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Sample records for self-reported noise exposure

  1. Road traffic noise: self-reported noise annoyance versus GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure.

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    Birk, Matthias; Ivina, Olga; von Klot, Stephanie; Babisch, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    self-reported road traffic noise annoyance is commonly used in epidemiological studies for assessment of potential health effects. Alternatively, some studies have used geographic information system (GIS) modelled exposure to road traffic noise as an objective parameter. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between noise exposure due to neighbouring road traffic and the noise annoyance of adults, taking other determinants into consideration. parents of 951 Munich children from the two German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus reported their annoyance due to road traffic noise at home. GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure (L(den), maximum within a 50 m buffer) from the noise map of the city of Munich was available for all families. GIS-based calculated distance to the closest major road (≥10,000 vehicles per day) and questionnaire based-information about family income, parental education and the type of the street of residence were explored for their potential influence. An ordered logit regression model was applied. The noise levels (L(den)) and the reported noise annoyance were compared with an established exposure-response function. the correlation between noise annoyance and noise exposure (L(den)) was fair (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.37). The distance to a major road and the type of street were strong predictors for the noise annoyance. The annoyance modelled by the established exposure-response function and that estimated by the ordered logit model were moderately associated (Pearson's correlation r(p) = 0.50). road traffic noise annoyance was associated with GIS modelled neighbouring road traffic noise exposure (L(den)). The distance to a major road and the type of street were additional explanatory factors of the noise annoyance appraisal.

  2. Self-reported noise exposure as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Lund, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    men and women when adjusting for demographic factors and health behavior. After further adjustment for physical workload at work the association between noise exposure and sickness absence disappeared for women, but not for men. Men that reported to be exposed to loud noise between one......Self-reported noise exposure is on the rise in Denmark. Little is known, however, about the social consequences, including sickness absence, of noise exposure. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between self-reported noise exposure and long-term sickness absence....... The association was investigated using the Cox proportional hazards model to analyze outcomes in Danish register data on the basis of Danish survey data (5357 employees aged 18-69 in 2000). The analyses showed that self-reported noise exposure was significantly associated with long-term sickness absence for both...

  3. Self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise: exposure-response relationships for nighttime equivalent and maximum noise levels.

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    Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Moum, Torbjorn; Engdahl, Bo

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present survey was to study self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise with respect to nighttime equivalent noise level (L(p,A,eq,night)) and maximum noise level (L(p,A,max)). A sample of 1349 people in and around Oslo in Norway exposed to railway noise was studied in a cross-sectional survey to obtain data on sleep disturbances, sleep problems due to noise, and personal characteristics including noise sensitivity. Individual noise exposure levels were determined outside of the bedroom facade, the most-exposed facade, and inside the respondents' bedrooms. The exposure-response relationships were analyzed by using logistic regression models, controlling for possible modifying factors including the number of noise events (train pass-by frequency). L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) were significantly correlated, and the proportion of reported noise-induced sleep problems increased as both L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) increased. Noise sensitivity, type of bedroom window, and pass-by frequency were significant factors affecting noise-induced sleep disturbances, in addition to the noise exposure level. Because about half of the study population did not use a bedroom at the most-exposed side of the house, the exposure-response curve obtained by using noise levels for the most-exposed facade underestimated noise-induced sleep disturbance for those who actually have their bedroom at the most-exposed facade.

  4. Exposure to road traffic and railway noise and associations with blood pressure and self-reported hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to transport noise increases the risk for cardiovascular disorders. The effect of transport noise on blood pressure and hypertension is uncertain....

  5. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Kageyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of wind turbine noise (WTN with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012: 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.

  6. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan.

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    Kageyama, Takayuki; Yano, Takashi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Sueoka, Shinichi; Tachibana, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The association of wind turbine noise (WTN) with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012): 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR) of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.

  7. Long-term associations of modeled and self-reported measures of exposure to air pollution and noise at residence on prevalent hypertension and blood pressure.

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    Pitchika, Anitha; Hampel, Regina; Wolf, Kathrin; Kraus, Ute; Cyrys, Josef; Babisch, Wolfgang; Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution, traffic noise and noise annoyance are suggested to be associated with hypertension and blood pressure (BP); however, the evidence remains inconsistent. Our study examined the long-term associations of modeled and self-reported measures of air pollution and traffic noise on prevalent hypertension and BP. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 2552 participants aged 31-72years from the KORA F4 (2006-2008) study conducted in the region of Augsburg, Germany. Land-use regression models were used to estimate residential long-term exposure to particulate matter residences. Participants filled-in a questionnaire on noise annoyance and heavy traffic passing their residence. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for confounders were used to assess the association between exposure measures and hypertension and BP. An interquartile increase in annual mean PM 2.5 (1μg/m 3 ) was significantly associated with 15% higher prevalence of hypertension, without (95% CI: 2.5; 28.0%) and with (95% CI: 0.7; 30.8%) adjustment for traffic noise. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was associated with air pollutants and traffic noise with percent increases in mean of 0.7 (95% CI: 0.2; 1.2), 0.6 (95% CI: 0.1; 1.1) and 0.3 (95% CI: 0.0; 0.7) for an interquartile increase in PM 2.5 (1μg/m 3 ) and PM 2.5 abs (0.2∗10 -5 /m), and 5dB(A) increase in 24-hour road traffic noise, respectively. Associations of PM 2.5 abs and NO 2 with hypertension or DBP were stronger in men and diabetic individuals. No clear associations were seen with systolic BP or noise annoyance. In conclusion, self-reported measures of air pollution or noise did not perform better than the objective measures. Our findings provide further evidence for a link between air pollution, noise and cardiovascular disease and indicate a stronger association for men and diabetic individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Heart disease attributed to occupational noise, vibration and other co-exposure: Self-reported population-based survey among Bulgarian workers.

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    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main mortality cause worldwide. Noise and vibration are considered to be occupational risk factors, but little is known about their cardiovascular effects in Bulgaria in terms of gender and various professional groups. The aim of this study has been to investigate the risk of prevalent CVD, associated with occupational noise and vibration exposure. We conducted a secondary analysis of the data from 3 waves of the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) 2001-2010 - a nationally-representative cross-sectional questionnaire survey covering 3149 workers aged ≥ 15 years in Bulgaria. Data on self-reported heart disease were linked to self-reported occupational noise and vibration, adjusting for other factors. Results from the 3 waves were pooled together using the inverse variance heterogeneity (IVhet) meta-analysis. For noise, the risk was elevated among women (relative risk (RR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53-3.01), but not men (RR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.14-1.65). Long-term workers had RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.60-1.69. For vibration, the risk was increased in all participants. It was higher among men (RR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.60-4.09) than it was among women (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.77-2.27). Among long-term, industrial, and service workers it was RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.40; RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.61-1.98, and RR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.57-2.46, respectively. Occupational vibration was a risk factor for prevalent heart disease in Bulgaria. Noise was an alleged risk factor only among long-term workers and women. Med Pr 2016;67(4):435-445. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  9. Exposure to self-reported occupational noise and diabetes - A cross-sectional relationship in 7th European Social Survey (ESS7, 2014).

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    Dzhambov, Angel Mario

    2017-06-19

    Almost nothing is known about the effect of occupational noise on diabetes, and this is particularly relevant given the wide spread of both noise exposure and diabetes. This study has aimed to determine whether occupational noise exposure is associated with higher risk of diabetes in Europe. This study is based on 7th European Social Survey (ESS7, 2014) - a multi-country population-based questionnaire survey, which covered 28 221 Europeans aged ≥ 15 years old. Data on self-reported noise exposure, diabetes and other sociodemographic and work-related factors was available. The odds of prevalent diabetes were explored using unconditional logistic regression. In the total sample (N = 23 486), participants ever exposed to very loud noise had no substantive increase in the odds of diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78-1.32). There were subgroups with non-significantly increased odds: men (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.87-1.45), the elderly (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.91-1.31), ethnic minority members (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 0.91-2.62), those with secondary education (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.78-1.41) and those living in small cities/towns (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.89-1.29). Low-skilled white-collar workers had OR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.09-1.64). Among participants employed during the preceding 5 years the odds were OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 0.95-1.61). Self-reported occupational noise was not associated with increased odds of prevalent diabetes in the total sample. Sensitivity analyses revealed some subgroups with non-significantly higher odds. Our results suggest that further delve into the relationship between occupational noise and diabetes is feasible and warranted. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):537-551. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  10. Heart disease attributed to occupational noise, vibration and other co-exposure: Self-reported population-based survey among Bulgarian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel M. Dzhambov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the main mortality cause worldwide. Noise and vibration are considered to be occupational risk factors, but little is known about their cardiovascular effects in Bulgaria in terms of gender and various professional groups. The aim of this study has been to investigate the risk of prevalent CVD, associated with occupational noise and vibration exposure. Material and Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the data from 3 waves of the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS 2001–2010 – a nationally-representative cross-sectional questionnaire survey covering 3149 workers aged ≥ 15 years in Bulgaria. Data on self-reported heart disease were linked to self-reported occupational noise and vibration, adjusting for other factors. Results from the 3 waves were pooled together using the inverse variance heterogeneity (IVhet meta-analysis. Results: For noise, the risk was elevated among women (relative risk (RR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.53–3.01, but not men (RR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.14–1.65. Long-term workers had RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.60–1.69. For vibration, the risk was increased in all participants. It was higher among men (RR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.60–4.09 than it was among women (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.77–2.27. Among long-term, industrial, and service workers it was RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02–2.40; RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.61–1.98, and RR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.57–2.46, respectively. Conclusions: Occupational vibration was a risk factor for prevalent heart disease in Bulgaria. Noise was an alleged risk factor only among long-term workers and women. Med Pr 2016;67(4:435–445

  11. Effects of self-reported sensitivity and road-traffic noise levels on the immune system.

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    Ahra Kim

    Full Text Available Sensitivity to noise, particularly road traffic noise, can increase cortisol levels and result in changes in immune system biomarkers. Therefore, continuous exposure to noise can have an effect on immune function, hormonal levels, and cardiovascular function, leading to hypertension and stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in stress-and immune system-related biomarkers according to the self-reported sensitivity to noise and exposure to road traffic noise, to ultimately determine the potential effects of noise on health. A survey was conducted through questionnaire (ISO/TS 15666 sent to 172 female subjects in Korea, including 128 from Ulsan and 44 from Seoul. The average noise level was calculated, and blood samples were collected for measurements of cortisol levels, Natural killer (NK / Natural killer T (NKT cell populations, and NK cell activity (through measurements of interleukin-12 (IL-12 and interferon-gamma (INF-γ concentrations. Multivariate linear regression analysis of the measured biomarkers according to the road traffic noise level and self-reported noise sensitivity was conducted adjusting for the effects of age, alcohol status, smoking status, regular exercise, and residence period. IL-12 levels increased, whereas the NKT cell population decreased with increasing noise levels. The results further suggested that cortisol levels are more influenced by the subject's sensitivity to noise than to the level of chronic road traffic noise. Therefore, noise appears to have the largest effect on IL-12 levels as well as the population and activity of NKT cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that low-level road traffic noise and sensitivity to noise can affect health by causing changes in the immune response through mechanisms other than increased cortisol.

  12. Self-reported occupational noise may be associated with prevalent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the us general population

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    Angel M Dzhambov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational noise exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are common in the United States, but so far their association has not been explored. Given the neuroimmunological effects of noise, such an association seems plausible. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the association of occupational noise exposure with prevalent COPD in the US general population. Materials and Methods: We used data from the population-based National Health Interview Survey (NHIS 2014. The cross-sectional association of self-reported duration of exposure to very loud noise during participants’ occupational lifetime with self-reported COPD and emphysema was explored using weighted logistic regression. Results and Discussion: The fully adjusted model yielded odds ratio (OR≥15 years = 1.68 [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.28, 2.21] for COPD and OR≥15 years = 1.61 (95% CI: 1.13, 2.30 for emphysema. Race/ethnicity was a significant effect modifier. In sensitivity analysis with cumulative noise exposure based on a job exposure matrix, we found no effect. Conclusion: In conclusion, we found a relationship between self-reported occupational noise exposure and the risk of prevalent COPD in the US general population, but none with objective noise levels. Being the first study on the subject matter, and given the design limitations, these findings are tentative and should be treated with caution.

  13. Validity of self-reported adult secondhand smoke exposure.

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    Prochaska, Judith J; Grossman, William; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Benowitz, Neal L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of adults to secondhand smoke (SHS) has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease. The current study evaluated brief self-report screening measures for accurately identifying adult cardiology patients with clinically significant levels of SHS exposure in need of intervention. A cross-sectional study conducted in a university-affiliated cardiology clinic and cardiology inpatient service. Participants were 118 non-smoking patients (59% male, mean age=63.6 years, SD=16.8) seeking cardiology services. Serum cotinine levels and self-reported SHS exposure in the past 24 h and 7 days on 13 adult secondhand exposure to smoke (ASHES) items. A single item assessment of SHS exposure in one's own home in the past 7 days was significantly correlated with serum cotinine levels (r=0.41, p85% and correct classification rates >85% at cotinine cut-off points of >0.215 and >0.80 ng/mL. The item outperformed multi-item scales, an assessment of home smoking rules, and SHS exposure assessed in other residential areas, automobiles and public settings. The sample was less accurate at self-reporting lower levels of SHS exposure (cotinine 0.05-0.215 ng/mL). The single item ASHES-7d Home screener is brief, assesses recent SHS exposure over a week's time, and yielded the optimal balance of sensitivity and specificity. The current findings support use of the ASHES-7d Home screener to detect SHS exposure and can be easily incorporated into assessment of other major vital signs in cardiology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Validity of self-reported exposure to shift work.

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    Härmä, Mikko; Koskinen, Aki; Ropponen, Annina; Puttonen, Sampsa; Karhula, Kati; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the validity of widely used questionnaire items on work schedule using objective registry data as reference. A cohort study of hospital employees who responded to a self-administered questionnaire on work schedule in 2008, 2012 and 2014 and were linked to individual-level pay-roll-based records on work shifts. For predictive validity, leisure-time fatigue was assessed. According to the survey data in 2014 (n=8896), 55% of the day workers had at least 1 year of earlier shift work experience. 8% of the night shift workers changed to day work during the follow-up. Using pay-roll data as reference, questions on 'shift work with night shifts' and 'permanent night work' showed high sensitivity (96% and 90%) and specificity (92% and 97%). Self-reported 'regular day work' showed moderate sensitivity (73%), but high specificity (99%) and 'shift work without night shifts' showed low sensitivity (62%) and moderate specificity (87%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the age-adjusted, sex-adjusted and baseline fatigue-adjusted association between 'shift work without night shifts' and leisure-time fatigue was lower for self-reported compared with objective assessment (1.30, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.82, n=1707 vs 1.89, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.39, n=1627). In contrast, shift work with night shifts, compared with permanent day work, was similarly associated with fatigue in the two assessments (2.04, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.57, n=2311 vs 1.82, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.58, n=1804). The validity of self-reported assessment of shift work varies between work schedules. Exposure misclassification in self-reported data may contribute to bias towards the null in shift work without night shifts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Effects of Wind Turbine Noise on Self-Reported and Objective Measures of Sleep.

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    Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Keith, Stephen E; Voicescu, Sonia A; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; Murray, Brian J; Weiss, Shelly K; Villeneuve, Paul J; van den Berg, Frits; Bower, Tara

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between self-reported and objective measures of sleep and wind turbine noise (WTN) exposure. The Community Noise and Health Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, included an in-house computer-assisted interview and sleep pattern monitoring over a 7 d period. Outdoor WTN levels were calculated following international standards for conditions that typically approximate the highest long-term average levels at each dwelling. Study data were collected between May and September 2013 from adults, aged 18-79 y (606 males, 632 females) randomly selected from each household and living between 0.25 and 11.22 kilometers from operational wind turbines in two Canadian provinces. Self-reported sleep quality over the past 30 d was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Additional questions assessed the prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders and the magnitude of sleep disturbance over the previous year. Objective measures for sleep latency, sleep efficiency, total sleep time, rate of awakening bouts, and wake duration after sleep onset were recorded using the wrist worn Actiwatch2® from a subsample of 654 participants (289 males, 365 females) for a total of 3,772 sleep nights. Participant response rate for the interview was 78.9%. Outdoor WTN levels reached 46 dB(A) with an arithmetic mean of 35.6 and a standard deviation of 7.4. Self-reported and objectively measured sleep outcomes consistently revealed no apparent pattern or statistically significant relationship to WTN levels. However, sleep was significantly influenced by other factors, including, but not limited to, the use of sleep medication, other health conditions (including sleep disorders), caffeine consumption, and annoyance with blinking lights on wind turbines. Study results do not support an association between exposure to outdoor WTN up to 46 dB(A) and an increase in the prevalence of disturbed sleep. Conclusions are based on WTN levels averaged over 1 y and, in

  16. The Effect of Noise on Relationships Between Speech Intelligibility and Self-Reported Communication Measures in Tracheoesophageal Speakers.

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    Eadie, Tanya L; Otero, Devon Sawin; Bolt, Susan; Kapsner-Smith, Mara; Sullivan, Jessica R

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how sentence intelligibility relates to self-reported communication in tracheoesophageal speakers when speech intelligibility is measured in quiet and noise. Twenty-four tracheoesophageal speakers who were at least 1 year postlaryngectomy provided audio recordings of 5 sentences from the Sentence Intelligibility Test. Speakers also completed self-reported measures of communication-the Voice Handicap Index-10 and the Communicative Participation Item Bank short form. Speech recordings were presented to 2 groups of inexperienced listeners who heard sentences in quiet or noise. Listeners transcribed the sentences to yield speech intelligibility scores. Very weak relationships were found between intelligibility in quiet and measures of voice handicap and communicative participation. Slightly stronger, but still weak and nonsignificant, relationships were observed between measures of intelligibility in noise and both self-reported measures. However, 12 speakers who were more than 65% intelligible in noise showed strong and statistically significant relationships with both self-reported measures (R2 = .76-.79). Speech intelligibility in quiet is a weak predictor of self-reported communication measures in tracheoesophageal speakers. Speech intelligibility in noise may be a better metric of self-reported communicative function for speakers who demonstrate higher speech intelligibility in noise.

  17. Agent Orange exposure and prevalence of self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans.

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    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Hong, Jae-Seok; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans. A postal survey of 114 562 Vietnam veterans was conducted. The perceived exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based Agent Orange exposure indices were constructed using division/brigade-level and battalion/company-level unit information. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age and other confounders were calculated using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of all self-reported diseases showed monotonically increasing trends as the levels of perceived self-reported exposure increased. The ORs for colon cancer (OR, 1.13), leukemia (OR, 1.56), hypertension (OR, 1.03), peripheral vasculopathy (OR, 1.07), enterocolitis (OR, 1.07), peripheral neuropathy (OR, 1.07), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.14), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.24), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), psychotic diseases (OR, 1.07) and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the division/brigade-level proximity-based exposure analysis, compared to the low exposure group. The ORs for cerebral infarction (OR, 1.08), chronic bronchitis (OR, 1.05), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.07), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.16), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the battalion/company-level analysis. Korean Vietnam veterans with high exposure to Agent Orange experienced a higher prevalence of several self-reported chronic diseases compared to those with low exposure by proximity-based exposure assessment. The strong positive associations between perceived self-reported exposure and all self-reported diseases should be evaluated with discretion because the likelihood of reporting diseases was directly related to the perceived intensity of Agent Orange exposure.

  18. Noise exposure and public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier-Vermeer, W.; Passchier, W.F.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and

  19. Influence of traffic-related noise and air pollution on self-reported fatigue.

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    Jazani, Reza Khani; Saremi, Mahnaz; Rezapour, Tara; Kavousi, Amir; Shirzad, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to environmental pollutions is related to health problems. It is, however, questionable whether this condition affects working performance in occupational settings. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive value of age as well as traffic related air and noise pollutions for fatigue. 246 traffic officers participated in this study. Air pollution data were obtained from the local Air Quality Control Company. A sound level meter was used for measuring ambient noise. Fatigue was evaluated by the MFI-20 questionnaire. The general and physical scales showed the highest, while the reduced activity scale showed the lowest level of fatigue. Age had an independent direct effect on reduced activity and physical fatigue. The average of daytime equivalent noise level was between 71.63 and 88.51 dB(A). In the case of high noise exposure, older officers feel more fatigue than younger ones. Exposure to PM10 and O3 resulted in general and physical fatigue. Complex Interactions between SO2, CO and NO2 were found. Exposure to noise and some components of air pollution, especially O3 and PM10, increases fatigue. The authorities should adopt and rigorously implement environmental protection policies in order to protect people.

  20. Indicators of residential traffic exposure: Modelled NOX, traffic proximity, and self-reported exposure in RHINE III

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    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Bäck, Erik; Eneroth, Kristina; Gislason, Thorarinn; Holm, Mathias; Janson, Christer; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Johannessen, Ane; Kaasik, Marko; Modig, Lars; Segersson, David; Sigsgaard, Torben; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Orru, Hans

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have investigated associations between self-reported and modelled exposure to traffic pollution. The objective of this study was to examine correlations between self-reported traffic exposure and modelled (a) NOX and (b) traffic proximity in seven different northern European cities; Aarhus (Denmark), Bergen (Norway), Gothenburg, Umeå, and Uppsala (Sweden), Reykjavik (Iceland), and Tartu (Estonia). We analysed data from the RHINE III (Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, http://www.rhine.nu)

  1. Self-Reported and FEMA Flood Exposure Assessment after Hurricane Sandy: Association with Mental Health Outcomes.

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    Wil Lieberman-Cribbin

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy caused extensive physical and economic damage; the long-term mental health consequences are unknown. Flooding is a central component of hurricane exposure, influencing mental health through multiple pathways that unfold over months after flooding recedes. Here we assess the concordance in self-reported and Federal Emergency Management (FEMA flood exposure after Hurricane Sandy and determine the associations between flooding and anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Self-reported flood data and mental health symptoms were obtained through validated questionnaires from New York City and Long Island residents (N = 1231 following Sandy. Self-reported flood data was compared to FEMA data obtained from the FEMA Modeling Task Force Hurricane Sandy Impact Analysis. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to determine the relationship between flooding exposure and mental health outcomes. There were significant discrepancies between self-reported and FEMA flood exposure data. Self-reported dichotomous flooding was positively associated with anxiety (ORadj: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.1-1.9], depression (ORadj: 1.7 [1.3-2.2], and PTSD (ORadj: 2.5 [1.8-3.4], while self-reported continuous flooding was associated with depression (ORadj: 1.1 [1.01-1.12] and PTSD (ORadj: 1.2 [1.1-1.2]. Models with FEMA dichotomous flooding (ORadj: 2.1 [1.5-2.8] or FEMA continuous flooding (ORadj: 1.1 [1.1-1.2] were only significantly associated with PTSD. Associations between mental health and flooding vary according to type of flood exposure measure utilized. Future hurricane preparedness and recovery efforts must integrate micro and macro-level flood exposures in order to accurately determine flood exposure risk during storms and realize the long-term importance of flooding on these three mental health symptoms.

  2. Odor and Noise Intolerance in Persons with Self-Reported Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Nordin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lack of confirmation of symptoms attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF and triggered by EMF exposure has highlighted the role of individual factors. Prior observations indicate intolerance to other types of environmental exposures among persons with electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS. This study assessed differences in odor and noise intolerance between persons with EHS and healthy controls by use of subscales and global measures of the Chemical Sensitivity Scale (CSS and the Noise Sensitivity Scale (NSS. The EHS group scored significantly higher than the controls on all CSS and NSS scales. Correlation coefficients between CSS and NSS scores ranged from 0.60 to 0.65 across measures. The findings suggest an association between EHS and odor and noise intolerance, encouraging further investigation of individual factors for understanding EMF-related symptoms.

  3. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and self-reported immune-related diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoets, A. J.; Assies, J.; Goodkin, K.; van Heck, G. L.; Bekker, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    To compare self-reports of immune-related diseases in diethylstilbestrol (DES) daughters and controls. Prenatal exposure to DES has been associated with several malformations in the lower genital tract, a higher prevalence of adenosis, and increased risk of clear cell adenocarcinoma, and

  4. Validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke in hospitality venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Iñaki; Mayo, Elga; López, María J; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Schiaffino, Anna; Moncada, Albert; Montes, Agustín; Nebot, Manel; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to assess the validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in 50 hospitality venues of Madrid (Spain) in 2010, taking as a reference vapour-phase nicotine measured by active sampling. The questions posed in the questionnaire permitted distinguishing between the different levels of SHS. However, the moderate relationship found (Spearman׳s correlation=0.387, phospitality venues, based solely on self-reported information, should be used with caution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Noise exposure under hyperbaric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Objective evidence exists that divers demonstrate a hearing deficit greater than would be expected from ageing effects alone. Deafness in divers may be caused by a number of factors other than exposure to excessive noise levels, eg barotrauma, ear infection etc. This review concentrates on the concern that exposure of commercial divers to noise while at work may cause a hearing deficit. Sound pressure levels recorded both underwater and in diving chambers often exceed those allowable to workers onshore. However, the sound perceived by the diver is modified both in amplitude and in frequency when he is either underwater or in pressurised chambers. Broadly the effect of this modification is to attenuate the sound and thus offer some protection from high noise levels. The degree of attentuation varies with the frequency of the sound, however it is also possible under specific conditions associated with gas density for the sensitivity to particular frequencies to be amplified above that for normal atmospheric air. The levels of sound observed from some underwater tools are of concern even after allowing for a significant de-sensitisation of the divers` hearing. Reports of tinnitus and temporary hearing loss following a dive are sure signs that the noise levels have been harmful. It is not possible at present to describe risk criteria for hearing damage due to noise exposure associated with diving. (author)

  6. Indoor Air Pollution and Health in Ghana: Self-Reported Exposure to Unprocessed Solid Fuel Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Frederick A; Odoi, Justice O; Luginaah, Isaac

    2015-06-01

    Most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana still depend extensively on unprocessed solid cooking fuels with many people exposed on a daily basis to harmful emissions and other health risks. In this study, using complementary log-log multivariate models, we estimated the health effects of exposure to smoke from unprocessed wood in four regions of Ghana while controlling for socio-environmental and socio-demographic factors. The results show that the distribution of self-reported exposure to smoke was highest among participants in the Northern region, rural dwellers, the 25-49 age groups, individuals with no education, and married women. As expected, exposure to smoke was higher in crowded households and in communities without basic social amenities. Region, residential locality, housing quality (type of roofing, floor and exterior materials), self-reported housing condition, and access to toilet facilities were associated with self-reported exposure to solid fuel smoke. Participants living in urban areas were less likely (OR = 0.82, ρ ≤ 0.01) to be exposed to solid fuel smoke compared to their rural counterparts. An inverse relationship between self-reported housing condition and exposure to solid fuel smoke was observed and persisted even after adjustments were made for confounding variables in the demographic model. In Ghana, the cost and intermittent shortages of liquefied petroleum gas and other alternative fuel sources hold implications for the willingness of the poor to shift to their use. Thus, the poorest rural populations with nearly no cash income and electricity, but with access to wood and/or agricultural waste, are unlikely to move to clean fuels or use significantly improved stoves without large subsidies, which are usually not sustainable. However, there appears to be large populations between these extremes that can be targeted by efforts to introduce improved stoves.

  7. Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

  8. Self-reported exposure to traffic pollution in relation to daytime sleepiness and habitual snoring: a questionnaire study in seven North-European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gislason, Thorarinn; Bertelsen, Randi J; Real, Francisco Gomez; Sigsgaard, Torben; Franklin, Karl A; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer; Arnardottir, Erna Sif; Hellgren, Johan; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis; Forsberg, Bertil; Johannessen, Ane

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about associations between traffic exposure and sleep disturbances. We examined if self-reported exposure to traffic is associated with habitual snoring and daytime sleepiness in a general population. In the RHINE III study, 12184 adults answered questions on sleep disturbances and traffic exposure. We analysed bedrooms near roads with traffic, bedrooms with traffic noise, and travelling regularly along busy roads as proxies for traffic exposures, using logistic regression. Adjustment factors were study centre, gender, age, smoking habits, educational level, body mass index, physical activity, obstructive sleep apnoea, and sleep duration. One in ten lived near a busy road, 6% slept in a bedroom with traffic noise, and 11% travelled regularly along busy roads. Habitual snoring affected 25% and daytime sleepiness 21%. More men reported snoring and more women reported daytime sleepiness. Having a bedroom with traffic noise was associated with snoring (adjusted OR 1.29, [95% CI 1.12, 1.48]). For daytime sleepiness, on the other hand, bedroom with traffic noise and high exposure to traffic pollution have significant risk factors (adjusted ORs 1.46 [1.11, 1.92] and 1.65 [1.11, 2.45]). Results were consistent across study centres. Daytime sleepiness is associated with traffic pollution and traffic noise, while habitual snoring is only associated with traffic noise. Self-reported traffic exposure should be taken into account when diagnosing and planning treatment for patients with sleep disturbances, because reducing noise and pollution exposure in the bedroom may have a beneficial effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Noise exposure in marching bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies involving orchestras have shown that music ensembles can produce hazardous noise levels. There are no similar data for marching bands and pep bands. In order to evaluate the noise levels produced by marching and pep bands, 1/3-octave-band sound-pressure levels were measured while these groups rehearsed and performed. Data were collected while marching with the bands to ensure a realistic environment. Comparing these data to OSHA and NIOSH criteria, marching and pep band exposures often exceed safe values. For typical exposures, OSHA doses range from 11% to 295%, while NIOSH doses range from 35% to 3055%. Exposures that would be considered hazardous in the workplace are common in marching and pep bands; students and band directors should take steps to recognize the risk posed by various instruments and various locations, and should implement hearing conservation efforts.

  10. Self-reported and laboratory evaluation of late pregnancy nicotine exposure and drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E S; Wexelblatt, S L; Greenberg, J M

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of late pregnancy nicotine exposures, including secondhand smoke exposures, and to evaluate the associated risk of exposure to drugs of abuse. The study was a retrospective single-center cohort analysis of more than 18 months. We compared self-reported smoking status from vital birth records with mass spectrometry laboratory results of maternal urine using a chi-square test. Logistic regression estimated adjusted odds for detection of drugs of abuse based on nicotine detection. Compared with 8.6% self-reporting cigarette use, mass spectrometry detected high-level nicotine exposures for 16.5% of 708 women (Pdrugs of abuse, presented as adjusted odds ratios, (95% confidence interval (CI), for both low-level (5.69, CI: 2.09 to 15.46) and high-level (13.93, CI: 7.06 to 27.49) nicotine exposures. Improved measurement tactics are critically needed to capture late pregnancy primary and passive nicotine exposures from all potential sources.

  11. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona C Fang

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in public multi-unit housing (MUH is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear.We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD 0.02 ng/ml and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng. Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine.Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively. Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml, with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%. TSE in the home, car, and other peoples' homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15-0.25, while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161, a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6% compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4% (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3 (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%.Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population.

  12. Online self-report questionnaire on computer work-related exposure (OSCWE): validity and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhora, Keerin; Jalayondeja, Wattana; Jalayondeja, Chutima; Bhuanantanondh, Petcharatana; Dusadiisariyavong, Asadang; Upiriyasakul, Rujiret; Anuraktam, Khajornyod

    2014-07-01

    To develop an online, self-report questionnaire on computer work-related exposure (OSCWE) and to determine the internal consistency, face and content validity of the questionnaire. The online, self-report questionnaire was developed to determine the risk factors related to musculoskeletal disorders in computer users. It comprised five domains: personal, work-related, work environment, physical health and psychosocial factors. The questionnaire's content was validated by an occupational medical doctor and three physical therapy lecturers involved in ergonomic teaching. Twenty-five lay people examined the feasibility of computer-administered and the user-friendly language. The item correlation in each domain was analyzed by the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha; alpha). The content of the questionnaire was considered congruent with the testing purposes. Eight hundred and thirty-five computer users at the PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Limited registered to the online self-report questionnaire. The internal consistency of the five domains was: personal (alpha = 0.58), work-related (alpha = 0.348), work environment (alpha = 0.72), physical health (alpha = 0.68) and psychosocial factor (alpha = 0.93). The findings suggested that the OSCWE had acceptable internal consistency for work environment and psychosocial factors. The OSCWE is available to use in population-based survey research among computer office workers.

  13. Self-reported advertising exposure to sugar-sweetened beverages among US youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri; Onufrak, Stephen; Zytnick, Deena; Kingsley, Beverly; Park, Sohyun

    2015-05-01

    According to the Federal Trade Commission, in 2009, the top food category with teen-directed marketing expenditures was sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The present study reports on exposure to SSB advertisements using self-report data from adolescents. Cross-sectional study design using descriptive statistics to assess self-reported frequency of exposure to SSB advertisements and multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between frequency of SSB advertising exposure and sociodemographic variables. Online survey conducted at home. US adolescents aged 12-17 years (n 847). Among the surveyed adolescents, 42 % to 54 % reported seeing/hearing SSB advertisements ≥1 time/d. Those aged 14-15 years were more likely to report seeing/hearing soda, sports drink and energy drink advertisements ≥1 time/d than 16- to 17-year-olds. Males were more likely to report seeing/hearing sports drink advertising ≥1 time/d than females. Non-Hispanic black adolescents were more likely to report seeing/hearing fruit drink and sports drink advertisements ≥1 time/d than non-Hispanic white adolescents. Adolescents whose parents had high-school education or less were more likely to report seeing/hearing soda, fruit drink and energy drink advertisements ≥1 time/d than adolescents whose parents were college graduates. Almost half of the adolescents sampled reported daily SSB advertising exposure, with higher exposure among African Americans and adolescents with less educated parents. These data can help inform potential actions that decision makers might take, such as education of adolescents and their caregivers on the potential impact of beverage advertising, especially among groups at higher risk for obesity.

  14. Auditory Brainstem Response to Complex Sounds Predicts Self-Reported Speech-in-Noise Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samira; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) to predict subjective ratings of speech understanding in noise on the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ; Gatehouse & Noble, 2004) relative to the predictive ability of the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN; Killion, Niquette,…

  15. Personal factors influencing agreement between expert and self-reported assessments of an occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Heather K; Sass-Kortsak, Andrea; Lou, W Y Wendy; Purdham, James T

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to identify personal factors associated with expert and respondent agreement on past occupational exposure. Epidemiologic data was collected from 1995 to 1998 in a community-based, case-control study of prostate cancer. Using longest jobs and excluding agreement on "never" exposure, self-reported and expert estimates of ever/ never exposure, by skin or ingestion, to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were compared. Agreement between respondents and the expert was 53.9 percent (N=1,038), with overreporting being more common than underreporting relative to the expert (31.8 percent versus 14.4 percent). In multiple logistic regression models, white-collar occupational status was significantly associated with overreporting (odds ratio [OR] = 0.142; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 0.095-0.211; blue-collar versus white-collar), while age was associated with underreporting (OR=1.077; 95 percent CI: 1.043-1.112; one-year increase). Neither job satisfaction nor risk perception appeared to confound other associations. In future studies, overreporting by white-collar workers might be avoided by providing clearer definitions of exposure, whereas elderly respondents may require aids to enhance exposure recall.

  16. Self-reported symptoms associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçer, Nermin; Pamukçu, Tuğba

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the last years, it has been discussed frequently whether there are any harmful effects of electromagnetic fields on human health. Electromagnetic fields are generated by several natural and man-made sources. Part of the electromagnetic spectrum called Radiofrequency is used in communication systems such as mobile (cellular) phone and computer. The aim of our study was to explore different self-reported symptoms that may be associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields. This survey study was conducted, using a questionnaire, on 350 people aged +9 years in Turkey. The chi-square test was used for data analysis. Self-reported symptoms were headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness, sleep disturbance-insomnia, tension-anxiety, joint and bone pain, lacrimation of the eyes, hearing loss and tinnitus. As a result of the survey, the study has shown that users of mobile phone and computer more often complained of headache, joint and bone pain, hearing loss, vertigo/dizziness, tension-anxiety symptoms according to time of daily usage (p < 0.05). In users of mobile phone and computer, women significantly (p < 0.05) complained more often of headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness and tension-anxiety than men.

  17. Preschool Personnel Exposure to Occupational Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaļužnaja Darja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased noise, which is also below the occupational exposure values and is “hearing safe” noise, affects the exposed person’s health as a non-specific stressor. Increased noise level also creates an environment for additional vocal apparatus load. The objective of this study was to determine preschool personnel occupational noise and its relationship with subjective health complaints. Data were obtained with survey assistance through subjective answers of respondents about health complaints and noise exposure among Rīga preschool personnel. Objective noise measurements were made to assess real noise levels in the preschool environment. Data from 155 respondents and objective measurements of 37 preschool classrooms were obtained. The results showed that the average 8-h noise exposure among Rīga preschool educational institutions was 70 dB(A, which did not exceed the Latvian work environment noise limits, but exceeded the 35–40 dB(A noise limit in the educational environment guidelines recommended by the WHO. The survey results showed that loud noise is one of the most important workplace environmental factors (~70% of respondents feel a necessity to increase voice because of noise. A constant feeling of fatigue, headache, irritable feeling, and a desire to isolate oneself from others more often occurred in respondents exposed to increased noise, compared with those who noted that they were not exposed to increased noise. In general, loud noise was associated with increased subjective health complaints in preschool education institution personnel.

  18. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Katherine; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U; Burguete-García, Ana; Cebrián, Mariano E; Calafat, Antonia M; Needham, Larry L; Claudio, Luz; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2011-08-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age (±5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (OR(T3 vs. T1)=2.66; 95% CI: 0.97-7.33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR(T3 vs. T1)=2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Assessment of Noise Exposure and Noise Annoyance at a Petrochemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Farhang Dehghan

    2013-12-01

    .Conclusion: Based on the obtained results of investigating the noise level (objective exposure as well as the noise annoyance (subjective exposure at the studied company, it is necessary to adopt the management –technical noise reduction measures at manufacturing sectors as the personal noise exposure and environmental noise exposure and also noise personal exposure of administrative staff can be decreased.

  20. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Katherine [Graduate School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR (Puerto Rico); National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Burguete-Garcia, Ana [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E. [Departamento de Toxicologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Calafat, Antonia M.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Claudio, Luz [Division of International Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth, E-mail: lizbeth@insp.mx [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. Methods: As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age ({+-}5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.66; 95% CI: 0.97-7.33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. Conclusions: The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. - Highlights: {yields} This study evaluated phthalate exposure and diabetes status among Mexican women. {yields} Urinary phthalates metabolite concentrations were used

  1. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Katherine; Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Burguete-Garcia, Ana; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Needham, Larry L.; Claudio, Luz; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2011-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. Methods: As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age (±5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (OR T3vs.T1 =2.66; 95% CI: 0.97-7.33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR T3vs.T1 =2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. Conclusions: The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. - Highlights: → This study evaluated phthalate exposure and diabetes status among Mexican women. → Urinary phthalates metabolite concentrations were used to determine

  2. Chicago transit authority train noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Linh T; Jones, Rachael M

    2017-06-01

    To characterize noise exposure of riders on Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) trains, we measured noise levels twice on each segment of 7 of the 8 CTA train lines, which are named after colors, yielding 48 time-series measurements. We found the Blue Line has the highest noise levels compared to other train lines, with mean 76.9 dBA; and that the maximum noise level, 88.9 dBA occurred in the tunnel between the Chicago and Grand stations. Train segments involving travel through a tunnel had significantly higher noise levels than segments with travel on elevated and ground level tracks. While 8-hr doses inside the passenger cars were not estimated to exceed occupational exposure limits, train operators ride in a separate cab with operational windows and may therefore have higher noise exposures than riders. Despite the low risk of hearing loss for riders on CTA trains, in part because transit noise accounts for a small part of total daily noise exposure, 1-min average noise levels exceeded 85 dBA at times. This confirms anecdotal observations of discomfort due to noise levels, and indicates a need for noise management, particularly in tunnels.

  3. Occupational noise exposure, psychosocial working conditions and the risk of tinnitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of occupational noise (current and cumulative doses) and psychosocial work factors (psychological demands and decision latitude) on tinnitus occurrence among workers, using objective and non-self-reported exposure measures to preven...

  4. An assessment of residential exposure to environmental noise at a shipping port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Enda; King, Eoin A

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organisation has recently acknowledged that contrary to the trend for other environmental stressors, noise exposure is increasing in Europe. However, little research has been conducted on environmental noise exposure to handling activity at shipping ports. This paper reports on research examining the extent of noise exposure for residents within the vicinity of Dublin Port, Ireland using the nation's largest port terminal as a proxy for port noise. In order to assess the level of exposure in the area, long-term measurements were undertaken at the most exposed residential façade for a period of 45days to determine the extent of night-time exposure that was above levels recommended by the World Health Organisation. The indicators L90, Leq and LMax were used to determine exposure levels. The results show that exposure is above night-time guideline limits set down by the WHO, above Irish levels for the assessment of noise mitigation and highlight the extent to which port noise can be a significant environmental stressor. The research also investigated the extent of low-frequency noise (which is associated with greater health issues) from night-time port handling activity and found a significant low-frequency component indicating the negative health issues that might arise from port noise exposure more generally. We also undertook semi-structured interviews with residents to qualitatively assess the self-reported impact of prolonged night-time noise exposure for local residents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Transient threshold shift after gunshot noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, B; Ghasemi, M; Motiee, M; Mojtahed, M; Safavi, A

    2013-01-01

    Many people, such as soldiers, are routinely exposed to gunshot noise during target practice. It is suspected that this high-intensity noise may affect audition through repeated Transient Threshold Shifts (TTS); it can also mechanically alter auditory components such as waves. This study investigates the scope of gunshot noise from the AK-47 rifle (Kalashnikov) and the impact on the shooters' audition. Forty soldiers (80 ears) were recruited in this study. They were all young and being exposed to gunshot noise for the first time. Gunshot characteristics were measured before exposure. The soldiers underwent auditory evaluation with Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) and Oto-Acoustic Emission (OAE) once before exposure and immediately (less than one hour) after exposure. The AK-47 gunshot noise pressure level varied between L(AIm) = 73.7 dBA to L(AIm) = 111.4 dBA. Fourteen participants had subclinical hearing impairment in their pre-exposure evaluation; this number increased to 16 after the exposure. Six months post-exposure and later, the number of cases with impairment had fallen to eight (improvement in 50%). Both pre- and post-exposure OAE results were within normal values, while PTA results indicated a significant threshold alteration only at 6 kHz. The results of this study confirm that exposure to gunshot noise with no ear protection can represent a significant hazard for auditory function, especially at higher frequencies.

  6. Self-Reported Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Avoidance Compared with Cotinine Confirmed Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Pregnant Women and Their Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gregory Gavarkovs

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS presents substantial health risks for pregnant women and newborn infants. Measurements of ETS include invasive and expensive biochemical tests, as well as less invasive and lower-cost, self-reported exposure and avoidance measures. Better understanding of self-report measures will help to select ETS assessments for evaluation. Methods: This analysis was conducted within the context of a tailored video intervention to reduce tobacco smoking and ETS exposure during pregnancy and after delivery in the control group sample of 147 nonsmoking women. Measurements of salivary cotinine concentration, self-reported ETS exposure, and avoidance behaviors were captured at 32 weeks’ gestation and 6 months postpartum. Results: Salivary cotinine concentration was significantly related to ETS avoidance among pregnant nonsmokers at 32 weeks’ gestation, but not ETS exposure. At 6 months postpartum, both the reported ETS exposure of the infant and maternal avoidance behaviors to reduce her infant’s exposure were associated with the infant’s salivary cotinine concentration. At 32 weeks’ gestation and 6 months postpartum, avoidance behaviors decreased as exposure increased. Discussion: This study suggests that for nonsmoking women during pregnancy, reports of tobacco smoke avoidance are more valid than reports of exposure. After delivery, self-reported ETS exposure or avoidance are associated with each other and the biochemical measurement of salivary cotinine. These results provide researchers and clinicians with evidence to support the inclusion of avoidance behaviors in the selection of ETS measures.

  7. Self-Reported Acute Health Effects and Exposure to Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Dufour, A P; Sams, E A; Wade, T J

    2016-06-01

    To understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms [e.g. gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, dermatological], it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar animals can result in a variety of health symptoms related to infection, irritation and allergy; however, few studies have examined this association in a large-scale cohort setting. Cross-sectional data collected from 50 507 participants in the United States enrolled from 2003 to 2009 were used to examine associations between animal contact and acute health symptoms during a 10-12 day period. Fixed-effects multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confident intervals (CI) for associations between animal exposures and outcomes of GI illness, respiratory illness and skin/eye symptoms. Two-thirds of the study population (63.2%) reported direct contact with animals, of which 7.7% had contact with at least one unfamiliar animal. Participants exposed to unfamiliar animals had significantly higher odds of self-reporting all three acute health symptoms, when compared to non-animal-exposed participants (GI: AOR = 1.4, CI = 1.2-1.7; respiratory: AOR = 1.5, CI = 1.2-1.8; and skin/eye: AOR = 1.9, CI = 1.6-2.3), as well as when compared to participants who only had contact with familiar animals. Specific contact with dogs, cats or pet birds was also significantly associated with at least one acute health symptom; AORs ranged from 1.1 to 1.5, when compared to participants not exposed to each animal. These results indicate that contact with animals, especially unfamiliar animals, was significantly associated with GI, respiratory and skin/eye symptoms. Such associations could be attributable to zoonotic infections and allergic reactions. Etiological models for acute health symptoms should consider contact with companion animals, particularly exposure to unfamiliar animals

  8. The relationship between self-reported tobacco exposure and cotinines in urine and blood for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien-Tsai; Isaac Wu, Hong-Dar; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2008-11-15

    To explore the relationship of self-reported exposure to tobacco smoke and the cotinine levels in the urine and blood over the follow-up period for pregnant women. Three hundred ninety-eight pregnant women undergoing prenatal care were interviewed in different trimesters at three hospitals in central Taiwan using a structured questionnaire. Based on their self-reported smoking experience, the participants were classified into three groups (25 smokers, 191 passive smokers, and 182 non-smokers) and were tracked in this study up to the time of delivery. Cotinine levels were tested for the maternal blood and urine at the end of each trimester and for the umbilical cord-blood of the newborns. All specimens were measured using a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique. In general, urinary cotinine levels were higher in subjects who smoked (including current- and ex-smokers) than those who never smoked. The pattern of distribution of cotinine levels among smoking/ETS exposure group in the urine sample was similar to that in the blood sample. The umbilical cord-blood cotinine levels was found to be highest in the active smoking group, followed by the ETS group exposed to ETS both at home and in the workplace. Over the course of the pregnancies, there was an increase in cotinine levels in urine and maternal blood for each of 3 exposure groups. Exposure to smoking by self-reported information in pregnant women has been found to be directly related to the levels of cotinine in the umbilical cord-blood of the fetus. Cotinine is a sensitive measure of ETS exposure, but if biochemical analysis is not available or convenient for a pregnant woman, then self-reported exposure to ETS can provide a good estimate if the information is gathered by a well-trained interviewer in a structured way.

  9. [Occupational noise exposure and work accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify whether occupational noise exposure is a significant risk factor for work accidents in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. This hospital-based case-control study included 600 workers aged 15-60 who suffered typical occupational accidents between May and October 2004 and were seen at the Piracicaba Orthopedics and Trauma Center. The control group comprised 822 workers, aged 15-60, who were also seen at the Center, and either had a non-occupational accident or were accompanying someone who had suffered an accident. A multiple logistic regression model was adjusted with work accident as an independent variable, controlled by covariables of interest such as noise exposure. The risk of having a work accident was about twice as high among workers exposed to noise, after controlling for several covariables. Occupational noise exposure not only affected auditory health status but was also a risk factor for work accidents.

  10. Relationship between exposure to multiple noise sources and noise annoyance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Relationships between exposure to noise [metric: day-night level (DNL) or day-evening-night level (DENL)] from a single source (aircraft, road traffic, or railways) and annoyance based on a large international dataset have been published earlier. Also for stationary sources relationships have been

  11. Correlates of self-reported exposure to advertising of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes across 28 European Union member states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Fernandez, Esteve; Mons, Ute; Tigova, Olena; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite advertising bans in most European Union (EU) member states, outlets for promotion of tobacco products and especially e-cigarettes still exist. This study aimed to assess the correlates of self-reported exposure to tobacco products and e-cigarettee advertising in the EU. Methods We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Eurobarometer survey (November–December 2014), collected through interviews in 28 EU member states (n=27 801 aged ≥15 years) and data on bans of tobacco advertising extracted from the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS, 2013). We used multilevel logistic regression to assess sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to any tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. Results 40% and 41.5% of the respondents reported having seen any e-cigarette and tobacco product advertisement respectively within the past year. Current smokers, males, younger respondents, those with financial difficulties, people who had tried e-cigarettes and daily internet users were more likely to report having seen an e-cigarette and a tobacco product advertisement. Respondents in countries with more comprehensive advertising bans were less likely to self-report exposure to any tobacco advertisements (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96 for one-unit increase in TCS advertising score), but not e-cigarette advertisements (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.22). Conclusion Ten years after ratification of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, self-reported exposure to tobacco and e-cigarette advertising in the EU is higher in e-cigarette and tobacco users, as well as those with internet access. The implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive may result in significant changes in e-cigarette advertising, therefore improved monitoring of advertising exposure is required in the coming years. PMID:28607098

  12. Explaining Discrepancies Between the Digit Triplet Speech-in-Noise Test Score and Self-Reported Hearing Problems in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Marieke; Deeg, Dorly J H; Kramer, Sophia E

    2018-04-17

    The purpose of this study is to determine which demographic, health-related, mood, personality, or social factors predict discrepancies between older adults' functional speech-in-noise test result and their self-reported hearing problems. Data of 1,061 respondents from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used (ages ranged from 57 to 95 years). Functional hearing problems were measured using a digit triplet speech-in-noise test. Five questions were used to assess self-reported hearing problems. Scores of both hearing measures were dichotomized. Two discrepancy outcomes were created: (a) being unaware: those with functional but without self-reported problems (reference is aware: those with functional and self-reported problems); (b) reporting false complaints: those without functional but with self-reported problems (reference is well: those without functional and self-reported hearing problems). Two multivariable prediction models (logistic regression) were built with 19 candidate predictors. The speech reception threshold in noise was kept (forced) as a predictor in both models. Persons with higher self-efficacy (to initiate behavior) and higher self-esteem had a higher odds to being unaware than persons with lower self-efficacy scores (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13 and 1.11, respectively). Women had a higher odds than men (OR = 1.47). Persons with more chronic diseases and persons with worse (i.e., higher) speech-in-noise reception thresholds in noise had a lower odds to being unaware (OR = 0.85 and 0.91, respectively) than persons with less diseases and better thresholds, respectively. A higher odds to reporting false complaints was predicted by more depressive symptoms (OR = 1.06), more chronic diseases (OR = 1.21), and a larger social network (OR = 1.02). Persons with higher self-efficacy (to complete behavior) had a lower odds (OR = 0.86), whereas persons with higher self-esteem had a higher odds to report false complaints (OR = 1.21). The explained variance

  13. Firefighters' noise exposure: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taxini, Carla Linhares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To review the literature about the effects of environmental noise on the hearing ability of firefighters. Method: The PubMed and Scielo databases were searched and studies from 2002 to 2012 that included the keywords firefighters, noise, and hearing loss were identified. Initially, 24 studies were selected, but only 10 met the inclusion criteria of investigating the effects of occupational noise on firefighters. Results: Only 2 (20% studies quantified levels of sound pressure and performed audiological tests to identify associations with noise intensity and 3 (30% questionnaire-based studies reported that these professionals are more susceptible to hearing loss. Four (50% studies found that noise exposure damages the auditory system in this population. Discussion: These findings indicate that there is a necessity for preventive measures to be adopted by this population since it is considered to be at risk. Conclusion: In recent years, there have been few studies of firefighters' exposure to occupational noise, but our findings show the importance of new studies that include proper means of quantifying their exposure to noise in different work environments, in order to identify possible adverse conditions as well as to aid in the diagnosis of hearing loss.

  14. Congenital cerebral palsy and prenatal exposure to self-reported maternal infections, fever, or smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streja, Elani; Miller, Jessica; Bech, Bodil H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the association between maternal self-reported infections, fever, and smoking in the prenatal period and the subsequent risk for congenital cerebral palsy (CP). STUDY DESIGN: We included the 81,066 mothers of singletons born between 1996...... and midgestation. We identified 139 CP cases including 121 cases of spastic CP (sCP) as confirmed by the Danish National Cerebral Palsy Register. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Self-reported vaginal...

  15. The effects of noise exposure and musical training on suprathreshold auditory processing and speech perception in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeend, Ingrid; Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Sharma, Mridula; Dillon, Harvey

    2017-09-01

    Recent animal research has shown that exposure to single episodes of intense noise causes cochlear synaptopathy without affecting hearing thresholds. It has been suggested that the same may occur in humans. If so, it is hypothesized that this would result in impaired encoding of sound and lead to difficulties hearing at suprathreshold levels, particularly in challenging listening environments. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of noise exposure on auditory processing, including the perception of speech in noise, in adult humans. A secondary aim was to explore whether musical training might improve some aspects of auditory processing and thus counteract or ameliorate any negative impacts of noise exposure. In a sample of 122 participants (63 female) aged 30-57 years with normal or near-normal hearing thresholds, we conducted audiometric tests, including tympanometry, audiometry, acoustic reflexes, otoacoustic emissions and medial olivocochlear responses. We also assessed temporal and spectral processing, by determining thresholds for detection of amplitude modulation and temporal fine structure. We assessed speech-in-noise perception, and conducted tests of attention, memory and sentence closure. We also calculated participants' accumulated lifetime noise exposure and administered questionnaires to assess self-reported listening difficulty and musical training. The results showed no clear link between participants' lifetime noise exposure and performance on any of the auditory processing or speech-in-noise tasks. Musical training was associated with better performance on the auditory processing tasks, but not the on the speech-in-noise perception tasks. The results indicate that sentence closure skills, working memory, attention, extended high frequency hearing thresholds and medial olivocochlear suppression strength are important factors that are related to the ability to process speech in noise. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by

  16. Noise Exposure Summary And Comparitive Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumala, Philip A. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health

    2013-11-18

    This paper summarizes and compares facility Operations and Maintenance (O&M) noise Dosimetry data to industry wide construction data. Dosimetry data has been compiled from a noise exposure assessment at a DOE national research facility Maintenance, Utilities, and Service Department (MUSD). This facility is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The laboratory consists of ten O&M craft and trade shops responsible for a fifty year old infrastructure including over 300 buildings, and a worker population of approximately 7,000. The facility includes an extensive variety of noise generating activities throughout a one square mile site.

  17. Self-reported exposure to pesticides in residential settings and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graber Nora J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides are widely used in households to control insects and weeds. Several studies, over the past decades, have examined the possible relationship of serum concentration of organochlorine pesticides and the development of breast cancer. However, little data exists regarding an association between self-reported, residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. We, therefore, present a case-control study examining self-reported exposure to household pesticides with regard to associated risk of breast cancer. Methods This study was conducted in the area in and around New York City, NY and included 1205 patients (447 cases and 758 controls. Cases were defined as women with newly diagnosed breast cancer or carcinoma in-situ, while controls included women with benign breast diseases or those undergoing non-breast related surgery. All patients were asked a series of questions to determine their pesticide exposure, including the type of pesticide, location of exposure (inside vs. outside the home, who applied the pesticide (self vs. a professional and duration of pesticide use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results The most common pests encountered in participants' homes were ants, carpenter ants, and cockroaches. The calculated adjusted odds ratios for both self and professionally applied pesticides, specifically against the above mentioned insects, with regard to breast cancer risk were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.79-1.98 and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.65-1.73, respectively. Similarly, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated for other types of pesticides. Conclusions Overall, the results of our study did not show an association between self-reported exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. Future studies, utilizing a larger sample size and more specific detail on time frame of pesticide exposure, are needed to

  18. Health effects related to wind turbine noise exposure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Klokker, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects thereof have attracted substantial attention. Various symptoms such as sleep-related problems, headache, tinnitus and vertigo have been described by subjects suspected of having been exposed to wind turbine noise. This review was conducted systematically with the purpose of identifying any reported associations between wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects. A search of the scientific literature concerning the health-related effects of wind turbine noise was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and various other Internet sources. All studies investigating suspected health-related outcomes associated with wind turbine noise exposure were included. Wind turbines emit noise, including low-frequency noise, which decreases incrementally with increases in distance from the wind turbines. Likewise, evidence of a dose-response relationship between wind turbine noise linked to noise annoyance, sleep disturbance and possibly even psychological distress was present in the literature. Currently, there is no further existing statistically-significant evidence indicating any association between wind turbine noise exposure and tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo or headache. Selection bias and information bias of differing magnitudes were found to be present in all current studies investigating wind turbine noise exposure and adverse health effects. Only articles published in English, German or Scandinavian languages were reviewed. Exposure to wind turbines does seem to increase the risk of annoyance and self-reported sleep disturbance in a dose-response relationship. There appears, though, to be a tolerable level of around LAeq of 35 dB. Of the many other claimed health effects of wind turbine noise exposure reported in the literature, however, no conclusive evidence could be found. Future studies should focus on investigations aimed at objectively demonstrating whether or not

  19. Recent life stress exposure is associated with poorer long-term memory, working memory, and self-reported memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Doty, Dominique; Shields, Rebecca H; Gower, Garrett; Slavich, George M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-11-01

    Although substantial research has examined the effects of stress on cognition, much of this research has focused on acute stress (e.g. manipulated in the laboratory) or chronic stress (e.g. persistent interpersonal or financial difficulties). In contrast, the effects of recent life stress on cognition have been relatively understudied. To address this issue, we examined how recent life stress is associated with long-term, working memory, and self-reported memory in a sample of 142 healthy young adults who were assessed at two time points over a two-week period. Recent life stress was measured using the newly-developed Stress and Adversity Inventory for Daily Stress (Daily STRAIN), which assesses the frequency of relatively common stressful life events and difficulties over the preceding two weeks. To assess memory performance, participants completed both long-term and working memory tasks. Participants also provided self-reports of memory problems. As hypothesized, greater recent life stress exposure was associated with worse performance on measures of long-term and working memory, as well as more self-reported memory problems. These associations were largely robust while controlling for possible confounds, including participants' age, sex, and negative affect. The findings indicate that recent life stress exposure is broadly associated with worse memory. Future studies should thus consider assessing recent life stress as a potential predictor, moderator, or covariate of memory performance.

