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Sample records for self-reported medical history

  1. Seroepidemiology of Varicella and value of self-reported history of Varicella infection in Iranian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allami, Abbas; Mohammadi, Navid; Najar, Azade

    2014-04-01

    We conducted this study to assess the seroprevalence of Varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibodies in a group of Iranian medical sciences students that were at risk of Varicella and the value of self-reported history as a predictor of immunity. 255 medical, nursing and obstetrics students who had not entered as a student or worked in a hospital from 3 different schools were enrolled in the study in 2012 (Qazvin province, Iran). Demographics and other information as well as the history of Varicella were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to determine the Varicella IgG levels via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A statistical analysis was performed by calculating prevalences and their 95% confidence intervals. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, Cohen's kappa and positive and negative likelihood ratios of recalled history were determined. p history with immunity against the virus were statistically significant. The overall rate of reported history was 57%. The positive and negative predictive values of self-reported history of Varicella were 91% and 47.3%, respectively. Immunization of students of Iranian medical sciences seems logical in the near future. Also, they should be tested for Varicella immunity regardless of the history of previous infection.

  2. The accuracy of self-reported medical history: a preliminary analysis of the promise of internet-based research in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelstrup, Anne Mette; Juillerat, Pascal; Korzenik, Joshua

    2014-05-01

    Internet-based surveys provide a potentially important tool for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) research. The advantages include low cost, large numbers of participants, rapid study completion and less extensive infrastructure than traditional methods. The aim was to determine the accuracy of patient self-reporting in internet-based IBD research and identify predictors of greater reliability. 197 patients from a tertiary care center answered an online survey concerning personal medical history and an evaluation of disease specific knowledge. Self-reported medical details were compared with data abstracted from medical records. Agreement was assessed by kappa (κ) statistics. Participants responded correctly with excellent agreement (κ=0.96-0.97) on subtype of IBD and history of surgery. The agreement was also excellent for colectomy (κ=0.88) and small bowel resection (κ=0.91), moderate for abscesses and fistulas (κ=0.60 and 0.63), but poor regarding partial colectomy (κ=0.39). Time since last colonoscopy was self-reported with better agreement (κ=0.84) than disease activity. For disease location/extent, moderate agreements at κ=69% and 64% were observed for patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, respectively. Subjects who scored higher than the average in the IBD knowledge assessment were significantly more accurate about disease location than their complementary group (74% vs. 59%, p=0.02). This study demonstrates that IBD patients accurately report their medical history regarding type of disease and surgical procedures. More detailed medical information is less reliably reported. Disease knowledge assessment may help in identifying the most accurate individuals and could therefore serve as validity criteria. Internet-based surveys are feasible with high reliability about basic disease features only. However, the participants in this study were engaged at a tertiary center, which potentially leads to a bias and compromises generalization to

  3. Patients Who Attend the Emergency Department Following Medication Overdose: Self-Reported Mental Health History and Intended Outcomes of Overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buykx, Penny; Ritter, Alison; Loxley, Wendy; Dietze, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Medication overdose is a common method of non-fatal self-harm. Previous studies have established which mental health disorders are commonly associated with the behaviour (affective, substance use, anxiety and personality disorders) and which medications are most frequently implicated (benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antipsychotics and non-opioid…

  4. Fish consumption and its motives in households with versus without self-reported medical history of CVD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico

    2008-01-01

    subjective and objective knowledge related to nutrition issues about fish. In the other countries, objective knowledge about fish was on a low level, similar for CVD+ as for CVD- subjects, despite a higher claimed use of medical information sources about fish among CVD+ subjects. Conclusions - Although...... consumption. This study exemplifies the need for nutrition education and more effective communication about fish, not only to the people facing chronic diseases, but also to the broader public. European consumers are convinced that eating fish is healthy, but particular emphasis should be made...

  5. Fish consumption and its motives in households with versus without self-reported medical history of CVD: A consumer survey from five European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunsø Karen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-cultural differences in the frequency of fish intake and in motivations for fish consumption between people from households with (CVD+ or without (CVD- medical history of cardiovascular disease, using data obtained in five European countries. Methods A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in November-December 2004 with representative household samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4,786 respondents, aged 18–84 and who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. Results Individuals from households in the CVD+ group consumed fish more frequently in Belgium and in Denmark as compared to those in the CVD- group. The consumption of fatty fish, which is the main sources of omega-3 PUFA associated with prevention of cardiovascular diseases, was on the same level for the two CVD groups in the majority of the countries, except in Belgium where CVD+ subjects reported to eat fatty fish significantly more frequently than CVD- subjects. All respondents perceived fish as a very healthy and nutritious food product. Only Danish consumers reported a higher subjective and objective knowledge related to nutrition issues about fish. In the other countries, objective knowledge about fish was on a low level, similar for CVD+ as for CVD- subjects, despite a higher claimed use of medical information sources about fish among CVD+ subjects. Conclusion Although a number of differences between CVD- and CVD+ subjects with respect to their frequency of fish intake are uncovered, the findings suggest that fish consumption traditions and habits – rather than a medical history of CVD – account for large differences between the countries, particularly in fatty fish consumption. This study exemplifies the need for nutrition education and more effective communication about fish, not only to the people facing chronic

  6. The reliability and validity of self-reported reproductive history and obstetric morbidity amongst birth to ten mothers in Soweto

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    GTH Ellison

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether self-reports of reproductive history and obstetric morbidity provide an accurate basis for clinical decision-making. Setting, participants and methods: Self-reports of maternal age and reproductive history, together with clinical measurements of five medical disorders, were abstracted from the obstetric notes of 517 mothers whose children were enrolled in the Birth to Ten study. These data were compared to self-reported information collected by interview during the Birth to Ten study. Findings: The reliability of self-reported age and gravidity was high (R=0.810-0.993, yet self-reports of previous miscarriages, terminations, premature- and stillbirths were only fairly reliable (Kappa=0.48-0.50. Self-reported diabetes and high blood pressure had specificities of more than 95% for glycosuria, hypertension and pre-eclampsia. However, the specificity of self-reported oedema for hypertensive disorders and the specificity of self-reported urinary tract infection for STD seropositivity were only around 65%. Conclusions: The modest reliability and limited validity of self-reported obstetric morbidity undermines the clinical utility of this information. Recommendations: These results strengthen the case for providing mothers with “Home-based Maternal Records” to facilitate access to accurate obstetric information during subsequent clinical consultations.

  7. Self-reported Medication Adherence and CKD Progression

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    Esteban A. Cedillo-Couvert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the general population, medication nonadherence contributes to poorer outcomes. However, little is known about medication adherence among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We evaluated the association of self-reported medication adherence with CKD progression and all-cause death in patients with CKD. Methods: In this prospective observational study of 3305 adults with mild-to-moderate CKD enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC Study, the baseline self-reported medication adherence was assessed by responses to 3 questions and categorized as high, medium, and low. CKD progression (50% decline in eGFR or incident end-stage renal disease and all-cause death were measured using multivariable Cox proportional hazards. Results: Of the patients, 68% were categorized as high adherence, 17% medium adherence, and 15% low adherence. Over a median follow-up of 6 years, there were 969 CKD progression events and 675 deaths. Compared with the high-adherence group, the low-adherence group experienced increased risk for CKD progression (hazard ratio = 1.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.54 after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical factors, cardiovascular medications, number of medication types, and depressive symptoms. A similar association existed between low adherence and all-cause death, but did not reach standard statistical significance (hazard ratio = 1.14 95% confidence interval = 0.88, 1.47. Conclusion: Baseline self-reported low medication adherence was associated with an increased risk for CKD progression. Future work is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying this association and to develop interventions to improve adherence. Keywords: CKD, death, medication adherence, progression

  8. Prevalence of self-reported medical conditions among dental patients

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    Mukhatar A Javali

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of our study found a high prevalence of medical conditions among patients seeking periodontal treatment, thereby highlighting the need to record patients' medical and dental care history in detail.

