinotti, Michael; Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Paquette, Linda
Residential schools were the institutions, in operation from the 19th century to the late 20th century, which Indigenous children in Canada were forced to attend. The literature shows that many young people who attended these institutions were victims of neglect and abuse. Negative psychological effects resulting from child abuse have been amply documented. However, very few studies on this subject have been carried out among Canada's Indigenous Peoples. The objective of this study is to evaluate, for an Indigenous population in Quebec (Canada), the impact of residential schooling as well as self-reported experiences of sexual and physical abuse during childhood on the development of alcohol and drug use problems in adulthood. A total of 358 Indigenous participants were interviewed (164 men [45.8%] and 194 women [54.2%]). Alcoholism was evaluated using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST). Drug abuse was assessed with the Drug Abuse Screening Test-20 (DAST). Child abuse and residential schooling were assessed with dichotomous questions (yes/no). Among the participants, 28.5% (n=102) had attended residential schools, 35.2% (n=121) reported having experienced sexual abuse, and 34.1% (n=117) reported having experienced physical abuse before adulthood. Results of the exact logistic regression analyses indicated that residential school attendance was linked to alcohol problems, while child abuse was related to drug use problems. The results of this study highlight the importance of considering the consequences of historical traumas related to residential schools to better understand the current situation of Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Epistemic beliefs are individuals' beliefs about the nature of knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and how knowledge can be justified. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to examine: (a) middle and high school students' self-reported epistemic beliefs (quantitative) and epistemic beliefs revealed from practice (qualitative) during a problem-based, scientific inquiry unit, (b) How do middle and high school students' epistemic beliefs contribute to the construction of students' problem solving processes, and (c) how and why do students' epistemic beliefs change by engaging in PBL. Twenty-one middle and high school students participated in a summer science class to investigate local water quality in a 2-week long problem-based learning (PBL) unit. The students worked in small groups to conduct water quality tests at in their local watershed and visited several stakeholders for their investigation. Pretest and posttest versions of the Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire were conducted to assess students' self-reported epistemic beliefs before and after the unit. I videotaped and interviewed three groups of students during the unit and conducted discourse analysis to examine their epistemic beliefs revealed from scientific inquiry activities and triangulate with their self-reported data. There are three main findings from this study. First, students in this study self-reported relatively sophisticated epistemic beliefs on the pretest. However, the comparison between their self-reported beliefs and beliefs revealed from practice indicated that some students were able to apply sophisticated beliefs during the unit while others failed to do so. The inconsistency between these two types of epistemic beliefs may due to students' inadequate cognitive ability, low validity of self-report measure, and the influence of contextual factors. Second, qualitative analysis indicated that students' epistemic beliefs of the nature of knowing influenced their problem
Lenzen, Christoph; Fischer, Gloria; Jentzsch, Anika; Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Danuta; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald
Data about the prevalence of school absenteeism and its correlation with emotional and behavioural problems in Germany is scarce, in particular regarding excused absenteeism. This study aims to close the gap by examining a sample of 2,679 pupils attending the different types of secondary school (Hauptschule, Realschule, Gymnasium), who participated in a clinical trial for the prevention of truancy (WE-STAY-Project). Pupils' mean age was 14 years (M = 13.94, SD = 0.85, Range = 11-19) and gender distribution was balanced (49.35% males, 50.65% females). Using a self-report questionnaire, pupils where asked on how many days they had missed school on average per month during the last school year (excused and unexcused). Emotional and behavioural problems were measured by using the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire" (SDQ). 4.1% of the pupils reported to have missed school without a valid excuse on more than four days per month (unexcused absenteeism). 6.1% had missed school having an excuse on more than ten days per month (excused absenteeism). Both, unexcused and excused absenteeism, showed an increase of emotional and behavioural problems dependent on the intensity of absenteeism. In conclusion, these findings show the relevance of school absenteeism in Germany. In the future, more attention should be given to pupils with also excused absenteeism.
S.A. Reijneveld (Sijmen); C.H. Wiefferink (Carin); E. Brugman (Emily); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); S.P. Verloove-Vanhorick; A.D.C. Paulussen (Aimée)
textabstractBackground: Younger children in a school class have higher rates of mental health problems if admission to primary school occurs once a year. This study examines whether this relative age effect also occurs if children are admitted to school continuously throughout the year. Methods: We
Reijneveld, S.A.; Wiefferink, C.H.; Brugman, E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Paulussen, T.G.W.
Background: Younger children in a school class have higher rates of mental health problems if admission to primary school occurs once a year. This study examines whether this relative age effect also occurs if children are admitted to school continuously throughout the year. Methods: We assessed
Bridgeland, John M.; Dilulio, John J., Jr.; Balfanz, Robert
To better understand the views of teachers and administrators on the high school dropout problem, focus groups and nationally representative surveys were conducted of high school teachers and principals. A focus group of superintendents and school board members was also included. To help interpret the results, the authors convened a colloquium…
The purpose of this study was to identify the current practice and problems of school based supervision in government primary schools of Jile Timuga Woreda of Oromia Zone. A descriptive survey design of research methodology was employed. Regarding sampling, there were 39 primary schools grouped in 10 cluster ...
Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas
The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…
Ability of the Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile and the Youth Self Report-Dysregulation Profile to identify serious psychopathology and association with correlated problems in high-risk children and adolescents.
Dölitzsch, Claudia; Kölch, Michael; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmeck, Klaus; Schmid, Marc
The current analyses examined whether the dysregulation profile (DP) 1) could be used to identify children and adolescents at high risk for complex and serious psychopathology and 2) was correlated to other emotional and behavioral problems (such as delinquent behavior or suicide ideation). DP was assessed using both the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Youth Self Report (YSR) in a residential care sample. Children and adolescents (N=374) aged 10-18 years living in residential care in Switzerland completed the YSR, and their professional caregivers completed the CBCL. Participants meeting criteria for DP (T-score ≥67 on the anxious/depressed, attention problems, and aggressive behavior scales of the YSR/CBCL) were compared against those who did not for the presence of complex psychopathology (defined as the presence of both emotional and behavioral disorders), and also for the prevalence of several psychiatric diagnoses, suicidal ideation, traumatic experiences, delinquent behaviors, and problems related to quality of life. The diagnostic criteria for CBCL-DP and YSR-DP were met by just 44 (11.8%) and 25 (6.7%) of participants. Only eight participants (2.1%) met the criteria on both instruments. Further analyses were conducted separately for the CBCL-DP and YSR-DP groups. DP was associated with complex psychopathology in only 34.4% of cases according to CBCL and in 60% of cases according to YSR. YSR-DP was somewhat more likely to be associated with psychiatric disorders and associated problems than was the CBCL-DP. Because of the relatively small overlap between the CBCL-DP and YSR-DP, analyses were conducted largely with different samples, likely contributing to the different results. Despite a high rate of psychopathology in the population studied, both the YSR-DP and the CBCL-DP were able to detect only a small proportion of those with complex psychiatric disorders. This result questions the validity of YSR-DP and the CBCL-DP in detecting subjects
Neupane, Dipika; Bhandari, Parash Mani; Thapa, Kiran; Bhochhibhoya, Shristi; Rijal, Shristi; Pathak, Ramjee Prasad
To explore the prevalence, perpetrator characteristics and the correlates of child abuse in Kathmandu, Nepal. For this cross-sectional study, we translated the internationally validated questionnaire developed by the International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Home into Nepali. We added questions on descriptive information about students and their family to the questionnaire. We recruited students from 20 schools selected randomly-2 from each of the 10 electoral constituencies of Kathmandu district. In each school, we administered the questionnaires to the students in a classroom selected randomly. To assess the correlates, we ran multilevel multivariable logistic regression models, stratified by schools. Among the 962 students, 88.88% had experience of at least one form of abuse throughout their lifetime. Psychological abuse was the most prevalent form of abuse (previous year: 75.19%; lifetime: 76.15%) followed by physical abuse, exposure to violence, neglect and sexual abuse. Adults were the most common perpetrators of child abuse (37.55%). The correlates identified in this study mostly aligned with the global literature on correlates of abuse. Female students were more likely to report neglect (previous year: adjusted OR (AOR) 1.50, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.04; lifetime: AOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.02), but no gender difference was observed with other forms of abuse. Students living with a single parent had a greater likelihood of exposure to violence (previous year: AOR 2.55, 95% CI 1.31 to 4.94; lifetime: AOR 2.77, 95% CI 1.39 to 5.53), neglect (previous year: AOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.69; lifetime: AOR 2.08, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.81) and sexual abuse (previous year: AOR 3.03, 95% CI 1.45 to 6.37; lifetime: AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.21 to 5.14). Over 88% of students reported experiencing child abuse in the home in one or more forms throughout their lifetime. Delineating the reasons for the high burden and its
Hernández-Garbanzo, Yenory; Brosh, Joanne; Serrano, Elena L; Cason, Katherine L; Bhattarai, Ranju
To identify the psychometric properties of evaluation instruments that measure mediators of dietary behaviors in school-aged children. Systematic search of scientific databases limited to 1999-2010. Psychometric properties related to development and testing of self-report instruments for children 8-12 years old. Systematic search of 189 articles and review of 15 instruments (20 associated articles) meeting the inclusion criteria. Search terms used included children, school, nutrition, diet, nutrition education, and evaluation. Fourteen studies used a theoretical framework to guide the instrument's development. Knowledge and self-efficacy were the most commonly used psychosocial measures. Twelve instruments focused on specific nutrition-related behaviors. Eight instruments included over 40 items and used age-appropriate response formats. Acceptable reliability properties were most commonly reported for attitude and self-efficacy measures. Although most of the instruments were reviewed by experts (n = 8) and/or pilot-tested (n = 9), only 7 were tested using both rigorous types of validity and with low-income youth. Results from this review suggest that additional research is needed to develop more robust psychosocial measures for dietary behaviors, for low-income youth audiences. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... factors are discussed based on the evidence obtained by observations and research findings. The importance of teaching reading 'as a subject in the secondary school is hinted. Recommendations are made to ensure that reading as a tool to learning is given a prominent place in schools and libraries throughout Nigeria ...
Tapilouw, M. C.; Firman, H.; Redjeki, S.; Chandra, D. T.
Environmental problem is a real problem that occur in student’s daily life. Junior high school students’ perception about environmental problem is interesting to be investigated. The major aim of this study is to explore junior high school students’ perception about environmental problems around them and ways to solve the problem. The subject of this study is 69 Junior High School Students from two Junior High School in Bandung. This study use two open ended question. The core of first question is environmental problem around them (near school or house). The core of second question is the way to prevent or to solve the problem. These two question are as an impact of problem based learning in science learning. There are two major findings in this study. The first finding, based on most students’ perception, plastic waste cause an environmental problem. The second finding, environmental awareness can be a solution to prevent environmental pollution. The third finding, most student can classify environmental pollution into land, water and air pollution. We can conclude that Junior High School Students see the environmental problem as a phenomenon and teacher can explore environmental problem to guide the way of preventing and resolving environmental problem.
A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each
Lee, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kyoung-Tae
This study describes a classroom action research activity regarding a group of elementary school teacher candidates' perceptions of good mathematics problems. A questionnaire containing 20 problems was given, and the candidates were asked to rate the quality of each problem on a 5-point scale. The results revealed that the majority of the teacher…
Problem posing is one of the most important topics in a mathematics education. Through problem posing, students gain mathematical abilities and concepts and teachers can evaluate their students and arrange adequate learning environments. The aim of the present study is to investigate Turkish primary school teachers' opinions about problem posing…
Jennifer L. Docktor; Natalie E. Strand; José P. Mestre; Brian H. Ross
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in w...
Fredland, Nina M
Although school violence directly affects the overall health and well-being of children and adolescents, clear priorities have not been identified for dealing with the problem. Horrific events such as the 1999 Columbine High School shooting in Littleton, Colo, and recent shootings at Virginia Tech have focused the nation on high-profile, media-worthy school violence to the detriment of addressing everyday forms of violence in schools. Policies that have been developed to reduce school violence have mixed reviews. To raise the consciousness of healthcare professionals, educators, legislators, and the general public, the most salient issues are discussed.
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…
After discovering at least 64 percent of their students were either tactile or kinesthetic learners, educators at North Carolina elementary school began grouping kids according to their tactile/kinesthetic or auditory/visual strengths and altered reading instruction schedules every three weeks so that each group had opportunities to learn at best…
The paper presents and analyzes data on the behaviour peculiarities, similarities and differences of students from 24 special schools and Care Homes in Lithuania. Most children with or without mental disability in institutional care have mild emotional and behaviour difficulties. However, slight emotional deviations, anti-social behaviour and school adjustment problems are more characteristic of the special school students. The inmates of Care Homes without mental disability are characterized...
Wang, J-N; Liu, L; Wang, L
Emotional and behavioural problems are key health issues in adolescence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems in Chinese school adolescents and to explore associated factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of November/December 2009. A questionnaire including the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) self-reported version, and the characteristics of child (age, gender, only child and study pressure), parents (parent-adolescent relationship and parental expectations) and families (living area, family structure, socio-economic status and negative life events) was distributed to our study population. A total of 5220 Chinese adolescents (aged 11-18) from 30 public schools in Liaoning province completed the questionnaire. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to explore the factors associated with emotional and behavioural problems. The average problem score was 11.28 (SD = 5.86) and the 10.7% scored above the cut-off for emotional and behavioural problems. Factors that increased the risk of having emotional and behavioural problems were: poor parent-adolescent relationship, experiencing more negative life events, older age, having study pressure, living in rural areas, boys and lower parental expectations. The prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems among Chinese adolescents was lower level compared with those reported in other countries. We found parent-adolescent relationship, negative life events and age to be the strongest contributing factors of emotional and behavioural problems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Problems and Prospects of Utilizing ICTs in Secondary Schools in Owerri Education Zone, Nigeria. ... Annals of Modern Education ... ICT Education should be included in the secondary school curriculum while provision is made for necessary infrastructural support and massive training and development of skilled manpower ...
Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.
The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…
Adolescence is a notable period during which a considerable share of students tends to engage in problem behavior in school. Students for example skip class, fail to do their best in school, or have serious arguments with their teachers. A student’s decision to engage in such behavior is not usually
name; Elective Course Student Sectioning. The problem is solved using ALNS and solutions are proven to be close to optimum. The algorithm has been implemented and made available for the majority of the high schools in Denmark. The second Student Sectioning problem presented is the sectioning of each...... high schools. Two types of consultations are presented; the Parental Consultation Timetabling Problem (PCTP) and the Supervisor Consultation Timetabling Problem (SCTP). One mathematical model containing both consultation types has been created and solved using an ALNS approach. The received solutions...... problems as mathematical models and solve them using operational research techniques. Two of the models and the suggested solution methods have resulted in implementations in an actual decision support software, and are hence available for the majority of the high schools in Denmark. These implementations...
Keller, Peggy S; Gilbert, Lauren R; Haak, Eric A; Bi, Shuang; Smith, Olivia A
Early school start times may curtail children's sleep and inadvertently promote sleep restriction. The current study examines the potential implications for early school start times for behavioral problems in public elementary schools (student ages 5-12 years) in Kentucky. School start times were obtained from school Web sites or by calling school offices; behavioral and disciplinary problems, along with demographic information about schools, were obtained from the Kentucky Department of Education. Estimated associations controlled for teacher/student ratio, racial composition, school rank, enrollment, and Appalachian location. Associations between early school start time and greater behavioral problems (harassment, in-school removals, suspensions, and expulsions) were observed, although some of these associations were found only for schools serving the non-Appalachian region. Findings support the growing body of research showing that early school start times may contribute to student problems, and extend this research through a large-scale examination of elementary schools, behavioral outcomes, and potential moderators of risk. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wood, Frank H.; Raison, Susan
The bibliography lists approximately 800 books and articles (c. 1950-1979)on 10 topics of behavior problems: theoretical foundations; incidence; characteristics of classified group (autistic/psychotic, emotionally disturbed/behavior disordered/learning disabled, brain injured/hyperactive/hyperkinetic); social context of education; legal and…
South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Div. of Instruction.
Policies and procedures for disciplining students should be designed to teach them responsibility, rather than simply punish them. Providing educational opportunities to behavioral deviants is a problem that does not have a simple solution. However, alternatives to suspension or expulsion must be attempted before these disciplinary actions are…
Palraj, Shalini; DeWitt, Dorothy; Alias, Norlidah
Problem solving is the highest level of cognitive skill. However, this skill seems to be lacking among secondary school students. Teachers' beliefs influence the instructional strategies used for students' learning. Hence, it is important to understand teachers' beliefs so as to improve the processes for teaching problem solving. The purpose of…
Yavuz, Günes; Yasemin, Deringöl; Arslan, Çigdem
The purpose of this study is to reveal the perception levels of problem solving skills of elementary school students. The sample of the study is formed by totally 264 elementary students attending to 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade in a big city in Turkey. Data were collected by means of "Perception Scale for Problem Solving Skills" which…
Full Text Available Cyberbullying is a common phenomenon amongst young people. It exhibits many similarities to traditional school bullying, with a potentially serious impact on the mental health and school functioning of victims. For this reason, action by schools is often recommended. The aim of this article is to provide a better picture of what schools are currently doing to address cyberbullying and of what schools will need to continue doing so in the future. An online survey was conducted among staff members of 309 primary and secondary schools in Flanders, which is the Dutch speaking part of Belgium. The questionnaire measured the schools’ experiences with cyberbullying and their perceived responsibility and efficacy in dealing with this issue as well as their concrete preventive, detective, and reactive actions. The results indicate that, although most schools are aware of relatively few cases of cyberbullying, they do consider cyberbullying to be a problem. Many schools consider it their duty to inform students about cyberbullying and to help find solutions to cyberbullying incidents involving students, even if they take place away from the school grounds or outside school hours. Although most schools organize concrete actions with regard to cyberbullying, they often seem uncertain about the appropriateness and effectiveness of their actions. They would welcome evidence-based intervention programmes that would appeal to their students.
Ritchie, Stephen M.; Hudson, Peter; Bellocchi, Alberto; Henderson, Senka; King, Donna; Tobin, Kenneth
Emotion researchers have grappled with challenging methodological issues in capturing emotions of participants in naturalistic settings such as school or university classrooms. Self-reporting methods have been used frequently, yet these methods are inadequate when used alone. We argue that the self-reporting methods of emotion diaries and…
Alteração vocal auto-referida em professores: prevalência e fatores associados Alteración vocal auto-referida en profesores: prevalencia y factores asociados Self-reported voice problems among teachers: prevalence and associated factors
Cláudia Cossentino Bruck Marçal
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de alteração vocal auto-referida em professores e identificar fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostra de 393 professores do ensino fundamental de Florianópolis, SC, por meio de questionário autoaplicado em 2009. Foi realizada análise multivariável de regressão de Poisson estimando-se as razões de prevalência e intervalos de 95% de confiança. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de alteração vocal foi de 47,6% (IC95% 42,6;52,5. Após o ajuste, permaneceram associados à maior prevalência de alteração vocal ser do sexo feminino e a presença de rinite/sinusite e faringite. CONCLUSÕES: Foi observada elevada prevalência de alteração vocal auto-referida entre os professores estudados.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de alteración vocal auto-referida en profesores e identificar factores asociados. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con muestra de 393 profesores de enseñanza fundamental de Florianópolis, Sur de Brasil, por medio de cuestionario auto-aplicado en 2009. Se realizó análisis multivariable de regresión de Poisson, estimándose las tasas de prevalencia e intervalos de 95% de confianza. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de alteración vocal fue de 47,6% (IC95% 42,6;52,5. Posterior al ajuste, permanecieron asociados a la mayor prevalencia de alteración vocal ser del sexo femenino y la presencia de rinitis/sinusitis y faringitis. CONCLUSIONES: Se observó elevada prevalencia de alteración vocal auto-referida entre los profesores estudiados.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of self-reported voice problems and to identify associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 393 public elementary and middle school teachers in Florianópolis, Southern Brazil, in 2009. A self-administered questionnaire was used. A multivariable Poisson regression model was performed to estimate prevalence ratios and their related 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The
Savović Branka B.
Full Text Available Investigations carried out in late 2001 in primary and secondary schools of Belgrade, Novi Sad and Niš comprised students, teachers and associates. The aim of investigations was to get insight into the state-of-the-arts problems and needs of our primary and secondary schools. The paper is a part of investigations, related to the results obtained for students' opinions of their interrelations with teachers as well as opinions of teachers themselves. The sample comprised 727 students of 4th grade of secondary vocational and high schools, 562 students of 8th grade of primary schools 168 secondary school and 107 primary school teachers. We investigated their interrelationships and within this framework the level of potential or current aggressive behavior. The majority of teachers (51% estimated student-teacher relationships mediocre - neither good nor bad. The most frequent problem in students' behavior is, according to the teachers instruction disturbance. One-quarter of teachers find that students offend them, ridicule them, or mock at them in front of others, and 5 per cent complain of physical injury intimidation on the part of students. When a problem comes up, 18 per cent of teachers talk with a student, and nearly 10 per cent of teachers give lower grades in their subject, so as to punish a student for undisciplined behaviors. In teachers' opinion, society, school the least, is to be blamed for the situation.
Kerebih, Habtamu; Abrha, Hailay; Frank, Reiner; Abera, Mubarek
Teachers perception of child mental health problems and their attitude to school-based mental health services helps in designing early intervention strategies aimed at promoting the service. However, little is known in this regard among primary school teachers in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study assessed perceptions and attitude of primary school teachers to child mental health problem and school-based mental health programs in Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia in 2013. A cross-sectional study design was implemented among 568 primary school teachers in Jimma town, from 1 to 30 October 2013. Perceptions and attitude of teachers to children with mental health problems and school mental health related information were assessed using a structured self- administered questionnaire. About 40% of teachers recognized the list of psychopathology items presented to them as child mental health problems while 54.4% of them rated child mental health problem as severe. Externalizing behaviors were perceived as the most severe problems. Teaching experience and teaching in public schools were significantly associated with the perception of severe type of child mental health problems. About 95% of teachers acknowledged that school-based mental health programs are important but limited availability was reported. Despite the high problem severity ratings, teachers' perception of the psychopathology as a mental health problem in children was low. There was also a favorable attitude on the importance and the need of school-based child mental health programs. Thus, creating mental health awareness for teachers and establishing school mental health services to intervene in child mental health problem is crucial.
Mirkov Snežana I.
Full Text Available Investigations were conducted on learning problems using the sample of eighth-grade students of primary school (N=335. The respondents opted for one or more than seven offered statements related to: insufficient previous knowledge, insufficient studying, teaching contents (extensive, difficult unintelligible, textbook and teacher’s method of presenting the contents. On the basis of the results obtained, one-third of students have problems in mastering teaching contents of foreign language, physics and chemistry, and about one-fourth in mastering those of history and mathematics. All the mentioned causes of problems are present in varying degrees in some school subjects. The causes of learning problems are markedly present in a larger number of school subjects and they are related to some characteristics of teaching contents. Respondents point out, to a large extent, that teaching contents of technical education are uninteresting. In addition, students’ responses indicate that it is necessary to improve the method for mastering the teaching contents in various school subjects i.e. methods applied in the teaching process. Subjective causes, as pointed out by students, are connected with some of the subjects they have characterized as the most difficult. Unintelligible textbook is stressed to the lowest extent as a cause of learning problems compared to other causes stated for the majority of school subjects.
Jesić, Maja D; Milenković, Tatjana; Mitrović, Katarina; Todorović, Sladjana; Zdravković, Vera; Jesić, Milos M; Bosnjović-Tucaković, Tatjana; Marković, Slavica; Vorguin, Ivana; Stanković, Sandra; Sajić, Silvija
The obtained results show that not all children test blood glucose levels at school (50% of children in the 6-10-year-old age group and 67.3% in the age group over 11 years) and that not all children receive insulin at school (81.1% vs. 18.9%, and 57.7% vs. 42.3%, respectively). The frequency of severe hypoglycemia was 2.7% in children and 3.3% in adolescents. A high proportion of teachers did not have diabetes training. This brief report about problems in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes at school in Serbia indicates what happens in the school setting and suggests how to improve control of this disease and facilitate the complete integration of children with diabetes at school. Children with type 1 diabetes typically spend one-third of the day in school and they should achieve the same level of diabetes management there as they do outside the school environment. The aim of this study was to identify problems in diabetes management in children with type 1 diabetes at school according to the perceptions reported by children and parents. This cross-sectional survey was carried out at nine public hospitals in Serbia with a cohort of 6-18-year old children/adolescents. The parents were personally informed about the objectives of the survey and the necessity to involve their children. The self-reporting questionnaire included demographic information as well as some questions that helped to evaluate the general situation of children with type 1 diabetes at school.
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Schmeidler, James
Truancy continues to be a major problem, affecting most school districts in the U.S. Truancy is related to school dropout, with associated adverse consequences, including unemployment and delinquency. It is important to obtain a more complete picture of truants' educational experience. First, the present study sought to examine the longitudinal growth (increasing/decreasing trend) in truant youths' attitudes toward school and misbehavior in school (disobedience, inappropriate behavior, skipping school). Second, this study focused on examining the impact of a Brief Intervention (BI) targeting the youths’ substance use, as well as socio-demographic and background covariates, on their attitudes toward school and school behavior problems over time. A linear growth model was found to fit the attitudes toward school longitudinal data, suggesting the youths’ attitudes toward school are related across time. An auto-regressive lag model was estimated for each of the school misbehaviors, indicating that, once initiated, youth continued to engage in them. Several socio-demographic covariates effects were found on the youths’ attitudes towards school and school misbehaviors over time. However, no significant, overall BI effects were uncovered. Some statistically significant intervention effects were found at specific follow-up points for some school misbehaviors, but none were significant when applying the Holm procedure taking account of the number of follow-ups. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25247027
Zlatić Marina V.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the issue of the culture of written expression in primary school students. Starting from the fact that teaching practices increasingly points to the fact that knowledge of rules of writing in primary school students presents the weakest link in teaching Serbian language, we sought to describe the problem, point to the possible causes, propose measures and illustrate all this on concrete examples of students' essays. Our microinvestigation showed that primary school students display considerably poorer mastery of rules of writing than previously thought, to the extent that it presents a serious obstacle in language teaching as well as in other areas of educational process.
Petersen, B; Thieden, E; Lerche, C M
Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data.......Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data....
Green, Robert G.
Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family…
The aim of this dissertation is to describe the role of educational strategy especially in field of the teaching of mathematics and to compare the mathematical problem solving strategies of primary school pupils which are taught by using different educational strategies. In the theoretical part, the main focus is on divergent educational strategies and their characteristics, next on factors affected teaching/learning process and finally on solving the problems. The empirical part of the disse...