  20. Self-reported physical exposure association with medial and lateral epicondylitis incidence in a large longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatha, Alexis; Dale, Ann Marie; Jaegers, Lisa; Herquelot, Eléonore; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-09-01

    Although previous studies have related occupational exposure and epicondylitis, the evidence is moderate and mostly based on cross-sectional studies. Suspected physical exposures were tested over a 3-year period in a large longitudinal cohort study of workers in the USA. In a population-based study including a variety of industries, 1107 newly employed workers were examined; only workers without elbow symptoms at baseline were included. Baseline questionnaires collected information on personal characteristics and self-reported physical work exposures and psychosocial measures for the current or most recent job at 6 months. Epicondylitis (lateral and medial) was the main outcome, assessed at 36 months based on symptoms and physical examination (palpation or provocation test). Logistic models included the most relevant associated variables. Of 699 workers tested after 36 months who did not have elbow symptoms at baseline, 48 suffered from medial or lateral epicondylitis (6.9%), with 34 cases of lateral epicondylitis (4.9%), 30 cases of medial epicondylitis (4.3%) and 16 workers who had both. After adjusting for age, lack of social support and obesity, consistent associations were observed between self-reported wrist bending/twisting and forearm twisting/rotating/screwing motion and future cases of medial or lateral epicondylitis (ORs 2.8 (1.2 to 6.2) and 3.6 (1.2 to 11.0) in men and women, respectively). Self-reported physical exposures that implicate repetitive and extensive/prolonged wrist bend/twisting and forearm movements were associated with incident cases of lateral and medial epicondylitis in a large longitudinal study, although other studies are needed to better specify the exposures involved.

  1. Evaluation of Noise Exposure Secondary to Wind Noise in Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Michael D; Wertz, Anna G; Smith, Matthew M; Jacob, Steve; Ahsan, Syed F

    2017-11-01

    Objective Determine if the noise levels of wind exposure experienced by cyclists reach levels that could contribute to noise-induced hearing loss. Study Design Industrial lab research. Setting Industrial wind tunnel. Subjects and Methods A commercial-grade electric wind tunnel was used to simulate different speeds encountered by a cyclist. A single cyclist was used during the simulation for audiometric measurements. Microphones attached near the ears of the cyclist were used to measure the sound (dB sound pressure level) experienced by the cyclist. Loudness levels were measured with the head positioned at 15-degree increments from 0 degrees to 180 degrees relative to the oncoming wind at different speeds (10-60 mph). Results Wind noise ranged from 84.9 dB at 10 mph and increased proportionally with speed to a maximum of 120.3 dB at 60 mph. The maximum of 120.3 dB was measured at the downwind ear when the ear was 90 degrees away from the wind. Conclusions Wind noise experienced by a cyclist is proportional to the speed and the directionality of the wind current. Turbulent air flow patterns are observed that contribute to increased sound exposure in the downwind ear. Consideration of ear deflection equipment without compromising sound awareness for cyclists during prolonged rides is advised to avoid potential noise trauma. Future research is warranted and can include long-term studies including dosimetry measures of the sound and yearly pre- and postexposure audiograms of cyclists to detect if any hearing loss occurs with long-term cycling.

  2. Validity of self-reported intensity of exposure to second-hand smoke at home against environmental and personal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, José M; González-Marrón, Adrián; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Sureda, Xisca; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Galán, Iñaki; Pascual, José Antonio; Fernández, Esteve

    2017-11-02

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity of two questions about the perception of intensity of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home using as a reference environmental markers (airborne nicotine and benzene) and biomarkers of exposure (cotinine in saliva and urine). This was a cross-sectional study in a convenience sample of 49 non-smoking volunteers. We found a high correlation between self-reported SHS exposure and airborne nicotine (r sp =0.806, p0.05). In conclusion, the significant correlation of the two questions proposed with environmental markers and personal markers indicates their potential validity to assess exposure to SHS at home. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 44046 - Noise Exposure Map Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... applicable regulations and which depict non-compatible land uses as of the date of submission of such maps, a... Baseline Noise Exposure Map. Section 1: Appendix C, D and E--Consultation requirements. Section 2: Land Use... the Act. These functions are inseparable from the ultimate land use control and planning...

  4. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Recalled Exposure to and Self-Reported Impact of Tobacco Marketing and Promotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Heley, Kathryn; Pierce, John P; Niaura, Ray; Strong, David; Abrams, David

    2017-12-13

    The role of tobacco marketing in tobacco use, particularly among the vulnerable ethnic and socioeconomic sub-populations is a regulatory priority of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. There currently exist both ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in the use of tobacco products. Monitoring such inequalities in exposure to tobacco marketing is essential to inform tobacco regulatory policy that may reduce known tobacco-related health disparities. We use data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Wave 1 youth survey to examine (1) recalled exposure to and liking of tobacco marketing for cigarettes, non-large cigars, and e-cigarettes, (2) self-reported exposure to specific tobacco marketing tactics, namely coupons, sweepstakes, and free samples, and (3) self-reported impact of tobacco marketing and promotions on product use. Findings indicate that African Americans and those of lower SES were more likely to recall having seen cigarette and non-large cigar ads. Reported exposure to coupons, sweepstakes and free samples also varied ethnically and socioeconomically. African Americans and those of lower SES were more likely than other respondents to report that marketing and promotions as played a role in their tobacco product use. Better understanding of communication inequalities and their influence on product use is needed to inform tobacco regulatory action that may reduce tobacco company efforts to target vulnerable groups. Tobacco education communication campaigns focusing on disproportionately affected groups could help counter the effects of targeted industry marketing.

  5. Correlates of self-reported exposure to advertising of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes across 28 European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Fernandez, Esteve; Mons, Ute; Tigova, Olena; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-12-01

    Despite advertising bans in most European Union (EU) member states, outlets for promotion of tobacco products and especially e-cigarettes still exist. This study aimed to assess the correlates of self-reported exposure to tobacco products and e-cigarettee advertising in the EU. We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Eurobarometer survey (November-December 2014), collected through interviews in 28 EU member states (n=27 801 aged ≥15 years) and data on bans of tobacco advertising extracted from the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS, 2013). We used multilevel logistic regression to assess sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to any tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. 40% and 41.5% of the respondents reported having seen any e-cigarette and tobacco product advertisement respectively within the past year. Current smokers, males, younger respondents, those with financial difficulties, people who had tried e-cigarettes and daily internet users were more likely to report having seen an e-cigarette and a tobacco product advertisement. Respondents in countries with more comprehensive advertising bans were less likely to self-report exposure to any tobacco advertisements (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96 for one-unit increase in TCS advertising score), but not e-cigarette advertisements (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.22). Ten years after ratification of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, self-reported exposure to tobacco and e-cigarette advertising in the EU is higher in e-cigarette and tobacco users, as well as those with internet access. The implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive may result in significant changes in e-cigarette advertising, therefore improved monitoring of advertising exposure is required in the coming years. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Cardiovascular conditions, hearing difficulty, and occupational noise exposure within US industries and occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Ellen; Masterson, Elizabeth A; Themann, Christa L; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2018-03-14

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of occupational noise exposure, hearing difficulty and cardiovascular conditions within US industries and occupations, and to examine any associations of these outcomes with occupational noise exposure. National Health Interview Survey data from 2014 were examined. Weighted prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios of self-reported hearing difficulty, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and coronary heart disease or stroke were estimated by level of occupational noise exposure, industry, and occupation. Twenty-five percent of current workers had a history of occupational noise exposure (14% exposed in the last year), 12% had hearing difficulty, 24% had hypertension, 28% had elevated cholesterol; 58%, 14%, and 9% of these cases can be attributed to occupational noise exposure, respectively. Hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and hearing difficulty are more prevalent among noise-exposed workers. Reducing workplace noise levels is critical. Workplace-based health and wellness programs should also be considered. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  8. Occupational noise exposure and the risk of hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Zara A; Bonde, Jens Peter; Christensen, Kent L

    2013-01-01

    Noise may increase the risk of hypertension, but findings are inconsistent with respect to both community and occupational noise exposure. We used a large sample of noise-exposed industrial trades to analyze the association of occupational noise exposure and the risk of hypertension....

  9. 78 FR 19355 - Noise Exposure Map Notice: Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice: Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise...

  10. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L

    2016-01-19

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  11. Capturing Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Physical Activity: Feasibility Study and Comparison Between Self-Reports, Mobile Apps, Dosimeters, and Accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Elke; Horsham, Caitlin; Allen, Martin; Nathan, Andrea; Lowe, John; Janda, Monika

    2018-04-17

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer in Australia. Skin cancer prevention programs aim to reduce sun exposure and increase sun protection behaviors. Effectiveness is usually assessed through self-report. It was the aim of this study to test the acceptance and validity of a newly developed ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure app, designed to reduce the data collection burden to research participants. Physical activity data was collected because a strong focus on sun avoidance may result in unhealthy reductions in physical activity. This paper provides lessons learned from collecting data from participants using paper diaries, a mobile app, dosimeters, and accelerometers for measuring end-points of UVR exposure and physical activity. Two participant groups were recruited through social and traditional media campaigns 1) Group A-UVR Diaries and 2) Group B-Physical Activity. In Group A, nineteen participants wore an UVR dosimeter wristwatch (University of Canterbury, New Zealand) when outside for 7 days. They also recorded their sun exposure and physical activity levels using both 1) the UVR diary app and 2) a paper UVR diary. In Group B, 55 participants wore an accelerometer (Actigraph, Pensacola, FL, USA) for 14 days and completed the UVR diary app. Data from the UVR diary app were compared with UVR dosimeter wristwatch, accelerometer, and paper UVR diary data. Cohen kappa coefficient score was used to determine if there was agreement between categorical variables for different UVR data collection methods and Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to determine agreement between continuous accelerometer data and app-collected self-report physical activity. The mean age of participants in Groups A (n=19) and B (n=55) was 29.3 and 25.4 years, and 63% (12/19) and 75% (41/55) were females, respectively. Self-reported sun exposure data in the UVR app correlated highly with UVR dosimetry (κ=0.83, 95% CI 0.64-1.00, PHacker, Caitlin Horsham, Martin Allen, Andrea

  12. Transportation noise exposure and children's health and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, E.E.M.M. van

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the effects of transportation noise on children. Children are suspected of being more susceptible to noise exposure. There is a lack of source-specific exposure-response relations describing the association between noise exposure and specific health and cognitive outcomes in

  13. Relations Between Self-Reported Daily-Life Fatigue, Hearing Status, and Pupil Dilation During a Speech Perception in Noise Task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yang; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E

    2017-01-01

    during the speech processing, and we used peak pupil dilation (PPD) as the main outcome measure of the pupillometry. No correlation was found between subjectively measured fatigue and hearing acuity, nor was a group difference found between the normally hearing and the hearing-impaired participants...... on the fatigue scores. A significant negative correlation was found between self-reported fatigue and PPD. A similar correlation was also found between Speech Intelligibility Index required for 50% correct and PPD. Multiple regression analysis showed that factors representing "hearing acuity" and "self......-reported fatigue" had equal and independent associations with the PPD during the speech in noise test. Less fatigue and better hearing acuity were associated with a larger pupil dilation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the relationship between a subjective measure of daily...

  14. Subcortical amplitude modulation encoding deficits suggest evidence of cochlear synaptopathy in normal-hearing 18-19 year olds with higher lifetime noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Brandon T; Waheed, Sajal; Bruce, Ian C; Roberts, Larry E

    2017-11-01

    Noise exposure and aging can damage cochlear synapses required for suprathreshold listening, even when cochlear structures needed for hearing at threshold remain unaffected. To control for effects of aging, behavioral amplitude modulation (AM) detection and subcortical envelope following responses (EFRs) to AM tones in 25 age-restricted (18-19 years) participants with normal thresholds, but different self-reported noise exposure histories were studied. Participants with more noise exposure had smaller EFRs and tended to have poorer AM detection than less-exposed individuals. Simulations of the EFR using a well-established cochlear model were consistent with more synaptopathy in participants reporting greater noise exposure.

  15. Infrasound and low frequency noise from wind turbines: exposure and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolin, Karl [Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Kungliga Tekniska Hoegskolan (Sweden); Bluhm, Goesta; Nilsson, Mats E [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Eriksson, Gabriella, E-mail: kbolin@kth.se [Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute and Linkoeping University (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Wind turbines emit low frequency noise (LFN) and large turbines generally generate more LFN than small turbines. The dominant source of LFN is the interaction between incoming turbulence and the blades. Measurements suggest that indoor levels of LFN in dwellings typically are within recommended guideline values, provided that the outdoor level does not exceed corresponding guidelines for facade exposure. Three cross-sectional questionnaire studies show that annoyance from wind turbine noise is related to the immission level, but several explanations other than low frequency noise are probable. A statistically significant association between noise levels and self-reported sleep disturbance was found in two of the three studies. It has been suggested that LFN from wind turbines causes other, and more serious, health problems, but empirical support for these claims is lacking.

  16. Exposure to peer delinquency as a mediator between self-report pubertal timing and delinquency: A longitudinal study of mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined exposure to peer delinquency as a mediator between pubertal timing and self-reported delinquency longitudinally and whether this mediational model was moderated by either gender or maltreatment experience. Data were obtained from Time 1, 2, and 3 of a longitudinal study of maltreatment and development. At Time 1 the sample comprised 454 children aged 9–13 years. Analyses via structural equation modeling supported full mediation. Gender did not moderate this mediational relationship, but maltreatment experience did. The results show that early maturing males and females are both at risk for being exposed to peers that may draw them into delinquent behavior. Additionally, the mechanism linking early pubertal timing to delinquency differs depending on maltreatment experience. PMID:21262055

  17. Evaluation of noise pollution level based upon community exposure and response data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results and procedures are reported from an evaluation of noise pollution level as a predictor of annoyance, based on aircraft noise exposure and community response data. The measures of noise exposure presented include composite noise rating, noise exposure forecast, noise and number index. A proposed measure as a universal noise exposure measure for noise pollution level (L sub NP) is discussed.

  18. Pesticide exposure and self-reported incident depression among wives in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John D; Hoppin, Jane A; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C R; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P; Kamel, Freya

    2013-10-01

    Depression in women is a public health problem. Studies have reported positive associations between pesticides and depression, but few studies were prospective or presented results for women separately. We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and incident depression among farmers' wives in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Iowa and North Carolina. We used data on 16,893 wives who did not report physician-diagnosed depression at enrollment (1993-1997) and who completed a follow-up telephone interview (2005-2010). Among these wives, 1054 reported physician diagnoses of depression at follow-up. We collected information on potential confounders and on ever use of any pesticide, 11 functional and chemical classes of pesticides, and 50 specific pesticides by wives and their husbands via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for possible selection bias induced by the death or loss of 10,639 wives during follow-up. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After weighting for age at enrollment, state of residence, education level, diabetes diagnosis, and drop out, wives' incident depression was positively associated with diagnosed pesticide poisoning, but was not associated with ever using any pesticide. Use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives' depression. Among wives who never used pesticides, husbands' ever use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives' incident depression. Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of exposure related to depression, thereby providing reassurance that the moderate levels

  19. Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss Among Sand and Gravel Miners

    OpenAIRE

    Landen, Deborah; Wilkins, Steve; Stephenson, Mark; McWilliams, Linda

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe workplace noise exposures, risk factors for hearing loss, and hearing levels among sand and gravel miners, and to determine whether full shift noise exposures resulted in changes in hearing thresholds from baseline values. Sand and gravel miners (n = 317) were interviewed regarding medical history, leisure-time and occupational noise exposure, other occupational exposures, and use of hearing protection. Audiometric tests were performed both before...

  20. Systematic correlation of environmental exposure and physiological and self-reported behaviour factors with leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag J; Manrai, Arjun K; Corona, Erik; Kohane, Isaac S

    2017-02-01

    It is hypothesized that environmental exposures and behaviour influence telomere length, an indicator of cellular ageing. We systematically associated 461 indicators of environmental exposures, physiology and self-reported behaviour with telomere length in data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999-2002. Further, we tested whether factors identified in the NHANES participants are also correlated with gene expression of telomere length modifying genes. We correlated 461 environmental exposures, behaviours and clinical variables with telomere length, using survey-weighted linear regression, adjusting for sex, age, age squared, race/ethnicity, poverty level, education and born outside the USA, and estimated the false discovery rate to adjust for multiple hypotheses. We conducted a secondary analysis to investigate the correlation between identified environmental variables and gene expression levels of telomere-associated genes in publicly available gene expression samples. After correlating 461 variables with telomere length, we found 22 variables significantly associated with telomere length after adjustment for multiple hypotheses. Of these varaibales, 14 were associated with longer telomeres, including biomarkers of polychlorinated biphenyls([PCBs; 0.1 to 0.2 standard deviation (SD) increase for 1 SD increase in PCB level, P  environmental exposures and chronic disease-related risk factors may play a role in telomere length. Our secondary analysis found no evidence of association between PCBs/smoking and gene expression of telomere-associated genes. All correlations between exposures, behaviours and clinical factors and changes in telomere length will require further investigation regarding biological influence of exposure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  1. Prevalence of Hazardous Occupational Noise Exposure, Hearing Loss, and Hearing Protection Usage Among a Representative Sample of Working Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Katya; Michaud, David; McNamee, James; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Davies, Hugh; Leroux, Tony

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss (HL), self-reported occupational noise exposure, and hearing protection usage among Canadians. In-person household interviews were conducted with 3666 participants, aged 16 to 79 years (1811 males) with 94% completing audiometry and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) evaluations. Occupational noise exposure was defined as hazardous when communicating with coworkers at an arm's length distance required speaking in a raised voice. An estimated 42% of respondents reported hazardous occupational noise exposure; 10 years or more was associated with HL regardless of age, sex or education. Absent DPOAEs, tinnitus, and the Wilson audiometric notch were significantly more prevalent in hazardous workplace noise-exposed workers than in nonexposed. When mandatory, 80% reported wearing hearing protection. These findings are consistent with other industrialized countries, underscoring the need for ongoing awareness of noise-induced occupational HL.

  2. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina N. Burns

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA and community (70 dBA noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001. A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01 even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  3. The association between alcohol exposure and self-reported health status: the effect of separating former and current drinkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Liang

    Full Text Available To investigate the direction and degree of potential bias introducedto analyses of drinking and health status which exclude former drinkers from exposure groups.Pooled analysis of 14 waves (1997-2010 of the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS.General population-based study.404,462 participants, from 14 waves of the NHIS, who had knownself-reported health status and alcohol consumption status.Self-reported health status was used as the indicatorof health. Two approaches were used to classify alcohol consumption: (i separation of former drinkers and current drinkers, and (ii combined former and current drinkers. The prevalence of fair/poor health by alcohol use, gender and age with 95% confidence intervals was estimated. The difference in prevalence of fair/poor health status for lifetime abstainers, former drinkers, current drinkers and drinkers (former drinkers and current drinkers combined were compared using Poisson regression with robust estimations of variance.Excluding former drinkers from drinker groups exaggerates the difference in health status between abstainers and drinkers, especially for males.In cohort study analyses, former drinkers should be assigned to a drinking category based on their previous alcohol consumption patterns and not treated as a discrete exposure group.

  4. Occupational Noise Exposure, Bilateral High-Frequency Hearing Loss, and Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Mannino, David M

    2017-11-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between occupational noise exposure and blood pressure using self-reported occupational exposure and bilateral high-frequency hearing loss. This study included 4548 participants aged 20 to 69 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2004. On the basis of self-reported exposure status, participants were divided into the current, former, or never exposed groups. Bilateral high-frequency hearing loss was defined as the average high-frequency hearing threshold at least 25 dB in both ears. The currently exposed participants had slightly increased diastolic blood pressure compared with those never exposed. Among previously exposed participants, those with bilateral high-frequency hearing loss had increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and the prevalence of hypertension compared with those with normal high-frequency hearing. Although there were some significant results, the evidence was not consistent to support the associations between occupational noise exposure and blood pressure.

  5. The Associations between Self-Reported Exposure to the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Zone and Mental Health Disorders in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Matthew A; Helming, Luralyn M; Tintle, Nathan L

    2018-01-01

    In 1986, Reactor 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant near Pripyat, Ukraine exploded, releasing highly-radioactive materials into the surrounding environment. Although the physical effects of the disaster have been well-documented, a limited amount of research has been conducted on association of the disaster with long-term, clinically-diagnosable mental health disorders. According to the diathesis-stress model, the stress of potential and unknown exposure to radioactive materials and the ensuing changes to ones life or environment due to the disaster might lead those with previous vulnerabilities to fall into a poor state of mental health. Previous studies of this disaster have found elevated symptoms of stress, substance abuse, anxiety, and depression in exposed populations, though often at a subclinical level. With data from The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a cross-sectional large mental health survey conducted in Ukraine by the World Health Organization, the mental health of Ukrainians was modeled with multivariable logistic regression techniques to determine if any long-term mental health disorders were association with reporting having lived in the zone affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Common classes of psychiatric disorders were examined as well as self-report ratings of physical and mental health. Reporting that one lived in the Chernobyl-affected disaster zone was associated with a higher rate of alcohol disorders among men and higher rates of intermittent explosive disorders among women in a prevalence model. Subjects who lived in the disaster zone also had lower ratings of personal physical and mental health when compared to controls. Stress resulting from disaster exposure, whether or not such exposure actually occurred or was merely feared, and ensuing changes in life circumstances is associated with increased rates of mental health disorders. Professionals assisting populations that are coping with the

  6. Gestational diabetes mellitus and exposure to ambient air pollution and road traffic noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2017-01-01

    pollution and road traffic noise on GDM in a prospective cohort. Methods: We identified GDM cases from self-reports and hospital records, using two different criteria, among 72,745 singleton pregnancies (1997–2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. We modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and noise from road...... traffic (Lden) exposure at all pregnancy addresses. Results: According to the two diagnostic criteria: the Danish clinical guidelines, which was our main outcome, and the WHO standard during recruitment period, a total of 565 and 210 women, respectively, had GDM. For both exposures no risk was evident......: No risk was evident for the common Danish criterion of GDM. NO2 was associated with higher risk for GDM according to the WHO criterion, which might be due to selection bias....

  7. Exposure to air pollution and self-reported effects on Chinese students: A case study of 13 megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution causes severe physical and psychological health complications. Considering China’s continuously-deteriorating air quality, this study aimed to assess the self-reported effects of air pollution on the behavior and physical health of the students of 13 densely populated cities, and their awareness, practices, and perception of air pollution and its associated public health risks. A detailed, closed-ended questionnaire was administered to 2100 students from 54 universities and schools across China. The questionnaire, which had 24 questions, was categorized into four sections. The first two sections were focused on air pollution-associated behavior and psychology, and physical effects; while the final two sections focused on the subjects’ awareness and perceptions, and practices and concerns about air pollution. The respondents reported that long-term exposure to air pollution had significantly affected their psychology and behavior, as well as their physical health. The respondents were aware of the different adverse impacts of air pollution (respiratory infections, allergies, and cardiovascular problems), and hence had adopted different preventive measures, such as the use of respiratory masks and glasses or goggles, regularly drinking water, and consuming rich foods. It was concluded that air pollution and haze had negative physical and psychological effects on the respondents, which led to severe changes in behavior. Proper management, future planning, and implementing strict environmental laws are suggested before this problem worsens and becomes life-threatening. PMID:29547657

  8. Exposure to air pollution and self-reported effects on Chinese students: A case study of 13 megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajper, Sohail Ahmed; Ullah, Sana; Li, Zhongqiu

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution causes severe physical and psychological health complications. Considering China's continuously-deteriorating air quality, this study aimed to assess the self-reported effects of air pollution on the behavior and physical health of the students of 13 densely populated cities, and their awareness, practices, and perception of air pollution and its associated public health risks. A detailed, closed-ended questionnaire was administered to 2100 students from 54 universities and schools across China. The questionnaire, which had 24 questions, was categorized into four sections. The first two sections were focused on air pollution-associated behavior and psychology, and physical effects; while the final two sections focused on the subjects' awareness and perceptions, and practices and concerns about air pollution. The respondents reported that long-term exposure to air pollution had significantly affected their psychology and behavior, as well as their physical health. The respondents were aware of the different adverse impacts of air pollution (respiratory infections, allergies, and cardiovascular problems), and hence had adopted different preventive measures, such as the use of respiratory masks and glasses or goggles, regularly drinking water, and consuming rich foods. It was concluded that air pollution and haze had negative physical and psychological effects on the respondents, which led to severe changes in behavior. Proper management, future planning, and implementing strict environmental laws are suggested before this problem worsens and becomes life-threatening.

  9. Validation and calibration of HeadCount, a self-report measure for quantifying heading exposure in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenaccio, E; Caccese, J; Wakschlag, N; Fleysher, R; Kim, N; Kim, M; Buckley, T A; Stewart, W F; Lipton, R B; Kaminski, T; Lipton, M L

    2016-01-01

    The long-term effects of repetitive head impacts due to heading are an area of increasing concern, and exposure must be accurately measured; however, the validity of self-report of cumulative soccer heading is not known. In order to validate HeadCount, a 2-week recall questionnaire, the number of player-reported headers was compared to the number of headers observed by trained raters for a men's and a women's collegiate soccer teams during an entire season of competitive play using Spearman's correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and calibrated using a generalized estimating equation. The average Spearman's rho was 0.85 for men and 0.79 for women. The average ICC was 0.75 in men and 0.38 in women. The calibration analysis demonstrated that men tend to report heading accurately while women tend to overestimate. HeadCount is a valid instrument for tracking heading behaviour, but may have to be calibrated in women.

  10. Relations Between Self-Reported Daily-Life Fatigue, Hearing Status, and Pupil Dilation During a Speech Perception in Noise Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E; Zekveld, Adriana A; Wendt, Dorothea; Ohlenforst, Barbara; Lunner, Thomas

    People with hearing impairment are likely to experience higher levels of fatigue because of effortful listening in daily communication. This hearing-related fatigue might not only constrain their work performance but also result in withdrawal from major social roles. Therefore, it is important to understand the relationships between fatigue, listening effort, and hearing impairment by examining the evidence from both subjective and objective measurements. The aim of the present study was to investigate these relationships by assessing subjectively measured daily-life fatigue (self-report questionnaires) and objectively measured listening effort (pupillometry) in both normally hearing and hearing-impaired participants. Twenty-seven normally hearing and 19 age-matched participants with hearing impairment were included in this study. Two self-report fatigue questionnaires Need For Recovery and Checklist Individual Strength were given to the participants before the test session to evaluate the subjectively measured daily fatigue. Participants were asked to perform a speech reception threshold test with single-talker masker targeting a 50% correct response criterion. The pupil diameter was recorded during the speech processing, and we used peak pupil dilation (PPD) as the main outcome measure of the pupillometry. No correlation was found between subjectively measured fatigue and hearing acuity, nor was a group difference found between the normally hearing and the hearing-impaired participants on the fatigue scores. A significant negative correlation was found between self-reported fatigue and PPD. A similar correlation was also found between Speech Intelligibility Index required for 50% correct and PPD. Multiple regression analysis showed that factors representing "hearing acuity" and "self-reported fatigue" had equal and independent associations with the PPD during the speech in noise test. Less fatigue and better hearing acuity were associated with a larger pupil

  11. Profiles of noise exposure levels in South African mining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available were exposed to noise levels of above the 85 dBA legislated occupational exposure level. The conclusion was made that information obtained through the study could be developed into a national personal noise exposure database, including audiometric...

  12. Health Effects Related to Wind Turbine Noise Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Klokker, Mads

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects thereof have attracted substantial attention. Various symptoms such as sleep-related problems, headache, tinnitus and vertigo have been described by subjects suspected of having been exposed to wind turbine noise...... existing statistically-significant evidence indicating any association between wind turbine noise exposure and tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo or headache. LIMITATIONS: Selection bias and information bias of differing magnitudes were found to be present in all current studies investigating wind turbine...

  13. The Associations between Self-Reported Exposure to the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Zone and Mental Health Disorders in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Bolt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn 1986, Reactor 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant near Pripyat, Ukraine exploded, releasing highly-radioactive materials into the surrounding environment. Although the physical effects of the disaster have been well-documented, a limited amount of research has been conducted on association of the disaster with long-term, clinically-diagnosable mental health disorders. According to the diathesis–stress model, the stress of potential and unknown exposure to radioactive materials and the ensuing changes to ones life or environment due to the disaster might lead those with previous vulnerabilities to fall into a poor state of mental health. Previous studies of this disaster have found elevated symptoms of stress, substance abuse, anxiety, and depression in exposed populations, though often at a subclinical level.Materials and methodsWith data from The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a cross-sectional large mental health survey conducted in Ukraine by the World Health Organization, the mental health of Ukrainians was modeled with multivariable logistic regression techniques to determine if any long-term mental health disorders were association with reporting having lived in the zone affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Common classes of psychiatric disorders were examined as well as self-report ratings of physical and mental health.ResultsReporting that one lived in the Chernobyl-affected disaster zone was associated with a higher rate of alcohol disorders among men and higher rates of intermittent explosive disorders among women in a prevalence model. Subjects who lived in the disaster zone also had lower ratings of personal physical and mental health when compared to controls.DiscussionStress resulting from disaster exposure, whether or not such exposure actually occurred or was merely feared, and ensuing changes in life circumstances is associated with increased rates of mental health

  14. Age-related hearing decline in individuals with and without occupational noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hederstierna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the pattern of age-related hearing decline in individuals with and without self-reported previous occupational noise exposure. This was a prospective, population-based, longitudinal study of individuals aged 70-75 years, from an epidemiological investigation, comprising three age cohorts. In total there were 1013 subjects (432 men and 581 women. Participants were tested with pure tone audiometry, and they answered a questionnaire to provide information regarding number of years of occupational noise exposure. There were no significant differences in hearing decline, at any frequency, for those aged 70-75 years between the noise-exposed (N= 62 men, 22 women and the nonexposed groups (N = 96 men, 158 women. This study supports the additive model of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and age-related hearing loss (ARHL. The concept of different patterns of hearing decline between persons exposed and not exposed to noise could not be verified.

  15. Exposure to human-associated fecal indicators and self-reported illness among swimmers at recreational beaches: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Melanie D; Haugland, Richard; Poole, Charles; Dufour, Alfred P; Stewart, Jill R; Weber, David J; Varma, Manju; Lavender, Jennifer S; Wade, Timothy J

    2017-10-02

    Fecal indicator bacteria used to assess illness risks in recreational waters (e.g., Escherichia coli, Enterococci) cannot discriminate among pollution sources. To address this limitation, human-associated Bacteroides markers have been proposed, but the risk of illness associated with the presence of these markers in recreational waters is unclear. Our objective was to estimate associations between human-associated Bacteroides markers in water and self-reported illness among swimmers at 6 U.S. beaches spanning 2003-2007. We used data from a prospectively-enrolled cohort of 12,060 swimmers surveyed about beach activities and water exposure on the day of their beach visit. Ten to twelve days later, participants reported gastroinestinal, diarrheal, and respiratory illnesses experienced since the visit. Daily water samples were analyzed for the presence of human-associated Bacteroides genetic markers: HF183, BsteriF1, BuniF2, HumM2. We used model-based standardization to estimate risk differences (RD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed whether the presence of Bacteroides markers were modifiers of the association between general Enterococcus and illness among swimmers using interaction contrast. Overall we observed inconsistent associations between the presence of Bacteroides markers and illness. There was a pattern of increased risks of gastrointestinal (RD = 1.9%; 95% CI: 0.1%, 3.7%), diarrheal (RD = 1.3%; 95% CI: -0.2%, 2.7%), and respiratory illnesses (RD = 1.1%; 95% CI: -0.2%, 2.5%) associated with BsteriF1. There was no evidence that Bacteroides markers acted as modifiers of Enterococcus and illness. Patterns were similar when stratified by water matrix. Quantitative measures of fecal pollution using Bacteroides, rather than presence-absence indicators, may be necessary to accurately assess human risk specific to the presence of human fecal pollution.

  16. Gestational diabetes mellitus and exposure to ambient air pollution and road traffic noise: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Marie; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Zhang, Cuilin; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Ketzel, Matthias; Grandström, Charlotta; Sørensen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-11-01

    Road traffic is a main source of air pollution and noise. Both exposures have been associated with type 2 diabetes, but associations with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been studied less. We aimed to examine single and joint associations of exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise on GDM in a prospective cohort. We identified GDM cases from self-reports and hospital records, using two different criteria, among 72,745 singleton pregnancies (1997-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. We modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and noise from road traffic (L den ) exposure at all pregnancy addresses. According to the two diagnostic criteria: the Danish clinical guidelines, which was our main outcome, and the WHO standard during recruitment period, a total of 565 and 210 women, respectively, had GDM. For both exposures no risk was evident for the common Danish criterion of GDM. A 10-μg/m 3 increase in NO 2 exposure during first trimester was, however, associated with an increased risk of WHO-GDM (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.49). The corresponding OR associated with a 10-dB higher road traffic noise level was 1.15 (0.94 to 1.18). In mutually adjusted models the OR for NO 2 remained similar 1.22 (0.98, 1.53) whereas that for road traffic noise decreased to 1.03 (0.80, 1.32). Significant associations were also observed for exposure averaged over the 2nd and 3rd trimesters and the full pregnancy. No risk was evident for the common Danish criterion of GDM. NO 2 was associated with higher risk for GDM according to the WHO criterion, which might be due to selection bias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Occupational noise exposure of nightclub bar employees in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife C Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the transposition of the EU Directive 2003/10/EC into Irish Law, the entertainment sector was obligated to comply with the requirements of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application Regulations 2007, Chapter 1 Part 5: Control of Noise at Work since February 2008. Compliance with the Noise Regulations was examined in 9 nightclubs in Ireland. The typical daily noise exposure of 19 bar employees was measured using 2 logging dosimeters and a Type 1 fixed position sound level meter. Physical site inspections identified nightclub noise control measures. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess the managers and employees awareness of the noise legislation. The average bar employee daily noise exposure (L EX, 8h was 92 dBA, almost 4 times more than the accepted legal limit. None of the venues examined were fully compliant with the requirements of the 2007 Noise Regulations, and awareness of this legislation was limited.

  18. Occupational noise exposure of nightclub bar employees in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aoife C; Boyd, Sara M; Henehan, Gary T M; Chambers, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Due to the transposition of the EU Directive 2003/10/EC into Irish Law, the entertainment sector was obligated to comply with the requirements of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007, Chapter 1 Part 5: Control of Noise at Work since February 2008. Compliance with the Noise Regulations was examined in 9 nightclubs in Ireland. The typical daily noise exposure of 19 bar employees was measured using 2 logging dosimeters and a Type 1 fixed position sound level meter. Physical site inspections identified nightclub noise control measures. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess the managers and employees awareness of the noise legislation. The average bar employee daily noise exposure (L(EX, 8h)) was 92 dBA, almost 4 times more than the accepted legal limit. None of the venues examined were fully compliant with the requirements of the 2007 Noise Regulations, and awareness of this legislation was limited.

  19. Assessment of noise exposure during commuting in the Madrid subway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, M; Pavón, I; Ausejo, M; Asensio, C; Recuero, M

    2011-09-01

    Because noise-induced hearing impairment is the result not only of occupational noise exposure but also of total daily noise exposure, it is important to take the non-occupational exposure of individuals (during commuting to and from their jobs, at home, and during recreational activities) into account. Mass transit is one of the main contributors to non-occupational noise exposure. We developed a new methodology to estimate a representative commuting noise exposure. The methodology was put into practice for the Madrid subway because of all Spanish subway systems it covers the highest percentage of worker journeys (22.6%). The results of the application highlight that, for Madrid subway passengers, noise exposure level normalized to a nominal 8 hr (L(Ex,8h-cj) ) depends strongly on the type of train, the presence of squealing noise, and the public address audio system, ranging from 68.6 dBA to 72.8 dBA. These values play an important role in a more complete evaluation of a relationship between noise dose and worker health response.

  20. Relationship Between Exposure to Industrial Noise and Serum Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Mehrdad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of our study was to investigate the effects of exposure to industrial noise on serum lipid profile among workers who are exposed to noise at work. In a historical cohort study, we recruited 154 and 146 male workers as high and low level noise exposure groups respectively. We defined workers with at least one year exposure to noise level more than 90 dB as high exposure group, and those with exposure to less than 80 dB as low exposure group. Afterwards, in the fasting blood specimens of participants we measured serum Triglyceride (TG, total Cholesterol (TC, high and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL. Mean of TG, TC, HDL and LDL for low exposure group were 148, 189, 38 and 103 mg/dl and for high exposure group were 237, 189, 37 and 104 mg/dl respectively. Mean serum TG between two groups was different. Even after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking and work hours per week, serum TG among high exposure group was 89 mg/dl higher than low exposure group and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.00. There was no significant difference between two groups in TC, LDL and HDL levels. This study did not find a statistically significant relationship between exposure to noise and serum TC, LDL and HDL, but TG in two groups was different and this difference was statistically significant.

  1. Tinnitus and other auditory problems - occupational noise exposure below risk limits may cause inner ear dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Ann-Cathrine; Rosenhall, Ulf; Olofsson, Åke; Hagerman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal = 193. The following hearing tests were used: - pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, - transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; - psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, - forward masking, - speech recognition in noise, - tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group exposed to noise

  2. Tinnitus and other auditory problems - occupational noise exposure below risk limits may cause inner ear dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Cathrine Lindblad

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal = 193. The following hearing tests were used: - pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, - transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; - psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, - forward masking, - speech recognition in noise, - tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group

  3. Road Traffic and Railway Noise Exposures and Adiposity in Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe S; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    and railway noise and adiposity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 57,053 middle-aged people, height, weight, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance were measured at enrollment (1993-1997). Body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (BFMI), and lean body mass index (LBMI) were calculated....... Residential exposure to road and railway traffic noise exposure was calculated using the Nordic prediction method. Associations between traffic noise and anthropometric measures at enrollment were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors......, significant increases were also found for BFMI and LBMI. All associations followed linear exposure-response relationships. Exposure to railway noise was not linearly associated with adiposity measures. However, exposure > 60 dB was associated with a 0.71-cm wider waist circumference (95% CI: 0.23, 1...

  4. Noise Exposure Estimates of Urban MP3 Player Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Sandra; Levey, Tania; Fligor, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the sound level and duration of use of personal listening devices (PLDs) by 189 college students, ages 18-53 years, as they entered a New York City college campus, to determine whether noise exposure from PLDs was in excess of recommended exposure limits and what factors might influence exposure. Method: Free-field equivalent…

  5. Exposure to loud noise, bilateral high-frequency hearing loss and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Moline, Jacqueline; Kim, Hyun; Mannino, David M

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral high-frequency hearing loss is an indicator for chronic exposure to loud noise. This study aimed to examine the association between bilateral high-frequency hearing loss and the presence of coronary heart disease (CHD). This study included 5223 participants aged 20-69 years who participated in the audiometry examination of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Bilateral high-frequency hearing loss was defined as the average high-frequency (3, 4 and 6 kHz) hearing threshold ≥25 dB in both ears. CHD was defined as self-reported diagnoses by doctors or other health professionals. Compared with those with normal high-frequency hearing, participants with bilateral high-frequency hearing loss were more likely to have CHD (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.28 to 2.85) after adjustment for various covariates. This association was particularly strong for currently employed workers who were exposed to loud occupational noise (OR 4.23; 95% CI 1.32 to 13.55). For this subgroup, there was no significant association of CHD with unilateral high-frequency hearing loss, and unilateral or bilateral low-frequency hearing loss. Furthermore, there was no significant association of CHD with any types of hearing loss for participants who were not exposed to loud noise. Stratified analyses for participants exposed to loud noise showed that the observed association was particularly strong for those who were less than 50 years of age, less educated and current smokers. On the basis of an objective indicator for personal chronic exposure to loud noise, this study confirmed that exposure to loud occupational noise is associated with the presence of CHD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Exposure to hazardous workplace noise and use of hearing protection devices among US workers--NHANES, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Sangwoo; Davis, Rickie R; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2009-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of workplace noise exposure and use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) at noisy work, NIOSH analyzed 1999-2004 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A total of 9,275 currently employed workers aged > or =16 years were included in the weighted analysis. Hazardous workplace noise exposure was defined as self-reported exposure to noise at their current job that was so loud that the respondent had to speak in a raised voice to be heard. Industry and occupation were determined based on the respondent's current place and type of work. Twenty-two million US workers (17%) reported exposure to hazardous workplace noise. The weighted prevalence of workplace noise exposure was highest for mining (76%, SE = 7.0) followed by lumber/wood product manufacturing (55%, SE = 2.5). High-risk occupations included repair and maintenance, motor vehicle operators, and construction trades. Overall, 34% of the estimated 22 million US workers reporting hazardous workplace exposure reported non-use of HPDs. The proportion of noise-exposed workers who reported non-use of HPDs was highest for healthcare and social services (73.7%, SE = 8.1), followed by educational services (55.5%). Hearing loss prevention and intervention programs should be targeted at those industries and occupations identified to have a high prevalence of workplace noise exposure and those industries with the highest proportion of noise-exposed workers who reported non-use of HPDs. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Slow cortical evoked potentials after noise exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Wedel, H; Opitz, H J

    1979-07-01

    Human cortical evoked potentials under conditions of stimuation are registrated in the post-stimulatory phase of a five minutes lasting equally masking white noise (90 dB HL). Changes of the evoked potentials during adaptation, possible analogy with high tone losses after noise representation and the origin of tinnitus are examined. Stimulation was started 3 sec after the off-effect of the noise. For five minutes periodically tone bursts were represented. Each train of stimulation consists of tone bursts of three frequencies: 2 kcs, 4 kcs, 8 kcs. The 0.5 sec lasting tones were separated by pauses of 2 sec. During the experiment stimulation and analysis were controlled by a computer. Changes in latency and amplitudes of the cortical evoked potentials were registered. Changes of the adaptation patterns as a function of the poststimulatory time are discussed.

  8. Road Traffic Noise Exposure in Gothenburg 1975-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Ögren

    Full Text Available Traffic noise exposure within a city varies over time and space. In this study, we developed a modified noise calculation method and used this method together with population and traffic data to estimate the time trend of noise exposure for the population in Gothenburg, Sweden, from 1975 to 2010. The noise calculation method was based on the standard Nordic method for road traffic noise with modifications using area-level statistics for population and building structures instead of precise geocoding of each inhabitant. Noise emission per vehicle was assumed to be constant over the period. The results show an increase in noise exposure over time. The number of inhabitants exposed at an equivalent level above 55 dB increased from 93000 to 146000 inhabitants between 1975 and 2010, and the percentage of the population exposed at this level increased from 22% to 29% over the same period. Traffic increase (1.4% per year and population increase/concentration (0.50% per year were approximately equally important factors behind this increase in exposure.

  9. Biomonitoring Human Exposure to Household Air Pollution and Association with Self-reported Health Symptoms – A Stove Intervention Study in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Commodore, Adwoa; Hartinger, Stella; Lewin, Michael; Sjödin, Andreas; Pittman, Erin; Trinidad, Debra; Hubbard, Kendra; Lanata, Claudio F.; Gil, Ana I.; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Naeher, Luke P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Household air pollution (HAP) from indoor biomass stoves contains harmful pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and is a leading risk factor for global disease burden. We used biomonitoring to assess HAP exposure and association with self-reported symptoms in 334 non-smoking Peruvian women to evaluate the efficacy of a stove intervention program. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study within the framework of a community randomized control trial. Using urinary PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) as the exposure biomarkers, we investigated whether the intervention group (n = 155, with new chimney-equipped stoves) were less exposed to HAP compared to the control group (n = 179, with mostly open-fire stoves). We also estimated associations between the exposure biomarkers, risk factors, and self-reported health symptoms, such as recent eye conditions, respiratory conditions, and headache. Results We observed reduced headache and ocular symptoms in the intervention group than the control group. Urinary 2-naphthol, a suggested biomarker for inhalation PAH exposure, was significantly lower in the intervention group (GM with 95% CI: 13.4 [12.3, 14.6] μg/g creatinine) compared to control group (16.5 [15.0, 18.0] μg/g creatinine). Stove type and/or 2-naphthol was associated with a number of self-reported symptoms, such as red eye (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 3.80 [1.32, 10.9]) in the past 48 h. Conclusions Even with the improved stoves, the biomarker concentrations in this study far exceeded those of the general populations and were higher than a no-observed-genotoxic-effect-level, indicating high exposure and a potential for increased cancer risk in the population. PMID:27680405

  10. The relationship between occupational noise and vibration exposure and headache/eyestrain, based on the fourth Korean Working Condition Survey (KWCS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Kim

    Full Text Available The individual and combined effect of occupational noise and vibration exposures, on workers' health has not been thoroughly investigated. In order to find better ways to prevent and manage workers' headache, this study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational noise and vibration exposure on headache/eyestrain.We used data from the fourth Korean Working Condition Survey (2014. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25,751 workers were included. Occupational noise and vibration exposure and the prevalence of headache/eyestrain were investigated by self-reported survey. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences in baseline characteristics between the group with headache/eyestrain and the group without. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using a logistic regression model adjusted for several covariates. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC analysis was used to evaluate the effect of occupational noise and/or vibration exposure.Among the 25,751 study subjects, 4,903 had experienced headache/eyestrain in the preceding year. There were significant differences in age, education level, household income, occupational classification, shift work, occupational vibration exposure, and occupational noise exposure between the two groups (all p<0.05. The odds ratios between each exposure and headache/eyestrain increased proportionally with the level of exposure, increasing from 1.08 to 1.26 with increasing vibration exposure, and from 1.25 to 1.41 with increasing noise exposure. According to the AUROC analysis, the predictive power of each exposure was significant, and increased when the two exposures were considered in combination.The findings of this study show that both occupational noise and vibration exposures are associated with headache/eyestrain; noise exposure more strongly so. However, when the two exposures are considered in combination, the explanatory power for headache

  11. Noise exposure during ambulance flights and repatriation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Thomas E; Zimmer, Bernd; Conrad, Gerson; Jansing, Paul; Hardt, Aline

    2010-01-01

    Although ambulance flights are routine work and thousands of employees work in repatriation organizations, there is no data on noise exposure which may be used for preventive advice. We investigated the noise exposure of crews working in ambulance flight organizations for international patient repatriation to get the data for specific guidelines concerning noise protection. Noise levels inside Learjet 35A, the aircraft type which is most often used for repatriation operations, were collected from locations where flight crews typically spend their time. A sound level meter class 1 meeting the DIN IEC 651 requirements was used for noise measurements, but several factors during the real flight situations caused a measurement error of ~3%. Therefore, the results fulfill the specifications for class 2. The data was collected during several real repatriation operations and was combined with the flight data (hours per day) regarding the personnel to evaluate the occupationally encountered equivalent noise level according to DIN 45645-2. The measured noise levels were safely just below the 85 dB(A) threshold and should not induce permanent threshold shifts, provided that additional high noise exposure by non-occupational or private activities was avoided. As the levels of the noise produced by the engines outside the cabin are significantly above the 85 dB(A) threshold, the doors of the aircraft must be kept closed while the engines are running, and any activity performed outside the aircraft - or with the doors opened while the engines are running - must be done with adequate noise protection. The new EU noise directive (2003/10/EG) states that protective equipment must be made available to the aircrew to protect their hearing, though its use is not mandatory.

  12. The relationship between occupational noise and vibration exposure and headache/eyestrain, based on the fourth Korean Working Condition Survey (KWCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun; Lee, Wanhyung; Won, Jong-Uk; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Lee, Seunghyun; Roh, Jaehoon

    2017-01-01

    The individual and combined effect of occupational noise and vibration exposures, on workers' health has not been thoroughly investigated. In order to find better ways to prevent and manage workers' headache, this study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational noise and vibration exposure on headache/eyestrain. We used data from the fourth Korean Working Condition Survey (2014). After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25,751 workers were included. Occupational noise and vibration exposure and the prevalence of headache/eyestrain were investigated by self-reported survey. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences in baseline characteristics between the group with headache/eyestrain and the group without. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using a logistic regression model adjusted for several covariates. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) analysis was used to evaluate the effect of occupational noise and/or vibration exposure. Among the 25,751 study subjects, 4,903 had experienced headache/eyestrain in the preceding year. There were significant differences in age, education level, household income, occupational classification, shift work, occupational vibration exposure, and occupational noise exposure between the two groups (all pheadache/eyestrain increased proportionally with the level of exposure, increasing from 1.08 to 1.26 with increasing vibration exposure, and from 1.25 to 1.41 with increasing noise exposure. According to the AUROC analysis, the predictive power of each exposure was significant, and increased when the two exposures were considered in combination. The findings of this study show that both occupational noise and vibration exposures are associated with headache/eyestrain; noise exposure more strongly so. However, when the two exposures are considered in combination, the explanatory power for headache/eyestrain is increased. Therefore, efforts aimed at reducing and

  13. Carcinogenicity and teratogenicity vs. psychogenicity: Psychological characteristics associated with self-reported Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam combat veterans who seek treatment for substance abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinowitz, R.; Roberts, W.R.; Dolan, M.P.; Patterson, E.T.; Charles, H.L.; Atkins, H.G.; Penk, W.E. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Dallas (USA))

    1989-09-01

    This study asked, What are the psychological characteristics of Vietnam combat veterans who claim Agent Orange exposure when compared with combat-experienced cohorts who do not report such contamination The question was researched among 153 heroin addicts, polydrug abusers, and chronic alcoholics who were seeking treatment: 58 reported moderate to high defoliant exposure while in combat; 95 reported minimal to no exposure while in Vietnam. The null hypothesis was accepted for measures of childhood and present family social climate, premilitary backgrounds, reasons for seeking treatment, patterns and types of illicit drug and alcohol use, interpersonal problems, intellectual functioning, and short-term memory. The null hypothesis was rejected for personality differences, however, those who self-reported high Agent Orange exposure scored significantly higher on MMPI scales F, Hypochondriasis, Depression, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Mania, and Social interoversion. The results suggest that clinicians carefully assess attributional processing of those who report traumatic experience.

  14. Predicting Forearm Physical Exposures During Computer Work Using Self-Reports, Software-Recorded Computer Usage Patterns, and Anthropometric and Workstation Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysmans, Maaike A; Eijckelhof, Belinda H W; Garza, Jennifer L Bruno; Coenen, Pieter; Blatter, Birgitte M; Johnson, Peter W; van Dieën, Jaap H; van der Beek, Allard J; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2017-12-15

    Alternative techniques to assess physical exposures, such as prediction models, could facilitate more efficient epidemiological assessments in future large cohort studies examining physical exposures in relation to work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate two types of models that predict arm-wrist-hand physical exposures (i.e. muscle activity, wrist postures and kinematics, and keyboard and mouse forces) during computer use, which only differed with respect to the candidate predicting variables; (i) a full set of predicting variables, including self-reported factors, software-recorded computer usage patterns, and worksite measurements of anthropometrics and workstation set-up (full models); and (ii) a practical set of predicting variables, only including the self-reported factors and software-recorded computer usage patterns, that are relatively easy to assess (practical models). Prediction models were build using data from a field study among 117 office workers who were symptom-free at the time of measurement. Arm-wrist-hand physical exposures were measured for approximately two hours while workers performed their own computer work. Each worker's anthropometry and workstation set-up were measured by an experimenter, computer usage patterns were recorded using software and self-reported factors (including individual factors, job characteristics, computer work behaviours, psychosocial factors, workstation set-up characteristics, and leisure-time activities) were collected by an online questionnaire. We determined the predictive quality of the models in terms of R2 and root mean squared (RMS) values and exposure classification agreement to low-, medium-, and high-exposure categories (in the practical model only). The full models had R2 values that ranged from 0.16 to 0.80, whereas for the practical models values ranged from 0.05 to 0.43. Interquartile ranges were not that different for the two models, indicating that only for some

  15. Notched audiograms and noise exposure history in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondahl, David M; Shi, Xiaoyu; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Dalton, Dayna S; Tweed, Ted S; Wiley, Terry L; Carmichael, Lakeesha L

    2009-12-01

    Using data from a population-based cohort study, we compared four published algorithms for identifying notched audiograms and compared their resulting classifications with noise exposure history. Four algorithms: (1) , (2) , (3) , and (4) were used to identify notched audiograms. Audiometric evaluations were collected as a part of the 10-yr follow-up examinations of the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study, in Beaver Dam, WI (2003-2005, N = 2395). Detailed noise exposure histories were collected by interview at the baseline examination (1993-1995) and updated at subsequent visits. An extensive history of occupational noise exposure, participation in noisy hobbies, and firearm usage was used to evaluate consistency of the notch classifications with the history of noise exposure. The prevalence of notched audiograms varied greatly by definition (31.7, 25.9, 47.2, and 11.7% for methods 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively). In this cohort, a history of noise exposure was common (56.2% for occupational noise, 71.7% for noisy hobbies, 13.4% for firearms, and 81.2% for any of these three sources). Among participants with a notched audiogram, almost one-third did not have a history of occupational noise exposure (31.4, 33.0, 32.5, and 28.1% for methods 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively), and approximately 11% did not have a history of exposure to any of the three sources of noise (11.5, 13.6, 10.3, and 7.6%). Discordance was greater in women than in men. These results suggest that there is a poor agreement across existing algorithms for audiometric notches. In addition, notches can occur in the absence of a positive noise history. In the absence of an objective consensus definition of a notched audiogram and in light of the degree of discordance in women between noise history and notches by each of these algorithms, researchers should be cautious about classifying noise-induced hearing loss by notched audiograms.

  16. Improving the accuracy of smart devices to measure noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Benjamin; Kardous, Chucri; Neitzel, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Occupational noise exposure is one of the most frequent hazards present in the workplace; up to 22 million workers have potentially hazardous noise exposures in the U.S. As a result, noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common occupational injuries in the U.S. Workers in manufacturing, construction, and the military are at the highest risk for hearing loss. Despite the large number of people exposed to high levels of noise at work, many occupations have not been adequately evaluated for noise exposure. The objective of this experiment was to investigate whether or not iOS smartphones and other smart devices (Apple iPhones and iPods) could be used as reliable instruments to measure noise exposures. For this experiment three different types of microphones were tested with a single model of iPod and three generations of iPhones: the internal microphones on the device, a low-end lapel microphone, and a high-end lapel microphone marketed as being compliant with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard for a Class 2-microphone. All possible combinations of microphones and noise measurement applications were tested in a controlled environment using several different levels of pink noise ranging from 60-100 dBA. Results were compared to simultaneous measurements made using a Type 1 sound level measurement system. Analysis of variance and Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) test were used to determine if the results differed by microphone or noise measurement application. Levels measured with external microphones combined with certain noise measurement applications did not differ significantly from levels measured with the Type 1 sound measurement system. Results showed that it may be possible to use iOS smartphones and smart devices, with specific combinations of measurement applications and calibrated external microphones, to collect reliable, occupational noise exposure data under certain conditions and within the limitations of the

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 227 - Noise Exposure Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... + . . . + Cn/Tn), where Cn indicates the total time of exposure at a specific noise level, and Tn indicates the....054 127 0.047 128 0.041 129 0.036 130 0.031 140 0.078 1 Numbers above 115 dB(A) are italicized to indicate that they are noise levels that are not permitted. The italicized numbers are included only...

  18. Occupational noise exposure and hearing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Arve; Skogstad, Marit; Johannessen, Håkon A; Tynes, Tore; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2016-04-01

    To give a systematic review of the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in working life. A literature search in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Health and Safety Abstracts, with appropriate keywords on noise in the workplace and health, revealed 22,413 articles which were screened by six researchers. A total of 698 articles were reviewed in full text and scored with a checklist, and 187 articles were found to be relevant and of sufficient quality for further analysis. Occupational noise exposure causes between 7 and 21 % of the hearing loss among workers, lowest in the industrialized countries, where the incidence is going down, and highest in the developing countries. It is difficult to distinguish between NIHL and age-related hearing loss at an individual level. Most of the hearing loss is age related. Men lose hearing more than women do. Heredity also plays a part. Socioeconomic position, ethnicity and other factors, such as smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, vibration and chemical substances, may also affect hearing. The use of firearms may be harmful to hearing, whereas most other sources of leisure-time noise seem to be less important. Impulse noise seems to be more deleterious to hearing than continuous noise. Occupational groups at high risk of NIHL are the military, construction workers, agriculture and others with high noise exposure. The prevalence of NIHL is declining in most industrialized countries, probably due to preventive measures. Hearing loss is mainly related to increasing age.