  9. Validity of self-reported periodontal measures, demographic characteristics and systemic medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulos, Georgios S; Cisneros, Alejandro; Sanchez, Miguel; Lunos, Scott; Wolff, Larry F

    2018-04-06

    The objective of the present study was to assess self-reported periodontal screening questions, demographic characteristics, systemic medical conditions and tobacco use for predicting periodontal disease among individuals seeking dental therapy in a university dental clinic. In this retrospective study, a total of 4,890 randomly selected dental charts were evaluated from among patients who had attended the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry clinics for treatment. Radiographic bone loss measurements were utilized to assess the severity of periodontal disease. Demographic characteristics as well as medical history of the patients were also recorded. Five self-reported periodontal screening questions were included with the range of answers limited to Yes/No. Generalized logit models were used to assess the association between bone loss and the predictors. The sample mean age was 54.1 years and included 52.6% males and 14.9% smokers with a mean number of missing teeth of 3.5. Self-reported tooth mobility, history of "gum treatment" and the importance to keep the teeth as well as age, tobacco use and cancer were statistically significant (p brushing", gender, diabetes, anxiety and arthritis. Self-reported periodontal screening questions as well as demographic characteristics, smoking and systemic medical conditions were significant predictors of periodontal disease and they could be used as valid, economical and practical measures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  10. Accuracy of self-reported survey data on assisted reproductive technology treatment parameters and reproductive history.

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    Stern, Judy E; McLain, Alexander C; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Luke, Barbara; Yeung, Edwina H

    2016-08-01

    It is unknown whether data obtained from maternal self-report for assisted reproductive technology treatment parameters and reproductive history are accurate for use in research studies. We evaluated the accuracy of self-reported in assisted reproductive technology treatment and reproductive history from the Upstate KIDS study in comparison with clinical data reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System. Upstate KIDS maternal questionnaire data from deliveries between 2008 and 2010 were linked to data reported to Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System. The 617 index deliveries were compared as to treatment type (frozen embryo transfer and donor egg or sperm) and use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection and assisted hatching. Use of injectable medications, self-report for assisted reproductive technology, or frozen embryo transfer prior to the index deliveries were also compared. We report agreement in which both sources had yes or both no and sensitivity of maternal report using Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System as the gold standard. Significance was determined using χ(2) at P < 0.05. Universal agreement was not reached on any parameter but was best for treatment type of frozen embryo transfer (agreement, 96%; sensitivity, 93%) and use of donor eggs (agreement, 97%; sensitivity, 82%) or sperm (agreement, 98%; sensitivity, 82%). Use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (agreement, 78%: sensitivity, 78%) and assisted hatching (agreement, 57%; sensitivity, 38%) agreed less well with self-reported use (P < .0001). In vitro fertilization (agreement, 82%) and frozen embryo transfer (agreement, 90%) prior to the index delivery were more consistently reported than was use of injectable medication (agreement, 76%) (P < .0001). Women accurately report in vitro fertilization treatment but are less accurate about procedures handled in the

  11. Accuracy of self-reported family history is strongly influenced by the accuracy of self-reported personal health status of relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, A.C.J.W.; Henneman, L.; Detmar, S.B.; Khoury, M.J.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Mushkudiani, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van; MacKenbach, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the accuracy of self-reported family history for diabetes, hypertension, and overweight against two reference standards: family history based on physician-assessed health status of relatives and on self-reported personal health status of relatives. Study Design and

  12. Self-reported concussion history: impact of providing a definition of concussion

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    Robbins CA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Clifford A Robbins,1 Daniel H Daneshvar,1,2 John D Picano,1,3 Brandon E Gavett,1,4 Christine M Baugh,1,2 David O Riley,1 Christopher J Nowinski,1,2,5 Ann C McKee,1,2,6–8 Robert C Cantu,1,5,9,10 Robert A Stern1,2,8,91Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy, 2Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA; 4Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, CO, USA; 5Sports Legacy Institute, Waltham MA, USA; 6United States Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA; 7Department of Pathology, 8Alzheimer's Disease Center, 9Department of Neurosurgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 10Department of Neurosurgery, Emerson Hospital, Concord, MA, USABackground: In recent years, the understanding of concussion has evolved in the research and medical communities to include more subtle and transient symptoms. The accepted definition of concussion in these communities has reflected this change. However, it is unclear whether this shift is also reflected in the understanding of the athletic community.What is known about the subject: Self-reported concussion history is an inaccurate assessment of someone's lifetime exposure to concussive brain trauma. However, unfortunately, in many cases it is the only available tool.Hypothesis/purpose: We hypothesize that athletes' self-reported concussion histories will be significantly greater after reading them the current definition of concussion, relative to the reporting when no definition was provided. An increase from baseline to post-definition response will suggest that athletes are unaware of the currently accepted medical definition.Study design: Cross-sectional study of 472 current and former athletes.Methods: Investigators conducted structured telephone interviews with current and former athletes between January

  13. The accuracy of self-reported history of seizures in Danish, Norwegian and U.S. twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corey, Linda A; Kjeldsen, Marianne J; Solaas, Marit H

    2009-01-01

    . The accuracy of these reports was assessed. Self-reported epilepsy was verified in 81.9% of twins overall (86.1% (DTR), 75.6% (NTR) and 80.7% (MATR)). However, when both pair members reported a history of epilepsy in the affected pair member, epilepsy was verified in >90% of cases. Among MATR twins...... of this approach in identifying true cases. Information on history of seizures obtained by questionnaire from members of 47,626 twin pairs included in the Mid-Atlantic (MATR), Danish (DTR) and Norwegian (NTR) Twin Registries was verified using medical records and detailed clinical and family interviews...... with a verified history of epilepsy, 21.5% reported other seizures but not epilepsy and 18.5% of verified Norwegian epilepsy cases reported no history of epilepsy themselves and were identified only through their co-twin. The results of this study indicate that the accuracy of self-reported epilepsy and febrile...

  14. Self-reported medical, medication and laboratory error in eight countries: risk factors for chronically ill adults.

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    Scobie, Andrea

    2011-04-01

    To identify risk factors associated with self-reported medical, medication and laboratory error in eight countries. The Commonwealth Fund's 2008 International Health Policy Survey of chronically ill patients in eight countries. None. A multi-country telephone survey was conducted between 3 March and 30 May 2008 with patients in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the UK and the USA who self-reported being chronically ill. A bivariate analysis was performed to determine significant explanatory variables of medical, medication and laboratory error (P error: age 65 and under, education level of some college or less, presence of two or more chronic conditions, high prescription drug use (four+ drugs), four or more doctors seen within 2 years, a care coordination problem, poor doctor-patient communication and use of an emergency department. Risk factors with the greatest ability to predict experiencing an error encompassed issues with coordination of care and provider knowledge of a patient's medical history. The identification of these risk factors could help policymakers and organizations to proactively reduce the likelihood of error through greater examination of system- and organization-level practices.