This study investigated the relationship between problem-solving ability and career maturity of secondary school students in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 230 final year secondary school students completed self-report measures of problem solving and career maturity. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data ...
Martínez, Nora H.
This paper explores the difficulties that novice teachers confront at two economically, socially, and academically disadvantaged schools in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The researchers employed the action research tradition. Problems were identified using participant observation during reflexive workshops conducted with novice teachers and…
Ho, Dora; Lee, Moosung
This article offers a theoretical discussion on the current problems and future challenges of school capacity building in early childhood education (ECE), aiming to highlight some key areas for future research. In recent years, there has been a notable policy shift from monitoring quality through inspection to improving quality through school…
Bondu, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G.; Scheithauer, Herbert
School homicides have become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful…
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona
provides evidence that men's self-report of myalgia and back problems and women's self-report of osteoarthritis possibly yield biased estimates of the impact on planned retirement age, and that this bias ranges between 1.5 and 2 years, suggesting that users of survey data should be wary of applying self...
Plant, Karen; Byrne, Linda; Barkla, Joanne; McLean, Duncan; Hearle, Jenny; McGrath, John
Examines the utility of various self-report instruments related to family functioning in families where a parent has a psychotic disorder, and explores associations between these instruments and symptoms in the parent. There were significant associations between objective measures of negative symptoms and self-report scores related to problems in…
Devadas, Usha; Bellur, Rajashekhar; Maruthy, Santosh
Teachers are more prone to develop voice problems (VPs) when compared with other professional voice users. The aim of present study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of VPs among primary school teachers in India. Epidemiological cross-sectional survey. Self-reporting questionnaire data were collected from 1082 teachers. Out of 1082 teachers who participated in the present study, 188 teachers reported VPs that account for a prevalence rate of 17.4%. Tired voice after long hours of talking was the most frequently reported symptom, followed by sore/dry throat, strain in voice, neck muscle tension, and difficulty in projecting voice. The adjusted odds ratio values showed number of years of teaching, high background noise levels in the classroom, experiencing psychological stress while teaching classes, improper breath management (holding breath while speaking), poor focus of the tone (clenching jaw/teeth while speaking), upper respiratory tract infection, thyroid problems, and acid reflux as significant risk factors for the development of VPs in the current cohort of teachers. Current results suggest that teachers develop VPs due to multiple risk factors. These factors may be either biological, psychomotor, or environment-related factors. A holistic approach (which could include educating teachers about voice care during their training, and if they develop VP during their career, then managing the VP by taking into consideration different risk factors) addressing all these factors needs to be adopted to prevent VPs in primary school teachers. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R.; Cornell, Dewey; Huang, Francis
Self-report surveys are widely used to measure adolescent risk behavior and academic adjustment, with results having an impact on national policy, assessment of school quality, and evaluation of school interventions. However, data obtained from self-reports can be distorted when adolescents intentionally provide inaccurate or careless responses.…
Björn, Piia Maria; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the extent to which primary school text comprehension predicts mathematical word problem-solving skills in secondary school among Finnish students. The participants were 224 fourth graders (9-10 years old at the baseline). The children's text-reading fluency, text comprehension and basic calculation…
Hemphill, Sheryl A; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I
School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined young adult externalizing and internalizing problems (aged 18-19 years) and adolescent protective factors related to self-reported bullying perpetration and victimization among over 650 Victorians aged 16-17 years. Opportunities for prosocial involvement in the family lessened subsequent involvement in nonviolent antisocial behavior, as an outcome of prior bullying. High academic performance and having strategies to cope with stress reduced young adult depressive symptoms for participants who had been victims of bullying. The implications for bullying prevention and early intervention programs are discussed.
Baele, Loren C.
This multiple methods (Denzin, 1978) study investigated two instructional approaches, traditional module and electronic Problem-Based Learning instruction (e-PBL), used within a middle school engineering classroom focused on the variables of engagement, content knowledge, student self-assessment and teacher assessment of problem solving solutions. A non-equivalent group quasi-experimental research design (Creswell, 2015) was used on middle school students (N = 100) between those that received traditional module instruction (n = 51) and e-PBL instruction (n = 49). The qualitative approach of triangulation (Jick, 1979) was used to identify emergent themes for both between and within methods of data analysis on student engagement survey responses, two days of field observations notes, and six student interview transcripts. The quantitative results identified that students who received e-PBL instruction self-reported significantly greater engagement than those who received traditional module instruction. Further, there was a significant interaction effect between engineering content knowledge by group and gender as males who received e-PBL instruction had greater growth of content knowledge scores than males receiving traditional instruction, while females who received traditional instruction had greater growth of content knowledge scores than females in the e-PBL group. Through triangulation of the qualitative data, the emergent themes of the study suggest that hands-on learning produces higher levels of reported engagement independent of instructional method. The emergence of problem solving fatigue developed when both study groups reported a decline in engagement when entering into the final phase of the quantitative study suggesting that too many complex, ill-structured problems in rapid succession may negatively impact student engagement. Although females within the treatment group were most engaged, they did not achieve the knowledge growth of the females in the
Full Text Available Social inequalities are widely accepted to have a deleterious effect on children's mental health, and those with lower socioeconomic status generally experience more mental health issues. In this study, we examine the impact of socioeconomic situations of children's families during their early childhood on the children's social adaptation in Japanese elementary school.The current investigation consisted of two sets of data relating to two separate years (with a one-year interval. The participants included preschoolers aged five years at Time 1 (the first year and first graders aged six years at Time 2 (the second year; 1,712 met the inclusion criteria for both years. Parents of the participants completed a self-reported questionnaire regarding their SES (i.e., family economy and mother's education and their children's mental health. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18, Parent Report.For each SES indicator, we found an inverse relationship across all the symptom dimensions. Specifically, bivariate analyses revealed that lower family income, maternal education level, and paternal education level predict all three domains of behavioral problems (i.e., internalized problems, externalized problems, and total behavioral problems. Further, multivariate analyses revealed that lower family income consistently predicts all domains of behavioral problems, lower maternal education level predicted externalized problems and total behavioral problems, and paternal education level did not predict any clinically significant behavioral problems.In this sample, we found that, for children, family income and parental education when entering preschool were significant predictors of mental health problems after elementary school enrollment; in particular, low income and low maternal educational achievement predicted a high probability of the development of a psychiatric disorder. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of these
Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki
Social inequalities are widely accepted to have a deleterious effect on children's mental health, and those with lower socioeconomic status generally experience more mental health issues. In this study, we examine the impact of socioeconomic situations of children's families during their early childhood on the children's social adaptation in Japanese elementary school. The current investigation consisted of two sets of data relating to two separate years (with a one-year interval). The participants included preschoolers aged five years at Time 1 (the first year) and first graders aged six years at Time 2 (the second year); 1,712 met the inclusion criteria for both years. Parents of the participants completed a self-reported questionnaire regarding their SES (i.e., family economy and mother's education) and their children's mental health. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18, Parent Report. For each SES indicator, we found an inverse relationship across all the symptom dimensions. Specifically, bivariate analyses revealed that lower family income, maternal education level, and paternal education level predict all three domains of behavioral problems (i.e., internalized problems, externalized problems, and total behavioral problems). Further, multivariate analyses revealed that lower family income consistently predicts all domains of behavioral problems, lower maternal education level predicted externalized problems and total behavioral problems, and paternal education level did not predict any clinically significant behavioral problems. In this sample, we found that, for children, family income and parental education when entering preschool were significant predictors of mental health problems after elementary school enrollment; in particular, low income and low maternal educational achievement predicted a high probability of the development of a psychiatric disorder. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of these associations could
Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.
The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...
Bar, Mustafa; Yaman, Menzure Sibel; Hergüner, Gülten
The study aimed to determine problems encountered by Religious Vocational Secondary School and other Secondary School students in physical education and sports activities and to compare these problems according to school type and gender. A questionnaire named "Problems encountered in attending to physical education and sports activities"…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was carried out on explanatory purposes to determine psychological compliance state of the children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school province and how common some psychological infancy problems are. METHODS: The samples of the research consist of mothers and teachers of 255 children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school in Sivas province. Personal Information Form and Psychological Compliance Measurement were used in the collection of data. RESULTS: According to the evaluation of teachers it was found out that while %27.5 of the children has psychological compliance problems. According to the evaluation of mothers, it was obtained that only 24.7% of the children has psychological compliance problems. The average compliance points were found higher in boys than girls, in younger age group than older age group, in group having physical disorders than not having any physical disorders. In the research a meaningful difference was not found when the average psychological compliance points and other variables were compared. When infancy psychological compliance problems evaluated, in 2.3% of the children stammer, in 3.1% habit-spasm disorder, in 7% finger sucking, in 1.9% encopresis, in 9% enuresis, and in 19.6 educational failures were determined. When the state of being problematical in behaviors and neurotic compared with the gender, it was traced that behavioral problems were higher in boys (59.5% than girls (40.5% and the neurotic problems were higher in girls (56. 3% than boys (56.3%. CONCLUSION: Consequently, it was recognized that improvement of the services for the psychological care of the children in the society and primary schools is crucially needed. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 47-52
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was carried out on explanatory purposes to determine psychological compliance state of the children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school province and how common some psychological infancy problems are. METHODS: The samples of the research consist of mothers and teachers of 255 children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school in Sivas province. Personal Information Form and Psychological Compliance Measurement were used in the collection of data. RESULTS: According to the evaluation of teachers it was found out that while %27.5 of the children has psychological compliance problems. According to the evaluation of mothers, it was obtained that only 24.7% of the children has psychological compliance problems. The average compliance points were found higher in boys than girls, in younger age group than older age group, in group having physical disorders than not having any physical disorders. In the research a meaningful difference was not found when the average psychological compliance points and other variables were compared. When infancy psychological compliance problems evaluated, in 2.3% of the children stammer, in 3.1% habit-spasm disorder, in 7% finger sucking, in 1.9% encopresis, in 9% enuresis, and in 19.6 educational failures were determined. When the state of being problematical in behaviors and neurotic compared with the gender, it was traced that behavioral problems were higher in boys (59.5% than girls (40.5% and the neurotic problems were higher in girls (56. 3% than boys (56.3%. CONCLUSION: Consequently, it was recognized that improvement of the services for the psychological care of the children in the society and primary schools is crucially needed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 47-52
Poffijn, A.; Uyttenhove, J.; Tondeur, F.
Owing to differences in geology, radon in Belgium is recognised to be a more serious problem in the southern part of the country than in the northern part. From national and regional surveys, it became clear that in the province of Luxembourg indoor radon concentrations exceeding the European reference level of 400 Bq.m -3 frequently occur. As many people (children as well as adults) spend an important part of the day indoors at school or at work, it was decided by the local authorities to conduct a more systematic survey. In all schools and public buildings, measurements with integrating etched track devices have been performed. The results of these campaigns are discussed and a limiting scheme for radon in schools and public buildings, based mainly upon the existing Belgian regulations for protecting against ionising radiation is presented. (author)
Bondü, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G; Scheithauer, Herbert
School homicides have been become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful research on risk and protective factors that can inform evidence-based preventive models is summarized. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
The purpose is to find out whether video games can have positive effects on children and whether we can use those effects for educational purposes at school. The thesis contains theories of the leading authors of developmental psychology in the field of cognitive development as well as an insight into the processes of learning and using problem solving skills. In the second half of the theoretical part, the essential information on video games, their effects researched until now and the means...
Dick, M-L B; Bain, C J; Purdie, D M; Siskind, V; Molloy, D; Green, A C
This study aimed to explore the meaning and potential use of women's self-reported difficulties in conceiving as a measure of infertility in epidemiological studies, and to compare women's stated reasons for infertility with information in their medical records. Data were available from a population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer involving 1638 women. The sensitivity and specificity of women's self-reported infertility were calculated against their estimated fertility status based on detailed reproductive histories. Self-reported reasons for infertility were compared with diagnoses documented in women's medical records. The sensitivity of women's self-reported difficulty in conceiving was 66 and 69% respectively when compared with calendar-derived and self-reported times taken trying to conceive; its specificity was 95%. Forty-one (23%) of the 179 women for whom medical records were available had their self-reported fertility problem confirmed. Self-reported infertility causes could be compared with diagnoses in medical records for only 22 of these women. Self-reported difficulty conceiving is a useful measure of infertility for quantifying the burden of fertility problems experienced in the community. Validation of reasons for infertility is unlikely to be feasible through examination of medical records. Improved education of the public regarding the availability and success rates of infertility treatments is proposed.
Melissa A Cortina
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many children can be exposed to multiple adversities in low and middle-income countries (LMICs placing them at potential risk of psychological problems. However, there is a paucity of research using large representative cohorts examining the psychological adjustment of children in school settings in these countries. Children's psychological adjustment has been shown to affect educational progress which is critical for their future. This study, based in a rural, socio-economically disadvantaged area of South Africa, aimed to examine the prevalence of children's psychological problems as well as possible risk and protective factors. METHODS: Rates of psychological problems in 10-12 year olds were examined using teacher- and child-report questionnaires. Data on children from 10 rural primary schools, selected by stratified random sampling, were linked to individual and household data from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system collected from households over 15 years. RESULTS: A total of 1,025 children were assessed. Teachers identified high levels of behavioural and emotional problems (41%. Children reported lower, but substantial rates of anxiety/depression (14%, and significant post-traumatic stress symptoms (24%; almost a quarter felt unsafe in school. Risk factors included being a second-generation former refugee and being from a large household. Protective factors highlight the importance of maternal factors, such as being more educated and in a stable partnership. CONCLUSION: The high levels of psychological problems identified by teachers are a serious public health concern, as they are likely to impact negatively on children's education, particularly given the large class sizes and limited resources in rural LMIC settings. Despite the high levels of risk, a proportion of children were managing well and research to understand resilience could inform interventions.
Full Text Available Malekshahi F1, Farhadi A2 1. Instructor, Department of Society Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 2. Instructor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract Background: Childhood period it one of the most important stages of life in which individuals personality is formed. The majority of behavioral problems are due to attention deficit to the sensitive periods of childhood. This attention deficit leads to lack of agreement with environment and causes behavioural problems in children. Behavioural problem is attributed to a persons behaviour that his IQ isn lowered, but his or her mental and behavioural equilibrium is deviated from social norm and has severity, repetition and continuance in numerous times and places, so that his educational performance and behaviour will be frustrated and his efficiency is reduced. Such children are always rejected by others and in school there are a lot of grievances against them. Therefore, to pay attention children common behavioural problems is one of the most important topics and it prompt detection makes its treatment possible. So this study designed to determine prevalence of behavioural problems of Khorramabad pre-school children. Materials and methods: This descriptive-cross sectional study was carried out on 600 rural and urban pre-school children selected using random one stage sampling method. Data gathering tool was a two-part questionnaire including demographic and behavioural disorders signs obtained from DSM IV. Reability and validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the university teaching members and retest method with a correlation coefficient 98%. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (ver 11 and Ch-square test. Results: Results of the study showed that 79% of the rural, and 68% of the urban children were at least involved in one of the behavioural
Karel Pérez Ariza
Full Text Available The paper describes the result of the research project “A study of causes of difficulties in learning comprehension from an interdisciplinary perspective in Camagüey. The main objective of that study is to propose a methodology for the comprehension of mathematic problems in primary school. In designing the methodology, the characteristics of this text variety, basic principle of the theory of reading comprehension and problem solving were taking into account. In this research work several theoretical methods were used —analysis-synthesis, historical-logical, inductive-deductive— to elaborate the theoretical framework, while modeling and system approach in the methodology construction. Additionally, empirical methods were used in order to assess the knowledge about comprehension of mathematic problems; among them observation and analysis of the activity results.
Miller, Iben Marie; Zarchi, Kian; Ellervik, Christina
Skin diseases are thought to be common in the general population. In 2004, a cross-sectional study in Norway, using a validated questionnaire for 18,770 individuals, revealed a high prevalence of skin diseases in the general population. To describe the prevalence of self-reported skin morbidities...... questionnaire. In total, 17.2% self-reported skin complaints. The most prominent self-reported skin complaint was itch with an overall prevalence of 6.5%. The skin morbidity most influenced by age was pimples. There was a uniform pattern showing fewer skin complaints with increasing education. Women reported...... skin morbidities more frequently than men. Participants in employment reported fewer skin morbidities compared to unemployed participants. Skin morbidities in Denmark are common, and the distribution of prevalence estimates in the Danish population parallel those of the Norwegian population, although...
Shumway, J M; Vargas, M E; Heller, L E
, teachers of medicine can improve their students' performance by adjusting these available methods to their particular needs and to those of their schools. The problem-solving methods described can help teachers shape the learning environment so as to develop in their students the most coherent, logical, concrete and complete set of skills possible. These methods can so be of value in improving the training of future doctors and the quality of their decisions to the benefit of their patients.
Emodi Perlman, A; Lobbezoo, F; Zar, A; Friedman Rubin, P; van Selms, M K A; Winocur, E
Little is known about the epidemiological characteristics of sleep and awake bruxism (SB and AB) in adolescents. The aims of the study were: to assess the prevalence rates of self-reported SB and AB in Israeli adolescents; to determine the associations between SB/AB and several demographical, exogenous and psychosocial factors in Israeli adolescents; and to investigate the possible concordance between SB and AB. The study made use of a questionnaire. The study population included 1000 students from different high schools in the centre of Israel. Prevalence of self-reported SB and AB in the Israeli adolescents studied was 9·2% and 19·2%, respectively. No gender difference was found regarding the prevalence of SB and AB. Multiple variable regression analysis revealed that the following predicting variables were related to SB: temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002) and feeling stressed (P = 0·001). The following predicting variables were related to AB: age (P = 0·018), temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002), oro-facial pain (P = 0·006), and feeling stressed (P = 0·002) or sad (P = 0·006). A significant association was found between SB and AB; that is, an individual reporting SB had a higher probability of reporting AB compared with an individual who did not report SB (odds ratio = 5·099). Chewing gum was the most common parafunction reported by adolescents. The results of this study demonstrate that self-reports of AB and SB are common in the Israeli adolescents population studied and are not related to gender. The significant correlation found between SB and AB may be a confounding bias that affects proper diagnosis of bruxism through self-reported questionnaires only. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baker, Jo; Scott, Daniel; Watkins, Katherine; Keegan-Turcotte, Sheramy; Wyon, Matthew
Injury is a major concern among dancers, as currently rates are reported as being high. The purpose of the present study was to assess the incidence and details of injuries across an academic year at a full-time contemporary dance school. A questionnaire was distributed to 57 dancers at the end of their first academic year. Reported injury information was also retrieved from a database as collected from a physiotherapist over the same period. Differences were found between the reported and self-reported information, particularly with reference to shin injuries. The majority of injuries occurred in November and May, noted to be close to assessment periods. Injury rates in contemporary dance are high; notably, 89% of dancers reported one or more injuries. This problem is particularly evident in the lower limb. Med Probl Perform Art 2010; 25:10-15.
von Lengerke, T; Lutze, B; Graf, K; Krauth, C; Lange, K; Schwadtke, L; Stahmeyer, J; Chaberny, I F
Research applying psychological behaviour change theories to hand hygiene compliance is scarce, especially for physicians. To identify psychosocial determinants of self-reported hand hygiene behaviour (HHB) of physicians and nurses in intensive care units (ICUs). A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire that applied concepts from the Health Action Process Approach on hygienic hand disinfection was conducted in 10 ICUs and two haematopoietic stem cell transplantation units at Hannover Medical School, Germany. Self-reported compliance was operationalized as always disinfecting one's hands when given tasks associated with risk of infection. Using seven-point Likert scales, behavioural planning, maintenance self-efficacy and action control were assessed as psychological factors, and personnel and material resources, organizational problems and cooperation on the ward were assessed as perceived environmental factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed. In total, 307 physicians and 348 nurses participated in this study (response rates 70.9% and 63.4%, respectively). Self-reported compliance did not differ between the groups (72.4% vs 69.4%, P = 0.405). While nurses reported stronger planning, self-efficacy and action control, physicians indicated better personnel resources and cooperation on the ward (P Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to study the correlates of school underachievement and to sketch the possible profile of the gifted underachiever. The study was conducted on a sample of high school students in Belgrade (N = 434. The subjects were administered a battery of ability tests and asked to self-estimate their intelligence. On the basis of ability test and school achievement data, the subjects were classified into three groups: gifted underachievers (N1 = 26, gifted students (N2 = 81, and others (N3 = 332. The results of ANOVAs indicate that these three groups differ significantly on the dimensions of Attitudes towards school: academic self-perception, attitudes toward teachers, assessment goals, and motivation and self-regulation. Also, significant between-group differences emerge on the following dimensions of self-concept: assessment of ability, assessment of achievement, and academic self-confidence. These dimensions show the highest correlation with the canonical function that efficiently discriminates between underachievers and gifted students (canonical correlation coefficient = .70, performance of classification = 91.6%. Students who do not realize their potential in school, although they consider themselves to be equally intelligent as gifted students, do not draw their confidence and self-esteem from academic achievement. Gifted underachievers evaluate educational goals as less important and are not motivated to make an effort in school. Also, they are likely to come into conflict with teachers in order to challenge their authority. These results suggest that being an underachiever is a 'choice of will', rather than the unwilling result of difficulties in the environment, psychological problems or underdeveloped meta-cognitive skills, but an alternative interpretation is also plausible. The roots of this hypothetical choice are examined with reference to the educational system and its possible effects of 'normalization'.
Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Else Marie
of ED recorded in the health registers. Women with self-reported ED were comparable with women with hospital diagnosed ED on most reproductive and health characteristics, while they differed from women without ED concerning all characteristics studied. Our findings highlight that women with self...
Motivation is critical in English learning of middle school,thus,how to effectively motivate students in English learning is an important problem.This study intends to find ways to motivate students of middle school.Self-report data were collected from 45 students in The Experiment Middle School Attached to Yunnan Normal University by using a close-ended questionnaire.
Richards, Lauren K; McHugh, R Kathryn; Pratt, Elizabeth M; Thompson-Brenner, Heather
The validity of self-report binge eating instruments among individuals with limited literacy is uncertain. This study aims to evaluate reading grade level and multiple domains of comprehension of 13 commonly used self-report assessments of binge eating for use in low-literacy populations. We evaluated self-report binge eating measures with respect to reading grade levels, measure length, formatting and linguistic problems. All measures were written at a reading grade level higher than is recommended for patient materials (above the 5th to 6th grade level), and contained several challenging elements related to comprehension. Correlational analyses suggested that readability and comprehension elements were distinct contributors to measure difficulty. Individuals with binge eating who have low levels of educational attainment or limited literacy are often underrepresented in measure validation studies. Validity of measures and accurate assessment of symptoms depend on an individual's ability to read and comprehend instructions and items, and these may be compromised in populations with lower levels of literacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lüdtke, Janine; Weizenegger, Benedict; Rauber, Rachel; Contin, Brigitte; In-Albon, Tina; Schmid, Marc
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent among adolescents and associated with various mental health problems and suicidality. Previous studies have found that certain personality traits are related to NSSI behavior, however only few studies examined personality traits in adolescents with NSSI. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between personality traits and emotional and behavioral problems in predicting repetitive NSSI among adolescents from a school sample. Four hundred and forty-seven students (M=14.95years, SD=0.74, 52% male) completed self-report measures on NSSI, personality traits, and emotional and behavioral problems. The past year prevalence of occasional and repetitive NSSI was 4.9% and 6.3% respectively. Repetitive NSSI was significantly associated with female gender, higher levels of age, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-transcendence, antisocial behavior, and positive self and lower levels of persistence and self-directedness in univariate analyses. However, multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only high levels of antisocial behavior and low levels of self-directedness significantly predicted repetitive NSSI. The association between a lack of self-directedness and NSSI emphasizes the significance of targeting self-directedness in psychotherapy by strengthening self-awareness, affect tolerance and emotion regulation, as well as establishing and pursuing long-term goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper postulates that psychology can make an important contribution at an individual level to help children with school failure problems in a context where too little applied research has been conducted on the instructional needs of these children. Some data are analyzed, revealing that, despite some progress, school failure is still a main educational problem in many countries. In this study, Behavioral Skills Training (BST was applied in Portugal to train children with school failure difficulties. BST is a method based on Applied Behavior Analysis, a teaching package consisting of a combination of behavioral techniques: instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. Two empirical studies are presented. Their main purpose was to develop behavioral diagnostic and training techniques to teach lacking skills. School success was defined in terms of a set of skills proposed by teachers and school failure as a lack of one or more of these skills. The main instrument was a package of training programs to be applied in three areas: basic behavior (precurrents, academic behavior, or social behavior. The second instrument is a package of check-lists, aimed to determine the level of performance of the child in an area. This check-list was applied before (pre-test and after (post-test training. In the first study, 16, 7- to 8-year old children were trained. They were attending the second or third grades and having academic difficulties of different origins. The effects of the training programs are evaluated in terms of percentage of attained objectives, comparing a pre- and a post-test. The results showed an increase in correct responses after training in all cases. To provide a sounder demonstration of the efficacy of the training programs, a second study was carried out using a quasi-experimental design. A multiple baseline design was applied to three 10- to 11-year-old children, referred by teachers because of learning difficulties in the fourth
Kshetri, Dan B B; Smith, William C S
The study aimed to identify the felt common health problems, utilisation of health services and unmet needs of urban and rural elderly people of Bhaktapur district, Nepal. It was a cross sectional population study of people aged 60 years or more where 204 respondents were interviewed in 2009. The common felt problems were pain and swelling of joints (65.7%), indigestion (63.7%), excessive tiredness (38.2%) and hypertension (35.8%). Pain and swelling of joints (72.5%) and back pain (40.4%) were higher in rural elderly population whereas indigestion (67.6%) and hypertension (37.85%) were higher in urban population. Pain and swelling of joints (66.7%) and indigestion (69.6%) were higher in males, and hypertension (50.0%), back pain (38.2%) and chronic bronchitis/asthma (39.2%) were higher in females. The unmet needs varied between different health problems. In general women had more unmet needs than men, where 80 unmet needs were identified for the 102 men compared with 105 for the 102 women, and these unmet needs increased dramatically with age. This approach yields new insights into the health care needs of the elderly and will be helpful to health care planners.