  19. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazier Richard H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Methods Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand smoking exposure rates in 15 Ontario municipalities. Data analysis included descriptive summaries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across groups Results Across all studied municipalities, secondhand smoke exposure in public places decreased by 4.7% and workplace exposure decreased by 2.3% between the 2003 and 2005 survey years. The only jurisdiction to implement a full ban from no previous ban was also the only setting that experienced significant decreases in both individual exposure to secondhand smoke in a public place (-17.3%, 95% CI -22.8, -11.8 and workplace exposure (-18.1%, 95% CI -24.9, -11.3. Exposures in vehicles and homes declined in almost all settings over time. Conclusions Implementation of a full smoking ban was associated with the largest decreases in secondhand smoke exposure while partial bans and changes in existing bans had inconsistent effects. In addition to decreasing exposure in public places as would be expected from legislation, bans may have additional benefits by decreasing rates of current smokers and decreasing exposures to secondhand smoke in private settings.

  20. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Alisa B; Glazier, Richard H; Moineddin, Rahim

    2011-03-03

    Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand smoking exposure rates in 15 Ontario municipalities. Data analysis included descriptive summaries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across groups Across all studied municipalities, secondhand smoke exposure in public places decreased by 4.7% and workplace exposure decreased by 2.3% between the 2003 and 2005 survey years. The only jurisdiction to implement a full ban from no previous ban was also the only setting that experienced significant decreases in both individual exposure to secondhand smoke in a public place (-17.3%, 95% CI -22.8, -11.8) and workplace exposure (-18.1%, 95% CI -24.9, -11.3). Exposures in vehicles and homes declined in almost all settings over time. Implementation of a full smoking ban was associated with the largest decreases in secondhand smoke exposure while partial bans and changes in existing bans had inconsistent effects. In addition to decreasing exposure in public places as would be expected from legislation, bans may have additional benefits by decreasing rates of current smokers and decreasing exposures to secondhand smoke in private settings.

  1. A comparison between self-reported and GIS-based proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution in a case-control study on lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordioli, M; Ranzi, A; Freni Sterrantino, A; Erspamer, L; Razzini, G; Ferrari, U; Gatti, M G; Bonora, K; Artioli, F; Goldoni, C A; Lauriola, P

    2014-06-01

    In epidemiological studies both questionnaire results and GIS modeling have been used to assess exposure to environmental risk factors. Nevertheless, few studies have used both these techniques to evaluate the degree of agreement between different exposure assessment methodologies. As part of a case-control study on lung cancer, we present a comparison between self-reported and GIS-derived proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution. 649 subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire and give information about residential history and perceived exposure. Using GIS, for each residence we evaluated land use patterns, proximity to major roads and exposure to industrial pollution. We then compared the GIS exposure-index values among groups created on the basis of questionnaire responses. Our results showed a relatively high agreement between the two methods. Although none of these methods is the "exposure gold standard", understanding similarities, weaknesses and strengths of each method is essential to strengthen epidemiological evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 78 FR 77548 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review Seattle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review Seattle-Tacoma International Airport Seattle...) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by the Port of Seattle for the Seattle...

  3. 78 FR 8685 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review: Tweed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review: Tweed New Haven Regional Airport, New Haven, CT... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure map for Tweed New Haven Regional Airport...

  4. Risks for the development of outcomes related to occupational allergies: an application of the asthma-specific job exposure matrix compared with self-reports and investigator scores on job-training-related exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarthana, E; Heederik, D; Ghezzo, H; Malo, J-L; Kennedy, S M; Gautrin, D

    2009-04-01

    Risks for development of occupational sensitisation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, rhinoconjunctival and chest symptoms at work associated with continued exposure to high molecular weight (HMW) allergens were estimated with three exposure assessment methods. A Cox regression analysis with adjustment for atopy and smoking habit was carried out in 408 apprentices in animal health technology, pastry making, and dental hygiene technology with an 8-year follow-up after training. The risk of continued exposure after training, estimated by the asthma-specific job exposure matrix (JEM), was compared with self-reports and investigator scores on job-training-related exposure. Associations between outcomes and work duration in job(s) related to training were also evaluated. Exposure to animal-derived HMW allergens, subsequent to the apprenticeship period, as estimated by the JEM, was associated with a significantly increased risk for occupational sensitisation (hazard ratio (HR) 6.4; 95% CI 2.3 to 18.2) and rhinoconjunctival symptoms at work (HR 2.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 6.2). Exposure to low molecular weight (LMW) agents significantly increased the risk of developing bronchial hyper-responsiveness (HR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1 to 5.4). Exposure verification appeared to be important to optimise the sensitivity and the specificity, as well as HRs produced by the JEM. Self-reports and investigator scores also indicated that further exposure to HMW allergens increased the risk of developing occupational allergies. The agreement between self-reports, investigator scores, and the JEM were moderate to good. There was no significant association between respiratory outcomes and work duration in jobs related to training. The asthma-specific JEM could estimate the risk of various outcomes of occupational allergies associated with exposure to HMW and LMW allergens, but it is relatively labour intensive. Exposure verification is an important integrated step in the JEM that optimised the performance of

  5. Could driving safety be compromised by noise exposure at work and noise-induced hearing loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Michel; Girard, Serge André; Courteau, Marilène; Leroux, Tony; Larocque, Richard; Turcotte, Fernand; Lavoie, Michel; Simard, Marc

    2008-10-01

    A study was conducted to verify if there is an association between occupational noise exposure, noise-induced hearing loss and driving safety expanding on previous findings by Picard, et al. (2008) that the two factors did increase accident risk in the workplace. This study was made possible when driving records of all Quebec drivers were made available by the Societe de l'assurance automobile du Quebec (SAAQ is the state monopoly responsible for the provision of motor vehicle insurance and the compensation of victims of traffic accidents). These records were linked with personal records maintained by the Quebec National Institute of Public Health as part of its mission to prevent noise induced hearing loss in the workplace. Individualized information on occupational noise exposure and hearing sensitivity was available for 46,030 male workers employed in noisy industries who also held a valid driver's permit. The observation period is of five years duration, starting with the most recent audiometric examination. The associations between occupational noise exposure levels, hearing status, and personal driving record were examined by log-binomial regression on data adjusted for age and duration of exposure. Daily noise exposures and bilateral average hearing threshold levels at 3, 4, and 6 kHz were used as independent variables while the dependent variables were 1) the number of motor vehicle accidents experienced by participants during the study period and 2) participants' records of registered traffic violations of the highway safety code. The findings are reported as prevalence ratios (PRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Attributable numbers of events were computed with the relevant PRs, lesser-noise, exposed workers and those with normal hearing levels making the group of reference. Adjusting for age confirmed that experienced workers had fewer traffic accidents. The data show that occupational noise exposure and hearing loss have the same effect on

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Noise Exposure of Baristas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursley, Alyssa J.; Saunders, Gabrielle H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the daily noise exposure of baristas working in cafés, and to measure their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding hearing conservation and perceptions of noise in their work environment. Design Fifteen baristas from six cafés in Portland completed the Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors questionnaire, a sound disturbance survey, and a structured interview to document perceptions of noise in the work environment. To measure daily noise exposure, a subset of eight participants wore a personal dosimeter for three different work shifts. Study Sample 11 females and 4 males aged between 19 and 36 years old (mean: 26.3, SD: 4.6) recruited from independently owned cafés in the Portland metro area. Results Dosimetry measurements revealed Leq measurements between 71 dBA and 83 dBA, with noise doses ranging from 4% to 74%, indicating that baristas are not exposed to sound levels above the regulatory criterion. Questionnaire results indicated that baristas have low awareness about the hazards of noise, are not opposed to hearing conservation, and rarely use hearing protection when engaged in noisy activities. Conclusions Baristas here lacked the pertinent education and motivation to commit to invaluable hearing conservation practices. PMID:26795371

  7. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    OpenAIRE

    Naiman, Alisa B; Glazier, Richard H; Moineddin, Rahim

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Methods Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand sm...

  8. Exposure to wind turbine noise: Perceptual responses and reported health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Keith, Stephen E; Voicescu, Sonia A; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; McGuire, D'Arcy; Bower, Tara; Lavigne, Eric; Murray, Brian J; Weiss, Shelly K; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    Health Canada, in collaboration with Statistics Canada, and other external experts, conducted the Community Noise and Health Study to better understand the impacts of wind turbine noise (WTN) on health and well-being. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out between May and September 2013 in southwestern Ontario and Prince Edward Island on 1238 randomly selected participants (606 males, 632 females) aged 18-79 years, living between 0.25 and 11.22 km from operational wind turbines. Calculated outdoor WTN levels at the dwelling reached 46 dBA. Response rate was 78.9% and did not significantly differ across sample strata. Self-reported health effects (e.g., migraines, tinnitus, dizziness, etc.), sleep disturbance, sleep disorders, quality of life, and perceived stress were not related to WTN levels. Visual and auditory perception of wind turbines as reported by respondents increased significantly with increasing WTN levels as did high annoyance toward several wind turbine features, including the following: noise, blinking lights, shadow flicker, visual impacts, and vibrations. Concern for physical safety and closing bedroom windows to reduce WTN during sleep also increased with increasing WTN levels. Other sample characteristics are discussed in relation to WTN levels. Beyond annoyance, results do not support an association between exposure to WTN up to 46 dBA and the evaluated health-related endpoints.

  9. Effects of noise exposure on catalase activity of growing lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kashif Nawaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress due to noise was estimated at cell level using model of growing lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were isolated and cultured using conventional methodology. Cell culture of each group was exposed to sound of frequency 1 KHz during incubation. Three groups were defined on the basis of exposure of sound with specific range of intensity and duration of exposure. Group A and Group B were exposed to sound with intensity 110 dBA for four hours per day and for eight hours per day respectively. Control group was exposed to sound less than 85 dBA. Viable cell count was performed using trypan blue. Catalase activity of each group was estimated using ELISA kit.Viable cell count of Group A and Group B was almost same but significantly less than that of control group. Catalase activity of lymphocytes in Group B was significantly low as compared to Group A and controls (p=0.003,p< 0.05. There was no significant difference between catalase activity of Group A and control group.Exposure of sound with frequency 1 KHz and intensity 110 dBA for 4 hours and eight hours per day may induce oxidative stress in growing lymphocytes causing the difference in viable cell count. However the catalase activity depends on duration of exposure. In case of noise exposure of 8 hours per day, it declines significantly as compared to noise exposure of 4 hours per day.

  10. Self-reported exposure to pesticides and radiation related to pregnancy outcome--results from National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitz, D.A.; Whelan, E.A.; Kleckner, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Although fetal development is known to be sensitive to environmental agents, relatively little epidemiologic research has addressed this concern. Effects on pregnancy outcome of self-reported parental exposure to pesticides and to radiation were examined using data from the National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys, large national probability samples of live births and stillbirths occurring in 1980. In case-control analyses, maternal exposure to pesticides at home or work was associated with increased risk of stillbirth (odds ratios (ORs) = 1.5-1.6). Paternal pesticide exposure was associated with stillbirth (ORs = 1.2-1.4) and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants (ORs = 1.4-2.0). A small increased risk of stillbirth (OR = 1.3) was found in relation to either parent's reported exposure to radiation. In spite of limitations in the quality of exposure data and the possibility of biased recall related to pregnancy outcome, associations of reported pesticide exposure to either parent with risk of stillbirth and small-for-gestational-age infants warrant further evaluation

  11. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls...

  12. Hearing loss in the elderly: History of occupational noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses-Barriviera, Caroline Luiz; Melo, Juliana Jandre; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2013-04-01

    Noise exposure is one of the most common health risk factors, and workers are exposed to sound pressure levels capable of producing hearing loss.  To assess the prevalence of hearing loss in the elderly and its possible association with a history of occupational noise exposure and with sex.  A prospective study in subjects aged over 60 years. The subjects underwent anamnesis and audiological assessment. The Mann-Whitney test and multiple logistic regression, with 95% confidence interval and p hearing I (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz p = 0.8318) and the mean hearing II (3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz; p occupational noise exposure, we obtained the medium hearing I (p = 0.9542) and the mean hearing II (p = 0.0007).  There was a statistically significant association between hearing loss at high frequencies and the risk factors being male and occupational noise exposure.

  13. Susceptibility to noise exposure during postnatal development in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybalko, Natalia; Syka, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 155, - (2001), s. 32-40 ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA MZd NK4747; GA ČR GA309/97/0830 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : noise exposure * enhancement Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.586, year: 2001

  14. Relationship of trauma exposure and substance abuse to self-reported violence among men and women in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C Brendan; Reiland, Sarah; Thorne, Chris; Cropsey, Karen L

    2014-05-01

    Past research showed a relationship between substance abuse and aggression and past trauma and aggression. The nature of the relationships between substance use, trauma, and aggression is inconclusive. The current research hypothesized greater aggression among those with a history of substance abuse and trauma compared with those without such a history and an additive relationship between substance abuse and trauma on aggression. Participants were 615 individuals in a substance abuse treatment program for individuals under criminal justice supervision. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews and self-report measures. Univariate and multivariate analyses assessed the relationships among substance use, trauma, and aggression. Participants with a history of trauma and regular substance use reported the highest rates of homicidal ideation, problem behaviors, and person offenses. Participants in this group also reported greater desire for help managing their stress and tension, dealing with problems in their intimate relationships, developing healthier relationships in general, and learning prosocial approaches to express their feelings. Substance abusing participants who experienced trauma reported more externalizing behaviors and a greater desire for coping- and social-skills training than participants who abused substances but did not report a history of trauma. This suggests that participants in substance abuse treatment programs may have improved outcomes with the addition of components to address these issues.

  15. Self-reported Occupational Skin Exposure and Risk of Physician-certified Long-term Sick Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonso, Jose H; Tynes, Tore; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the contribution of occupational skin exposure as a risk factor for physician-certified long-term sick leave in the general working population of Norway. This study drew a cohort (n = 12,255; response at baseline 69.9%) randomly from the general population of Norway. Occupat......Little is known about the contribution of occupational skin exposure as a risk factor for physician-certified long-term sick leave in the general working population of Norway. This study drew a cohort (n = 12,255; response at baseline 69.9%) randomly from the general population of Norway....... Occupational skin exposure (in 2009) was measured based on 5 items. The outcome of interest was physician-certified long-term sick leave ≥ 16 days during 2010. Statistical adjustment for psychosocial and mechanical occupational exposures was performed. Long-term sick leave was predicted by occupational skin...... exposure to cleaning products (odds ratio (OR) 1.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-2.5) and waste (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-3.7) among men, and occupational skin exposure to water (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.0-1.6) among women. The estimated population attributable risk for occupational skin exposure was 14...

  16. The Use of Noise Dampening Mats to Reduce Heavy-Equipment Noise Exposures in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Saleh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of sound barriers was evaluated to determine their technical effectiveness and practicality in reducing noise exposures to operating engineers in construction. Commercially purchased sound dampening mats (SDMats were installed inside three heavy-equipment engine compartments. Sound pressure levels (SPLs were measured before and after installing the SDMats while the equipment was on idle and full-throttle settings where it normally operates. SPLs inside the heavy-equipment operator cabs were significantly reduced by 5.6–7.6 dBA on the full-throttle setting following installation of the SDMats (p<0.01. The evaluated engineering control intervention was simple to install, affordable, and substantially reduced the engine noise reaching the heavy-equipment operator, potentially reducing reliance on hearing-protection devices to protect construction workers from noise exposures.

  17. Self-reported parental exposure to pesticide during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the MecoExpo cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Mayhoub

    Full Text Available The MecoExpo study was performed in the Picardy region of northern France, in order to investigate the putative relationship between parental exposures to pesticides (as reported by the mother on one hand and neonatal parameters on the other. The cohort comprised 993 mother-newborn pairs. Each mother completed a questionnaire that probed occupational, domestic, environmental and dietary sources of parental exposure to pesticides during her pregnancy. Multivariate regression analyses were then used to test for associations between the characteristics of parental pesticide exposure during pregnancy and the corresponding birth outcomes. Maternal occupational exposure was associated with an elevated risk of low birth weight (odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval]: 4.2 [1.2, 15.4]. Paternal occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with a lower than average gestational age at birth (-0.7 weeks; p = 0.0002 and an elevated risk of prematurity (OR: 3.7 [1.4, 9.7]. Levels of domestic exposure to veterinary antiparasitics and to pesticides for indoor plants were both associated with a low birth weight (-70 g; p = 0.02 and -160 g; p = 0.005, respectively. Babies born to women living in urban areas had a lower birth length and a higher risk of low birth length (-0.4 cm, p = 0.006 and OR: 2.9 [1.5, 5.5], respectively. The present study results mainly demonstrate a negative correlation between fetal development on one hand and parental occupational and domestic exposure to pesticides on the other. Our study highlights the need to perform a global and detailed screening of all potential physiological effects when assessing in utero exposure to pesticides.

  18. Self-reported parental exposure to pesticide during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the MecoExpo cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhoub, Flora; Berton, Thierry; Bach, Véronique; Tack, Karine; Deguines, Caroline; Floch-Barneaud, Adeline; Desmots, Sophie; Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Chardon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The MecoExpo study was performed in the Picardy region of northern France, in order to investigate the putative relationship between parental exposures to pesticides (as reported by the mother) on one hand and neonatal parameters on the other. The cohort comprised 993 mother-newborn pairs. Each mother completed a questionnaire that probed occupational, domestic, environmental and dietary sources of parental exposure to pesticides during her pregnancy. Multivariate regression analyses were then used to test for associations between the characteristics of parental pesticide exposure during pregnancy and the corresponding birth outcomes. Maternal occupational exposure was associated with an elevated risk of low birth weight (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval]: 4.2 [1.2, 15.4]). Paternal occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with a lower than average gestational age at birth (-0.7 weeks; p = 0.0002) and an elevated risk of prematurity (OR: 3.7 [1.4, 9.7]). Levels of domestic exposure to veterinary antiparasitics and to pesticides for indoor plants were both associated with a low birth weight (-70 g; p = 0.02 and -160 g; p = 0.005, respectively). Babies born to women living in urban areas had a lower birth length and a higher risk of low birth length (-0.4 cm, p = 0.006 and OR: 2.9 [1.5, 5.5], respectively). The present study results mainly demonstrate a negative correlation between fetal development on one hand and parental occupational and domestic exposure to pesticides on the other. Our study highlights the need to perform a global and detailed screening of all potential physiological effects when assessing in utero exposure to pesticides.

  19. Self-Reported Youth and Adult Exposure to Alcohol Marketing in Traditional and Digital Media: Results of a Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Padon, Alisa; Ross, Craig; Borzekowski, Dina

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol marketing is known to be a significant risk factor for underage drinking. However, little is known about youth and adult exposure to alcohol advertising in digital and social media. This study piloted a comparative assessment of youth and adult recall of exposure to online marketing of alcohol. From September to October 2013, a pilot survey of past 30-day exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content in traditional and digital media was administered to a national sample of 1,192 youth (ages 13 to 20) and 1,124 adults (ages ≥21) using a prerecruited Internet panel maintained by GfK Custom Research. The weighted proportions of youth and adults who reported this exposure were compared by media type and by advertising and promotional content. Youth were more likely than adults to recall exposure to alcohol advertising on television (69.2% vs. 61.9%), radio (24.8% vs. 16.7%), billboards (54.8% vs. 35.4%), and the Internet (29.7% vs. 16.8%), but less likely to recall seeing advertising in magazines (35.7% vs. 36.4%). Youth were also more likely to recall seeing advertisements and pictures on the Internet of celebrities using alcohol (36.1% vs. 20.8%) or wearing clothing promoting alcohol (27.7% vs. 15.9%), and actively respond (i.e., like, share, or post) to alcohol-related content online. Youth report greater exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content than adults in most media, including on the Internet. These findings emphasize the need to assure compliance with voluntary industry standards on the placement of alcohol advertising and the importance of developing better tools for monitoring youth exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly on the Internet. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Disorders induced by direct occupational exposure to noise: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Domingo-Pueyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed, ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information, Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: “Noise, Occupational,” “Occupational Exposure,” and “Occupational Disease.” The following limits were considered: “Humans,” “Adult (more than 18 years,” and “Comparative Studies.” Results: A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. Conclusions: It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders.

  1. Links between Self-Reported Media Violence Exposure and Teacher Ratings of Aggression and Prosocial Behavior among German Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahe, Barbara; Moller, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant,…

  2. Self-report and long-term field measures of MP3 player use: how accurate is self-report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnuff, C D F; Fligor, B J; Arehart, K H

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the usage patterns of portable listening device (PLD) listeners, and the relationships between self-report measures and long-term dosimetry measures of listening habits. This study used a descriptive correlational design. Participants (N = 52) were 18-29 year old men and women who completed surveys. A randomly assigned subset (N = 24) of participants had their listening monitored by dosimetry for one week. Median weekly noise doses reported and measured through dosimetry were low (9-93%), but 14.3% of participants reported exceeding a 100% noise dose weekly. When measured by dosimetry, 16.7% of participants exceeded a 100% noise dose weekly. The self-report question that best predicted the dosimetry-measured dose asked participants to report listening duration and usual listening level on a visual-analog scale. This study reports a novel dosimetry system that can provide accurate measures of PLD use over time. When not feasible, though, the self-report question described could provide a useful research or clinical tool to estimate exposure from PLD use. Among the participants in this study, a small but substantial percentage of PLD users incurred exposure from PLD use alone that increases their risk of music-induced hearing loss.

  3. The use of, and attitudes towards, electronic cigarettes and self-reported exposure to advertising and the product in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Judy; Newcombe, Rhiannon; Walton, Darren

    2014-12-01

    Very few studies have investigated New Zealanders' use of, and attitudes towards, e-cigarettes, their exposure to e-cigarette advertising and their general exposure to this product. The current study aims to fill this information gap. Responses were gathered from a sample of adult smokers and recent quitters who took part in a fortnightly computer-assisted telephone interviewing survey. This paper reports on data collected in 2013 on the use of, and attitudes towards, e-cigarettes and exposure to advertising and the product in general. Responses were compared by socio-demographic status and recent quit attempts. Between 23% and 39% of respondents reported having used e-cigarettes (with the highest level among those who had quit or tried to quit recently), and 8-16% had used e-cigarettes in the past two weeks. About one half reported seeing advertising of e-cigarettes in the past two weeks, 22-41% had seen people they knew using e-cigarettes and 10-15% had seen a stranger using them in the past two weeks. Attitudinal responses are reported in the main text. The rate of ever-use suggested that smokers and recent quitters are receptive to e-cigarettes and that they were available to many of them to try. Exposure to e-cigarette advertising or the product in general was not uncommon. Future studies should continue monitor the use of e-cigarettes and investigate the impact of the exposure to people's attitudes towards the product and their subsequent use of e-cigarettes. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Noise exposure at school and blood pressure in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhilah Ihsani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The increasing prevalence of primary hypertension has motivated researchers to identify influencing factors, one of which is noise. There have been few studies on a relationships between noise exposure and blood pressure in children, and none have dealt exclusively with adolescents. Objective To assess for an association between noise exposure at school and blood pressure in adolescents.   Methods To identify noisy and quiet schools, the mean noise levels of 192 senior high schools in Medan were measured using sound level meters. One noisy school and one quiet school were randomly selected for inclusion (mean noise levels of  68.2 and  53.8 dB, respectively. Students from both schools underwent blood pressure measurements by mercury sphygmomanometer. Their Body weights and heights were obtained for body mass index calculations. Subjects filled questionnaires and their parents were interviewed regarding history of illnesses. Results Of the 271 adolescents recruited, 136 (50.2% were from the noisy school. Adolescents from the noisy school had higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures [121.6 (SD 13.87 mmHg and 71.1 (SD 8.15 mmHg, respectively], than those from the quiet school [111.8 (SD 12.61 mmHg and 63.8 (SD 8.05 mmHg, respectively]. After adjusting for other factors, noise had a significant, moderate, positive association with systolic and diastolic blood pressures [β = 0.452; B = 6.21 (95% CI 3.86-8.55 mmHg; and β = 0.473; B = 4.18 (95% CI 2.41 to 5.94 mmHg, respectively]. Conclusion Adolescents from a noisy school have a greater risk of higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures than those from a quiet school.

  5. Effect of noise exposure on gap detection in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybalko, Natalia; Syka, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 200, - (2005), s. 63-72 ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/04/1074; GA MZd(CZ) NR8113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : noise exposure * temporal resolution * gap detection Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.674, year: 2005

  6. [Inter-rater agreement on self-reported exposure to ergonomic risk factors for the upper extremities among mechanic assemblers in an automotive industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Angelo; Fontana, Dario; Merogno, Angela

    2016-01-01

    to assess reproducibility of self-reported exposure to ergonomic hazards for the upper limbs, measured through a questionnaire based on a diffused checklist for the assessment of ergonomic risk (OCRA) in a sample of mechanical assemblers of an automotive industry. cross-sectional study; reproducibility was assessed as interrater agreement of a composite index of ergonomic risk, estimated through the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). 58 mechanical assemblers, working in 29 twin areas, characterised by same work stations and tasks. composite index of ergonomic risk for the upper limbs. reproducibility of the ergonomic index was high in the overall sample (ICC: 0.81) and it was higher for the twin areas employing same-gender workers (ICC: 0.96), compared to those with workers of the opposite gender (ICC: 0.66). these results indicate that a questionnaire measuring with a great detail the exposure to the main ergonomic risk factors for the upper limbs, as the one based on the OCRA checklist used for this study, would allow to obtain a highly reproducible ergonomic index. If its validity against the corresponding observational checklist will be found elevated by future studies, this questionnaire may represent a useful tool for a preliminary assessment of workers' exposure to ergonomic hazards for the upper limbs.

  7. A Life Course Model of Self-Reported Violence Exposure and Ill-health with A Public Health Problem Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Niclas

    2014-01-01

    Violence has probably always been part of the human experience. Its impact can be seen, in various forms, in all parts of the world. In 1996, WHO:s Forty-Ninth World Health Assembly adopted a resolution, declaring violence a major and growing public health problem around the world. Public health work centers around health promotion and disease prevention activities in the population and public health is an expression of the health status of the population taking into account both the level and the distribution of health. Exposure to violence can have many aspects, differing throughout the life course - deprivation of autonomy, financial exploitation, psychological and physical neglect or abuse - but all types share common characteristics: the use of destructive force to control others by depriving them of safety, freedom, health and, in too many instances, life; the epidemic proportions of the problem, particularly among vulnerable groups; a devastating impact on individuals, families, neighborhoods, communities, and society. There is considerable evidence that stressful early life events influence a variety of physical and/or psychological health problems later in life. Childhood adversity has been linked to elevated rates of morbidity and mortality from number of chronic diseases. A model outlining potential biobehavioural pathways is put forward that may be a potential explanation of how exposure to violence among both men and women work as an important risk factor for ill health and should receive greater attention in public health work.

  8. Work stress, worries, and pain interact synergistically with modelled traffic noise on cross-sectional associations with self-reported sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger; Björk, Jonas; Albin, Maria; Jakobsson, Kristina; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Ardö, Jonas

    2011-02-01

    To examine the risk of sleep problems associated with work stress (job strain, job demands, and decision authority), worries and pain and to investigate the synergistic interaction between these factors and traffic noise. Sleep problems and predictor variables were assessed in a cross-sectional public health survey with 12,093 respondents. Traffic noise levels were assessed using modelled A-weighted energy equivalent traffic sound levels at the residence. The risk of sleep problems was modelled using multiple logistic regression analysis. With regard to sleep problems not attributed to any external source (general sleep problems), independent main effects were found for traffic noise (women), decision authority (women), job strain, job demands, suffering from pain or other afflictions, worries about losing the job, experiencing bullying at work, having troubles paying the bills, and having a sick, disabled, or old relative to take care of (women). Significant synergistic effects were found for traffic noise and experiencing bullying at work in women. With regard to sleep problems attributed to traffic noise, strong synergistic interactions were found between traffic noise and, respectively, job demands (men), having pain or other afflictions, taking care of a sick, old, or disabled relative, and having troubles paying the bills. Main effects were found for worries about losing the job, experiencing bullying at work, job strain (men), and decision authority (men). Synergistic interactions could potentially contribute with 10-20% of the sleep problems attributed to traffic noise in the population. Work stress, pain, and different worries were independently associated with general sleep problems and showed in general no synergistic interaction with traffic noise. In contrast, synergistic effects between traffic noise and psychological factors were found with regard to sleep problems attributed to traffic noise. The synergy may contribute significantly to sleep

  9. A meta-analysis on the relationship between self-reported presence and anxiety in virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ling

    Full Text Available In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r = .28; 95% CI: 0.18-0.38. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r = .50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.66 and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r = .001; 95% CI: -0.19-0.19. Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating

  10. Particulate Matter 2.5 Exposure and Self-Reported Use of Wood Stoves and Other Indoor Combustion Sources in Urban Nonsmoking Homes in Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah B Wyss

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined particulate matter (PM exposure from self-reported use of wood stoves and other indoor combustion sources in urban settings in developed countries. We measured concentrations of indoor PM < 2.5 microns (PM2.5 for one week with the MicroPEM™ nephelometer in 36 households in the greater Oslo, Norway metropolitan area. We examined indoor PM2.5 levels in relation to use of wood stoves and other combustion sources during a 7 day monitoring period using mixed effects linear models with adjustment for ambient PM2.5 levels. Mean hourly indoor PM2.5 concentrations were higher (p = 0.04 for the 14 homes with wood stove use (15.6 μg/m3 than for the 22 homes without (12.6 μg/m3. Moreover, mean hourly PM2.5 was higher (p = 0.001 for use of wood stoves made before 1997 (6 homes, 20.2 μg/m3, when wood stove emission limits were instituted in Norway, compared to newer wood stoves (8 homes, 11.9 μg/m3 which had mean hourly values similar to control homes. Increased PM2.5 levels during diary-reported burning of candles was detected independently of concomitant wood stove use. These results suggest that self-reported use of wood stoves, particularly older stoves, and other combustion sources, such as candles, are associated with indoor PM2.5 measurements in an urban population from a high income country.

  11. A meta-analysis on the relationship between self-reported presence and anxiety in virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yun; Nefs, Harold T; Morina, Nexhmedin; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r = .28; 95% CI: 0.18-0.38). Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r = .50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.66) and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r = .001; 95% CI: -0.19-0.19). Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating factors.

  12. Noise-induced hearing loss and combined noise and vibration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcot, A; Girard, S A; Courteau, M; Baril, J; Larocque, R

    2015-04-01

    While there is a wide body of literature addressing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) independently, relatively few studies have considered the combined effects of noise and vibration. These studies have suggested an increased risk of NIHL in workers with vibration white finger (VWF), though the relationship remains poorly understood. To determine whether hearing impairment is worse in noise-exposed workers with VWF than in workers with similar noise exposures but without VWF. The Quebec National Institute of Public Health audiometric database was used in conjunction with work-related accident and occupational diseases data from the Quebec workers' compensation board to analyse differences in audiometry results between vibration-exposed workers in the mining and forestry industries and the overall source population, and between mining and forestry workers with documented VWF and those without VWF. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7029 standards were used to calculate hearing loss not attributable to age. 15751 vibration-exposed workers were identified in an overall source population of 59339. Workers with VWF (n = 96) had significantly worse hearing at every frequency studied (500, 1000, 2000 4000 Hz) compared with other mining and forestry workers without VWF. This study confirms previous findings of greater hearing loss at higher frequencies in workers with VWF, but also found a significant difference in hearing loss at low frequencies. It therefore supports the association between combined noise and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposure and NIHL. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Work stress, worries, and pain interact synergistically with modelled traffic noise on cross-sectional associations with self-reported sleep problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger; Björk, Jonas; Albin, Maria; Jakobsson, Kristina; Östergren, Per-Olof; Ardö, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    To examine the risk of sleep problems associated with work stress (job strain, job demands, and decision authority), worries and pain and to investigate the synergistic interaction between these factors and traffic noise. Sleep problems and predictor variables were assessed in a cross-sectional public health survey with 12,093 respondents. Traffic noise levels were assessed using modelled A-weighted energy equivalent traffic sound levels at the residence. The risk of sleep problems was modell...

  14. Noise exposure levels for musicians during rehearsal and performance times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Devon; Stewart, Michael; Anderson, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine daily noise doses and 8-hour time weighted averages for rock band musicians, crew members, and spectators during a typical rehearsal and performance using both Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) measurement criteria. Personal noise dosimetry was completed on five members of a rock band during one 2-hr rehearsal and one 4-hr performance. Time-weighted averages (TWA) and daily dose values were calculated using both OSHA and NIOSH criteria and compared to industry guidelines for enrollment in hearing conservation programs and the use of hearing protection devices. TWA values ranged from 84.3 to 90.4 dBA (OSHA) and from 90.0 to 96.4 dBA (NIOSH) during the rehearsal. The same values ranged from 91.0 to 99.7 dBA (OSHA) and 94.0 to 102.8 dBA (NIOSH) for the performance. During the rehearsal, daily noise doses ranged from 45.54% to 106.7% (OSHA) and from 317.74% to 1396.07% (NIOSH). During the performance, doses ranged from 114.66% to 382.49% (OSHA) and from 793.31% to 5970.15% (NIOSH). The musicians in this study were exposed to dangerously high levels of noise and should be enrolled in a hearing conservation programs. Hearing protection devices should be worn, especially during performances. The OSHA measurement criteria yielded values significantly more conservative than those produced by NIOSH criteria. Audiologists should counsel musician-patients about the hazards of excessive noise (music) exposure and how to protect their hearing.

  15. Do self-reported data reflect the real burden of lifetime exposure to sexual violence among females aged 13-24 years in Malawi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Amy Z; Kress, Howard; Gupta, Sundeep; Wadonda-Kabondo, Nellie; Shawa, Mary; Mercy, James

    2016-08-01

    Under most circumstances, the lifetime experience of sexual violence (SV) among girls and young women would likely increase with age. However, the empirical data from a retrospective study may not necessarily conform to this belief. Data from a nationally representative sample of females aged 13-24 years in Malawi in 2013 (n=1029) were analyzed. SV was defined as unwanted touching or attempted, pressured, or physically forced sex. The distribution of four types of SV among victims was compared between younger (13-18 years) and older (19-24 years) age groups. The strength of association between SV exposure and health outcomes was examined by age group. The risk of experiencing SV during their lifetime was three times greater for younger than that for older age females (Hazard ratio=3.32). Among females who had experienced SV, older age females were more likely to report forced or pressured sex (41.2%) as their initial SV experience than younger age females (17.8%). The strength of association between the SV exposure and health outcomes did not differ by age group. The self-report lifetime and childhood victimization to sexual violence may not necessarily higher among older than that among younger females. The current risk of exposure to sexual violence seems to influence the recall of lifetime and childhood victimization to a great extent. In order to make the field aware of this phenomenon, prevalence estimates from all three time frames (lifetime, childhood, and during the past 12 months) should be reported separately by age group. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and traffic noise and incident hypertension in seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuks, Kateryna B; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Basagaña, Xavier; Gruzieva, Olena; Hampel, Regina; Oftedal, Bente; Sørensen, Mette; Wolf, Kathrin; Aamodt, Geir; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Becker, Thomas; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Caracciolo, Barbara; Cyrys, Josef; Elosua, Roberto; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Foraster, Maria; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Houthuijs, Danny; Korek, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Marrugat, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Penell, Johanna; Pershagen, Göran; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Swart, Wim J R; Peters, Annette; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts. We included seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE). We modelled concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10), >2.5, and ≤10 µm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), and nitrogen oxides at the addresses of participants with land use regression. Residential exposure to traffic noise was modelled at the facade according to the EU Directive 2002/49/EC. We assessed hypertension as (i) self-reported and (ii) measured (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg or intake of BP lowering medication (BPLM). We used Poisson regression with robust variance estimation to analyse associations of traffic-related exposures with incidence of hypertension, controlling for relevant confounders, and combined the results from individual studies with random-effects meta-analysis. Among 41 072 participants free of self-reported hypertension at baseline, 6207 (15.1%) incident cases occurred within 5-9 years of follow-up. Incidence of self-reported hypertension was positively associated with PM2.5 (relative risk (RR) 1.22 [95%-confidence interval (CI):1.08; 1.37] per 5 µg/m³) and PM2.5 absorbance (RR 1.13 [95% CI:1.02; 1.24] per 10 - 5m - 1). These estimates decreased slightly upon adjustment for road traffic noise. Road traffic noise was weakly positively associated with the incidence of self-reported hypertension. Among 10 896 participants at risk, 3549 new cases of measured hypertension occurred. We found no clear associations with measured hypertension. Long-term residential exposures to air pollution and noise are associated with increased incidence of self-reported hypertension. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effects of repeated exposure to white noise on central cholinergic activity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H

    1988-03-01

    Acute (45 min) exposure to noise has been shown to decrease sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. In the present experiment, the effects of repeated noise exposure on choline uptake in these two brain regions were studied. Rats were exposed to 100-dB white noise in ten 45-min sessions. Tolerance developed to the effects of noise on choline uptake. In addition, the effects were found to be classically conditionable to cues in the exposure environment. These data may have important implications in understanding the health hazard of noise exposure in both the public and occupational environments.

  18. Assessing possible DSM-5 ASD subtypes in a sample of victims meeting caseness for DSM-5 ASD based on self-report following multiple forms of traumatic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Wang, Li; Elklit, Ask; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) was introduced into the DSM-IV to recognize early traumatic responses and as a precursor of PTSD. Although the diagnostic criteria for ASD were altered and structured more similarly to the PTSD definition in DSM-5, only the PTSD diagnosis includes a dissociative subtype. Emerging research has indicated that there also appears to be a highly symptomatic subtype for ASD. However, the specific nature of the subtype is currently unclear. The present study investigates the possible presence of ASD subtypes in a mixed sample of victims meeting caseness for DSM-5 ASD based on self-report following four different types of traumatic exposure (N=472). The results of latent profile analysis revealed a 5-class solution. The highly symptomatic class was marked by high endorsement on avoidance and dissociation compared to the other classes. Findings are discussed in regard to its clinical implications including the implications for the pending the ICD-11 and the recently released DSM-5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs about breast cancer etiology, and established and suspected breast cancer risk factors. To evaluate potential recall bias, we stratified product-use odds ratios by beliefs about whether chemicals and pollutants contribute to breast cancer; we compared these results with odds ratios for family history (which are less subject to recall bias) stratified by beliefs about heredity. Results Breast cancer risk increased two-fold in the highest compared with lowest quartile of self-reported combined cleaning product use (Adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.3) and combined air freshener use (Adjusted OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.0). Little association was observed with pesticide use. In stratified analyses, cleaning products odds ratios were more elevated among participants who believed pollutants contribute "a lot" to breast cancer and moved towards the null among the other participants. In comparison, the odds ratio for breast cancer and family history was markedly higher among women who believed that heredity contributes "a lot" (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.6) and not elevated among others (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.1). Conclusions Results of this study suggest that cleaning product use contributes to increased breast cancer risk. However, results also highlight the difficulty of distinguishing in retrospective self-report studies between valid associations and the influence of recall bias. Recall bias may influence higher odds ratios for product use among participants who believed that chemicals and

  20. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Ami R; Aschengrau, Ann; Rudel, Ruthann A; Brody, Julia Green

    2010-07-20

    Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs about breast cancer etiology, and established and suspected breast cancer risk factors. To evaluate potential recall bias, we stratified product-use odds ratios by beliefs about whether chemicals and pollutants contribute to breast cancer; we compared these results with odds ratios for family history (which are less subject to recall bias) stratified by beliefs about heredity. Breast cancer risk increased two-fold in the highest compared with lowest quartile of self-reported combined cleaning product use (Adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.3) and combined air freshener use (Adjusted OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.0). Little association was observed with pesticide use. In stratified analyses, cleaning products odds ratios were more elevated among participants who believed pollutants contribute "a lot" to breast cancer and moved towards the null among the other participants. In comparison, the odds ratio for breast cancer and family history was markedly higher among women who believed that heredity contributes "a lot" (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.6) and not elevated among others (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.1). Results of this study suggest that cleaning product use contributes to increased breast cancer risk. However, results also highlight the difficulty of distinguishing in retrospective self-report studies between valid associations and the influence of recall bias. Recall bias may influence higher odds ratios for product use among participants who believed that chemicals and pollutants contribute to breast cancer

  1. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudel Ruthann A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs about breast cancer etiology, and established and suspected breast cancer risk factors. To evaluate potential recall bias, we stratified product-use odds ratios by beliefs about whether chemicals and pollutants contribute to breast cancer; we compared these results with odds ratios for family history (which are less subject to recall bias stratified by beliefs about heredity. Results Breast cancer risk increased two-fold in the highest compared with lowest quartile of self-reported combined cleaning product use (Adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.3 and combined air freshener use (Adjusted OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.0. Little association was observed with pesticide use. In stratified analyses, cleaning products odds ratios were more elevated among participants who believed pollutants contribute "a lot" to breast cancer and moved towards the null among the other participants. In comparison, the odds ratio for breast cancer and family history was markedly higher among women who believed that heredity contributes "a lot" (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.6 and not elevated among others (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.1. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that cleaning product use contributes to increased breast cancer risk. However, results also highlight the difficulty of distinguishing in retrospective self-report studies between valid associations and the influence of recall bias. Recall bias may influence higher odds ratios for product use among participants who believed

  2. Short Sleep as an Environmental Exposure: A Preliminary Study Associating 5-HTTLPR Genotype to Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Depressed Mood in First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A.; Sharkey, Katherine M.; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the SLC6A4 gene is associated with self-reported symptoms of depressed mood in first-year university students with a persistent pattern of short sleep. Design: Students provided DNA samples and completed on-line sleep diaries and a mood scale during the first semester. A priori phenotypes for nocturnal sleep and mood scores were compared for the distribution of genotypes. Setting: Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Participants: A sample of 135 first-year students, 54 male, 71 Caucasian, mean age 18.1 (± 0.5) yr. Interventions: None. Measurements: Students completed on-line sleep diaries daily across the first term (21-64 days; mean = 51 days ± 11) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) mood scale after 8 wk. DNA was genotyped for the triallelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Low-expressing S and LGpolymorphisms were designated S′, and high-expressing LA was designated L′. Phenotype groups were identified from a combination of CES-D (median split: high > 12; low sleep time (TST) from diaries: (shorter ≤ 7 hr; longer ≥ 7.5 hr). Three genotypes were identified (S′S′, S′L′, L′L′); the S′S′ genotype was present in a higher proportion of Asian than non-Asian students. Results: Four phenotype groups were compared: 40 students with shorter TST/high CES-D; 34 with shorter TST/low CES-D; 29 with longer TST/high CES-D; 32 with longer TST/low CES-D. Female:male distribution did not vary across phenotype groups (chi-square = 1.39; df = 3; P = 0.71). S′S′ participants (n = 23) were overrepresented in the shorter TST/high CES-D group (chi- square = 15.04; df = 6; P sleep and higher depressed mood are more likely than others to carry a variant of the SLC6A4 gene associated with low expression of the serotonin transporter. Citation: Carskadon MA; Sharkey KM; Knopik VS; McGeary JE. Short sleep as an environmental exposure: a preliminary study associating 5-HTTLPR

  3. Cotton dust exposure and self-reported respiratory symptoms among textile factory workers in Northwest Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daba Wami, Sintayehu; Chercos, Daniel Haile; Dessie, Awrajaw; Gizaw, Zemichael; Getachew, Atalay; Hambisa, Tesfaye; Guadu, Tadese; Getachew, Dawit; Destaw, Bikes

    2018-01-01

    Cotton dust induced respiratory disorders are dramatically increased over the globe, especially the problem is serious in developing countries. Respiratory symptoms, such as cough, phlegm, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, chronic bronchitis, and byssinosis are common among workers exposed to cotton dust. However, in Ethiopia, the magnitude of the problem is not well known and information is limited about the risk factors. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and associated factors. A Comparative cross-sectional study design was employed. A total of 413 (276 exposed and 137 unexposed) participants were included in the study. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select exposed and unexposed groups to cotton dust respectively. Multivariable binary logistic regression analyses was performed to identify variables associated with respiratory symptoms and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was used to determine the strength of associations. Significance level was obtained at 95% confidence interval (CI) and p -value ≤0.05. The prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms was 47.8% (95% CI: 41.3, 53.7%) and 15.3% (95% CI: 9.6, 22.3%) among exposed and control groups respectively. Sex (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.45), service year (AOR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.19, 4.71) and ventilation (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.17, 4.91) were factors significantly associated with respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, working department such as; ginning (AOR = 5.1, 95% CI: 2.13, 12.16), spinning (AOR = 4.96, 95% CI: 2.18, 11.29), weaving (AOR = 5.9, 95% CI: 2.46, 14.27) and blowing working departments (AOR = 5.14, 95% CI: 1.4, 18.94) were significantly associated with respiratory disorders. The prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms was higher among workers exposed to cotton dust than unexposed workers. Sex, service year, working department and work unit ventilation were predictor

  4. Occupational Noise Exposure of Employees at Locally-Owned Restaurants in a College Town

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Deirdre R.; Anthony, T. Renée

    2015-01-01

    While many restaurant employees work in loud environments, in both dining and food preparation areas, little is known about worker exposures to noise. The risk of hearing loss to millions of food service workers around the country is unknown. This study evaluated full-shift noise exposure to workers at six locally-owned restaurants to examine risk factors associated with noise exposures during the day shift. Participants included cooks, counter attendants, bartenders, and waiters at full-serv...

  5. The combined effect of cigarette smoking and occupational noise exposure on hearing loss: evidence from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongming; Wang, Zhichao; Zhou, Min; Li, Wenzhen; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yuan, Jing; Zhan, Yue; Zhang, Kun; Zhou, Tao; Kong, Weijia; Chen, Weihong

    2017-09-11

    Combined effect of cigarette smoking and occupational noise exposure on hearing loss has rarely been evaluated among Chinese population, especially among females. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 11196 participants of Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study. Smoking status was self-reported through questionnaire and occupational noise exposure was evaluated through workplace noise level and/or the job titles. Hearing loss was defined as a pure-tone mean of 25 dB or higher at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz in both ears. Compared with participants without occupational noise exposure, the risk of hearing loss was significantly higher for noise exposure duration ≥20 (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.28-1.65). The association was particularly evident among individuals who were males (OR = 1.74, 95%CI = 1.45-2.08) and aged ≥ 70 (OR = 1.74, 95%CI = 1.30-2.33). Similarly, the risks increased with the increasing of pack-years in males and all age groups except for those aged hearing loss risk was highest for noise exposure duration ≥20 and pack-years ≥25 (OR = 2.41, 95%CI = 1.78-3.28), especially among males (OR = 2.42, 95%CI = 1.74-3.37) and those aged ≥70 (OR = 2.76, 95%CI = 1.36-5.60). Smoking may be an independent risk factor for hearing loss. And it may synergistically affect hearing when combined with occupational noise exposure, especially among males and older participants.

  6. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  7. Auditory sensitivity in opiate addicts with and without a history of noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Rawool

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several case reports suggest that some individuals are susceptible to hearing loss from opioids. A combination of noise and opium exposure is possible in either occupational setting such as military service or recreational settings. According to the Drug Enforcement Agency of the U.S. Department of Justice, prescriptions for opiate-based drugs have skyrocketed in the past decade. Since both opium and noise independently can cause hearing loss, it is important to know the prevalence of hearing loss among individuals who are exposed to opium or both opium and noise. The purpose of this research was to evaluate auditory sensitivity in individuals with a history of opium abuse and/or occupational or nonoccupational noise exposure. Twenty-three men who reported opiate abuse served as participants in the study. Four of the individuals reported no history of noise exposure, 12 reported hobby-related noise exposure, 7 reported occupational noise exposure including 2 who also reported hobby-related noise exposure. Fifty percent (2/4 of the individuals without any noise exposure had a hearing loss confirming previous reports that some of the population is vulnerable to the ototoxic effects of opioids. The percentage of population with hearing loss increased with hobby-related (58% and occupational noise exposure (100%. Mixed MANOVA revealed a significant ear, frequency, and noise exposure interaction. Health professionals need to be aware of the possible ototoxic effects of opioids, since early detection of hearing loss from opium abuse may lead to cessation of abuse and further progression of hearing loss. The possibility that opium abuse may interact with noise exposure in determining auditory thresholds needs to be considered in noise exposed individuals who are addicted to opiates. Possible mechanisms of cochlear damage from opium abuse, possible reasons for individual susceptibility, and recommendations for future studies are presented in the article.

  8. Assigning exposure to pesticides and solvents from self-reports collected by a computer assisted personal interview and expert assessment of job codes: the UK Adult Brain Tumour Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, S J; Bolton, A; Parslow, R C; van Tongeren, M; Muir, K R; McKinney, P A

    2006-04-01

    To compare assignment of occupational pesticide and solvent exposure using self-reported data collected by a computer assisted personal interview (CAPI) with exposure based on expert assessment of job codes. To discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using a CAPI to collect individual occupational exposure data. Between 2001 and 2004, 1495 participants were interviewed using a CAPI for a case-control study of adult brain tumours and acoustic neuromas. Two types of occupational data were collected: (1) a full history, including job title from which a job code was assigned from the Standard Occupational Classification; and (2) specific details on pesticide and solvent exposure reported by participants. Study members' experiences of using the CAPI were recorded and advantages and disadvantages summarised. Of 7192 jobs recorded, the prevalence of self-reported exposure was 1.3% for pesticides and 11.5% for solvents. Comparing this with exposure expertly assessed from job titles showed 53.6% and 45.8% concordance for pesticides and solvents respectively. Advantages of the CAPI include no data entry stage, automatic input validation, and a reduction in interviewer bias. Disadvantages include an adverse effect on study implementation as a consequence of resources required for programming and difficulties encountered with data management prior to analysis. Different methods of exposure assessment derive different exposure levels for pesticide and solvent exposure at work. Agreement between self-reported and expert assessment of exposure was greater for pesticides compared to solvents. The advantages of using a CAPI for the collection of complex data outweigh the disadvantages for interviewers and data quality but using such a method requires extra resources at the study outset.

  9. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to Lden 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM)2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). Lden remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  10. Stress response in rat brain after different durations of noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, James; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Ravindran, Rajan; Senthilvelan, Manohar

    2007-01-01

    The alteration in the levels of plasma corticosterone, brain norepinephrine (NE), and expression of brain heat shock proteins (Hsp70) after different durations of noise exposure (acute, 1 day; sub-acute, 15 days; chronic, 30 days) has been studied to analyze their role in combating time-dependent stress effects of noise. Broadband white noise (100dB) exposure to male Wistar albino rats significantly increased the levels of plasma corticosterone and NE in all three durations of noise exposure. The sustained increase observed in their levels in the chronic group suggests that animals are not getting adapted to noise even after 30 days of exposure. The important role of Hsp70 in combating noise induced stress is evident from the significant increase in its expression after chronic exposure, while there was a reciprocal decrease in the NE and corticosterone when compared with their levels after acute and sub-acute noise exposure. This clearly indicates that the time-dependent stress response to noise exposure is a complex mechanism involving highly interconnected systems such as hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, heat shock proteins and may have serious implications in vital organs, particularly in the brain when there is a prolonged noise exposure.

  11. Noise exposure of musicians of a ballet orchestra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Liang Qian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With over 70 dancers and its own orchestra, The National Ballet of Canada ranks amongst the world′s top dance companies. It performs three seasons annually: fall, winter and summer, plus many shows of Tchaikovsky′s Nutcracker. The 70-strong orchestra plays an average of 360 hours/year including rehearsals and performances. Rehearsals are held at two locations: one in a ballet rehearsal room with little or no absorption, and the other in an acoustically treated location. Performances are held in the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts in Toronto. The present survey was done at the request of the National Ballet, since the musicians complained of excessive sound levels and were concerned about possible hearing losses. The survey was performed using five dosimeters Quest Mod 300 during 10 performances of the ballet Romeo and Juliet by Sergei Prokofiev, deemed as the noisiest in the whole repertoire. Results of the survey indicate that the noise exposure levels from only the orchestra′s activities do not present risk of hearing loss. Exposure due to other musical activities was, however, not included.

  12. Exposure to environmental noise and risk for male infertility: A population-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2017-01-01

    Background: Noise is associated with poor reproductive health. A number of animal studies have suggested the possible effects of exposure to high noise levels on fertility; to date, a little such research has been performed on humans. Objectives: We examined an association between daytime and nocturnal noise exposures over four years (2002–2005) and subsequent male infertility. Methods: We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002–2013), a population-wide health insurance claims dataset. A total of 206,492 males of reproductive age (20–59 years) with no history of congenital malformations were followed up for an 8-year period (2006–2013). Male infertility was defined as per ICD-10 code N46. Data on noise exposure was obtained from the National Noise Information System. Exposure levels of daytime and night time noise were extrapolated using geographic information systems and collated with the subjects' administrative district code, and individual exposure levels assigned. Results: During the study period, 3293 (1.6%) had a diagnosis of infertility. Although there was no association of infertility with 1-dB increments in noise exposure, a non-linear dose-response relationship was observed between infertility and quartiles of daytime and night time noise after adjustment for confounding variables (i.e., age, income, residential area, exercise, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood sugar, body mass index, medical histories, and particulate pollution). Based on WHO criteria, adjusted odds for infertility were significantly increased (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05–1.23) in males exposed to night time noise ≥ 55 dB. Conclusion: We found a significant association between exposure to environmental noise for four years and the subsequent incidence of male infertility, suggesting long-term exposure to noise has a role in pathogenesis of male infertility. - Highlights: • Noise is widespread and imposes auditory and non-auditory health

  13. The Use of the Kurtosis-Adjusted Cumulative Noise Exposure Metric in Evaluating the Hearing Loss Risk for Complex Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong-Wei; Qiu, Wei; Heyer, Nicholas J; Zhang, Mei-Bian; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Hamernik, Roger P

    2016-01-01

    To test a kurtosis-adjusted cumulative noise exposure (CNE) metric for use in evaluating the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to industrial noises. Specifically, to evaluate whether the kurtosis-adjusted CNE (1) provides a better association with observed industrial noise-induced hearing loss, and (2) provides a single metric applicable to both complex (non-Gaussian [non-G]) and continuous or steady state (Gaussian [G]) noise exposures for predicting noise-induced hearing loss (dose-response curves). Audiometric and noise exposure data were acquired on a population of screened workers (N = 341) from two steel manufacturing plants located in Zhejiang province and a textile manufacturing plant located in Henan province, China. All the subjects from the two steel manufacturing plants (N = 178) were exposed to complex noise, whereas the subjects from textile manufacturing plant (N = 163) were exposed to a G continuous noise. Each subject was given an otologic examination to determine their pure-tone HTL and had their personal 8-hr equivalent A-weighted noise exposure (LAeq) and full-shift noise kurtosis statistic (which is sensitive to the peaks and temporal characteristics of noise exposures) measured. For each subject, an unadjusted and kurtosis-adjusted CNE index for the years worked was created. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for age was used to determine the relationship between CNE (unadjusted and kurtosis adjusted) and the mean HTL at 3, 4, and 6 kHz (HTL346) among the complex noise-exposed group. In addition, each subject's HTLs from 0.5 to 8.0 kHz were age and sex adjusted using Annex A (ISO-1999) to determine whether they had adjusted high-frequency noise-induced hearing loss (AHFNIHL), defined as an adjusted HTL shift of 30 dB or greater at 3.0, 4.0, or 6.0 kHz in either ear. Dose-response curves for AHFNIHL were developed separately for workers exposed to G and non-G noise using both unadjusted and adjusted CNE as the exposure

  14. Simultaneous exposure to ethyl benzene and noise : synergistic effects on outer hair cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Muijser, H.; Kulig, B.M.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects on hearing of simultaneous exposure to the ototoxic organic solvent ethyl benzene and broad-band noise were evaluated in rats. The effects of three ethyl benzene concentrations (0, 300 or 400 ppm) and three noise levels (95 or 105 dBlin SPL or background noise at 65 dBlin SPL) and all

  15. Associations between residential traffic noise exposure and smoking habits and alcohol consumption-A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-05-01

    Traffic noise stresses and disturbs sleep. It has been associated with various diseases, and has recently also been associated with lifestyle. Hence, the association between traffic noise and disease could partly operate via a pathway of lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol intake. We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and smoking habits and alcohol consumption. In a cohort of 57,053 participants, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from a baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). Smoking status (never, former, current) and intensity (tobacco, g/day) and alcohol consumption (g/day) was self-reported at baseline and follow-up. Address history from 1987-2002 for all participants were found in national registries, and road traffic and railway noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression, and adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic variables, leisure-time sports, and noise from the opposite source (road/railway). Road traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 1.38 g/day, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.65), smoking intensity (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 0.40 g/day, 95% CI: 0.19-0.61), and odds for being a current vs. never/former smoker at baseline (odds ratio (OR): 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10-1.17). In longitudinal analyses, we found no association between road traffic noise and change in smoking and alcohol habits. Railway noise was not associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, neither in cross-sectional nor in longitudinal analyses. The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic is associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, albeit only in cross-sectional, but not in longitudinal analyses. Copyright

  16. Long-term exposure to noise impairs cortical sound processing and attention control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury; Winkler, Istvan; Saher, Marieke; Tervaniemi, Mari; Sallinen, Mikael; Teder-Sälejärvi, Wolfgang; Alho, Kimmo; Reinikainen, Kalevi; Näätänen, Risto

    2004-11-01

    Long-term exposure to noise impairs human health, causing pathological changes in the inner ear as well as other anatomical and physiological deficits. Numerous individuals are daily exposed to excessive noise. However, there is a lack of systematic research on the effects of noise on cortical function. Here we report data showing that long-term exposure to noise has a persistent effect on central auditory processing and leads to concurrent behavioral deficits. We found that speech-sound discrimination was impaired in noise-exposed individuals, as indicated by behavioral responses and the mismatch negativity brain response. Furthermore, irrelevant sounds increased the distractibility of the noise-exposed subjects, which was shown by increased interference in task performance and aberrant brain responses. These results demonstrate that long-term exposure to noise has long-lasting detrimental effects on central auditory processing and attention control.