  15. Accuracy of Professional Self-Reports: Medical Student Self-Report and the Scoring of Professional Competence

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    Richter Lagha, Regina Anne

    2014-01-01

    Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…

  16. Are patients reliable when self-reporting medication use? Validation of structured drug interviews and home visits by drug analysis and prescription data in acutely hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Hillestrøm, Peter René; Olsen, Lenette Holm

    2007-01-01

    were compared to the patients' self-reported medication history. Information on prescribed drugs dispensed from any Danish pharmacy was collected from nationwide real-time pharmacy records. The authors performed home visits in a subgroup of 115 patients 4 weeks after their discharge. Stored drugs were......The medication history among hospitalized patients often relies on patients' self-reports due to insufficient communication between health care professionals. The aim of the present study was to estimate the reliability of patients' self-reported medication use. Five hundred patients admitted...... to an acute medical department at a Danish university hospital were interviewed on the day of admission about their recent medication use. Blood samples drawn immediately after admission were screened for contents of 5 drugs (digoxin, bendroflumethiazide, amlodipine, simvastatin, glimepiride), and the results...

  17. Brief Self-Report Scales Assessing Life History Dimensions of Mating and Parenting Effort

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    Daniel J. Kruger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Life history theory (LHT is a powerful evolutionary framework for understanding physiological, psychological, and behavioral variation both between and within species. Researchers and theorists are increasingly integrating LHT into evolutionary psychology, as it provides a strong foundation for research across many topical areas. Human life history variation has been represented in psychological and behavioral research in several ways, including indicators of conditions in the developmental environment, indicators of conditions in the current environment, and indicators of maturation and life milestones (e.g., menarche, initial sexual activity, first pregnancy, and in self-report survey scale measures. Survey scale measures have included constructs such as time perspective and future discounting, although the most widely used index is a constellation of indicators assessing the K-factor, thought to index general life history speed (from fast to slow. The current project examined the utility of two brief self-report survey measures assessing the life history dimensions of mating effort and parenting effort with a large undergraduate sample in the United States. Consistent with the theory, items reflected two inversely related dimensions. In regressions including the K-factor, the Mating Effort Scale proved to be a powerful predictor of other constructs and indicators related to life history variation. The Parenting Effort Scale had less predictive power overall, although it explained unique variance across several constructs and was the only unique predictor of the number of long-term (serious and committed relationships. These scales may be valuable additions to self-report survey research projects examining life history variation.

  18. Self-reported competency ratings of graduates of a problem-leased medical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, H. T.

    Purpose. To study the self-reports of professional competencies by graduates of a problem-based medical curriculum. Method. All graduates from a medical school and a faculty of health sciences with a problem-based curriculum were sent a questionnaire asking them to compare their own performances in

  19. Self-reported competency ratings of graduates of a problem-based medical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Schmidt (Henk); H.M. van der Molen

    2001-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. To study the self-reports of professional competencies by graduates of a problem-based medical curriculum. Method. All graduates from a medical school and a faculty of health sciences with a problem-based curriculum were sent a questionnaire asking them to compare their own

  20. Self-reported inhibition predicts history of suicide attempts in bipolar disorder and major depression.

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    Ponsoni, André; Branco, Laura Damiani; Cotrena, Charles; Shansis, Flávio Milman; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2018-04-01

    Studies have reliably identified an association between suicide attempts and executive functions such as decision making (DM) and inhibitory control (IC) in patients with mood disorders. As such, the present study aimed to investigate the association between inhibition, DM, impulsivity and the history of suicide attempts in individuals with bipolar (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD), identifying which assessment instruments may be most strongly associated with suicide in clinical samples. The sample included 80 control subjects and two groups of patients with BD and MDD, matched by age and education (26 with a history of suicide attempts [MD+], and 26 with no such history [MD-]). Participants completed behavioral and self-report measures of DM and IC, which were compared between groups using ANCOVA, followed by logistic regression for patients with mood disorders only, and the presence or absence of a history of suicide as the outcome. Cognitive performance did not differ between groups. The MD+ group showed significantly higher motor and attentional impulsivity on the BIS-11 than the MD- and control groups. A regression analysis containing these scores showed that motor impulsivity was the only significant predictor of a history of suicide (OR = 1.14; 95%CI 1.00-1.30). Self-reported motor impulsivity was a significant predictor of suicide. These findings underscore the importance of self-report measures in neuropsychological assessment, and their contributions to the management and prognosis of patients with mood disorders. Lastly, they point to the role of impulsivity as a target for interventions and public policy on suicide prevention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The concordance between self-reported medication use and pharmacy records in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K; El Marroun, H; Elfrink, M E; Jaddoe, V W V; Visser, L E; Stricker, B H Ch

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have been conducted to assess determinants affecting the performance or accuracy of self-reports. These studies are often not focused on pregnant women, or medical records were used as a data source where it is unclear if medications have been dispensed. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the concordance between self-reported medication data and pharmacy records among pregnant women and its determinants. We conducted a population-based cohort study within the Generation R study, in 2637 pregnant women. The concordance between self-reported medication data and pharmacy records was calculated for different therapeutic classes using Yule's Y. We evaluated a number of variables as determinant of discordance between both sources through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The concordance between self-reports and pharmacy records was moderate to good for medications used for chronic conditions, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or anti-asthmatic medications (0.88 and 0.68, respectively). Medications that are used occasionally, such as antibiotics, had a lower concordance (0.51). Women with a Turkish or other non-Western background were more likely to demonstrate discordance between pharmacy records and self-reported data compared with women with a Dutch background (Turkish: odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.29; other non-Western: odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.71). Further research is needed to assess how the cultural or ethnic differences may affect the concordance or discordance between both medication sources. The results of this study showed that the use of multiple sources is needed to have a good estimation of the medication use during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Factors Associated With Self-reported and Medically Diagnosed Urinary Incontinence Among Community-Dwelling Older Women In Korea

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    Jeongok Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI in community-dwelling Korean women 60 years or older, and to identify factors associated with self-reported and medically diagnosed UI. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of data from the 2008 Actual Living Condition of the Elderly and Welfare Need Survey, which used a stratified two-stage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of 8,961 elderly Korean women. Results: Of the 8,961 women in this study, 579 (6.5% had self-reported UI, and 209 (2.3% were medically diagnosed with UI. As patient age and exercise ability of the upper extremities increased, risk for self-reported UI decreased (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96–0.99; OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98–0.99, respectively. In contrast, as the number of limited instrumental activities of daily living (IADL increased, the risk for self-reported UI increased (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.24–1.35. Overweight women were 1.94 times more likely to have self-reported UI compared to underweight women. Women with a history of stroke or asthma were more likely to have self-reported UI compared to women with no history. Also, women who reported being in good health were less likely to have UI, compared to women who reported being in poor health (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.31–0.70. Medically diagnosed UI was negatively associated with the number of limited IADL and exercise ability scores for the lower extremities (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80–0.92; OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97–0.99, respectively. In contrast, as the exercise ability score for the upper extremities increased, so did the risk for medically diagnosed UI (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01–1.03. Conclusions: An interventional program for home visit health services is needed for incontinent women who are highly dependent on others for IADL.

  3. Reliability of self-reported diagnostic radiation history in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijpe, Anouk; Manders, Peggy; Mulder, Renee L.; Leeuwen, Flora E. van; Rookus, Matti A.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed reliability of self-reported diagnostic radiation history in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with and without breast cancer. Within the frame-work of the HEBON study, 401 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers completed a baseline (1999-2004) and a follow-up questionnaire (2006-2007). Test-retest reliability of self-reported exposure to chest X-rays, fluoroscopies and mammograms was assessed for the entire study population and by case status. Overall proportion agreement on reporting ever/never exposure was good (> 75%), while the corresponding kappa coefficients were between 0.40 and 0.75, indicating at least moderate reliability beyond chance. Reliability of number of exposures was also good (> 75%). Proportion agreement on reporting age at first mammogram was low (40%) for exact consistency and moderate (60%) for consistency ± 1 year. Reliability of age at first mammogram was higher for cases than for unaffected carriers (P < 0.001) but this difference disappeared when excluding diagnostic mammograms (P = 0.60). In unaffected carriers proportion agreement on age at last mammogram was 50%. In general, the direction of disagreement on all items was equally distributed. More consistent reporting was mainly determined by a younger age at questionnaire completion. In conclusion, inconsistent self-report of diagnostic radiation by BRCA1/2 mutation carriers was mainly non-differential by disease status.