Young, Susan; Heptinstall, Ellen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Chadwick, Oliver; Taylor, Eric
The aim of the study was to clarify the developmental risk associated with hyperactive behaviour in girls in a longitudinal epidemiological design. This was investigated in a follow-up study of girls who were identified by parent and teacher ratings in a large community survey of 6- and 7-year-olds as showing pervasive hyperactivity or conduct problems or the comorbid mixture of both problems or neither problem. They were later investigated, at the age of 14 to 16 years, with a detailed self-report interview technique. Hyperactivity was a risk factor for later development, even allowing for the coexistence of conduct problems. Hyperactivity predicted academic problems and interpersonal relationship problems. Relationships with parents, by contrast, were not portrayed to be as problematic as relationships with peers and the opposite sex. Their psychological, social and occupational functioning was objectively rated to be more deviant and their self-report showed them to be more ambivalent about their future. There was a trend for hyperactivity to be self-reported as a risk for the development of continuing symptomatology but neither hyperactivity nor conduct problems were self-reported to be a risk for antisocial behaviour, substance misuse or low self-esteem in adolescence. However, they were at risk for the development of state anxiety. The results suggested girls' pattern of functioning may differ from that of boys because girls self-report a more pervasive range of social dysfunction than that previously reported in boys.
Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates
The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The dependent variable, self-reported dysphonia, was determined via a single question, "Have you noticed changes in your voice quality?" and if so, a follow-up question queried the duration of this change, acute or chronic. The independent variables were dichotomized and divided into five categories: sociodemographic and economic data; lifestyle; organizational and environmental data; health-disease processes; and voice. Analyses of associated factors were performed via a hierarchical multiple logistic regression model. The present study included 226 teachers, of whom 38.9% reported no voice disorders, 35.4% reported an acute disorder, and 25.7% reported a chronic disorder. Excessive voice use daily, consuming more than one alcoholic drink per time, and seeking medical treatment because of voice disorders were associated factors for acute and chronic voice disorders. Consuming up to three glasses of water per day was associated with acute voice disorders. Among teachers who reported chronic voice disorders, teaching for over 15 years and the perception of disturbing or unbearable noise outside the school were both associated factors. Identification of organizational, environmental, and predisposing risk factors for voice disorders is critical, and furthermore, a vocal health promotion program may address these issues. Copyright Â© 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kargiotidis, Apostolos
This study examined the role of teachers' personal characteristics and mental health status on their frequency ratings of student problem behaviour. A sample of 121 primary school teachers were asked to rate the frequency of a student's behavioural problems, and to self-report their personality traits, psychopathology symptoms and burnout.…
Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.
Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…
Crosnoe, Robert; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Muller, Chandra
Given the increasing importance of education to socioeconomic attainment and other life course trajectories, early academic struggles can have long-term consequences if not addressed. Analysis of a nationally representative sample with official school transcripts and extensive data on adolescent functioning identified a social psychological pathway in this linkage between external feedback about early struggles and truncated educational trajectories. For girls, class failures absent of diagnosed learning disabilities engendered increasingly negative self-perceptions that, in turn, disrupted math and science course-taking, especially in family and peer contexts in which academic success was prioritized. For boys, diagnosed learning disabilities, regardless of class performance, engendered the same changes in self-perception and the same consequences of these changes for course-taking across family and peer contexts. These results reveal how ability labels and ability-related performance indicators come together to influence the long-term educational prospects of girls and boys attending mainstream schools in which the majority of students do not have learning disabilities or severe academic problems. Keywords: education, learning disability, academic failure, peers, and stigma.
C. C. Kee
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported weight and height are commonly used in lieu of direct measurements of weight and height in large epidemiological surveys due to inevitable constraints such as budget and human resource. However, the validity of self-reported weight and height, particularly among adolescents, needs to be verified as misreporting could lead to misclassification of body mass index and therefore overestimation or underestimation of the burden of BMI-related diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the validity of self-reported weight and height among Malaysian secondary school children. Methods Both self-reported and directly measured weight and height of a subgroup of 663 apparently healthy schoolchildren from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB survey 2013/2014 were analysed. Respondents were required to report their current body weight and height via a self-administrative questionnaire before they were measured by investigators. The validity of self-reported against directly measured weight and height was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, the Bland-Altman plot and weighted Kappa statistics. Results There was very good intraclass correlation between self-reported and directly measured weight [r = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.93, 0.97] and height (r = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.96. In addition the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between self-reported and direct measurement was relatively small. The mean difference (self-reported minus direct measurements was, for boys: weight, −2.1 kg; height, −1.6 cm; BMI, −0.44 kg/m2 and girls: weight, −1.2 kg; height, −0.9 cm; BMI, −0.3 kg/m2. However, 95% limits of agreement were wide which indicated substantial discrepancies between self-reported and direct measurements method at the individual level. Nonetheless, the weighted Kappa statistics demonstrated a substantial agreement between BMI
Kee, C C; Lim, K H; Sumarni, M G; Teh, C H; Chan, Y Y; Nuur Hafizah, M I; Cheah, Y K; Tee, E O; Ahmad Faudzi, Y; Amal Nasir, M
Self-reported weight and height are commonly used in lieu of direct measurements of weight and height in large epidemiological surveys due to inevitable constraints such as budget and human resource. However, the validity of self-reported weight and height, particularly among adolescents, needs to be verified as misreporting could lead to misclassification of body mass index and therefore overestimation or underestimation of the burden of BMI-related diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the validity of self-reported weight and height among Malaysian secondary school children. Both self-reported and directly measured weight and height of a subgroup of 663 apparently healthy schoolchildren from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB) survey 2013/2014 were analysed. Respondents were required to report their current body weight and height via a self-administrative questionnaire before they were measured by investigators. The validity of self-reported against directly measured weight and height was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the Bland-Altman plot and weighted Kappa statistics. There was very good intraclass correlation between self-reported and directly measured weight [r = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 0.97] and height (r = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.96). In addition the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between self-reported and direct measurement was relatively small. The mean difference (self-reported minus direct measurements) was, for boys: weight, -2.1 kg; height, -1.6 cm; BMI, -0.44 kg/m 2 and girls: weight, -1.2 kg; height, -0.9 cm; BMI, -0.3 kg/m 2 . However, 95% limits of agreement were wide which indicated substantial discrepancies between self-reported and direct measurements method at the individual level. Nonetheless, the weighted Kappa statistics demonstrated a substantial agreement between BMI status categorised based on self-reported weight and height
Husky, Mathilde M; Boyd, Anders; Bitfoi, Adina; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Chan-Chee, Christine; Goelitz, Dietmar; Koç, Ceren; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Pez, Ondine; Shojaei, Taraneh; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane
Worldwide, approximately one in eight children or adolescents suffers from a mental disorder. The present study was designed to determine the self-reported prevalence of mental health problems in children aged 6-11 years across eight European countries including Italy, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. Data were drawn from 6245 children participating in the School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCHME) study and a large cross-sectional survey in France. Self-reported child mental health was assessed using the Dominique Interactive (DI). Overall, 22.0% of children were identified per their own evaluation as having at least one mental disorder, ranging from 16.4% in the Netherlands to 27.9% in Bulgaria. The prevalence of internalizing disorders was 18.4% across countries and ranged from 11.8% in the Netherlands to 24.3% in Turkey. The prevalence of externalizing disorders was lower with an average of 7.8%, ranging from 3.5% in Turkey to 10.5% in Bulgaria. Combining samples across European countries, 1 in 5 children reported internalizing problems and 1 in 12 children externalizing problems. The net completion rates of 4.1-74.3% preclude conclusions about national differences in prevalence rates.
Emerson, Eric; Felce, David; Stancliffe, Roger J.
This article examines two methodological issues regarding ways of obtaining and analyzing outcome data for people with intellectual disabilities: (a) self-report and proxy-report data and (b) analysis of population-based data sets. Some people with intellectual disabilities have difficulties with self-reporting due to problems of understanding and…
Drieskens, S; Demarest, S; Bel, S; De Ridder, K; Tafforeau, J
Based on successive Health Interview Surveys (HIS), it has been demonstrated that also in Belgium obesity, measured by means of a self-reported body mass index (BMI in kg/m 2 ), is a growing public health problem that needs to be monitored as accurately as possible. Studies have shown that a self-reported BMI can be biased. Consequently, if the aim is to rely on a self-reported BMI, adjustment is recommended. Data on measured and self-reported BMI, derived from the Belgian Food Consumption Survey (FCS) 2014 offers the opportunity to do so. The HIS and FCS are cross-sectional surveys based on representative population samples. This study focused on adults aged 18-64 years (sample HIS = 6545 and FCS = 1213). Measured and self-reported BMI collected in FCS were used to assess possible misreporting. Using FCS data, correction factors (measured BMI/self-reported BMI) were calculated in function of a combination of background variables (region, gender, educational level and age group). Individual self-reported BMI of the HIS 2013 were then multiplied with the corresponding correction factors to produce a corrected BMI-classification. When compared with the measured BMI, the self-reported BMI in the FCS was underestimated (mean 0.97 kg/m 2 ). 28% of the obese people underestimated their BMI. After applying the correction factors, the prevalence of obesity based on HIS data significantly increased (from 13% based on the original HIS data to 17% based on the corrected HIS data) and approximated the measured one derived from the FCS data. Since self-reported calculations of BMI are underestimated, it is recommended to adjust them to obtain accurate estimates which are important for decision making.
Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu; Lopez, Estefania Estevez; Emler, Nicholas P.
This study analyzed the role of different but interrelated variables in the family and school contexts in relation to problems of violent behavior at school during adolescence. Participants were 1,068 students aged 11 to 16 (47% male) drawn from secondary schools in the Valencian Community (Spain). Statistical analyses were carried out using…
Bridgeland, John M.; Dilulio, John J., Jr.; Balfanz, Robert
Teachers and administrators in public high schools recognize there is a dropout problem, know they are confronted with daunting challenges in classrooms and in schools, and express strong support for reforms to address high dropout rates. Yet, less than one-third of teachers believe that schools should expect all students to meet high academic…
Dubanoski, R A; Inaba, M; Gerkewicz, K
In many countries, corporal punishment of school children continues to be an officially or unofficially sanctioned form of institutional child abuse. Continuing support for the use of corporal punishment is related to the following factors: (1) widely held beliefs regarding the effectiveness of corporal punishment, (2) an unawareness of problems resulting from the use of physical punishment, and (3) a lack of knowledge about effective disciplinary alternatives. The purpose of this paper is threefold: One is to show that many of the beliefs are myths, e.g., corporal punishment is not needed to build character. The second purpose is to show that physical punishment can lead to more problems than it appears to solve, e.g., the punitive teacher is avoided, and thus, is not a positive factor in the child's education and development. The third purpose is to discuss two types of alternatives to punishment, the social learning approach and communication skills training. These positive methods of discipline not only enhance classroom behavior, but also facilitate learning. In an atmosphere free of abusing and demeaning acts and in a classroom characterized by positive mutual regard, teachers can maximize their effectiveness as teachers and students can maximize their effectiveness as learners.
Istadi; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Sujadi, I.
This research aimed to analyse students’ mathematical representations on secondary school in solving trigonometric problems. This research used qualitative method. The participants were 4 students who had high competence of knowledge taken from 20 students of 12th natural-science grade SMAN-1 Kota Besi, Central Kalimantan. Data validation was carried out using time triangulation. Data analysis used Huberman and Miles stages. The results showed that their answers were not only based on the given figure, but also used the definition of trigonometric ratio on verbal representations. On the other hand, they were able to determine the object positions to be observed. However, they failed to determine the position of the angle of depression at the sketches made on visual representations. Failure in determining the position of the angle of depression to cause an error in using the mathematical equation. Finally, they were unsuccessful to use the mathematical equation properly on symbolic representations. From this research, we could recommend the importance of translations between mathematical problems and mathematical representations as well as translations among mathematical representaions (verbal, visual, and symbolic) in learning mathematics in the classroom.
Mason, Michael J.
This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…
de Paul, Joaquin; Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia
This study investigated behavior problems in 66 school-aged physically abused, neglected, and control group children in the Basque Country, Spain. Abused and neglected children had higher subscale scores for social problems, delinquent behavior, and attention problems and showed lower school adjustment. Neglected children appeared more aggressive,…
Prout, H. Thompson; Harvey, John R.
A variety of desensitization and counterconditioning procedures have been utilized to deal with school-related problems. These procedures are reviewed with respect to applications for treating school phobia, test anxiety, and other academic anxieties. (Author)
Fabes, Richard A.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Hanish, Laura D.; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin
Gender-segregated (GS) schooling has become popular in the United States despite the fact that every major review has concluded that GS schooling is not superior to coeducational schooling. Moreover, concern has been raised that GS schooling leads to negative effects, including increased gender stereotyping. We argue that these negative effects…
Heidi Vandebosch; Karolien Poels; Gie Deboutte
Cyberbullying is a common phenomenon amongst young people. It exhibits many similarities to traditional school bullying, with a potentially serious impact on the mental health and school functioning of victims. For this reason, action by schools is often recommended. The aim of this article is to provide a better picture of what schools are currently doing to address cyberbullying and of what schools will need to continue doing so in the future. An online survey was conducted among staff memb...
Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo; Estévez Lopez, Estefania; Emler, Nicholas P
This study analyzed the role of different but interrelated variables in the family and school contexts in relation to problems of violent behavior at school during adolescence. Participants were 1,068 students aged 11 to 16 (47% male) drawn from secondary schools in the Valencian Community (Spain). Statistical analyses were carried out using structural equation modeling. The model accounted for 32% of the variance in school violence. Results showed a direct association between quality of communication with father and teacher's expectations of the student with the adolescent's involvement in violent behavior at school. Moreover, findings showed indirect paths by which adolescents' self-concept (family and school domains), acceptance by peers, and attitude toward authority, seemed to be influenced by the quality of interactions with parent and teachers, and also were closely associated with violent behavior at school. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research on adolescent psychosocial adjustment and behavioral problems at school.
Nelson, Helen Jean; Kendall, Garth Edward; Burns, Sharyn; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly
Introduction Covert bullying in schools is associated with a range of academic, social, emotional and physical health problems. Much research has focused on bullying, but there remains a gap in understanding about covert aggression and how to most accurately and reliably measure children's own reports of this behaviour. This paper reviews relevant literature and outlines a research project that aims to develop a self-report instrument that effectively measures covert aggression and bullying. It is anticipated that this research will result in a standardised instrument that is suitable for exploring preadolescent children's experiences of covert aggressive behaviour. The data collected by the instrument will enhance health and education professionals understanding of covert bullying behaviours and will inform the design and evaluation of interventions. Methods and analysis Relational developmental systems theory will guide the design of an online self-report instrument. The first phase of the project will include a critical review of the research literature, focus groups with children aged 8–12 years (grades 4–6) in Perth, Western Australia, and expert review. The instrument will be explored for content and face validity prior to the assessment of convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Curtin University of Human Research Ethics Committee (RDHS-38-15) and by the Executive Principal of the participating school. PMID:26553834
Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.
Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…
Full Text Available Mara Z Vitolins,1 L Douglas Case,1 Stephen R Rapp,2 Mark O Lively,3 Edward G Shaw,4 Michelle J Naughton,5 Jeffrey Giguere,6 Glenn J Lesser7 1Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Department of Internal Medicine-Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 5Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 6Greenville Community Oncology Research Program of the Carolinas, Greenville, SC, USA; 7Department of Internal Medicine-Hematology and Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Purpose: Women with breast cancer were randomized to receive coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 plus Vitamin E or placebo in a clinical trial. The objective of this evaluation is to examine the association between participant self-reported adherence to the study supplements and changes in plasma biomarker levels.Patients and methods: Correlation coefficients quantified the association between changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels and the association between self-reported adherence and changes in biomarkers. Participants were categorized by self-reported adherence; Kruskal–Wallis tests compared changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels between self-reported adherence groups.Results: Women (N=155 provided baseline and post-treatment biomarkers; 147 completed at least one diary. While changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels were moderately correlated, correlations ranged from 0.40 to 0.48, association between self-reported adherence and plasma alpha-tocopherol or CoQ10 levels was weak; correlations ranged from 0.10 to 0.29 at weeks 8, 16, and 24. Some participants with high self-reported adherence actually
de la Fuente Arias, Jesús; Peralta Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sánchez Roda, María Dolores; Trianes Torres, María Victoria
The aim of this study was to analyze the exploratory and confirmatory structure, as well as other psychometric properties, of the Cuestionario de Problemas de Convivencia Escolar (CPCE; in Spanish, the Questionnaire on School Maladjustment Problems [QSMP]), using a sample of Spanish adolescents. The instrument was administered to 60 secondary education teachers (53.4% females and 46.6% males) between the ages of 28 and 54 years (M= 41.2, SD= 11.5), who evaluated a total of 857 adolescent students. The first-order exploratory factor analysis identified 7 factors, explaining a total variance of 62%. A second-order factor analysis yielded three dimensions that explain 84% of the variance. A confirmatory factor analysis was subsequently performed in order to reduce the number of factors obtained in the exploratory analysis as well as the number of items. Lastly, we present the results of reliability, internal consistency, and validity indices. These results and their implications for future research and for the practice of educational guidance and intervention are discussed in the conclusions.
The subject of independent schools and inequality is rife with contradictions. In some ways, independent schools work to ameliorate inequities. In other ways, they reinforce and exacerbate them. Those in independent schools who work on social justice, equity, and diversity issues deal with these contradictions every day. Most believe, most of the…
Texas Research League, Austin.
The U.S. District Court ruling in Rodriguez vs San Antonio Independent School District, which struck down Texas' school finance system as inequitable and unconstitutional, provided the impetus for publishing this interim report. The report documents the growing cost of State-supported public school programs--the primary concern prior to the…
Macassa, Gloria; Winersjö, Rocio; Wijk, Katarina; McGrath, Cormac; Ahmadi, Nader; Soares, Joaquim
Fear of crime is a growing social and public health problem globally, including in developed countries such as Sweden. This study investigated the impact of fear of crime on self-reported health and stress among men living in Gävleborg County. The study used data collected from 2993 men through a cross sectional survey in the 2014 Health in Equal Terms survey. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out to study the relationship between fear of crime and self-reported health and stress. There was a statistically significant association between fear of crime and self-reported poor health and stress among men residing in Gävleborg County. In the bivariate analysis, men who reported fear of crime had odds of 1.98 (CI 1.47-2.66) and 2.23 (CI 1.45-3.41) respectively. Adjusting for demographic, social and economic variables in the multivariate analysis only reduced the odds ratio for self-reported poor health to 1.52 (CI 1.05-2.21) but not for self-reported stress with odds of 2.22 (1.27-3.86). Fear of crime among men was statistically significantly associated with self-reported poor health and stress in Gävleborg County. However, the statistically significant relationship remained even after accounting for demographic, social and economic factors, which warrants further research to better understand the role played by other variables.
Richter Lagha, Regina Anne
Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…
Aaberg, Anne Marie Roust; Larsen, Caroline Emilie Brenner; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen
BACKGROUND: Early recognition and immediate bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation are critical determinants of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Our aim was to evaluate current knowledge on basic life support (BLS) in Danish high school students and benefits of a single...... training session run by junior doctors. METHODS: Six-hundred-fifty-one students were included. They underwent one 45-minute BLS training session including theoretical aspects and hands-on training with mannequins. The students completed a baseline questionnaire before the training session and a follow...... areas of BLS is poor among high school students. One hands-on training session run by junior doctors seems to be efficient to empower the students to be first responders to OHCA....
Lumley, Sophie; Ward, Peter; Roberts, Lesley; Mann, Jake P
To explore the relationship between academic performance, extracurricular activity, and quality of life at medical school in the UK to aid our understanding of students' work-life balance. A cross-sectional study, using an electronic questionnaire distributed to UK final year medical students across 20 medical schools (4478 students). Participants reported the hours of self-regulated learning and extracurricular activities undertaken each year at medical school; along with their academic decile (1 = highest, 10 = lowest). Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was assessed using an established screening tool (7 = highest, 1 = lowest). Seven hundred responses were obtained, across 20 participating medical schools, response rate 16% (700/4478). Factors associated with higher academic achievement were: graduate entry course students (2 deciles higher, p students attain higher decile scores despite similar self-reported duration of study.
This study examined the problem posing strategies of pre-service primary school teachers in different problem posing situations (PPSs) and analysed the issues they encounter while posing problems. A problem posing task consisting of six PPSs (two free, two structured, and two semi-structured situations) was delivered to 40 participants.…
Pugh, Roger; Chitiyo, Morgan
Bullying in schools is recognised as a global problem. In the USA, school shootings and increasing school aggression focused research on the causes of bullying and interventions that could reduce or eliminate bullying behaviours. A variety of bullying programs have generated mixed results with some actually increasing bullying behaviours. There…
Critiques major topics or themes in school-leadership texts, such as problem-solving techniques; suggests alternative topics or themes for school administrators, such as ideas-based leadership. Draws implications for writers on school leadership. (Contains 59 references.) (PKP)
Ekici, Didem Inel
This study aimed to determine Turkish junior high-school students' perceptions of the general problem-solving process. The Turkish junior high-school students' perceptions of the general problem-solving process were examined in relation to their gender, grade level, age and their grade point with regards to the science course identified in the…
Holt, Laura L.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
An analysis of the problems pertaining to the adoption of a year-round calendar for high schools, along with the advantages of year-round education (YRE), are examined. It provides a literary review (including historical contexts), types of calendars, benefits, administrative problems, and societal benefits. For the study, 28 schools responded to…
Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi
The objective is to examine underlying associations between childhood fears, behavior problems and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in school-age children. Healthy, regular school children (N = 135), from second, fourth and sixth grade classes were assessed. Data regarding children's fears and behavioral problems were obtained with the Revised…
Kane, Kevin T.
Today's superintendents face increasingly non-routine and complex problems that are educational, managerial, and political in nature. This study investigated occupational stressors and job satisfaction of school superintendents in Pennsylvania. This was accomplished through self-report of superintendents and through the perspective of school board…
Tavares, Aida Isabel
This work contributes to the discussion on the relationship between ICT and ehealth solutions in primary care, and self-reported health and health status in the European Union. The method used is an ordinary least squares linear model. The results show that there is no significant relation between self-reported health outcomes and ICT and ehealth indexes, except for self-reported chronic health problems. The more advanced that countries are in ICT, the larger is the share of people reporting a chronic health problem. This provides evidence on the existence of a link between chronic patients and ICT development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Little is known about the extent that different domains contribute to total sedentary (SED, light (LPA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. We aimed to identify domain-specific physical activity (PA patterns in school-aged children who were assessed by questionnaire and accelerometry. For the study, 298 German school children and adolescents aged 6–17 years wore an accelerometer for one week and completed a PA recall-questionnaire for the same period. Spearman coefficients (r were used to evaluate the agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA in five domains (transport, school hours, physical education, leisure-time, organized sports activities. School hours mainly contributed to the total objectively measured SED, LPA and MVPA (55%, 53% and 46%, respectively, whilst sports activities contributed only 24% to total MVPA. Compared to accelerometry, the proportion of self-reported LPA and MVPA during school hours was substantially underestimated but overestimated during leisure-time. The agreement of self-reported and objectively measured PA was low for total LPA (r = 0.09, 95% CI (confidence interval: −0.03–0.20 and total MVPA (r = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.10–0.32, while moderate agreement was only found for total SED (r = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34–0.53, LPA during transport (r = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.49–0.67 and MVPA during organized sports activities (r = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.38–0.67. Since school hours mainly contribute to total SED, LPA and MVPA and self-reported LPA and MVPA during school were importantly underestimated compared to objectively measured LPA and MVPA, the application of objective measurements is compulsory to characterize the entire activity pattern of school-aged children.
Arbin Janu Setiyowati; Marthen Pali; Bambang Budi Wiyono; Triyono
This research aims to describe Junior High School students’ social relation problem and the needed assisting model. This research used descriptive design with survey method. The subjects of this research were Junior High School students in the three cities in East Java. This research used purposive sampling as well. The data was collected by using questionnaire. The data analysis was conducted descriptively. This research found that Junior High School students’ social relation problems includ...
Andrews, Sally; Ellis, David A.; Shaw, Heather; Piwek, Lukasz
Psychologists typically rely on self-report data when quantifying mobile phone usage, despite little evidence of its validity. In this paper we explore the accuracy of using self-reported estimates when compared with actual smartphone use. We also include source code to process and visualise these data. We compared 23 participants’ actual smartphone use over a two-week period with self-reported estimates and the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale. Our results indicate that estimated time spent using a smartphone may be an adequate measure of use, unless a greater resolution of data are required. Estimates concerning the number of times an individual used their phone across a typical day did not correlate with actual smartphone use. Neither estimated duration nor number of uses correlated with the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale. We conclude that estimated smartphone use should be interpreted with caution in psychological research. PMID:26509895
BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm is major public health problem, in particular among young people. Although several studies have addressed the prevalence of deliberate self harm among young people in the community, little is known about the extent to which deliberate self harm comes to the attention of medical services, the self harm methods used and the underlying motives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the methods, motives and help seeking behaviour associated with this behaviour. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was administered in 39 schools in the Southern area of the Health Service Executive, Ireland. Of the 4,583 adolescents aged 15-17 years who were invited to participate in the survey, 3,881 adolescents took part (response: 85%). RESULTS: A lifetime history of DSH was reported by 9.1% (n = 333) of the adolescents. DSH was more common among females (13.9%) than males (4.3%). Self cutting (66.0%) and overdose (35.2%) were the most common DSH methods. A minority of participants accessed medical services after engaging in DSH (15.3%). CONCLUSION: DSH is a significant problem in Irish adolescents and the vast majority do not come to the attention of health services. Innovative solutions for prevention and intervention are required to tackle DSH in adolescents.
... prescribes interventions for bullying prevention in schools. These include; provision of helping services for schools; sensitization and capacity building for stakeholders on bullying detection and prevention; implementation of bully buster programme; and improvement of students' level of compassion and empathy through ...
Kelmanson, Igor A.
Background: Recurrent respiratory infections (RRI) are among most common diseases in school-aged children. Little is known about possible associations between RRI and children psychological well-being. Aim: To study possible associations between RRI in junior school pupils and their emotional/behavioural characteristics. Methods: The RRI group…
Heyne, D. A.; Vreeke, L. J.; Maric, M.; Boelens, H.; Van Widenfelt, B. M.