  17. 75 FR 54695 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Brownsville South Padre Island International Airport, Brownsville, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...; Brownsville South Padre Island International Airport, Brownsville, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... that the noise exposure maps submitted by the City of Brownsville, Texas for Brownsville South Padre... that the noise exposure maps submitted for Brownsville South Padre Island International Airport are in...

  18. 76 FR 60962 - Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... ``2008 Noise Exposure Map with Land Use'' and Figure 9 ``2013 Noise Exposure Map & Affected Land Uses... meet applicable regulations and which depict non-compatible land uses as of the date of submission of... land use control and planning responsibilities of local government. These local responsibilities are...

  19. Road traffic air and noise pollution exposure assessment - A review of tools and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jibran; Ketzel, Matthias; Kakosimos, Konstantinos; Sørensen, Mette; Jensen, Steen Solvang

    2018-09-01

    Road traffic induces air and noise pollution in urban environments having negative impacts on human health. Thus, estimating exposure to road traffic air and noise pollution (hereafter, air and noise pollution) is important in order to improve the understanding of human health outcomes in epidemiological studies. The aims of this review are (i) to summarize current practices of modelling and exposure assessment techniques for road traffic air and noise pollution (ii) to highlight the potential of existing tools and techniques for their combined exposure assessment for air and noise together with associated challenges, research gaps and priorities. The study reviews literature about air and noise pollution from urban road traffic, including other relevant characteristics such as the employed dispersion models, Geographic Information System (GIS)-based tool, spatial scale of exposure assessment, study location, sample size, type of traffic data and building geometry information. Deterministic modelling is the most frequently used assessment technique for both air and noise pollution of short-term and long-term exposure. We observed a larger variety among air pollution models as compared to the applied noise models. Correlations between air and noise pollution vary significantly (0.05-0.74) and are affected by several parameters such as traffic attributes, building attributes and meteorology etc. Buildings act as screens for the dispersion of pollution, but the reduction effect is much larger for noise than for air pollution. While, meteorology has a greater influence on air pollution levels as compared to noise, although also important for noise pollution. There is a significant potential for developing a standard tool to assess combined exposure of traffic related air and noise pollution to facilitate health related studies. GIS, due to its geographic nature, is well established and has a significant capability to simultaneously address both exposures. Copyright

  20. Residential traffic noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma - a Danish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-10-01

    Few risk factors for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) are known. Several studies have proposed an increased risk with occupational noise exposure, whereas no studies have investigated residential traffic noise exposure as a risk factor. The present study investigated if residential traffic noise was associated with vestibular schwannoma in a large, population-based Danish case-control study. We identified 1454 VS cases, age above 30 years at diagnosis, between 1990 and 2007. For each case, we selected two random population controls, matched on sex and year of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income, cohabitation status, railway noise exposure, municipal population density, and municipal income. A two-year time-weighted mean road traffic noise exposure was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for developing VS, per 10 dB increment. There was no clear trend in categorical analyses. Similarly, linear and categorical analyses of residential railway noise did not suggest an association. We found no interaction with demographics, year of diagnosis, individual and municipal socioeconomic variables, and railway noise exposure. The results did not differ by tumor side, spread or size. The present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise and VS.

  1. Occupational noise exposure and regulatory adherence in music venues in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Christopher; Castilla-Sanchez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Noise in most working environments is an unwanted by-product of the process. In most countries, noise exposure for workers has been controlled by legislation for many years. In the music industry the "noise" is actually the "desired" product, and for a long time the UK entertainment industry was exempt from these regulations. From April 2008, however, it became regulated under the Noise at Work Regulations 2005, meaning that employers from orchestras to nightclubs are legally required to adhere to the same requirements (based on ISO 9612:2009) for controlling noise exposure for their staff that have been applied to other industries for many years. A key question is to what degree, 2 years after implementation, these employers are complying with their legal responsibilities to protect the staff from noise? This study assessed four public music venues where live and/or recorded music is regularly played. Thirty staff members in different roles in the venues were monitored using noise dosimetry to determine noise exposure. Questionnaires were used to determine work patterns, attitudes to noise and hearing loss, and levels of training about noise risk. Results showed that the majority of staff (70%) in all venues exceeded the daily noise exposure limit value in their working shift. Use of hearing protection was rare (industry is failing to meet regulatory requirements.

  2. A practical exposure-equivalent metric for instrumentation noise in x-ray imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadava, G K; Kuhls-Gilcrist, A T; Rudin, S; Patel, V K; Hoffmann, K R; Bednarek, D R

    2008-01-01

    The performance of high-sensitivity x-ray imagers may be limited by additive instrumentation noise rather than by quantum noise when operated at the low exposure rates used in fluoroscopic procedures. The equipment-invasive instrumentation noise measures (in terms of electrons) are generally difficult to make and are potentially not as helpful in clinical practice as would be a direct radiological representation of such noise that may be determined in the field. In this work, we define a clinically relevant representation for instrumentation noise in terms of noise-equivalent detector entrance exposure, termed the instrumentation noise-equivalent exposure (INEE), which can be determined through experimental measurements of noise-variance or signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The INEE was measured for various detectors, thus demonstrating its usefulness in terms of providing information about the effective operating range of the various detectors. A simulation study is presented to demonstrate the robustness of this metric against post-processing, and its dependence on inherent detector blur. These studies suggest that the INEE may be a practical gauge to determine and compare the range of quantum-limited performance for clinical x-ray detectors of different design, with the implication that detector performance at exposures below the INEE will be instrumentation-noise limited rather than quantum-noise limited

  3. Effects of prior exposure to office noise and music on aspects of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Waters, Beth; Jones, Hywel

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that prior exposure to noise reduces the effect of subsequent exposure due to habituation. Similarly, a number of studies have shown that exposure to Mozart's music leads to better subsequent spatial reasoning performance. Two studies were conducted to extend these findings. The first one examined whether habituation occurs to office noise (including speech) and, if so, how long it takes to develop. Thirty-six young adults participated in the first study which compared effects of office noise with quiet on the performance of a maths task. The study also examined the effects of prior exposure to the office noise on the subsequent effect of the noise. The results showed that performance was initially impaired by the office noise but that the effects of the noise were removed by 10 minutes of exposure between tasks. The second experiment attempted to replicate the "Mozart effect" which represents an improvement in spatial reasoning following listening to Mozart. The study also examined whether the Mozart effect could be explained by changes in mood. Twenty-four young adults participated in the study. The results replicated the Mozart effect and showed that it was not due to changes in mood. Overall, these results show that prior exposure to noise or music can influence aspects of working memory. Such effects need to be incorporated into models of effects of noise on cognition and attempts have to be made to eliminate alternative explanations rather than just describing changes that occur in specific contexts.

  4. Effects of prior exposure to office noise and music on aspects of working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that prior exposure to noise reduces the effect of subsequent exposure due to habituation. Similarly, a number of studies have shown that exposure to Mozart′s music leads to better subsequent spatial reasoning performance. Two studies were conducted to extend these findings. The first one examined whether habituation occurs to office noise (including speech and, if so, how long it takes to develop. Thirty-six young adults participated in the first study which compared effects of office noise with quiet on the performance of a maths task. The study also examined the effects of prior exposure to the office noise on the subsequent effect of the noise. The results showed that performance was initially impaired by the office noise but that the effects of the noise were removed by 10 minutes of exposure between tasks. The second experiment attempted to replicate the "Mozart effect" which represents an improvement in spatial reasoning following listening to Mozart. The study also examined whether the Mozart effect could be explained by changes in mood. Twenty-four young adults participated in the study. The results replicated the Mozart effect and showed that it was not due to changes in mood. Overall, these results show that prior exposure to noise or music can influence aspects of working memory. Such effects need to be incorporated into models of effects of noise on cognition and attempts have to be made to eliminate alternative explanations rather than just describing changes that occur in specific contexts.

  5. The dose-response relationship between in-ear occupational noise exposure and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Clougherty, Jane E; Neitzel, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    Current understanding of the dose-response relationship between occupational noise and hearing loss is based on cross-sectional studies prior to the widespread use of hearing protection, and with limited data regarding noise exposures below 85 dBA. We report on the hearing loss experience of a unique cohort of industrial workers, with daily monitoring of noise inside of hearing protection devices. At an industrial facility, workers exhibiting accelerated hearing loss were enrolled in a mandatory programme to monitor daily noise exposures inside of hearing protection. We compared these noise measurements (as time-weighted LAVG) to interval rates of high-frequency hearing loss over a 6-year period using a mixed-effects model, adjusting for potential confounders. Workers' high-frequency hearing levels at study inception averaged more than 40 dB Hearing threshold level (HTL). Most noise exposures were less than 85 dBA (mean LAVG 76 dBA, IQR 74-80 dBA). We found no statistical relationship between LAvg and high-frequency hearing loss (p=0.53). Using a metric for monthly maximum noise exposure did not improve model fit. At-ear noise exposures below 85 dBA did not show an association with risk of high-frequency hearing loss among workers with substantial past noise exposure and hearing loss at baseline. Therefore, effective noise control to below 85 dBA may lead to significant reduction in occupational hearing loss risk in such individuals. Further research is needed on the dose-response relationship of noise and hearing loss in individuals with normal hearing and little prior noise exposure.

  6. The Dose Response Relationship between In Ear Occupational Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Clougherty, Jane E.; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Current understanding of the dose-response relationship between occupational noise and hearing loss is based on cross-sectional studies prior to the widespread use hearing protection and with limited data regarding noise exposures below 85dBA. We report on the hearing loss experience of a unique cohort of industrial workers with daily monitoring of noise inside of hearing protection devices. Methods At an industrial facility, workers exhibiting accelerated hearing loss were enrolled in a mandatory program to monitor daily noise exposures inside of hearing protection. We compared these noise measurements (as time-weighted LAVG) to interval rates of high frequency hearing loss over a six year period using a mixed effects model, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Workers’ high frequency hearing levels at study inception averaged more than 40 dB hearing threshold level (HTL). Most noise exposures were less than 85dBA (mean LAVG 76 dBA, interquartile range 74 to 80 dBA). We found no statistical relationship between LAvg and high frequency hearing loss (p = 0.53). Using a metric for monthly maximum noise exposure did not improve model fit. Conclusion At-ear noise exposures below 85dBA did not show an association with risk of high frequency hearing loss among workers with substantial past noise exposure and hearing loss at baseline. Therefore, effective noise control to below 85dBA may lead to significant reduction in occupational hearing loss risk in such individuals. Further research is needed on the dose response relationship of noise and hearing loss in individuals with normal hearing and little prior noise exposure. PMID:23825197

  7. Noise exposure immediately activates cochlear mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar N Alagramam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a major public health issue worldwide. Uncovering the early molecular events associated with NIHL would reveal mechanisms leading to the hearing loss. Our aim is to investigate the immediate molecular responses after different levels of noise exposure and identify the common and distinct pathways that mediate NIHL. Previous work showed mice exposed to 116 decibels sound pressure level (dB SPL broadband noise for 1 h had greater threshold shifts than the mice exposed to 110 dB SPL broadband noise, hence we used these two noise levels in this study. Groups of 4-8-week-old CBA/CaJ mice were exposed to no noise (control or to broadband noise for 1 h, followed by transcriptome analysis of total cochlear RNA isolated immediately after noise exposure. Previously identified and novel genes were found in all data sets. Following exposure to noise at 116 dB SPL, the earliest responses included up-regulation of 243 genes and down-regulation of 61 genes, while a similar exposure at 110 dB SPL up-regulated 155 genes and down-regulated 221 genes. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling was the major pathway in both levels of noise exposure. Nevertheless, both qualitative and quantitative differences were noticed in some MAPK signaling genes, after exposure to different noise levels. Cacna1b , Cacna1g , and Pla2g6 , related to calcium signaling were down-regulated after 110 dB SPL exposure, while the fold increase in the expression of Fos was relatively lower than what was observed after 116 dB SPL exposure. These subtle variations provide insight on the factors that may contribute to the differences in NIHL despite the activation of a common pathway.

  8. Exposure to environmental noise and risk for male infertility: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2017-07-01

    Noise is associated with poor reproductive health. A number of animal studies have suggested the possible effects of exposure to high noise levels on fertility; to date, a little such research has been performed on humans. We examined an association between daytime and nocturnal noise exposures over four years (2002-2005) and subsequent male infertility. We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013), a population-wide health insurance claims dataset. A total of 206,492 males of reproductive age (20-59 years) with no history of congenital malformations were followed up for an 8-year period (2006-2013). Male infertility was defined as per ICD-10 code N46. Data on noise exposure was obtained from the National Noise Information System. Exposure levels of daytime and night time noise were extrapolated using geographic information systems and collated with the subjects' administrative district code, and individual exposure levels assigned. During the study period, 3293 (1.6%) had a diagnosis of infertility. Although there was no association of infertility with 1-dB increments in noise exposure, a non-linear dose-response relationship was observed between infertility and quartiles of daytime and night time noise after adjustment for confounding variables (i.e., age, income, residential area, exercise, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood sugar, body mass index, medical histories, and particulate pollution). Based on WHO criteria, adjusted odds for infertility were significantly increased (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23) in males exposed to night time noise ≥ 55 dB. We found a significant association between exposure to environmental noise for four years and the subsequent incidence of male infertility, suggesting long-term exposure to noise has a role in pathogenesis of male infertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dose - response relationship between noise exposure and the risk of occupational injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many workers worldwide experience fatality and disability caused by occupational injuries. This study examined the relationship between noise exposure and occupational injuries at factories in Korea. A total of 1790 factories located in northern Gyeonggi Province, Korea was evaluated. The time-weighted average levels of dust and noise exposure were taken from Workplace Exposure Assessment data. Apart occupational injuries, sports events, traffic accidents, and other accidents occurring outside workplaces were excluded. The incidences of occupational injury in each factory were calculated by data from the Korea Workers′ Compensation and Welfare Services. Workplaces were classified according to the incidence of any occupational injuries (incident or nonincident workplaces, respectively. Workplace dust exposure was classified as 90 dB. Workplaces with high noise exposure were significantly associated with being incident workplaces, whereas workplaces with high dust exposure were not. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals derived from a logistic regression model were 1.68 (1.27-2.24 and 3.42 (2.26-5.17 at 80-89 dB and ≥90 dB versus <80 dB. These associations remained significant when in a separate analysis according to high or low dust exposure level. Noise exposure increases the risk of occupational injury in the workplace. Furthermore, the risk of occupational injury increases with noise exposure level in a dose-response relationship. Therefore, strategies for reducing noise exposure level are required to decrease the risk of occupational injury.

  10. Modeling vehicle interior noise exposure dose on freeways: Considering weaving segment designs and engine operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei; Shi, Junqing

    2017-07-05

    Vehicle interior noise functions at the dominant frequencies of 500 Hz below and around 800 Hz, which fall into the bands that may impair hearing. Recent studies demonstrated that freeway commuters are chronically exposed to vehicle interior noise, bearing the risk of hearing impairment. The interior noise evaluation process is mostly conducted in a laboratory environment. The test results and the developed noise models may underestimate or ignore the noise effects from dynamic traffic and road conditions and configuration. However, the interior noise is highly associated with vehicle maneuvering. The vehicle maneuvering on a freeway weaving segment is more complex because of its nature of conflicting areas. This research is intended to explore the risk of the interior noise exposure on freeway weaving segments for freeway commuters and to improve the interior noise estimation by constructing a decision tree learning-based noise exposure dose (NED) model, considering weaving segment designs and engine operation. On-road driving tests were conducted on 12 subjects on State Highway 288 in Houston, Texas. On-board Diagnosis (OBD) II, a smartphone-based roughness app, and a digital sound meter were used to collect vehicle maneuvering and engine information, International Roughness Index, and interior noise levels, respectively. Eleven variables were obtainable from the driving tests, including the length and type of a weaving segment, serving as predictors. The importance of the predictors was estimated by their out-of-bag-permuted predictor delta errors. The hazardous exposure level of the interior noise on weaving segments was quantified to hazard quotient, NED, and daily noise exposure level, respectively. Results showed that the risk of hearing impairment on freeway is acceptable; the interior noise level is the most sensitive to the pavement roughness and is subject to freeway configuration and traffic conditions. The constructed NED model shows high predictive

  11. Noise exposure in occupational setting associated with elevated blood pressure in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchang Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension is the primary out-auditory adverse outcome caused due to occupational noise exposure. This study investigated the associations of noise exposure in an occupational setting with blood pressure and risk of hypertension. Methods A total of 1,390 occupational noise-exposed workers and 1399 frequency matched non-noise-exposed subjects were recruited from a cross-sectional survey of occupational noise-exposed and the general population, respectively. Blood pressure was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer following a standard protocol. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of noise exposure adjusted by potential confounders. Results Noise-exposed subjects had significantly higher levels of systolic blood pressure(SBP (125.1 ± 13.9 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP (77.6 ± 10.7 mm Hg than control subjects (SBP: 117.2 ± 15.7 mm Hg, DBP: 70.0 ± 10.5 mm Hg (P  0.05. Conclusions Occupational noise exposure was associated with higher levels of SBP, DBP, and the risk of hypertension. These findings indicate that effective and feasible measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of hypertension caused by occupational noise exposure.

  12. Assessment of Occupational Noise Exposure among Groundskeepers in North Carolina Public Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Anne G. Balanay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundskeepers may have increased risk to noise-induced hearing loss due to the performance of excessively noisy tasks. This study assessed the exposure of groundskeepers to noise in multiple universities and determined the association between noise exposure and variables (ie, university, month, tool used. Personal noise exposures were monitored during the work shift using noise dosimetry. A sound level meter was used to measure the maximum sound pressure levels from groundskeeping equipment. The mean Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH time-weighted average (TWA noise exposures were 83.0 ± 9.6 and 88.0 ± 6.7 dBA, respectively. About 52% of the OSHA TWAs and 77% of the NIOSH TWAs exceeded 85 dBA. Riding mower use was associated with high TWA noise exposures and with having OSHA TWAs exceeding 85 and 90 dBA. The maximum sound pressure levels of equipment and tools measured ranged from 76 to 109 dBA, 82% of which were >85 dBA. These findings support that groundskeepers have excessive noise exposures, which may be effectively reduced through careful scheduling of the use of noisy equipment/tools.

  13. Ambient and at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlien-Søborg, Mai C; Schmedes, Astrid S; Stokholm, Z A

    2016-01-01

    -the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides when accounting for well-established predictors of lipid levels. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 424 industrial workers and 84 financial......OBJECTIVES: Occupational and residential noise exposure has been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Alteration of serum lipid levels has been proposed as a possible causal pathway. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between ambient and at...... workers to obtain contrast in noise exposure levels. They provided a serum sample and wore portable dosimeters that every 5-s recorded ambient noise exposure levels during a 24-h period. We extracted measurements obtained during work and calculated the full-shift mean ambient noise level. For 331 workers...

  14. Behavioral and health responses associated with road traffic noise exposure along alpine through-traffic routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lercher, P.; Kofler, W.W. [Institute for Social Medicine, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)

    1996-09-06

    The perceived impact of rising traffic noise exposure on residents in five rural, alpine communities was assessed in an epidemiological study (1989 adults, aged 25-65), using subjective and objective exposure indices. Significant associations were found between noise exposure above 55 dB(A) and annoyance from noise, vibrations, exhaust fumes and soot/dust exposure. Closing windows, double glazing, moving sleeping room, filing complaints, supporting pressure groups and the wish to move was just as significantly linked with noise level as was loss of wellbeing/life satisfaction, increase of sleep problems, health worries and poorer health ratings. However, noise sensitive persons showed a quite different response pattern with lower overall nuisance, fewer behavioral actions but stronger health impacts than those persons actually having expressed their annoyance

  15. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and its association with public support for smoke-free and vape-free policies: results from a national survey of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to e-cigarette communications (eg, advertisements, news and entertainment media, and interpersonal discussion) may influence support for smoke-free or vape-free policies. This study examined the sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and their relationships with support for restricting vaping and smoking in public venues. Online survey data was collected from a representative sample of US adults (n=1449) between October and December 2013 (mean age=50 years, 51% female, 8% African-American, 10% Hispanic, 6% other races) and weighted to match the US adult population. We fitted multiple regression models, adjusting for demographic variables, to examine associations between support for policies to restrict vaping and smoking in public venues and self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette communications in the preceding month. We fitted separate models to assess associations between policy support and frequency of exposures weighted by whether each category of e-cigarette communications was perceived as positive or negative. Higher self-reported exposure to advertising (B=-0.022, p=0.006), other media (B=-0.022, p=0.043) and interpersonal discussion (B=-0.071, pcommunications was associated with lower support for smoking restrictions in bivariate analyses but was not significant after adjusting for covariates. Further research is needed to assess whether messages portraying e-cigarettes as a way to circumvent smoking restrictions from advertisements and other media are influencing public support for vape-free policies. These findings provide empirical evidence to inform the policy debate over regulating specific e-cigarette advertising claims. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Socio-demographic Correlates of Self-reported Exposure to E-Cigarette Communications and its Association with Public Support for Smoke-Free and Vape-Free Policies: Results From a National Survey of U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy SL; Bigman, Cabral A.; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to e-cigarette communications (e.g., advertisements, news and entertainment media, and interpersonal discussion) may influence support for smoke-free or vape-free policies. This study examined the socio-demographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and their relationships with support for restricting vaping and smoking in public venues. Method Online survey data was collected from a representative sample of U.S. adults (n=1,449) between October and December 2013 (mean age=50 years, 51% female, 8% African-American, 10% Hispanic, 6% other races) and weighted to match the U.S. adult population. We fitted multiple regression models, adjusting for demographic variables, to examine associations between support for policies to restrict vaping and smoking in public venues and self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette communications in the preceding month. We fitted separate models to assess associations between policy support and frequency of exposures weighted by whether each category of e-cigarette communications was perceived as positive or negative. Results Higher self-reported exposure to advertising (B=-.022, p=.006), other media (B=-.022, p=.043), and interpersonal discussion (B=-.071, pcommunications was associated with lower support for smoking restrictions in bivariate analyses but was not significant after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion Further research is needed to assess whether messages portraying e-cigarettes as a way to circumvent smoking restrictions from advertisements and other media are influencing public support for vape-free policies. These findings provide empirical evidence to inform the policy debate over regulating specific e-cigarette advertising claims. PMID:25015372

  17. Subchronic JP-8 jet fuel exposure enhances vulnerability to noise-induced hearing loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter, L D; Fisher, J W; Chapman, G D; Mokashi, V P; Ortiz, P A; Reboulet, J E; Stubbs, J E; Lear, A M; McInturf, S M; Prues, S L; Gearhart, C A; Fulton, S; Mattie, D R

    2012-01-01

    Both laboratory and epidemiological studies published over the past two decades have identified the risk of excess hearing loss when specific chemical contaminants are present along with noise. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of JP-8 jet fuel to enhance noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) using inhalation exposure to fuel and simultaneous exposure to either continuous or intermittent noise exposure over a 4-wk exposure period using both male and female Fischer 344 rats. In the initial study, male (n = 5) and female (n = 5) rats received inhalation exposure to JP-8 fuel for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 4 wk at concentrations of 200, 750, or 1500 mg/m³. Parallel groups of rats also received nondamaging noise (constant octave band noise at 85 dB(lin)) in combination with the fuel, noise alone (75, 85, or 95 dB), or no exposure to fuel or noise. Significant concentration-related impairment of auditory function measured by distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and compound action potential (CAP) threshold was seen in rats exposed to combined JP-8 plus noise exposure when JP-8 levels of 1500 mg/m³ were presented with trends toward impairment seen with 750 mg/m³ JP-8 + noise. JP-8 alone exerted no significant effect on auditory function. In addition, noise was able to disrupt the DPOAE and increase auditory thresholds only when noise exposure was at 95 dB. In a subsequent study, male (n = 5 per group) and female (n = 5 per group) rats received 1000 mg/m³ JP-8 for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 4 wk with and without exposure to 102 dB octave band noise that was present for 15 min out of each hour (total noise duration 90 min). Comparisons were made to rats receiving only noise, and thosereceiving no experimental treatment. Significant impairment of auditory thresholds especially for high-frequency tones was identified in the male rats receiving combined treatment. This study provides a basis for estimating excessive hearing loss under

  18. Does modern helicopter construction reduce noise exposure in helicopter rescue operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Thomas; Jansing, Paul; Schöffl, Volker; van Der Giet, Simone

    2013-01-01

    During helicopter rescue operations the medical personnel are at high risk for hearing damage by noise exposure. There are two important factors to be taken into account: first, the extreme variability, with some days involving no exposure but other days with extreme exposure; second, the extreme noise levels during work outside the helicopter, e.g. during winch operations. The benefit of modern, less noisier constructions and the consequences for noise protection are still unknown. We estimated the noise exposure of the personnel for different helicopter types used during rescue operations in the Alps and in other regions of the world with special regard to the advanced types like Eurocopter EC 135 to compare the benefit of modern constructions for noise protection with earlier ones. The rescue operations over 1 year of four rescue bases in the Alps (Raron and Zermatt in Switzerland; Landeck and Innsbruck in Austria, n = 2731) were analyzed for duration of rescue operations (noise exposure). Noise levels were measured during rescue operations at defined points inside and outside the different aircraft. The setting is according to the European standard (Richtlinie 2003/10/EG Amtsblatt) and to Class 1 DIN/IEC 651. With both data sets the equivalent noise level L(eq8h) was calculated. For comparison it was assumed that all rescue operations were performed with a specific type of helicopter. Then model calculations for noise exposure by different helicopter types, such as Alouette IIIb, Alouette II 'Lama', Ecureuil AS350, Bell UH1D, Eurocopter EC135, and others were performed. Depending on modern technologies the situation for the personnel has been improved significantly. Nevertheless noise prevention, which includes noise intermissions in spare time, is essential. Medical checks of the crews by occupational medicine (e.g. 'G20' in Germany) are still mandatory.

  19. The effects of acoustical refurbishment of classrooms on teachers’ perceived noise exposure and noise-related health symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Lund, Søren Peter; Persson, Roger

    2015-01-01

    lessons with circa 2 dB(A) in both schools. Conclusion: The acoustical refurbishment was associated with a reduction in classroom reverberation time and activity sound levels in both schools. The acoustical refurbishment was associated with a reduction in the teachers’ perceived noise exposure...... of RT and activity sound levels were measured before and after refurbishment. Data on perceived noise exposure, disturbance attributed to different noise sources, voice symptoms, and fatigue after work were collected over a year in a total of six consecutive questionnaires. Results: Refurbished......, the mean classroom reverberation time was 0.68 (school A) and 0.57 (school B) and 0.55 s in sham refurbished classrooms. After refurbishment, the RT was approximately 0.4 s in both schools. Activity sound level measurements confirmed that the intervention had reduced the equivalent sound levels during...

  20. Occupational noise exposure and regulatory adherence in music venues in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barlow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise in most working environments is an unwanted by-product of the process. In most countries, noise exposure for workers has been controlled by legislation for many years. In the music industry the "noise" is actually the "desired" product, and for a long time the UK entertainment industry was exempt from these regulations. From April 2008, however, it became regulated under the Noise at Work Regulations 2005, meaning that employers from orchestras to nightclubs are legally required to adhere to the same requirements (based on ISO 9612:2009 for controlling noise exposure for their staff that have been applied to other industries for many years. A key question is to what degree, 2 years after implementation, these employers are complying with their legal responsibilities to protect the staff from noise? This study assessed four public music venues where live and/or recorded music is regularly played. Thirty staff members in different roles in the venues were monitored using noise dosimetry to determine noise exposure. Questionnaires were used to determine work patterns, attitudes to noise and hearing loss, and levels of training about noise risk. Results showed that the majority of staff (70% in all venues exceeded the daily noise exposure limit value in their working shift. Use of hearing protection was rare (<30% and not enforced by most venues. The understanding of the hazard posed by noise was low, and implementation of the noise regulations was haphazard, with staff regularly exceeding regulatory limits. The implication is that the industry is failing to meet regulatory requirements.

  1. Auditory Effects of Exposure to Noise and Solvents: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobato, Diolen Conceição Barros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Industry workers are exposed to different environmental risk agents that, when combined, may potentiate risks to hearing. Objective To evaluate the effects of the combined exposure to noise and solvents on hearing in workers. Methods A transversal retrospective cohort study was performed through documentary analysis of an industry. The sample (n = 198 was divided into four groups: the noise group (NG, exposed only to noise; the noise and solvents group (NSG, exposed to noise and solvents; the noise control group and noise and solvents control group (CNS, no exposure. Results The NG showed 16.66% of cases suggestive of bilateral noise-induced hearing loss and NSG showed 5.26%. The NG and NSG had worse thresholds than their respective control groups. Females were less susceptible to noise than males; however, when simultaneously exposed to solvents, hearing was affected in a similar way, resulting in significant differences (p < 0.05. The 40- to 49-year-old age group was significantly worse (p < 0.05 in the auditory thresholds in the NSG compared with the CNS. Conclusion The results observed in this study indicate that simultaneous exposure to noise and solvents can damage the peripheral auditory system.

  2. Leisure noise exposure: participation trends, symptoms of hearing damage, and perception of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Gilliver, Megan; Williams, Warwick

    2013-02-01

    Leisure activities that emit high noise levels have the potential to expose participants to excessive noise exposure, which can result in hearing damage. This study investigated young people's participation in high-noise leisure activities and the relationship between their leisure noise exposure, symptoms of hearing damage, and perception of risk. Participants completed an online survey relating to participation in selected high-noise leisure activities, symptoms of hearing damage, and beliefs about the risk posed by these activities. One thousand 18- to 35-year-old Australian adults completed the survey. Annual noise exposure from the five leisure activities ranged from 0-6.77 times the acceptable noise exposure, with nightclubs posing the greatest risk. Those who attended one noisy activity were more likely to attend others, in particular nightclubs, pubs, and live music events. Noise exposure was correlated with early warning signs of hearing damage and perceived risk of damage. Active young adults who engage in noisy activities are showing early signs of hearing damage. Furthermore, they perceive the risk associated with their activities. The challenge for researchers and hearing health practitioners is to convert self-perceived risk into positive hearing health behaviours for long-term hearing health.

  3. 76 FR 21939 - Noise Exposure Map; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review; Lambert-St...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... Compatibility Program and Request for Review; Lambert-St. Louis International Airport, St. Louis, MO AGENCY...) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by the St. Louis Airport Authority for the Lambert-St. Louis International Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (Aviation...

  4. Land Use Regression Modeling of Outdoor Noise Exposure in Informal Settlements in Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Chloé; Ragettli, Martina S; Brink, Mark; Toyib, Olaniyan; Baatjies, Roslyn; Saucy, Apolline; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Röösli, Martin

    2017-10-20

    In low- and middle-income countries, noise exposure and its negative health effects have been little explored. The present study aimed to assess the noise exposure situation in adults living in informal settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. We conducted continuous one-week outdoor noise measurements at 134 homes in four different areas. These data were used to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to predict A-weighted day-evening-night equivalent sound levels (L den ) from geographic information system (GIS) variables. Mean noise exposure during day (6:00-18:00) was 60.0 A-weighted decibels (dB(A)) (interquartile range 56.9-62.9 dB(A)), during night (22:00-6:00) 52.9 dB(A) (49.3-55.8 dB(A)) and average L den was 63.0 dB(A) (60.1-66.5 dB(A)). Main predictors of the LUR model were related to road traffic and household density. Model performance was low (adjusted R 2 = 0.130) suggesting that other influences than those represented in the geographic predictors are relevant for noise exposure. This is one of the few studies on the noise exposure situation in low- and middle-income countries. It demonstrates that noise exposure levels are high in these settings.

  5. Land Use Regression Modeling of Outdoor Noise Exposure in Informal Settlements in Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Chloé; Ragettli, Martina S.; Toyib, Olaniyan; Baatjies, Roslyn; Saucy, Apolline; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Röösli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, noise exposure and its negative health effects have been little explored. The present study aimed to assess the noise exposure situation in adults living in informal settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. We conducted continuous one-week outdoor noise measurements at 134 homes in four different areas. These data were used to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to predict A-weighted day-evening-night equivalent sound levels (Lden) from geographic information system (GIS) variables. Mean noise exposure during day (6:00–18:00) was 60.0 A-weighted decibels (dB(A)) (interquartile range 56.9–62.9 dB(A)), during night (22:00–6:00) 52.9 dB(A) (49.3–55.8 dB(A)) and average Lden was 63.0 dB(A) (60.1–66.5 dB(A)). Main predictors of the LUR model were related to road traffic and household density. Model performance was low (adjusted R2 = 0.130) suggesting that other influences than those represented in the geographic predictors are relevant for noise exposure. This is one of the few studies on the noise exposure situation in low- and middle-income countries. It demonstrates that noise exposure levels are high in these settings. PMID:29053590

  6. A study of riders' noise exposure on Bay Area Rapid Transit trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Powell, Cynthia; King, Margaret Mary

    2011-02-01

    Excessive noise exposure may present a hazard to hearing, cardiovascular, and psychosomatic health. Mass transit systems, such as the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system, are potential sources of excessive noise. The purpose of this study was to characterize transit noise and riders' exposure to noise on the BART system using three dosimetry metrics. We made 268 dosimetry measurements on a convenience sample of 51 line segments. Dosimetry measures were modeled using linear and nonlinear multiple regression as functions of average velocity, tunnel enclosure, flooring, and wet weather conditions and presented visually on a map of the BART system. This study provides evidence of levels of hazardous levels of noise exposure in all three dosimetry metrics. L(eq) and L(max) measures indicate exposures well above ranges associated with increased cardiovascular and psychosomatic health risks in the published literature. L(peak) indicate acute exposures hazardous to adult hearing on about 1% of line segment rides and acute exposures hazardous to child hearing on about 2% of such rides. The noise to which passengers are exposed may be due to train-specific conditions (velocity and flooring), but also to rail conditions (velocity and tunnels). These findings may point at possible remediation (revised speed limits on longer segments and those segments enclosed by tunnels). The findings also suggest that specific rail segments could be improved for noise.

  7. Noise exposure and cognitive performance: A study on personnel on board Royal Norwegian Navy vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Irgens-Hansen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research shows that work on board vessels of the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN is associated with noise exposure levels above recommended standards. Further, noise exposure has been found to impair cognitive performance in environmental, occupational, and experimental settings, although prior research in naval and maritime settings is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance after exposure to noise among personnel working on board vessels in the RNoN. Altogether 87 Navy personnel (80 men, 7 women; 31 ± 9 years from 24 RNoN vessels were included. Noise exposure was recorded by personal noise dosimeters at a minimum of 4 h prior to testing, and categorized into 4 groups for the analysis: 85.2 dB(A. The participants performed a visual attention test based on the Posner cue-target paradigm. Multivariable general linear model (GLM analyses were performed to analyze whether noise exposure was associated with response time (RT when adjusting for the covariates age, alertness, workload, noise exposure in test location, sleep the night before testing, use of hearing protection device (HPD, and percentage of errors. When adjusting for covariates, RT was significantly increased among personnel exposed to >85.2 dB(A and 77.1-85.2 dB(A compared to personnel exposed to <72.6 dB(A.

  8. Noise exposure and cognitive performance: A study on personnel on board Royal Norwegian Navy vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Gundersen, Hilde; Sunde, Erlend; Baste, Valborg; Harris, Anette; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2015-01-01

    Prior research shows that work on board vessels of the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN) is associated with noise exposure levels above recommended standards. Further, noise exposure has been found to impair cognitive performance in environmental, occupational, and experimental settings, although prior research in naval and maritime settings is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance after exposure to noise among personnel working on board vessels in the RNoN. Altogether 87 Navy personnel (80 men, 7 women; 31 ± 9 years) from 24 RNoN vessels were included. Noise exposure was recorded by personal noise dosimeters at a minimum of 4 h prior to testing, and categorized into 4 groups for the analysis: 85.2 dB(A). The participants performed a visual attention test based on the Posner cue-target paradigm. Multivariable general linear model (GLM) analyses were performed to analyze whether noise exposure was associated with response time (RT) when adjusting for the covariates age, alertness, workload, noise exposure in test location, sleep the night before testing, use of hearing protection device (HPD), and percentage of errors. When adjusting for covariates, RT was significantly increased among personnel exposed to >85.2 dB(A) and 77.1-85.2 dB(A) compared to personnel exposed to <72.6 dB(A).

  9. The philosophy and assumptions underlying exposure limits for ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akber, R.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: A review of the literature relating to exposure to, and exposure limits for, ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise was undertaken. The four hazards were chosen because they were insidious and ubiquitous, were potential hazards in both occupational and environmental settings and had early and late effects depending on dose and dose rate. For all four hazards, the effect of the hazard was enhanced by other exposures such as smoking or organic solvents. In the cases of inorganic lead and noise, there were documented health effects which affected a significant percentage of the exposed populations at or below the [effective] exposure limits. This was not the case for ionising radiation and asbestos. None of the exposure limits considered exposure to multiple mutagens/carcinogens in the calculation of risk. Ionising radiation was the only one of the hazards to have a model of all likely exposures, occupational, environmental and medical, as the basis for the exposure limits. The other three considered occupational exposure in isolation from environmental exposure. Inorganic lead and noise had economic considerations underlying the exposure limits and the exposure limits for asbestos were based on the current limit of detection. All four hazards had many variables associated with exposure, including idiosyncratic factors, that made modelling the risk very complex. The scientific idea of a time weighted average based on an eight hour day, and forty hour week on which the exposure limits for lead, asbestos and noise were based was underpinned by neither empirical evidence or scientific hypothesis. The methodology of the ACGIH in the setting of limits later brought into law, may have been unduly influenced by the industries most closely affected by those limits. Measuring exposure over part of an eight hour day and extrapolating to model exposure over the longer term is not the most effective way to model exposure. The statistical techniques used

  10. Radiation and noise exposures elicit biological and behavioural effects in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Michaud, D.S.; Ferrarotto, C.; Keith, S.E.; Miller, S.M.; Bowers, W.J.; Kumarathsan, P.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of radiation and noise is ubiquitous in a living environment. Therefore, the effect of these sources alone and together on the body has the potential for public health consequences. We have examined the physiological and behavioural effects of separate and combined exposures to radiation and noise in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. For three weeks animals were exposed to the following conditions: 1) daily exposure to x-rays (cumulative whole body dose = 5Gy); 2) random intermittent noise band-limited between 400Hz-20 kHz; 2 h/day 90 dB lin and 3) combined exposures. Control animals were housed under ambient noise conditions (∼ 55-60 dBA) and sham-exposed to x-rays. The mean body weight gain (initial avg. ∼ 250g) appeared to be affected by the treatments; control (88g); noise (76g); radiation (60g) and noise/radiation (43g). Compared to control and noise only animals, plasma levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine increased significantly in animals exposed to both radiation alone and radiation with noise, while big-endothelin-1 was significantly reduced in both groups exposed to radiation. There were no noticeable changes in the levels of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and the variability in plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine precluded conclusions with respect to changes in sympathetic activity. No groups showed any consistent changes in plasma levels of interleukin-1, corticotrophin releasing hormone or urocortin. Plasma corticosterone increased in animals exposed to only noise, but this hormone was significantly reduced in animals exposed to only radiation. Behavioural endpoints revealed that startle amplitude (105dB) was highest in animals exposed to only noise and lowest in animals exposed to both noise and radiation, compared to the control animals. These results suggest that radiation exposure might alter systems activated by stressor exposure and/or act independently to influence health outcomes

  11. Pregnancy and childhood exposure to residential traffic noise and overweight at 7years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to road traffic noise has been associated with adiposity and diabetes in adults. The suggested pathways have been through sleep disturbance and stress. Children may be particularly susceptible to noise induced sleep disturbance and stress and the effects hereof. Objectives...

  12. Long-Term Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Nitrogen Dioxide and Risk of Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Wendelboe Nielsen, Olav; Sajadieh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although air pollution and road traffic noise have been associated with higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, associations with heart failure have received only little attention. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether long-term exposure to road traffic noise and nitrogen dioxid...

  13. Rat hippocampal alterations could underlie behavioral abnormalities induced by exposure to moderate noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uran, S L; Aon-Bertolino, M L; Caceres, L G; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2012-08-30

    Noise exposure is known to affect auditory structures in living organisms. However, it should not be ignored that many of the effects of noise are extra-auditory. Previous findings of our laboratory demonstrated that noise was able to induce behavioral alterations that are mainly related to the cerebellum (CE) and the hippocampus (HC). Therefore, the aim of this work was to reveal new data about the vulnerability of developing rat HC to moderate noise levels through the assessment of potential histological changes and hippocampal-related behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats were exposed to noise (95-97 dB SPL, 2h daily) either for 1 day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or between postnatal days 15 and 30 (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal histological evaluation as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) habituation and recognition memory assessments were performed. Results showed a mild disruption in the different hippocampal regions after ANE and SANE schemes, along with significant behavioral abnormalities. These data suggest that exposure of developing rats to noise levels of moderate intensity is able to trigger changes in the HC, an extra-auditory structure of the Central Nervous System (CNS), that could underlie the observed behavioral effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of Room Acoustic Aspects on the Noise Exposure of Symphonic Orchestra Musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenmaekers, R.H.C.; Hak, C.C.J.M.; Luxemburg, van L.C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Musicians in a symphonic orchestra are exposed to the noise of a large number of different sound sources. The noise exposure can vary largely and has many aspects of influence. One group of aspects are musical aspects, like the orchestra size and composition, the musical piece and its interpretation

  15. Long-term exposure to road traffic noise and incident diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Nordsborg, Rikke B

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic noise at normal urban levels can lead to stress and sleep disturbances. Both excess of stress hormones and reduction in sleep quality and duration may lead to higher risk for type 2 diabetes.Objective: We investigated whether long-term exposure to residential road traffic noise...

  16. Combined effect of smoking and occupational exposure to noise on hearing loss in steel factory workers

    OpenAIRE

    Mizoue, T; Miyamoto, T; Shimizu, T

    2003-01-01

    Background: Evidence has accumulated concerning the adverse effects of smoking on hearing acuity, but it is not clear whether smoking modifies the association between exposure to noise and hearing loss.

  17. Children's cognition and aircraft noise exposure at home--the West London Schools Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, T; Stansfeld, S; Haines, M; Head, J

    2004-01-01

    The association of aircraft noise exposure with cognitive performance was examined by means of a cross-sectional field survey. Two hundred thirty six children attending 10 primary schools around Heathrow Airport in west London were tested on reading comprehension, immediate/delayed recall and sustained attention. In order to obtain the information about their background, a questionnaire was delivered to the parents and 163 answers were collected. Logistic regression models were used to assess performance on the cognitive tests in relation to aircraft noise exposure at home and possible individual and school level confounding factors. A significant dose-response relationship was found between aircraft noise exposure at home and performance on memory tests of immediate/delayed recall. However there was no strong association with the other cognitive outcomes. These results suggest that aircraft noise exposure at home may affect children's memory.

  18. Attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a Southeastern city of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo

    2007-07-01

    Noise is the most frequent type of occupational exposure and can lead to both auditory and extra-auditory dysfunction as well as increasing the risk of work accidents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil. In this hospital-based case-control study, including 600 cases and 822 controls, the odds ratio of work accidents (controlled for several covariables) was obtained classifying occupational noise exposure into four levels and determining the prevalence at each level. Based on these data, the calculated attributable fraction was 0.3041 (95%CI: 0.2341-0.3676), i.e., 30% of work accidents in the study area were statistically associated with occupational noise exposure. The authors discuss the causes of this association and the implications for the prevention of work accidents.

  19. 77 FR 50759 - Noise Exposure Map Notice, Orlando Sanford International Airport, Sanford, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice, Orlando... Maps submitted by the Sanford Airport Authority for Orlando Sanford International Airport under the... Aviation Administration, Orlando Airports District Office, 5950 Hazeltine National Drive, Citadel...

  20. Amplitude changes in otoacoustic emissions after exposure to industrial noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradarnfar, Mohammad Hossein; Karamifar, Kayvan; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Gharavi, Marjan; Karimi, Ghasem; Vahidy, Mohammad Reza; Baradarnfar, Amin; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a frequent problem in industrial settings, especially where a high noise level is present. It is permanent, and irreversible, but preventable. Routine audiometry (an objective and time consuming) test is used for NIHL screening. Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are recently proposed as a more sensitive test for early diagnosis of NIHL. In this study, we aimed to compare the results of pure tone audiometry (PTA) with OAE in the diagnosis of NIHL. In a cross-sectional study on 120 workers (in three groups: Not exposed to noise, exposed to noise without NIHL and exposed to noise with NIHL), we compared the results of PTA and OAE. OAE can detect some changes in the function of hearing system in subjects exposed to noise, and these changes are apparently prior to hearing loss, which is diagnosed by PTA. OAE is a more sensitive method for the early diagnosis of cochlear damage than PTA, and can be performed in industrial settings for NIHL screening.

  1. Noise and hand-arm vibration exposure in relation to the risk of hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Pettersson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possible association of combined exposure of noise and hand-arm vibration (HAV and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Workers in a heavy engineering industry were part of a dynamic cohort. Of these workers, 189 had HAV exposure, and their age and hearing status were recorded in the same year and were, therefore, included in the analysis. Data on HAV duration and acceleration was gathered through questionnaires, observations, and measurements. All available audiograms were categorized into normal and hearing loss. The first exposure variable included the lifetime HAV exposure. The lifetime HAV exposure was multiplied by the acceleration of HAV for the second and third exposure variable. Logistic regression using the Generalized Estimation Equations method was chosen to analyze the data to account for the repeated measurements. The analysis was performed with both continuous exposure variables and with exposure variables grouped into exposure quartiles with hearing loss as an outcome and age as a covariate. With continuous exposure variables, the odds ratio (OR with a 95% confidence interval (CI for hearing loss was equal to or greater than one for all exposure variables. When the exposure variables were grouped into quartiles, the OR with a 95% CI was greater than one at the third and fourth quartile. The results show that working with vibrating machines in an environment with noise exposure increases the risk of hearing loss, supporting an association between exposure to noise and HAV, and the noise-induced hearing loss.

  2. Dose — response relationship between noise exposure and the risk of occupational injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Hong, Jeong-Suk; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Many workers worldwide experience fatality and disability caused by occupational injuries. This study examined the relationship between noise exposure and occupational injuries at factories in Korea. A total of 1790 factories located in northern Gyeonggi Province, Korea was evaluated. The time-weighted average levels of dust and noise exposure were taken from Workplace Exposure Assessment data. Apart occupational injuries, sports events, traffic accidents, and other accidents occurring outside workplaces were excluded. The incidences of occupational injury in each factory were calculated by data from the Korea Workers’ Compensation and Welfare Services. Workplaces were classified according to the incidence of any occupational injuries (incident or nonincident workplaces, respectively). Workplace dust exposure was classified as 90 dB. Workplaces with high noise exposure were significantly associated with being incident workplaces, whereas workplaces with high dust exposure were not. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) derived from a logistic regression model were 1.68 (1.27-2.24) and 3.42 (2.26-5.17) at 80-89 dB and ≥90 dB versus occupational injury in the workplace. Furthermore, the risk of occupational injury increases with noise exposure level in a dose-response relationship. Therefore, strategies for reducing noise exposure level are required to decrease the risk of occupational injury. PMID:25599757

  3. The continuing Exposure to Noise in Workers in the Society and Living Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Ehtesham zadeh

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available As the industry develops in the societies, human being is more likely to exposed to high level of noises and be at risk of hearing loss. Urbanism and working in the situation which are not in accordance with the personal nature make people even more susceptible to risk factors of hearing loss. Exposure of workers to industrial noise has been the subject to several studies and it seems that reconsidering the situations in both society and nature can be a key to change environment for decreasing noise in the society.For example in Tehran, geographically, the slope of the earth from north to south is 5-10% which is a main factor contributing in noise pollution.Moreover, the source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems including motor vehicles, air craft noises and rail noises. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area.In the current article we have examined both conditions in the hearing condition of workers with high levels of noise exposure.

  4. Stress hormonal changes in the brain and plasma after acute noise exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Gyun; Kim, Min Jung; Park, So Young; Park, Shi Nae

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of acute noise stress on two amine stress hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the brain and plasma of mice after noise exposure. Mice were grouped into the control and noise groups. Mice in the noise group were exposed to white noise of 110dB sound pressure level for 60min. Auditory brainstem response thresholds, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the organ of Corti grading scores, western blots of NE/5-HIAA in the whole brain and hippocampus, and the plasma levels of NE/5-HIAA were compared between the two groups. Significant hearing loss and cochlear damage were demonstrated in the noise group. NE and 5-HIAA in the hippocampus were elevated in the noise group (p=0.019/0.022 for NE/5-HIAA vs. the control). Plasma levels of NE and 5-HIAA were not statistically different between the groups (p=0.052/0.671 for NE/5-HIAA). Hearing loss with outer hair cell dysfunction and morphological changes of the organ of Corti after noise exposure in C57BL/6 mice proved the reliability of our animal model as an acute noise stress model. NE and 5-HIAA are suggested to be the potential biomarkers for acute noise stress in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An instantaneous spatiotemporal model to predict a bicyclist's Black Carbon exposure based on mobile noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoninck, Luc; Botteldooren, Dick; Int Panis, Luc

    2013-11-01

    Several studies have shown that a significant amount of daily air pollution exposure, in particular Black Carbon (BC), is inhaled during trips. Assessing this contribution to exposure remains difficult because on the one hand local air pollution maps lack spatio-temporal resolution, at the other hand direct measurement of particulate matter concentration remains expensive. This paper proposes to use in-traffic noise measurements in combination with geographical and meteorological information for predicting BC exposure during commuting trips. Mobile noise measurements are cheaper and easier to perform than mobile air pollution measurements and can easily be used in participatory sensing campaigns. The uniqueness of the proposed model lies in the choice of noise indicators that goes beyond the traditional overall A-weighted noise level used in previous work. Noise and BC exposures are both related to the traffic intensity but also to traffic speed and traffic dynamics. Inspired by theoretical knowledge on the emission of noise and BC, the low frequency engine related noise and the difference between high frequency and low frequency noise that indicates the traffic speed, are introduced in the model. In addition, it is shown that splitting BC in a local and a background component significantly improves the model. The coefficients of the proposed model are extracted from 200 commuter bicycle trips. The predicted average exposure over a single trip correlates with measurements with a Pearson coefficient of 0.78 using only four parameters: the low frequency noise level, wind speed, the difference between high and low frequency noise and a street canyon index expressing local air pollution dispersion properties.

  6. The Adverse Effects of Environmental Noise Exposure on Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Schmidt, Frank; Schmidt, Erwin; Steven, Sebastian; Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Daiber, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that traffic noise exposure is linked to cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Noise is a nonspecific stressor that activates the autonomous nervous system and endocrine signaling. According to the noise reaction model introduced by Babisch and colleagues, chronic low levels of noise can cause so-called nonauditory effects, such as disturbances of activity, sleep, and communication, which can trigger a number of emotional responses, including annoyance and subsequent stress. Chronic stress in turn is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, comprising increased blood pressure and dyslipidemia, increased blood viscosity and blood glucose, and activation of blood clotting factors, in animal models and humans. Persistent chronic noise exposure increases the risk of cardiometabolic diseases, including arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, and stroke. Recently, we demonstrated that aircraft noise exposure during nighttime can induce endothelial dysfunction in healthy subjects and is even more pronounced in coronary artery disease patients. Importantly, impaired endothelial function was ameliorated by acute oral treatment with the antioxidant vitamin C, suggesting that excessive production of reactive oxygen species contributes to this phenomenon. More recently, we introduced a novel animal model of aircraft noise exposure characterizing the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to noise-dependent adverse oxidative stress-related effects on the vasculature. With the present review, we want to provide an overview of epidemiological, translational clinical, and preclinical noise research addressing the nonauditory, adverse effects of noise exposure with focus on oxidative stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 873–908. PMID:29350061

  7. [Exposure of schoolchildren and teachers to noise at school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszarny, Z; Goryński, P

    1990-01-01

    The factor of decisive influence on the acoustic climate in rooms is the inner noise, which is dependent in schools on the activity of children, overcrowding of classes and inadequate use of technical protective means. The inappropriate location of schools, although also important from the standpoint of acoustics, is a much lower source of noise than it is generally assumed. Particularly unfavourable acoustic conditions are in elementary schools with over 300 children in one shift. The spaces with the highest noise level include corridors, especially during recesses between lessons. The noise level in them is in the range of an equivalent sound A 60-95 dB, and the most frequent noise level is 80 dB. In a large part of schools the acoustic conditions in the corridors during recesses approach the critical values accepted for hearing protection in industrial plants, in some schools they are even exceeded. The situation is also unfavourable in other rooms such as doctor's office, director's room, reading rooms, rooms for teachers. These rooms are situated usually without taking into consideration of the acoustic conditions. This is particularly true of teachers' rooms which should give the teachers the possibility of resting before the next lesson. During lessons the noise level decreases in all rooms. However, the noisiest among them, corridors, classes situated near the hall for physical exercises and day-room, have still up to about 65 dB noise level. Generally speaking, in about 60% of rooms the acoustic conditions are below the recommended standard. The main cause, apart from overcrowding of schools, is low acoustic absorption ability of school rooms, and poor acoustic insulation ability of the doors in schools.

  8. 10-Year prospective study of noise exposure and hearing damage among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Noah S; Neitzel, Rick; Stover, Bert; Sheppard, Lianne; Feeney, Patrick; Mills, David; Kujawa, Sharon

    2012-09-01

    To characterise the effects of noise exposure, including intermittent and peaky exposure, on hearing damage as assessed by standard pure-tone thresholds and otoacoustic emissions, a longitudinal study was conducted on newly hired construction apprentices and controls over a 10-year period. Among the 456 subjects recruited at baseline, 316 had at least two (mean 4.6) examinations and were included in this analysis. Annual examinations included hearing threshold levels (HTLs) for air conducted pure tones and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) amplitudes. Task-based occupational noise exposure levels and recreational exposures were estimated. Linear mixed models were fit for HTLs and DPOAEs at 3, 4 and 6 kHz in relation to time since baseline and average noise level since baseline, while controlling for hearing level at baseline and other risk factors. Estimated L(EQ) noise exposures were 87±3.6 dBA among the construction workers. Linear mixed modelling demonstrated significant exposure-related elevations in HTL of about 2-3 dB over a projected 10-year period at 3, 4 or 6 kHz for a 10 dB increase in exposure. The DPOAE models (using L1=40) predicted about 1 dB decrease in emission amplitude over 10 years for a 10 dB increase in exposure. The study provides evidence of noise-induced damage at an average exposure level around the 85 dBA level. The predicted change in HTLs was somewhat higher than would be predicted by standard hearing loss models, after accounting for hearing loss at baseline. Limited evidence for an enhanced effect of high peak component noise was observed, and DPOAEs, although similarly affected, showed no advantage over standard hearing threshold evaluation in detecting effects of noise on the ear and hearing.

  9. 10-Year prospective study of noise exposure and hearing damage among construction workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Noah S; Neitzel, Rick; Stover, Bert; Sheppard, Lianne; Feeney, Patrick; Mills, David; Kujawa, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the effects of noise exposure, including intermittent and peaky exposure, on hearing damage as assessed by standard pure-tone thresholds and otoacoustic emissions, a longitudinal study was conducted on newly hired construction apprentices and controls over a 10-year period. Methods Among the 456 subjects recruited at baseline, 316 had at least two (mean 4.6) examinations and were included in this analysis. Annual examinations included hearing threshold levels (HTLs) for air conducted pure tones and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) amplitudes. Task-based occupational noise exposure levels and recreational exposures were estimated. Linear mixed models were fit for HTLs and DPOAEs at 3, 4 and 6 kHz in relation to time since baseline and average noise level since baseline, while controlling for hearing level at baseline and other risk factors. Results Estimated LEQ noise exposures were 87±3.6 dBA among the construction workers. Linear mixed modelling demonstrated significant exposure-related elevations in HTL of about 2–3 dB over a projected 10-year period at 3, 4 or 6 kHz for a 10 dB increase in exposure. The DPOAE models (using L1=40) predicted about 1 dB decrease in emission amplitude over 10 years for a 10 dB increase in exposure. Conclusions The study provides evidence of noise-induced damage at an average exposure level around the 85 dBA level. The predicted change in HTLs was somewhat higher than would be predicted by standard hearing loss models, after accounting for hearing loss at baseline. Limited evidence for an enhanced effect of high peak component noise was observed, and DPOAEs, although similarly affected, showed no advantage over standard hearing threshold evaluation in detecting effects of noise on the ear and hearing. PMID:22693267

  10. Loud Noise Exposure Produces DNA, Neurotransmitter and Morphological Damage within Specific Brain Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Frenzilli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to loud noise is a major environmental threat to public health. Loud noise exposure, apart from affecting the inner ear, is deleterious for cardiovascular, endocrine and nervous systems and it is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study we investigated DNA, neurotransmitters and immune-histochemical alterations induced by exposure to loud noise in three major brain areas (cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum of Wistar rats. Rats were exposed to loud noise (100 dBA for 12 h. The effects of noise on DNA integrity in all three brain areas were evaluated by using Comet assay. In parallel studies, brain monoamine levels and morphology of nigrostriatal pathways, hippocampus and cerebellum were analyzed at different time intervals (24 h and 7 days after noise exposure. Loud noise produced a sudden increase in DNA damage in all the brain areas under investigation. Monoamine levels detected at 7 days following exposure were differently affected depending on the specific brain area. Namely, striatal but not hippocampal dopamine (DA significantly decreased, whereas hippocampal and cerebellar noradrenaline (NA was significantly reduced. This is in line with pathological findings within striatum and hippocampus consisting of a decrease in striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH combined with increased Bax and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Loud noise exposure lasting 12 h causes immediate DNA, and long-lasting neurotransmitter and immune-histochemical alterations within specific brain areas of the rat. These alterations may suggest an anatomical and functional link to explain the neurobiology of diseases which prevail in human subjects exposed to environmental noise.