  4. Self-reported extracurricular activity, academic success, and quality of life in UK medical students.

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    Lumley, Sophie; Ward, Peter; Roberts, Lesley; Mann, Jake P

    2015-09-19

    To explore the relationship between academic performance, extracurricular activity, and quality of life at medical school in the UK to aid our understanding of students' work-life balance. A cross-sectional study, using an electronic questionnaire distributed to UK final year medical students across 20 medical schools (4478 students). Participants reported the hours of self-regulated learning and extracurricular activities undertaken each year at medical school; along with their academic decile (1 = highest, 10 = lowest). Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was assessed using an established screening tool (7 = highest, 1 = lowest). Seven hundred responses were obtained, across 20 participating medical schools, response rate 16% (700/4478). Factors associated with higher academic achievement were: graduate entry course students (2 deciles higher, p students attain higher decile scores despite similar self-reported duration of study.

  5. Predictors of self-reported academic performance among undergraduate medical students of Hawassa University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedefaw, Abel; Tilahun, Birkneh; Asefa, Anteneh

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA) using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson's bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47) and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71) years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7%) of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2%) had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3%) had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and academic performance was explained by the studied variables. Hence, efficacious mechanisms should be designed to combat the intervenable determinants of self-reported academic performance, like substance use and a low medical school entrance examination result. Further studies should also be undertaken to gain a better understanding of other unstudied determinants, like personality, learning style, cognitive ability, and the system used for academic evaluation.

  6. Test–Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Behavior History in Urbanized Nigerian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen O. Dareng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundStudies assessing risk of sexual behavior and disease are often plagued by questions about the reliability of self-reported sexual behavior. In this study, we evaluated the reliability of self-reported sexual history among urbanized women in a prospective study of cervical HPV infections in Nigeria.MethodsWe examined test–retest reliability of sexual practices using questionnaires administered at study entry and at follow-up visits. We used the root mean squared approach to calculate within-person coefficient of variation (CVw and calculated the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC using two way, mixed effects models for continuous variables and (κ^ statistics for discrete variables. To evaluate the potential predictors of reliability, we used linear regression and log binomial regression models for the continuous and categorical variables, respectively.ResultsWe found that self-reported sexual history was generally reliable, with overall ICC ranging from 0.7 to 0.9; however, the reliability varied by nature of sexual behavior evaluated. Frequency reports of non-vaginal sex (agreement = 63.9%, 95% CI: 47.5–77.6% were more reliable than those of vaginal sex (agreement = 59.1%, 95% CI: 55.2–62.8%. Reports of time-invariant behaviors were also more reliable than frequency reports. The CVw for age at sexual debut was 10.7 (95% CI: 10.6–10.7 compared with the CVw for lifetime number of vaginal sex partners, which was 35.2 (95% CI: 35.1–35.3. The test–retest interval was an important predictor of reliability of responses, with longer intervals resulting in increased inconsistency (average change in unreliability for each 1 month increase = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.07–0.38, p = 0.005.ConclusionOur findings suggest that overall, the self-reported sexual history among urbanized Nigeran women is reliable.

  7. Predictors of self-reported academic performance among undergraduate medical students of Hawassa University, Ethiopia

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    Gedefaw A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abel Gedefaw,1 Birkneh Tilahun,2 Anteneh Asefa3 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, 3School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia Background: This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson's bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. Results: The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47 and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71 years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7% of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2% had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3% had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and <1% of the variation, respectively. Students who had never used tobacco, alcohol, or khat after starting university were twice as likely to score a self-reported cumulative GPA above 3.0 (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, 95

  8. Self-reported injury history in Native American professional rodeo competitors.

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    Crichlow, Renée; Williamson, Steve; Geurin, Mike; Heggem, Heather

    2006-07-01

    Evaluation of rodeo injury and the use of protective equipment. Cross-sectional survey. Indian National Finals Rodeo 2004 in San Jacinto, CA. One hundred sixty-nine native American, professional rodeo competitors. On-site survey completed before competition. A total of 180 native American competitors received the survey. Respondents reported the event of participation, prior injury histories (including number, type and disability), use of protective equipment, and access to health care. Main outcomes were determined before survey distribution and included self-reported injury rate, time away from rodeo secondary to injury, and protective equipment usage during competition. Total 94% response rate. There was a range of injury history-from 100% of bull riders to only 24% of tie-down ropers-reporting a history of injuries. Forty percent of competitors reported using protective equipment; of these, 32% reported wearing vests. Twenty-six percent of the competitors had a history of injury that prevented them from working an average of 3.2 months. As hypothesized, a greater injury rate resulted from rough stock events; older competitors are more likely to have had work time loss from injury; and vests are the most frequently used protective equipment in rodeo.

  9. A Comparison of Self-reported Medication Adherence to Concordance Between Part D Claims and Medication Possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, Samuel T; Stearns, Sally C; Zhou, Lei; Thudium, Emily; Alburikan, Khalid A; Tran, Richard; Rodgers, Jo E

    2017-05-01

    Medicare Part D claims indicate medication purchased, but people who are not fully adherent may extend prescription use beyond the interval prescribed. This study assessed concordance between Part D claims and medication possession at a study visit in relation to self-reported medication adherence. We matched Part D claims for 6 common medications to medications brought to a study visit in 2011-2013 for the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. The combined data consisted of 3027 medication events (claims, medications possessed, or both) for 2099 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants. Multinomial logistic regression estimated the association of concordance (visit only, Part D only, or both) with self-reported medication adherence while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, veteran status, and availability under Generic Drug Discount Programs. Relative to participants with high adherence, medication events for participants with low adherence were approximately 25 percentage points less likely to match and more likely to be visit only (PDiscount Programs were 3 percentage points more likely to be visit only. Part D claims were substantially less likely to be concordant with medications possessed at study visit for participants with low self-reported adherence. This result supports the construction of adherence proxies such as proportion days covered using Part D claims.

  10. Concordance of self-reported and medical chart information on cancer diagnosis and treatment

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    Shu Xiao Ou

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported information is an important tool for collecting clinical information for epidemiologic studies and in clinical settings where electronic medical records are not employed and shared. Methods Using data collected from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study (SBCSS, a population-based, prospective cohort study of 5,042 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Shanghai, China, we compared the concordance of patient questionnaire responses to a survey administered approximately 6 months after cancer diagnosis with medical chart information obtained from the diagnostic hospitals for several disease and treatment-related variables. Results Of 5,042 SBCSS participants, medical chart information was available for 4,948 women (98.1%. Concordance between patient self-reported and medical chart information was high for the majority of disease-related variables, including: diagnosing hospital (agreement: 98.7%, kappa: 0.99, type of surgery conducted (94.0%, 0.53, ER/PR status (94.5%, 0.91, and tumor position (98.2%, 0.97, as well as for important calendar dates, such as date of diagnosis, surgery, and first chemotherapy treatment. The 10 most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs were all reported with agreement rates of at least 82%, with associated kappa values that ranged from 0.41 for calcium folinate to 0.76 for vinorelbine. Conclusions Our study found high validity for patient self-reported information for a variety of disease and treatment-related variables, suggesting the utility of self-reports as an important source of clinical information for both epidemiological research and patient care.