The School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS) was developed to identify four factors that might maintain a youth’s school attendance problem (SAP), and thus be targeted for treatment. There is still limited support for the four-factor model inherent to the SRAS and its revision (SRAS-R). Recent studies
Anderson, Cynthia M.; Kincaid, Donald
School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, and other reactive strategies, are not effective for ameliorating discipline problems and may, in fact, make the situation worse. The principles and technology of behavior analysis have been demonstrated to be extremely effective for decreasing problem behavior and increasing social skills exhibited by school children. Recently, these principles and techniques have been applied at the level of the entire school, in a movement termed schoolwide positive behavior support. In this paper we review the tenets of schoolwide positive behavior support, demonstrating the relation between this technology and applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478439
Adriaanse, Marcia; Veling, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke
To investigate to what extent differences in prevalence and types of mental health problems between ethnic minority and majority youth can be explained by social disadvantage. Mental health problems were assessed in a sample of 1,278 schoolchildren (55% Dutch, 32% Moroccan and 13% Turkish; mean age: 12.9 ± 1.8) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report and teacher report. Measures of family socioeconomic status, neighbourhood deprivation, perceived discrimination, family structure, repeating a school year, housing stability and neighbourhood urbanization were used as indicators of social disadvantage, based on which a cumulative index was created. Ethnic minority youth had more externalizing and fewer internalizing problems than majority youth. Perceived discrimination and living in an unstable social environment were associated with mental health problems, independent of ethnicity. A dose-response relationship was found between social disadvantage and mental health problems. The adjusted odds ratio for mental health problems was 4.16 (95% CI 2.49-6.94) for more than four compared with zero indicators of social disadvantage. Social disadvantage was more common in ethnic minority than in majority youth, explaining part of the differences in prevalence of mental health problems. Ethnic minority youth in the Netherlands have a different profile of mental health problems than majority youth. In all ethnic groups, the risk of mental health problems increases with the degree of social disadvantage. The higher prevalence of externalizing problems among ethnic minority youth is explained partly by their disadvantaged social position. The findings suggest that social factors associated with ethnicity are likely to explain mental health problems in ethnic groups.
Defreyne, Justine; T'Sjoen, Guy; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Arcelus, Jon
Although research on the relation between testosterone and aggression in humans is inconclusive, guidelines (including the World Professional Association for Transgender Health Standards of Care, edition 7) have warned for an increase in aggression in transgender men taking testosterone treatment. To investigate the association between levels of testosterone and aggression in treatment-seeking transgender people and explore the role of mental health psychopathology (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and social support in aggression in this population. Every transgender person invited for assessment at a national transgender health clinic in the United Kingdom during a 3-year period (2012-2015) completed self-report measures for interpersonal problems, including levels of aggression (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems [IIP-32]), symptoms of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and experiences of transphobia before and 1 year after the initiation of gender-affirming hormonal therapy. Correlations between prospective scores for the IIP-32 factor "too aggressive" and prospective levels of sex steroids, prospective psychological (HADS), and baseline psychosocial measurements were tested. Prospective scores for the factor "too aggressive" were not correlated to prospective serum testosterone levels. Results of 140 people (56 transgender men, 84 transgender women) were analyzed. A prospective increase in scores for the factor "too aggressive" of the IIP-32 in transgender men 1 year after being treated with testosterone treatment or a decrease of the IIP-32 aggression scores in transgender women 1 year after gender-affirming hormonal therapy was not found. However, a positive correlation was found between increasing HADS anxiety scores and increasing scores for the IIP-32 "too aggressive" score in the entire study population and a positive correlation with lower support
Pryjmachuk, S.; Graham, T.; Haddad, M.; Tylee, A.
Aims and objectives: To explore the views of school nurses regarding mental health problems in young people and their potential for engaging in mental health work with this client group.\\ud \\ud Background: Mental health problems in children and young people are an important public health issue. Universal children’s services play a key role in identifying and managing these problems and, while school nurses have an important function in this work, little is known about their views on this aspe...
Akano, Obinna F
There is increasing use of marijuana among young adults and more states in the United States are legalizing medical marijuana use. A number of studies have revealed both the beneficial and harmful effects of marijuana to the human system. Despite some beneficial effects, studies have shown marijuana to have a lot of deleterious effects on the visual system, which subsequently reduces the quality of eyesight. The aim of this study was to investigate if heavy marijuana smoking is associated with a poor quality of eyesight compared with light/no use of marijuana. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youths (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young men and women surveyed in 1979 to 2010 was used for this study. The quality of eyesight of 1304 heavy marijuana users was compared with 1304 respondents with light or no marijuana use. The t test, multivariate and weighted logistic regression were used in the data analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in the self-reported quality of eyesight among heavy marijuana smokers compared with youths who never used marijuana or are light marijuana users. Among heavy marijuana smokers, males and high school graduates have decreased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight, whereas blacks have increased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight. The self-reported quality of eyesight among marijuana users can aid clinicians and other health practitioners facilitate the development of sex-, racial/ethnic-, and educational level-informed prevention and early intervention programs and also help characterize public opinions regarding cannabis, which are particularly relevant given the ongoing debate concerning the medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the United States.
Wang, Jiana; Liu, Li; Wu, Hui; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Yang; Wang, Lie
Most studies about informant agreements on adolescents' emotional and behavioral problems have been conducted in Western countries, but this subject has not been well researched in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of parent-adolescent agreement on adolescents' problems and its associated factors among school-age adolescents in China. This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2010. A questionnaire including the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Youth Self-Report (YSR), the Family Environment Scale (FES) and the characteristics of the child (age and gender), parents (parent-adolescent relationship and parental expectations) and family (family structure, negative life events) was distributed to our study population. A total of 2,199 Chinese adolescents (aged 11-18) from 15 public schools in Liaoning Province, who completed the questionnaire, became our final participants. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess parent-adolescent agreement, and linear regression analysis was used to explore the associated factors of parent-adolescent discrepancies on emotional and behavioral problems. The parent-adolescent agreement on emotional and behavioral problems was high (mean r = 0.6). The scores of YSR were higher than those of CBCL. Factors that increased informant discrepancies on emotional and behavioral problems were boys, older age, the experience of negative life events, low levels of cohesion and organization, and high levels of conflict in the family. A high level of parent-adolescent agreement on emotional and behavioral problems was found. Adolescents reported more problems than their parents did. Family environment is an important factor to be considered when interpreting informant discrepancies on the mental health of Chinese adolescents.
Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri L.; Owens, Rachel B.
Problem-focused interventions are considered to be one of the most effective group counseling strategies with adolescents. This article describes a problem-focused group counseling model, Solving Problems Together (SPT), with a small group of adolescent African American boys struggling with anger management. Adapted from the teaching philosophy of…
Chio, José Angel; Álvarez, Aida; Estrada, Pablo
The paper is aimed at discussing the importance of pupil’s knowledge of algebraic problem structure. The research started by diagnosing pupil’s actual command of algebraic problem structure. Finally suggestions to teachers of mathematics for facing difficulties in solving problems are given.
Chio, José Angel
Full Text Available The paper is aimed at discussing the importance of pupil’s knowledge of algebraic problem structure. The research started by diagnosing pupil’s actual command of algebraic problem structure. Finally suggestions to teachers of mathematics for facing difficulties in solving problems are given.
Raphael, K G; Janal, M N; Sirois, D A; Dubrovsky, B; Klausner, J J; Krieger, A C; Lavigne, G J
Sleep bruxism (SB), primarily involving rhythmic grinding of the teeth during sleep, has been advanced as a causal or maintenance factor for a variety of oro-facial problems, including temporomandibular disorders (TMD). As laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) assessment is extremely expensive and time-consuming, most research testing this belief has relied on patient self-report of SB. The current case-control study examined the accuracy of those self-reports relative to laboratory-based PSG assessment of SB in a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n = 124) and a demographically matched control group without TMD (n = 46). A clinical research coordinator administered a structured questionnaire to assess self-reported SB. Participants then spent two consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Audiovisual and electromyographic data from the second night were scored to assess whether participants met criteria for the presence of 2 or more (2+) rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes accompanied by grinding sounds, moderate SB, or severe SB, using previously validated research scoring standards. Contingency tables were constructed to assess positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity and specificity, and 95% confidence intervals surrounding the point estimates. Results showed that self-report significantly predicted 2+ grinding sounds during sleep for TMD cases. However, self-reported SB failed to significantly predict the presence or absence of either moderate or severe SB as assessed by PSG, for both cases and controls. These data show that self-report of tooth grinding awareness is highly unlikely to be a valid indicator of true SB. Studies relying on self-report to assess SB must be viewed with extreme caution. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lin, Feng-Chuan; Chen, Sheng Hwa; Chen, Su-Chiu; Wang, Chi-Te; Kuo, Yu-Ching
Many studies focused on teachers' voice problems and most of them were conducted using questionnaires, whereas little research has investigated the relationship between self-reported voice disorders and objective quantification of voice. This study intends to explore the relationship of acoustic measurements according to self-reported symptoms and its predictive value of future dysphonia. This is a case-control study. Voice samples of 80 female teachers were analyzed, including 40 self-reported voice disorders (VD) and 40 self-reported normal voice (NVD) subjects. The acoustic measurements included jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio (NHR). Levene's t test and logistic regression were used to analyze the differences between VD and NVD and the relationship between self-reported voice conditions and the acoustic measurements. To examine whether acoustic measurements can be used to predict further voice disorders, we applied a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to determine the cutoff values and the associated sensitivity and specificity. The results showed that jitter, shimmer, and the NHR of VD were significantly higher than those of NVD. Among the parameters, the NHR and shimmer demonstrated the highest correlation with self-reported voice disorders. By using the NHR ≥0.138 and shimmer ≥0.470 dB as the cutoff values, the ROC curve displayed 72.5% of sensitivity and 75% of specificity, and the overall positive predictive value for subsequent dysphonia achieved 60%. This study demonstrated a significant correlation between acoustic measurements and self-reported dysphonic symptoms. NHR and ShdB are two acoustic parameters that are more able to reflect vocal abnormalities and, probably, to predict subsequent subjective voice disorder. Future research recruiting more subjects in other occupations and genders shall validate the preliminary results revealed in this study. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Tucker, Dawn; Bayer, Jordana; Romaniuk, Helena; Sawyer, Susan; Lietz, Petra; Redmond, Gerry; Proimos, Jenny; Allen, Nicholas; Patton, George
Many emotional and behavioral problems first emerge in primary school and are the forerunners of mental health problems occurring in adolescence. However, the extent that these problems may be associated with academic failure has been explored less. We aimed to quantify the association between emotional and behavioral problems with academic performance. A stratified random sample of 8- to 9-year-olds (N = 1239) were recruited from schools in Australia. Data linkage was performed with a national assessment of academic performance to assess reading and numeracy. Parent report assessed emotional and behavioral problems with students dichotomized into "borderline/abnormal" and "normal" categories. One in 5 grade 3 students fell in the "borderline/abnormal" category. Boys with total difficulties (β = -47.8, 95% CI: -62.8 to -32.8), conduct problems, and peer problems scored lower on reading. Numeracy scores were lower in boys with total difficulties (β = -37.7, 95% CI: -53.9 to -21.5) and emotional symptoms. Children with hyperactivity/inattention scored lower in numeracy. Girls with peer problems scored lower in numeracy. Boys with emotional and behavioral problems in mid-primary school were 12 months behind their peers. Children with emotional and behavioral problems are at high risk for academic failure, and this risk is evident in mid-primary school. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A; Molitor, Joseph G
Prevention of later anxiety problems would best be accomplished by identifying at-risk children early in development. For example, children who develop Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) may show social withdrawal in the form of social inhibition (i.e., shyness with unfamiliar adults and peers) at school entry. Although the use of children's perceptions of their own social inhibition would provide insight into early risk, the utility of young children's self-reports remains unclear. The current study examined whether children deemed more extreme on social inhibition or social anxiety by adult report provided self-report of social inhibition that related to observed social reticence in the laboratory. Participants included 85 kindergarten children (36 female, 49 male), their parents, and their teachers. Moderation analyses revealed that children's self-reported social inhibition related significantly to observed social reticence under the conditions of high parent-reported social inhibition, high teacher-reported social inhibition, and high SAD symptoms. These results suggest that the most inhibited children are aware of their behavior and can report it in a meaningfully way as young as kindergarten age.
Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Molitor, Joseph G.
Prevention of later anxiety problems would best be accomplished by identifying at-risk children early in development. For example, children who develop Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) may show social withdrawal in the form of social inhibition (i.e., shyness with unfamiliar adults and peers) at school entry. Although the use of children’s perceptions of their own social inhibition would provide insight into early risk, the utility of young children’s self-reports remains unclear. The current study examined whether children deemed more extreme on social inhibition or social anxiety by adult report provided self-report of social inhibition that related to observed social reticence in the laboratory. Participants included 85 kindergarten children (36 female, 49 male), their parents, and their teachers. Moderation analyses revealed that children’s self-reported social inhibition related significantly to observed social reticence under the conditions of high parent-reported social inhibition, high teacher-reported social inhibition, and high SAD symptoms. These results suggest that the most inhibited children are aware of their behavior and can report it in a meaningfully way as young as kindergarten age. PMID:25113397
McEachern, Amber D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Weaver, Chelsea M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Gardner, Frances
The measurement of parenting behaviors is important to the field of psychology and the goal of remediating problematic parenting as a means of reducing child problem behaviors. The Parenting Young Children (PARYC) is a self-report measure designed to address parenting behaviors relevant for the caregivers of young children, and was assessed in…
Timmons, Adela C.; Margolin, Gayla
Using daily diary data, this study examined cross-day associations between family conflict and school problems and tested mediating effects of daily negative mood and moderating effects of psychological symptoms. For 2 weeks, parents and adolescents (N = 106; mean age = 15.4) reported daily conflict; adolescents reported daily negative mood and school problems. Results indicated bidirectional, multi-day spillover between parent-adolescent conflict and school problems with daily negative mood statistically accounting for spillover both within and across days. Externalizing symptoms strengthened links between father-adolescent conflict and school problems, whereas depressive and anxious symptoms strengthened links between parent-adolescent conflict and daily negative mood. By demonstrating cross-domain transmission of daily problems, these findings highlight the salience of everyday events as possible intervention targets. PMID:25346538
Timmons, Adela C; Margolin, Gayla
Using daily diary data, this study examined cross-day associations between family conflict and school problems and tested mediating effects of daily negative mood and moderating effects of psychological symptoms. For 2 weeks, parents and adolescents (N = 106; Mage = 15.4) reported daily conflict; adolescents reported daily negative mood and school problems. Results indicated bidirectional, multiday spillover between parent-adolescent conflict and school problems with daily negative mood statistically accounting for spillover both within and across days. Externalizing symptoms strengthened links between father-adolescent conflict and school problems, whereas depressive and anxious symptoms strengthened links between parent-adolescent conflict and daily negative mood. By demonstrating cross-domain transmission of daily problems, these findings highlight the salience of everyday events as possible intervention targets. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
de Haan, P.; Landman, Ronald; Post, Gerhard F.; Ruizenaar, H.W.A.; Ruizenaar, Henri; Burke, E.K.; Rudová, H.
Timetabling problems are present in all types of schools. The research in this area is still very active; of the 19 selected contributions of PATAT 2004 (), 12 are dedicated to Educational Timetabling. These problems can often be modeled by a graph coloring problem. Here the vertices represent
Almeida, Rut; Bruno, Alicia
This paper analyses the strategies used by pre-service primary school teachers for solving simple addition problems involving negative numbers. The findings reveal six different strategies that depend on the difficulty of the problem and, in particular, on the unknown quantity. We note that students use negative numbers in those problems they find…
Williams, Kate E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Walker, Sue; Berthelsen, Donna
Background: Children's sleep problems and self-regulation problems have been independently associated with poorer adjustment to school, but there has been limited exploration of longitudinal early childhood profiles that include both indicators. Aims: This study explores the normative developmental pathway for sleep problems and self-regulation…
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate self-reported discrimination due to sexual orientation among men who have sex with men (MSM in Brazil and to analyze associated factors. METHODS A cross-sectional study of 3,859 MSM recruited in 2008–2009 with respondent driven sampling. Data collection conducted in health centers in 10 Brazilian cities. A face-to-face questionnaire was used and rapid HIV and syphilis tests conducted. Aggregated data were weighted and adjusted odds ratio estimated to measure the association between selected factors and self-reported discrimination due to sexual orientation. RESULTS The sample was predominantly young, eight plus years of schooling, pardo (brown, single, low-income, and identified themselves as gay or homosexual. The prevalence of self-reported discrimination due to sexual orientation was 27.7% (95%CI 26.2–29.1. Discrimination was independently associated with: age < 30 years, more years of schooling, community involvement and support, history of sexual and physical violence, suicidal thoughts, and unprotected receptive anal intercourse. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of self-reported discrimination among MSM in Brazil is high. These results challenge the assumptions that MSM-specific prevention and support programs are not required or that health professionals do not need special training to address MSM needs.
Full Text Available The paper describes one of the ways of developing pupils’ creative approach to problem solving. The described experiment is a part of a longitudinal research focusing on improvement of culture of problem solving by pupils. It deals with solving of problems using the following heuristic strategies: Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Way back and Use of graphs of functions. Most attention is paid to the question whether short-term work, in this case only over the period of three months, can result in improvement of pupils’ abilities to solve problems whose solving algorithms are easily accessible. It also answers the question which strategies pupils will prefer and with what results. The experiment shows that even short-term work can bear positive results as far as pupils’ approach to problem solving is concerned.
Full Text Available Abel Gedefaw,1 Birkneh Tilahun,2 Anteneh Asefa3 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, 3School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia Background: This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson's bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. Results: The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47 and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71 years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7% of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2% had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3% had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and <1% of the variation, respectively. Students who had never used tobacco, alcohol, or khat after starting university were twice as likely to score a self-reported cumulative GPA above 3.0 (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, 95
Busch, Vincent; Laninga-Wijnen, Lydia; Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus Petrus; De Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus
School-based health-promoting interventions show promising results in improving various health outcomes of adolescents. Unfortunately, much is still unknown about the relations between health behaviors and school performances, while improving these would give schools a stronger incentive to invest in health promotion. This paper presents the associations of several health behaviors with school performances and studies the mediating effects of psychosocial problems. Health behavior and socio-demographic data were gathered from 905 Dutch high school students via an online survey, completed in-class. These data were matched with school records of the students' overall grade average (GA) on the three core subjects in Dutch high schools (Dutch, English and Math). The associations between health behaviors and school performances, and the potentially mediating effects of psychosocial problems, were studied via mixed-effects regression models. Smoking, being bullied, compulsive and excessive internet use and low physical activity were directly associated with lower school grades. Additionally, being bullied, bullying, smoking, excessive and compulsive internet use were associated with students' grades via mediation of psychosocial problems. This means that lower school grades were (also) associated with those behaviors through the effects of psychosocial problems in those students. This study showed the strong links between health behaviors and academic achievements among adolescents. Schools and health promoters should be educated more on these relations, so that they are aware of this common interest to get more support for health-promoting interventions. Additionally, the role of psychosocial problems in the relations between behaviors and school performances should be studied further in future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tavares, Luisa Maria Faria; da Silva Parente Macedo, Leonora Cristina; Duarte, Cristina Maria Rabelais; de Goffredo Filho, Gilberto Senechal; de Souza Tesch, Ricardo
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between levels of anxiety symptoms and prevalence of self-report of awake and sleep bruxism in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). One hundred and eighty-one female patients, aged 19-77 years, were consecutively evaluated. The patients were selected from among those who sought treatment at the TMD and Orofacial Pain Outpatient Clinic of the Petrópolis School of Medicine. All patients completed the questionnaire and underwent clinical examination, both components of the RDC/TMD, in addition to answering questions pertaining to the assessment of levels of anxiety symptoms, taken from the Symptom Check List 90 self-report instrument. The subjects were classified according to the presence of self-reported only awake bruxism, only sleep bruxism, both, or none. A logistic regression procedure was performed to evaluate the possible association through odds ratio between anxiety symptoms and self-reported awake or sleep bruxism. The cofactors for each outcome were age, self-reported bruxism during the circadian period other than the one being evaluated, and the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It was possible to demonstrate the presence of a positive and statistically significant relationship between anxiety levels and self-reported awake bruxism. This finding was not observed in those subjects who reported sleep bruxism. A positive relationship was found between self-reported awake bruxism and levels of anxiety symptoms, but not between sleep bruxism and anxiety.
Kubiszewski, V; Fontaine, R; Huré, K; Rusch, E
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of adolescents engaged in cyber-bullying and then to identify whether students involved in cyber- and school bullying present the same characteristics of internalizing problems (insomnia, perceived social disintegration, psychological distress) and externalizing problems (general aggressiveness, antisocial behavior). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 738 adolescents from a high-school and a middle-school (mean age=14.8 ± 2.7). The Electronic Bullying Questionnaire and the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire were used to identify profiles of cyber-bullying (cyber-victim, cyber-bully, cyber-bully/victim and cyber-neutral) and school bullying (victim, bully, bully/victim and neutral). Internalizing problems were investigated using the Athens Insomnia Scale, a Perceived Social Disintegration Scale and a Psychological Distress Scale. Externalizing problems were assessed using a General Aggressiveness Scale and an Antisocial Behavior Scale. Almost one student in four was involved in cyber-bullying (16.4% as cyber-victim, 4.9% as cyber-bully and 5.6% as cyber-bully/victim); 14% of our sample was engaged in school bullying as a victim, 7.2% as a bully and 2.8% as a bully/victim. The majority of adolescents involved in cyber-bullying were not involved in school bullying. With regard to the problems associated with school bullying, internalizing problems were more prevalent in victims and bully/victims, whereas externalizing problems were more common in bullies and bully/victims. A similar pattern was found in cyber-bullying where internalizing problems were characteristic of cyber-victims and cyber-bully/victims. Insomnia was elevated in the cyber-bully group which is specific to cyberbullying. General aggressiveness and antisocial behavior were more prevalent in cyber-bullies and cyber-bully/victims. Looking at the differences between types of bullying, victims of "school only" and "school and cyber
Full Text Available This paper investigates the reliability of self-assessed measures of health using panel data collected in Albania by the World Bank in 2002, 2003 and 2004 through the Living Standard Measurement Study project. As the survey includes questions on a self-assessed measure of health and on more objective health problems, both types of information are combined with a view to understanding how respondents change their answers to the self-reported measures over time. Estimates from random effects ordered Probit models show that differences in self-reported subjective health between individuals are much more marked than those over time, suggesting a strong state dependence in subjective health status. The empirical analysis also reveals respondent consistency, from both a subjective and an objective viewpoint. Self-reported health is much more influenced by permanent shocks than by more transitory illness or injury.
Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G.; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C.
This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to “conventional” property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11–18 years old in 1976–77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36–44) in 2002–2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002–2003 (total age range 11–88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes. PMID:22347761
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the level of youth obesity from School No. 32 in Bydgoszcz, how their nutrition and to provide existing eating habits. The study included 60 girls and 40 boys. The method used in the study is a diagnostic survey. Conclusions from the study are as follows: (1 young people eat irregular meals, (2 favorite snack between meals is a candy and soft drinks, (3 a sedentary lifestyle conducive to the development of obesity and overweight, (4 parents should set a good example for their children, (5 good sports facilities, schools can have an impact on the level of obesity amongst schoolchildren.
Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy
Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…
Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.
Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…
identified difficulties in comparison to the conventional lecture method. ... important for chemistry educators to be aware of the difficulties students encounter as they learn .... these concepts before the can solve quantitative numerical problems. Secondly ... development of stepped supporting tools for stoichiometric problems, ...
Peterson, Neeraja B; Friedman, Robert H; Ash, Arlene S; Franco, Shakira; Carr, Phyllis L
Despite the need to recruit and retain minority faculty in academic medicine, little is known about the experiences of minority faculty, in particular their self-reported experience of racial and ethnic discrimination at their institutions. To determine the frequency of self-reported experience of racial/ethnic discrimination among faculty of U.S. medical schools, as well as associations with outcomes, such as career satisfaction, academic rank, and number of peer-reviewed publications. A 177-item self-administered mailed survey of U.S. medical school faculty. Twenty-four randomly selected medical schools in the contiguous United States. A random sample of 1,979 full-time faculty, stratified by medical school, specialty, graduation cohort, and gender. Frequency of self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic bias and discrimination. The response rate was 60%. Of 1,833 faculty eligible, 82% were non-Hispanic white, 10% underrepresented minority (URM), and 8% non-underrepresented minority (NURM). URM and NURM faculty were substantially more likely than majority faculty to perceive racial/ethnic bias in their academic environment (odds ratio [OR], 5.4; P discrimination by a superior or colleague. Faculty with such reported experiences had lower career satisfaction scores than other faculty (P discrimination achieved academic productivity similar to that of other faculty.
Tedla, Y G; Bautista, L E
Self-reported medication adherence is known to overestimate true adherence. However, little is known about patient factors that may contribute to the upward bias in self-reported medication adherence. The objective of this study is to examine whether demographic, behavioral, medication and mood factors are associated with being a false-positive self-reported adherer (FPA) to antihypertensive drug treatment. We studied 175 patients (mean age: 50 years; 57% men) from primary-care clinics starting antihypertensive drug treatment. Self-reported adherence (SRA) was measured with the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS) and by the number of drug doses missed in the previous week/month, and compared with pill count adherence ratio (PCAR) as gold standard. Data on adherence, demographic, behavioral, medication and mood factors were collected at baseline and every 3 months up to 1 year. FPA was defined as being a non-adherer by PCAR and an adherer by self-report. Mixed effect logistic regression was used for the analysis. Twenty percent of participants were FPA. Anxiety increased (odds ratio (OR): 3.00; P=0.01), whereas smoking (OR: 0.40; P=0.03) and drug side effects (OR: 0.46, P=0.03) decreased the probability for FPA by MARS. Education below high-school completion increased the probability of being an FPA as measured by missing doses in the last month (OR: 1.66; P=0.04) and last week (OR: 1.88; P=0.02). The validity of SRA varies significantly according to drug side effects, behavioral factors and patient's mood. Careful consideration should be given to the use of self-reported measures of adherence among patients likely to be false-positive adherers.
Gedefaw, Abel; Tilahun, Birkneh; Asefa, Anteneh
This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA) using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson's bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47) and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71) years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7%) of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2%) had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3%) had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and academic performance was explained by the studied variables. Hence, efficacious mechanisms should be designed to combat the intervenable determinants of self-reported academic performance, like substance use and a low medical school entrance examination result. Further studies should also be undertaken to gain a better understanding of other unstudied determinants, like personality, learning style, cognitive ability, and the system used for academic evaluation.
Wiles, David K.; Rockoff, Edward
Explores the legal implications of inschool suspension practices through consideration of individual versus institutional rights within a punitive-rehabilitative setting. Discusses the applicability of the prison hospital model to schools and argues that future legal action may challenge the viability of inschool suspension practices. (Author/JG)
Discusses (1) the assumption that pop music can be legitimized in school by establishing that different criteria are necessary; (2) the attempt to provide appropriate analysis tools for music evaluation by arguing that music has a kind of social referent; and (3) the uses to which music is put. (Author/RM)
Facilities are very central to meaningful sports participation whether in School sports, amateur, recreational or competitive status. They are as important to the athletes as the laboratories are to the scientists. Without facilities sports cannot take place. This does not however imply that sports facility is the only variable that is ...