  11. Occupational Noise Exposure among Toll Tellers at Toll Plaza in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Sharifah Nadya Syed; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Ya, Tuan Mohammad Yusoff Shah Tuan; Saidin, Hamidi

    2010-10-01

    Toll tellers working at toll plaza have potential of exposure to high noise from the vehicles especially for the peak level of sound emitted by the heavy vehicles. However, occupational exposures in this workplace have not been adequately characterized and identified. Occupational noise exposure among toll tellers at toll plaza was assessed using Sound Level Meter, Noise Dosimeter and through questionnaire survey. These data were combined to estimate the work shift exposure level and health impacts to the toll tellers by using statistical analysis. Noise Dosimeter microphone was located at the hearing zone of the toll teller which working inside the toll booth and full-period measurements were collected for each work shift. The measurements were taken at 20 toll booths from 6.00 am to 2.00 pm for 5 days. 71 respondents participated in the survey to identify the symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and other health related problems among toll tellers. Results of this study indicated that occupational noise exposure among toll tellers for Mean Continuous Equivalent Level, Leq was 79.2±1.4 dB(A), Mean Maximum Level, Lmax was 107.8±3.6 dB(A) and Mean Peak Level, Lpeak was 136.6±9.9 dB. The Peak Level reported statistically significantly at 140 dB, the level of TLV recommended by ACGIH. The research findings indicated that the primary risk exposure to toll tellers comes from noise that emitted from heavy vehicles. Most of the toll tellers show symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and annoyed by the sources of noise at the toll plaza.

  12. A comparison of the effects of solvent and noise exposure on hearing, together and separately

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Unlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of occupational exposure to noise and organic solvents on hearing loss in bus and truck plant workers. Our case control study contained 469 workers from a bus and truck plant divided into three groups. The first group contained workers exposed to only noise; the second group contained workers exposed to both noise and mixture solvents at a permissible level; and the third group included workers exposed to permissible levels of solvents. The control group (Group 4 included 119 individuals selected randomly, persons who were not exposed to noise and solvents. These groups were compared in terms of each individual′s frequency hearing loss in both ears. Our study demonstrates that combined exposure to mixed solvents and noise can exacerbate hearing loss in workers. Hence, a suitable hearing protection program is advised that would contain short-interval audiometric examinations and efficient hearing protectors.

  13. Associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise and newborn's size at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Ketzel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise has been suggested to impair fetal growth, but studies have reported inconsistent findings. Objective To investigate associations between residential air pollution and traffic noise during pregnancy and newborn's size at birth....... METHODS: From a national birth cohort we identified 75,166 live-born singletons born at term with information on the children's size at birth. Residential address history from conception until birth was collected and air pollution (NO2 and NOx) and road traffic noise was modeled at all addresses...... between air pollution and birth weight. Exposure to residential road traffic noise was weakly associated with reduced head circumference, whereas none of the other newborn's size indicators were associated with noise, neither before nor after adjustment for air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates...

  14. Sensorineural Hearing Loss Associated with Occupational Noise Exposure: Effects of Age-Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced permanent threshold shifts (NIPTS were computed from retrospective audiometric analyses by subtracting aging effects on hearing sensitivity in sixty-eight patients with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss who reported significant occupational noise exposure histories. There were significant effects of age on NIPTS but no significant gender- or ear- differences in terms of NIPTS. The NIPTS at 2,000 Hz was found to be significantly greater than NIPTS at frequencies 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz, 4,000 Hz, and 8,000 Hz. Defined noise notches were seen in the audiograms of 38/136 (27% ears with SNHL. Results support models that suggest interactive effects of aging and noise on sensorineural hearing loss in ears with occupational noise exposure.

  15. Sensorineural hearing loss associated with occupational noise exposure: effects of age-corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurti, Sridhar

    2009-03-01

    Noise-induced permanent threshold shifts (NIPTS) were computed from retrospective audiometric analyses by subtracting aging effects on hearing sensitivity in sixty-eight patients with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss who reported significant occupational noise exposure histories. There were significant effects of age on NIPTS but no significant gender- or ear- differences in terms of NIPTS. The NIPTS at 2,000 Hz was found to be significantly greater than NIPTS at frequencies 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz, 4,000 Hz, and 8,000 Hz. Defined noise notches were seen in the audiograms of 38/136 (27%) ears with SNHL. Results support models that suggest interactive effects of aging and noise on sensorineural hearing loss in ears with occupational noise exposure.

  16. Noise and neurotoxic chemical exposure relationship to workplace traumatic injuries: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Rice, Carol H; Morata, Thais; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2017-02-01

    More than 5,000 fatalities and eight million injuries occurred in the workplace in 2007 at a cost of $6 billion and $186 billion, respectively. Neurotoxic chemicals are known to affect central nervous system functions among workers, which include balance and hearing disorders. However, it is not known if there is an association between exposure to noise and solvents and acute injuries. A thorough review was conducted of the literature on the relationship between noise or solvent exposures and hearing loss with various health outcomes. The search resulted in 41 studies. Health outcomes included: hearing loss, workplace injuries, absence from work due to sickness, fatalities, hospital admissions due to workplace accidents, traffic accidents, hypertension, balance, slip, trips, or falls, cognitive measures, or disability retirement. Important covariates in these studies were age of employee, type of industry or occupation, or length of employment. Most authors that evaluated noise exposure concluded that higher exposure to noise resulted in more of the chosen health effect but the relationship is not well understood. Studies that evaluated hearing loss found that hearing loss was related to occupational injury, disability retirement, or traffic accidents. Studies that assessed both noise exposure and hearing loss as risk factors for occupational injuries reported that hearing loss was related to occupational injuries as much or more than noise exposure. Evidence suggests that solvent exposure is likely to be related to accidents or other health consequences such balance disorders. Many authors reported that noise exposures and hearing loss, respectively, are likely to be related to occupational accidents. Practical applications: The potential significance of the study is that findings could be used by managers to reduce injuries and the costs associated with those injures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Neurobehavioral effects of exposure to traffic-related air pollution and transportation noise in primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Elise; Fischer, Paul; Janssen, Nicole; Houthuijs, Danny; van Kamp, Irene; Stansfeld, Stephen; Cassee, Flemming

    2012-05-01

    Children living close to roads are exposed to both traffic noise and traffic-related air pollution. There are indications that both exposures affect cognitive functioning. So far, the effects of both exposures have only been investigated separately. To investigate the relationship between air pollution and transportation noise on the cognitive performance of primary schoolchildren in both the home and school setting. Data acquired within RANCH from 553 children (aged 9-11 years) from 24 primary schools were analysed using multilevel modelling with adjustment for a range of socio-economic and life-style factors. Exposure to NO(2) (which is in urban areas an indicator for traffic-related air pollution) at school was statistically significantly associated with a decrease in the memory span length measured during DMST (χ(2)=6.8, df=1, p=0.01). This remained after additional adjustment for transportation noise. Statistically significant associations were observed between road and air traffic noise exposure at school and the number of errors made during the 'arrow' (χ(2)=7.5, df=1, p=0.006) and 'switch' (χ(2)=4.8, df=1, p=0.028) conditions of the SAT. This remained after adjustment for NO(2). No effects of air pollution exposure or transportation noise exposure at home were observed. Combined exposure of air pollution and road traffic noise had a significant effect on the reaction times measured during the SRTT and the 'block' and the 'arrow' conditions of the SAT. Our results provide some support that prolonged exposure to traffic-related air pollution as well as to noise adversely affects cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Immediate and delayed cochlear neuropathy after noise exposure in pubescent mice.

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    Jane Bjerg Jensen

    Full Text Available Moderate acoustic overexposure in adult rodents is known to cause acute loss of synapses on sensory inner hair cells (IHCs and delayed degeneration of the auditory nerve, despite the completely reversible temporary threshold shift (TTS and morphologically intact hair cells. Our objective was to determine whether a cochlear synaptopathy followed by neuropathy occurs after noise exposure in pubescence, and to define neuropathic versus non-neuropathic noise levels for pubescent mice. While exposing 6 week old CBA/CaJ mice to 8-16 kHz bandpass noise for 2 hrs, we defined 97 dB sound pressure level (SPL as the threshold for this particular type of neuropathic exposure associated with TTS, and 94 dB SPL as the highest non-neuropathic noise level associated with TTS. Exposure to 100 dB SPL caused permanent threshold shift although exposure of 16 week old mice to the same noise is reported to cause only TTS. Amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response, which reflects the summed activity of the cochlear nerve, was complemented by synaptic ribbon counts in IHCs using confocal microscopy, and by stereological counts of peripheral axons and cell bodies of the cochlear nerve from 24 hours to 16 months post exposure. Mice exposed to neuropathic noise demonstrated immediate cochlear synaptopathy by 24 hours post exposure, and delayed neurodegeneration characterized by axonal retraction at 8 months, and spiral ganglion cell loss at 8-16 months post exposure. Although the damage was initially limited to the cochlear base, it progressed to also involve the cochlear apex by 8 months post exposure. Our data demonstrate a fine line between neuropathic and non-neuropathic noise levels associated with TTS in the pubescent cochlea.

  19. Long-term effect of noise exposure during military service in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SungHee; Lim, Eun Jung; Kim, Tae Hoon; Park, Jun Ho

    2017-02-01

    Most Korean men spend at least two years in the military service usually in their early twenties. The aim of this study was to identify the long-term effect of exposure to military noise during military service by comparing two regressions of age-related hearing loss between groups with and without exposure to military noise. Cross-sectional observational study. Finally, 4079 subjects were included, among 10,286 data of men's audiogram from January 2004 to April 2010. We excluded repeated testers and any subjects who had other known external causes or had an asymmetric audiogram. We grouped subjects with exposure to military noise (N = 3163) and those without as the control group (N = 916). There was a significant effect of exposure to military noise at 4 and 8 kHz after controlling for the effect of age. The annual threshold deterioration rates were faster in the military noise exposed group than in the control group at 1, 2 and 4 kHz (p effect of exposure to military noise on age-related hearing loss showed an adding effect at 8 kHz and an accelerating effect in the frequency region from 1 to 4 kHz.

  20. Residential exposure to traffic noise and leisure-time sports - A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-08-01

    Traffic levels have been found a significant environmental predictor for physical inactivity. A recent study suggested that traffic noise annoyance was associated with lower physical activity. We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and leisure-time sports. In the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from the baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). People reported participation (yes/no) and hours of leisure-time sport, from which we calculated MET hrs/week. Present and historical addresses from 1987 to 2002 were found in national registries, and traffic noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression. Traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was associated with higher prevalence odds ratio of non-participation in leisure-time sports; significantly for road traffic noise (odds ratio (OR): 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.13) and borderline for railway noise (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.99-1.07), per 10dB. In longitudinal analyses, a 10dB higher road traffic noise was associated with a higher prevalence odds ratio of ceasing (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.07-1.18) and a lower prevalence odds ratio of initiating (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.96) leisure-time sports. Exposure to railway noise was negatively associated with baseline MET hrs/week, whereas no association was found in longitudinal analyses, or for road traffic noise. The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic noise is negatively associated with leisure-time sports. Results for railway noise were less consistent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. A Method to Estimate Students’ Exposure to Road Traffic Noise Events

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    Simone Secchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between exposure to traffic noise and students’ performance and annoyance has been investigated in literature mainly considering the relationship between indoor equivalent A-weighted sound pressure level (LAeq and students’ cognitive impairment. Annoyance is frequently related to the effect of short-duration noise events characterized by high sound pressure levels, such as those due to aircraft fly-over and pass-by of buses, heavy trucks, motorcycles, or street sweepers. These noise events are often described, over specific measurement periods, in terms of maximum A-weighted sound pressure level, LAmax, or statistical levels, such as LA1 or LA10. This aspect is not considered in the noise maps drawn in accordance with the European Environmental Noise Directive, as they provide the LAeq only, determined over day, evening, and night periods. In this paper, students’ exposure to road traffic noise is analyzed by means of regression equations obtained by the authors between LAeq and A-weighted maximum and statistical levels due to road traffic noise. The traffic noise of 28 urban streets was monitored during the opening period of Italian schools. A method is described to estimate students’ exposure to noise from data made available on noise maps by the municipalities of metropolitan areas. The application of this method to the case study of Florence shows that almost 60% of students from municipal primary and lower secondary schools could be exposed to the maximum sound pressure level (SPL inside the classroom greater than 55 dB(A every hour, probably exceeding the typical background noise in classrooms by more than 10 dB.

  2. Limiting hazardous noise exposure from noisy toys: simple, sticky solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Heather M; Jabbour, Noel; Levine, Samuel; Yueh, Bevan

    2013-09-01

    To assess noise levels of toys from the Sight & Hearing Association (SHA) 2010 Noisy Toys List and evaluate the change in noise of these toys after covering the speakers with tape or glue. One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. SHA 2010 Toys List (n = 18) toys were tested at distances of 0 and 25 cm from sound source in a soundproof booth using a digital sound-level meter. The dBA level of sound produced by toy was obtained. Toys with speakers (n = 16) were tested before and after altering speakers with plastic packing tape or nontoxic glue. Mean noise level for non-taped toys at 0 and 25 cm was 107.6 dBA (SD ± 8.5) and 82.5 dBA (SD ± 8.8), respectively. With tape, there was a statistically significant decrease in noise level at 0 and 25 cm: 84.2 dBA and 68.2 dBA (P toys. However, there was no significant difference between tape or glue. Overall, altering the toy can significantly decrease the sound a child may experience when playing with toys. However, some toys, even after altering, still produce sound levels that may be considered dangerous. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Behavioural and biochemical stress responses of Palinurus elephas after exposure to boat noise pollution in tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiciotto, Francesco; Vazzana, Mirella; Celi, Monica; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Ceraulo, Maria; Buffa, Gaspare; Di Stefano, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2014-07-15

    This study examined the effects of boat noise on the behavioural and biochemical parameters of the Mediterranean spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas). The experiment was conducted in a tank equipped with a video and audio recording system. 18 experimental trials, assigned to boat noise and control conditions, were performed using lobsters in single and group of 4 specimens. After a 1h habituation period, we audio- and video-recorded the lobsters for 1h. During the experimental phase, the animals assigned to the boat groups were exposed to boat noise pollution (a random sequence of boat noises). Exposure to the noise produced significant variations in locomotor behaviours and haemolymphatic parameters. Our results indicate that the lobsters exposed to boat noises increased significantly their locomotor activities and haemolymphatic bioindicator of stressful conditions such as glucose, total proteins, Hsp70 expression and THC when tested both singly and in groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in exposure to air and noise pollution in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonne, Cathryn; Milà, Carles; Fecht, Daniela; Alvarez, Mar; Gulliver, John; Smith, James; Beevers, Sean; Ross Anderson, H; Kelly, Frank

    2018-06-01

    Transport-related air and noise pollution, exposures linked to adverse health outcomes, varies within cities potentially resulting in exposure inequalities. Relatively little is known regarding inequalities in personal exposure to air pollution or transport-related noise. Our objectives were to quantify socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in London in 1) air pollution exposure at residence compared to personal exposure; and 2) transport-related noise at residence from different sources. We used individual-level data from the London Travel Demand Survey (n = 45,079) between 2006 and 2010. We modeled residential (CMAQ-urban) and personal (London Hybrid Exposure Model) particulate matter pollution using quantile and logistic regression. We observed inverse patterns in inequalities in air pollution when estimated at residence versus personal exposure with respect to household income (categorical, 8 groups). Compared to the lowest income group (£75,000) had lower residential NO 2 (-1.3 (95% CI -2.1, -0.6) μg/m 3 in the 95th exposure quantile) but higher personal NO 2 exposure (1.9 (95% CI 1.6, 2.3) μg/m 3 in the 95th quantile), which was driven largely by transport mode and duration. Inequalities in residential exposure to NO 2 with respect to area-level deprivation were larger at lower exposure quantiles (e.g. estimate for NO 2 5.1 (95% CI 4.6, 5.5) at quantile 0.15 versus 1.9 (95% CI 1.1, 2.6) at quantile 0.95), reflecting low-deprivation, high residential NO 2 areas in the city centre. Air pollution exposure at residence consistently overestimated personal exposure; this overestimation varied with age, household income, and area-level income deprivation. Inequalities in road traffic noise were generally small. In logistic regression models, the odds of living within a 50 dB contour of aircraft noise were highest in individuals with the highest household income, white ethnicity, and with the lowest area-level income deprivation. Odds of living within a 50

  5. Exposure to traffic noise and air pollution and risk for febrile seizure: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Ketzel, Matthias; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-03-25

    Objectives Exposure to traffic noise and air pollution is suspected to increase susceptibility to viral infections - the main triggering factor for febrile seizures. No studies have examined these two exposures in relation to febrile seizures. We aimed to investigate whether exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution are associated with risk of febrile seizures in childhood. Methods From our study base of 51 465 singletons from a national birth cohort, we identified 2175 cases with febrile seizures using a nationwide registry. Residential address history from conception to six years of age were found in national registers, and road traffic noise (L den ) and air pollution (NO 2 ) were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox proportional hazard model with adjustment for potential confounders, including mutual exposure adjustment. Results An interquartile range (IQR) increase in childhood exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution was associated with an 11% [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.19) and 5% (IRR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.07) higher risk for febrile seizures, respectively, after adjustment for potential confounders. Weaker tendencies were seen for pregnancy exposure. In models with mutual exposure adjustment, the estimates were slightly lower, with IRR of 1.08 (95% CI 1.00-1.16) and 1.03 (95% CI 0.99-1.06) per IQR increase in childhood exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution, respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that residential exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution is associated with higher risk for febrile seizures.

  6. Exposure of highway maintenance workers to fine particulate matter and noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we assessed the mixed exposure of highway maintenance workers to airborne particles, noise and gaseous co-pollutants. The aims were to provide a better understanding of the workers exposure to facilitate the evaluation of short-term effects on cardiovascular health ...

  7. Cetacean noise criteria revisited in the light of proposed exposure limits for harbour porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Jakob; Wright, Andrew John; Madsen, Professor Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    The impact of underwater noise on marine life calls for identification of exposure criteria to inform mitigation. Here we review recent experimental evidence with focus on the high-frequency cetaceans and discuss scientifically-based initial exposure criteria. A range of new TTS experiments sugge...

  8. Effects of occupational noise exposure on changes in blood pressure of workers

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    Hossein Ali Yousefi Rizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available    BACKGROUND: In most industries, workers are exposed to loud noise. Noise is considered as a nonspecific biological stressor that have adverse effects on human physiology. It is associated with hypertension which is in turn one of the most important preventable risk factors of cardiovascular disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of noise on changes of workers' blood pressure.    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 90 individuals who were exposed to noise at one of the industries in Isfahan, Iran. Noise levels (in dBA were measured by means of a sound level meter. Data was collected using a demographic questionnaire and physical examination. Blood pressure was measured by a sphygmomanometer at workplace. The collected data was analyzed by t-tests.    RESULTS: The workers aged 31.5 ± 5.2 years and were exposed to mean noise level of 97.5 ± 10.1 dBA which was significantly above the standard level (85 dBA.The relationships between blood pressure, heart rate, and noise level were not significant. However, Pearson’s correlation indicated systolic blood pressure to have significant correlations with age (correlation coefficient = 0.302 and work experience (correlation coefficient = 0.299.    CONCLUSION: Workers exposed to noise levels above the standard, especially in the metal industry but their blood pressures haven’t any associated with noise. it mention that any changes in blood pressure resulting from occupational noise are likely to be small, careful controls, large sample sizes, and long time exposure to noise would be take to identify significant effects.       Keywords: Noise Exposure, Blood Pressure, Young Workers, Cardiovascular Disease, Metal Industries

  9. Tinnitus with a normal audiogram: Relation to noise exposure but no evidence for cochlear synaptopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Hannah; Munro, Kevin J; Prendergast, Garreth; Howe, Simon; Plack, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    In rodents, exposure to high-level noise can destroy synapses between inner hair cells and auditory nerve fibers, without causing hair cell loss or permanent threshold elevation. Such "cochlear synaptopathy" is associated with amplitude reductions in wave I of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) at moderate-to-high sound levels. Similar ABR results have been reported in humans with tinnitus and normal audiometric thresholds, leading to the suggestion that tinnitus in these cases might be a consequence of synaptopathy. However, the ABR is an indirect measure of synaptopathy and it is unclear whether the results in humans reflect the same mechanisms demonstrated in rodents. Measures of noise exposure were not obtained in the human studies, and high frequency audiometric loss may have impacted ABR amplitudes. To clarify the role of cochlear synaptopathy in tinnitus with a normal audiogram, we recorded ABRs, envelope following responses (EFRs), and noise exposure histories in young adults with tinnitus and matched controls. Tinnitus was associated with significantly greater lifetime noise exposure, despite close matching for age, sex, and audiometric thresholds up to 14 kHz. However, tinnitus was not associated with reduced ABR wave I amplitude, nor with significant effects on EFR measures of synaptopathy. These electrophysiological measures were also uncorrelated with lifetime noise exposure, providing no evidence of noise-induced synaptopathy in this cohort, despite a wide range of exposures. In young adults with normal audiograms, tinnitus may be related not to cochlear synaptopathy but to other effects of noise exposure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Occupational Noise Exposure of Employees at Locally-Owned Restaurants in a College Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Deirdre R; Anthony, T Renée

    2015-01-01

    While many restaurant employees work in loud environments, in both dining and food preparation areas, little is known about worker exposures to noise. The risk of hearing loss to millions of food service workers around the country is unknown. This study evaluated full-shift noise exposure to workers at six locally-owned restaurants to examine risk factors associated with noise exposures during the day shift. Participants included cooks, counter attendants, bartenders, and waiters at full-service restaurants with bar service and at limited-service restaurants that provided counter service only. Assessments were made on weekdays and weekends, both during the summer and the fall (with a local university in session) to examine whether the time of week or year affects noise exposures to this population in a college town. In addition, the relationships between noise exposures and the type of restaurant and job classification were assessed. One-hundred eighty full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were assessed, using both Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) criteria. No TWA measurements exceeded the 90 dBA OSHA 8 hr permissible exposure limit, although six projected TWAs exceeded the 85 dBA OSHA hearing conservation action limit. Using NIOSH criteria, TWAs ranged from 69-90 dBA with a mean of 80 dBA (SD = 4 dBA). Nearly 8% (14) of the exposures exceeded the NIOSH 8-hr 85 dBA. Full-shift exposures were larger for all workers in full-service restaurants (p restaurant type. The fall semester (p = 0.003) and weekend (p = 0.048) exposures were louder than summer and weekdays. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that the combination of restaurant type, job classification, and season had a significant effect on restaurant worker noise exposures (p restaurant type, job classification, time of week, and season significantly affected the noise exposures for day

  11. JP-8 jet fuel can promote auditory impairment resulting from subsequent noise exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter, Laurence D; Gearhart, Caroline; Fulton, Sherry; Campbell, Jerry; Fisher, Jeffrey; Na, Kwangsam; Cocker, David; Nelson-Miller, Alisa; Moon, Patrick; Pouyatos, Benoit

    2007-08-01

    We report on the transient and persistent effects of JP-8 jet fuel exposure on auditory function in rats. JP-8 has become the standard jet fuel utilized in the United States and North Atlantic Treaty Organization countries for military use and it is closely related to Jet A fuel, which is used in U.S. domestic aviation. Rats received JP-8 fuel (1000 mg/m(3)) by nose-only inhalation for 4 h and half of them were immediately subjected to an octave band of noise ranging between 97 and 105 dB in different experiments. The noise by itself produces a small, but permanent auditory impairment. The current permissible exposure level for JP-8 is 350 mg/m(3). Additionally, a positive control group received only noise exposure, and a fourth group consisted of untreated control subjects. Exposures occurred either on 1 day or repeatedly on 5 successive days. Impairments in auditory function were assessed using distortion product otoacoustic emissions and compound action potential testing. In other rats, tissues were harvested following JP-8 exposure for assessment of hydrocarbon levels or glutathione (GSH) levels. A single JP-8 exposure by itself at 1000 mg/m(3) did not disrupt auditory function. However, exposure to JP-8 and noise produced an additive disruption in outer hair cell function. Repeated 5-day JP-8 exposure at 1000 mg/m(3) for 4 h produced impairment of outer hair cell function that was most evident at the first postexposure assessment time. Partial though not complete recovery was observed over a 4-week postexposure period. The adverse effects of repeated JP-8 exposures on auditory function were inconsistent, but combined treatment with JP-8 + noise yielded greater impairment of auditory function, and hair cell loss than did noise by itself. Qualitative comparison of outer hair cell loss suggests an increase in outer hair cell death among rats treated with JP-8 + noise for 5 days as compared to noise alone. In most instances, hydrocarbon constituents of the fuel

  12. Effects of noise exposure on young adults with normal audiograms I: Electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Garreth; Guest, Hannah; Munro, Kevin J; Kluk, Karolina; Léger, Agnès; Hall, Deborah A; Heinz, Michael G; Plack, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    Noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy has been demonstrated in numerous rodent studies. In these animal models, the disorder is characterized by a reduction in amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) to high-level stimuli, whereas the response at threshold is unaffected. The aim of the present study was to determine if this disorder is prevalent in young adult humans with normal audiometric hearing. One hundred and twenty six participants (75 females) aged 18-36 were tested. Participants had a wide range of lifetime noise exposures as estimated by a structured interview. Audiometric thresholds did not differ across noise exposures up to 8 kHz, although 16-kHz audiometric thresholds were elevated with increasing noise exposure for females but not for males. ABRs were measured in response to high-pass (1.5 kHz) filtered clicks of 80 and 100 dB peSPL. Frequency-following responses (FFRs) were measured to 80 dB SPL pure tones from 240 to 285 Hz, and to 80 dB SPL 4 kHz pure tones amplitude modulated at frequencies from 240 to 285 Hz (transposed tones). The bandwidth of the ABR stimuli and the carrier frequency of the transposed tones were chosen to target the 3-6 kHz characteristic frequency region which is usually associated with noise damage in humans. The results indicate no relation between noise exposure and the amplitude of the ABR. In particular, wave I of the ABR did not decrease with increasing noise exposure as predicted. ABR wave V latency increased with increasing noise exposure for the 80 dB peSPL click. High carrier-frequency (envelope) FFR signal-to-noise ratios decreased as a function of noise exposure in males but not females. However, these correlations were not significant after the effects of age were controlled. The results suggest either that noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy is not a significant problem in young, audiometrically normal adults, or that the ABR and FFR are relatively insensitive to this disorder in

  13. Effect of Contemporary Exposure to Mixed Organic Solvents and Occupational Noise on Hearing Thresholds of Workers

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    Attarchi Mir Saeid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mixed organic solvent exposure, as well as noise, has a wide spread in different industries. In recent years it has been propounded that simultaneous exposure to mixed organic solvents and occupational noise can establish a hearing loss that is more severe than hearing loss due to exposure to each of them separately.Materials & Methods: A descriptive- analytic study was conducted during 2008 in an automobile industry on 441 employees in three different groups. First group were assembly workers that only exposed to noise. The second group included employees in new painting saloon that exposed not only to noise but also to permissible levels of mixed organic solvents and the third group were employees in old painting saloon that exposed to noise and mixed organic solvents in more than threshold limit value (TLV level. The prevalence of hearing loss was compared between three groups on the basis of model 1 (mean hearing threshold in frequencies 0.5, 1 and 2 KHz more than 25dB and model 2 (mean hearing threshold in frequencies 3, 4, 6 and 8 KHz more than 25dB. Results: According to model 2, in workers exposed to noise in addition to mixed organic solvents, the rate of hearing loss, was significantly higher than workers exposed to noise alone (P<0.05, even after adjusting for confounding variables using logistic regression analysis (OR= 4.12 , P<0.001.Conclusion: In workers with simultaneous exposure to mixed organic solvents and noise, special attention must be paid to accurate accomplishment of hearing conservation programs including doing audiometric exams in shorter periods and take advantage of hearing protection devices with higher noise reduction rate (NRR.

  14. How reproducible is self-reported information on exposure to smoking, drinking, and dietary patterns? Evidence among Brazilian adults in the Pró-Saúde Study

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    Dóra Chor

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Epidemiological studies of the validity and reliability of self-reported information on important risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases are scarce in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the test-retest reliability of information overall and stratified by gender, age and education on active and passive smoking, alcohol intake and aspects of dietary habits. TYPE OF STUDY: Test-retest reliability. SETTING: Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 192 University employees. PROCEDURES: Self-administered questionnaires were completed on two occasions, two weeks apart. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Kappa Statistics; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. RESULTS: Information on smoking status and pack-years smoked had almost perfect levels of agreement, respectively, kappa = 0.97 (95% CI, 0.92-1.00, and intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.93 (CI 95%, 0.89-0.96. Characteristics of alcohol intake yielded substantial levels of agreement (kappa ranging from 0.62 to 0.69. The reproducibility of the information on dietary habits varied from 0.67 to 0.79 (kappa. No clear-cut patterns could be identified comparing information by age or gender. There was a slight tendency towards greater reliability among people with higher levels of education. CONCLUSION: The reproducibility of information on smoking, drinking, and dietary patterns ranged from substantial to excellent, as investigated in the Pró-Saúde Study, a longitudinal investigation recently launched in Rio de Janeiro.

  15. 75 FR 3959 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise...

  16. Automatic exposure control systems designed to maintain constant image noise: effects on computed tomography dose and noise relative to clinically accepted technique charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Christopher P; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; Kofler, James M; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2015-01-01

    To compare computed tomography dose and noise arising from use of an automatic exposure control (AEC) system designed to maintain constant image noise as patient size varies with clinically accepted technique charts and AEC systems designed to vary image noise. A model was developed to describe tube current modulation as a function of patient thickness. Relative dose and noise values were calculated as patient width varied for AEC settings designed to yield constant or variable noise levels and were compared to empirically derived values used by our clinical practice. Phantom experiments were performed in which tube current was measured as a function of thickness using a constant-noise-based AEC system and the results were compared with clinical technique charts. For 12-, 20-, 28-, 44-, and 50-cm patient widths, the requirement of constant noise across patient size yielded relative doses of 5%, 14%, 38%, 260%, and 549% and relative noises of 435%, 267%, 163%, 61%, and 42%, respectively, as compared with our clinically used technique chart settings at each respective width. Experimental measurements showed that a constant noise-based AEC system yielded 175% relative noise for a 30-cm phantom and 206% relative dose for a 40-cm phantom compared with our clinical technique chart. Automatic exposure control systems that prescribe constant noise as patient size varies can yield excessive noise in small patients and excessive dose in obese patients compared with clinically accepted technique charts. Use of noise-level technique charts and tube current limits can mitigate these effects.

  17. Effect of daily noise exposure monitoring on annual rates of hearing loss in industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Galusha, Deron; Kirsche, Sharon R; Cullen, Mark R; Slade, Martin D; Dixon-Ernst, Christine

    2011-06-01

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is prevalent, yet evidence on the effectiveness of preventive interventions is lacking. The effectiveness of a new technology allowing workers to monitor daily at-ear noise exposure was analysed. Workers in the hearing conservation program of an aluminium smelter were recruited because of accelerated rates of hearing loss. The intervention consisted of daily monitoring of at-ear noise exposure and regular feedback on exposures from supervisors. The annual rate of change in high frequency hearing average at 2, 3 and 4 KHz before intervention (2000-2004) and 4 years after intervention (2006-2009) was determined. Annual rates of loss were compared between 78 intervention subjects and 234 controls in other company smelters matched for age, gender and high frequency hearing threshold level in 2005. Individuals monitoring daily noise exposure experienced on average no further worsening of high frequency hearing (average rate of hearing change at 2, 3 and 4 KHz = -0.5 dB/year). Matched controls also showed decelerating hearing loss, the difference in rates between the two groups being significant (p hearing loss showed a similar trend but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Monitoring daily occupational noise exposure inside hearing protection with ongoing administrative feedback apparently reduces the risk of occupational NIHL in industrial workers. Longer follow-up of these workers will help determine the significance of the intervention effect. Intervention studies for the prevention of NIHL need to include appropriate control groups.

  18. Noise exposure during the first trimester and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2017-07-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes that affects pregnant women. GDM tends to resolve after delivery, but has an impact on the health of the mother and her offspring. Considering the potential association between noise and diabetes and the susceptibility of the pregnant state to diabetogenesis, noise pollution may be associated with the risk of GDM; however, there is no evidence of the effect of noise pollution on GDM. In this study, we investigated the association between residential exposure to noise during the first trimester and incidence of GDM using the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC), a representative sample of South Koreans. We analyzed the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013), a population-wide health insurance claim data. Study population was a total of 18 165 pregnant women. GDM was defined as ICD-10 code O244, and noise exposure levels were categorized as daytime (07:00-19:00) and nighttime (23:00-7:00). Other known risk factors for GDM were age, income, residential area, physical activity, smoking, drinking, blood sugar levels, and body mass index before getting pregnant. The study population included 18 165 pregnant women, of which 8.8% developed gestational diabetes. After adjustment, the adjusted OR (95% CI) for GDM associated with 1 dB increase in nighttime noise was 1.07 (95% CI: 1.05-1.10). Compared with the reference group (Quartile 1), the adjusted ORs for GDM in those exposed to the highest quartile of noise exposure (Quartile 4) was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.38-1.87) at nighttime noise. However, no significant association was observed between daytime noise exposure (07:00-19:00) and the incidence of GDM. We observed that the odds of gestational diabetes during the first trimester was 1.6 times higher for pregnant women exposed to elevated nighttime noise compared to similar women exposed to normal baseline noise levels in South Korea. Although this finding

  19. [Current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S S; Yu, J N; He, C H; Mu, H X; Wang, C; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C Y; Yu, S F; Li, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Methods: From August 2015 to March 2016, the investigation method of collecting the data of past occupational health examinations and measuring noise in working environment was used to enroll 8 672 male workers. Results: Of all workers, 11.6% were diagnosed with hearing loss. There were significant differences in the distribution of hearing impairment among workers exposed to noise at different ages, device types and types of work (χ(2)=17.80, 77.80 and 30.53, all P hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Conclusion: The level of noise exposure and working years with noise exposure are main influencing factors for hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry.

  20. Exposure to music and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL among professional pop/rock/jazz musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana N Halevi-Katz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL has been extensively studied in industrial work environments. With the advent of new technologies, loud music has been increasingly affecting listeners outside of the industrial setting. Most research on the effects of music and hearing loss has focused on classical musicians. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between the amount of experience a professional pop/rock/jazz musician has and objective and subjective variables of the musician′s hearing loss. This study also examined professional pop/rock/jazz musicians′ use of hearing protection devices in relation to the extent of their exposure to amplified music. Forty-four pop/rock/jazz musicians were interviewed using the Pop/Rock/Jazz Musician′s Questionnaire (PRJMQ in order to obtain self-reported symptoms of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Forty-two of the subjects were also tested for air-conduction hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 1-8 kHz. Results show that the extent of professional pop/rock/jazz musicians′ exposure to amplified music was related to both objective and subjective variables of hearing loss: Greater musical experience was positively linked to higher hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 3-6 kHz and to the subjective symptom of tinnitus. Weekly hours playing were found to have a greater effect on hearing loss in comparison to years playing. Use of hearing protection was not linked to the extent of exposure to amplified music. It is recommended that further research be conducted with a larger sample, in order to gain a greater understanding of the detrimental effects of hours playing versus years playing.

  1. Exposure to music and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among professional pop/rock/jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi-Katz, Dana N; Yaakobi, Erez; Putter-Katz, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been extensively studied in industrial work environments. With the advent of new technologies, loud music has been increasingly affecting listeners outside of the industrial setting. Most research on the effects of music and hearing loss has focused on classical musicians. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between the amount of experience a professional pop/rock/jazz musician has and objective and subjective variables of the musician's hearing loss. This study also examined professional pop/rock/jazz musicians' use of hearing protection devices in relation to the extent of their exposure to amplified music. Forty-four pop/rock/jazz musicians were interviewed using the Pop/Rock/Jazz Musician's Questionnaire (PRJMQ) in order to obtain self-reported symptoms of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Forty-two of the subjects were also tested for air-conduction hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 1-8 kHz. Results show that the extent of professional pop/rock/jazz musicians' exposure to amplified music was related to both objective and subjective variables of hearing loss: Greater musical experience was positively linked to higher hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 3-6 kHz and to the subjective symptom of tinnitus. Weekly hours playing were found to have a greater effect on hearing loss in comparison to years playing. Use of hearing protection was not linked to the extent of exposure to amplified music. It is recommended that further research be conducted with a larger sample, in order to gain a greater understanding of the detrimental effects of hours playing versus years playing.

  2. Effects of Long Duration Noise Exposure on Hearing and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    defects of the eye, tail, hind- and forefoot. Geber and Anderson studied the effect:.-, of chronic intermittent noise stress on the body weight...Stimulus. Amer.Jour. Physiol.212, 1967, pp.1174-1178. Geber , W.F.: Developmental f.ffects of Chronic Maternal Audiovisual Stress on the Rat Fetus...Jour. Emb.Exp.Morph., 16, 1966, pp.1-16. Geber , W.F. and Anderson, T.A.: Cardiac Hypertrophy Due to Chronic Audiogenic Stress in the Rat and

  3. Effects of exposure to noise and indoor air pollution on human perception and symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witterseh, Thomas; Wargocki, Pawel; Fang, Lei

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate human perception and SBS symptoms when people are exposed simultaneously to different levels of air pollution and ventilation noise. The air quality in an office was modified by placing or removing a carpet and the background noise level...... of the occupants were recorded throughout the exposure period. During occupation, the subjects performed simulated office work. The results show that elevated air pollution and noise in an office can interact and negatively affect office workers by increasing the prevalence of SBS symptoms. A moderate increase...... was modified by playing a recording of ventilation noise. Thirty female subjects, six at a time, occupied the office for 4.4 hours. The subjects assessed the air quality, the noise, and the indoor environment upon entering the office and on six occasions during occupation. Furthermore, SBS symptoms...

  4. Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  5. Solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with edaravone for inner ear protection after noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Gang; Liu, Ya; Zhou, Chang-Hua; Jiang, Ping; Sun, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-20

    Antioxidants and the duration of treatment after noise exposure on hearing recovery are important. We investigated the protective effects of an antioxidant substance, edaravone, and its slow-release dosage form, edaravone solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), in steady noise-exposed guinea pigs. SLNs loaded with edaravone were produced by an ultrasound technique. Edaravone solution or edaravone SLNs were administered by intratympanic or intravenous injection after the 1 st day of noise exposure. Guinea pigs were exposed to 110 dB sound pressure level (SPL) noise, centered at 0.25-4.0 kHz, for 4 days at 2 h/d. After noise exposure, the guinea pigs underwent auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold measurements, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected in their cochleas with electron spin resonance (ESR), and outer hair cells (OHCs) were counted with silvernitrate (AgNO 3 ) staining at 1, 4, and 6 days. The ultrasound technique was able to prepare adequate edaravone SLNs with a mean particle size of 93.6 nm and entrapment efficiency of 76.7%. Acoustic stress-induced ROS formation and edaravone exerted a protective effect on the cochlea. Comparisons of hearing thresholds and ROS changes in different animal groups showed that the threshold shift and ROS generation were significantly lower in treated animals than in those without treatment, especially in the edaravone SLN intratympanic injection group. Edaravone SLNs show noticeable slow-release effects and have certain protective effects against noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL).

  6. Noise exposure and hearing conservation for farmers of rural Japanese communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakita, Takashi; Ueda, Atsushi; Futatsuka, Makoto; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Nagano, Megumi; Koyama, Wasaku

    2004-10-01

    Agricultural mechanization in Japan has progressed dramatically since 1955 with the introduction of tractors, harvesters, and processing machines. These technological developments have resulted in an increase in exposure to sources of noise that are not only annoying, but damaging to hearing. The present study was undertaken to determine, whether Japanese farmers are at risk for noise-induced hearing loss in comparison with office workers, and by evaluating the present conditions regarding occupational noise levels among agricultural workers. The results suggest that farmers, especially male farmers, have a high prevalence of hearing loss in the higher frequency ranges. Daily noise exposure levels in L ranged from 81.5 to 99.1 dBA for tea harvesting and processing, and from 83.2 to 97.6 for sugar cane harvesting. Taking into account their rather long working hours and excessive noise from farm machinery, it is concluded that farmers are at risk for noise-induced hearing loss. These findings clearly indicate a strong need for implementation of hearing conservation programs among agricultural workers exposed to machinery noise.

  7. Chronic lead exposure induces cochlear oxidative stress and potentiates noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamesdaniel, Samson; Rosati, Rita; Westrick, Judy; Ruden, Douglas M

    2018-08-01

    Acquired hearing loss is caused by complex interactions of multiple environmental risk factors, such as elevated levels of lead and noise, which are prevalent in urban communities. This study delineates the mechanism underlying lead-induced auditory dysfunction and its potential interaction with noise exposure. Young-adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to: 1) control conditions; 2) 2 mM lead acetate in drinking water for 28 days; 3) 90 dB broadband noise 2 h/day for two weeks; and 4) both lead and noise. Blood lead levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis (ICP-MS) lead-induced cochlear oxidative stress signaling was assessed using targeted gene arrays, and the hearing thresholds were assessed by recording auditory brainstem responses. Chronic lead exposure downregulated cochlear Sod1, Gpx1, and Gstk1, which encode critical antioxidant enzymes, and upregulated ApoE, Hspa1a, Ercc2, Prnp, Ccl5, and Sqstm1, which are indicative of cellular apoptosis. Isolated exposure to lead or noise induced 8-12 dB and 11-25 dB shifts in hearing thresholds, respectively. Combined exposure induced 18-30 dB shifts, which was significantly higher than that observed with isolated exposures. This study suggests that chronic exposure to lead induces cochlear oxidative stress and potentiates noise-induced hearing impairment, possibly through parallel pathways. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Noise characterization of weighting schemes for combination of multiple exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Kristian; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    A method for capturing high intensity dynamic range scenes with a low dynamic range camera consists in taking a series of images with different exposure settings and combining these into a single high dynamic range image. The combined image values are found by weighted averaging of values from...

  9. High levels of sound pressure: acoustic reflex thresholds and auditory complaints of workers with noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Scalli Mathias Duarte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The clinical evaluation of subjects with occupational noise exposure has been difficult due to the discrepancy between auditory complaints and auditory test results. This study aimed to evaluate the contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds of workers exposed to high levels of noise, and to compare these results to the subjects' auditory complaints.METHODS: This clinical retrospective study evaluated 364 workers between 1998 and 2005; their contralateral acoustic reflexes were compared to auditory complaints, age, and noise exposure time by chi-squared, Fisher's, and Spearman's tests.RESULTS: The workers' age ranged from 18 to 50 years (mean = 39.6, and noise exposure time from one to 38 years (mean = 17.3. We found that 15.1% (55 of the workers had bilateral hearing loss, 38.5% (140 had bilateral tinnitus, 52.8% (192 had abnormal sensitivity to loud sounds, and 47.2% (172 had speech recognition impairment. The variables hearing loss, speech recognition impairment, tinnitus, age group, and noise exposure time did not show relationship with acoustic reflex thresholds; however, all complaints demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with Metz recruitment at 3000 and 4000 Hz bilaterally.CONCLUSION: There was no significance relationship between auditory complaints and acoustic reflexes.

  10. Long-term exposure to residential traffic noise and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe S; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traffic noise can act as a stressor and disturb sleep, and has been associated with cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest a possible association to metabolic outcomes and adiposity through biological mechanisms related to physiological stress and sleep disturbance. OBJECTIVES...... an 10% increased risk for gaining more than 5kg body weight during follow-up (95% CI: 1.04; 1.15) per 10dB higher 5 years exposure preceding follow-up. Exposure to railway noise above 55dB was associated with weight gain (39.9g/year (95% CI: 10.2; 69.6)), but not with a significant change in waist...

  11. Short sleep as an environmental exposure: a preliminary study associating 5-HTTLPR genotype to self-reported sleep duration and depressed mood in first-year university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A; Sharkey, Katherine M; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E

    2012-06-01

    This study examined whether the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the SLC6A4 gene is associated with self-reported symptoms of depressed mood in first-year university students with a persistent pattern of short sleep. Students provided DNA samples and completed on-line sleep diaries and a mood scale during the first semester. A priori phenotypes for nocturnal sleep and mood scores were compared for the distribution of genotypes. Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. A sample of 135 first-year students, 54 male, 71 Caucasian, mean age 18.1 (± 0.5) yr. None. Students completed on-line sleep diaries daily across the first term (21-64 days; mean = 51 days ± 11) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) mood scale after 8 wk. DNA was genotyped for the triallelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Low-expressing S and L(G)polymorphisms were designated S', and high-expressing L(A) was designated L'. Phenotype groups were identified from a combination of CES-D (median split: high > 12; low sleep time (TST) from diaries: (shorter ≤ 7 hr; longer ≥ 7.5 hr). Three genotypes were identified (S'S', S'L', L'L'); the S'S' genotype was present in a higher proportion of Asian than non-Asian students. FOUR PHENOTYPE GROUPS WERE COMPARED: 40 students with shorter TST/high CES-D; 34 with shorter TST/low CES-D; 29 with longer TST/high CES-D; 32 with longer TST/low CES-D. Female:male distribution did not vary across phenotype groups (chi-square = 1.39; df = 3; P = 0.71). S'S' participants (n = 23) were overrepresented in the shorter TST/high CES-D group (chi- square = 15.04; df = 6; P sleep and higher depressed mood are more likely than others to carry a variant of the SLC6A4 gene associated with low expression of the serotonin transporter.

  12. The use of self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning after exposure to chlorpyrifos 50 % plus cypermethrin 5 % among Nepali farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Dea Haagensen; Jørs, Erik; Varma, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    in response to occupational acute organophosphate exposure. Methods: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial among 42 Nepali commercial vegetable farmers. The farmers were randomly assigned (ratio 1:1) to a 2-h organophosphate (chlorpyrifos 50% plus cypermethrin 5...

  13. A meta-analysis on the relationship between self-reported presence and anxiety in virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, Y.; Nefs, H.T.; Morina, N.; Heynderickx, I.; Brinkman, W.P.

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results

  14. The use of self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning after exposure to chlorpyrifos 50% plus cypermethrin 5% among Nepali farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Dea Haagensen; Jørs, Erik; Varma, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    in response to occupational acute organophosphate exposure. Methods: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial among 42 Nepali commercial vegetable farmers. The farmers were randomly assigned (ratio 1:1) to a 2-h organophosphate (chlorpyrifos 50% plus cypermethrin 5...

  15. Noise sensitivity in relation to baseline arousal, physiological response and psychological features to noise exposure during task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, K.; Hofman, W.F.; van Kamp, I.

    2010-01-01

    People who consider themselves sensitive to noise, experience more noise annoyance, sleep disturbance and reduced daytime performance. Besides psychological factors, an association with cardiovascular reactions during noise has been established in noise sensitives. Decreased efficiency of the

  16. Occupational noise exposure in small scale hand tools manufacturing (forging) industry (SSI) in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, K K; Bedi, Raman

    2009-08-01

    Occupational noise has been recognized as hazardous for the human beings. A high noise level in forging shops is considered to lower the labour productivity and cause illness however occupational noise is being accepted as an integral part of the job. The present study has been carried out in 5 small scale hand tool forging units (SSI) of different sizes in Northern India in Punjab. Noise levels at various sections were measured. OSHA norms for hearing conservation has been incorporated which includes an exchange rate of 5 dB (A), criterion level at 90 dB (A), criterion time of 8 h, threshold level=80 dB (A), upper limit=140 dB (A) and with F/S response rate. Equivalent sound pressure level (L(eq)) has been measured in various sections of these plants. Noise at various sections like hammer section, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barrelling process was found to be >90 dB (A), which is greater than OSHA norms. A cross-sectional study on the basis of questionnaire has been carried out. The results of which revealed that 68% of the workers are not wearing ear protective equipments out of these 50% were not provided with PPE by the company. About 95% of the workers were suffering speech interference though high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. It has been established that the maximum noise exposure is being taken by the workers as they are working more than 8h a day for six days per week. More than 90% workers are working 12 to 24 h over time per week which lead to very high noise exposure i.e. 50 to 80% per week higher than exposure time/week in USA or European countries(15, 16)).

  17. Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhwinder Pal Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002 type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A, criterion level at 90dB(A, criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A, upper limit is equal to 140dB(A and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A. About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE. The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures.

  18. Do hearing threshold levels in workers of the furniture industry reflect their exposure to noise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to analyze the hearing status of employees of a furniture factory with respect to their exposure to noise and the presence of additional risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. Material and Methods: Noise measurements, questionnaire survey and assessment of hearing, using pure tone audiometry, were carried out in 50 male workers, aged 20–57 years, directly employed in the manufacture of furniture. The actual workers’ hearing threshold levels (HTLs were compared with the predictions calculated according to PN-ISO 1999:2000 based on age, gender and noise exposure. Results: Workers under study were exposed to noise at daily noise exposure levels of 82.7–94.8 dB (mean: 90.9 dB for a period of 3–14 years. In all subjects, mean HTL at 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz did not exceed 25 dB. Nevertheless, high frequency notches were found in 11% of audiograms. The actual workers’ HTLs at 3000–6000 Hz were similar to those predicted using PN-ISO 1999:2000. There were statistical significant differences between HTLs in subgroups of people with higher (> 78 mm Hg and lower (≤ 78 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure, smokers and non-smokers, and those working with organic solvents. Hearing loss was more evident in subjects affected by the additional risk factors specified above. Conclusions: The results confirm the need to consider, in addition to noise, also some other NIHL risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, elevated blood pressure, and co-exposure to organic solvents when estimating the risk of NIHL and developing the hearing conservation programs for workers. Med Pr 2016;67(3:337–351

  19. [Do hearing threshold levels in workers of the furniture industry reflect their exposure to noise?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata; Dudarewicz, Adam; Czaja, Norman; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    The aim of the study was to analyze the hearing status of employees of a furniture factory with respect to their exposure to noise and the presence of additional risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Noise measurements, questionnaire survey and assessment of hearing, using pure tone audiometry, were carried out in 50 male workers, aged 20-57 years, directly employed in the manufacture of furniture. The actual workers' hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were compared with the predictions calculated according to PN-ISO 1999:2000 based on age, gender and noise exposure. Workers under study were exposed to noise at daily noise exposure levels of 82.7-94.8 dB (mean: 90.9 dB) for a period of 3-14 years. In all subjects, mean HTL at 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz did not exceed 25 dB. Nevertheless, high frequency notches were found in 11% of audiograms. The actual workers' HTLs at 3000-6000 Hz were similar to those predicted using PN-ISO 1999:2000. There were statistical significant differences between HTLs in subgroups of people with higher (> 78 mm Hg) and lower (≤ 78 mm Hg) diastolic blood pressure, smokers and non-smokers, and those working with organic solvents. Hearing loss was more evident in subjects affected by the additional risk factors specified above. The results confirm the need to consider, in addition to noise, also some other NIHL risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, elevated blood pressure, and co-exposure to organic solvents when estimating the risk of NIHL and developing the hearing conservation programs for workers. Med Pr 2016;67(3):337-351. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Continuous exposure to low-frequency noise and carbon disulfide: Combined effects on hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venet, Thomas; Carreres-Pons, Maria; Chalansonnet, Monique; Thomas, Aurélie; Merlen, Lise; Nunge, Hervé; Bonfanti, Elodie; Cosnier, Frédéric; Llorens, Jordi; Campo, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS 2 ) is used in industry; it has been shown to have neurotoxic effects, causing central and distal axonopathies.However, it is not considered cochleotoxic as it does not affect hair cells in the organ of Corti, and the only auditory effects reported in the literature were confined to the low-frequency region. No reports on the effects of combined exposure to low-frequency noise and CS 2 have been published to date. This article focuses on the effects on rat hearing of combined exposure to noise with increasing concentrations of CS 2 (0, 63,250, and 500ppm, 6h per day, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks). The noise used was a low-frequency noise ranging from 0.5 to 2kHz at an intensity of 106dB SPL. Auditory function was tested using distortion product oto-acoustic emissions, which mainly reflects the cochlear performances. Exposure to noise alone caused an auditory deficit in a frequency area ranging from 3.6 to 6 kHz. The damaged area was approximately one octave (6kHz) above the highest frequency of the exposure noise (2.8kHz); it was a little wider than expected based on the noise spectrum.Consequently, since maximum hearing sensitivity is located around 8kHz in rats, low-frequency noise exposure can affect the cochlear regions detecting mid-range frequencies. Co-exposure to CS 2 (250-ppm and over) and noise increased the extent of the damaged frequency window since a significant auditory deficit was measured at 9.6kHz in these conditions.Moreover, the significance at 9.6kHz increased with the solvent concentrations. Histological data showed that neither hair cells nor ganglion cells were damaged by CS 2 . This discrepancy between functional and histological data is discussed. Like most aromatic solvents, carbon disulfide should be considered as a key parameter in hearing conservation régulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Investigation of occupational noise exposure and hearing loss in large automobile manufacturing enterprise during 2006-2010 in Guangzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Zhou, Hao; Li, Yanhua; Xiao, Lvwu; Wu, Lin; Du, Weijia; Liu, Yimin

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the relationship between occupational noise exposure and hearing loss among workers in large automobile manufacturing enterprise during 2006-2010 in Guangzhou, China. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The subjects were divided into noise exposure group and control group. Their hearing examination results and noise exposure levels in different workplaces were collected during 2006-2010, and the relationship between noise exposure in workplaces and hearing loss was analyzed. The incidence of hearing loss for the noise exposure group was 9.34%, versus 2.75% for the control group; the noise exposure group had a significantly higher risk of hearing loss than the control group (R = 3.378, 95%CI = 1.467∼ 9.083). The noise intensity and over-limit rate were significantly higher in the stamping, welding, and general assembly workshops than in other workshops. The risk of hearing loss significantly increased with years of noise exposure in 80, 85, and 90 dB (A) groups (χ(2) = 6.377, P = 0.041; χ(2) = 8.570, P = 0.014; χ(2) = 7.037, P = 0.030). The risk of hearing loss also increased with noise intensity in all working age groups (χ(2) = 5.068, P = 0.024; χ(2) = 71.497, P hearing loss in workers. The incidence of hearing loss increases with the noise intensity in workplaces and years of noise exposure. The noise exposure level and incidence of hearing loss are higher in the stamping workshop than in other workshops. Controlling the noise intensity in automobile manufacturing enterprise may reduce the risk of hearing loss in workers.

  2. Noise exposure is increased with neonatal helmet CPAP in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanuto, D; Camiletti, L; Doglioni, N; Cavallin, F; Udilano, A; Zanardo, V

    2011-01-01

    in adults, noninvasive ventilation via a helmet is associated with significantly greater noise than nasal and facial masks. We hypothesized that noise exposure could be increased with neonatal helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP (nCPAP). Our primary objective was to compare the noise intensity produced by a neonatal helmet CPAP and a conventional nCPAP system. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the gas flow rate and the presence of the humidifier and the filter on noise levels during neonatal helmet CPAP treatment. in this bench study, noise intensity was measured in the following settings: helmet CPAP, nCPAP, incubator and the neonatal intensive care unit. In helmet CPAP, noise measurements were performed at different gas flow rates (8, 10 and 12 l/min), while in nCPAP, the flow rate was 8 l/min. For both CPAP systems, the level of pressure was maintained constant at 5 cmH(2) O. during neonatal helmet CPAP, the median (interquartile range) noise levels were significantly higher than those during nCPAP: 70.0 dB (69.9-70.4) vs. 62.7 dB (62.5-63.0); PCPAP, the noise intensities changed with increasing flow rate and with the presence of a humidifier or a filter. noise intensities generated by the neonatal helmet CPAP were significantly higher than those registered while using a conventional nCPAP system. In the helmet, the noise intensity depends on the gas flow rate, and the presence of a humidifier and a filter in the system. 2010 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  3. Concentrated pitch discrimination modulates auditory brainstem responses during contralateral noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazunari; Sekiguchi, Takahiro; Hayashi, Akiko

    2010-03-31

    This study examined a notion that auditory discrimination is a requisite for attention-related modulation of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) during contralateral noise exposure. Given that the right ear was exposed continuously with white noise at an intensity of 60-80 dB sound pressure level, tone pips at 80 dB sound pressure level were delivered to the left ear through either single-stimulus or oddball procedures. Participants conducted reading (ignoring task) and counting target tones (attentive task) during stimulation. The oddball but not the single-stimulus procedures elicited task-related modulations in both early (ABR) and late (processing negativity) event-related potentials simultaneously. The elicitation of the attention-related ABR modulation during contralateral noise exposure is thus considered to require auditory discrimination and have the corticofugal nature evidently.