  11. Efficient replication of over 180 genetic associations with self-reported medical data.

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    Tung, Joyce Y; Do, Chuong B; Hinds, David A; Kiefer, Amy K; Macpherson, J Michael; Chowdry, Arnab B; Francke, Uta; Naughton, Brian T; Mountain, Joanna L; Wojcicki, Anne; Eriksson, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    While the cost and speed of generating genomic data have come down dramatically in recent years, the slow pace of collecting medical data for large cohorts continues to hamper genetic research. Here we evaluate a novel online framework for obtaining large amounts of medical information from a recontactable cohort by assessing our ability to replicate genetic associations using these data. Using web-based questionnaires, we gathered self-reported data on 50 medical phenotypes from a generally unselected cohort of over 20,000 genotyped individuals. Of a list of genetic associations curated by NHGRI, we successfully replicated about 75% of the associations that we expected to (based on the number of cases in our cohort and reported odds ratios, and excluding a set of associations with contradictory published evidence). Altogether we replicated over 180 previously reported associations, including many for type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, cholesterol levels, and multiple sclerosis. We found significant variation across categories of conditions in the percentage of expected associations that we were able to replicate, which may reflect systematic inflation of the effects in some initial reports, or differences across diseases in the likelihood of misdiagnosis or misreport. We also demonstrated that we could improve replication success by taking advantage of our recontactable cohort, offering more in-depth questions to refine self-reported diagnoses. Our data suggest that online collection of self-reported data from a recontactable cohort may be a viable method for both broad and deep phenotyping in large populations.

  12. Efficient replication of over 180 genetic associations with self-reported medical data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Y Tung

    Full Text Available While the cost and speed of generating genomic data have come down dramatically in recent years, the slow pace of collecting medical data for large cohorts continues to hamper genetic research. Here we evaluate a novel online framework for obtaining large amounts of medical information from a recontactable cohort by assessing our ability to replicate genetic associations using these data. Using web-based questionnaires, we gathered self-reported data on 50 medical phenotypes from a generally unselected cohort of over 20,000 genotyped individuals. Of a list of genetic associations curated by NHGRI, we successfully replicated about 75% of the associations that we expected to (based on the number of cases in our cohort and reported odds ratios, and excluding a set of associations with contradictory published evidence. Altogether we replicated over 180 previously reported associations, including many for type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, cholesterol levels, and multiple sclerosis. We found significant variation across categories of conditions in the percentage of expected associations that we were able to replicate, which may reflect systematic inflation of the effects in some initial reports, or differences across diseases in the likelihood of misdiagnosis or misreport. We also demonstrated that we could improve replication success by taking advantage of our recontactable cohort, offering more in-depth questions to refine self-reported diagnoses. Our data suggest that online collection of self-reported data from a recontactable cohort may be a viable method for both broad and deep phenotyping in large populations.

  13. An exploratory study of whether pregnancy outcomes influence maternal self-reported history of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, Alison L; Hogue, Carol J; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Kramer, Michael R; Pearce, Brad D; Knight, Bettina; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey

    2018-02-22

    Childhood maltreatment is common and has been increasingly studied in relation to perinatal outcomes. While retrospective self-report is convenient to use in studies assessing the impact of maltreatment on perinatal outcomes, it may be vulnerable to bias. We assessed bias in reporting of maltreatment with respect to women's experiences of adverse perinatal outcomes in a cohort of 230 women enrolled in studies of maternal mental illness. Each woman provided a self-reported history of childhood maltreatment via the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire at two time points: 1) the preconception or prenatal period and 2) the postpartum period. While most women's reports of maltreatment agreed, there was less agreement for physical neglect among women experiencing adverse perinatal outcomes. Further, among women who discrepantly reported maltreatment, those experiencing adverse pregnancy outcomes tended to report physical neglect after delivery but not before, and associations between physical neglect measured after delivery and adverse pregnancy outcomes were larger than associations that assessed physical neglect before delivery. There were larger associations between post-delivery measured maltreatment and perinatal outcomes among women who had not previously been pregnant and in those with higher postpartum depressive symptoms. Although additional larger studies in the general population are necessary to replicate these findings, they suggest retrospective reporting of childhood maltreatment, namely physical neglect, may be prone to systematic differential recall bias with respect to perinatal outcomes. Measures of childhood maltreatment reported before delivery may be needed to validly estimate associations between maternal exposure to childhood physical neglect and perinatal outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF SELF-REPORTED AGE AT MENOPAUSE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heather F.; Northington, Gina M.; Kaye, Elise M.; Bogner, Hillary R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. METHOD Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of the age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall of age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. RESULTS One hundred and forty three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) of women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994 while 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among women with surgical menopause, women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.15, 0.91]) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years from menopause. CONCLUSIONS Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause. PMID:21971208

  15. Website design: technical, social and medical issues for self-reporting by elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark J; Stables, Rod; Matata, Bashir; Lisboa, Paulo J G; Laws, Andy; Almond, Peter

    2014-06-01

    There is growing interest in the use of the Internet for interacting with patients, both in terms of healthcare information provision and information gathering. In this article, we examine the issues in designing healthcare websites for elderly users. In particular, this article uses a year-long case study of the development of a web-based system for self-reporting of symptoms and quality of life with a view to examine the issues relating to website design for elderly users. The issues identified included the technical, social and medical aspects of website design for elderly users. The web-based system developed was based on the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions health-status questionnaire, a commonly used tool for patient self-reporting of quality of life, and the more specific coronary revascularisation outcome questionnaire. Currently, self-reporting is generally administered in the form of paper-based questionnaires to be completed in the outpatient clinic or at home. There are a variety of issues relating to elderly users, which imply that websites for elderly patients may involve different design considerations to other types of websites.

  16. Accuracy of self-reported length of coma and posttraumatic amnesia in persons with medically verified traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Mark; Sander, Angelle M; Maestas, Kacey Little; Pastorek, Nicholas J; Nick, Todd G; Li, Jingyun

    2015-04-01

    To determine the accuracy of self-reported length of coma and posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) in persons with medically verified traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to investigate factors that affect self-report of length of coma and PTA duration. Prospective cohort study. Specialized rehabilitation center with inpatient and outpatient programs. Persons (N=242) with medically verified TBI who were identified from a registry of persons who had previously participated in TBI-related research. Not applicable. Self-reported length of coma and self-reported PTA duration. Review of medical records revealed that the mean medically documented length of coma and PTA duration was 6.9±12 and 19.2±22 days, respectively, and the mean self-reported length of coma and PTA duration was 16.7±22 and 106±194 days, respectively. The average discrepancy between self-report and medical record for length of coma and PTA duration was 8.2±21 and 64±176 days, respectively. Multivariable regression models revealed that time since injury, performance on cognitive tests, and medical record values were associated with self-reported values for both length of coma and PTA duration. In this investigation, persons with medically verified TBI showed poor accuracy in their self-report of length of coma and PTA duration. Discrepancies were large enough to affect injury severity classification. Caution should be exercised when considering self-report of length of coma and PTA duration. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-reported non-adherence and beliefs about medication in a Swedish kidney transplant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennerling, Annette; Forsberg, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Patients' non-adherence to immunosuppressant treatment after organ transplantation may lead to organ failure, graft loss and death. Non-adherence among Swedish kidney transplant recipients has not previously been studied. Hence the aim of this study was to explore non-adherence among Swedish kidney transplant recipients by using self-report instruments as well as testing the hypothesis that there is a difference in self-reported symptoms, beliefs about medicine and social support between respondents with or without self reported non-adherence. In the present cross sectional study 250 renal transplant recipients participated by replying to a questionnaire. Two validated instruments were included, one on beliefs about medicine (the BMQ©), the other on nonadherence (the BAASIS©). Only 46 % never failed to follow the medical treatment with respect to taking the drugs, dosage or timing (>2 hrs from prescribed time). Timing was the most frequently reported deviation (48 %). Forty-seven patients (16 %) had failed taking at least one dose of the prescribed immunosuppressants during the past four weeks. Four individuals had reduced the prescribed doses. Only one reported taking a 'drug holiday'. Nine participants reported stronger concerns than necessities for immunosuppressive medication. For the BMQ the necessity scores were extremely high while the scores for concern were low. Risk behaviour identified by the BAASIS had no association in risk attitudes as identified in the BMQ. The only factor relating to non-adherence was lack of social support (p=0.022). In general adherence was high. Identification of the exceptions remains a challenge.