West, Cathie E.
In this book, award-winning educator Cathie West teaches readers how to confidently prepare for and respond to the challenges that come with being a school leader. Derived from professional experience and extensive research, the strategies can be put to work exactly as described or adapted to fit the unique situations that educators face in their…
Metlik, I. V.
Presents observations concerning religion study in 150 Moscow schools. Reports that, although there are still some extracurricular activities promoting traditional former Soviet atheistic ideology, religion is now taught openly. Indicates that religion and atheism also are being studied on a scientific-philosophical basis. Examines how various…
Leadership is the process of influencing others to get the work done. It involves motivating, influencing, and directing individuals towards the attainment of long term organizational goals. A leader remains in the limelight. The success or failure of an organizational endeavour is attributed upon its leader. School leadership includes any…
Aug 8, 2017 ... available to parents, teachers and other stakeholders in these countries for implementation.1-4 ... among primary school children in Ado-Ekiti metropolis with the aim of ... of the pressure effects of heavy backpacks on the skin.
Parkes, Alison; Waylen, Andrea; Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Macleod, John
Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16-18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-childhood problems and early sexual behavior, using a subsample (N = 4,739, 53 % female, 98 % white, mean age 15 years 6 months) from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Adolescents provided information at age 15 on early sexual behavior (oral sex and/or intercourse) and sexual risk-taking, and at age 13 on prior risk involvement (sexual behavior, antisocial behavior and substance use). Information on hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, peer relationship problems, school dislike and school performance was collected in middle-childhood at Time 1 (6-8 years) and Time 2 (10-11 years). In agreement with previous research, conduct problems predicted early sexual behavior, although this was found only for persistent early problems. In addition, Time 2 school dislike predicted early sexual behavior, while peer relationship problems were protective. Persistent early school dislike further characterized higher-risk groups (early sexual behavior preceded by age 13 risk, or accompanied by higher sexual risk-taking). The study establishes middle-childhood school dislike as a novel risk factor for early sexual behavior and higher-risk groups, and the importance of persistent conduct problems. Implications for the identification of children at risk and targeted intervention are discussed, as well as suggestions for further research.
Full Text Available According to the OECD's PISA 2012 Turkey problem-solving report, Turkey and Serbia are at the same mathematical literacy level. However, Serbia's average of problem-solving competency is said to be higher than Turkey's. In this study, school variables that affect problem-solving competency of the two countries were examined and compared. The method of the study was causal comparison method, and HLM analysis was performed on data of 4494 students from 147 schools in Turkey sample and 4059 students from 132 schools in Serbia sample separately. As a result of HLM analysis, "obstacle and family donation" variable for Serbia and "abandon, teacher morale and mathematics competition" variable for Turkey were statistically significant. Although it was found that for each countries different variables influence the problem-solving competency, it was quite remarkable that these variables are in common in that they are components of the school climate concept.
LUIZA GOMES SANTOS
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the prevalence and distribution of cases of self-reported spinal disorders by persons who are 18 years or older living in Brazil according to sociodemographic variables. Methods: We used the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS, national health research, developed by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE in partnership with the Ministry of Health. The data obtained from the website of IBGE System of Automatic Recovery - SIDRA were analyzed using the SPSS Statistics software version 20.0, IBM. Results: In Brazil 19% of the adult population report chronic spinal pain, 15.26% (± 4.56 men and 20.08% (+/- 4.11 women. After the age of 60, the prevalence is higher. Regarding skin color 18.26% (± 3.53 are white, 17.27% (± 6.65 are black and 17.93% (± 4.05 are brown, with no statistical difference. As for education, 23.55% (±5.70 had low or absent schooling (p < 0.001. The southern region of Brazil has the highest percentage (23.3% of adults with chronic problems in the spine, and the state with the highest percentage is Paraná, with 26%. Conclusions: The results showed that there is a relationship between spinal pain and sociodemographic characteristics, pointing to the southern region as the most affected by spinal disorders when compared to other regions of the country.
Saloumeh Khodabakhshi; Ali Rahimi
The present research aimed to investigate the problems of teaching and learning English in middle schools in Esfahan, Iran. These problems are associated with the learner, teacher, textbook, syllabus, and language policy. The instrument used was a self-constructed likert scale questionnaire. All the variables had a hand in the problems among which textbook, syllabus and language policy had the most effect. Twenty five problems were distinguished among which some are as follows: students do no...
Parkinson, Monika; Creswell, Catharine
Objective. To examine the association between worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs (confidence and perceived control) in primary school children.\\ud Method. Children (8–11 years) were screened using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children. High (N ¼ 27) and low (N ¼ 30) scorers completed measures of anxiety, problem-solving skills (generating alternative solutions to\\ud problems, planfulness, and effectiveness of solutions) and problem-solving beliefs(confidence and perceived ...
Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.
Background: Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. Methods. A qualitative design was used to address the ma...
M. Rodionov; Z. Dedovets
The level and type of student academic motivation are the key factors in their development and determine the effectiveness of their education. Improving motivation is very important with regard to courses on middle school mathematics. This article examines the general position regarding the practice of academic motivation. It also examines the particular features of mathematical problem solving in a school setting.
Nijs, Miesje M.; Bun, Clothilde J. E.; Tempelaar, Wanda M.; de Wit, Niek J.; Burger, Huibert; Plevier, Carolien M.; Boks, Marco P. M.
School environment is an important determinant of psychosocial function and may also be related to mental health. We therefore investigated whether perceived school safety, a simple measure of this environment, is related to mental health problems. In a population-based sample of 11,130 secondary
Luiselli, James K.; Putnam, Robert F.; Handler, Marcie W.; Feinberg, Adam B.
Many students attending public schools exhibit discipline problems such as disruptive classroom behaviour, vandalism, bullying, and violence. Establishing effective discipline practices is critical to ensure academic success and to provide a safe learning environment. In this article, we describe the effects of whole-school positive behaviour…
Sofo, Francesco; Fitzgerald, Robert; Jawas, Umiati
The paper reviews the research on instructional leadership and, through identifying problems emerging in Indonesian school reform, suggests some sustainable solutions. There are some discrepancies in the processes of Indonesia's school reform, and the objectives of the national education reform do not seem to have been reflected in the actual…
This paper discusses cognitive communicative training in preschool and reports on a study of 11 Hawaiian preschoolers that examined how these children interacted with others, used language, manipulated objects, and solved problems at home and at school. The study observed the children at school and at home over a 5-month period, collecting…
Nyala, Joseph; Assuah, Charles; Ayebo, Abraham; Tse, Newel
Stakeholders of mathematics education decry the rate at which students' performance are falling below expectation; they call for a shift to practical methods of teaching the subject in Ghanaian basic schools. The study explores the extent to which Ghanaian basic school mathematics teachers use problem-solving approach in their lessons. The…
Jönsson, Julia; Maltestam, Malin; Bengtsson-Tops, Anita; Garmy, Pernilla
The aim was to describe school nurses’ experiences working with students with mental health problems. In this inductive qualitative study, interviews were conducted with 14 school nurses in Sweden. The content analysis revealed three themes:(1) sense of worriedness about working with students with mental health problems, (2) taking care of students with mental health issues was an opportunity for personal and professional development, and (3) the experience of making a difference for young pe...
Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; Thennarassu, K; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Benegal, Vivek; George, Sanju
Studies from the West suggest that significant numbers of high school students gamble, despite it being illegal in this age group. To date, there have been no studies on the prevalence of gambling among senior high school and higher secondary school students in India. This study reports point prevalence of gambling and its psychosocial correlates among high school students in the State of Kerala, India. 5043 high school students in the age group 15-19 years, from 73 schools, were selected by cluster random sampling from the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, South India. They completed questionnaires that assessed gambling, substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Of a total of 4989 completed questionnaires, 1400 (27.9 %) high school students reported to have ever gambled and 353 (7.1 %) were problem gamblers. Of those who had ever gambled, 25.2 % were problem gamblers. Sports betting (betting on cricket and football) was the most popular form of gambling followed by the lottery. Problem gamblers when compared with non-problem gamblers and non-gamblers were significantly more likely to be male, have academic failures, have higher rates of lifetime alcohol and tobacco use, psychological distress, suicidality, history of sexual abuse and higher ADHD symptom scores. Gambling among adolescents in India deserves greater attention, as one in four students who ever gambled was a problem gambler and because of its association with a range of psychosocial variables.
Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva
Full Text Available Estimate the prevalence of dental caries based on clinical examinations and self-reports and compare differences in the prevalence and effect measures between the two methods among 18-year-olds belonging to a 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Brazil.Data on self-reported caries, socio-demographic aspects and oral health behaviour were collected using a questionnaire administered to adolescents aged 18 years (n = 4041. Clinical caries was evaluated (n = 1014 by a dentist who had undergone training and calibration exercises. Prevalence rates of clinical and self-reported caries, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, absolute and relative bias, and inflation factors were calculated. Prevalence ratios of dental caries were estimated for each risk factor.The prevalence of clinical and self-reported caries (DMFT>1 was 66.5% (95%CI: 63.6%-69.3% and 60.3% (95%CI: 58.8%-61.8%, respectively. Self-reports underestimated the prevalence of dental caries by 9.3% in comparison to clinical evaluations. The analysis of the validity of self-reports regarding the DMFT index indicated high sensitivity (81.8%; 95%CI: 78.7%-84.7% and specificity (78.1%; 95%CI: 73.3%-82.4% in relation to the gold standard (clinical evaluation. Both the clinical and self-reported evaluations were associated with gender, schooling and self-rated oral health. Clinical dental caries was associated with visits to the dentist in the previous year. Self-reported dental caries was associated with daily tooth brushing frequency.Based on the present findings, self-reported information on dental caries using the DMFT index requires further studies prior to its use in the analysis of risk factors, but is valid for population-based health surveys with the aim of planning and monitoring oral health actions directed at adolescents.
Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.
Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on
Lubman, Dan I; Berridge, Bonita J; Blee, Fiona; Jorm, Anthony F; Wilson, Coralie J; Allen, Nicholas B; McKay-Brown, Lisa; Proimos, Jenny; Cheetham, Ali; Wolfe, Rory
Adolescence is a high-risk time for the development of mental health and substance use problems. However, fewer than one in four 16-24 year-olds with a current disorder access health services, with those experiencing a substance use disorder being the least likely to seek professional help. Research indicates that young people are keeping their problems to themselves or alternatively, turning to peers or trusted adults in their lives for help. These help-seeking preferences highlight the need to build the mental health literacy of adolescents, to ensure that they know when and how to assist themselves and their peers to access support. The MAKINGtheLINK intervention aims to introduce these skills to adolescents within a classroom environment. This is a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) with schools as clusters and individual students as participants from 22 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Schools will be randomly assigned to either the MAKINGtheLINK intervention group or the waitlist control group. All students will complete a self-report questionnaire at baseline, immediately post intervention and 6 and 12 months post baseline. The primary outcome to be assessed is increased help-seeking behaviour (from both formal and informal sources) for alcohol and mental health issues, measured at 12 months post baseline. The findings from this research will provide evidence on the effectiveness of the MAKINGtheLINK intervention for teaching school students how to overcome prominent barriers associated with seeking help, as well as how to effectively support their peers. If deemed effective, the MAKINGtheLINK programme will be the first evidence-informed resource that is able to address critical gaps in the knowledge and behaviour of adolescents in relation to help-seeking. It could, therefore, be a valuable resource that could be readily implemented by classroom teachers. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12613000235707
Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark
A number of methods exist for estimating the size of animal populations. All methods generate an uncertain estimate of population size, and have different properties, which can be taken into account when designing regulation. We consider hunting regulation when the population size is uncertain...... and when the self-reported bag is used to estimate the population size. The properties of a population tax and a tax on self-reported bag are analyzed and we begin by considering a baseline situation with full certainty and no use of self-reporting for population size estimation. Here individual hunters...... self-report a bag on zero and a population tax alone can secure an optimum. Next we show that when facing uncertain population size, a risk-averse hunter will self-report part of the bag to reduce the uncertain population tax payment, making both tax instruments necessary for reaching an optimum...
10-20% of children and adolescents have a mental health problem of some type. Manifestations such as attention deficits, cognitive disturbances, lack of motivation, and negative mood all adversely affect scholastic development. It is often unclear what factors associated with school affect children's mental development and what preventive measures and interventions at school might be effective. This review is based on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized and non-randomized controlled trials that were retrieved by a selective search in the PubMed, PsycInfo, and Google Scholar databases. The prevalence of hyperkinetic disorder is 1-6%. Its main manifestations are motor hyperactivity, an attention deficit, and impulsive behavior. Learning disorders such as dyscalculia and dyslexia affect 4-6% of children each, while 4-5% of children and adolescents suffer from depression, which is twice as prevalent in girls as in boys. Mental health problems increase the risk of repeating a grade, truancy, and dropping out of school. The risk of developing an internalizing or externalizing mental health problem can be lessened by changes in the school environment and by the implementation of evidencebased school programs. Physicians, in collaboration with school social workers and psychologists, should help teachers recognize and contend with mental health problems among the children and adolescents whom they teach, to enable the timely detection of stress factors at school and the initiation of the necessary measures and aids. In particular, the school-entrance examination and screening for risk factors at school can make a positive contribution. Evidence-based preventive programs should be implemented in schools, and beneficial changes of the school environment should be a further goal.
Silverman, Susanna; Localio, Russell; Apter, Andrea J
Penicillin allergy is the most commonly reported drug allergy and often presents with cutaneous symptoms. Other common diagnoses, such as chronic urticaria, may be falsely attributed to penicillin allergy. Because chronic urticaria is fairly common in the general population, evaluation of its prevalence in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was of interest. Similarly, the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria is not well known and also becomes interesting in light of the high prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in the general population. To determine the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and the prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. This was a retrospective medical record review of 11,143 patients completed using the electronic health record of the University of Pennsylvania Allergy and Immunology clinic. The prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria was found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the general population. The prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was also found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the population. This link between chronic urticaria and self-reported penicillin allergy highlights the need for clinicians to inquire about self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and to consider penicillin skin testing. Furthermore, patients who report penicillin allergy might actually have chronic urticaria, indicating the importance of inquiring about chronic urticaria symptoms in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Espada, José P; Griffin, Kenneth W; Pereira, Juan R; Orgilés, Mireia; García-Fernández, José M
The objective of the present research was to examine the contribution of two intervention components, social skills training and problem solving training, to alcohol- and drug-related outcomes in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 341 Spanish students from age 12 to 15 who received the prevention program Saluda in one of four experimental conditions: full program, social skills condition, problem solving condition, and a wait-list control group. Students completed self-report surveys at the pretest, posttest and 12-month follow-up assessments. Compared to the wait-list control group, the three intervention conditions produced reductions in alcohol use and intentions to use other substances. The intervention effect size for alcohol use was greatest in magnitude for the full program with all components. Problem-solving skills measured at the follow-up were strongest in the condition that received the full program with all components. We discuss the implications of these findings, including the advantages and disadvantages of implementing tailored interventions to students by selecting intervention components after a skills-based needs assessment.
Elbogen, Eric B; Johnson, Sally C; Newton, Virginia M; Fuller, Sara; Wagner, H Ryan; Beckham, Jean C
This study, using a longitudinal design, attempted to identify whether self-reported problems with violence were empirically associated with future violent behavior among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans and whether and how collateral informant interviews enhanced the risk assessment process. Data were gathered from N = 300 participants (n = 150 dyads of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans and family/friends). The veterans completed baseline and follow-up interviews 3 years later on average, and family/friends provided collateral data on dependent measures at follow-up. Analyses showed that aggression toward others at follow-up was associated with younger age, posttraumatic stress disorder, combat exposure, and a history of having witnessed parental violence growing up. Self-reported problems controlling violence at baseline had robust statistical power in predicting aggression toward others at follow-up. Collateral report enhanced detection of dependent variables: 20% of cases positive for violence toward others would have been missed relying only on self-report. The results identify a subset of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans at higher risk for problematic postdeployment adjustment and indicate that the veterans' self-report of violence was useful in predicting future aggression. Underreporting of violence was not evidenced by most veterans but could be improved upon by obtaining collateral information.
Bendixen, Hans Jørgen; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen; Wilcke, Jon Torgny; Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes
Patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience problems in the performance of activities of daily living (ADL) tasks. The objective was to examine the self-reported quality of ADL task performance among COPD patients, and to investigate whether age, gender, and routine COPD characteristics correlate with the self-reported ADL ability. Eighty patients admitted to hospital with COPD exacerbations participated. In a cross-sectional study, the patients' self-reported ADL ability was assessed using the ADL-Interview (ADL-I) instrument. Data concerning age, gender, and routine COPD characteristics were drawn from the patients' medical records. The patients reported being inefficient to markedly inefficient when performing ADL tasks within the personal hygiene, toileting, dressing, household, mobility, and transportation domains. While more than 90% of the participants reported increased effort and/or fatigue when performing the ADL tasks, up to 88% of the participants relied on help from others in the performance of general household chores like cooking and shopping. Self-reported ADL ability did not correlate with age, gender, or routine COPD characteristics. Decreased quality of ADL task performance seemed to be extremely common among COPD patients. Therefore, addressing the problems in individually tailored pulmonary rehabilitation programmes may be advantageous.
Dussault, Marc; Frenette, Eric; Fernet, Claude
The aim of this paper was to propose and test the factor structure of a new self-report questionnaire on leadership. A sample of 373 school principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada completed the initial 46-item version of the questionnaire. In order to obtain a questionnaire of minimal length, a four-step procedure was retained. First, items analysis was performed using Classical Test Theory. Second, Rasch analysis was used to identify non-fitting or overlapping items. Third, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modelling was performed on the 21 remaining items to verify the factor structure of the scale. Results show that the model with a single third-order dimension (leadership), two second-order dimensions (transactional and transformational leadership), and one first-order dimension (laissez-faire leadership) provides a good fit to the data. Finally, invariance of factor structure was assessed with a second sample of 222 vice-principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada. This model is in agreement with the theoretical model developed by Bass (1985), upon which the questionnaire is based.
Kristiansen, Simon; Sørensen, Matias; Herold, Michald B.
Gurobi and Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS), and computational results are established using 300 real-life datasets. These tests show that the developed ALNS algorithm is significantly outperforming both Gurobi and a currently applied heuristic for the PCTP. For both the PCTP and the SCTP......, it is shown that the ALNS algorithm in average provides results within 5 % of optimum. The developed algorithm has been implemented in the commercial product Lectio, and is therefore available for approximately 95 % of the Danish high schools....
Renato Santos Pereira
Full Text Available This paper studies the influence of randomness controlling parameters (RCP in first stage GRASP method applied in graph coloring problem, specifically school timetabling problems in a public high school. The algorithm (with the inclusion of RCP was based on critical variables identified through focus groups, whose weights can be adjusted by the user in order to meet the institutional needs. The results of the computational experiment, with 11-year-old data (66 observations processed at the same high school show that the inclusion of RCP leads to significantly lowering the distance between initial solutions and local minima. The acceptance and the use of the solutions found allow us to conclude that the modified GRASP, as has been constructed, can make a positive contribution to this timetabling problem of the school in question.
This was explained as the probable effect of poverty. Nonetheless a statistically significant difference was found between the problem of respondents' with disabilities and those without disabilities. This finding was attributed to the effect of disability, poverty and inappropriate practice of inclusive education. Based on the ...
Dubanoski, Richard A.; And Others
The paper examines common myths about corporal punishment (e.g., that it builds character), discusses potential problems from its use (such as loss of self-esteem and development of counterproductive behavior), and describes three positive approaches to discipline (behavior modification, social learning, and communication skills training).…
Lavie Alon, Nirit; Tal, Tali
In this study, we used the classification and regression trees (CART) method to draw relationships between student self-reported learning outcomes in 26 field trips to natural environments and various characteristics of the field trip that include variables associated with preparation and pedagogy. We wished to examine the extent to which the preparation for the field trip, its connection to the school curriculum, and the pedagogies used, affect students' self-reported outcomes in three domains: cognitive, affective, and behavioral; and the extent the students' socioeconomic group and the guide's affiliation affect students' reported learning outcomes. Given that most of the field trips were guide-centered, the most important variable that affected the three domains of outcomes was the guide's storytelling. Other variables that showed relationships with self-reported outcomes were physical activity and making connections to everyday life-all of which we defined as pedagogical variables. We found no significant differences in student self-reported outcomes with respect to their socioeconomic group and the guide's organizational affiliation.
Chatzopoulos, Georgios S; Cisneros, Alejandro; Sanchez, Miguel; Lunos, Scott; Wolff, Larry F
The objective of the present study was to assess self-reported periodontal screening questions, demographic characteristics, systemic medical conditions and tobacco use for predicting periodontal disease among individuals seeking dental therapy in a university dental clinic. In this retrospective study, a total of 4,890 randomly selected dental charts were evaluated from among patients who had attended the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry clinics for treatment. Radiographic bone loss measurements were utilized to assess the severity of periodontal disease. Demographic characteristics as well as medical history of the patients were also recorded. Five self-reported periodontal screening questions were included with the range of answers limited to Yes/No. Generalized logit models were used to assess the association between bone loss and the predictors. The sample mean age was 54.1 years and included 52.6% males and 14.9% smokers with a mean number of missing teeth of 3.5. Self-reported tooth mobility, history of "gum treatment" and the importance to keep the teeth as well as age, tobacco use and cancer were statistically significant (p brushing", gender, diabetes, anxiety and arthritis. Self-reported periodontal screening questions as well as demographic characteristics, smoking and systemic medical conditions were significant predictors of periodontal disease and they could be used as valid, economical and practical measures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.
Matton, Annelies; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Van Durme, Kim
Eating problems are highly prevalent and seem to show continuity in children. Nevertheless, the effect of different maternal and paternal feeding practices on changes in these problems is not fully understood yet. This study examines short-term continuity in primary school children's overeating, loss of control (over eating), restraint and…
Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.
School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and…
Srinivasan, V. K.
The author introduces the birthday problem in this article. This can amuse willing members of any birthday party. This problem can also be used as the motivational first day lecture in number theory for the gifted students in high schools or in community colleges or in undergraduate classes in colleges.
Maes, B; Grietens, H
Parent-reported problem behaviors of 94 children with visual and auditory disabilities, attending elementary regular schools, were compared with problems reported in a general population sample of nondisabled children. Both samples were matched by means of a pairwise matching procedure, taking into
Lim, Woong; Son, Ji-Won; Gregson, Susan; Kim, Jihye
This article examines high school students' engagement in a set of trigonometry problems. Students completed this task independently in an online environment with access to Internet search engines, online textbooks, and YouTube videos. The findings imply that students have the resourcefulness to solve procedure-based mathematics problems in an…
The present study examines the nonroutine problems that eight Anglo-American principals encountered in managing three elementary bilingual immersion schools in the Northwest United States. Using qualitative inquiry to collect data, I employed the multisited ethnographic research model. The principals reported nonroutine problems in the following…
Gasco, Javier; Villarroel, Jose-Domingo
Introduction: Motivation is an important factor in the learning of mathematics. Within this area of education, word problem solving is central in most mathematics curricula of Secondary School. The objective of this research is to detect the differences in motivation in terms of the strategies used to solve word problems. Method: It analyzed the…
Buethe, Chris; And Others
Schools typically make no special efforts to prepare students to cope with present and anticipated water problems. Using this as a premise, the objective of this study was to prepare a set of mediated learning packages based upon water problems of New Mexico and the dry regions of the Southwest. These learning materials were prepared and field…
Pride, Richard A.
Focuses on the process by which a social problem is redefined in response to a critical events, such as economic depressions, environmental disasters, intense physical confrontations, or strategic initiatives by a social movement organization. Examines a conservative movement's attempt to redefine "the problem" of the schools at the time…
Hanson, E. Mark; Brown, Michael E.
Patterns of problem-solving activity in one middle-class urban high school are examined and a problem solving model rooted in a conceptual framework of contingency theory is presented. Contingency theory stresses that as political, economic, and social conditions in an organization's environment become problematic, the internal structures of the…
Gu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Shan; Zhu, Wenbo; Lin, Lin
Considerable effort has been invested in innovative learning practices such as collaborative inquiry. Collaborative problem solving is becoming popular in school settings, but there is limited knowledge on how to develop skills crucial in collaborative problem solving in students. Based on the intervention design in social interaction of…
Rendon, Alexis; Livingston, Melvin; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Hill, Whitney; Walters, Scott
Self-reported substance use is commonly used as an outcome measure in treatment research. We evaluated the validity of self-reported drug use in a sample of 334 adults with mental health problems who were residing in supportive housing programs. The primary analysis was the calculation of the positive predictive values (PPVs) of self-report compared to an oral fluid test taken at the same time. A sensitivity analysis compared the positive predictive values of two self-reported drug use histories: biological testing window (ranging between the past 96h to 30days depending on drug type) or the full past 90-day comparison window (maximum length recorded during interview). A multivariable logistic regression was used to predict discordance between self-report and the drug test for users. Self-reported drug use and oral fluid drug tests were compared to determine the positive predictive value for amphetamines/methamphetamines/PCP (47.1% agreement), cocaine (43.8% agreement), and marijuana (69.7% agreement) drug tests. Participants who misreported their drug use were more likely to be older, non-White, have no medical insurance, and not report any alcohol use. In general, amphetamine/methamphetamine/PCP and cocaine use was adequately captured by the biological test, while marijuana use was best captured by a combination of self-report and biological data. Using the full past 90day comparison window resulted in higher concordance with the oral fluid drug test, indicating that self-reported drug use in the past 90days may be a proxy for drug use within the biological testing window. Self-report has some disadvantages when used as the sole measure of drug use in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bolton, Kristy A; Jacka, Felice; Allender, Steven; Kremer, Peter; Gibbs, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; de Silva, Andrea
This study examines the relationship between diet quality and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in rural and urban Australian adolescents, and gender differences. Cross-sectional. Secondary schools. 722 rural and 422 urban students from 19 secondary schools. Self-report dietary-related behaviours, demographic information, HRQoL (AQoL-6D) were collected. Healthy and unhealthy diet quality scores were calculated; multiple linear regression investigated associations between diet quality and HRQoL. Compared to urban students, rural students had higher HRQoL, higher healthy diet score, lower unhealthy diet score, consumed less soft drink and less frequently, less takeaway and a higher proportion consumed breakfast (P health problems. Such interventions should consider gender and locality. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
This study of married couples investigated the short-term predictive validity of the partner-report and self-report scales of the Conflict Communication Inventory and compared the validity of these scales with the validity of observer ratings. A sample of 83 married couples completed two problem-solving conversations. Self-report, partner-report, and observer ratings from Conversation 1 were used to predict behavior in Conversation 2, as rated by a separate panel of observers. The short-term predictive validity of partner-report ratings was extremely high and indistinguishable from the validity of observer ratings. Self-report ratings also demonstrated good validity, albeit slightly lower than other methods. Both partner-report and self-report scores explained a substantial amount of variance in concurrent observer ratings of communication after controlling for relationship satisfaction. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Jamieson Lisa M
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. Methods 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was used to calculate risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health. Results REALD-30 scores were lower among those who believed teeth should be infrequently brushed, believed cordial was good for teeth, did not own a toothbrush or owned a toothbrush but brushed irregularly. Tooth removal risk indicators included being older, problem-based dental attendance and believing cordial was good for teeth. Poor self-rated oral health risk indicators included being older, healthcare card ownership, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance, believing teeth should be brushed infrequently and irregular brushing. Perceived need for dental care risk indicators included being female and problem-based dental attendance. Perceived gum disease risk indicators included being older and irregular brushing. Feeling uncomfortable about oro-facial appearance risk indicators included problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Food avoidance risk indicators were being female, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Poor oral health-related quality of life risk indicators included difficulty paying dental bills and problem-based dental attendance. Conclusions REALD-30 was significantly associated with oral health literacy-related outcomes. Oral health literacy-related outcomes were risk indicators for each of the poor self-reported oral health domains among this marginalised population.