  4. Cognitive test performance following exposure to noise in an open-office simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren Peter; Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger

    each simulated workday, the participants performed different tests, including Choice Reaction Time (CRT) test, Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) test, and a Two-Back Task (TBT) test. Results: Working in noise did not affect the number of correct trials in the cognitive test after work. Yet......Objective: Noise in open-plan offices may increase mental fatigue of the employees at the end of the day. Measurements: 225 employees completed a screening questionnaire. Of these, 50 persons (33 females) who normally worked in open-plan offices agreed to participate in the experiment. All who...... participated completed two counter balanced experimental sessions, one with exposure to simulation of office noise (Leq=55 dB(A)) and one without noise (Leq=50 dB(A)). To simulate a workday, each session lasted about 7 hours, where the participants engaged in different computerised work tasks. Before and after...

  5. 78 FR 41184 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Hilo International Airport, Hilo, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... International Airport, Hilo, Hawaii AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The FAA announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by Hawaii State Department...-Pacific Region, Honolulu Airports District Office, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Room 7-128, Honolulu, Hawaii...

  6. 75 FR 41926 - Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ..., Federal Aviation Administration, Orlando Airports District Office, 5950 Hazeltine National Drive, Suite 400, Orlando, FL 32822, 407-812-6331. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This notice announces that the FAA... airport operator may submit to the FAA Noise Exposure Maps which meet applicable regulations and which...

  7. 78 FR 9449 - Noise Exposure Map Notice, Southwest Florida International Airport, Fort Myers, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Aviation Administration, Orlando Airports District Office, 5950 Hazeltine National Drive Citadel International Building, Suite 400, Orlando, FL 32822, 407-812-6331. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This notice... Abatement Act (the Act), an airport operator may submit to the FAA Noise Exposure Maps which meet applicable...

  8. 76 FR 78329 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Aviation Administration, Orlando Airports District Office, 5950 Hazeltine National Drive, Suite 400, Orlando, Florida 32822, (407) 812-6331, Extension 130. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This notice announces... airport operator may submit to the FAA Noise Exposure Maps which meet applicable regulations and which...

  9. Residential exposure to traffic noise and risk of incident atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Maria; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz

    2016-01-01

    with adjustment for lifestyle, socioeconomic position and air pollution. Results A 10 dB higher 5-year time-weighted mean exposure to road traffic noise was associated with a 6% higher risk of A-fib (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.00–1.12) in models adjusted for factors...

  10. 78 FR 64048 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Bob Hope Airport, Burbank, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Hope Airport, Burbank, California AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...-Pasadena Airport Authority, for Bob Hope Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et. seq (Aviation... announces that the FAA finds that the noise exposure maps submitted for Bob Hope Airport are in compliance...

  11. Exposure to disturbing noise and risk of long-term sickness absence among office workers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vinsløv Hansen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between selfreported exposure to disturbing noise and risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) for more than two consecutive weeks among office workers. Methods LTSA was measured using register data that were linked to survey data from 2,883 office workers ...

  12. Particulates and noise exposure during bicycle, bus and car commuting: A study in three European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okokon, E.O.; Yli-Tuomi, T.; Turunen, A.W.; Taimisto, P.; Pennanen, A.; Vouitsis, I.; Samaras, Z.; Voogt, M.; Keuken, M.; Lanki, T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during

  13. The effect of noise exposure during the developmental period on the function of the auditory system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bureš, Zbyněk; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 352, sep (2017), s. 1-11 ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1347 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : auditory system * development * noise exposure Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Other medical science Impact factor: 2.906, year: 2016

  14. Recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and salivary cortisol level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Zara Ann; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and occupational noise exposure have been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypothetically mediated by stress-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between recent and long-term occu...

  15. Investigation of the impact of noise exposure on blood pressure in tire manufacturing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Baneshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available    BACKGROUND: Noise can cause serious health problems. Regular use of personal health equipments can reduce such problems. This study has been designed to compare the blood pressure of tire manufacturing workers, who were exposed to noise (> 85 db and used personal health equipment, with a control group without noise exposure.    METHODS: In this case-control study, 70 workers who were exposed to noise (case group and 220 workers who were not (control group were recruited. Regular use of personal health equipment was compulsory. LEQ was calculated for both groups. To analyse the data, chi-square test and t-test were implemented. Finally multivariate regression model was developed.    RESULTS: No difference was seen between the groups in terms of basic characteristics (age, years of working, and BMI. Mean systolic blood pressure in case and control groups was 116.6 and 117.5, respectively; giving a P-value of 0.50. Mean diastolic blood pressure in case and control groups was 76.7 and 77.4, respectively; giving a P-value of 0.47. Results indicate no significant difference between blood pressure of cases and control groups.    CONCLUSION: We did not see any significant difference between the blood pressure of those exposed to noise, and regularly using personal health equipment, and those in the control group without noise exposure. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of such equipments.       Keywords: Tires Factory, Blood Pressure, Noise Exposure

  16. Noise exposure and hearing impairment among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Qian Lao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a major concern in the non-manufacturing industries. This study aimed to investigate the occupational noise exposure and the NIHL among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees working in the service industry in Hong Kong. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey involved a total of 1,670 participants. Among them, 937 were randomly selected from the workers of Chinese restaurants and 733 were selected from workers in three entertainment sectors: radio and television stations; cultural performance halls or auditoria of the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD; and karaoke bars. Noise exposure levels were measured in the sampled restaurants and entertainment sectors. Each participant received an audiometric screening test. Those who were found to have abnormalities were required to take another diagnostic test in the health center. The "Klockhoff digit" method was used to classify NIHL in the present study. RESULTS: The main source of noise inside restaurants was the stoves. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 3 to 6 KHz and a substantial proportion (23.7% of the workers fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL. For entertainment sectors, employees in radio and television stations generally had higher exposure levels than those in the halls or auditoria of the LCSD and karaoke bars. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 6 KHz and a substantial proportion of the employees fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL (38.6%, 95%CI: 35.1-42.1%. Being male, older, and having longer service and daily alcohol consumption were associated with noise-induced hearing impairment both in restaurant workers and entertainment employees. CONCLUSION: Excessive noise exposure is common in the Chinese restaurant and entertainment industries and a substantial proportion of restaurant workers and entertainment employees suffer from NIHL. Comprehensive hearing

  17. Noise exposure and hearing impairment among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Xiang Qian; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Au, Dennis Kin Kwok; Chiu, Yuk Lan; Wong, Claudie Chiu Yi; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major concern in the non-manufacturing industries. This study aimed to investigate the occupational noise exposure and the NIHL among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees working in the service industry in Hong Kong. This cross-sectional survey involved a total of 1,670 participants. Among them, 937 were randomly selected from the workers of Chinese restaurants and 733 were selected from workers in three entertainment sectors: radio and television stations; cultural performance halls or auditoria of the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD); and karaoke bars. Noise exposure levels were measured in the sampled restaurants and entertainment sectors. Each participant received an audiometric screening test. Those who were found to have abnormalities were required to take another diagnostic test in the health center. The "Klockhoff digit" method was used to classify NIHL in the present study. The main source of noise inside restaurants was the stoves. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 3 to 6 KHz and a substantial proportion (23.7%) of the workers fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL. For entertainment sectors, employees in radio and television stations generally had higher exposure levels than those in the halls or auditoria of the LCSD and karaoke bars. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 6 KHz and a substantial proportion of the employees fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL (38.6%, 95%CI: 35.1-42.1%). Being male, older, and having longer service and daily alcohol consumption were associated with noise-induced hearing impairment both in restaurant workers and entertainment employees. Excessive noise exposure is common in the Chinese restaurant and entertainment industries and a substantial proportion of restaurant workers and entertainment employees suffer from NIHL. Comprehensive hearing conservation programs should be introduced to the service industry

  18. Assessing the Effect of Simultaneous Exposure to Noise and Cigarette Smoke on Workers’ Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Rahimpour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise, as the most common pollutant in the industrial environment, can lead to hearing loss and negatively affect other organs such as the cardiovascular system. Cigarette smoking is a popular habit among some workers, and can also have a negative effect on the cardiovascular system. This study aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous exposure to noise and cigarette smoke on the blood pressure of workers at a manufacturing factory.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 604 workers at a steel factory. Information relating to workers’ demography, employment, and risk factors were recorded. Based on the level of smoking per day, workers exposed to noise fell into one of the four following groups: 1 Non-smokers exposed to noise   Results: The prevalence of hypertension, cigarette smoking, and exposure to noise ≥85 DB was 11.6%, 15.3%, and 56.4%, respectively, among the workers. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were 112.3 and 73.9 mmHg, respectively.a significant difference was observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressures in four groups (P=0.001. Posthoc test showed a significant difference between groups 1 and 3(P=0.001. Regression analysis indicated no significant difference in workers who were simultaneously exposed to noise and cigarette smoke.   Conclusion: This study demonstrates that noise is an important factor in terms of hypertension, with no significant differences observed in the prevalence of hypertension between workers who were simultaneously exposed to noise and cigarette smoke. It is suggested that workers’ blood pressure should be regularly monitored in noisy environments.

  19. Interaction of smoking and occupational noise exposure on hearing loss: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Saber

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noise is the most common hazardous agent at workplaces. Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL has been known since the industrial revolution. Although NIHL is permanent, irreversible and frequent, it is preventable. The economic costs of NIHL have been estimated to be about billions of dollars. Besides, cigarette smoking is a common habit worldwide, and according to some recent studies smoking and noise may act in common causal pathways for hearing loss. Methods A cross-sectional study was designed to study the effect of smoking on NIHL in 206 male smoker workers and 206 male non-smoker workers in a large food-producing factory, in which workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85dBA. To determine noise exposure level, we used sound level measurements reported by industrial hygienists. A qualified audiologist assessed hearing acuity by using standardized audiometric procedures assuring at least 14 h of noise avoidance. Results We observed that the percentage of workers with hearing threshold differences of greater than or equal to 30 dB between 4000 Hz and 1000 Hz in both ears were 49.5% and 11.2% in smoker and non smoker groups, respectively (Odds ratio = 7.8, 95% CI = 4.7 – 13, and the percentage of workers with a hearing threshold of greater than 25dB at 4000 Hz in the better ear were 63.6% and 18.4% in smoker and non smoker groups, respectively. This difference was statistically significant after adjustment for age and exposure duration. Conclusion It can be concluded that smoking can accelerate noise induced hearing loss, but more research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms. Accurate follow up of smoker workers who are exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dBA is suggested. Smokers should periodically attend educational courses on "smoking cessation", especially in noisy workplaces.

  20. Interaction of smoking and occupational noise exposure on hearing loss: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Mehrdad, Ramin; Mohammadi, Saber

    2007-07-03

    Noise is the most common hazardous agent at workplaces. Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been known since the industrial revolution. Although NIHL is permanent, irreversible and frequent, it is preventable. The economic costs of NIHL have been estimated to be about billions of dollars. Besides, cigarette smoking is a common habit worldwide, and according to some recent studies smoking and noise may act in common causal pathways for hearing loss. A cross-sectional study was designed to study the effect of smoking on NIHL in 206 male smoker workers and 206 male non-smoker workers in a large food-producing factory, in which workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dBA. To determine noise exposure level, we used sound level measurements reported by industrial hygienists.A qualified audiologist assessed hearing acuity by using standardized audiometric procedures assuring at least 14 h of noise avoidance. We observed that the percentage of workers with hearing threshold differences of greater than or equal to 30 dB between 4000 Hz and 1000 Hz in both ears were 49.5% and 11.2% in smoker and non smoker groups, respectively (Odds ratio = 7.8, 95% CI = 4.7-13), and the percentage of workers with a hearing threshold of greater than 25 dB at 4000 Hz in the better ear were 63.6% and 18.4% in smoker and non smoker groups, respectively. This difference was statistically significant after adjustment for age and exposure duration. It can be concluded that smoking can accelerate noise induced hearing loss, but more research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms. Accurate follow up of smoker workers who are exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dBA is suggested. Smokers should periodically attend educational courses on "smoking cessation", especially in noisy workplaces.

  1. Acrylonitrile potentiates hearing loss and cochlear damage induced by moderate noise exposure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouyatos, BenoIt; Gearhart, Caroline A.; Fechter, Laurence D.

    2005-01-01

    The diversity of chemical and drugs that can potentiate noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has impeded efforts to predict such interactions. We have hypothesized that chemical contaminants that disrupt intrinsic antioxidant defenses hold significant risk for potentiating NIHL. If this is true, then acrylonitrile (ACN) would be expected to potentiate NIHL. ACN, one of the 50 most commonly used chemicals in the United States, is metabolized via two pathways that are likely to disrupt intrinsic reactive oxygen species (ROS) buffering systems: (1) it conjugates glutathione, depleting this important antioxidant rapidly; (2) a second pathway involves the formation of cyanide, which can inhibit superoxide dismutase. We hypothesized that moderate noise exposure, that does not produce permanent hearing loss by itself, could initiate oxidative stress and that ACN could render the inner ear more sensitive to noise by disrupting intrinsic antioxidant defenses. Temporary and persistent effects of ACN alone (50 mg/kg, sc 5 days), noise alone (95 or 97 dB octave band noise, 4 h/day for 5 days), or ACN in combination with noise were determined using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and compound action potential (CAP) amplitudes. Histopathological damage to hair cells resulting from these treatments was also investigated using surface preparations of the organ of Corti. Individually, neither ACN nor noise exposures caused any permanent hearing or hair cell loss; only a reversible temporary threshold shift was measured in noise-exposed animals. However, when given in combination, ACN and noise induced permanent threshold shifts (13-16 dB between 7 and 40 kHz) and a decrease in DPOAE amplitudes (up to 25 dB at 19 kHz), as well as significant outer hair cell (OHC) loss (up to 20% in the first row between 13 and 47 kHz). This investigation demonstrates that ACN can potentiate NIHL at noise levels that are realistic in terms of human exposure, and that the OHCs are the

  2. Long-term exposure to residential railway and road traffic noise and risk for diabetes in a Danish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-01-01

    Road traffic noise exposure has been found associated with diabetes incidence. Evidence for an association between railway noise exposure is less clear, as large studies with detailed railway noise modelling are lacking. To investigate the association between residential railway noise and diabetes incidence, and to repeat previous analyses on road traffic noise and diabetes with longer follow-up time. Among 50,534 middle-aged Danes enrolled into the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort from 1993 to 97, we identified 5062 cases of incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 15.5 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2012 were found in national registries, and railway and road traffic noise (L den ) were modelled for all addresses, using the Nordic prediction method. We used Cox proportional hazard models to investigate the association between residential traffic noise over 1 and 5 years before diagnosis, and diabetes incidence. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated as crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We found no association between railway noise exposure and diabetes incidence among the 9527 persons exposed, regardless of exposure time-window: HR 0.99 (0.94-1.04) per 10dB for 5-year exposure in fully adjusted models. There was no effect modification by sex, road traffic noise, and education. We confirmed the previously found association between road traffic noise exposure and diabetes including 6 additional years of follow-up: HR 1.08 (1.04-1.13) per 10dB for 5-year exposure in fully adjusted models. The study does not suggest an association between residential railway noise exposure and diabetes incidence, but supports the finding of a direct association with residential road traffic noise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Immediate and delayed cochlear neuropathy after noise exposure in pubescent mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jane Bjerg; Lysaght, Andrew C; Liberman, M Charles

    2015-01-01

    Moderate acoustic overexposure in adult rodents is known to cause acute loss of synapses on sensory inner hair cells (IHCs) and delayed degeneration of the auditory nerve, despite the completely reversible temporary threshold shift (TTS) and morphologically intact hair cells. Our objective...... to 16 months post exposure. Mice exposed to neuropathic noise demonstrated immediate cochlear synaptopathy by 24 hours post exposure, and delayed neurodegeneration characterized by axonal retraction at 8 months, and spiral ganglion cell loss at 8-16 months post exposure. Although the damage...

  4. Optimized control of X-ray exposure and image noise using a particular multislice CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shuji; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Koyama, Yoshihiro; Nagasawa, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    Patient dose reduction in computed tomography (CT) always results in a trade off between radiation exposure and image quality. There are few reports that estimate the relationship between image quality and X-ray exposure in CT examinations as one optimal index. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal parameter settings enabling a low radiation exposure without compromising image quality using a particular 4-row multislice CT (MSCT) scanner (Aquilion VZ 4-slice CT scanner, Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara, Tochigi, Japan). Normalized dose divided by image noise for helical pitches (nDNR: normalized dose to noise ratio) were calculated in consideration of beam collimation and tube current-time product. Optimal tube current-time product was calculated using the nDNR for the helical pitches based on user-defined standards of quality of the CT image. As a result, the nDNR proved to be well-supported to decrease the patient exposure in various exposure conditions of MSCT scans; however, the dose and image noise did not show a linear relation to the helical pitch. In conclusion, nDNR can be applied to patient dose reduction while keeping an acceptable image quality using a particular 4-row MSCT scanner. (author)

  5. Noise Exposure and Risk of Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Haji-Miresmaeil

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:Previous studies have indicated an unspecific correlation between noise exposure and blood pressure disturbances. Blood pressure disturbances could be caused by the environmental hazards such as noise exposure.The aim of this study is to analyze whether there is a relationship between noise exposure and hypertension.Methods: Atotal sample of 218 workers working in a small workshop aged between 27 and 49 yrs answered the questionnaire in this survey. Blood pressure was measured in the sitting position after 5 minutes rest. Level of sound intensity in the workplace was measured by sound level meter (SKC Model CEL-480-440 and human noise exposure level was measured by audiometric device (MEVOX. The correlation between industrial noise and blood pressure was extracted. The t-test and Fisher’s exact test was used to compare   the qualitative variables and quantitative variables with normal distribution as being applied in parametric tests. Odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (95% CI was used to compare the magnitude of risk variables.Results: Sub-populations in this study consisted of 109 workers with noise exposure more than 85 dB (Case group and the rest (i.e. 109 workers with noise exposure less than 85 dB (Control group. High level systolic and diastolic blood pressure was more prevalent in the case group. Total hearing loss more than 25dB was significantly more prevalent in the case group (45% of case group have hearing loss. Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR for the effect of age, food type and BMI on blood pressure was 3.56 (95% CI: 6.6 – 1.9. Conclusion: This study showed that high blood pressure (>_140/90 mmHg was more prevalent in the case group. This finding persisted after adjustment was made for age, food   type, and BMI. (Odds Ratio 3.56 (95% CI: 6.6 – 1.9.  

  6. Night-Time Decibel Hell: Mapping Noise Exposure Zones and Individual Annoyance Ratings in an Urban Environment in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel N. Zakpala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although accumulating evidence over the past thirty years indicates that noise is an environmental stressor in residential settings, much of the data emanated from studies in high-intensity, noise impact zones around airports or major roads. Little is known about religious noise, especially at night, which is increasingly a growing concern for both the general public and policy-makers in sub-Saharan Africa. Using geographical information systems (GIS, this study measured and mapped exposure to religious noise in a rapidly urbanising municipality in Ghana. Quantitative noise risk assessment was used to evaluate the risk of religious noise-induced hearing loss to residents in the exposed neighbourhoods. The results show that all neighbourhoods where churches were situated had at least one location with significant risk of noise-induced hearing loss. However, there was no statistically significant relationship between neighbourhoods where religious noise exposure was the highest and where noise annoyance was the highest. The magnitude of the noise values for night-time exposure is remarkable particularly given that excessive night-time noise exposure has the greatest detrimental effect on public health. There is the need to focus on vulnerable groups, sensitive hours of the night, and possible confounding with air pollution in order to wholly address this potential hazard.

  7. The correlation between serum leptin and blood pressure after exposure to noise at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muayad S Rahma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiologic studies have reported that exposure to noise is associated with cardiovascular disease. The increased body weight is often associated with metabolic as well as increased blood pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the elevation of blood pressure and serum leptin hormones due to the effects of noise in the work place. A total of 80 volunteer males where included in this study with an age range between of 20 and 45 years, they were divided in two groups equally, the 1 st group were exposed to noise in the workplace while the 2 nd group were not. The individual noise exposure was determined by using a sound level meter. The range of noise was 80-100 dBA. Body Mass Index was also taken for each individual by a standard measure, blood pressure was measured by OMRON sphygmomanometer and serum leptin was measured through venous blood sample analysis enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Spearman rank order correlation was used to examine the correlations between Blood pressure value (Systolic, Diastolic and Leptin. All the relationships between parameters showed a positive correlation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values had a significant correlation to leptin hormone level in comparison to the control. There was a significant relation between leptin and blood pressure. leptin effects on the sympathetic nervous system may provide a partial explanation. Therefore, Leptin might have diverse cardiovascular actions.

  8. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Edaravone for Inner Ear Protection After Noise Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antioxidants and the duration of treatment after noise exposure on hearing recovery are important. We investigated the protective effects of an antioxidant substance, edaravone, and its slow-release dosage form, edaravone solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs, in steady noise-exposed guinea pigs. Methods: SLNs loaded with edaravone were produced by an ultrasound technique. Edaravone solution or edaravone SLNs were administered by intratympanic or intravenous injection after the 1 st day of noise exposure. Guinea pigs were exposed to 110 dB sound pressure level (SPL noise, centered at 0.25-4.0 kHz, for 4 days at 2 h/d. After noise exposure, the guinea pigs underwent auditory brainstem response (ABR threshold measurements, reactive oxygen species (ROS were detected in their cochleas with electron spin resonance (ESR, and outer hair cells (OHCs were counted with silvernitrate (AgNO 3 staining at 1, 4, and 6 days. Results: The ultrasound technique was able to prepare adequate edaravone SLNs with a mean particle size of 93.6 nm and entrapment efficiency of 76.7%. Acoustic stress-induced ROS formation and edaravone exerted a protective effect on the cochlea. Comparisons of hearing thresholds and ROS changes in different animal groups showed that the threshold shift and ROS generation were significantly lower in treated animals than in those without treatment, especially in the edaravone SLN intratympanic injection group. Conclusions: Edaravone SLNs show noticeable slow-release effects and have certain protective effects against noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL.

  9. Impact of wind turbine sound on annoyance, self-reported sleep disturbance and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, R H; Pedersen, E; van den Berg, G P; Stewart, R E; Lok, W; Bouma, J

    2012-05-15

    The present government in the Netherlands intends to realize a substantial growth of wind energy before 2020, both onshore and offshore. Wind turbines, when positioned in the neighborhood of residents may cause visual annoyance and noise annoyance. Studies on other environmental sound sources, such as railway, road traffic, industry and aircraft noise show that (long-term) exposure to sound can have negative effects other than annoyance from noise. This study aims to elucidate the relation between exposure to the sound of wind turbines and annoyance, self-reported sleep disturbance and psychological distress of people that live in their vicinity. Data were gathered by questionnaire that was sent by mail to a representative sample of residents of the Netherlands living in the vicinity of wind turbines A dose-response relationship was found between immission levels of wind turbine sound and selfreported noise annoyance. Sound exposure was also related to sleep disturbance and psychological distress among those who reported that they could hear the sound, however not directly but with noise annoyance acting as a mediator. Respondents living in areas with other background sounds were less affected than respondents in quiet areas. People living in the vicinity of wind turbines are at risk of being annoyed by the noise, an adverse effect in itself. Noise annoyance in turn could lead to sleep disturbance and psychological distress. No direct effects of wind turbine noise on sleep disturbance or psychological stress has been demonstrated, which means that residents, who do not hear the sound, or do not feel disturbed, are not adversely affected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors affecting osteoarthritis patients' self-reported goal-directed drug information-seeking behaviors after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising from physicians and the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Farris, Karen B; Doucette, William R

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate appraisal of means (ie, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and affect) in predicting patients' goal-directed behaviors of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA)-prompted drug-information search from physicians and the internet. One thousand patients were randomly selected from a nationwide sample frame of 3000 osteoarthritis patients. A self-administered survey assessed exposure to DTCA, drug-information search as goal, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, affect, and osteoarthritis pain. After 6 weeks, another survey measured the behavior of drug-information search for respondents to the first survey. Study subjects were those who were exposed to DTCA in the previous month, and who set drug-information search as their goal. For each information source, a multiple regression analysis was conducted in which drug-information search was the dependent variable, and self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, affect, and osteoarthritis pain were the independent variables. Among 454 patients who were exposed to DTCA, 174 patients set drug-information search as their goal and were the study subjects. The regression for physicians was not statistically significant. The regression for the internet was significant, accounting for 15% of behavior variance. Self-efficacy was a strong predictor of goal-directed drug-information search from the internet. Appraisal of means was useful to predict the goal-directed behavior of DTCA-prompted drug-information search from the internet. For patients who set drug-information search as a goal, actions to promote drug-information search from the internet need to focus on self-efficacy.

  11. Acute Noise Exposure Is Associated With Intrinsic Apoptosis in Murine Central Auditory Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Gröschel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Noise that is capable of inducing the hearing loss (NIHL has a strong impact on the inner ear structures and causes early and most obvious pathophysiological changes in the auditory periphery. Several studies indicated that intrinsic apoptotic cell death mechanisms are the key factors inducing cellular degeneration immediately after noise exposure and are maintained for days or even weeks. In addition, studies demonstrated several changes in the central auditory system following noise exposure, consistent with early apoptosis-related pathologies. To clarify the underlying mechanisms, the present study focused on the noise-induced gene and protein expression of the pro-apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (APAF1 and the anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 related protein a1a (BCL2A1A in the cochlear nucleus (CN, inferior colliculus (IC and auditory cortex (AC of the murine central auditory pathway. The expression of Bcl2a1a mRNA was upregulated immediately after trauma in all tissues investigated, whereas the protein levels were significantly reduced at least in the auditory brainstem. Conversely, acute noise has decreased the expression of Apaf1 gene along the auditory pathway. The changes in APAF1 protein level were not statistically significant. It is tempting to speculate that the acoustic overstimulation leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of apoptosis by regulation of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins. The inverse expression pattern on the mRNA level of both genes might reflect a protective response to decrease cellular damage. Our results indicate the immediate presence of intrinsic apoptosis following noise trauma. This, in turn, may significantly contribute to the development of central structural deficits. Auditory pathway-specific inhibition of intrinsic apoptosis could be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of acute (noise-induced hearing loss to prevent irreversible neuronal injury in auditory brain structures

  12. From indoor to outdoor: Behavioural response of fish to noise exposure of different temporal structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yik Yaw Neo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities, such as shipping and pile driving, produce substantial amounts of man-made noise underwater. The noise may negatively affect fish, causing physical injuries, hearing loss, physiological stress, acoustic masking and behavioural changes. Among these effects, behavioural changes are most problematic, but are understudied, especially under well-controlled field conditions. Moreover, man-made noise varies widely in terms of acoustic characteristics. The influence of temporal patterns of noise on the impacts is largely unknown. We exposed groups of European seabass to sound treatments of different temporal patterns, varying in intermittency, interval regularity and presence of amplitude 'ramp-up'. The study took place in a large octagonal floating pen (⌀ = ~12.5m in Oosterschelde, a marine inlet in the Netherlands. We tracked the fish swimming trajectories with an acoustic 3D telemetry system and looked into the behavioural changes and recovery. Upon noise exposure, the fish swam to greater depths in tighter shoals, similar to previous studies conducted in a basin. Moreover, the fish swam away from the noise source, suggesting avoidance behaviour. The different temporal patterns seemed to differ in their impact strengths although the results were not significant. These findings may carry important scientific and management implications.

  13. Particulates and noise exposure during bicycle, bus and car commuting: A study in three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe O; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Taimisto, Pekka; Pennanen, Arto; Vouitsis, Ilias; Samaras, Zissis; Voogt, Marita; Keuken, Menno; Lanki, Timo

    2017-04-01

    In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during commuting may be substantial. Therefore, studies comparing exposures during recommended modes of transport versus car trips are needed. We measured personal exposure to various-sized particulates, soot, and noise during commuting by bicycle, bus and car in three European cities: Helsinki in Finland, Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Thessaloniki in Greece using portable monitoring devices. We monitored commonly travelled routes in these cities. The total number of one-way trips yielding data on any of the measured parameters were 84, 72, 94 and 69 for bicycle, bus, closed-window car and open-window car modes, respectively. The highest mean PM 2.5 (85µg/m 3 ), PM 10 (131µg/m 3 ), black carbon (10.9µg/m 3 ) and noise (75dBA) levels were recorded on the bus, bus (again), open-window car and bicycle modes, respectively, all in Thessaloniki, PM and soot concentrations were generally higher during biking and taking a bus than during a drive in a a car with closed windows. Ratios of bike:car PM 10 ranged from 1.1 in Thessaloniki to 2.6 in Helsinki, while bus:car ratios ranged from in 1.0 in Rotterdam to 5.6 in Thessaloniki. Higher noise levels were mostly recorded during bicycle rides. Based on our study, active- and public-transport commuters are often at risk of higher air pollution and noise exposure than private car users. This should be taken into account in urban transportation planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of Self-Reported Cognitive Problems with Objective ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical neuropsychological test performance in 147 manganese (Mn) exposed residents. These residents were from two Ohio towns exposed to ambient air-Mn from an industrial source with modeled average air-Mn concentrations of 0.54 µg/m3 (range: 0.01-4.58) and were part of a larger study of cognitive, motor, tremor abnormalities and their relationship to Mn exposure.The primarily white (94.6%) participants (aged 30-64) lived in the towns for at least 10 years (range: 10-64) and had 13.9 years of education, on average. In the last 7 days before testing, 94 (64.4%) participants self-reported concentration problems and 105 (71.8%) self-reported memory problems. After adjusting for age and education, participants who self-reported cognitive problems did not perform worse on the objective neuropsychological measures than those who reported not having problems, except on 1 of 17 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Color). Greater levels of depression and female sex predicted having more self-reported cognitive problems. Higher education was associated with fewer self-reported cognitive problems. Measures of Mn in air, blood, hair, and toenails were not associated with subjective cognitive self-reported p

  15. Risk exposure to vibration and noise in the use of agricultural track-laying tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Vallone

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to mechanical vibration may represent a significant risk factor for exposed workers in the agricultural sector. Also, noise in agriculture is one of the risk factors to be taken into account in the evaluation of workers’ health and safety. One of the major sources of discomfort for the workers operating a tractors is the noise to which they are exposed during work. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of exposure to whole-body vibration for the operator driving track-laying tractors in vineyard orchard and the noise level. The experimental tests were performed with six different track-laying tractors coupled with the same rototilling machine. The results showed that the vibration values of track-laying tractors coupled to rototilling machine, referred to the 8-hour working day, were always higher than 0.5 m s -2 , the daily exposure action value established by Directive 2002/44/EC of the European Parliament. The daily noise exposure levels always exceeded the exposure limit value of 87 dB(A established by Directive 2003/10/EC of the European Parliament. The ANOVA repeated measures model showed that the factor ‘site’, namely, the soil characteristics, did not influence the vibration level on the X and Y-axes of the tractors measured, regardless of their age. In the Z-axis, the vibration level was enhanced as the soil structure increased. As tractor age increased, the influence of soil characteristics was less important. In term of the age of the tractor and the number of hours worked, it was possible to identify three risk classes, which were up to 3,000 hours worked and offered a low risk; from 3,000 – 6,000 hours worked with a medium risk, and over 6,000 hours with a high risk level.

  16. Risk exposure to vibration and noise in the use of agricultural track-laying tractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Mariangela; Bono, Filippa; Quendler, Elisabeth; Febo, Pierluigi; Catania, Pietro

    2016-12-23

    Human exposure to mechanical vibration may represent a significant risk factor for exposed workers in the agricultural sector. Also, noise in agriculture is one of the risk factors to be taken into account in the evaluation of workers' health and safety. One of the major sources of discomfort for the workers operating a tractors is the noise to which they are exposed during work. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of exposure to whole-body vibration for the operator driving track-laying tractors in vineyard orchard and the noise level. The experimental tests were performed with six different track-laying tractors coupled with the same rototilling machine. The results showed that the vibration values of track-laying tractors coupled to rototilling machine, referred to the 8-hour working day, were always higher than 0.5 m s -2 , the daily exposure action value established by Directive 2002/44/EC of the European Parliament. The daily noise exposure levels always exceeded the exposure limit value of 87 dB(A) established by Directive 2003/10/EC of the European Parliament. The ANOVA repeated measures model showed that the factor 'site', namely, the soil characteristics, did not influence the vibration level on the X and Y-axes of the tractors measured, regardless of their age. In the Z-axis, the vibration level was enhanced as the soil structure increased. As tractor age increased, the influence of soil characteristics was less important. In term of the age of the tractor and the number of hours worked, it was possible to identify three risk classes, which were up to 3,000 hours worked and offered a low risk; from 3,000 - 6,000 hours worked with a medium risk, and over 6,000 hours with a high risk level.

  17. Evidence of "hidden hearing loss" following noise exposures that produce robust TTS and ABR wave-I amplitude reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobarinas, Edward; Spankovich, Christopher; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2017-06-01

    In animals, noise exposures that produce robust temporary threshold shifts (TTS) can produce immediate damage to afferent synapses and long-term degeneration of low spontaneous rate auditory nerve fibers. This synaptopathic damage has been shown to correlate with reduced auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave-I amplitudes at suprathreshold levels. The perceptual consequences of this "synaptopathy" remain unknown but have been suggested to include compromised hearing performance in competing background noise. Here, we used a modified startle inhibition paradigm to evaluate whether noise exposures that produce robust TTS and ABR wave-I reduction but not permanent threshold shift (PTS) reduced hearing-in-noise performance. Animals exposed to 109 dB SPL octave band noise showed TTS >30 dB 24-h post noise and modest but persistent ABR wave-I reduction 2 weeks post noise despite full recovery of ABR thresholds. Hearing-in-noise performance was negatively affected by the noise exposure. However, the effect was observed only at the poorest signal to noise ratio and was frequency specific. Although TTS >30 dB 24-h post noise was a predictor of functional deficits, there was no relationship between the degree of ABR wave-I reduction and degree of functional impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on children′s episodic memory: The RANCH Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Matheson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that chronic exposure to aircraft noise has a negative effect on children′s performance on tests of episodic memory. The present study extended the design of earlier studies in three ways: firstly, by examining the effects of two noise sources, aircraft and road traffic, secondly, by examining exposure-effect relationships, and thirdly, by carrying out parallel field studies in three European countries, allowing cross-country comparisons to be made. A total of 2844 children aged between 8 years 10 months and 12 years 10 months (mean age 10 years 6 months completed classroom-based tests of cued recall, recognition memory and prospective memory. Questionnaires were also completed by the children and their parents in order to provide information about socioeconomic context. Multilevel modeling analysis revealed aircraft noise to be associated with an impairment of recognition memory in a linear exposure-effect relationship. The analysis also found road traffic noise to be associated with improved performance on cued recall in a linear exposure-effect relationship. No significant association was found between exposure to aircraft noise and cued recall or prospective memory. Likewise, no significant association was found between road traffic noise and recognition or prospective memory. Taken together, these findings indicate that exposure to aircraft noise and road traffic noise can impact on certain aspects of children′s episodic memory.

  19. Mass transit ridership and self-reported hearing health in an urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Sherman, Martin F; Magda, Lori A; Riley, Halley E; McAlexander, Tara P; Neitzel, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Information on prevalence and risk factors associated with self-reported hearing health among mass transit riders is extremely limited, even though evidence suggests mass transit may be a source of excessive exposure to noise. Data on mass transit ridership were collected from 756 study participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Hearing health was measured using two symptom items (tinnitus and temporary audiometric threshold shift), two subjective measures (self-rated hearing and hearing ability), and two medical-related questions (hearing testing and physician-diagnosed hearing loss). In logistic regression analyses that controlled for possible confounders, including demographic variables, occupational noise exposure, nonoccupational noise exposure (including MP3 player use) and use of hearing protection, frequent and lengthy mass transit (all forms) ridership (1,100 min or more per week vs. 350 min or less per week) was the strongest predictor of temporary threshold shift symptoms. Noise abatement strategies, such as engineering controls, and the promotion of hearing protection use should be encouraged to reduce the risk of adverse impacts on the hearing health of mass transit users.

  20. Analysis of annual exposure of private farmers to noise and whole body vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Solecki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a literature review for the period of 1982– 2011, an analysis was performed of studies by various researchers concerning the exposure of private farmers to noise and vibration of the whole body with particular consideration of the annual exposure to these factors. The main sources of noise occurring in agriculture are: agricultural tractors mounted with a set of farm machinery, self-propelled machines, machinery for the production of fodder and workshop equipment. The review of literature showed that the highest values of equivalent exposure to noise (EA, T or noise doses (d were noted during the summer-autumn season and in spring. Mean noise levels for the entire year (of over 90 dB-A, considerably exceeded permissible values.The primary sources of the whole body vibration are agricultural vehicles including agricultural tractors of various types and self-propelled agricultural vehicles. In these vehicles vibration transmitted from the seat to the whole body is of basic importance. The measurements of vibration acceleration indicated that mechanical vibration on seats was produced while performing following activities: hay tedding and raking, sowing of fertilizers, aggregation of soil, grass mowing and cultivation. All of them may create a considerable health risk. These work activities are performed at elevated working speeds of tractors, most often along with hardened or uneven surfaces. In relation to the standard values (A(840.8 m/s2, the mean daily vibration acceleration values remain below the permissible levels during all months of the year. However, considering the occurrence of mechanical shocks of high values (above the Maximum Acceptable Intensity on agricultural vehicles there is a high risk for the spine problems among operators of agricultural vehicles.

  1. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyamfi, Charles Kwame R; Amankwaa, Isaac; Owusu Sekyere, Frank; Boateng, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44%) of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41-55 dBA) and severely (71-90 dBA) impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84). This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat.

  2. Structural changes in the adult rat auditory system induced by brief postnatal noise exposure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ouda, Ladislav; Burianová, Jana; Balogová, Zuzana; Lu, H. P.; Syka, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 221, č. 1 (2016), s. 617-629 ISSN 1863-2653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP303/11/J005; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1347; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : noise exposure * critical period * central auditory system Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.698, year: 2016

  3. Impact of noise or styrene exposure on the kinetics of presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Pierre; Venet, Thomas; Rumeau, Cécile; Thomas, Aurélie; Rieger, Benoît; Cour, Chantal; Cosnier, Frédéric; Parietti-Winkler, Cécile

    2011-10-01

    Presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss is a growing problem as the general population ages. In this longitudinal study, the influence of noise or styrene exposure on presbycusis was investigated in Brown Norway rats. Animals were exposed at 6 months of age, either to a band noise centered at 8 kHz at a Lex,8h = 85 dB (86.2 dB SPL for 6 h), or to 300 ppm of styrene for 6 h per day, five days per week, for four weeks. Cubic distortion product otoacoustic emissions (2f1-f2 DPOAEs) were used to test the capacity of the auditory receptor over the lifespan of the animals. 2f1-f2DPOAE measurements are easy to implement and efficiently track the age-related deterioration of mid- and high-frequencies. They are good indicators of temporary auditory threshold shift, especially with a level of primaries close to 60 dB SPL. Post-exposure hearing defects are best identified using moderate, rather than high, levels of primaries. Like many aging humans, aging rats lose sensitivity to high-frequencies faster than to medium-frequencies. Although the results obtained with the styrene exposure were not entirely conclusive, histopathological data showed the presbycusis process to be enhanced. Noise-exposed rats exhibit a loss of spiral ganglion cells from 12 months and a 7 dB drop in 2f1-f2DPOAEs at 24 months, indicating that even moderate-intensity noise can accelerate the presbycusis process. Even though the results obtained with the styrene exposure are less conclusive, the histopathological data show an enhancement of the presbycusis process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-Term Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Nitrogen Dioxide and Risk of Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Wendelboe Nielsen, Olav; Sajadieh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    (NO2) were associated with incident heart failure. METHODS: In a cohort of 57,053 people 50-64 y of age at enrollment in the period 1993-1997, we identified 2,550 cases of first-ever hospital admission for heart failure during a mean follow-up time of 13.4 y. Present and historical residential....... CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to NO2 and road traffic noise was associated with higher risk of heart failure, mainly among men, in both single- and two-pollutant models. High exposure to both pollutants was associated with highest risk. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1272....

  5. Risks for the development of outcomes related to occupational allergies: an application of the asthma-specific job exposure matrix compared with self-reports and investigator scores on job-training-related exposure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarthana, E.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Ghezzo, H.; Malo, J.L.; Kennedy, S.M.; Gautrin, D.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Risks for development of occupational sensitisation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, rhinoconjunctival and chest symptoms at work associated with continued exposure to high molecular weight (HMW) allergens were estimated with three exposure assessment methods. METHODS: A Cox

  6. Noise-induced hearing loss in Korean workers: co-exposure to organic solvents and heavy metals in nationwide industries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Hyeong Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Noise exposure is a well-known contributor to work-related hearing loss. Recent biological evidence suggests that exposure to ototoxic chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals may be additional contributors to hearing loss. However, in industrial settings, it is difficult to determine the risks of hearing loss due to these chemicals in workplaces accompanied by excessive noise exposure. A few studies suggest that the effect of noise may be enhanced by ototoxic chemicals. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-exposure to organic solvents and/or heavy metals in the workplace modifies the risk of noise exposure on hearing loss in a background of excessive noise. METHODS: We examined 30,072 workers nationwide in a wide range of industries from the Korea National Occupational Health Surveillance 2009. Data on industry-based exposure (e.g., occupational noise, heavy metals, and organic solvents and subject-specific health outcomes (e.g., audiometric examination were collected. Noise was measured as the daily 8-h time-weighted average level. Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured from 0.5 to 6 kHz, and pure-tone averages (PTA (i.e., means of 2, 3, and 4 kHz were computed. RESULTS: In the multivariate linear model, PTA increment with occupational noise were 1.64-fold and 2.15-fold higher in individuals exposed to heavy metals and organic solvents than in unexposed individuals, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study provides nationwide evidence that co-exposure to heavy metals and/or organic solvents may exacerbate the effect of noise exposure on hearing loss in workplaces. These findings suggest that workers in industries dealing with heavy metals or organic solvents are susceptible to such risks.

  7. Noise-induced hearing loss in Korean workers: co-exposure to organic solvents and heavy metals in nationwide industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Kim, KyooSang

    2014-01-01

    Noise exposure is a well-known contributor to work-related hearing loss. Recent biological evidence suggests that exposure to ototoxic chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals may be additional contributors to hearing loss. However, in industrial settings, it is difficult to determine the risks of hearing loss due to these chemicals in workplaces accompanied by excessive noise exposure. A few studies suggest that the effect of noise may be enhanced by ototoxic chemicals. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-exposure to organic solvents and/or heavy metals in the workplace modifies the risk of noise exposure on hearing loss in a background of excessive noise. We examined 30,072 workers nationwide in a wide range of industries from the Korea National Occupational Health Surveillance 2009. Data on industry-based exposure (e.g., occupational noise, heavy metals, and organic solvents) and subject-specific health outcomes (e.g., audiometric examination) were collected. Noise was measured as the daily 8-h time-weighted average level. Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured from 0.5 to 6 kHz, and pure-tone averages (PTA) (i.e., means of 2, 3, and 4 kHz) were computed. In the multivariate linear model, PTA increment with occupational noise were 1.64-fold and 2.15-fold higher in individuals exposed to heavy metals and organic solvents than in unexposed individuals, respectively. This study provides nationwide evidence that co-exposure to heavy metals and/or organic solvents may exacerbate the effect of noise exposure on hearing loss in workplaces. These findings suggest that workers in industries dealing with heavy metals or organic solvents are susceptible to such risks.

  8. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Korean Workers: Co-Exposure to Organic Solvents and Heavy Metals in Nationwide Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Kim, KyooSang

    2014-01-01

    Background Noise exposure is a well-known contributor to work-related hearing loss. Recent biological evidence suggests that exposure to ototoxic chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals may be additional contributors to hearing loss. However, in industrial settings, it is difficult to determine the risks of hearing loss due to these chemicals in workplaces accompanied by excessive noise exposure. A few studies suggest that the effect of noise may be enhanced by ototoxic chemicals. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-exposure to organic solvents and/or heavy metals in the workplace modifies the risk of noise exposure on hearing loss in a background of excessive noise. Methods We examined 30,072 workers nationwide in a wide range of industries from the Korea National Occupational Health Surveillance 2009. Data on industry-based exposure (e.g., occupational noise, heavy metals, and organic solvents) and subject-specific health outcomes (e.g., audiometric examination) were collected. Noise was measured as the daily 8-h time-weighted average level. Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured from 0.5 to 6 kHz, and pure-tone averages (PTA) (i.e., means of 2, 3, and 4 kHz) were computed. Results In the multivariate linear model, PTA increment with occupational noise were 1.64-fold and 2.15-fold higher in individuals exposed to heavy metals and organic solvents than in unexposed individuals, respectively. Conclusion This study provides nationwide evidence that co-exposure to heavy metals and/or organic solvents may exacerbate the effect of noise exposure on hearing loss in workplaces. These findings suggest that workers in industries dealing with heavy metals or organic solvents are susceptible to such risks. PMID:24870407

  9. Self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...

  10. Model for Estimating Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Associated With Occupational Noise Exposure in a Specified US Navy Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tufts, Jennifer; Weathersby, Paul K; Marshall, Lynne; Sachs, Felix

    2007-01-01

    This report details the initial steps in the development of a method for modeling the noise-induced hearing loss accrued by a population of Sailors exposed to high-level steady-state occupational noise...

  11. Evaluation of the effects of occupational noise exposure on serum aldosterone and potassium among industrial workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Zare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature indicates that occupational exposure to noise may have adverse effects on workers′ health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of exposure to different sound pressure levels (SPLs on serum aldosterone and potassium concentration among Iranian blue collar workers in Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company in Sirjan, Kerman Province, Iran. This case-control study was performed on 45 workers of Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company. The subjects consisted of 30 workers from manufacturing departments and 15 office employees of the mining company. The controls, mainly with administrative jobs were exposed to 72 dBA SPL. Cases, in two separate groups, were exposed to noise levels of 88 dBA and 103 dBA, respectively. Noise intensity was measured at the desired locations. Noise measurements were performed according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 9612. To measure the serum aldosterone and potassium concentrations, a 5 mL blood sample was taken from each worker at the specified time intervals and aldosterone concentration was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test in the laboratory. Repeated measurement and Spearman′s correlation coefficient analysis were used with α = 0.05. Exposure to the different levels of sound pressure resulted in different aldosterone concentrations and meanwhile an increase in the SPL did not affect the concentration of potassium. From 10:00 AM to 10:30 AM, as SPL increased, aldosterone concentrations did not increase significantly but from 13:30 PM to 14:00 PM, raised SPL led to a significant increase in aldosterone concentration. However, there was no correlation between the concentration of potassium and different factors. This study indicated that increases in SPLs affect aldosterone concentration but at the same time do not have significant effects on serum potassium level.

  12. Comparison of two dose-response relationship of noise exposure evaluation results with high frequency hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Li, Nan; Yang, Qiu-Ling; Qiu, Wei; Zhu, Liang-Liang; Tao, Li-Yuan; Davis, Robert I; Heyer, Nicholas; Zhao, Yi-Ming

    2015-03-20

    Complex noise and its relation to hearing loss are difficult to measure and evaluate. In complex noise measurement, individual exposure results may not accurately represent lifetime noise exposure. Thus, the mean L Aeq,8 h values of individuals in the same workgroup were also used to represent L Aeq,8 h in our study. Our study aimed to explore whether the mean exposure levels of workers in the same workgroup represented real noise exposure better than individual exposure levels did. A cross-sectional study was conducted to establish a model for cumulative noise exposure (CNE) and hearing loss in 205 occupational noise-exposed workers who were recruited from two large automobile manufacturers in China. We used a personal noise dosimeter and a questionnaire to determine the workers' occupational noise exposure levels and exposure times, respectively. A qualified audiologist used standardized audiometric procedures to assess hearing acuity after at least 16 h of noise avoidance. We observed that 88.3% of workers were exposed to more than 85 dB(A) of occupational noise (mean: 89.3 ± 4.2 dB(A)). The personal CNE (CNEp) and workgroup CNE (CNEg) were 100.5 ± 4.7 dB(A) and 100.5 ± 2.9 dB(A), respectively. In the binary logistic regression analysis, we established a regression model with high-frequency hearing loss as the dependent variable and CNE as the independent variable. The Wald value was 5.014 with CNEp as the independent variable and 8.653 with CNEg as the independent variable. Furthermore, we found that the figure for CNEg was more similar to the stationary noise reference than CNEp was. The CNEg model was better than the CNEp model. In this circumstance, we can measure some subjects instead of the whole workgroup and save manpower. In a complex noise environment, the measurements of average noise exposure level of the workgroup can improve the accuracy and save manpower.

  13. Comparison of Two Dose-response Relationship of Noise Exposure Evaluation Results with High Frequency Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complex noise and its relation to hearing loss are difficult to measure and evaluate. In complex noise measurement, individual exposure results may not accurately represent lifetime noise exposure. Thus, the mean L Aeq,8 h values of individuals in the same workgroup were also used to represent L Aeq,8 h in our study. Our study aimed to explore whether the mean exposure levels of workers in the same workgroup represented real noise exposure better than individual exposure levels did. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to establish a model for cumulative noise exposure (CNE and hearing loss in 205 occupational noise-exposed workers who were recruited from two large automobile manufacturers in China. We used a personal noise dosimeter and a questionnaire to determine the workers′ occupational noise exposure levels and exposure times, respectively. A qualified audiologist used standardized audiometric procedures to assess hearing acuity after at least 16 h of noise avoidance. Results: We observed that 88.3% of workers were exposed to more than 85 dB(A of occupational noise (mean: 89.3 ± 4.2 dB(A. The personal CNE (CNEp and workgroup CNE (CNEg were 100.5 ± 4.7 dB(A and 100.5 ± 2.9 dB(A, respectively. In the binary logistic regression analysis, we established a regression model with high-frequency hearing loss as the dependent variable and CNE as the independent variable. The Wald value was 5.014 with CNEp as the independent variable and 8.653 with CNEg as the independent variable. Furthermore, we found that the figure for CNEg was more similar to the stationary noise reference than CNEp was. The CNEg model was better than the CNEp model. In this circumstance, we can measure some subjects instead of the whole workgroup and save manpower. Conclusions: In a complex noise environment, the measurements of average noise exposure level of the workgroup can improve the accuracy and save manpower.

  14. Chronic exposure to low frequency noise at moderate levels causes impaired balance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Tamura

    Full Text Available We are routinely exposed to low frequency noise (LFN; below 0.5 kHz at moderate levels of 60-70 dB sound pressure level (SPL generated from various sources in occupational and daily environments. LFN has been reported to affect balance in humans. However, there is limited information about the influence of chronic exposure to LFN at moderate levels for balance. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to LFN at a moderate level of 70 dB SPL affects the vestibule, which is one of the organs responsible for balance in mice. Wild-type ICR mice were exposed for 1 month to LFN (0.1 kHz and high frequency noise (HFN; 16 kHz at 70 dB SPL at a distance of approximately 10-20 cm. Behavior analyses including rotarod, beam-crossing and footprint analyses showed impairments of balance in LFN-exposed mice but not in non-exposed mice or HFN-exposed mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a decreased number of vestibular hair cells and increased levels of oxidative stress in LFN-exposed mice compared to those in non-exposed mice. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to LFN at moderate levels causes impaired balance involving morphological impairments of the vestibule with enhanced levels of oxidative stress. Thus, the results of this study indicate the importance of considering the risk of chronic exposure to LFN at a moderate level for imbalance.

  15. Attention-related modulation of auditory brainstem responses during contralateral noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazunari; Sekiguchi, Takahiro; Hayashi, Akiko

    2008-10-29

    As determinants facilitating attention-related modulation of the auditory brainstem response (ABR), two experimental factors were examined: (i) auditory discrimination; and (ii) contralateral masking intensity. Tone pips at 80 dB sound pressure level were presented to the left ear via either single-tone exposures or oddball exposures, whereas white noise was delivered continuously to the right ear at variable intensities (none--80 dB sound pressure level). Participants each conducted two tasks during stimulation, either reading a book (ignoring task) or detecting target tones (attentive task). Task-related modulation within the ABR range was found only during oddball exposures at contralateral masking intensities greater than or equal to 60 dB. Attention-related modulation of ABR can thus be detected reliably during auditory discrimination under contralateral masking of sufficient intensity.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of exposure to organic solvents and hazardous noise among US Air Force Reserve personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Hughes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss affects many workers including those in the military and may be caused by noise, medications, and chemicals. Exposures to some chemicals may lead to an increase in the incidence of hearing loss when combined with hazardous noise. This retrospective study evaluated the risk for hearing loss among Air Force Reserve personnel exposed to occupational noise with and without exposures to toluene, styrene, xylene, benzene, and JP-8 (jet fuel. Risk factors associated with hearing loss were determined using logistic and linear regression. Stratified analysis was used to evaluate potential interaction between solvent and noise exposure. The majority of the subjects were male (94.6% and 35 years or older on the date of their first study audiogram (66%. Followed for an average of 3.2 years, 9.2% of the study subjects had hearing loss in at least one ear. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03 per year of age and each year of follow-up time (OR = 1.23 were significantly associated with hearing loss. Low and moderate solvent exposures were not associated with hearing loss. Linear regression demonstrated that hearing loss was significantly associated with age at first study audiogram, length of follow-up time, and exposure to noise. Hearing decreased by 0.04 decibels for every decibel increase in noise level or by almost half a decibel (0.4 dB for every 10 decibel increase in noise level.

  17. On the use of mobile phones and wearable microphones for noise exposure measurements: Calibration and measurement accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Romain

    Despite the fact that noise-induced hearing loss remains the number one occupational disease in developed countries, individual noise exposure levels are still rarely known and infrequently tracked. Indeed, efforts to standardize noise exposure levels present disadvantages such as costly instrumentation and difficulties associated with on site implementation. Given their advanced technical capabilities and widespread daily usage, mobile phones could be used to measure noise levels and make noise monitoring more accessible. However, the use of mobile phones for measuring noise exposure is currently limited due to the lack of formal procedures for their calibration and challenges regarding the measurement procedure. Our research investigated the calibration of mobile phone-based solutions for measuring noise exposure using a mobile phone's built-in microphones and wearable external microphones. The proposed calibration approach integrated corrections that took into account microphone placement error. The corrections were of two types: frequency-dependent, using a digital filter and noise level-dependent, based on the difference between the C-weighted noise level minus A-weighted noise level of the noise measured by the phone. The electro-acoustical limitations and measurement calibration procedure of the mobile phone were investigated. The study also sought to quantify the effect of noise exposure characteristics on the accuracy of calibrated mobile phone measurements. Measurements were carried out in reverberant and semi-anechoic chambers with several mobiles phone units of the same model, two types of external devices (an earpiece and a headset with an in-line microphone) and an acoustical test fixture (ATF). The proposed calibration approach significantly improved the accuracy of the noise level measurements in diffuse and free fields, with better results in the diffuse field and with ATF positions causing little or no acoustic shadowing. Several sources of errors

  18. Effect of simultaneous exposure to occupational noise and cigarette smoke on binaural hearing impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Mohammadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been postulated that cigarette smoking can aggravate noise-induced hearing loss. In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of concurrent exposure to cigarette smoke and occupational noise on binaural hearing impairment (BHI. In an analytic study on the workers of a large wagon manufacturing company in 2007, 622 male workers (252 smokers and 370 non-smokers, matched for other variables participated and their BHI was compared. BHI was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers (odds ratio= 5.6, P < 0.001, 95% CI =3.4-9.4. Logistic regression confirmed this significant difference as well, and showed a direct relationship between the amount of BHI and pack/years of smoking. Cigarette smoking accompanied by exposure to workplace noise may play a role in causing binaural hearing impairment, so giving up or decreasing the amount of smoking may prevent or at least delay binaural hearing impairment, and eventually reduce its compensation costs.

  19. Comparison of direct measurement methods for headset noise exposure in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora G Nassrallah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of noise exposure from communication headsets poses a methodological challenge. Although several standards describe methods for general noise measurements in occupational settings, these are not directly applicable to noise assessments under communication headsets. For measurements under occluded ears, specialized methods have been specified by the International Standards Organization (ISO 11904 such as the microphone in a real ear and manikin techniques. Simpler methods have also been proposed in some national standards such as the use of general purpose artificial ears and simulators in conjunction with single number corrections to convert measurements to the equivalent diffuse field. However, little is known about the measurement agreement between these various methods and the acoustic manikin technique. Twelve experts positioned circum-aural, supra-aural and insert communication headsets on four different measurement setups (Type 1, Type 2, Type 3.3 artificial ears, and acoustic manikin. Fit-refit measurements of four audio communication signals were taken under quiet laboratory conditions. Data were transformed into equivalent diffuse-field sound levels using third-octave procedures. Results indicate that the Type 1 artificial ear is not suited for the measurement of sound exposure under communication headsets, while Type 2 and Type 3.3 artificial ears are in good agreement with the acoustic manikin technique. Single number corrections were found to introduce a large measurement uncertainty, making the use of the third-octave transformation preferable.