  18. Bullying and Victimization Trends in Undergraduate Medical Students - A Self-Reported Cross-Sectional Observational Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shrea; Ajinkya, Shaunak; Jadhav, Pradeep R

    2016-02-01

    Bullying is a form of behaviour that can negatively impact a person. It can lead to several deleterious consequences like low self-confidence, drop in academic performance and depression. Studies have shown that bullying behaviour exists amongst medical students also. In the medical field, it is known to negatively impact dispensing of health care and attitudes of medical students towards becoming doctors. It is very difficult for medical students to cope with such a menace as they are already burdened with a vast curriculum and rigorous schedules. There exists paucity of studies regarding bullying amongst undergraduate medical students in Indian context. To study prevalence of peer-based bullying and victimization along with their associated factors in undergraduate medical students. Four hundred randomly chosen undergraduate medical students were included in the study. Socio-demographic and personal details including history of substance use were recorded in a self-designed case record form. Illinois Bullying Scale was used to assess bullying behaviours. Out of total 400 students, 383 completed the survey and this data was analysed. In this study, 98.69% participants self-reported to having indulged in bullying while 88.77% reported feeling victimized. Physical (pbullying was found to be of significantly greater severity in males as compared to females. Students of the third year of medical school indulged in significantly (p=0.034) greater severity of physical bullying than those of other years. Alcohol consumption (p=0.001) and cigarette smoking (pbullying. Peer-based bullying and victimization was found to be highly prevalent amongst undergraduate medical students. There is an urgent need for more detailed studies on bullying in medical students so that remedial measures can be initiated and steps to limit such behaviours can be looked at seriously.

  19. Family socialization of adolescent's self-reported cigarette use: the role of parents' history of regular smoking and parenting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah E; Jones, Deborah J; Olson, Ardis L; Forehand, Rex; Gaffney, Cecelia A; Zens, Michael S; Bau, J J

    2007-05-01

    To examine the main and interactive effects of parental history of regular cigarette smoking and parenting style on adolescent self-reported cigarette use. Predictors of adolescent self-reported cigarette use, including parents' history of regular cigarette smoking and two dimensions of parenting behavior, were analyzed in a sample of 934 predominately Caucasian (96.3%) parent-adolescent dyads. Families were drawn from the control group of a randomized control trial aimed at preventing adolescent substance use. In addition to the main effects of parents' history of regular smoking and parental warmth, logistic regression analysis revealed that the interaction of these two variables was associated with adolescent self-reported cigarette use. Parental warmth was associated with a decreased likelihood of the adolescent ever having smoked a cigarette; however, this was true only if neither parent had a history of regular cigarette smoking. Findings suggest that adolescent smoking prevention programs may be more efficacious if they address both parental history of regular smoking and parenting behavior.

  20. Prevalence of Self-Reported Lifetime History of Traumatic Brain Injury and Associated Disability: A Statewide Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteneck, Gale G; Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Corrigan, John D; Bogner, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of all severities of traumatic brain injury (TBI), regardless of treatment setting, and their associated negative outcomes. A total of 2701 adult Coloradoans. A statewide, population-based, random digit-dialed telephone survey. The lifetime history of TBI was assessed by a modification of the Ohio State University TBI Identification Method; activity limitation and life satisfaction were also assessed. The distribution of self-reported lifetime injury was as follows: 19.8%, no injury; 37.7%, injury but no TBI; 36.4%, mild TBI; and 6.0%, moderate-severe TBI. Of those reporting a TBI, 23.1% were hospitalized, 38.5% were treated in an emergency department, 9.8% were treated in a physician's office, and 27.5% did not seek medical care. A clear gradient of activity limitations and low life satisfaction was seen, with the highest proportions of these negative outcomes occurring in people reporting more severe TBI and the lowest proportions in those not reporting a TBI. Approximately twice as many people reported activity limitations and low life satisfaction after nonhospitalized TBI compared with hospitalized TBI. This investigation highlights the seriousness of TBI as a public health problem and the importance of including all severities of TBI, no matter where, or if treated, in estimating the prevalence of disability co-occurring with TBI.

  1. Assessment of patient knowledge of diabetic goals, self-reported medication adherence, and goal attainment

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    Whitley HP

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication adherence is an integral aspect of disease state management for patients with chronic illnesses, including diabetes mellitus. It has been hypothesized that patients with diabetes who have poor medication adherence may have less knowledge of overall therapeutic goals and may be less likely to attain these goals. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess self-reported medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals (hemoglobin A1C [A1C], low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] and blood pressure [BP], and goal attainment in adult patients with diabetes. Methods: A survey was created to assess medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals, and goal attainment for adult patients with diabetes followed at an internal medicine or a family medicine clinic. Surveys were self-administered prior to office visits. Additional data were collected from the electronic medical record. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: A total of 149 patients were enrolled. Knowledge of therapeutic goals was reported by 14%, 34%, and 18% of survived patients for LDL-C, BP, and A1C, respectively. Forty-six percent, 37%, and 40% of patients achieved LDL-C, BP, and A1C goals, respectively. Low prescribing of cholesterol-lowering medications was an interesting secondary finding; 36% of patients not at LDL-C goal had not been prescribed a medication targeted to lower cholesterol. Forty-eight percent of patients were medication non-adherent; most frequently reported reasons for non-adherence were forgot (34% and too expensive (14%. Patients at A1C goal were more adherent than patients not at goal (p=0.025. Conclusion: The majority did not reach goals and were unknowledgeable of goals; however, most were provided prescriptions to treat these parameters. Goal parameters should be revisited often amongst multidisciplinary team members with frequent and open communications. Additionally, it is imperative that practitioners discuss

  2. Self-reported responsiveness to direct-to-consumer drug advertising and medication use: results of a national survey

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    Somes Grant W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct-to-consumer (DTC marketing of pharmaceuticals is controversial, yet effective. Little is known relating patterns of medication use to patient responsiveness to DTC. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in national telephone survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward DTC advertisements. The survey of 1081 U.S. adults (response rate = 65% was conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Responsiveness to DTC was defined as an affirmative response to the item: "Has an advertisement for a prescription drug ever caused you to ask a doctor about a medical condition or illness of your own that you had not talked to a doctor about before?" Patients reported number of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC medicines taken as well as demographic and personal health information. Results Of 771 respondents who met study criteria, 195 (25% were responsive to DTC. Only 7% respondents taking no prescription were responsive, whereas 45% of respondents taking 5 or more prescription medications were responsive. This trend remained significant (p trend .0009 even when controlling for age, gender, race, educational attainment, income, self-reported health status, and whether respondents "liked" DTC advertising. There was no relationship between the number of OTC medications taken and the propensity to discuss health-related problems in response to DTC advertisements (p = .4. Conclusion There is a strong cross-sectional relationship between the number of prescription, but not OTC, drugs used and responsiveness to DTC advertising. Although this relationship could be explained by physician compliance with patient requests for medications, it is also plausible that DTC advertisements have a particular appeal to patients prone to taking multiple medications. Outpatients motivated to discuss medical conditions based on their exposure to DTC advertising may require a careful medication history to evaluate for