Scott D McDonald
Aim/Purpose: Students face many challenges improving their soft skills such as critical thinking. This paper offers one possible solution to this problem. Background: This paper considers one method of enhancing critical thinking through a problem-solving game called the Coffee Shop. Problem-solving is a key component to critical thinking, and game-playing is one method of enhancing this through an interactive teaching method. Methodology: Three classes of Vietnamese high school stude...
Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.
This study used dato from a 30-year longitudinal study to esamine the associations between early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime. The analysis showed that, even following extensive adjustment for confounding, both early conduct problems and later educational achievement made...... experimental research is required to ascertain the extent that: a) the educational achievement of young people with early-onset conduct problems can be improved; and b) the extent to which any such improvements translate into reductions in subsequent antisocial behviour....
The relationship between social identity, family and school context, problem-solving style, self-esteem, health behaviour, psychological distress, and victimisation, was explored in a quasi-experimental survey of 461 children aged between 11 and 15 years old. There was a high prevalence of victimisation (29%) in the group and 44% of those…
Fergusson, David M; McLeod, Geraldine F H; Horwood, L John
To examine the associations between leaving school without qualifications and subsequent mental health to age 30, using data gathered over the course of a 30-year longitudinal study. Data were gathered over the course of a 30-year study (Christchurch Health and Development Study) of a birth cohort of 1265 children, born in Christchurch in 1977. This cohort has been studied on 22 occasions from birth to age 30. As part of this study, information was gathered on: (a) school leaving qualifications, (b) mental health problems from 18 to 30; and (c) prospectively assessed childhood and adolescent factors including: child and family background; family violence and child abuse; and adolescent mental health problems. Leaving school without qualifications was associated with increased risks of subsequent: major depression (OR = 1.37 at 95 % CI 1.05-1.78, p = 0.019); anxiety disorder (OR = 1.99 at 95 % CI 1.55-2.57, p mental health problems) reduced these associations substantially and to the point of statistical non-significance. The findings of this study suggest that there was no direct causal association between leaving school without qualifications and subsequent mental health problems. Associations were explained by the linkages between leaving school without qualifications and: child and family social background; and mental health around the point of school leaving.
Rahmawati, D.; Sajidan; Ashadi
Problem solving is a critical component of comprehensive learning in 21st century. Problem solving is defined as a process used to obtain the best answer from a problem. Someone who can solve the problem is called a problem solver. Problem solver obtains many benefits in the future and has a chance to be an innovator, such as be an innovative entrepreneur, modify behavior, improve creativity, and cognitive skills. The goal of this research is to analyze problem solving skills of students in Senior High School Surakarta in learning Biology. Participants of this research were students of grade 12 SMA (Senior High School) N Surakarta. Data is collected by using multiple choice questions base on analysis problem solving skills on Mourtus. The result of this research showed that the percentage of defining problem was 52.38%, exploring the problem was 53.28%, implementing the solution was 50.71% for 50.08% is moderate, while the percentage of designing the solution was 34.42%, and evaluating was low for 39.24%. Based on the result showed that the problem solving skills of students in SMAN Surakarta was Low.
Boggess, Kim A; Berggren, Erica K; Koskenoja, Viktoria; Urlaub, Diana; Lorenz, Carol
Maternal periodontal disease diagnosed by a detailed oral health examination is associated with preeclampsia. Our objective was to measure the association between maternal self-report of oral symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, and/or dental service use before or during pregnancy and severe preeclampsia. A written questionnaire was administered to pregnant females at the time of prenatal ultrasound and outcomes were ascertained by chart abstraction. The χ(2) test compared maternal oral symptoms/problems, hygiene practices, and dental service use between females with severe preeclampsia versus normotensive females. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for severe preeclampsia. A total of 48 (10%) of 470 females reported ≥2 oral symptoms/problems in the 6 months before pregnancy and 77 (16%) since pregnancy. Fifty-one (11%) reported previous periodontal treatment. Twenty-eight (6%) of 470 developed severe preeclampsia. Females with a history of periodontal treatment were more likely to develop severe preeclampsia (aOR = 3.71; 95% CI = 1.40 to 9.83) than females without a history of periodontal treatment. Self-reported oral health symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, or dental service use before or during pregnancy were not associated with severe preeclampsia when considered in the context of other maternal risk factors. Maternal self-report of previous periodontal treatment before pregnancy is associated with severe preeclampsia.
Perlmutter, M; Nyquist, L
One hundred and twenty-seven adults between 20 and 90 years of age were tested on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for their digit span memory (forward and backward), fluid intelligence (block design and digit symbol), and crystallized intelligence (vocabulary and information), as well as assessed for self-reported health (Cornell Medical Index, Zung Depression Scale, health habits, and self-ratings of physical and mental health). As expected, across the entire age range there was no correlation between age and digit span memory (r = .03), a strong negative correlation between age and fluid intelligence (r = -.78), and a modest positive correlation between age and crystallized intelligence (r = .27). In addition, older adults reported more physical (r = .36) and mental (r = .32) health problems than did younger adults. Of special interest was the finding that both self-reported physical and mental health accounted for significant variance in intelligence performance, particularly in older adults. Moreover, self-reported health accounted for a considerable portion of observed variance, even when age differences in self-reported health were statistically controlled.
Molnár, Gyöngyvér; Csapó, Benő
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of exploration strategies students used in the first phase of problem solving. The sample for the study was drawn from 3 rd - to 12 th -grade students (aged 9-18) in Hungarian schools ( n = 4,371). Problems designed in the MicroDYN approach with different levels of complexity were administered to the students via the eDia online platform. Logfile analyses were performed to ascertain the impact of strategy use on the efficacy of problem solving. Students' exploration behavior was coded and clustered through Latent Class Analyses. Several theoretically effective strategies were identified, including the vary-one-thing-at-a-time (VOTAT) strategy and its sub-strategies. The results of the analyses indicate that the use of a theoretically effective strategy, which extract all information required to solve the problem, did not always lead to high performance. Conscious VOTAT strategy users proved to be the best problem solvers followed by non-conscious VOTAT strategy users and non-VOTAT strategy users. In the primary school sub-sample, six qualitatively different strategy class profiles were distinguished. The results shed new light on and provide a new interpretation of previous analyses of the processes involved in complex problem solving. They also highlight the importance of explicit enhancement of problem-solving skills and problem-solving strategies as a tool for knowledge acquisition in new contexts during and beyond school lessons.
Molnár, Gyöngyvér; Csapó, Benő
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of exploration strategies students used in the first phase of problem solving. The sample for the study was drawn from 3rd- to 12th-grade students (aged 9–18) in Hungarian schools (n = 4,371). Problems designed in the MicroDYN approach with different levels of complexity were administered to the students via the eDia online platform. Logfile analyses were performed to ascertain the impact of strategy use on the efficacy of problem solving. Students' exploration behavior was coded and clustered through Latent Class Analyses. Several theoretically effective strategies were identified, including the vary-one-thing-at-a-time (VOTAT) strategy and its sub-strategies. The results of the analyses indicate that the use of a theoretically effective strategy, which extract all information required to solve the problem, did not always lead to high performance. Conscious VOTAT strategy users proved to be the best problem solvers followed by non-conscious VOTAT strategy users and non-VOTAT strategy users. In the primary school sub-sample, six qualitatively different strategy class profiles were distinguished. The results shed new light on and provide a new interpretation of previous analyses of the processes involved in complex problem solving. They also highlight the importance of explicit enhancement of problem-solving skills and problem-solving strategies as a tool for knowledge acquisition in new contexts during and beyond school lessons. PMID:29593606
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. ... checklist to approximate a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) ADHD diagnosis ...
Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret ... divided into two parts. ... representatives prior to the start of whole-class activities and.
Hwang, Jun Hyun; Kim, Jong Yeon; Lee, Do Hoon; Jung, Hye Gyoun; Park, Soon-Woo
The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported smoking prevalence in Korean adolescents by using an improved gold standard by a combined method. Using a stratified sampling method, we selected 13 schools from among 397 high schools that participated in the 2015 Korean Youth Health Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBS). A second survey (repeated self-reporting questionnaire and urinary cotinine test) was conducted on 1058 students who completed the KYRBS. The gold standard of current smoker was defined as those either self-reporting as a smoker in the second survey or having a urinary cotinine concentration ≥50 ng/mL. The current smoking prevalence in the first survey (KYRBS) was 7.9% (boys 16.5% and girls 1.8%), which was lower than the results based on gold standard (11.3% total, boys 21.9% and girls 3.7%). The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking status was 62.5% and 99.0%, respectively. In particular, the sensitivity of girls (43.5%) was lower than that of boys (67.0%). The self-reported smoking prevalence in Korean adolescents was underestimated, particularly among girls. Careful attention should be paid to interpreting adolescents' smoking prevalence, and supplementary surveys or periodic validity tests need to be considered in Asian countries.
Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonça, Denisa
The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child’s adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal, multi-informant study was conducted. The sample consisted of 519 school-aged children from the Portuguese general population. Parental rearing styles w...
Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Smith, Nina
Questionnaire (SDQ) of about 6,000 children born in 1990-92 in a large region in Denmark. The sample is merged with register information on parents and students observed until the age of 19. We find significant and large negative coefficients of the externalizing behavioral indicators. The effects tend......Behavioral problems are important determinants of school outcomes and later success in the labor market. We analyze whether behavioral problems affect girls and boys differently with respect to school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations of the Strength and Difficulties...... to be larger when based on parents' SDQ scores compared to teachers' SDQ scores. According to our estimations, the school outcomes for girls with abnormal externalizing behavior are not significantly different from those of boys with the same behavioral problems. A decomposition of the estimates indicates...
Reza Akhlaghi Garmjani
Full Text Available Teaching science and math has been underdeveloped in nurturing the talents and motivations of young people who are in search of professions in these fields. Identifying and strengthening the students' problem solving beliefs and behaviors, can be a great help to those involved in teaching mathematics. This study investigates on the university and high school students, teachers and professors' problem solving beliefs and behaviors. Considering the research method, this study is a field research in which questionnaire is used. Participants in this research were senior high school and university students, math teachers and math professors. Data collection method for beliefs and behavior variables was via the use of a questionnaire. The Mann-Whitney test results showed that problem solving in high school and university was different and the main difference was in mathematical professional beliefs and behaviors.
Reed, Krystia; Bornstein, Brian H; Jeon, Andrew B; Wylie, Lindsey E
Attorneys suffer from high rates of stress, alcoholism, and mental health problems that are costly for the legal system and impair their abilities to serve their clients. There is some indication that these problems begin in law school. The present study assessed a cohort of law students at an American law school for their reported levels of stress, depression, anxiety, substance use, and overall adjustment/coping. Findings indicate that law students suffer from high levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and alcohol use, and that these problem behaviors fluctuate throughout the course of law school. We discuss the implications for law student/lawyer well-being and legal education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Latife KABAKLI ÇİMEN
Full Text Available This research was conducted to analyse the approach of secondary school teachers to disciplinary problems. The controlled group of the research, which was made with the model of screening, was formed by 240 teachers. The data of the research we re gained by personal data form, which was prepared by the researcher , and reasons of discipline questionnaire designed by Cerci (2009. Collected data was coded and analyzed by SPSS programme. Due to the results of the research; the approach to disciplinary problems of managers and teachers, w ho work in high schools, do not differentiate regarding their sex, whether they hold bachelors or postgraduate degree. The opinions of managers and teachers, who work in secondary schools, regarding disciplinary problems depending on whether they are manag ers or teachers, are similar for 21 out of 24 items and different for 3 items. The opinions of managers and teachers, who work in high schools, regarding disciplinary problems with the variable of what type of school they work, are similar for 20 o ut of 24 items and different for 4 item s, with the variable of age their disciplinary opinions are similar for 22 out of 24 items and different for 2 item s. The opinions of managers and teachers, who work in secondary schools, regarding disciplinary problems with the variable of experience, are similar for 21 out of 24 items and different for 3 item s; with the variable of which school they graduated their disciplinary opinions are similar for 19 out of 24 items and different for 5 item s.
Full Text Available The study aimed to 1 study the use of local wisdom and its problems in secondary schools and 2 examine the pattern of development of local wisdom contents used in secondary schools. The study is a qualitative research which was done by examining related texts and documents as well as field research which was participated by 100 informants including government officers and local people. The data was collected by using questionnaire, observation form, interview, and focus group. The data was then analyzed according to the study and present by descriptive analysis approach. Research results show that The problems of using local wisdom contents are classified into the following aspects ; 1 Community aspect: learning and using local wisdom of the people in the community are related to local materials and ethnic ; 2 Curriculum aspect: the studied schools has curriculums conforming to government policies ; 3 Local wisdom instructors: local wisdom contents are instructed by local wisdom instructors in the studied schools. Local wisdom instructors from the university also take part in local wisdom education at the studied schools located in the same university campus ; 4 Current local wisdom learning aspect: all of the studied schools value the local wisdom education. Local wisdom contents are found enclosed in the schools’ visions and missions. Problems on using local wisdom contents are the deficiency of financial support from the government, neglect of school administrators, discontinuity of learners and instructors affected by their transference reasons, and insufficiency of local wisdom philosophers who could not keep continuative instruction in harvest season according to their initiative occupation of farming. For the development pattern of the use of local wisdom contents in the studied schools, it was found that local wisdom contents are creatively developed to increase the economic value in industry, handicraft, art, and Thai medicine. The
Nagasu, M.; Sakai, K.; Ito, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Tomita, S.; Temmyo, Y.; Ueno, M.; Miyagi, S.
Background: Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk
MARIA ANGELA SHIAKALLI
Full Text Available Could problem solving be the object of teaching in early education? Could children’s engagement in problem solving processes lead to skills and conceptual understanding development? Could appropriate teaching interventions scaffold children’s efforts? The sample consisted of 25 children attending public pre-school in Cyprus. The children were asked to construct different sized squares. Findings show that children responded positively to the problem and were successful in solving it. During the problem solving process children demonstrated development of skills and conceptual understanding. Teacher-children and children-children interactions played an important role in the positive outcome of the activity.
Caroli, Eve; Weber-Baghdiguian, Lexane
We investigate the role of social norms in accounting for differences in self-reported health as reported by men and women. Using the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS, 2010), we first replicate the standard result that women report worse health than men, whatever the health outcome we consider – i.e. general self-assessed health but also more specific symptoms such as skin problems, backache, muscular pain in upper and lower limbs, headache and eyestrain, stomach ache, respiratory dif...
Full Text Available A survey on sleep schedule, sleep health, school performance and school start times was conducted in 1,941 adolescents. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported, especially in upper classmen. Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays, alarm clock use, and napping were prevalent. Night awakening and prolonged sleep onset were common and associated with poor school performance. Students with a sleep length of less than 7 hours on both weekdays and weekends exhibited poorer performance, while those who made up this sleep loss on weekends did not. The total number of poor sleep factors in an individual also correlated with poor school performance. Earlier school start times were associated with a perception of poor sleep quality, shorter sleep duration and more sleep health problems. We conclude that sleep inadequacies and sleep health problems were prevalent in this population, especially in those who started school earlier in the morning, and that these poor sleep factors were associated with school performance.
Parkinson, Monika; Creswell, Cathy
To examine the association between worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs (confidence and perceived control) in primary school children. Children (8-11 years) were screened using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children. High (N= 27) and low (N= 30) scorers completed measures of anxiety, problem-solving skills (generating alternative solutions to problems, planfulness, and effectiveness of solutions) and problem-solving beliefs (confidence and perceived control). High and low worry groups differed significantly on measures of anxiety and problem-solving beliefs (confidence and control) but not on problem-solving skills. Consistent with findings with adults, worry in children was associated with cognitive distortions, not skills deficits. Interventions for worried children may benefit from a focus on increasing positive problem-solving beliefs. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Factores asociados al uso autodeclarado de la anticoncepción de emergencia en la población escolarizada de 14 a 18 años de edad Factors associated with self-reported use of emergency contraception among the school population aged 14-18 years
Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los factores asociados al uso autodeclarado de la anticoncepción de emergencia en la población adolescente escolarizada de la ciudad de Terrassa (Barcelona en el año 2008. Métodos: Estudio transversal para conocer los hábitos de salud de los adolescentes de ambos sexos escolarizados de Terrassa. Se seleccionó una muestra representativa de 14 a 18 años de edad (n=1.300 y se les administró un cuestionario diseñado ad hoc. Se estudió el alumnado que declaró haber tenido relaciones sexuales con penetración alguna vez (n=390. La variable respuesta fue el uso autodeclarado de la anticoncepción de emergencia alguna vez. Las variables explicativas recogían información sobre aspectos sociodemográficos, consumo de drogas y sexualidad. Se han calculado las odds ratio de asociación (OR y los intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC95% mediante modelos logísticos multivariados. Los resultados se han estratificado según el sexo. Resultados: De los 390 alumnos, un 28,2% de las chicas y un 20,1% de los chicos (sus parejas han utilizado anticoncepción de emergencia alguna vez. En los chicos, el modelo multivariado final mostró asociación con un consumo abusivo de alcohol (OR=2,7; IC95%: 1,0-7,5, tener relaciones sexuales con penetración semanalmente (OR=2,8; IC95%: 1,1-7,2 y no haber trabajado en el aula temas de sexualidad (OR=2,5; IC95%:1,0-6,5. En las chicas se asoció con consumo abusivo de alcohol (OR=2,7; IC95%: 1,4-5,6, consumo de cannabis (OR=3,1; IC95%: 1,6-6,0 y relaciones sexuales con penetración semanalmente (OR=2,0; IC95%: 1,1-3,9. Conclusión: Las estrategias de promoción y prevención deberían iniciarse cuanto antes mejor, y contemplar las diferencias comportamentales desde una perspectiva de género tanto en el ámbito de la investigación como de la aplicación de programas.Objective: To describe factors associated with self-reported use of emergency contraception in adolescents attending school in the
Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Beyler, Nicholas K; Bartee, Roderick T; Heelan, Kate A
The utility of self-report measures of physical activity (PA) in youth can be greatly enhanced by calibrating self-report output against objectively measured PA data.This study demonstrates the potential of calibrating self-report output against objectively measured physical activity (PA) in youth by using a commonly used self-report tool called the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). A total of 148 participants (grades 4 through 12) from 9 schools (during the 2009-2010 school year) wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days and then completed the PAQ. Multiple linear regression modeling was used on 70% of the available sample to develop a calibration equation and this was cross validated on an independent sample of participants (30% of sample). A calibration model with age, gender, and PAQ scores explained 40% of the variance in values for the percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (%MVPA) measured from the accelerometers (%MVPA = 14.56 - (sex*0.98) - (0.84*age) + (1.01*PAQ)). When tested on an independent, hold-out sample, the model estimated %MVPA values that were highly correlated with the recorded accelerometer values (r = .63) and there was no significant difference between the estimated and recorded activity values (mean diff. = 25.3 ± 18.1 min; p = .17). These results suggest that the calibrated PAQ may be a valid alternative tool to activity monitoring instruments for estimating %MVPA in groups of youth.
Maria H. Nilsson
Full Text Available Objectives. To explore whether aspects of housing and health among very old people with self-reported Parkinson’s disease (PD differ from matched controls. Methods. Data from the ENABLE-AGE Survey Study were used to identify people with self-reported PD (n=20 and three matched controls/individual (n=60. The matching criteria were age (mean = 82 years, sex, country, and type of housing. The analyses targeted problems in activities of daily living, objective and perceived aspects of housing, for example, number of environmental barriers, accessibility (i.e., person-environment fit, and usability. Results. The number of physical environmental barriers did not differ (P=0.727 between the samples. The PD sample had more (P<0.001 accessibility problems than controls and perceived their homes as less (P=0.003 usable in relation to activities. They were less independent and had more functional limitations (median 5 versus 2; P<0.001, and 70% experienced loss of stamina or poor balance. Conclusions. Due to the fact that they have more functional limitations than very old people in general, those with self-reported PD live in housing with more accessibility problems. This explorative study has implications for rehabilitation as well as societal planning, but larger studies including people with a confirmed PD diagnosis are needed.
Breslau, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Raykov, Tenko
Previous studies documented long-run effects of behavior problems at the start of school on academic achievement. However, these studies did not examine whether the observed effects of early behavior problems are explained by more proximate behavior problems, given the tendency of children's behavior problems to persist. Latent variable modeling was applied to estimate the effects of behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 on academic achievement at age 17, using data from a longitudinal study (n=823). Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11, each stage independently of the other, predicted lower math and reading test scores at age 17, controlling for intelligence quotient (IQ), birth weight, maternal characteristics, family and community environment, and taking into account behavior problems at age 17. Behavior problems at the start of school, independent of later behavior problems, exert lingering effects on achievement by impeding the acquisition of cognitive skills that are the foundation for later academic progress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Magda Yolanda Cantú Tijerina
Full Text Available In order to explore the problems faced by beginning teachers in private elementary schools in the Spanish city of Madrid and in the Mexican city of Monterrey, questionnaires were applied to private school teachers just starting out in both cities. The results indicate that in both contexts, as beginners, teachers face problems of an academic, organizational, social, and material and technological nature. However, it stresses the fact that Mexican teachers perceive more problems in all the categories than do their Spanish colleagues. Similarity in the results was found in the category of social problems, which was the one mentioned least by the teachers in both cities. This suggests that the cultural nature of these two countries may be a factor to be considered in connection with fostering beginning teachers’ adaptation process.
Background Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam. The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. Methods A qualitative design was used to address the main study question including: six in-depth interviews conducted with professionals (with two researchers, two psychiatrists, and two secondary school teachers) to learn about their experience of mental health problems among secondary school pupils; 13 focus group discussions (four with teachers, four with parents, and five with pupils); and 10 individual in-depth interviews with pupils who did not take part in the FGDs, to reflect on the collected data and to deepen the authors’ understanding. All interviews and FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed for the identification of emerging issues using qualitative techniques of progressive coding, analytic memoing and ongoing comparison. Results Our study confirms the need to pay attention to mental health of pupils in Vietnam. Depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts were seen as major problems by all stakeholders. Mental health problems were mainly associated with academic pressure, resulting from an overloaded curriculum and pressure from teachers and parents to succeed. The study found that pupils’ mental health demands interventions at many levels, including at the level of government (Ministry of Education and Training), schools, communities, families and pupils themselves. Conclusions Vietnamese secondary school pupils feel that their mental health status is poor, because of many risk factors in their learning and living environment. The need now is to investigate further to identify and
Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders, Joske
Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. A qualitative design was used to address the main study question including: six in-depth interviews conducted with professionals (with two researchers, two psychiatrists, and two secondary school teachers) to learn about their experience of mental health problems among secondary school pupils; 13 focus group discussions (four with teachers, four with parents, and five with pupils); and 10 individual in-depth interviews with pupils who did not take part in the FGDs, to reflect on the collected data and to deepen the authors' understanding. All interviews and FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed for the identification of emerging issues using qualitative techniques of progressive coding, analytic memoing and ongoing comparison. Our study confirms the need to pay attention to mental health of pupils in Vietnam. Depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts were seen as major problems by all stakeholders. Mental health problems were mainly associated with academic pressure, resulting from an overloaded curriculum and pressure from teachers and parents to succeed. The study found that pupils' mental health demands interventions at many levels, including at the level of government (Ministry of Education and Training), schools, communities, families and pupils themselves. Vietnamese secondary school pupils feel that their mental health status is poor, because of many risk factors in their learning and living environment. The need now is to investigate further to identify and apply strategies to improve students' mental
Alexander, N B; Guire, K E; Thelen, D G; Ashton-Miller, J A; Schultz, A B; Grunawalt, J C; Giordani, B
related to one Katz ADL item, walking (eta-squared ranging from 0.15 to 0.33) as all of the Katz ADL items combined (eta-squared ranging from 0.21 to 0.35). Tests of problem solving and psychomotor speed, the Trails A and Trails B tests, are significantly correlated with the residuals from the self-report and performance-based ANOVA models. Compared with the rest of the EPESE self-report items, self-report items related to walking (such as Katz walking and Rosow-Breslau items) are better predictors of functional mobility performance on tasks involving walking, stance maintenance, and rising from chairs. Compared with other self-report items, self-reported walking ability may be the best predictor of overall functional mobility.