  20. The role of task interference and exposure duration in judging noise annoyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Karin; Ghani, Jody; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    To determine whether the amount of performance disruption by a noise has an effect on the annoyance that noise evokes, a laboratory situation was created in which the participants rated a number of sounds before, after, and while performing a cognitively demanding memory task. The task consisted of memorizing, and later reproducing, a visually presented sequence of digits while being exposed to irrelevant sound chosen to produce different degrees of disruption. In two experiments, participants assessed these background sounds (frequency-modulated tones, broadband noise and speech) on a rating scale consisting of thirteen categories ranging from 'not annoying at all' to 'extremely annoying.' The judgments were collected immediately before, after, and concomitant to, the memory task. The results of the first experiment (N=24) showed that the annoyance assessments were indeed altered by the experience of disruption, most strongly during, and to a lesser extent after task completion, whereas ratings of the non-disruptive sounds remained largely unaffected. In the second experiment (N=25), participants were exposed to the same sounds, but for longer intervals at a time: 10 min as opposed to 14 s in the first experiment. The longer exposure resulted in increased annoyance in all noise conditions, but did not alter the differential effect of disruption on annoyance, which was replicated. The results of these laboratory experiments support the notion that annoyance cannot be conceived of as a purely perceptual sound property; rather, it is influenced by the degree of interference with the task at hand.

  1. Exposure Evaluation for Benzene, Lead and Noise in Vehicle and Equipment Repair Shops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Lynn C. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    An exposure assessment was performed at the equipment and vehicle maintenance repair shops operating at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site, in Richland, Washington. The maintenance shops repair and maintain vehicles and equipment used in support of the Hanford cleanup mission. There are three general mechanic shops and one auto body repair shop. The mechanics work on heavy equipment used in construction, cranes, commercial motor vehicles, passenger-type vehicles in addition to air compressors, generators, and farm equipment. Services include part fabrication, installation of equipment, repair and maintenance work in the engine compartment, and tire and brake services. Work performed at the auto body shop includes painting and surface preparation which involves applying body filler and sanding. 8-hour time-weighted-average samples were collected for benzene and noise exposure and task-based samples were collected for lead dust work activities involving painted metal surfaces. Benzene samples were obtained using 3M™ 3520 sampling badges and were analyzed for additional volatile organic compounds. These compounds were selected based on material safety data sheet information for the aerosol products used by the mechanics for each day of sampling. The compounds included acetone, ethyl ether, toluene, xylene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone, and trichloroethylene. Laboratory data for benzene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone and trichloroethylene were all below the reporting detection limit. Airborne concentrations for acetone, ethyl ether, toluene and xylene were all less than 10% of their occupational exposure limit. The task-based samples obtained for lead dusts were submitted for a metal scan analysis to identify other metals that might be present. Laboratory results for lead dusts were all below the reporting detection limit and airborne concentration for the other metals observed in the samples were less than 10% of the occupational exposure limit

  2. Noise exposure and auditory thresholds of German airline pilots: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Reinhard; Schneider, Joachim

    2017-05-30

    The cockpit workplace of airline pilots is a noisy environment. This study examines the hearing thresholds of pilots with respect to ambient noise and communication sound. The hearing of 487 German pilots was analysed by audiometry in the frequency range of 125 Hz-16 kHz in varying age groups. Cockpit noise (free-field) data and communication sound (acoustic manikin) measurements were evaluated. The ambient noise levels in cockpits were found to be between 74 and 80 dB(A), and the sound pressure levels under the headset were found to be between 84 and 88 dB(A).The left-right threshold differences at 3, 4 and 6 kHz show evidence of impaired hearing at the left ear, which worsens by age.In the age groups <40/≥40 years the mean differences at 3 kHz are 2/3 dB, at 4 kHz 2/4 dB and at 6 kHz 1/6 dB.In the pilot group which used mostly the left ear for communication tasks (43 of 45 are in the older age group) the mean difference at 3 kHz is 6 dB, at 4 kHz 7 dB and at 6 kHz 10 dB. The pilots who used the headset only at the right ear also show worse hearing at the left ear of 2 dB at 3 kHz, 3 dB at 4 kHz and at 6 kHz. The frequency-corrected exposure levels under the headset are 7-11 dB(A) higher than the ambient noise with an averaged signal-to-noise ratio for communication of about 10 dB(A). The left ear seems to be more susceptible to hearing loss than the right ear. Active noise reduction systems allow for a reduced sound level for the communication signal below the upper exposure action value of 85 dB(A) and allow for a more relaxed working environment for pilots. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Noise exposure and hearing loss prevention programmes after 20 years of regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, W E; Swan, S S; McDaniel, M M; Camp, J E; Cohen, M A; Stebbins, J G

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate noise exposures and hearing loss prevention efforts in industries with relatively high rates of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Washington State workers' compensation records were used to identify up to 10 companies in each of eight industries. Each company (n = 76) was evaluated by a management interview, employee personal noise dosimetry (n = 983), and employee interviews (n = 1557). Full-shift average exposures were > or =85 dBA for 50% of monitored employees, using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) parameters with a 5 dB exchange rate (L(ave)), but 74% were > or =85 dBA using a 3 dB exchange rate (L(eq)). Only 14% had L(ave) > or =90 dBA, but 42% had L(eq) > or =90 dBA. Most companies conducted noise measurements, but most kept no records, and consideration of noise controls was low in all industries. Hearing loss prevention programmes were commonly incomplete. Management interview scores (higher score = more complete programme) showed significant associations with percentage of employees having L(ave) > or =85 dBA and presence of a union (multiple linear regression; R2 = 0.24). Overall, 62% of interviewed employees reported always using hearing protection when exposed. Protector use showed significant associations with percentage of employees specifically required to use protection, management score, and average employee time spent > or =95 dBA (R2 = 0.65). The findings raise serious concerns about the adequacy of prevention, regulation, and enforcement strategies in the United States. The percentage of workers with excessive exposure was 1.5-3 times higher using a 3 dB exchange rate instead of the OSHA specified 5 dB exchange rate. Most companies gave limited or no attention to noise controls and relied primarily on hearing protection to prevent hearing loss; yet 38% of employees did not use protectors routinely. Protector use was highest when hearing loss prevention programmes were most complete, indicating that

  4. Risks for the development of outcomes related to occupational allergies: an application of the asthma-specific job exposure matrix compared with self-reports and investigator scores on job-training-related exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Suarthana, E.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Ghezzo, H.; Malo, J.L.; Kennedy, S.M.; Gautrin, D.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Risks for development of occupational sensitisation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, rhinoconjunctival and chest symptoms at work associated with continued exposure to high molecular weight (HMW) allergens were estimated with three exposure assessment methods. METHODS: A Cox regression analysis with adjustment for atopy and smoking habit was carried out in 408 apprentices in animal health technology, pastry making, and dental hygiene technology with an 8-year follow-up aft...

  5. Occupational noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss are associated with work-related injuries leading to admission to hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Serge-André; Leroux, Tony; Courteau, Marilene; Picard, Michel; Turcotte, Fernand; Richer, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    This study focuses on work-related injuries that required admission to hospital in a population of male workers exposed to occupational noise (≥80 dBA) which some displayed a hearing loss due to their exposure. The study population count 46 550 male workers, 1670 (3.6%) of whom incurred at least one work-related injury requiring admission to hospital within a period of 5 years following hearing tests conducted between 1987 and 2005. The noise exposure and hearing loss-related data were gathered during occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) screening. The hospital data were used to identify all members of the study population who were admitted, and the reason for admission. Finally, access to the death-related data made it possible to identify participants who died during the course of the study. Cox proportional hazards model taking into account hearing status, noise levels, age and cumulative duration of noise exposure at the time of the hearing test established the risk of work-related injuries leading to admission to hospital. For each dB of hearing loss, a statistically significant risk increase was observed (HR=1.01 dB 95% CI 1.006 to 1.01). An association (HR=2.36 95% CI 2.01 to 2.77) was also found between working in an occupational ambient noise ≥100 dBA and the risk of injury. From a safety perspective, this issue is highly relevant; especially when workers are exposed to intense ambient noise and NIHL. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Preventive effect of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on hearing loss induced by single or repeated exposure to noise: A comparative and mechanistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Yamaguchi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the preventive effects of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on noise-induced hearing loss in a novel murine model of permanent hearing loss developed by repeated exposure to noise. Upon exposure to noise (8-kHz octave band noise, 90 dB sound pressure level, 1 h, hearing ability was impaired in a temporary and reversible manner. During repeated noise exposure (1-h exposure per day, 5 days, there was a progressive increase in the auditory threshold shift at 12 and 20 kHz. The threshold shift persisted for at least 6 days after noise exposure. Oral administration of curcumin for 3 days before and each day during noise exposure significantly alleviated the hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Curcumin abolished intranuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB-p65 and generation of 4-hydroxynonenal-adducted proteins found in the cochlea after noise exposure. Theracurmin®, a highly absorbable and bioavailable preparation of curcumin, had strong preventive effects on hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Together, these data suggest that curcumin exerts a preventive effect on noise-induced hearing loss and is therefore a good therapeutic candidate for preventing sensorineural hearing loss.

  7. Preventive effect of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on hearing loss induced by single or repeated exposure to noise: A comparative and mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Taro; Yoneyama, Masanori; Onaka, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Atsushi; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2017-08-01

    We sought to determine the preventive effects of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on noise-induced hearing loss in a novel murine model of permanent hearing loss developed by repeated exposure to noise. Upon exposure to noise (8-kHz octave band noise, 90 dB sound pressure level, 1 h), hearing ability was impaired in a temporary and reversible manner. During repeated noise exposure (1-h exposure per day, 5 days), there was a progressive increase in the auditory threshold shift at 12 and 20 kHz. The threshold shift persisted for at least 6 days after noise exposure. Oral administration of curcumin for 3 days before and each day during noise exposure significantly alleviated the hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Curcumin abolished intranuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB-p65 and generation of 4-hydroxynonenal-adducted proteins found in the cochlea after noise exposure. Theracurmin ® , a highly absorbable and bioavailable preparation of curcumin, had strong preventive effects on hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Together, these data suggest that curcumin exerts a preventive effect on noise-induced hearing loss and is therefore a good therapeutic candidate for preventing sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Residential Segregation, and Spatial Variation in Noise Exposure in the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joan A; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Mennitt, Daniel J; Fristrup, Kurt; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; James, Peter

    2017-07-25

    Prior research has reported disparities in environmental exposures in the United States, but, to our knowledge, no nationwide studies have assessed inequality in noise pollution. We aimed to a ) assess racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in noise pollution in the contiguous United States; and b ) consider the modifying role of metropolitan level racial residential segregation. We used a geospatial sound model to estimate census block group–level median (L 50 ) nighttime and daytime noise exposure and 90th percentile (L 10 ) daytime noise exposure. Block group variables from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey (ACS) included race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, unemployment, homeownership, and linguistic isolation. We estimated associations using polynomial terms in spatial error models adjusted for total population and population density. We also evaluated the relationship between race/ethnicity and noise, stratified by levels of metropolitan area racial residential segregation, classified using a multigroup dissimilarity index. Generally, estimated nighttime and daytime noise levels were higher for census block groups with higher proportions of nonwhite and lower-socioeconomic status (SES) residents. For example, estimated nighttime noise levels in urban block groups with 75% vs. 0% black residents were 46.3 A-weighted decibels (dBA) [interquartile range (IQR): 44.3–47.8 dBA] and 42.3 dBA (IQR: 40.4–45.5 dBA), respectively. In urban block groups with 50% vs. 0% of residents living below poverty, estimated nighttime noise levels were 46.9 dBA (IQR: 44.7–48.5 dBA) and 44.0 dBA (IQR: 42.2–45.5 dBA), respectively. Block groups with the highest metropolitan area segregation had the highest estimated noise exposures, regardless of racial composition. Results were generally consistent between urban and suburban/rural census block groups, and for daytime and nighttime noise and robust to different spatial weight and neighbor

  9. Long-Term Impairment of Sound Processing in the Auditory Midbrain by Daily Short-Term Exposure to Moderate Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most citizen people are exposed daily to environmental noise at moderate levels with a short duration. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of daily short-term exposure to moderate noise on sound level processing in the auditory midbrain. Sound processing properties of auditory midbrain neurons were recorded in anesthetized mice exposed to moderate noise (80 dB SPL, 2 h/d for 6 weeks and were compared with those from age-matched controls. Neurons in exposed mice had a higher minimum threshold and maximum response intensity, a longer first spike latency, and a higher slope and narrower dynamic range for rate level function. However, these observed changes were greater in neurons with the best frequency within the noise exposure frequency range compared with those outside the frequency range. These sound processing properties also remained abnormal after a 12-week period of recovery in a quiet laboratory environment after completion of noise exposure. In conclusion, even daily short-term exposure to moderate noise can cause long-term impairment of sound level processing in a frequency-specific manner in auditory midbrain neurons.

  10. Arrest in ciliated cell expansion on the bronchial lining of adult rats caused by chronic exposure to industrial noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Maria Joao R.; Pereira, Antonio S.; Ferreira, Paula G.; Guimara-tilde es, Laura; Freitas, Diamantino; Carvalho, Antonio P.O.; Grande, Nuno R.; Aguas, Artur P.

    2005-01-01

    Workers chronically exposed to high-intensity/low-frequency noise at textile plants show increased frequency of respiratory infections. This phenomenon prompted the herein investigation on the cytology of the bronchial epithelium of Wistar rats submitted to textile noise. Workplace noise from a cotton-mill room of a textile factory was recorded and reproduced in a sound-insulated animal room. The Wistar rats were submitted to a weekly schedule of noise treatment that was similar to that of the textile workers (8h/day, 5 days/week). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to compare the fine morphology of the inner surface of the bronchi in noise-exposed and control rats. SEM quantitative cytology revealed that exposure to noise for 5-7 months caused inhibition in the natural expansion of the area occupied by ciliated cells on the bronchial epithelium as adult rats grow older. This difference between noise-exposed and age-matched control rats was statistically significant (P0.05) and documents that the cytology of the rat bronchial epithelium is mildly altered by noise exposure. The decrease in the area of bronchial cilia may impair the mucociliar clearance of the respiratory airways and, thus, increase vulnerability to respiratory infection

  11. Effects of noise exposure on neonatal auditory brainstem response thresholds in pregnant guinea pigs at different gestational periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Chihiro; Nario, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Tadashi; Shimokura, Ryota; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Noise exposure during pregnancy has been reported to cause fetal hearing impairment. However, little is known about the effects of noise exposure during various gestational stages on postnatal hearing. In the present study, we investigated the effects of noise exposure on auditory brainstem response (ABR) at the early, mid-, and late gestational periods in newborn guinea pigs. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to 4-kHz pure tone at a 120-dB sound pressure level for 4 h. We divided the animals into four groups as follows: the control, early gestational exposure, mid-gestational exposure, and late gestational exposure groups. ABR thresholds and latencies in newborns were recorded using 1-, 2-, and 4-kHz tone burst on postnatal days 1, 7, 14, and 28. Changes in ABR thresholds and latencies were measured between the 4 × 4 and 4 × 3 factorial groups mentioned above (gestational periods × postnatal days, gestational periods × frequencies). The thresholds were low in the order of control group guinea pigs. This is the first study to show that noise exposure during the early, mid-, and late gestational periods significantly elevated ABR thresholds in neonatal guinea pigs. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Environmental Noise Exposure On Occupants In Naturally Ventilated Open-Plan Offices Case Of Selected Offices In Kumasi Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koranteng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of buildings in public educational institutions in Ghana predominantly adopts open-plan offices that are naturally ventilated with the aid of operable windows for reasons such as achieving adaptable spaces improved social climate and effective ventilation. However adoption of open-plan naturally ventilated offices in these educational institutions expose occupants to noise that emanates indoors and from outdoor sources which can interfere with and impede work performance. The study aimed at assessing noise exposure levels and occupants satisfaction with noise level in selected naturally ventilated open-plan offices in Ghana. The study employed an empirical assessment of the noise levels in and around three of the office buildings using a PCE222 Digital Sound Level Meter and a survey involving interviews to assess workers satisfaction of noise levels of the open-plan offices at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Kumasi. The results show that mean outdoor noise levels for offices ranged from 11 per cent below to 5 per cent above the WHO permissible limits while mean indoor noise levels exceeded the limit by between 20-40 per cent during the course of the day. In spite of the high levels of noise occupants generally considered the overall noise level in their offices as acceptable. Likewise the results indicate that there are no significant differences in occupants exposure to noise from their various sitting positions in an office space and floor levels in an office building. The paper recommends strategies to manage and improve ambient noise quality within naturally ventilated open-plan office spaces in Ghana. The study will be of relevance as a useful guide to organizations and policy makers concerned with built environmental issues.

  13. Noise exposure during prehospital emergency physicians work on Mobile Emergency Care Units and Helicopter Emergency Medical Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Christian Tofte; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Brøchner, Anne C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prehospital personnel are at risk of occupational hearing loss due to high noise exposure. The aim of the study was to establish an overview of noise exposure during emergency responses in Mobile Emergency Care Units (MECU), ambulances and Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS)....... initiatives. Although no hearing loss was demonstrated in the personnel of the ground-based units, a reduced function of the outer sensory hair cells was found in the HEMS group following missions.......BACKGROUND: Prehospital personnel are at risk of occupational hearing loss due to high noise exposure. The aim of the study was to establish an overview of noise exposure during emergency responses in Mobile Emergency Care Units (MECU), ambulances and Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS......). A second objective was to identify any occupational hearing loss amongst prehospital personnel. METHODS: Noise exposure during work in the MECU and HEMS was measured using miniature microphones worn laterally to the auditory canals or within the earmuffs of the helmet. All recorded sounds were analysed...

  14. Does exposure to noise from human activities compromise sensory information from cephalopod statocysts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Durfort, Mercè; López-Bejar, Manel; Lombarte, Antoni; van der Schaar, Mike; André, Michel

    2013-10-01

    Many anthropogenic noise sources are nowadays contributing to the general noise budget of the oceans. The extent to which sound in the sea impacts and affects marine life is a topic of considerable current interest both to the scientific community and to the general public. Cepaholopods potentially represent a group of species whose ecology may be influenced by artificial noise that would have a direct consequence on the functionality and sensitivity of their sensory organs, the statocysts. These are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Controlled Exposure Experiments, including the use of a 50-400Hz sweep (RL=157±5dB re 1μPa with peak levels up to SPL=175dB re 1μPa) revealed lesions in the statocysts of four cephalopod species of the Mediterranean Sea, when exposed to low frequency sounds: (n=76) of Sepia officinalis, (n=4) Octopus vulgaris, (n=5) Loligo vulgaris and (n=2) Illex condietii. The analysis was performed through scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopical techniques of the whole inner structure of the cephalopods' statocyst, especially on the macula and crista. All exposed individuals presented the same lesions and the same incremental effects over time, consistent with a massive acoustic trauma observed in other species that have been exposed to much higher intensities of sound: Immediately after exposure, the damage was observed in the macula statica princeps (msp) and in the crista sensory epithelium. Kinocilia on hair cells were either missing or were bent or flaccid. A number of hair cells showed protruding apical poles and ruptured lateral plasma membranes, most probably resulting from the extrusion of cytoplasmic material. Hair cells were also partially ejected from the sensory epithelium, and spherical holes corresponding to missing hair cells were visible in the epithelium. The cytoplasmic content of the damaged hair cells showed obvious changes, including the presence of numerous vacuoles

  15. Controlled exposure to diesel exhaust and traffic noise - Effects on oxidative stress and activation in mononuclear blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Møller, Peter; Jantzen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    exhaust (DE) at 276μg/m(3) from a passenger car or filtered air, with co-exposure to traffic noise at 48 or 75dB(A). Gene expression markers of inflammation, (interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor), oxidative stress (heme oxygenase (decycling-1)) and DNA repair (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1)) were...... molecules in leukocyte subtypes. CONCLUSION: 3-h exposure to DE caused no genotoxicity, oxidative stress or inflammation in PBMCs, whereas exposure to noise might cause oxidatively damaged DNA.......Particulate air pollution increases risk of cancer and cardiopulmonary disease, partly through oxidative stress. Traffic-related noise increases risk of cardiovascular disease and may cause oxidative stress. In this controlled random sequence study, 18 healthy subjects were exposed for 3h to diesel...

  16. Exposure to noise in coal mining; Metodologia para el Control y Prevencion del Ruido en las Minas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This study is centred on the analysis and evaluation of risk noise to which the workers are exposed in coal mines in ASTURIAS. To this end, great many measurements were carried out on the amount in workers belonging to the various mining professional categories. The results of the study show that there are a great many workers exposed to level of noise which notably surpass those limits established by the Royal Decree, 1316/1989 on the protection of worker against risks from exposure to noise at work particularly those involved in picking and in the preparation, which are, in fact, the most typical post in underground coal mining. (Author)

  17. Observations of the relationship between noise exposure and preschool teacher voice usage in day-care center environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Fredric; Waye, Kerstin Persson; Södersten, Maria; McAllister, Anita; Ternström, Sten

    2011-03-01

    Although the relationship between noise exposure and vocal behavior (the Lombard effect) is well established, actual vocal behavior in the workplace is still relatively unexamined. The first purpose of this study was to investigate correlations between noise level and both voice level and voice average fundamental frequency (F₀) for a population of preschool teachers in their normal workplace. The second purpose was to study the vocal behavior of each teacher to investigate whether individual vocal behaviors or certain patterns could be identified. Voice and noise data were obtained for female preschool teachers (n=13) in their workplace, using wearable measurement equipment. Correlations between noise level and voice level, and between voice level and F₀, were calculated for each participant and ranged from 0.07 to 0.87 for voice level and from 0.11 to 0.78 for F₀. The large spread of the correlation coefficients indicates that the teachers react individually to the noise exposure. For example, some teachers increase their voice-to-noise level ratio when the noise is reduced, whereas others do not. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High-frequency hearing loss, occupational noise exposure and hypertension: a cross-sectional study in male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Huang, Kuei-Hung; Chen, Ren-Yin; Lai, Jim-Shoung; Bao, Bo-Ying

    2011-04-25

    The association between occupational noise exposure and hypertension is inconsistent because of an exposure bias caused by outer-ear measurements of noise levels among workers. This study used hearing loss values (HLVs) measured at 4 kHz and 6 kHz in both ears as a biomarker to investigate the chronic effects of noise exposure on hypertension in 790 aircraft-manufacturing workers. Participants were divided into a high hearing loss (HL) group (n = 214; average HLVs ≥ 30 decibel [dB] at 4 kHz or 6 kHz bilaterally; 83.1 ± 4.9 A-weighted decibel [dBA]), a median HL group (n = 302; 15 ≤ average HLVs workers had 1.48-fold (95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.02-2.15; p = 0.040) and 1.46-fold (95%CI = 1.03-2.05; p = 0.031) higher risks of hypertension relative to the low HL workers. Employment duration was significantly and positively correlated with the risk of hypertension among workers with average HLVs ≥ 15 dB at 4 kHz (p hearing loss is a good biomarker of occupational noise exposure and that noise-induced hearing loss may be associated with the risk of hypertension.

  19. The effect of noise exposure during the developmental period on the function of the auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureš, Zbyněk; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Recently, there has been growing evidence that development and maturation of the auditory system depends substantially on the afferent activity supplying inputs to the developing centers. In cases when this activity is altered during early ontogeny as a consequence of, e.g., an unnatural acoustic environment or acoustic trauma, the structure and function of the auditory system may be severely affected. Pathological alterations may be found in populations of ribbon synapses of the inner hair cells, in the structure and function of neuronal circuits, or in auditory driven behavioral and psychophysical performance. Three characteristics of the developmental impairment are of key importance: first, they often persist to adulthood, permanently influencing the quality of life of the subject; second, their manifestations are different and sometimes even contradictory to the impairments induced by noise trauma in adulthood; third, they may be 'hidden' and difficult to diagnose by standard audiometric procedures used in clinical practice. This paper reviews the effects of early interventions to the auditory system, in particular, of sound exposure during ontogeny. We summarize the results of recent morphological, electrophysiological, and behavioral experiments, discuss the putative mechanisms and hypotheses, and draw possible consequences for human neonatal medicine and noise health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Occupational noise exposure and hearing defects among sawmill workers in the south of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepaksorn, Phayong; Koizumi, Akio; Harada, Kouji; Siriwong, Wattasit; Neitzel, Richard L

    2018-01-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate occupational noise exposure and hearing defects among sawmill workers in the south of Thailand. Seven hundred sawmill workers participated, of which 335 (47.9%) were male. The mean age of the sawmill workers was 33.5 years (SD 10.2), and more than 60% were workers had less than 5 years of work experience. Only about one in four workers (25%) had been trained in use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and half of the participants never or rarely wore PPE while working. The prevalence rate of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) was 22.8% (N = 42). Male workers had significantly higher risk than female workers (odds ratio [OR] = 2.21). Workers aged older than 25 years had significantly higher risks for NIHL (OR = 3.51-12.42) than workers younger than 25 years. Sawing workers had higher risk for NIHL than office workers (OR = 3.07).

  1. Non-Monotonic Relation Between Noise Exposure Severity and Neuronal Hyperactivity in the Auditory Midbrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Li Hesse

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of tinnitus can be linked to hearing loss in the majority of cases, but there is nevertheless a large degree of unexplained heterogeneity in the relation between hearing loss and tinnitus. Part of the problem might be that hearing loss is usually quantified in terms of increased hearing thresholds, which only provides limited information about the underlying cochlear damage. Moreover, noise exposure that does not cause hearing threshold loss can still lead to hidden hearing loss (HHL, i.e. functional deafferentation of auditory nerve fibres (ANFs through loss of synaptic ribbons in inner hair cells. Whilst it is known that increased hearing thresholds can trigger increases in spontaneous neural activity in the central auditory system, i.e. a putative neural correlate of tinnitus, the central effects of HHL have not yet been investigated. Here, we exposed mice to octave-band noise at 100 and 105 dB SPL, to generate HHL and permanent increases of hearing thresholds, respectively. Deafferentation of ANFs was confirmed through measurement of auditory brainstem responses and cochlear immunohistochemistry. Acute extracellular recordings from the auditory midbrain (inferior colliculus demonstrated increases in spontaneous neuronal activity (a putative neural correlate of tinnitus in both groups. Surprisingly the increase in spontaneous activity was most pronounced in the mice with HHL, suggesting that the relation between hearing loss and neuronal hyperactivity might be more complex than currently understood. Our computational model indicated that these differences in neuronal hyperactivity could arise from different degrees of deafferentation of low-threshold ANFs in the two exposure groups.Our results demonstrate that HHL is sufficient to induce changes in central auditory processing, and they also indicate a non-monotonic relationship between cochlear damage and neuronal hyperactivity, suggesting an explanation for why tinnitus might

  2. Hearing loss associated with repeated MRI acquisition procedure-related acoustic noise exposure: an occupational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Suzan; Slottje, Pauline; Kromhout, Hans

    2017-11-01

    To study the effects of repeated exposure to MRI-related acoustic noise during image acquisition procedures (scans) on hearing. A retrospective occupational cohort study was performed among workers of an MRI manufacturing facility (n=474). Longitudinal audiometry data from the facility's medical surveillance scheme collected from 1973 to 2010 were analysed by studying the association of cumulative exposure to MRI-related acoustic noise from voluntary (multiple) MRI scans and the hearing threshold of the volunteer. Repeated acoustic noise exposure during volunteer MRI scans was found to be associated with a small exposure-dependent increased rate change of hearing threshold level (dB/year), but the association was only found related to the number of voluntary MRI scans and not to modelled cumulative noise exposure (dB*hour) based on MRI-system type. The increased rate change of hearing threshold level was found to be statistically significant for the frequencies 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz in the right ear. From our longitudinal cohort study, it appeared that exposure to noise from voluntarily MRI scans may have resulted in a slight amount of hearing loss. Mandatory use of hearing protection might have prevented more severe hearing loss. Lack of consistency in findings between the left and right ears and between the two exposure measures prohibits definitive conclusions. Further research that addresses the study's methodological limitations is warranted to corroborate our findings. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. High blood pressure and long-term exposure to indoor noise and air pollution from road traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foraster, Maria; Künzli, Nino; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Rivera, Marcela; Agis, David; Vila, Joan; Bouso, Laura; Deltell, Alexandre; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel; Sunyer, Jordi; Elosua, Roberto; Basagaña, Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Traffic noise has been associated with prevalence of hypertension, but reports are inconsistent for blood pressure (BP). To ascertain noise effects and to disentangle them from those suspected to be from traffic-related air pollution, it may be essential to estimate people's noise exposure indoors in bedrooms. We analyzed associations between long-term exposure to indoor traffic noise in bedrooms and prevalent hypertension and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP, considering long-term exposure to outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2). We evaluated 1,926 cohort participants at baseline (years 2003-2006; Girona, Spain). Outdoor annual average levels of nighttime traffic noise (Lnight) and NO2 were estimated at postal addresses with a detailed traffic noise model and a land-use regression model, respectively. Individual indoor traffic Lnight levels were derived from outdoor Lnight with application of insulations provided by reported noise-reducing factors. We assessed associations for hypertension and BP with multi-exposure logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Median levels were 27.1 dB(A) (indoor Lnight), 56.7 dB(A) (outdoor Lnight), and 26.8 μg/m3 (NO2). Spearman correlations between outdoor and indoor Lnight with NO2 were 0.75 and 0.23, respectively. Indoor Lnight was associated both with hypertension (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.13) and SBP (β = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.29, 1.15) per 5 dB(A); and NO2 was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.36), SBP (β = 1.23; 95% CI: 0.21, 2.25), and DBP (β⊇= 0.56; 95% CI: -0.03, 1.14) per 10 μg/m3. In the outdoor noise model, Lnight was associated only with hypertension and NO2 with BP only. The indoor noise-SBP association was stronger and statistically significant with a threshold at 30 dB(A). Long-term exposure to indoor traffic noise was associated with prevalent hypertension and SBP, independently of NO2. Associations were less consistent for outdoor traffic Lnight and likely affected by

  4. Association of long-term exposure to community noise and traffic-related air pollution with coronary heart disease mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Davies, Hugh W; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In metropolitan areas, road traffic is a major contributor to ambient air pollution and the dominant source of community noise. The authors investigated the independent and joint influences of community noise and traffic-related air pollution on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in a population-based cohort study with a 5-year exposure period (January 1994-December 1998) and a 4-year follow-up period (January 1999-December 2002). Individuals who were 45-85 years of age and resided in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada, during the exposure period and did not have known CHD at baseline were included (n = 445,868). Individual exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollutants, including black carbon, particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric oxide, were estimated at each person's residence using a noise prediction model and land-use regression models, respectively. CHD deaths were identified from the provincial death registration database. After adjustment for potential confounders, including traffic-related air pollutants or noise, elevations in noise and black carbon equal to the interquartile ranges were associated with 6% (95% confidence interval: 1, 11) and 4% (95% confidence interval: 1, 8) increases, respectively, in CHD mortality. Subjects in the highest noise decile had a 22% (95% confidence interval: 4, 43) increase in CHD mortality compared with persons in the lowest decile. These findings suggest that there are independent effects of traffic-related noise and air pollution on CHD mortality.

  5. Arterial indices and serum cystatin C level in individuals with occupational wide band noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali R Khoshdel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic exposure to noise is known to cause a wide range of health problems including extracellular matrix (ECM proliferation and involvement of cardiovascular system. There are a few studies to investigate noise-induced vascular changes using noninvasive methods. In this study we used carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT and aortic augmentation as indices of arterial properties and cystatin C as a serum biomarker relating to ECM metabolism. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three male participants were included in this study from aeronautic technicians: 39 with and 54 without a history of wide band noise (WBN exposure. For better discrimination, the participants were divided into the two age groups: 40 years old. Adjusted aortic augmentation index (AI for a heart rate equal to 75 beats per minute (AIx@HR75 were calculated using pulse wave analysis (PWA. CIMT was measured in 54 participants who accepted to undergo Doppler ultrasonography. Serum cystatin C was also measured. Results: Among younger individuals the mean CIMT was 0.85 ± 0.09 mm and 0.75 ± 0.22 mm in the in the exposed and the control groups respectively. Among older individuals CIMT had a mean of 1.04 ± 0.22 mm vs. 1.00 ± 0.25 mm for the exposed vs. the control group. However, in both age groups the difference was not significant at the 0.05 level. A comparison of AIx@HR75 between exposure group and control group both in younger age group (5.46 ± 11.22 vs. 8.56 ± 8.66 and older age group (17.55 ± 10.07 vs. 16.61 ± 5.77 revealed no significant difference. We did not find any significant correlation between CIMT and AIx@HR75 in exposed group (r = 0.314, P value = 0.145 but the correlation was significant in control group (r = 0.455, P value = 0.019. Serum cystatin C level was significantly lower in individuals with WBN exposure compared to controls (441.10 ± 104.70 ng/L vs. 616.89 ± 136.14, P

  6. Noise Exposure of Teachers in Nursery Schools-Evaluation of Measures for Noise Reduction When Dropping DUPLO Toy Bricks into Storage Cases by Sound Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Konstanze; Scharf, Thomas; Baumann, Uwe; Groneberg, David A; Bundschuh, Matthias

    2016-07-04

    Although noise is one of the leading work-related health risk factors for teachers, many nursery schools lack sufficient noise reduction measures. This intervention study evaluated the noise exposure of nursery school teachers when dropping DUPLO toy bricks into storage cases. Sound analyses of the impact included assessment of the maximum sound pressure level (LAFmax) as well as frequency analyses with 1/3 octave band filter. For the purpose of standardization, a customized gadget was developed. Recordings were performed in 11 cases of different materials and designs to assess the impact on sound level reduction. Thereby, the acoustic effects of three damping materials (foam rubber, carpet, and PU-foam) were investigated. The lowest LAFmax was measured in cases consisting of "metal grid" (90.71 dB) or of a woven willow "basket" (91.61 dB), whereas a case of "aluminium" (103.34 dB) generated the highest impact LAFmax. The frequency analyses determined especially low LAFmax in the frequency bands between 80 and 2500 Hz in cases designs "metal grid" and "basket". The insertion of PU-foam achieved the most significant attenuation of LAFmax (-13.88 dB) and, in the frequency analyses, the best sound damping. The dropping of DUPLO bricks in cases contributes to the high noise level in nursery schools, but measured LAFmax show no evidence for the danger of acute hearing loss. However, continuous exposure may lead to functional impairment of the hair cells and trigger stress reactions. We recommend noise reduction by utilizing cases of woven "basket" with an insert of PU-foam.

  7. Noise Exposure of Teachers in Nursery Schools—Evaluation of Measures for Noise Reduction When Dropping DUPLO Toy Bricks into Storage Cases by Sound Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstanze Gebauer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although noise is one of the leading work-related health risk factors for teachers, many nursery schools lack sufficient noise reduction measures. Methods: This intervention study evaluated the noise exposure of nursery school teachers when dropping DUPLO toy bricks into storage cases. Sound analyses of the impact included assessment of the maximum sound pressure level (LAFmax as well as frequency analyses with 1/3 octave band filter. For the purpose of standardization, a customized gadget was developed. Recordings were performed in 11 cases of different materials and designs to assess the impact on sound level reduction. Thereby, the acoustic effects of three damping materials (foam rubber, carpet, and PU-foam were investigated. Results: The lowest LAFmax was measured in cases consisting of “metal grid” (90.71 dB or of a woven willow “basket” (91.61 dB, whereas a case of “aluminium” (103.34 dB generated the highest impact LAFmax. The frequency analyses determined especially low LAFmax in the frequency bands between 80 and 2500 Hz in cases designs “metal grid” and “basket”. The insertion of PU-foam achieved the most significant attenuation of LAFmax (−13.88 dB and, in the frequency analyses, the best sound damping. Conclusion: The dropping of DUPLO bricks in cases contributes to the high noise level in nursery schools, but measured LAFmax show no evidence for the danger of acute hearing loss. However, continuous exposure may lead to functional impairment of the hair cells and trigger stress reactions. We recommend noise reduction by utilizing cases of woven “basket” with an insert of PU-foam.

  8. Cetacean behavioral responses to noise exposure generated by seismic surveys: how to mitigate better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Monaco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cetaceans use sound in many contexts, such as in social interactions, as well as to forage and to react in dangerous situations. Little information exists to describe how they respond physically and behaviorally to intense and long-term noise levels. Effects on cetaceans from seismic survey activities need to be understood in order to determine detailed acoustic exposure guidelines and to apply appropriated mitigation measures. This study examines direct behavioral responses of cetaceans in the southern Mediterranean Sea during seismic surveys with large airgun arrays (volume up to 5200 ci used in the TOMO-ETNA active seismic experiment of summer 2014. Wide Angle Seismic and Multi-Channel Seismic surveys had carried out with refraction and reflection seismic methods, producing about 25,800 air-gun shots. Visual monitoring undertaken in the 26 daylights of seismic exploration adopted the protocol of the Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Data recorded were analyzed to examine effects on cetaceans. Sighting rates, distance and orientation from the airguns were compared for different volume categories of the airgun arrays. Results show that cetaceans can be disturbed by seismic survey activities, especially during particularly events. Here we propose many integrated actions to further mitigate this exposure and implications for management.

  9. Measuring combined exposure to environmental pressures in urban areas: an air quality and noise pollution assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Michailidou, A V; Moussiopoulos, Nu

    2012-02-01

    This study presents a methodological scheme developed to provide a combined air and noise pollution exposure assessment based on measurements from personal portable monitors. Provided that air and noise pollution are considered in a co-exposure approach, they represent a significant environmental hazard to public health. The methodology is demonstrated for the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. The results of an extensive field campaign are presented and the variations in personal exposure between modes of transport, routes, streets and transport microenvironments are evaluated. Air pollution and noise measurements were performed simultaneously along several commuting routes, during the morning and evening rush hours. Combined exposure to environmental pollutants is highlighted based on the Combined Exposure Factor (CEF) and Combined Dose and Exposure Factor (CDEF). The CDEF takes into account the potential relative uptake of each pollutant by considering the physical activities of each citizen. Rather than viewing environmental pollutants separately for planning and environmental sustainability considerations, the possibility of an easy-to-comprehend co-exposure approach based on these two indices is demonstrated. Furthermore, they provide for the first time a combined exposure assessment to these environmental pollutants for Thessaloniki and in this sense they could be of importance for local public authorities and decision makers. A considerable environmental burden for the citizens of Thessaloniki, especially for VOCs and noise pollution levels is observed. The material herein points out the importance of measuring public health stressors and the necessity of considering urban environmental pollution in a holistic way. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Conversion between noise exposure indicators Leq24h, LDay, LEvening, LNight, Ldn and Lden: Principles and practical guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Mark; Schäffer, Beat; Pieren, Reto; Wunderli, Jean Marc

    2018-01-01

    This article presents empirically derived conversion rules between the environmental noise exposure metrics Leq24h, LDay, LEvening, LNight, Ldn, and Lden for the noise sources road, rail and air traffic. It caters to researchers that need to estimate the value of one (unknown) noise metric from the value of another (known) metric, e.g. in the scope of epidemiological meta-analyses or systematic reviews, when results from different studies are pooled and need to be related to one common exposure metric. Conversion terms are derived using two empirical methods a) based on analyzing the diurnal variation of traffic, and b) by analyzing differences between calculated noise exposure metrics. For a) we collected and analyzed diurnal traffic share data from European and US airports as well as data on the diurnal variation of traffic from roads in several European countries and from railway lines in Switzerland which were derived from counting stations and official records. For b) we calculated differences between noise metrics in over 50'000 stratified randomly sampled dwellings in Switzerland. As a result of this exercise, conversion terms, including uncertainty estimates, are systematically tabulated for all variants of the target metrics. Guidance as to the practical applicability of the proposed conversions in different contexts is provided, and limitations of their use are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Does low to moderate environmental exposure to noise and air pollution influence preterm delivery in medium-sized cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba-Vasseur, Marie; Bernard, Nadine; Pujol, Sophie; Sagot, Paul; Riethmuller, Didier; Thiriez, Gérard; Houot, Hélène; Defrance, Jérôme; Mariet, Anne-Sophie; Luu, Vinh-Phuc; Barbier, Alice; Benzenine, Eric; Quantin, Catherine; Mauny, Frédéric

    2017-12-01

    Preterm birth (PB) is an important predictor of childhood morbidity and educational performance. Beyond the known risk factors, environmental factors, such as air pollution and noise, have been implicated in PB. In urban areas, these pollutants coexist. Very few studies have examined the effects of multi-exposure on the pregnancy duration. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between PB and environmental chronic multi-exposure to noise and air pollution in medium-sized cities. A case-control study was conducted among women living in the city of Besançon (121 671 inhabitants) or in the urban unit of Dijon (243 936 inhabitants) and who delivered in a university hospital between 2005 and 2009. Only singleton pregnancies without associated pathologies were considered. Four controls were matched to each case in terms of the mother's age and delivery location. Residential noise and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposures were calculated at the mother's address. Conditional logistic regression models were applied, and sensitivity analyses were performed. This study included 302 cases and 1204 controls. The correlation between noise and NO2 indices ranged from 0.41 to 0.59. No significant differences were found in pollutant exposure levels between cases and controls. The adjusted odds ratios ranged between 0.96 and 1.08. Sensitivity analysis conducted using different temporal and spatial exposure windows demonstrated the same results. The results are in favour of a lack of connection between preterm delivery and multi-exposure to noise and air pollution in medium-sized cities for pregnant women without underlying disease. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  12. Noise-based tube current reduction method with iterative reconstruction for reduction of radiation exposure in coronary CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Junlin; Du, Xiangying; Guo, Daode; Cao, Lizhen; Gao, Yan; Bai, Mei; Li, Pengyu; Liu, Jiabin; Li, Kuncheng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of noise-based tube current reduction method with iterative reconstruction to reduce radiation exposure while achieving consistent image quality in coronary CT angiography (CCTA). Materials and methods: 294 patients underwent CCTA on a 64-detector row CT equipped with iterative reconstruction. 102 patients with fixed tube current were assigned to Group 1, which was used to establish noise-based tube current modulation formulas, where tube current was modulated by the noise of test bolus image. 192 patients with noise-based tube current were randomly assigned to Group 2 and Group 3. Filtered back projection was applied for Group 2 and iterative reconstruction for Group 3. Qualitative image quality was assessed with a 5 point score. Image noise, signal intensity, volume CT dose index, and dose-length product were measured. Results: The noise-based tube current modulation formulas were established through regression analysis using image noise measurements in Group 1. Image noise was precisely maintained at the target value of 35.00 HU with small interquartile ranges for Group 2 (34.17–35.08 HU) and Group 3 (34.34–35.03 HU), while it was from 28.41 to 36.49 HU for Group 1. All images in the three groups were acceptable for diagnosis. A relative 14% and 41% reduction in effective dose for Group 2 and Group 3 were observed compared with Group 1. Conclusion: Adequate image quality could be maintained at a desired and consistent noise level with overall 14% dose reduction using noise-based tube current reduction method. The use of iterative reconstruction further achieved approximately 40% reduction in effective dose

  13. Long-term exposure to transportation noise and air pollution in relation to incident diabetes in the SAPALDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ikenna C; Foraster, Maria; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Vienneau, Danielle; Héritier, Harris; Rudzik, Franziska; Thiesse, Laurie; Pieren, Reto; Imboden, Medea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Schindler, Christian; Brink, Mark; Cajochen, Christian; Wunderli, Jean-Marc; Röösli, Martin; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have inconsistently linked transportation noise and air pollution (AP) with diabetes risk. Most studies have considered single noise sources and/or AP, but none has investigated their mutually independent contributions to diabetes risk. We investigated 2631 participants of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA), without diabetes in 2002 and without change of residence between 2002 and 2011. Using questionnaire and biomarker data, incident diabetes cases were identified in 2011. Noise and AP exposures in 2001 were assigned to participants' residences (annual average road, railway or aircraft noise level during day-evening-night (Lden), total night number of noise events, intermittency ratio (temporal variation as proportion of event-based noise level over total noise level) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels. We applied mixed Poisson regression to estimate the relative risk (RR) of diabetes and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) in mutually-adjusted models. Diabetes incidence was 4.2%. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] road, railway, aircraft noise and NO2 were 54 (10) dB, 32 (11) dB, 30 (12) dB and 21 (15) μg/m3, respectively. Lden road and aircraft were associated with incident diabetes (respective RR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.02-1.78 and 1.86; 95% CI: 0.96-3.59 per IQR) independently of Lden railway and NO2 (which were not associated with diabetes risk) in mutually adjusted models. We observed stronger effects of Lden road among participants reporting poor sleep quality or sleeping with open windows. Transportation noise may be more relevant than AP in the development of diabetes, potentially acting through noise-induced sleep disturbances. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  14. Investigation of the Effect of Occupational Noise Exposure on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of Steel Industry Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Zahra; Rostami, Reza; Hasanzadeh, Jafar; Hashemi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the effect of noise exposure on blood pressure and heart rate of steel industry workers. Materials and Methods. In the present cross-sectional study, 50 workers were selected from a steel company in Fars province, Iran, and exposed to 85, 95, and 105 dB noise levels for 5 minutes. The participants' blood pressure and heart rate were measured using Beurer BC16 pulse meter both before and after the exposure. Results. The study results showed no significant difference in blood pressure and heart rate before and after the exposure. However, the workers' systolic blood pressure had increased compared to before the exposure; of course, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Besides, although the subjects' heart rate had reduced in comparison to before the exposure, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion. No significant change was observed in blood pressure and heart rate after acute exposure to 85, 95, and 105 dB noise levels. PMID:23781252

  15. Investigation of the effect of occupational noise exposure on blood pressure and heart rate of steel industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Zahra; Rostami, Reza; Hasanzadeh, Jafar; Hashemi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of noise exposure on blood pressure and heart rate of steel industry workers. In the present cross-sectional study, 50 workers were selected from a steel company in Fars province, Iran, and exposed to 85, 95, and 105 dB noise levels for 5 minutes. The participants' blood pressure and heart rate were measured using Beurer BC16 pulse meter both before and after the exposure. The study results showed no significant difference in blood pressure and heart rate before and after the exposure. However, the workers' systolic blood pressure had increased compared to before the exposure; of course, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Besides, although the subjects' heart rate had reduced in comparison to before the exposure, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). No significant change was observed in blood pressure and heart rate after acute exposure to 85, 95, and 105 dB noise levels.

  16. Cultural and Demographic Factors Influencing Noise Exposure Estimates from Use of Portable Listening Devices in an Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fligor, Brian J.; Levey, Sandra; Levey, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined listening levels and duration of portable listening devices (PLDs) used by people with diversity of ethnicity, education, music genre, and PLD manufacturer. The goal was to estimate participants' PLD noise exposure and identify factors influencing user behavior. Method: This study measured listening levels of 160…

  17. Noise annoyance from stationary sources: Relationships with exposure metric day-evening-night level (DENL) and their confidence intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.; Vos, H.

    2004-01-01

    Relationships between exposure to noise [metric: day-evening-night levels (DENL)] from stationary sources (shunting yards, a seasonal industry, and other industries) and annoyance are presented. Curves are presented for expected annoyance score, the percentage "highly annoyed" (%HA, cutoff at 72 on

  18. Hearing loss associated with repeated MRI acquisition procedure-related acoustic noise exposure: an occupational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Suzan; Slottje, Pauline; Kromhout, Hans

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of repeated exposure to MRI-related acoustic noise during image acquisition procedures (scans) on hearing. METHODS: A retrospective occupational cohort study was performed among workers of an MRI manufacturing facility (n=474). Longitudinal audiometry data from the

  19. Work-Related Noise Exposure in a Cohort of Patients with Chronic Tinnitus: Analysis of Demographic and Audiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ralli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Work-related noise exposure is one of the major factors contributing to the development of adult-onset hearing loss and tinnitus. The aim of this study was to analyze, in patients with chronic tinnitus and long-term occupational noise exposure, (A characteristics of hearing loss, tinnitus, comorbidities, demographic characteristics and a history of work-related noise exposure and (B differences among individuals employed in occupations with high and low risk of developing work-related noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. One hundred thirty six patients with chronic tinnitus and at least a 10 year-long working history were divided into two groups based on the risk of their profession to induce NIHL. Individuals employed in jobs at high risk for NIHL were mostly males and exhibited a poorer hearing threshold, more evident in the left ear. Tinnitus was mostly bilateral; the next largest presentation was left-sided; patients described their tinnitus as buzzing or high-pitched. Correlation between age, length of tinnitus and worse hearing was found. Patients with a higher degree of hearing impairment were mostly males and were more likely to have a family history of hearing loss and at least one cardiovascular comorbidity. Our study shows some differences in individuals with tinnitus and a history of a profession associated with increased exposure to NIHL compared to those without such a history.

  20. Work-Related Noise Exposure in a Cohort of Patients with Chronic Tinnitus: Analysis of Demographic and Audiological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralli, Massimo; Balla, Maria Paola; Greco, Antonio; Altissimi, Giancarlo; Ricci, Pasquale; Turchetta, Rosaria; de Virgilio, Armando; de Vincentiis, Marco; Ricci, Serafino; Cianfrone, Giancarlo

    2017-09-08

    Work-related noise exposure is one of the major factors contributing to the development of adult-onset hearing loss and tinnitus. The aim of this study was to analyze, in patients with chronic tinnitus and long-term occupational noise exposure, (A) characteristics of hearing loss, tinnitus, comorbidities, demographic characteristics and a history of work-related noise exposure and (B) differences among individuals employed in occupations with high and low risk of developing work-related noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). One hundred thirty six patients with chronic tinnitus and at least a 10 year-long working history were divided into two groups based on the risk of their profession to induce NIHL. Individuals employed in jobs at high risk for NIHL were mostly males and exhibited a poorer hearing threshold, more evident in the left ear. Tinnitus was mostly bilateral; the next largest presentation was left-sided; patients described their tinnitus as buzzing or high-pitched. Correlation between age, length of tinnitus and worse hearing was found. Patients with a higher degree of hearing impairment were mostly males and were more likely to have a family history of hearing loss and at least one cardiovascular comorbidity. Our study shows some differences in individuals with tinnitus and a history of a profession associated with increased exposure to NIHL compared to those without such a history.

  1. Association between exposure to noise and risk of hypertension: a meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wenning; Wang, Chao; Zou, Li; Liu, Qiaoyan; Gan, Yong; Yan, Shijiao; Song, Fujian; Wang, Zhihong; Lu, Zuxun; Cao, Shiyi

    2017-12-01

    An increasing amount of original studies suggested that exposure to noise could be associated with the risk of hypertension, but the results remain inconsistent and inconclusive. We aimed to synthesize available epidemiological evidence about the relationship between various types of noise and hypertension, and to explore the potential dose-response relationship between them in an up-to-date meta-analysis. We conducted a literature search of PubMed and Embase from these databases' inception through December 2016 to identify observational epidemiological studies examining the association between noise and risk of hypertension. A random effects model was used to combine the results of included studies. Dose-response meta-analysis was conducted to examine the potential dose-response relationship. In total, 32 studies (five cohort studies, one case-control study, and 26 cross-section studies) involving 264 678 participants were eligible for inclusion. Pooled result showed that living or working in environment with noise exposure was significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension (odds ratio 1.62; 95% confidence interval: 1.40-1.88). We found no evidence of a curve linear association between noise and risk of hypertension. A dose-response analysis suggested that, for an increment of per 10 dB(A) of noise, the combined odds ratio of hypertension was 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.08). Integrated epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that exposure to noise may be a risk factor of hypertension, and there is a positive dose-response association between them.

  2. CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF SUBJECTIVE COMFORT AND THE REACTIONS OF THE POPULATION IN THE URBAN CONTEXT OF EXPOSURE TO NOISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICA-BADEA Delia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers this issue matters as of interference noise of the ordinary activity of the population owing to its cause and its presence in all departments of life. Noise pollution is a major problem in all countries where we are witnessing a phenomenon of magnification levels of noise having effects more or less aggressive about comfort and even health. Are presented arguments relating to the characterization of noise as a risk factor in the induction of pathologies such as: auditory disorders, hypertension, ischemic heart disease aggravation, discomfort, sleep disorders and decreasing school performance in children. For the evaluation and management of ambient noise has developed a study aimed at assessing the state of comfort and subjective reactions of residents in order to fundamentarii measures for reducing the levels of exposure and prevention of the effects of population exposed to noise in the street. In areas with heavy traffic confirm the existence of risk perception of 56% of the people who accuse the discomfort caused by noise in homes during the day and during the night rate is 40%. The age groups most affected are 51-65 years and over 65 years old, because they spend most of the time period in the home.

  3. Regular Exposure to Cowbells Affects the Behavioral Reactivity to a Noise Stimulus in Dairy Cows

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    Julia Johns

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In alpine regions, cows are often equipped with bells during pasture season to ensure that farmers can locate them. Constant exposure to the chime of a bell may affect cows’ acoustic perception in general. The aim of this study is to test whether routine bell exposure affects the reactivity to a noise stimulus and might be associated with hearing impairment in cows. For the assessment, behavioral and cardiac indicators were used as indirect measures of hearing capacity. Cows that were either used to wearing a bell or not were exposed to a playback of low and high amplitude (=varying loudness. In addition, we tested whether wearing earplugs, mimicking hearing impairment, reduced the cows’ reactivity toward the playback. On 24 farms, half of them routinely using cowbells, 96 Brown Swiss cows were tested in a 2 × 2 factorial cross-over design (65 or 85 dB, without or with earplugs in a balanced order. The effects of bell experience, amplitude, and earplugs on the latency to the first behavioral and cardiac response to a 5-s playback were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models, considering dependencies within the data set. Cows reacted faster without earplugs and when they were exposed to 85 dB compared with 65 dB. The proportion of cows leaving the feeding rack after onset of the playback was reduced by bell experience and earplugs and was increased when exposed to 85 dB compared with 65 dB. Exposure without earplugs to 85 dB but not to 65 dB increased heart rate. Heart rate and heart rate variability indicated increased sympathetic activation during the exposure to 85 dB compared with 65 dB. In general, behavioral and cardiac indicators did not indicate severe hearing impairment due to routine bell exposure. The 85-dB stimulus increased arousal and avoidance compared with the 65-dB stimulus, with bell experience and earplugs leading to a general decrease in avoidance of the stimulus. This may reflect an altered

  4. Hearing effects from intermittent and continuous noise exposure in a study of Korean factory workers and firefighters

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    Chung In-Sung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Korea and surrounding countries in East Asia are believed to have the highest proportion in the world of high frequency hearing loss due to occupational noise exposure, yet there has been limited information published in international journals, and limited information for control of noise in local workplaces beyond strategies from western countries. We exploit medical surveillance information from two worker groups to enhance local knowledge about noise-induced hearing loss and explore the possible importance of shift work to risk. Methods Four-years of hearing data were evaluated for 81 male farm machine factory workers and 371 male firefighters who had successfully completed a health examination and questionnaires for the duration of the study period. The averages of hearing thresholds at 2, 3, and 4 kHz were used as the primary end-point for comparison. Repeat measure analysis adjusted for age, exposure duration and smoking status was used to measure the difference in hearing threshold between the two groups. Results Noise levels were measured in the factory at a mean of 82 dBA, with a range of 66-97. No concurrent measurements were taken for the firefighters, but historic comparison values showed a wider range but a similar mean of 76-79 dBA. Although losses during follow-up were negligible, the factory workers had significantly (P 25 dB loss. Firefighters also showed increased losses associated with longer exposure duration, but these were significantly less marked. Losses at lower frequencies ( Conclusions Korean work environments with continuous noise exposure in the measured range should consider implementation of a hearing conservation program. Further evaluation of hearing loss in workers exposed to irregular or intermittent high noise levels, such as firefighters, is also warranted.

  5. Associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise and newborn's size at birth: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Ketzel, Matthias; Pedersen, Marie; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2016-10-01

    Maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise has been suggested to impair fetal growth, but studies have reported inconsistent findings. Objective To investigate associations between residential air pollution and traffic noise during pregnancy and newborn's size at birth. From a national birth cohort we identified 75,166 live-born singletons born at term with information on the children's size at birth. Residential address history from conception until birth was collected and air pollution (NO2 and NOx) and road traffic noise was modeled at all addresses. Associations between exposures and indicators of newborn's size at birth: birth weight, placental weight and head and abdominal circumference were analyzed by linear and logistic regression, and adjusted for potential confounders. In mutually adjusted models we found a 10μg/m(3) higher time-weighted mean exposure to NO2 during pregnancy to be associated with a 0.35mm smaller head circumference (95% confidence interval (CI): 95% CI: -0.57; -0.12); a 0.50mm smaller abdominal circumference (95% CI: -0.80; -0.20) and a 5.02g higher placental weight (95% CI: 2.93; 7.11). No associations were found between air pollution and birth weight. Exposure to residential road traffic noise was weakly associated with reduced head circumference, whereas none of the other newborn's size indicators were associated with noise, neither before nor after adjustment for air pollution. This study indicates that air pollution may result in a small reduction in offspring's birth head and abdominal circumference, but not birth weight, whereas traffic noise seems not to affect newborn's size at birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interleukin-1β gene polymorphism and hearing loss related to the history of occupational noise exposure in Brazilian elderly

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    Luiz C. L. Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is the most common sensory impairment in older people, and may have social and psychological consequences, such as social isolation, frustration and depression. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is an interaction of both genetic and environmental factors. Some studies have led to the identification of possible NIHL susceptibility genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the polymorphism of the interleukin (IL-1β gene at position + 3954 was associated with complaints of hearing loss due to occupational exposure. The sample was composed of elderly people with hearing loss (age ≥ 60 years divided into two groups: 99 with occupational exposure to noise and 193 without exposure. Information on occupational exposure to noise was obtained through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Hearing acuity was measured from 500 to 6000 Hz and the IL-1β genotype was obtained by the polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Differences in allelic and genotypic frequencies, and the association between genotypic frequencies and complaints of hearing loss due to occupational exposure, were analyzed by the Chi-square test at the 5% significance level. Fifty-one percent of the elderly were homozygous for the ancestral allele (C, 17.2% were homozygous for the polymorphic allele (T and 31.8% were heterozygous. The frequency was found to be 67-33% C to allele T. There was no significant association between polymorphism in gene IL-1β and hearing loss associated with occupational exposure (χ2 = 0.538; P = 0.676. No association was found with the polymorphism of the IL-1β +3954 C/T gene and hearing loss associated with the occupational noise exposure history.