  3. Self-reported responsiveness to direct-to-consumer drug advertising and medication use: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Nicholas J; Kukkamma, Lisa; Somes, Grant W; Shorr, Ronald I

    2011-09-23

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing of pharmaceuticals is controversial, yet effective. Little is known relating patterns of medication use to patient responsiveness to DTC. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in national telephone survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward DTC advertisements. The survey of 1081 U.S. adults (response rate = 65%) was conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Responsiveness to DTC was defined as an affirmative response to the item: "Has an advertisement for a prescription drug ever caused you to ask a doctor about a medical condition or illness of your own that you had not talked to a doctor about before?" Patients reported number of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines taken as well as demographic and personal health information. RESULTS: Of 771 respondents who met study criteria, 195 (25%) were responsive to DTC. Only 7% respondents taking no prescription were responsive, whereas 45% of respondents taking 5 or more prescription medications were responsive. This trend remained significant (p trend .0009) even when controlling for age, gender, race, educational attainment, income, self-reported health status, and whether respondents "liked" DTC advertising. There was no relationship between the number of OTC medications taken and the propensity to discuss health-related problems in response to DTC advertisements (p = .4). CONCLUSION: There is a strong cross-sectional relationship between the number of prescription, but not OTC, drugs used and responsiveness to DTC advertising. Although this relationship could be explained by physician compliance with patient requests for medications, it is also plausible that DTC advertisements have a particular appeal to patients prone to taking multiple medications. Outpatients motivated to discuss medical conditions based on their exposure to DTC advertising may require a careful medication history to evaluate for therapeutic

  4. The validity of self-reported cancer screening history and the role of social disadvantage in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, Aisha; Vahabi, Mandana; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-01-29

    Self-report may not be an accurate method of determining cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening rates due to recall, acquiescence and social desirability biases, particularly for certain sociodemographic groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the validity of self-report of cancer screening in Ontario, Canada, both for people in the general population and for socially disadvantaged groups based on immigrant status, ethnicity, education, income, language ability, self-rated health, employment status, age category (for cervical cancer screening), and gender (for fecal occult blood testing). We linked multiple data sources for this study, including the Canadian Community Health Survey and provincial-level health databases. Using administrative data as our gold standard, we calculated validity measures for self-report (i.e. sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, positive and negative predictive values), calculated report-to-record ratios, and conducted a multivariable regression analysis to determine which characteristics were independently associated with over-reporting of screening. Specificity was less than 70% overall and for all subgroups for cervical and breast cancer screening, and sensitivity was lower than 80% overall and for all subgroups for fecal occult blood testing FOBT. Report-to-record ratios were persistently significantly greater than 1 across all cancer screening types, highest for the FOBT group: 1.246 [1.189-1.306]. Regression analyses showed no consistent patterns, but sociodemographic characteristics were associated with over-reporting for each screening type. We have found that in Ontario, as in other jurisdictions, there is a pervasive tendency for people to over-report their cancer screening histories. Sociodemographic status also appears to influence over-reporting. Public health practitioners and policymakers need to be aware of the limitations of self-report and adjust their methods

  5. Thinner Cortex in Collegiate Football Players With, but not Without, a Self-Reported History of Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Timothy B; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Bergamino, Maurizio; Ling, Josef M; Mayer, Andrew R

    2016-02-15

    Emerging evidence suggests that a history of sports-related concussions can lead to long-term neuroanatomical changes. The extent to which similar changes are present in young athletes is undetermined at this time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that collegiate football athletes with (n = 25) and without (n = 24) a self-reported history of concussion would have cortical thickness differences and altered white matter integrity relative to healthy controls (n = 27) in fronto-temporal regions that appear particularly susceptible to traumatic brain injury. Freesurfer software was used to estimate cortical thickness, fractional anisotropy was calculated in a priori white matter tracts, and behavior was assessed using a concussion behavioral battery. Groups did not differ in self-reported symptoms (p > 0.10) or cognitive performance (p > 0.10). Healthy controls reported significantly higher happiness levels than both football groups (all p 0.10). However, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the left anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex, and medial superior frontal cortex relative to healthy controls (p = 0.02, d = -0.69). Further, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the right central sulcus and precentral gyrus relative to football athletes without a history of concussion (p = 0.03, d = -0.71). No differences were observed between football athletes without a history of concussion and healthy controls. These results suggest that previous concussions, but not necessarily football exposure, may be associated with cortical thickness differences in collegiate football athletes.

  6. An internet survey on self-reported food allergy in Greece: clinical aspects and lack of appropriate medical consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeromitros, D; Makris, M P; Chliva, C; Sergentanis, T N; Church, M K; Maurer, M; Psaltopoulou, T

    2013-05-01

    Food allergy (FA) represents a common and worldwide disorder but in publications referring to FA the reported diagnosis is rarely confirmed. Consequently, the subjectively assessed FA may negatively affect the quality of life of patients and their families. We have conducted this internet survey in order to estimate the self-reported perception of FA in Greece. A standard anonymous questionnaire was posted for a 3-month period on http://www.in.gr, a Greek popular Internet portal. Each individual could participate only once. Participants were screened for the presence or history of FA by a key question and were then asked to provide information on symptoms, course and management. A total of 3673 adult subjects (mean age 34.2 years, range 18-74, females 61.3%), reporting FA were included in analysis. Most reported reactions were related to fruits (14.9%), seafood (10.7%) and nuts (9.2%). The first episode occurred principally during the second (29.2%) and third (30.9%) decade within 3 h from consumption (82.2%). Predominant symptoms were urticaria and oral allergy syndrome (almost 25% each one). Nearly half of the participants sought no medical advice, while 31.4% asked for an allergist's consultation. Almost 21% of reactors were hospitalized; nuts, severity of symptoms (lower respiratory and/or cardiovascular), onset in lower age, previous exercise and concomitant alcohol and/or aspirin intake were positively associated with hospitalization. Although FA causes severe anaphylactic episodes, almost 50% of individuals who experience symptoms perceived as FA do not seek medical advice. Awareness programmes must be carried out in order to increase consciousness about this potentially fatal medical condition. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  7. The relationship between self-reported history of endodontic therapy and coronary heart disease in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Daniel J.; Pankow, James S.; Cai, Jianwen; Offenbacher, Steven; Beck, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Results from numerous studies have suggested links between periodontal disease and coronary heart disease (CHD), but endodontic disease has not been studied extensively in this regard. Methods The authors evaluated the relationship between self-reported history of endodontic therapy (ET) and prevalent CHD in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, aprospective epidemiologic study sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The authors used multivariable logistic regres-sionto analyze data obtained from oral health questionnaires, medical evaluations and clinical dental examinations. Results Of 6,651 participants analyzed, 50.4 percent reported never having had ET; 21.5 percent reported having had ET one time; and 28.0 percent reported having had ET two or more times. Final multivariable regression models indicated that among participants with 25 or more teeth, those reporting having had ET two or more times had 1.62 (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.04–2.53) times the odds of prevalent CHD compared with those reporting never having had ET. Among participants with 24 or fewer teeth, no significant differences in CHD prevalence were observed among groups regardless of their history of ET. Conclusions Among participants with 25 or more teeth, those with a greater self-reported history of ET were more likely to have CHD than were those reporting no history of ET. Clinical Implications More accurate epidemiologic quantification of endodontic infection and inflammation is required before definitive conclusions can be made about potential relationships between endodontic disease and CHD. PMID:19654253

  8. Self-reported attitudes and behaviours of medical students in Pakistan regarding academic misconduct: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghias, Kulsoom; Lakho, Ghulam Rehmani; Asim, Hamna; Azam, Iqbal Syed; Saeed, Sheikh Abdul