Pryjmachuk, Steven; Graham, Tanya; Haddad, Mark; Tylee, Andre
To explore the views of school nurses regarding mental health problems in young people and their potential for engaging in mental health work with this client group. Mental health problems in children and young people are an important public health issue. Universal children's services play a key role in identifying and managing these problems and, while school nurses have an important function in this work, little is known about their views on this aspect of their role. A qualitative research design employing focus group methodology. School nurses (n = 33) were purposively sampled from four school nursing teams in two English cities for a series of focus groups. The focus group data were audio-recorded, transcribed and subsequently analysed using 'framework'. Four principal themes emerged from the data. In these themes, school nurses were found to value their involvement with the mental health of young people, recognising this as an important area of practice. Several obstacles to their work in this area were identified: heavy workloads, professional rivalries, a lack of confidence and limited education and training opportunities. The importance of support from local specialist mental health teams was emphasised. School nurses can be engaged in mental health work though, as public health specialists, their role should focus on health promotion, assessment, signposting and early intervention activities. To facilitate mental health work, school nurses are able to draw on established interpersonal skills and supportive networks; however, workload and a lack of confidence need to be managed and it is important that they are supported by constructive relationships with local specialist mental health teams. This study has implications for nurses and healthcare practitioners interested in enhancing the mental health of children and young people in school settings. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ramirez, Gerardo; Chang, Hyesang; Maloney, Erin A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L
Even at young ages, children self-report experiencing math anxiety, which negatively relates to their math achievement. Leveraging a large dataset of first and second grade students' math achievement scores, math problem solving strategies, and math attitudes, we explored the possibility that children's math anxiety (i.e., a fear or apprehension about math) negatively relates to their use of more advanced problem solving strategies, which in turn relates to their math achievement. Our results confirm our hypothesis and, moreover, demonstrate that the relation between math anxiety and math problem solving strategies is strongest in children with the highest working memory capacity. Ironically, children who have the highest cognitive capacity avoid using advanced problem solving strategies when they are high in math anxiety and, as a result, underperform in math compared with their lower working memory peers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The third International youth scientific school-conference took place 10-13 April 2014 year in Moscow on the basis National Research Nuclear University MEPhI and RAS Lebedev P.N. Physical Institute. The actual scientific problems of current fundamental and applied physics as well as nuclear and physical technologies were discussed. This book of abstracts contains many interesting items devoted problems of theoretical physics and astrophysics, nuclear physics, nanotecnology, laser physics and plasma physics [ru
Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep problems are taken into account as a prevalent problem within school-age children that is normally ignored in spite of its high prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the frequency of sleep problems within elementary students in Kashan. Methods: This study is descriptive-cross sectional, in which 300 children (7-12 years old of Kashan elementary schools were randomly selected via cluster sampling method. The study instruments for data collection involved questions concerning children's age and sex as well as BEAR'S questionnaire, which were filled by the children's mothers. Moreover, the study data were analyzed by descriptive statistics method (mean and standard deviation, independent sample T-test was used to compare mean of sleep duration and Mann-Whitney u test was applied to evaluate the difference between age and sex groups. Results: Totally, 300 children participated in this study, among which 44.3% were boys and 55.7% were girls. The most common sleep problems involved nightmare and resistance against a wakening. Relative frequency of awakening during night was observed to be higher within boys than girls (p<0.05. Conclusion: High frequency of sleep problems in the current study may indicate the significance of taking sleep problems into consideration within students as well as informing healthy sleep patterns in order to promote knowledge level of parents via schools and parent-teacher meetings.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: In recent years although the number of students registering for medicines has decreased in Kermanshah University of Medical sciences parallel to other universities of medical sciences the quality of educational services has not improved the informal reports suggests that the competency of medical graduates is not satisfactory Since any intervention needs situation analysis this study was conducted to obtain viewpoints of three main groups of stockholders including faculty members, students and graduates on medical school problems and insufficiencies.Methods: In this qualitative study faculty members of medical schools, medical graduated of 2005-6, and medical students of different phases participated. With participation of these subjects Focus Group Discussion (FGD sessions were carried out. The goals of the projects were first explained for participants. In the end of each discussion session the discussions were careful transcribed. The sessions continued till the sessions get saturated. The transcript of discussion was thoroughly reviewed by researchers and codified. The problems were classified in 7 areas of management, planning, education goals, evaluation, ethics, teaching, and students.Results: The subjects believed that the most important problems in Kermanshah medical school include neglecting the student evaluation, no educational objectives or being inattentive to them, unwanted effects of pay for service plan, too much duties for interns (students, overload of medical duties and insufficiency in the number of faculty members, no rewarding system for teachers, inattention to needed outcomes, shortage of facilities for student in hospital and being negligent about mutual respect between students and teachers.Conclusion: some of the problems such as the effects of pay for service plan and insufficiency in the number of faculty members have solutions stemming beyond the university at Ministry of Health level
Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane
The purpose of this experimental study was to assess the effects of cognitive style, problem complexity, and hypothesis generation on the problem solving ability of school-based agricultural education students. Problem solving ability was defined as time to solution. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was employed to assess students' cognitive…
Lucieer, Susanna M; van der Geest, Jos N; Elói-Santos, Silvana M; de Faria, Rosa M Delbone; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris; Rikers, Remy M J P; Themmen, Axel P N
Society expects physicians to always improve their competencies and to be up to date with developments in their field. Therefore, an important aim of medical schools is to educate future medical doctors to become self-regulated, lifelong learners. However, it is unclear if medical students become better self-regulated learners during the pre-clinical stage of medical school, and whether students develop self-regulated learning skills differently, dependent on the educational approach of their medical school. In a cross-sectional design, we investigated the development of 384 medical students' self-regulated learning skills with the use of the Self-Regulation of Learning Self-Report Scale. Next, we compared this development in students who enrolled in two distinct medical curricula: a problem-based curriculum and a lectured-based curriculum. Analysis showed that more skills decreased than increased during the pre-clinical stage of medical school, and that the difference between the curricula was mainly caused by a decrease in the skill evaluation in the lecture-based curriculum. These findings seem to suggest that, irrespective of the curriculum, self-regulated learning skills do not develop during medical school.
Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Schmidt, Maria Inês
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To analyze the factors associated with self-reported diabetes among adult participants of the National Health Survey (PNS). METHODS Cross-sectional study using data of the PNS carried out in 2013, from interviews with adults (≥ 18 years) of 64,348 Brazilian households. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes, assessed by the question “Has a doctor ever told you that you have diabetes?,” was related to sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, self-reported chronic disease, and self-evaluation of the health condition. Prevalence ratios were adjusted according to age, sex, and schooling by Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS The diagnosis of diabetes was reported by 6.2% of respondents. Its crude prevalence was higher in women (7.0% vs. 5.4%), and among older adults, reaching 19.8% in the elderly. Black adults who received less schooling showed higher prevalence. Among those classified as obese, 11.8% reported having diabetes. Ex-smokers, those insufficiently active and those who consume alcohol abusively reported diabetes more often. Differences were not verified in eating habits among adults who reported, or did not, diabetes. A relation between diabetes and hypertension was found. CONCLUSIONS After adjustment according to age, schooling and sex, diabetes was shown to be associated with higher age, lower schooling, past smoking, overweight and obesity, and hypertension, as well as with a self-declared poor state of health, indicating a pattern of risk factors common to many chronic non-communicable diseases and the association of the disease with morbidity. PMID:28591347
Deborah Carvalho Malta
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To analyze the factors associated with self-reported diabetes among adult participants of the National Health Survey (PNS. METHODS Cross-sectional study using data of the PNS carried out in 2013, from interviews with adults (≥ 18 years of 64,348 Brazilian households. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes, assessed by the question “Has a doctor ever told you that you have diabetes?,” was related to sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, self-reported chronic disease, and self-evaluation of the health condition. Prevalence ratios were adjusted according to age, sex, and schooling by Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS The diagnosis of diabetes was reported by 6.2% of respondents. Its crude prevalence was higher in women (7.0% vs. 5.4%, and among older adults, reaching 19.8% in the elderly. Black adults who received less schooling showed higher prevalence. Among those classified as obese, 11.8% reported having diabetes. Ex-smokers, those insufficiently active and those who consume alcohol abusively reported diabetes more often. Differences were not verified in eating habits among adults who reported, or did not, diabetes. A relation between diabetes and hypertension was found. CONCLUSIONS After adjustment according to age, schooling and sex, diabetes was shown to be associated with higher age, lower schooling, past smoking, overweight and obesity, and hypertension, as well as with a self-declared poor state of health, indicating a pattern of risk factors common to many chronic non-communicable diseases and the association of the disease with morbidity.
Welter, Marisete Maria; Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas
Previous research showed that in primary school, children's intelligence develops continually, but creativity develops more irregularly. In this study, the development of intelligence, measured traditionally, i.e., operating within well-defined problem spaces (Standard Progressive Matrices) was compared with the development of intelligence…
Brijlall, Deonarain; Ndlovu, Zanele
This qualitative case study in a rural school in Umgungundlovu District in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, explored Grade 12 learners' mental constructions of mathematical knowledge during engagement with optimisation problems. Ten Grade 12 learners who do pure Mathemat-ics participated, and data were collected through structured activity sheets and…
Kristoffersen, Janni; Smith, Nina
This study analyzes gender differences in the relationships between behavioral problems and school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations using the SDQ questionnaire at the age of 10-12 years of about 6,000 Danish children born in 1990-92. The sample is merged with extensive...
Deb, Sibnath; Kumar, Aneesh; Holden, George W.; Simpson Rowe, Lorelei
There is considerable evidence that parental corporal punishment (CP) is positively associated with children's behavioral and mental health problems. However, there is very little evidence addressing whether CP perpetrated by teachers or school staff is similarly associated with problematic student functioning. To address this gap in the research…
Putra, Mulia; Novita, Rita
This study aimed to describe the profile of secondary school students with high mathematics ability in solving shape and space problem in PISA (Program for International Student Assessment). It is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach, in which the subjects in this study were students of class VIII SMP N 1 Banda Aceh. The results show…
Keuning, J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
The purpose of the present study was to explore whether the Item Response Theory (IRT) provides a suitable framework to screen for word reading and spelling problems during the elementary school period. The following issues were addressed from an IRT perspective: (a) the dimensionality of word
Kirkhaug, Bente; Drugli, May Britt; Klockner, Christian A.; Morch, Willy-Tore
The present study examined the factor structure of the Teacher Involvement Questionnaire (Involve-T) by means of exploratory factor analysis and examined the association between children's socio-emotional and behavioural problems and teacher-reported parental involvement in school, using structural equation modelling. The study was conducted with…
Denault, Anne-Sophie; Déry, Michèle
The goal of this study was to test a mediation model in which social skills mediate the relationship between participation in organized activities and conduct problems among elementary school children. Two moderators of these associations were also examined, namely, gender and reception of special education services. A total of 563 children (45%…
Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis; Didis, M. Gözde
This study investigates a group of pre-service physics teachers' perceptions about the causes of problems in school experience through the attribution theory. The participants were thirteen pre-service physics teachers from a public university in Turkey. Data were collected through the interviews by requesting the participants to reflect their own…
English, Lyn D.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les
Incorporating engineering concepts into middle school curriculum is seen as an effective way to improve students' problem-solving skills. A selection of findings is reported from a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)-based unit in which students in the second year (grade 8) of a three-year longitudinal study explored…
Nostrand, Peter F.
This report indicates to principals that their schools probably have a marihuana problem; outlines measures necessary to the establishment of an effective marihuana prevention program; and suggests ways to handle the marihuana smoker once he has been identified. To help the principal focus upon, understand, and take constructive action with…
Bottge, Brian A.; Heinrichs, Mary; Mehta, Zara Dee; Rueda, Enrique; Hung, Ya-Hui; Danneker, Jeanne
This study compared two approaches for teaching sixth-grade middle school students to solve math problems in math, technology education, and special education classrooms. A total of 17 students with disabilities and 76 students without disabilities were taught using either enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) or text-based instruction coupled with…
Devaraj, Sheila; Rosian, Samsilah; Noah, Sidek Mohd; Mahyuddin, Rahil
The purpose of this study is to determine whether there was any significant correlation between symptoms of dyslexia in Malaysian students and discipline problems. A total of 197 standard 3 and 4 students from a national primary school were involved in the study. Findings show that there was a significant negative correlation between academic…
Mualem, Roni; Eylon, Bat Sheva
Students at the junior high school (JHS) level often cannot use their knowledge of physics for explaining and predicting phenomena. We claim that this difficulty stems from the fact that explanations are multi-step reasoning tasks, and students often lack the qualitative problem-solving strategies needed to guide them. This article describes a new…
Yew, Wun Theam; Zamri, Sharifah Norul Akmar Syed
Problem solving strategies of eight pre-service secondary school mathematics teachers (PSSMTs) were examined in this study. A case study research design was employed and clinical interview technique was used to collect the data. Materials collected for analysis consisted of audiotapes and videotapes of clinical interviews, subjects' notes and…
Baysal, Zeliha Nurdan
This study aims to identify the benefits acquired by third-year pre-service elementary school teachers participating in a problem-based learning process in social studies education, the issues they encountered in that process and those they are likely to encounter, and their feelings about the process. Semi-structured interviews were used as one…
Chukwumah, Fides Okwukweka; Ezeugbor, Carol Obiageli
This study investigated the extent of problems of strategic plans implementation for secondary schools' improvement in Anambra State, Nigeria for quality education provision. The study used a descriptive survey design paradigm. Respondents comprised 217 principals. There was no sampling. All the principals were used. Data were collected using…
Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Barrera-Mora, Fernando
The study documents the extent to which high school teachers reflect on their need to revise and extend their mathematical and practicing knowledge. In this context, teachers worked on a set of tasks as a part of an inquiring community that promoted the use of different computational tools in problem solving approaches. Results indicated that the…
Marshall, Jennings B.; Carson, Charles M.
This article examines textbook problems used in a sampling of some of the most common core courses found in schools of business to ascertain what level of learning, as defined by Bloom's Taxonomy, is required to provide a correct answer. A set of working definitions based on Bloom's Taxonomy (Bloom & Krathwohl, 1956) was developed for the six…
Erdogan, Cetin; Demirkasimoglu, Nihan
This research aimed to determine how Turkish principals define marginal teachers and which strategies they use to deal with them. Within this purpose, the following points are examined: (a) the concept of marginal teacher, (b) the underlying reasons for marginal teacher behaviors, (c) the problems marginal teachers cause in school settings, (d)…
Goodwin, Amanda P.
This study explores the effectiveness of integrating morphological instruction within comprehension strategy instruction. Participants were 203 students (N = 117 fifth-grade; 86 sixth-grade) from four urban schools who were randomly assigned to the intervention (N = 110; morphological problem-solving within comprehension strategy instruction) or…
Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Duch, Henriette Skjærbæk; Mark, Lene
Four different types of vocational schools have experimented with blended learning as a way of dealing with problems faced in their students’ theoretical and practical training and the interplay between these. A large part of this has involved the need for differentiated teaching...... as will be illustrated through selected cases. The foci of the cases are: •How can students be part of school-based teaching and learning during periods of practical training? •How can authentic practice be brought into school-based practical training? •How may blended learning assist and support students who...... are otherwise challenged in terms of meeting the prescribed competence goals? Methodologically, scenarios have been employed as a tool for defining the practice-related problems teachers meet in their practice and describing ways in which blended learning may present solutions. Subsequently, the solutions have...
Harman-Smith, Yasmin E; Mathias, Jane L; Bowden, Stephen C; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Bigler, Erin D
Neuropsychological assessments of outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often unrelated to self-reported problems after TBI. The current study cluster-analyzed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) subtest scores from mild, moderate, and severe TBI (n=220) and orthopedic injury control (n=95) groups, to determine whether specific cognitive profiles are related to people's perceived outcomes after TBI. A two-stage cluster analysis produced 4- and 6-cluster solutions, with the 6-cluster solution better capturing subtle variations in cognitive functioning. The 6 clusters differed in the levels and profiles of cognitive performance, self-reported recovery, and education and injury severity. The findings suggest that subtle cognitive impairments after TBI should be interpreted in conjunction with patient's self-reported problems.
Patel, Sanjay R.; Blackwell, Terri; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Stone, Katie L.
Background: Self-reported long habitual sleep durations (≥ 9 h per night) consistently predict increased mortality. We compared objective sleep parameters of self-reported long versus normal duration sleepers to determine whether long sleepers truly sleep more or have an underlying sleep abnormality. Methods: Older men participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) were recruited for a comprehensive sleep assessment, which included wrist actigraphy, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and a question about usual nocturnal sleep duration. Results: Of the 3134 participants (mean age 76.4 ± 5.6; 89.9% Caucasian), 1888 (60.2%) reported sleeping 7-8 h (normal sleepers) and 174 (5.6%) reported ≥ 9 h (long sleepers). On actigraphy, long sleepers spent on average 63.0 min more per night in bed (P sleep stage distribution did not differ. After adjusting for differences in demographics, comorbidities, and medication usage, self-reported long sleepers continued to spend more time in bed and sleep more, based on both actigraphy and PSG. Each additional 30 min in bed or asleep as measured by actigraphy increased the odds of being a self-reported long-sleeper 1.74-fold and 1.33-fold, respectively (P sleep disorders. Citation: Patel SR; Blackwell T; Ancoli-Israel S; Stone KL. Sleep characteristics of self-reported long sleepers. SLEEP 2012;35(5):641-648. PMID:22547890
Manfredini, Daniele; Visscher, Corine M; Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Lobbezoo, Frank
To estimate the contribution of various occlusal features of the natural dentition that may identify self-reported bruxers compared to nonbruxers. Two age- and sex-matched groups of self-reported bruxers (n = 67) and self-reported nonbruxers (n = 75) took part in the study. For each patient, the following occlusal features were clinically assessed: retruded contact position (RCP) to intercuspal contact position (ICP) slide length ( 4 mm, a deep bite), horizontal overlap (> 4 mm was considered a large horizontal overlap), incisor dental midline discrepancy (bruxism (dependent variable). Accuracy values to predict self-reported bruxism were unacceptable for all occlusal variables. The only variable remaining in the final regression model was laterotrusive interferences (P = .030). The percentage of explained variance for bruxism by the final multiple regression model was 4.6%. This model including only one occlusal factor showed low positive (58.1%) and negative predictive values (59.7%), thus showing a poor accuracy to predict the presence of self-reported bruxism (59.2%). This investigation suggested that the contribution of occlusion to the differentiation between bruxers and nonbruxers is negligible. This finding supports theories that advocate a much diminished role for peripheral anatomical-structural factors in the pathogenesis of bruxism.
Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F
Studies that have used mostly self-reported height have found that androphilic men and women are shorter than gynephilic men and women, respectively. This study examined whether an objective height difference exists or whether a psychosocial account (e.g., distortion of self-reports) may explain these putative height differences. A total of 863 participants, recruited at a Canadian university, the surrounding region, and through lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) events across Canada, self-reported their height and had their height measured. Androphilic men were shorter, on average, than gynephilic men. There was no objective height difference between gynephilic, ambiphilic, and androphilic women. Self-reported height, statistically controlling for objective height, was not related to sexual orientation. These findings are the first to show an objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. Also, the findings suggest that previous studies using self-reported height found part of a true objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. These findings have implications for existing biological theories of men's sexual orientation development.
Chau, Kénora; Kabuth, Bernard; Causin-Brice, Odile; Delacour, Yves; Richoux-Picard, Catherine; Verdin, Monique; Armand, Isabelle; Chau, Nearkasen
Health-related problems and risky behaviours (substance use) are frequent in adolescents, may alter their physical and mental capabilities, and may thus generate school absenteeism, low academic performance, and school dropout ideation. This study assessed their associations and the contribution of socioeconomic factors among 1559 middle-school adolescents (mean age 13.5+1.3) from north-eastern France. They completed a questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics, health-related problems (poor physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment) assessed with the World Health Organization's quality of life measure (scoreschool absences during the present school year, last-trimester academic performance, and school dropout ideation. Data were analysed using logistic regression models. School absenteeism was frequent (12.6% of subjects for 8-14 days, and 6.0% for ≥15 days); 8.2% of subjects had low academic performance (average school-mark school dropout ideation. All school difficulties were strongly associated with all health-related problems (gender-age-school-level-adjusted odds ratios gasOR between 1.5 and 4.2), and with risky behaviours (gasOR between 1.4 and 14). Socioeconomic factors differently contributed to these associations (contribution reaching 77%). Policy makers, schools, physicians and parents should be more aware of the problems and help adolescents to reduce health-related problems and risky behaviours and to increase resilience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zirkel, Perry A; Granthom, Margarita Fernan; Lovato, Leanna
News reports illustrate controversies between parents and schools in response to student health problems. Today's school nurse is in a pivotal position for the avoidance and resolution of disputes not only by increasing awareness of student health conditions but also by having a working knowledge of legal developments under Section 504 and its sister statute-the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The ADA amendments of 2008 have extended the standards for eligibility and expanded questions about school districts' obligations under Section 504 and the ADA. This article provides a comprehensive synthesis of recent case law and related legal developments under this pair of federal statutes, culminating in practical implications and professional recommendations for school nurses.
Air pollution causes severe physical and psychological health complications. Considering China’s continuously-deteriorating air quality, this study aimed to assess the self-reported effects of air pollution on the behavior and physical health of the students of 13 densely populated cities, and their awareness, practices, and perception of air pollution and its associated public health risks. A detailed, closed-ended questionnaire was administered to 2100 students from 54 universities and schools across China. The questionnaire, which had 24 questions, was categorized into four sections. The first two sections were focused on air pollution-associated behavior and psychology, and physical effects; while the final two sections focused on the subjects’ awareness and perceptions, and practices and concerns about air pollution. The respondents reported that long-term exposure to air pollution had significantly affected their psychology and behavior, as well as their physical health. The respondents were aware of the different adverse impacts of air pollution (respiratory infections, allergies, and cardiovascular problems), and hence had adopted different preventive measures, such as the use of respiratory masks and glasses or goggles, regularly drinking water, and consuming rich foods. It was concluded that air pollution and haze had negative physical and psychological effects on the respondents, which led to severe changes in behavior. Proper management, future planning, and implementing strict environmental laws are suggested before this problem worsens and becomes life-threatening. PMID:29547657
Rajper, Sohail Ahmed; Ullah, Sana; Li, Zhongqiu
Air pollution causes severe physical and psychological health complications. Considering China's continuously-deteriorating air quality, this study aimed to assess the self-reported effects of air pollution on the behavior and physical health of the students of 13 densely populated cities, and their awareness, practices, and perception of air pollution and its associated public health risks. A detailed, closed-ended questionnaire was administered to 2100 students from 54 universities and schools across China. The questionnaire, which had 24 questions, was categorized into four sections. The first two sections were focused on air pollution-associated behavior and psychology, and physical effects; while the final two sections focused on the subjects' awareness and perceptions, and practices and concerns about air pollution. The respondents reported that long-term exposure to air pollution had significantly affected their psychology and behavior, as well as their physical health. The respondents were aware of the different adverse impacts of air pollution (respiratory infections, allergies, and cardiovascular problems), and hence had adopted different preventive measures, such as the use of respiratory masks and glasses or goggles, regularly drinking water, and consuming rich foods. It was concluded that air pollution and haze had negative physical and psychological effects on the respondents, which led to severe changes in behavior. Proper management, future planning, and implementing strict environmental laws are suggested before this problem worsens and becomes life-threatening.
Braverman, Julia; Tom, Matthew A; Shaffer, Howard J
This study is the first to compare the accuracy of self-reported with actual monetary outcomes of online fixed odds sports betting, live action sports betting, and online casino gambling at the individual level of analysis. Subscribers to bwin.party digital entertainment's online gambling service volunteered to respond to the Brief Bio-Social Gambling Screen and questions about their estimated gambling results on specific games for the last 3 or 12 months. We compared the estimated results of each subscriber with his or her actual betting results data. On average, between 34% and 40% of the participants expressed a favorable distortion of their gambling outcomes (i.e., they underestimated losses or overestimated gains) depending on the time period and game. The size of the discrepancy between actual and self-reported results was consistently associated with the self-reported presence of gambling-related problems. However, the specific direction of the reported discrepancy (i.e., favorable vs. unfavorable bias) was not associated with gambling-related problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared self-reported criminal behaviour with high-quality databases of criminal offences and judicial sanctions. Self-reported problems from drug abusers are generally believed to be valid. We assessed the validity of self-reported theft, drug offences and prison sentences from a five-year follow-up of female substance abusers who were originally treated in a compulsory care unit in Lund, run by the Swedish Board of Institutional Care. Methods Data from a total of 106 of a consecutive sample of 132 women inter-viewed in a five-year follow-up. All were thoroughly assessed for somatic complaints, psychiatric and psychological problems, background factors with standardized instruments. Data over the five years were linked to official records of judicial sanctions, retrieved from The National Council for Crime Prevention, Stockholm, Sweden. Register data have a full cover for the whole cohort. The current data base contain full data back to 1975 up to 2004. Results Agreement was assessed for each year, as well as for the total period. Statistical control was performed for other types of crimes and prison. Although statistically significant, agreement was modest, and in contrast to previous studies, patients under-reported violence charges. Conclusion The findings suggest that self-reports of criminal behaviour from women can be used with some caution, and that the validity of self-report may vary between types of criminal justice system involvement.
Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Petersen, Rikke S.; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen
quality of both personal ADL (PADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL). Aside from decreased independence, the participants also reported problems related to increased effort, increased use of time, and some safety issues. Although most of the participants reported to be competent in relation to PADL tasks......, how they perceive the quality of their performance in terms of effort/fatigue, use of time, safety risks, and need for assistance. The aim was to investigate the self-reported quality of ADL task performance in adults with schizophrenia. Subjects Participants were recruited from October 2013...... evaluation tool developed to describe and measure the quality of ADL task performance in terms of effort/fatigue, use of time, safety risks, and need for assistance based on self-report. Occupational therapists employed at the hospitals and trained in conducting the ADL–I were collecting data. The interviews...
Koven, Nancy S; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A
Research has established positive associations between anxiety sensitivity (AS) and problematic drinking in clinical samples. The present study confirmed this relationship in a nonclinical sample (N=162) and investigated which AS dimension best predicts self-reports of problematic drinking. Only one AS facet, fear of cognitive dyscontrol (FCC), was associated with symptoms of alcohol dependence, severity of drinking problems, and alcohol-related expectations of global, positive changes, sexual enhancement, and tension reduction. The possible role of depression in these relationships was also evaluated. A series of hierarchical regressions revealed that, when trait anxiety, anxious arousal, and anxious apprehension were statistically removed, depression did not contribute significant variance beyond the effects of FMC and other anxiety measures. Results suggest that FCC is uniquely associated with self-reports of problematic drinking behaviors and attitudes. Implications for tension-reduction models of alcohol are discussed.
Bendixen, Hans Jørgen; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen; Wilcke, Jon Torgny
OBJECTIVE: Patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience problems in the performance of activities of daily living (ADL) tasks. The objective was to examine the self-reported quality of ADL task performance among COPD patients, and to investigate whether age...... concerning age, gender, and routine COPD characteristics were drawn from the patients' medical records. RESULTS: The patients reported being inefficient to markedly inefficient when performing ADL tasks within the personal hygiene, toileting, dressing, household, mobility, and transportation domains. While...... more than 90% of the participants reported increased effort and/or fatigue when performing the ADL tasks, up to 88% of the participants relied on help from others in the performance of general household chores like cooking and shopping. Self-reported ADL ability did not correlate with age, gender...