  7. Interleukin-1β gene polymorphism and hearing loss related to the history of occupational noise exposure in Brazilian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luiz C L; Marchiori, Luciana L M; Melo, Juliana J; Maciel, Sandra M; Poli-Frederico, Regina C

    2013-01-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory impairment in older people, and may have social and psychological consequences, such as social isolation, frustration and depression. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an interaction of both genetic and environmental factors. Some studies have led to the identification of possible NIHL susceptibility genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the polymorphism of the interleukin (IL)-1β gene at position + 3954 was associated with complaints of hearing loss due to occupational exposure. The sample was composed of elderly people with hearing loss (age ≥ 60 years) divided into two groups: 99 with occupational exposure to noise and 193 without exposure. Information on occupational exposure to noise was obtained through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Hearing acuity was measured from 500 to 6000 Hz and the IL-1β genotype was obtained by the polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Differences in allelic and genotypic frequencies, and the association between genotypic frequencies and complaints of hearing loss due to occupational exposure, were analyzed by the Chi-square test at the 5% significance level. Fifty-one percent of the elderly were homozygous for the ancestral allele (C), 17.2% were homozygous for the polymorphic allele (T) and 31.8% were heterozygous. The frequency was found to be 67-33% C to allele T. There was no significant association between polymorphism in gene IL-1β and hearing loss associated with occupational exposure (χ2 = 0.538; P = 0.676). No association was found with the polymorphism of the IL-1β +3954 C/T gene and hearing loss associated with the occupational noise exposure history.

  8. Noise and light exposures for extremely low birth weight newborns during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Robert E; Williams, Amber L

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize noise and light levels for extremely low birth weight newborns throughout their stay in the NICU, evaluate factors influencing noise and light levels, and determine whether exposures meet recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Sound and light were measured inside the beds of extremely low birth weight newborns (n = 22) from birth to discharge. Measurements were recorded for 20 consecutive hours weekly from birth until 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, biweekly until 40 weeks, and every 4 weeks thereafter. Clinical variables including bed type and method of respiratory support were recorded at each session. Age-related changes in respiratory support and bed type explained the weekly increase of 0.22 dB in sound level and 3.67 lux in light level. Old incubators were the noisiest bed types, and new incubators were the quietest. Light levels were significantly higher in open beds than in incubators. The variations in noise and light levels over time were greatest for open beds. Noise and light levels were much less affected by respiratory support in incubators compared with open beds. A typical extremely low birth weight neonate was exposed to noise levels averaging 56.44 dB(A) and light levels averaging 70.56 lux during their stay from 26 to 42 weeks' postmenstrual age in the NICU. Noise levels were rarely within American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations (5.51% of the time), whereas light levels almost always met recommendations (99.37% of the time). Bed type and respiratory support explained differences in noise and light levels that extremely low birth weight newborns experience during their hospital stay. Noise levels exceeded recommendations, although evidence supporting those recommendations is lacking. Well-designed intervention studies are needed to determine the effects of noise reduction on the development of extremely low birth weight newborns.

  9. Validation of self-reported erythema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B; Thieden, E; Lerche, C M

    2013-01-01

    Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data.......Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data....

  10. Self-Report Measures of Family Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family…

  11. The risk of hearing loss associated with occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture with and without concurrent noise exposure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormozi, Maryam; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Dehghan Haghighi, Javid; Eftekharian, Fatemeh

    2017-06-19

    This study is a meta-analysis of the previous epidemiological studies which investigated the quantitative estimates of the association between independent or combined exposure to noise and mixed organic solvents and hearing loss until October 2014. Overall, 15 studies with information on 7530 individuals (6% female) were included. Having assessed - by puretone audiometry - the adjusted odds ratio estimates for the association between solvents mixture exposure and the risk of developing hearing loss stood at 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-2.9). Similarly, for subjects who were concurrently exposed to noise and solvents mixture, an OR of 2.95 (95% CI: 2.1-4.17) was obtained. There was some evidence of heterogeneity within each of the 2 exposure groups (p heterogeneity hearing loss for workers exposed to organic solvents even at quite low concentration. Moreover, if such exposure is accompanied by noise, it will exacerbate the extent of hearing loss. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):521-535. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. Modeling of noise pollution and estimated human exposure around İstanbul Atatürk Airport in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkurt, Nesimi; Sari, Deniz; Akdag, Ali; Kutukoglu, Murat; Gurarslan, Aliye

    2014-06-01

    The level of aircraft noise exposure around İstanbul Atatürk Airport was calculated according to the European Noise Directive. These calculations were based on the actual flight data for each flight in the year 2011. The study area was selected to cover of 25km radius centered on the Aerodrome Reference Point of the airport. The geographical data around İstanbul Atatürk Airport was used to prepare elevation, residential building, auxiliary building, hospital and school layers in SoundPlan software. It was found that 1.2% of the land area of İstanbul City exceeds the threshold of 55dB(A) during daytime. However, when the exceedance of threshold of 65dB(A)is investigated, the affected area is found quite small (0.2% of land area of city). About 0.3% of the land area of İstanbul City has noise levels exceeding 55dB(A) during night-time. Our results show that about 4% of the resident population was exposed to 55dB(A) or higher noises during daytime in İstanbul. When applying the second threshhold criteria, nearly 1% of the population is exposed to noise levels greater than 65dB(A). At night-time, 1.3% of the population is exposed to 55dB(A) or higher noise levels. © 2013.

  13. The Effects of Chronic Exposure to Airport Related Noise on Blood Pressure (A Case Study of area nearby Ahmad Yani International Airport, Semarang

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    Hani Afnita

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The chronic exposure of airport related noise can lead to decreased quality of health and is a risk faktor of disease. Noise can stimulate physiological response to cardiovascular parameters such as blood pressure. The increase in blood pressure can be used as indicator of disturbance of the cardiovascular system. Ahmad Yani Airport is an international airport with a high mobility, thus people living near, are susceptible and have a risk for decreased quality health. Thus, the purposes of this study was to determine the effects of chronic noise exposure of airport related noise on the blood pressure. The study was an observational analytic cross-sectional study. This research was conducted in the area near Ahmad Yani Airport in Semarang, which is located on Perumahan Cakarawala (± 1000m and Perumahan Semarang Indah (± 5000m. Total of 60 respondents were randomly included in the study. Noise is measured with a Sound Level Meter (SLM Extech Type 70 335 with Leq measurement method (Equivalent Continous Noise Level for 24 hours (Lsm. The preliminary questionnaire was distributed to fulfill the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. The blood pressures were evaluated using the mercury Spygmomanometer, before and after exposure (flight activity. Data were analyzed with dependent t test. Noise measurements indicated that the Perumahan Cakrawala II had ahigh noise exposure above the noise level standards (NAB of 69 dBA (Lsm > NAB 55dBA, while the Perumahan Semarang Indah has noise exposure at 51 dBA below the NAB. The results indicated that the chronic noise exposure of flight activity had significant effect on blood pressure (p = 0.00. The increase in blood pressure among Perumahan Cakrawala II respondents was higher (systolic: by 83.3%, diastolic: by 59.9% compared to Perumahan Semarang Indah (systolic: by 69.9%, diastolic : by 49,9%. In conclusion, exposure to chronic noise due to flight activity significantly affected blood pressure.

  14. Short-term association between personal exposure to noise and heart rate variability: The RECORD MultiSensor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aarbaoui, Tarik; Méline, Julie; Brondeel, Ruben; Chaix, Basile

    2017-12-01

    Studies revealed long-term associations between noise exposure and cardiovascular health, but the underlying short-term mechanisms remain uncertain. To explore the concomitant and lagged short-term associations between personal exposure to noise and heart rate variability (HRV) in a real life setting in the Île-de-France region. The RECORD MultiSensor Study collected between July 2014 and June 2015 noise and heart rate data for 75 participants, aged 34-74 years, in their living environments for 7 days using a personal dosimeter and electrocardiography (ECG) sensor on the chest. HRV parameters and noise levels were calculated for 5-min windows. Short-term relationships between noise level and log-transformed HRV parameters were assessed using mixed effects models with a random intercept for participants and a temporal autocorrelation structure, adjusted for heart rate, physical activity (accelerometry), and short-term trends. An increase by one dB(A) of A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (Leq) was associated with a 0.97% concomitant increase of the Standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN) (95% CI: 0.92, 1.02), of 2.08% of the Low frequency band power (LF) (95% CI: 1.97, 2.18), of 1.30% of the High frequency band power (HF) (95% CI: 1.17, 1.43), and of 1.16% of the LF/HF ratio (95% CI: 1.10, 1.23). The analysis of lagged exposures to noise adjusted for the concomitant exposure illustrates the dynamic of recovery of the autonomic nervous system. Non-linear associations were documented with all HRV parameters with the exception of HF. Piecewise regression revealed that the association was almost 6 times stronger below than above 65 Leq dB(A) for the SDNN and LF/HF ratio. Personal noise exposure was found to be related to a concomitant increase of the overall HRV, with evidence of imbalance of the autonomic nervous system towards sympathetic activity, a pathway to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  15. Exposure to long-term air pollution and road traffic noise in relation to cholesterol: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Ketzel, Matthias; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with cardiovascular disease, though the mechanisms behind are not yet clear. We aimed to investigate whether the two exposures were associated with levels of cholesterol in a cross-sectional design. In 1993–1997, 39,863 participants aged 50–64 year and living in the Greater Copenhagen area were enrolled in a population-based cohort study. For each participant, non-fasting total cholesterol was determined in whole blood samples on the day of enrolment. Residential addresses 5-years preceding enrolment were identified in a national register and road traffic noise (Lden) were modeled for all addresses. For air pollution, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was modeled at all addresses using a dispersion model and PM2.5 was modeled at all enrolment addresses using a land-use regression model. Analyses were done using linear regression with adjustment for potential confounders as well as mutual adjustment for the three exposures. Baseline residential exposure to the interquartile range of road traffic noise,NO2 and PM2.5 was associated with a 0.58 mg/dl (95% confidence interval: −0.09; 1.25), a 0.68 mg/dl (0.22; 1.16) and a 0.78 mg/dl (0.22; 1.34) higher level of total cholesterol in single pollutant models, respectively. In two pollutant models with adjustment for noise in air pollution models and vice versa, the association between air pollution and cholesterol remained for both air pollution variables (NO2: 0.72 (0.11; 1.34); PM2.5: 0.70 (0.12; 1.28) mg/dl), whereas there was no association for noise (−0.08mg/dl). In three-pollutant models (NO2, PM2.5 and road traffic noise), estimates for NO2 and PM2.5 were slightly diminished (NO2: 0.58 (−0.05; 1.22); PM2.5: 0.57 (−0.02; 1.17) mg/dl). Air pollution and possibly also road traffic noise may be associated with slightly higher levels of cholesterol, though associations for the two exposures were difficult to separate.

  16. An Estimation of the Whole-of-Life Noise Exposure of Adolescent and Young Adult Australians with Hearing Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyndal; Black, Deborah; Bundy, Anita; Williams, Warwick

    2016-10-01

    Since amplified music gained widespread popularity, there has been community concern that leisure-noise exposure may cause hearing loss in adolescents and young adults who would otherwise be free from hearing impairment. Repeated exposure to personal stereo players and music events (e.g., nightclubbing, rock concerts, and music festivals) are of particular concern. The same attention has not been paid to leisure-noise exposure risks for young people with hearing impairment (either present from birth or acquired before adulthood). This article reports on the analysis of a subset of data (leisure participation measures) collected during a large, two-phase study of the hearing health, attitudes, and behaviors of 11- to 35-yr-old Australians conducted by the National Acoustic Laboratories (n = 1,667 hearing threshold level datasets analyzed). The overall aim of the two-phase study was to determine whether a relationship between leisure-noise exposure and hearing loss exists. In the current study, the leisure activity profiles and accumulated ("whole-of-life") noise exposures of young people with (1) hearing impairment and (2) with normal hearing were compared. Cross-sectional cohort study. Hearing impaired (HI) group, n = 125; normal (nonimpaired) hearing (NH) group, n = 296, analyzed in two age-based subsets: adolescents (13- to 17-yr-olds) and young adults (18- to 24-yr-olds). Participant survey. The χ² test was used to identify systematic differences between the leisure profiles and exposure estimates of the HI and NH groups. Whole-of-life noise exposure was estimated by adapting techniques described in ISO 1999. For adolescents, leisure profiles were similar for the two groups and few individuals exceeded the stated risk criterion. For young adults, participation was significantly lower for the HI group for 7 out of 18 leisure activities surveyed. Activity diversity and whole-of-life exposure were also significantly lower for the HI group young adults. A

  17. Environmental investigations. Main road reconstruction Oslo East. Traffic pollution and noise and self reporting symptoms for health and well-being. Total results from the cross section investigations for 1987, 1994 and 1996; Miljoeundersoekelsene hovedveiomlegging Oslo Oest. Trafikkforurensning og stoey og selvrapporterende symptomer paa helse og trivsel. Samlede resultater fra tverrsnittundersoekelsene for 1987, 1994 og 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Bartonova, Alena

    1999-07-01

    The report describes the effects of exposure to NO{sub 2}, PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 -{sub 2}.5 on symptoms of reduced health and well-being in adults living in the Vaalerenga/Gamlebyen area in Oslo. Results for some chronic diseases are also reported. In connection with measures taken in order to reduce the environmental burden in the study area, we show that reduced exposure to air pollutants (NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 2}.5) decreased the reporting of symptoms in the upper and lower airways and symptoms of general bad health. For these symptoms, dose-response functions are quantified. The effect of exposure to coarse particles is small, compared to NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 2}.5. Noise perturbs sleep significantly and leads to fatigue.

  18. Exposure to air pollution and noise from road traffic and risk of congenital anomalies in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Garne, Ester; Hansen-Nord, Nete

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with certain congenital anomalies, but few studies rely on assessment of fine-scale variation in air quality and associations with noise from road traffic are unexplored. METHODS: Among 84,218 liveborn singletons (1997-2002) from the Danish...... associated with these subgroups of anomalies as well as with an increased OR for orofacial cleft anomalies (1.17, 0.94-1.47). Inverse associations for several both air pollution and noise were observed for atrial septal defects (0.85, 0.68-1.04 and 0.81, 0.65-0.99, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Residential...... road traffic exposure to noise or air pollution during pregnancy did not seem to pose a risk for development of congenital anomalies....

  19. Noise exposure in movie theaters: a preliminary study of sound levels during the showing of 25 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszawa, Anna; Sataloff, Robert T

    2010-09-01

    The harmful effects of noise exposure during leisure-time activities are beginning to receive some scrutiny. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the noise levels during the showings of 25 different films. During each screening, various sound measurements were made with a dosimeter. The movies were classified on the basis of both their Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and their genre, and the size of the theater and the size of the audience were taken into consideration in the final analysis. Our findings suggest that the sound levels of many movies might be harmful to hearing, although we can draw no definitive conclusions. We did not discern any relationship between noise levels and either MPAA rating or genre. Further studies are recommended.

  20. Exposure to Music and Noise During Pregnancy Influences Neurogenesis and Thickness in Motor and Somatosensory Cortex of Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hee Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Prenatal environmental conditions affect the development of the fetus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exposure to music and noise during pregnancy on neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups. Methods The pregnant rats in the music-applied group were exposed to 65 dB of comfortable music for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. The pregnant rats in the noise-applied group were exposed to 95 dB of sound from a supersonic sound machine for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. After birth, the offspring were left undisturbed together with their mother. The rat pups were sacrificed at 21 days after birth. Results Exposure to music during pregnancy increased neurogenesis in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups. In contrast, rat pups exposed to noise during pregnancy showed decreased neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex. Conclusions Our study suggests that music and noise during the developmental period are important factors influencing brain development and urogenital disorders.

  1. A review of the auditory and non-auditory effects of exposure to noise on women\\'s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Soury

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The present review article showed that the women’s exposure to occupational noise has specific effects in addition to hearing loss and physiological effects which for women in all circumstances, and especially during pregnancy, can have more consequences than men. Therefore, it is essential to pay attention to the physiological and even psychological characteristics of women, especially pregnant women, in the occupational health monitoring program and periodic medical examinations.

  2. Occupational Noise Exposure and the Risk for Work-Related Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel; Dimitrova, Donka

    2017-11-10

    Occupational noise exposure has been linked to work-related injuries. Strategies to control occupational hazards often rely on dose-response relationships needed to inform policy, but quantitative synthesis of the relevant literature has not been done so far. This study aimed to systematically review the epidemiological literature and to perform meta-analysis of the risk for work-related injury due to occupational noise exposure. PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines were followed. PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched up until 15 December 2016 in English, Russian, and Spanish. Reference lists, grey literature, and expert archives were searched as well. The risk of bias was assessed for each study and incorporated into the meta-analysis weights using the quality effects model. Overall, 21 studies were included at the qualitative review stage: 9 cross-sectional, 6 case-control, 4 cohort, 1 case-crossover, and 1 ecological. Noise exposure was assessed objectively in 13 studies. Information on occupational injuries was elicited from medical records/registry in 13 studies. Meta-analyses showed RR = 1.22 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.29) (n = 59028) per 5 dB increase in noise exposure (Cochran's Q = 27.26, P 90-95 dB) compared with the least exposed group (Cochran's Q = 180.46, P work-related injury risk. However, the quality of evidence is 'very low'; therefore, the magnitude of this association should be interpreted with caution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  3. The need for a participatory conservation programme for the reduction of noise exposure to Thai female workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavalitsakulchai, P; Shahnavaz, H

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss induced in thirty female workers because of exposure to continuous noise was studied in a plastic bag plant in Samutprakarn Province, the largest industrial zone in Thailand. The sound level in this plant was 98.5 dBA., 94.0 dBA. and 93.0 dBA. in the weaving, winding and warping sections, respectively. Results of an audiometric test showed a significant relationship between high noise level and hearing loss at frequency 4,000 Hz. A questionnaire survey found that a relatively high number of workers had various symptoms such as: 76.7% general fatigue, 70% headache, 63.3% ear distension and 56.7% vertigo. Concerning the usage of ear protective devices, it was found that 80% of the workers have never used such devices, 16.7% occasionally used them, and 3.3% have always used cotton wool to reduce the high noise level. Their reasons for non-use of ear protective devices were 1) not provided by the employer (86.7%), 2) not necessary (83.3%), 3) accustomed to the noise (63.3%), 4) nobody uses (56.7%), and 5) no loud noise (16.7%). These results point to the need for improving the work conditions and welfare services of the workers at this plant. Also, hearing conservation programmes can be instituted in developing countries through cooperation among the safety inspectorate, the employer and the workers.

  4. Estimating annoyance to calculated wind turbine shadow flicker is improved when variables associated with wind turbine noise exposure are considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicescu, Sonia A; Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; Bower, Tara; van den Berg, Frits; Broner, Norm; Lavigne, Eric

    2016-03-01

    The Community Noise and Health Study conducted by Health Canada included randomly selected participants aged 18-79 yrs (606 males, 632 females, response rate 78.9%), living between 0.25 and 11.22 km from operational wind turbines. Annoyance to wind turbine noise (WTN) and other features, including shadow flicker (SF) was assessed. The current analysis reports on the degree to which estimating high annoyance to wind turbine shadow flicker (HAWTSF) was improved when variables known to be related to WTN exposure were also considered. As SF exposure increased [calculated as maximum minutes per day (SFm)], HAWTSF increased from 3.8% at 0 ≤ SFm wind turbine-related features, concern for physical safety, and noise sensitivity. Reported dizziness was also retained in the final model at p = 0.0581. Study findings add to the growing science base in this area and may be helpful in identifying factors associated with community reactions to SF exposure from wind turbines.

  5. Residential traffic noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma - a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2017-01-01

    of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income...

  6. Hearing and Performance During a 70-h Exposure to Noise Simulating the Space Station Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, S.M.; Crabtree, B.; Baranski, J.V.; Smith, D.G.; Thompson, M.M.; Steeneken, H.J.M.; Verhave, J.A.; Buckey, J.C.; Alvarenga, D.L.; Comtois, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Elevated hearing thresholds have been documented in some astronauts after long-term spaceflights although noise levels were lower than those normally associated with noise-induced hearing loss in ground-based operations. The present study was conducted to determine whether prolonged

  7. Correlation between co-exposures to noise and air pollution from traffic sources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, H.W.; Vlaanderen, J.J.; Henderson, S.E.; Brauer, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both air and noise pollution associated with motor vehicle traffic have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Similarities in pollution source and health outcome mean that there is potential for noise to confound studies of air pollution and cardiovascular disease, and vice versa,

  8. Cardiovascular effects of the combined exposure to noise and outdoor air pollution: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekaviciute, J.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Laszlo, H.E.; Hansell, A.; Floud, S.; Lercher, P.; Babisch, W.; Kephalopoulos, S.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of noise with other environmental stressors, particularly traffic-related air pollution, has been of growing interest in recent years. Cardiovascular effects are among the most evidence-based physical health outcomes. Moreover, the European Network on Noise and Health (ENNAH), which

  9. Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...

  10. Efecto de la exposición a ruido en entornos laborales sobre la calidad de vida y rendimiento Effects of noise exposure in working places on quality of life and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordaz Castillo Elena

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: La exposición laboral a ruido origina efectos sobre la salud de carácter no auditivo. El objetivo de este estudio es estimar la asociación entre exposición a ruido en entornos laborales y la aparición de alteraciones en la conducta, rendimiento y síntomas psicosomáticos. Metodología: Estudio de prevalencia a partir de datos de la VI Encuesta Nacional de Condiciones de Trabajo analizando como variable independiente la exposición a ruido y como variables dependientes los "síntomas que manifiesta el trabajador" tratados de forma individual o por grupo de síntomas según su naturaleza: conductual, psicosomáticos y rendimiento. La asociación entre exposición y efecto se analizó mediante la prueba de X² y se calculó el OR de prevalencias ajustado por ritmo de trabajo (IC95% para medir la asociación entre "exposición a ruido" y grupos de síntomas de forma cruda en el conjunto de la población y de forma estratificada por ramas de actividad. Resultados: El 36,5% de la población trabajadora está expuesta a ruido en su puesto de trabajo. Se observa una mayor prevalencia de los grupos de síntomas conductuales, psicosomáticos y de rendimiento (pAims: Occupational noise exposure could produce extra-auditory effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether occupational noise exposure can influence human behaviour, performance and development of psychosomatic symptoms. Methodology: Cross-sectional study, from the Data-base of Spanish VI National Survey on Working Conditions, "noise exposure" has been analyzed as independent variable and: "symptoms self-reportered by workers" as effect variable, considering them independently or grouped variables in behavioural, psychosomatic and performance symptoms. The relationship between exposure and effect was analyzed by X2 test. Prevalence adjusted Odds Ratio by work rhythm (95% CI, were estimated to measure the association between perceived noise annoyance and grouped

  11. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs). Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution. PMID:26473905

  12. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2015-10-14

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs). Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution.

  13. Combined Exposures: An update from the International comission on biological effects of noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Leroux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN Team 8 deals with the effects of combined "agents" in the urban and work place settings. Results presented at the ICBEN conference indicate that some pesticides, more specifically the organophosphates, and a wider range of industrial chemicals are harmful to the auditory system at concentrations often found in occupational settings. Effects of occupational noise on hearing are exacerbated by toluene and possibly by carbon monoxide. Several of the chemicals studied found to be potentially toxic not only to hair cells in the cochlea but also to the auditory nerve. In urban environments, team 8 focuses on additive and synergetic effects of ambient stressors. It was argued that noise policies need to pay attention to grey areas with intermediate noise levels. Noteworthy is also stronger reactions to vibrations experienced in the evening and during the night. An innovative event-based model for sound perception was presented.

  14. Indoor noise annoyance due to 3-5 megawatt wind turbines-An exposure-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongisto, Valtteri; Oliva, David; Keränen, Jukka

    2017-10-01

    The existing exposure-response relationships describing the association between wind turbine sound level and noise annoyance concern turbine sizes of 0.15-3.0 MW. The main purpose of this study was to determine a relationship concerning turbines with nominal power of 3-5 MW. A cross-sectional survey was conducted around three wind power areas in Finland. The survey involved all households within a 2 km distance from the nearest turbine. Altogether, 429 households out of 753 participated. The households were exposed to wind turbine noise having sound levels within 26.7-44.2 dB L Aeq . Standard prediction methods were applied to determine the sound level, L Aeq , in each participant's yard. The measured sound level agreed well with the predicted sound level. The exposure-response relationship was derived between L Aeq outdoors and the indoor noise annoyance. The relationship was in rather good agreement with two previous studies involving much smaller turbines (0.15-1.5 MW) under 40 dB L Aeq . The Community Tolerance Level (CTL), CTL 20  = 50 dB, was 3 dB lower than for two previous studies. Above 40 dB, a small number of participants prevented a reliable comparison to previous studies.

  15. Pilot task-based assessment of noise levels among firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Rl; Hong, O; Quinlan, P; Hulea, R

    2013-11-01

    Over one million American firefighters are routinely exposed to various occupational hazards agents. While efforts have been made to identify and reduce some causes of injuries and illnesses among firefighters, relatively little has been done to evaluate and understand occupational noise exposures in this group. The purpose of this pilot study was to apply a task-based noise exposure assessment methodology to firefighting operations to evaluate potential noise exposure sources, and to use collected task-based noise levels to create noise exposure estimates for evaluation of risk of noise-induced hearing loss by comparison to the 8-hr and 24-hr recommended exposure limits (RELs) for noise of 85 and 80.3 dBA, respectively. Task-based noise exposures (n=100 measurements) were measured in three different fire departments (a rural department in Southeast Michigan and suburban and urban departments in Northern California). These levels were then combined with time-at-task information collected from firefighters to estimate 8-hr noise exposures for the rural and suburban fire departments (n=6 estimates for each department). Data from 24-hr dosimetry measurements and crude self-reported activity categories from the urban fire department (n=4 measurements) were used to create 24-hr exposure estimates to evaluate the bias associated with the task-based estimates. Task-based noise levels were found to range from 82-109 dBA, with the highest levels resulting from use of saws and pneumatic chisels. Some short (e.g., 30 min) sequences of common tasks were found to result in nearly an entire allowable daily exposure. The majority of estimated 8-hr and 24-hr exposures exceeded the relevant recommended exposure limit. Predicted 24-hr exposures showed substantial imprecision in some cases, suggesting the need for increased task specificity. The results indicate potential for overexposure to noise from a variety of firefighting tasks and equipment, and suggest a need for further

  16. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss - A Preventable Disease? Results of a 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Workers Exposed to Occupational Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Thomas W; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Stokholm, Zara A; Grynderup, Matias B; Hansen, Åse M; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vestergaard, Jesper M; Bonde, Jens P; Kolstad, Henrik A

    2017-01-01

    To survey current, Danish industrial noise levels and the use of hearing protection devices (HPD) over a 10-year period and to characterise the association between occupational noise and hearing threshold shift in the same period. Furthermore, the risk of hearing loss among the baseline and the follow-up populations according to first year of occupational noise exposure is evaluated. In 2001-2003, we conducted a baseline survey of noise- and hearing-related disorders in 11 industries with suspected high noise levels. In 2009-2010, we were able to follow up on 271 out of the 554 baseline workers (49%). Mean noise levels per industry and self-reported HPD use are described at baseline and follow-up. The association between cumulative occupational noise exposure and hearing threshold shift over the 10-year period was assessed using linear regression, and the risk of hearing loss according to year of first occupational noise exposure was evaluated with logistic regression. Over the 10-year period, mean noise levels declined from 83.9 dB(A) to 82.8 dB(A), and for workers exposed >85 dB(A), the use of HPD increased from 70.1 to 76.1%. We found a weak, statistically insignificant, inverse association between higher ambient cumulative noise exposure and poorer hearing (-0.10 dB hearing threshold shift per dB-year (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.36; 0.16)). The risk of hearing loss seemed to increase with earlier first year of noise exposure, but odds ratios were only statistically significant among baseline participants with first exposure before the 1980s (odds ratio: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11; 3.22). We observed declining industrial noise levels, increased use of HPD and no significant impact on hearing thresholds from current ambient industrial noise levels, which indicated a successful implementation of Danish hearing conservation programs.

  17. Effect of smoking on hearing loss in refractory's factory male worker with occupational noise exposure in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofateh, Mohammadreza; Karimi, Qasim; Hosseini, Mohammad Hamed; Sharif-Zadeh, Gholam Reza

    2017-04-01

    To assess the effect of smoking on hearing loss in factory workers with occupational noise exposure. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran, from May to July 2013, and comprised smoking and non-smoking factory male workers. All of them were exposed to occupational noise level more than 85 decibels for at least 10 years. All participants underwent audiometric testing. SPSS 15 was used for data analysis.. Of the 150 participants, 55(36.7%) were smokers and 95(63.3%) were non-smokers. The mean age of the participants was 43.26±7.81 years while the mean working experience was 15.51±3.87 years. Furthermore, 18(32.7%) of the smokers and 8(8.4%) of the non-smokers suffered tinnitus (p=0.07). The mean noise intensity in the working place of the individuals was 89±2.63 A-weighted decibels. At a frequency of 500 Hz, the mean hearing loss was 4.8±5.7 decibels among smokers and 3.3±4.6 decibels among non-smokers in the left ear (p=0.52), whereas it was 4.8±5.1 decibels and 3.00±4.5 decibels in the right ear (p=0.15). The difference between the smokers and the non-smokers was significant in both ears at 1000Hz, 2000Hz, 4000Hz and 8000Hz (phearing loss among workers who were in close contact with excessive noise exposure.

  18. Self-reported skin morbidity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Zarchi, Kian; Ellervik, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Skin diseases are thought to be common in the general population. In 2004, a cross-sectional study in Norway, using a validated questionnaire for 18,770 individuals, revealed a high prevalence of skin diseases in the general population. To describe the prevalence of self-reported skin morbidities...... questionnaire. In total, 17.2% self-reported skin complaints. The most prominent self-reported skin complaint was itch with an overall prevalence of 6.5%. The skin morbidity most influenced by age was pimples. There was a uniform pattern showing fewer skin complaints with increasing education. Women reported...... skin morbidities more frequently than men. Participants in employment reported fewer skin morbidities compared to unemployed participants. Skin morbidities in Denmark are common, and the distribution of prevalence estimates in the Danish population parallel those of the Norwegian population, although...

  19. Health impact and noise exposure assessment in the cricket bat industry of Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Javid; Mamta; Jaganadha Rao, Rayavarapu; Wani, Khursheed Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify and evaluate predominant noise sources in the cricket bat industry of Kashmir, India. Sound levels were measured at operator's ear level in the working zone of the workers of seven cricket bat factories. The impact assessment was made through personal interviews with each worker separately during their period of rest. On average, 62.5% of the workers reported difficulty in hearing and 24.1% of the workers have become patients for hypertension. Only 58.1% of the workers complained of headache due to high noise level. The workers engaged in the cricket bat industry of Kashmir are exposed to high noise levels. It is suggested that personal protective equipment like ear plugs and ear muffs be used by these workers as a protection against this hazard.

  20. WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review on Environmental Noise and Effects on Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of available evidence on the effects of environmental noise exposure on sleep a systematic review was conducted. The databases PSYCINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science and the TNO Repository were searched for non-laboratory studies on the effects of environmental noise on sleep with measured or predicted noise levels and published in or after the year 2000. The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria. Seventy four studies predominately conducted between 2000 and 2015 were included in the review. A meta-analysis of surveys linking road, rail, and aircraft noise exposure to self-reports of sleep disturbance was conducted. The odds ratio for the percent highly sleep disturbed for a 10 dB increase in Lnight was significant for aircraft (1.94; 95% CI 1.61–2.3), road (2.13; 95% CI 1.82–2.48), and rail (3.06; 95% CI 2.38–3.93) noise when the question referred to noise, but non-significant for aircraft (1.17; 95% CI 0.54–2.53), road (1.09; 95% CI 0.94–1.27), and rail (1.27; 95% CI 0.89–1.81) noise when the question did not refer to noise. A pooled analysis of polysomnographic studies on the acute effects of transportation noise on sleep was also conducted and the unadjusted odds ratio for the probability of awakening for a 10 dBA increase in the indoor Lmax was significant for aircraft (1.35; 95% CI 1.22–1.50), road (1.36; 95% CI 1.19–1.55), and rail (1.35; 95% CI 1.21–1.52) noise. Due to a limited number of studies and the use of different outcome measures, a narrative review only was conducted for motility, cardiac and blood pressure outcomes, and for children’s sleep. The effect of wind turbine and hospital noise on sleep was also assessed. Based on the available evidence, transportation noise affects objectively measured sleep physiology and subjectively assessed sleep disturbance in adults. For other outcome measures and noise sources the examined evidence was conflicting or only emerging

  1. The impacts of short-term exposure to noise and traffic-related air pollution on heart rate variability in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Deng, Furong; Wu, Shaowei; Lu, Henry; Hao, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with cardiovascular diseases, and alternation of heart rate variability (HRV), which reflects cardiac autonomic function, is one of the mechanisms. However, few studies considered the impacts of noise when exploring associations between air pollution and HRV. We explored whether noise modifies associations between short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and HRV in young healthy adults. In this randomized, crossover study, 40 young healthy adults stayed for 2 h in a traffic center and, on a separate occasion, in a park. Personal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants and noise were measured and ambulatory electrocardiogram was performed. Effects were estimated using mixed-effects regression models. Traffic-related air pollution and noise were both associated with HRV, and effects of air pollutants were amplified at high noise level (>65.6 A-weighted decibels (dB[A])) compared with low noise level (≤ 65.6 dB[A]). High frequency (HF) decreased by -4.61% (95% confidence interval, -6.75% to-2.42%) per 10 μg/m(3) increment in fine particle (PM2.5) at 5-min moving average, but effects became insignificant at low noise level (P>0.05). Similar effects modification was observed for black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO). We conclude that noise is an important factor influencing the effects of air pollution on HRV.

  2. Study of the hearing losses of industrial workers with occupational noise exposure, using statistical methods for the analysis of qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop, I; Raber, A; Fischer, G H

    1979-01-01

    The application of a polychotomous generalization of the linear probabilistic model of Cox is described, which allows the investigation of the effects of different noise levels with various durations of exposure on hearing. If the model assumptions are not rejected, it is possible to separate the effect of noise exposure from the effect of age. The results will thus show to what extent the hearing losses of an industrial worker are due to presbyacusis or to noise exposure. An empirical investigation was based on the evaluation of hearing losses at the audiometric frequencies 1, 2 and 3 kHz in 35 212 industrial workers of both sexes. It was attempted to predict the distribution of hearing losses in the left and the right ear as an additive function of the effect of noise exposure, age and sex. The parameters describing the effect of age increased linearly. Noise levels equal to and above 85 dB(A) have a noxious influence on hearing. Furthermore, hearing loss does not increase continuously with duration of exposure; from 15 years onwards, no essential increase in hearing loss appears which can be attributed to noise at work.

  3. Induction of enhanced acoustic startle response by noise exposure: dependence on exposure conditions and testing parameters and possible relevance to hyperacusis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony H Salloum

    Full Text Available There has been a recent surge of interest in the development of animal models of hyperacusis, a condition in which tolerance to sounds of moderate and high intensities is diminished. The reasons for this decreased tolerance are likely multifactorial, but some major factors that contribute to hyperacusis are increased loudness perception and heightened sensitivity and/or responsiveness to sound. Increased sound sensitivity is a symptom that sometimes develops in human subjects after acoustic insult and has recently been demonstrated in animals as evidenced by enhancement of the acoustic startle reflex following acoustic over-exposure. However, different laboratories have obtained conflicting results in this regard, with some studies reporting enhanced startle, others reporting weakened startle, and still others reporting little, if any, change in the amplitude of the acoustic startle reflex following noise exposure. In an effort to gain insight into these discrepancies, we conducted measures of acoustic startle responses (ASR in animals exposed to different levels of sound, and repeated such measures on consecutive days using a range of different startle stimuli. Since many studies combine measures of acoustic startle with measures of gap detection, we also tested ASR in two different acoustic contexts, one in which the startle amplitudes were tested in isolation, the other in which startle amplitudes were measured in the context of the gap detection test. The results reveal that the emergence of chronic hyperacusis-like enhancements of startle following noise exposure is highly reproducible but is dependent on the post-exposure thresholds, the time when the measures are performed and the context in which the ASR measures are obtained. These findings could explain many of the discrepancies that exist across studies and suggest guidelines for inducing in animals enhancements of the startle reflex that may be related to hyperacusis.

  4. Parent Perceptions of Children's Leisure and the Risk of Damaging Noise Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyndal; Black, Deborah; Bundy, Anita; Williams, Warwick

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the attitudes of parents of adolescent children (with, and without, hearing impairment), with the following objectives: (1) compare perceptions of the parent groups regarding the risk of leisure-noise-related hearing injury; and (2) investigate how comfortable parents felt endorsing their child's…

  5. Attitudes, Risk Behavior, and Noise Exposure among Young Adults with Hearing Problems: Identifying a Typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Abby

    2017-11-01

    This study explored attitudes toward leisure noise, use of hearing protection, and perceived susceptibility to leisure-noise damage in young adults with hearing problems. Twelve participants aged between 18 and 35 years took part in a semistructured interview. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. The results showed that a positive attitude to noise, a passion for loud music, a lack of knowledge of the consequences of noise damage, and perceived low risk of hearing problems were associated with people not using earplugs. The aesthetics, comfort, perceived effects on music quality and attitude of others were all barriers to earplug use. Of those who had used earplugs, previous hearing-related symptoms and concern about future hearing damage were the main motivators for use. Four types of people were identified to describe the variation in attitudes and behaviors: those who had no change in behavior or concern about damage; those who were concerned and used earplugs; those who were concerned and avoided loud venues; and those who were concerned about communication difficulties only. Considering the wide variability, it may be more effective to shift attention from trying to change individual attitudes and behaviors to considering systemic changes to protect hearing, through ensuring the music industry and relevant authorities take greater responsibility.

  6. Noise exposure and oxidative balance in auditory and extra-auditory structures in adult and developing animals. Pharmacological approaches aimed to minimize its effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, S J; Miceli, M; Guelman, L R

    2016-07-01

    Noise coming from urban traffic, household appliances or discotheques might be as hazardous to the health of exposed people as occupational noise, because may likewise cause hearing loss, changes in hormonal, cardiovascular and immune systems and behavioral alterations. Besides, noise can affect sleep, work performance and productivity as well as communication skills. Moreover, exposure to noise can trigger an oxidative imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in different structures, which can contribute to tissue damage. In this review we systematized the information from reports concerning noise effects on cell oxidative balance in different tissues, focusing on auditory and non-auditory structures. We paid specific attention to in vivo studies, including results obtained in adult and developing subjects. Finally, we discussed the pharmacological strategies tested by different authors aimed to minimize the damaging effects of noise on living beings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What's in a Self-report?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Else Marie

    2016-01-01

    of ED recorded in the health registers. Women with self-reported ED were comparable with women with hospital diagnosed ED on most reproductive and health characteristics, while they differed from women without ED concerning all characteristics studied. Our findings highlight that women with self...

  8. Noise exposure and hearing conservation practices in an industry with high incidence of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, William E; Swan, Susan S; McDaniel, Mary M; Stebbins, John G; Seixas, Noah S; Morgan, Michael S

    2002-10-01

    Washington State has experienced a striking increase in workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. This cross-sectional study examined noise exposures and hearing conservation practices in one industry with a high rate of hearing loss claims. We evaluated 10 representative foundries with personal noise dosimetry, management interviews, employee interviews, and existing audiometry. Noise levels routinely exceeded 85 dBA. All companies were out of compliance with hearing conservation regulations. Most employees with important findings on audiograms were not aware of their findings. There was a significant positive correlation between management-interview scores and worksite-average employee-interview scores (r = 0.70, P = 0.02). Companies where more effort is put into hearing conservation program activities can achieve a greater positive impact on employee awareness. However, there were broad deficiencies even in the better programs in this sample, suggesting that workers in this industry probably face a continuing substantial risk of occupational hearing loss. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. The protective effect of moderate noisy backgrounds for certain period on hearing after exposure to a traumatic noise in guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hua WANG

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the protective effect of moderate noisy backgrounds on guinea pig's hearing after an exposure to a traumatic noise. Methods  Thirty guinea pigs were randomly divided into five groups (6 each. Animals in group A, B, C and D were subjected to noise of 84 decibels sound pressure level (dB SPL for 4, 8, 24 and 0 hour respectively after a traumatic exposure of 110 dB SPL, and those in group E were kept in quiet environment. Distortion product oto-acoustic emission (DPOAE amplitudes were determined on 1 day prior, and 1 and 7 days after noise exposure. Blood plasma was obtained to determine the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA and the activities of hemocuprein (SOD and nitricoxide synthase (NOS at the end of the experiment. Results  Noise-induced hearing loss was caused in group D after a traumatic exposure. At the 1st and 7th day after exposure, DPOAE amplitudes were higher in group A and B than in group D, especially at high frequencies, while no significant difference was observed between group C and D. At the 7th day after exposure, the activity of SOD lowered, while the content of MDA increased in group A and B as compared with group E (P<0.05. The content of MDA in group A increased as compared with group D (P<0.05. Conclusion  After the traumatic noise-exposure, the recovery of noise-induced hearing loss, especially the high-frequency hearing loss could be motivated when exposed to noise at 84 dB SPL for 4 or 8 hours.

  10. Occupational noise exposure assessment using O*NET and its application to a study of hearing loss in the US general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Hu, Howard; Tak, SangWoo; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Park, Sung Kyun

    2012-03-01

    Although occupational noise is a well known risk factor for hearing loss, little epidemiological evidence has been reported on its association with hearing loss in the general population, in part, because of the difficulty in exposure assessment. This study introduced a quantitative occupational noise exposure assessment tool using the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database and evaluated its applicability for epidemiological research using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. The O*NET noise exposure data were assessed by questionnaires across numerous occupations, asking the frequency of exposure to sounds and noise levels that are distracting and uncomfortable (with five possible responses from 'never' to 'every day'). Means of the O*NET noise scores were computed to correspond to NHANES occupational categories and assigned to 3828 adults aged 20-69 years, who participated in the 1999-2004 NHANES. Pure-tone averages (PTA) of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz were computed, and hearing loss was defined as a PTA >25 dB in either ear. Linear and logistic regression models with either continuous or quintiles of the O*NET noise scores were fitted on log-transformed PTA and binary hearing loss, respectively. Noise scores ranged from 1.80 to 4.37 with mean±SE of 3.06±0.02. After controlling for potential confounders, the highest (vs lowest) noise score quintile had a 22.5% (95% CI 11.0% to 35.2%) increase in PTA, and there was a linear dose-dependent trend across the quintiles of noise scores (p trendhearing loss comparing the highest with the lowest noise score quintiles was 2.1 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.6). This study suggests that the O*NET noise score is a useful tool for examining occupational noise-induced health effects in the general population in the absence of actual occupational noise exposure assessment data.

  11. Self-Reported Acute and Chronic Voice Disorders in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The dependent variable, self-reported dysphonia, was determined via a single question, "Have you noticed changes in your voice quality?" and if so, a follow-up question queried the duration of this change, acute or chronic. The independent variables were dichotomized and divided into five categories: sociodemographic and economic data; lifestyle; organizational and environmental data; health-disease processes; and voice. Analyses of associated factors were performed via a hierarchical multiple logistic regression model. The present study included 226 teachers, of whom 38.9% reported no voice disorders, 35.4% reported an acute disorder, and 25.7% reported a chronic disorder. Excessive voice use daily, consuming more than one alcoholic drink per time, and seeking medical treatment because of voice disorders were associated factors for acute and chronic voice disorders. Consuming up to three glasses of water per day was associated with acute voice disorders. Among teachers who reported chronic voice disorders, teaching for over 15 years and the perception of disturbing or unbearable noise outside the school were both associated factors. Identification of organizational, environmental, and predisposing risk factors for voice disorders is critical, and furthermore, a vocal health promotion program may address these issues. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of physio-psychological effects on traffic wardens due to traffic noise pollution; exposure-effect relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabraiz, Shamas; Ahmad, Saeed; Shehzadi, Iffat; Asif, Muhammad Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Noise pollution has increased to alarming extent in most of the urban areas in Pakistan. It is assumed even more perilous than air and water pollution due to its direct acute and chronic physio-psychological effects. The objective of this study is to analyze and evaluate the psychological and physiological effects caused by traffic noise on traffic wardens and to find relation type between exposure time and effect. Three wardens check posts near roads were selected for survey in Taxila and Islamabad cities of Pakistan. Survey conducted included noise measurements at aforementioned check posts for one month and Performa based interviews of traffic wardens. Analysis of results showed that noise levels varied between 85-106 dB hence violating OSHA regulations. Major psychological effects found in wardens were aggravated depression 58%, stress 65%, public conflict 71%, irritation and annoyance 54%, behavioral affects 59% and speech interference 56%. Physiological effects found were hypertension 87%, muscle tension 64%, exhaustion 48%, low performance levels 55%, concentration loss 93%, hearing impairment 69%, headache 74% and cardiovascular issue 71%. Relation between exposure time and effects were evaluated by using simple regression test in excel. Percentage of psychological and physiological effects in wardens varied with the exposure time; aggravated depression (R(2) = 0.946, P = 0.133), stress suffering (R(2) = 0.014, P = 0.173), public conflict (R(2) = 0.946, P = 0.133), irritation and annoyance (R(2) = 0.371, P = 0.137), behavioral affects (R(2) = 0.596, P = 0.0616) and speech interference (R(2) = 0.355, P = 0.445), hypertension (R(2) = 0.96, P = 0.00095) and cardiovascular issue (R(2) = 0.775, P = 0.044).

  13. Long-term exposure to wind turbine noise at night and risk for diabetes: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Peña, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-04-14

    Focus on renewable energy sources and reduced unit costs has led to increased number of wind turbines (WTs). WT noise (WTN) is reported to be highly annoying at levels from 30 to 35 dB and up, whereas for traffic noise people report to be highly annoyed from 40 to 45 dB and up. This has raised concerns as to whether WTN may increase risk for major diseases, as exposure to traffic noise has consistently been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We identified all Danish dwellings within a radius of 20 WT heights and 25% of all dwellings within 20-40 WT heights from a WT. Using detailed data on WT type and hourly wind data at each WT position and height, we estimated hourly outdoor and low frequency indoor WTN for all dwellings, aggregated as nighttime 1- and 5-year running means. Using nationwide registries, we identified a study population of 614,731 persons living in these dwellings in the period from 1996 to 2012, of whom 25,148 developed diabetes. Data were analysed using Poisson regression with adjustment for individual and area-levels covariates. We found no associations between long-term exposure to WTN during night and diabetes risk, with incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of 0.90 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.79-1.02) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.68-1.24) for 5-year mean nighttime outdoor WTN of 36-42 and ≥ 42 dB, respectively, compared to < 24 dB. For 5-year mean nighttime indoor low frequency WTN of 10-15 and ≥ 15 dB we found IRRs of 0.90 (0.78-1.04) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.41-1.34), respectively, when compared to and < 5 dB. The lack of association was consistent across strata of sex, distance to major road, validity of noise estimate and WT height. The present study does not support an association between nighttime WTN and higher risk of diabetes. However, there were only few cases in the highest exposure groups and findings need reproduction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Commuter exposure to black carbon, carbon monoxide, and noise in the mass transport khlong boats of Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, A. D.; Velasco, E.; Ho, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Khlong (canal) boats are a unique mass transport alternative in the congested city of Bangkok. Canals and rivers provide exclusive transit-ways for reducing the commuting time of thousands of city residents daily. However, as a consequence of the service characteristics and boats design and state of repair, they can represent a potential public health risk and an important source of black carbon and greenhouse gases. This work quantifies commuter exposure to black carbon, CO and noise when waiting for and travelling in these diesel fueled boats. Exposure to toxic pollutants and acute noise is similar or worse than for other transportation modes. Mean black carbon concentrations observed at one busy pier and along the main canal were much higher than ambient concentrations at sites impacted by vehicular traffic. Concentrations of CO were similar to those reported for roadside areas of Bangkok. The equivalent continuous sound levels registered at the landing pier were similar to those reported for roadsides, but values recorded inside the boats were significantly higher. We believe that the boat service is a viable alternative mode of mass transport, but public safety could be improved to provide a high quality service, comparable to modern rail systems or emerging bus rapid transit systems. These investments would also contribute to reduce the emission of black carbon and other greenhouse and toxic pollutants.

  15. Environmental noise exposure, early biological risk and mental health in nine to ten year old children: a cross-sectional field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stansfeld Stephen A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research suggests that children born prematurely or with a low birth weight are more vulnerable to the mental health effects of ambient neighbourhood noise; predominantly road and rail noise, at home. This study used data from the Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH study to see if this finding extends to aircraft and road traffic noise at school. Methods Children and their parents from schools around three European airports were selected to represent a range of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure levels. Birth weight and gestation period were merged to create a dichotomous variable assessing 'early biological risk'. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Complete data were available for 1900 primary school children. Results Children who were 'at risk' (i.e. low birth weight or premature birth were rated as having more conduct problems and emotional symptoms and poorer overall mental health than children not at risk. However, there was no interaction between aircraft or road traffic noise exposure at school and early biological risk. Conclusions Data from the RANCH study suggests that children with early biological risk are not more vulnerable to the effects of aircraft or road traffic noise at school on mental health than children without this risk; however they are more likely to have mental ill-health.

  16. Influence of urban vegetation on air pollution and noise exposure - A case study in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Jenny; Broberg, Malin; Strandberg, Bo; Thorsson, Pontus; Pleijel, Håkan

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution levels (NO 2 , PAHs, O 3 ) were investigated, before (BLE) and after (ALE) leaf emergence, in the urban landscape of Gothenburg, Sweden. The aims were to study the 1) spatial and temporal variation in pollution levels between urban green areas, 2) effect of urban vegetation on air pollution levels at the same distance from a major emission source (traffic route), 3) improvement of urban air quality in urban parks compared to adjacent sites near traffic, 4) correlation between air pollution and noise in a park. O 3 varied little over the urban landscape. NO 2 varied strongly and was higher in situations strongly influenced by traffic. Four PAH variables were included: total PAH, total particle-bound PAH, the quantitatively important gaseous phenanthrene and the highly toxic particle-bound benzo(a)pyrene. The variation of PAHs was similar to NO 2 , but for certain PAHs the difference between highly and less polluted sites was larger than for NO 2 . At a vegetated site, NO 2 and particulate PAH levels were lower than at a non-vegetated site at a certain distance from a busy traffic route. This effect was significantly larger ALE compared to BLE for NO 2 , indicating green leaf area to be highly significant factor for air quality improvement. For particulate PAHs, the effect was similar BLE and ALE, indicating that tree bark and branches also could be an important factor in reducing air pollution. Parks represented considerably cleaner local environments (park effect), which is likely to be a consequence of both a dilution (distance effect) and deposition. Noise and air pollution (NO 2 and PAH) levels were strongly correlated. Comparison of noise levels BLE and ALE also showed that the presence of leaves significantly reduced noise levels. Our results are evidence that urban green spaces are beneficial for urban environmental quality, which is important to consider in urban planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on the impact of exposure to noise in professional snipers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkokebas Junior, B; Lago, E; Vasconcelos, B; Oliveira, E

    2012-01-01

    Facing an increasing violence level and higher firepower in the hands of criminal organizations (especially those related to drug trafficking), the Military Police of Pernambuco has created, in 1989, the "1a Companhia Independente de Operações Especiais" (1st Independent Company of Special Operations), as a tactical last resort of the Police to be used on special, complex situations. The CIOE progressively makes use of Negotiation measures, of less-than-lethal maneuvers, of Precision Shots and Tactical Assaults. When all possibilities are drained, the Precision Shot will bring the crisis perpetrator down. This study had as an objective to assess the level of impact noise suffered by the elite snipers of the 1st CIOE-PE in their training. The working conditions of the snipers were evaluated through the use of a semi-structured questionnaire. Noise measuring was done on four (4) .308 IMBEL AGLC (with ammo from the same lot) rifles. Six (6) shots were fired off each gun, separated by a 30-second pause. In the end, it has been concluded that the noise level the 1st CIOE snipers are submitted to is considered to be normal by Brazilian legislation.

  18. Bone conduction noise exposure via ventilators in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemizadeh Gol, Mohammad Abraham; Black, Angela; Sidman, James

    2015-10-01

    To demonstrate that neonatal ventilators can expose patients to high noise levels through bone conduction (BC) as well as air conduction (AC). Observational study. Three ventilators and various settings on a positive airway pressure machine (continuous, high bilevel, and low bilevel pressure) were tested. A sound level meter was used to measure the noise levels at a set distance from the ventilator to represent AC, on the ventilator circuit to represent BC at the alveolus, and within the ventilator circuit. The BC sound levels (74.1, 81.1, 86, 89.2 dBC) were significantly higher than the AC sound levels (72.8, 72.9, 70, 71.7 dBC) for the jet ventilator, continuous positive airway pressure setting, low bilevel setting, and high bilevel setting, respectively (P ventilator circuit ranged from 94.9 to 113.2 dBC depending on the machine/setting and was significantly louder than both AC or BC for all machines/settings (P ventilator dependent noise levels present on and within ventilation circuitry that could be presented to the infant via BC. NA © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Engineered Solutions to Reduce Occupational Noise Exposure at the NASA Glenn Research Center: A Five-Year Progress Summary (1994-1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Beth A.; Hange, Donald W.; Mikulic, John J.

    1999-01-01

    At the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (formerly the Lewis Research Center), experimental research in aircraft and space propulsion systems is conducted in more than 100 test cells and laboratories. These facilities are supported by a central process air system that supplies high-volume, high-pressure compressed air and vacuum at various conditions that simulate altitude flight. Nearly 100,000 square feet of metalworking and specialized fabrication shops located on-site produce prototypes, models, and test hardware in support of experimental research operations. These activities, comprising numerous individual noise sources and operational scenarios, result in a varied and complex noise exposure environment, which is the responsibility of the Glenn Research Center Noise Exposure Management Program. Hearing conservation, community noise complaint response and noise control engineering services are included under the umbrella of this Program, which encompasses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard on occupational noise exposure, Sec. 29CFR 1910.95, as well as the more stringent NASA Health Standard on Hearing Conservation. Prior to 1994, in the absence of feasible engineering controls, strong emphasis had been placed on personal hearing protection as the primary mechanism for assuring compliance with Sec. 29CFR 1910.95 as well as NASA's more conservative policy, which prohibits unprotected exposure to noise levels above 85 dB(A). Center policy and prudent engineering practice required, however, that these efforts be extended to engineered noise controls in order to bring existing work areas into compliance with Sec. 29CFR 1910.95 and NASA's own policies and to ensure compliance for new installations. Coincident with the establishment in 1995 of a NASA wide multi-year commitment of funding for environmental abatement projects, the Noise Exposure Management Program was established, with its focus on engineering approaches

  20. Occupational noise exposure and age correction: the problem of selection bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, Robert A

    2009-12-01

    Selection bias often invalidates conclusions about populations based on clinical convenience samples. A recent paper in this journal makes two surprising assertions about noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS): first, that there is more NIPTS at 2 kHz than at higher frequencies; second, that NIPTS declines with advancing age. Neither assertion can be supported with the data presented, which were obtained from a clinical sample; both are consistent with the hypothesis that people who choose to attend an audiology clinic have worse hearing, especially at 2 kHz, than people of the same age and gender who choose not to attend.

  1. Association between ambient noise exposure and school performance of children living in an urban area: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Sophie; Levain, Jean-Pierre; Houot, Hélène; Petit, Rémy; Berthillier, Marc; Defrance, Jérôme; Lardies, Joseph; Masselot, Cyril; Mauny, Frédéric

    2014-04-01

    Most of the studies investigating the effects of the external noise on children's school performance have concerned pupils in schools exposed to high levels due to aircraft or freeway traffic noise. However, little is known about the consequences of the chronic ambient noise exposure at a level commonly encountered in residential urban areas. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the school performance of 8- to 9-year-old-children living in an urban environment and their chronic ambient noise exposure at home and at school. The children's school performances on the national standardized assessment test in French and mathematics were compared with the environmental noise levels. Children's exposure to ambient noise was calculated in front of their bedrooms (Lden) and schools (LAeq,day) using noise prediction modeling. Questionnaires were distributed to the families to collect potential confounding factors. Among the 746 respondent children, 586 were included in multilevel analyses. On average, the LAeq,day at school was 51.5 dB (SD= 4.5 dB; range = 38-58 dB) and the outdoor Lden at home was 56.4 dB (SD= 4.4 dB; range = 44-69 dB). LAeq,day at school was associated with impaired mathematics score (p = 0.02) or impaired French score (p = 0.01). For a + 10 dB gap, the French and mathematics scores were on average lower by about 5.5 points. Lden at home was significantly associated with impaired French performance when considered alone (p school exposure was considered (p = 0.06). The magnitude of the observed effect on school performance may appear modest, but should be considered in light of the number of people who are potentially chronically exposed to similar environmental noise levels.