Gökkurt Özdemir, Burçin; Erdem, Emrullah; Örnek, Tuğba; Soylu, Yasin
Many people consider problem solving as a complex process in which variables such as x, y are used. Problems may not be solved by only using 'variable.' Problem solving can be rationalized and made easier using practical strategies. When especially the development of children at younger ages is considered, it is obvious that mathematics teachers should solve problems through concrete processes. In this context, middle school mathematics teachers' skills to solve word problems without using variables were examined in the current study. Through the case study method, this study was conducted with 60 middle school mathematics teachers who have different professional experiences in five provinces in Turkey. A test consisting of five open-ended word problems was used as the data collection tool. The content analysis technique was used to analyze the data. As a result of the analysis, it was seen that the most of the teachers used trial-and-error strategy or area model as the solution strategy. On the other hand, the teachers who solved the problems using variables such as x, a, n or symbols such as Δ, □, ○, * and who also felt into error by considering these solutions as without variable were also seen in the study.
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to identify the problems encountered by primary school teachers and to makesuggestions to solve the problems. This is a descriptive study and also a case study. A questionnaire form wasused for data collection. The surveys were administered on the elementary education teachers working underAnkara Province Directorate of the Ministry of Education in 2006 – 2007 academic year. The data collectedwere analyzed using SPSS program and statistical analyses were carried out. It was concluded that theprimary school teachers’ music education was not sufficient and that they had encountered problems inimproving themselves with regard to music education. A number of suggestions were made in line with theresults obtained.
Full Text Available Studies of emotional intelligence (EI initially appeared in academic journals in the early 1990s. The majority of studies on emotional intelligence have relied on self-ratings. In spite of the critics of self-report scales, there are a large number of self-report measures of EI present in recent literature. The main aim of this paper is to present the constructing procedure, together with the basic psychometric properties of Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ as a self-report measure of EI. Originally, this measure was developed in Croatian settings, using the theoretical framework from the Mayer-Salovey emotional intelligence model. The ESCQ instrument has been translated into several languages. The results have showed that ESCQ has three subscales with decent reliability. They share some amount of common variance with similar well-established constructs such as alexithymia, social skills, and personality traits, but they are not correlated with cognitive abilities. However, due to its sufficient reliability, a great deal of unique variance remains. This unique variance of the ESCQ scales has an incremental contribution in explaining life satisfaction and empathy (as the crucial criteria for EI, and has significant relations with relevant real-life criteria such as quality of leadership, health risk behaviors, and school achievement.
Yücel, Gül; Kendirci, Mustafa; Gül, Ülkü
To determine the cross-sectional characteristics of menstruating girls, dysmenorrhea and the frequencies of related problems. Descripitive, cross-sectional study. Randomly selected primary, junior and high schools in the city center of Kayseri. 2000 female adolescents of ages between 9 and 18 years. We used a questionnaire addressing the epidemiological characteristics of menstruation, such as age at menarche, duration of menstrual intervals, average days of bleeding, and any menstrual problems and their frequencies. This study consists of a sufficient number of participants from all age groups. Of the participant (n= 2000) girls, 63.7% (n: 1274) had started menstruating. The mean age at menarche was 12.74 ± 1.03 years. With a prevalence of 84.8% (n: 1080), dysmenorrhea was the most prevalent menstrual problem and the average pain score was 5.87 ± 2.45. Of the menstruating girls, 34% (n: 439) used painkillers, the most commonly used was acetaminophen; during their period the prevalence of non-medical methods to relieve pain was % 35.2; the rate of seeking medical help for dysmenorrhea was 9.3 % (n: 119). In menstruating participants, 90.8 % was discussed their menstrual problems with their mothers. The rate of school absenteeism in menstruating girls was 15.9 % in general and 18 % in those with dysmenorrhea. Problems related to menstruation are common in adolescents and these problems affect their social life. In adolescent girls, the most common menstrual problem is dysmenorrhea and it affects school performance and attendance. Girls with menstrual problems showed a low rate of seeking medical help. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat; Khoo, Hoon Eng; Wong, Mee Lian; Koh, David
Systematic reviews on the effects of problem-based learning have been limited to knowledge competency either during medical school or postgraduate training. We conducted a systematic review of evidence of the effects that problem-based learning during medical school had on physician competencies after graduation. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Databases, and the tables of contents of 5 major medical education journals from earliest available date through Oct. 31, 2006. We included studies in our review if they met the following criteria: problem-based learning was a teaching method in medical school, physician competencies were assessed after graduation and a control group of graduates of traditional curricula was used. We developed a scoring system to assess the quality of the studies, categorized competencies into 8 thematic dimensions and used a second system to determine the level of evidence for each competency assessed. Our search yielded 102 articles, of which 15 met inclusion criteria after full text review. Only 13 studies entered final systematic analysis because 2 studies reported their findings in 2 articles. According to self-assessments, 8 of 37 competencies had strong evidence in support of problem-based learning. Observed assessments had 7 competencies with strong evidence. In both groups, most of these competencies were in the social and cognitive dimensions. Only 4 competencies had moderate to strong levels of evidence in support of problem-based learning for both self-and observed assessments: coping with uncertainty (strong), appreciation of legal and ethical aspects of health care (strong), communication skills (moderate and strong respectively) and self-directed continuing learning (moderate). Problem-based learning during medical school has positive effects on physician competency after graduation, mainly in social and cognitive dimensions.
Phillips, James G; Butt, Sarah; Blaszczynski, Alex
Mobile phones are popular devices that may generate problems for a section of the community. A previous study using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire found that extraverts with low self-esteem reported more problems with their mobile phone use. The present study used the NEO FI and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to predict the self reported mobile phone use of 112 participants. Multiple regression found that people low on agreeableness were more likely to use their mobile phones to play games. The findings imply an interplay between personality traits and excessive or problematic use on mobile phones that is relevant to proposed innovations such as gambling on mobile phones.
A sample of 127 high school Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus students from two schools was utilized to study the effects of an engineering design-based problem solving strategy on student performance with AP style Related Rate questions and changes in conceptions, beliefs, and influences. The research design followed a treatment-control multiple…
Nishikawa, Saori; Sundbom, Elisabet; Hagglof, Bruno
We examined the associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment style, self-concept, and mental health problems among Japanese adolescents. About 193 high school students (143 boys and 50 girls, mean = 16.4) completed a set of self-report questionnaires including EMBU-C (My Memories of Child Upbringing for Children), AQC (Attachment…
Full Text Available Students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving can impact how well they learn physics and how successful they are in solving physics problems. Prior research in the U.S. using a validated Attitude and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS survey suggests that there are major differences between students in introductory physics and astronomy courses and physics experts in terms of their attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving. Here we discuss the validation, administration, and analysis of data for the Turkish version of the AAPS survey for high school and university students in Turkey. After the validation and administration of the Turkish version of the survey, the analysis of the data was conducted by grouping the data by grade level, school type, and gender. While there are no statistically significant differences between the averages of various groups on the survey, overall, the university students in Turkey were more expertlike than vocational high school students. On an item by item basis, there are statistically differences between the averages of the groups on many items. For example, on average, the university students demonstrated less expertlike attitudes about the role of equations and formulas in problem solving, in solving difficult problems, and in knowing when the solution is not correct, whereas they displayed more expertlike attitudes and approaches on items related to metacognition in physics problem solving. A principal component analysis on the data yields item clusters into which the student responses on various survey items can be grouped. A comparison of the responses of the Turkish and American university students enrolled in algebra-based introductory physics courses shows that on more than half of the items, the responses of these two groups were statistically significantly different, with the U.S. students on average responding to the items in a more expertlike manner.
Wulandari, R. D.; Lukito, A.; Khabibah, S.
The aim of this research is to describe the third grade of elementary school students’ mathematical problem in solving skills based on their reading abilities. This research is a descriptive research with qualitative approach. This research was conducted at elementary school Kebraon II Surabaya in second semester of 2016-2017 academic years. The participants of this research consist of third grade students with different reading abilities that are independent level, instructional level and frustration level. The participants of this research were selected with purposive sampling technique. The data of this study were collected using reading the narration texts, the Ekwall and Shanker Informal Reading Inventory, problem solving task and interview guidelines. The collected data were evaluated using a descriptive analysis method. Once the study had been completed, it was concluded that problem solving skills varied according to reading abilities, student with independent level and instructional level can solve the problem and students with frustration level can’t solve the problem because they can’t interpret the problem well.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Huang-Chi; Liu, Tai-Ling; Wu, Yu-Yu; Tang, Tze-Chun
Few studies have compared the risks of mental health problems among the adolescents with different levels and different types of bullying involvement experiences. Bullying involvement in 6,406 adolescents was determined through use of the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. Data were collected regarding the mental health problems, including depression, suicidality, insomnia, general anxiety, social phobia, alcohol abuse, inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The association between experiences of bullying involvement and mental health problems was examined. The risk of mental health problems was compared among those with different levels/types of bullying involvement. The results found that being a victim of any type of bullying and being a perpetrator of passive bullying were significantly associated with all kinds of mental health problems, and being a perpetrator of active bullying was significantly associated with all kinds of mental health problems except for general anxiety. Victims or perpetrators of both passive and active bullying had a greater risk of some dimensions of mental health problems than those involved in only passive or active bullying. Differences in the risk of mental health problems were also found among adolescents involved in different types of bullying. This difference in comorbid mental health problems should be taken into consideration when assessing adolescents involved in different levels/types of bullying. © 2014.
Full Text Available History is an important school subject which conveys invaluable lessons from the past and whose worth transcends regional, national and cultural boundaries. Such a subject needs to be taught well in order to make learners gain deep appreciation of the relevance of their learning. However, effective teaching of history in Ghanaian schools has long been blighted by problems and challenges that have often gone unaddressed. With little empirical literature emerging from Ghana, this study, drawing on 32 history teachers from 18 senior high schools, examined history teachers’ perceptions of the problems faced in the teaching of history in the Cape Coast metropolis and Komenda, Edina, Eguafo, Abrim district in the Central Region of Ghana. The descriptive cross-sectional research design was used for the study and data were collected through questionnaires. The study found that overloaded syllabus, insufficient human and material resources, lack of support for the subject and large classes were the major problems facing the teaching of history. Based on the findings, the study concluded that the problems confronting the teaching of history in the two districts are administrative and pedagogical in nature. On this conclusion, it was recommended, among others, that syllabus content should be integrated to make it sync with the period given for its implementation. Also, the necessary resources should be provided to enhance the teaching of the subject.
Sahin, Ummugulsum; Adana, Filiz
To determine problem solving, loneliness, depression levels and associated factors in high school adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a city west of Turkey (Bursa) in a public high school and the population was 774 and the sampling was 394 students. Students to be included in the study were selected using the multiple sampling method. A personal Information Form with 23 questions, Problem Solving Inventory (PSI), Loneliness Scale (UCLA), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used as data collection tools in the study. Basic statistical analyses, t-test, Kruskall Wallis-H, One Way Anova and Pearson Correlation test were used to evaluate the data. Necessary permissions were obtained from the relevant institution, students, parents and the ethical committee. The study found significant differences between "problem solving level" and family type, health assessment, life quality and mothers', fathers' siblings' closeness level; between "loneliness level" and gender, family income, health assessment, life quality and mothers', fathers', siblings' closeness level; between "depression level" and life quality, family income, fathers' closeness level. Unfavorable socio-economic and cultural conditions can have an effect on the problem solving, loneliness and depression levels of adolescents. Providing structured education to adolescents at risk under school mental health nursing practices is recommended.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Halitosis represents a common dental condition, although sufferers are often not conscious of it. The aim of this study was to examine behavior in a sample of Italian subjects with reference to self-reported halitosis and emotional state, and specifically the presence of dental anxiety. Methods The study was performed on Italian subjects (N = 1052; range 15-65 years. A self-report questionnaire was used to detect self-reported halitosis and other variables possibly linked to it (sociodemographic data, medical and dental history, oral hygiene, and others, and a dental anxiety scale (DAS divided into two subscales that explore a patient's dental anxiety and dental anxiety concerning dentist-patient relations. Associations between self-reported halitosis and the abovementioned variables were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Correlations between the two groups, with self-perceived halitosis and without, were also investigated with dental anxiety and with the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Results The rate of self-reported halitosis was 19.39%. The factors linked with halitosis were: anxiety regarding dentist patient relations (relational dental anxiety (OR = 1.04, CI = 1.01-1.07, alcohol consumption (OR = 0.47, CI = 0.34-0.66, gum diseases (OR = 0.39, CI = 0.27-0.55, age > 30 years (OR = 1.01, CI = 1.00-1.02, female gender (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.51-0.98, poor oral hygiene (OR = 0.65, CI = 0.43-0.98, general anxiety (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.49-0.90, and urinary system pathologies (OR = 0.46, CI = 0.30-0.70. Other findings emerged concerning average differences between subjects with or without self-perceived halitosis, dental anxiety and the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Conclusions Halitosis requires professional care not only by dentists, but also psychological support as it is a problem that leads to avoidance behaviors and thereby limits relationships. It
Meo, Sultan Ayoub
This study aimed to assess knowledge and skills in a respiratory physiology course in traditional versus problem-based learning (PBL) groups in two different medical schools. Two different undergraduate medical schools were selected for this study. The first medical school followed the traditional [lecture-based learning (LBL)] curriculum, and the second medical school followed the PBL curriculum. Sixty first-year male medical students (30 students from each medical school) volunteered; they were apparently healthy and of the same age, sex, nationality, and regional and cultural background. Students were taught respiratory physiology according to their curriculum for a period of 2 wk. At the completion of the study period, knowledge was measured based on a single best multiple-choice question examination, and skill was measured based on the objective structured practical examination in the lung function laboratory (respiratory physiology). A Student's t-test was applied for the analysis of the data, and the level of significance was set at P schools.
Vera-Villarroel, P.; Piqueras, J.A.; Kuhne, W.; Cuijpers, P.; van Straten, A.
Background: Obesity is a public health problem of alarming proportions, including among the university population in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between the self-reported body mass index and the associated drug use and health-risk behaviors.Methods: We
Gül Ergün; Buket Şimşek Arslan
This research aims at reviewing the relation between the problem solving skills of health high school students and their social skill levels. It was planned to be descriptive. The universe of the research was composed of nursing students in the health high school. The sample was determined to be the whole of the universe. A written permission was taken from the management of the health high school regarding the research. Problem Solving Inventory and Social Skill Inventory; the form towards ...
Konradsen, Hanne; Rasmussen, Marie Louise Thiese; Noiesen, Eline
Constipation is a common health problem in relation to hospitalization. This randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate whether advice from a home care nurse after discharge had an effect on self-reported signs of constipation. A total of 59 patients were included in the study on the basis...... of their self-reported signs of constipation evaluated using the Constipation Assessment Scale. Advice from the home care nurses was given on the intake of fiber and liquid and mobilization related to scorings on the Constipation Risk Assessment Scale, the administration of laxatives, and referral...
Cremers, R.G.; Aben, K.K.; Verrneulen, S.H.; den Heijer, M.; van Oort, I.M.; van de Kerkhof, P.C.; Schalken, JA; Kiemeney, L.A.
Objective: Some studies have suggested an inverse association between acne vulgaris and the acne-related bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and prostate cancer (PCa). Self-reported acne might be an easily obtainable marker to identify men at relatively low risk of PCa and might be incorporated into
Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Oort, I.M. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Schalken, J.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.
OBJECTIVE: Some studies have suggested an inverse association between acne vulgaris and the acne-related bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and prostate cancer (PCa). Self-reported acne might be an easily obtainable marker to identify men at relatively low risk of PCa and might be incorporated into
Versloot, J.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.; Hoogstraten, J.
The aim of the present study is to get an insight into the pain report of children over two sequential dental visits. Furthermore, it was studied whether age, previous dental experience, level of dental anxiety and injection site were of influence on the self-reported pain of children during the
McHugh, R. Kathryn; Behar, Evelyn
As the demand for accountability in service provision settings increases, the need for valid methods for assessing clinical outcomes is of particular importance. Self-report measures of functioning are particularly useful in the assessment of psychological functioning, but a vital factor in their validity and transportability is the reading level…
Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria
BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now there is ......BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now...... there is very little information published on this subject. METHODS: We conducted a study to validate the questionnaire used in an ongoing international case-control study on cellular phone use, the "Interphone study". Self-reported cellular phone use from 68 of 104 participants who took part in our study...... was compared with information derived from the network providers over a period of 3 months (taken as the gold standard). RESULTS: Using Spearman's rank correlation, the correlation between self-reported phone use and information from the network providers for cellular phone use in terms of the number of calls...
This study ai 's to determine by questionnaire the prevalence of smoking and its associated sociodemographic factors in adult dentate populations in Southwestern Nigeria and to examine self reported periodontal treatment experience between smokers and nonsmokers. A descriptive study of prevalence of smoking and ...
Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes and associated risk factors among university employees in Jos, Nigeria. ... Concerted efforts to implement NCD prevention measures will serve to reduce the high burden of NCDs. Keywords: Non-communicable disease, Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Lifestyle, risk ...
Ordonana, Juan R.; Gonzalez-Javier, Francisca; Espin-Lopez, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus
This study was designed to assess the relationship between self-report and psychophysiological responses to fear appeals and behavioral changes elicited by these. Ninety-two subjects watched one of four messages that varied in level of threat (high vs. low) and efficacy (high vs. low). Concomitantly, psychophysiological measures (heart rate and…
Conclusions: In conclusion, self-reported barriers to optimal adherence included the use of non-prescribed drugs, and the presence of side effects such as insomnia, headaches and abdominal pain; while eating well was a facilitator. These findings emphasise the need for better communication between patients and ...
Connor, Jane M.; And Others
Reported a self-report measure of adolescents' assertiveness. Items for the scale were presented to sixth-grade students. Factor analysis revealed factors of submissiveness, aggressiveness, and assertiveness. After the validational study, a small assertiveness training program indicated that training effects were obtained and could be generalized…
Mauger, Paul A.; And Others
The differences between aggressiveness and assertiveness were examined using the Interpersonal Behavior Survey (IBS), a 136-item self-report questionnaire which was developed to distinguish between assertive and aggressive behaviors. Item level factor analysis was used in scale construction. Results indicated that: (1) the correlation between the…
Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Sihvola, Elina; Raevuori, Anu; Kaukoranta, Jutta; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess whether short self-report eating disorder screening questions are useful population screening methods. Method: We screened the female participants (N = 2881) from the 1975-1079 birth cohorts of Finnish twins for eating disorders, using several
Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Selig, James P.; Trahan, Don P., Jr.
Researchers explored the factor structure of the Self-Report Family Inventory with a sample of heterosexual parents who have a son or daughter who self-identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Results suggest that a two-factor solution is appropriate. Research and clinical implications are offered. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)
Bamber, David; Castka, Pavel
Purpose: To identify competencies connecting personality, organizational orientations and self-reported learning outcomes (as measured by concise Likert-type scales), for individuals who are learning for their organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Five concise factor scales were constructed to represent aspects of personality. Three further…
Thomas M. Brinthaupt
Full Text Available Self-Talk Scale (STS; Brinthaupt, Hein, & Kramer, 2009 is a self-report measure of self-talk frequency that has been shown to possess acceptable reliability and validity. However, no research using the STS has examined the accuracy of respondents’ self-reports. In the present paper, we report a series of studies directly examining the measurement of self-talk frequency and functions using the STS. The studies examine ways to validate self-reported self-talk by (1 comparing STS responses from 6 weeks earlier to recent experiences that might precipitate self-talk, (2 using experience sampling methods to determine whether STS scores are related to recent reports of self-talk over a period of a week, and (3 comparing self-reported STS scores to those provided by a significant other who rated the target on the STS. Results showed that (1 overall self-talk scores, particularly self-critical and self-reinforcing self-talk, were significantly related to reports of context-specific self-talk; (2 high STS scorers reported talking to themselves significantly more often during recent events compared to low STS scorers, and, contrary to expectations, (3 friends reported less agreement than strangers in their self-other self-talk ratings. Implications of the results for the validity of the STS and for measuring self-talk are presented.
Roudijk, B.; Donders, R.; Stalmeier, P.F.
PURPOSE: Self-reported health (SRH) is a measure widely used in health research and population studies. Differences in SRH have been observed between countries and cultural values have been hypothesized to partly explain such differences. Cultural values can be operationalized by two cultural
Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.
Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…
Zekveld, A.A.; George, E.L.J.; Houtgast, T.; Kramer, S.E.
Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH;
Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Thomsen, Sten Grove
BACKGROUND: We studied the agreement between different measurements of gestational age, i.e. self-reported gestational age in the Danish National Birth Cohort Study, ultrasound-estimated gestational age from the medical records in one Danish county and gestational age from the Danish National...
Croon Marcel A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI. This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.. ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009, social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011, and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048 predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures.
Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.
Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)
Conclusion: Information about risk factors revealed in individual interviews and by the midwives taking a history was incongruent. Any approach for management of STIs, which is built on self-reported risk factors, needs careful assessment of reliability. Keywords: Adolescents, Risk factors, reliability, STI, Uganda
Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among university students in Eldoret, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all students who gave consent to participate in the study. Setting: Moi University's Town Campus, comprising the ...
between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined. Results. Average ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among employed South African adults. Participant ... acquired information on physical activity habits. Questions ..... How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and ...
Empirical studies that assess which items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) are the best predictors of anxiety disorders in adolescents are lacking, whereas several attempts have been made to construct an anxiety scale for the YSR. It is important to gap the bridge between existing YSR and DSM-IV
Daanen, Hein A M; Byvoet, Michel B.
Purpose: The challenge for companies selling clothing over the internet is to combine a minimal requested effort of the visitor in entering (body) information with low-percentage no-fit returns. The purpose of this paper is to present a method that converts self-reported information to individual
Pflug, Verena; Schneider, Silvia
School absenteeism is a significant social and public health problem. However, existing prevalence rates are often not representative due to biased assessment processes at schools. The present study assessed school absenteeism in Germany using a nationwide online self-report survey. Although our definition of school absenteeism was more conservative than in previous studies, nearly 9 % of the 1359 high school students reported school absenteeism within the past 7 days. Absent students lived less often with both parents, were on average of lower socioeconomic status, and reported more emotional problems, behavioral problems and less prosocial behavior than attending students. Being an indicator of a wide variety of problems in children and adolescents, school absenteeism deserves much more attention. Future directions for research and implications for prevention and intervention programs are discussed.
Bannai, Akira; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Tamakoshi, Akiko
Long working hours may impact human health. In Japan, teachers tend to work long hours. From 2002 to 2012, the number of leaves of absence due to diseases other than mental disorders, or mental disorders among public school teachers increased by 1.3 times (from 2,616 to 3,381), or 1.8 times (from 2,687 to 4,960), respectively. The present study aimed to investigate the association between long working hours and sleep problems among public school teachers. This cross-sectional study was conducted from mid-July to September 2013 in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,245 teachers in public junior high schools. Information about basic characteristics including working hours, and responses to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were collected anonymously. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the association between long working hours and sleep problems separately by sex. The response rate was 44.8% (n=558). After excluding ineligible responses, the final sample comprised 515 teachers (335 males and 180 females). Sleep problems was identified in 41.5% of males and 44.4% of females. Our results showed a significantly increased risk of sleep problems in males working >60 hours per week (OR 2.05 [95% CI 1.01-4.30]) compared with those working ≤40 hours per week. No significant association was found in females. There is a significant association between long working hours and sleep problems in male teachers. Reducing working hours may contribute to a reduction in sleep problems.
Rasyid, M. A.; Budiarto, M. T.; Lukito, A.
This study aims to describe reflective thinking of junior high school students on solving the fractions problem in terms of gender differences. This research is a qualitative approach involving one male student and one female student in seventh grade. The data were collected through the assignment of fractional problem solving and interview, then the data were triangulated and analyzed by three stages, namely data condensation, data display and conclusion. The results showed that the subjects of male and female were reacting, elaborating and contemplating at each stage of solving the fractions problem. But at the stage of devising the plan, the female subject was contemplating, relying more on their beliefs, did not consider their experience, in addition, the female subject didn’t use experience of the steps she planned to solve the problem of fractions.
Clarke, Philippa; Sastry, Narayan; Duffy, Denise; Ailshire, Jennifer
Many studies rely on self-reports to capture population trends and trajectories in weight gain over adulthood, but the validity of self-reports is often considered a limitation. The purpose of this work was to examine long-term trajectories of self-reporting bias in a national sample of American youth. With 3 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996-2008), we used growth curve models to examine self-reporting bias in trajectories of weight gain across adolescence and early adulthood (ages 13-32 years). We investigated whether self-reporting bias is constant over time, or whether adolescents become more accurate in reporting their weight as they move into young adulthood, and we examined differences in self-reporting bias by sex, race/ethnicity, and attained education. Adolescent girls underreported their weight by 0.86 kg on average, and this rate of underreporting increased over early adulthood. In contrast, we found no evidence that boys underreported their weight either in adolescence or over the early adult years. For young men, self-reports of weight were unbiased estimates of measured weight among all racial/ethnic and educational subpopulations over adolescence and early adulthood. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ani, Cornelius; Ajuwon, Ademola J; Omigbodun, Olayinka
Aggressive patterns of behavior often start early in childhood, and tend to remain stable into adulthood. The negative consequences include poor academic performance, disciplinary problems and encounters with the juvenile justice system. Early school intervention programs can alter this trajectory for aggressive children. However, there are no studies evaluating the feasibility of such interventions in Africa. This study therefore, assessed the effect of group-based problem-solving interventions on aggressive behaviors among primary school pupils in Ibadan, Nigeria. This was an intervention study with treatment and wait-list control groups. Two public primary schools in Ibadan Nigeria were randomly allocated to an intervention group and a waiting list control group. Teachers rated male Primary five pupils in the two schools on aggressive behaviors and the top 20 highest scorers in each school were selected. Pupils in the intervention school received 6 twice-weekly sessions of group-based intervention, which included problem-solving skills, calming techniques and attribution retraining. Outcome measures were; teacher rated aggressive behaviour (TRAB), self-rated aggression scale (SRAS), strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), attitude towards aggression questionnaire (ATAQ), and social cognition and attribution scale (SCAS). The participants were aged 12 years (SD = 1.2, range 9-14 years). Both groups had similar socio-demographic backgrounds and baseline measures of aggressive behaviors. Controlling for baseline scores, the intervention group had significantly lower scores on TRAB and SRAS 1-week post intervention with large Cohen's effect sizes of 1.2 and 0.9 respectively. The other outcome measures were not significantly different between the groups post-intervention. Group-based problem solving intervention for aggressive behaviors among primary school students showed significant reductions in both teachers' and students' rated aggressive behaviours