    2014-05-29

    Honesty and integrity are key attributes of an ethically competent physician. However, academic misconduct, which includes but is not limited to plagiarism, cheating, and falsifying documentation, is common in medical colleges across the world. The purpose of this study is to describe differences in the self-reported attitudes and behaviours of medical students regarding academic misconduct depending on gender, year of study and type of medical institution in Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted with medical students from one private and one public sector medical college. A pre-coded questionnaire about attitudes and behaviours regarding plagiarism, lying, cheating and falsifying documentation was completed anonymously by the students. A total of 465 medical students filled the questionnaire. 53% of private medical college students reported that they recognize copying an assignment verbatim and listing sources as references as wrong compared to 35% of public medical college students. 26% of private medical college students self-report this behaviour as compared to 42% of public medical college students. 22% of private versus 15% of public medical college students and 21% of students in clinical years compared to 17% in basic science years admit to submitting a fake medical certificate to justify an absence. 87% of students at a private medical college believe that cheating in an examination is wrong as compared to 66% of public medical college students and 24% self-report this behaviour in the former group as compared to 41% in the latter. 63% of clinical year students identify cheating as wrong compared to 89% of their junior colleagues. 71% of male versus 84% of female respondents believe that cheating is wrong and 42% of males compared to 23% of females admit to cheating. There are significant differences in medical students' attitudes and behaviours towards plagiarism, lying, cheating and stealing by gender, seniority status and type of institution

  9. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  10. Relationship between medication beliefs, self-reported and refill adherence, and symptoms in patients with asthma using inhaled corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Steenis MNA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MNA Van Steenis,1 JA Driesenaar,2 JM Bensing,2,3 R Van Hulten,4 PC Souverein,4 L Van Dijk,2,4 PAGM De Smet,5 AM Van Dulmen2,6,71Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2NIVEL (Netherlands institute for health services research, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 4Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 5IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 6Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 7Department of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen, NorwayBackground: Beliefs play a crucial role in medication adherence. Interestingly, the relationship between beliefs and adherence varies when different adherence measures are used. How adherence, in turn, is related to asthma symptoms is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between beliefs (ie, necessities and concerns about inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and subjectively as well as objectively measure adherence and the agreement between these measures. Further, the relationship between adherence and asthma symptoms was examined.Methods: A total of 280 patients aged 18–80 years who filled at least two ICS prescriptions in the preceding year were recruited to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire to assess necessity beliefs and concerns about ICS, four questions about ICS use to measure self-reported adherence, and the Asthma Control Questionnaire to assess asthma symptoms. Proportion of days covered was used to determine pharmacy refill adherence.Results: Data from 93 patients with asthma were analyzed. Necessities were positively related to self-reported adherence (P = 0.01. No other

  11. Increasing diabetic patient engagement and self-reported medication adherence using a web-based multimedia program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabrout, Kerri

    2018-05-01

    Evidence-based, multimedia applications to supplement clinical care can improve patient engagement and clinical outcomes. Patients with diabetes with potentially devastating complication of foot ulcers present a substantial opportunity to improve engagement. This project examines how providing an online, multimedia self-management program affects patient engagement and self-reported medication adherence scores within 4-6 weeks compared with preprogram scores. Participants included 14 adult, diabetic outpatients receiving care at a Wound Care Center in suburban New York. Participants watched a Type 2 diabetes Emmi educational module on an electronic tablet during a routine wound treatment visit. Self-reported medication adherence was measured immediately before and at 4-6 weeks after the educational intervention. Patient engagement was measured immediately before, immediately after, and at 4-6 weeks postintervention. Self-reported medication adherence results demonstrated a modest increase at the delayed postintervention time. In addition, there was a large increase in engagement scores at the delayed postintervention time. The direction of change for both measures was consistent with the intervention being effective. Incorporating this type of novel, multimedia patient education resource may provide opportunities to enhance diabetes care.

  12. Identification of fall risk predictors in daily life measurements: gait characteristics' reliability and association with self-reported fall history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Sietse M; van Schooten, Kimberley S; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Beek, Peter J; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-01-01

    Background. Gait characteristics extracted from trunk accelerations during daily life locomotion are complementary to questionnaire- or laboratory-based gait and balance assessments and may help to improve fall risk prediction. Objective. The aim of this study was to identify gait characteristics that are associated with self-reported fall history and that can be reliably assessed based on ambulatory data collected during a single week. Methods. We analyzed 2 weeks of trunk acceleration data (DynaPort MoveMonitor, McRoberts) collected among 113 older adults (age range, 65-97 years). During episodes of locomotion, various gait characteristics were determined, including local dynamic stability, interstride variability, and several spectral features. For each characteristic, we performed a negative binomial regression analysis with the participants' self-reported number of falls in the preceding year as outcome. Reliability of gait characteristics was assessed in terms of intraclass correlations between both measurement weeks. Results. The percentages of spectral power below 0.7 Hz along the vertical and anteroposterior axes and below 10 Hz along the mediolateral axis, as well as local dynamic stability, local dynamic stability per stride, gait smoothness, and the amplitude and slope of the dominant frequency along the vertical axis, were associated with the number of falls in the preceding year and could be reliably assessed (all P 0.75). Conclusions. Daily life gait characteristics are associated with fall history in older adults and can be reliably estimated from a week of ambulatory trunk acceleration measurements. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heather F; Northington, Gina M; Kaye, Elise M; Bogner, Hillary R

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. One hundred forty-three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause, and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994, whereas 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among the women with surgical menopause, the women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than the women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15-0.91) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years since menopause. Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause.

  14. Understanding Healthcare Workers Self-Reported Practices, Knowledge and Attitude about Hand Hygiene in a Medical Setting in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Vishal; Gustafsson, Charlotte; Rosales Klintz, Senia; Joshi, Sudhir Chandra; Joshi, Rita; Sharma, Megha; Shah, Harshada; Pathak, Ashish; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    To describe self-reported practices and assess knowledge and attitudes regarding hand hygiene among healthcare workers in a rural Indian teaching hospital. A rural teaching hospital and its associated medical and nursing colleges in the district of Ujjain, India. The study population consisted of physicians, nurses, teaching staff, clinical instructors and nursing students. Self-administered questionnaires based on the World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare were used. Out of 489 healthcare workers, 259 participated in the study (response rate = 53%). The proportion of healthcare workers that reported to 'always' practice hand hygiene in the selected situations varied from 40-96% amongst categories. Reported barriers to maintaining good hand hygiene were mainly related to high workload, scarcity of resources, lack of scientific information and the perception that priority is not given to hand hygiene, either on an individual or institutional level. Previous training on the topic had a statistically significant association with self-reported practice (p = 0.001). Ninety three per cent of the respondents were willing to attend training on hand hygiene in the near future. Self-reported knowledge and adherence varied between situations, but hand hygiene practices have the potential to improve if the identified constraints could be reduced. Future training should focus on enhancing healthcare workers' knowledge and understanding regarding the importance of persistent practice in all situations.

  15. The association between harm avoidance personality traits and self-reported concussion history in South African rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Fie, Sarah; Abrahams, Shameemah; Patricios, Jon; Suter, Jason; Posthumus, Michael; September, Alison V

    2018-01-01

    Personality traits have been proposed to affect the risk of sports concussion, but evidence is limited. Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) measures novelty seeking, harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence traits. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TPQ scores and concussion history in rugby union players. Cross-sectional study. Rugby players from high schools, senior amateur clubs, and professional teams provided a self-reported concussion history and completed the TPQ. Participants reporting no previous concussions formed the control group, while participants reporting concussion formed the case group. A one-way analysis of covariance, with age as a covariate, was used to examine the differences in TPQ scores between groups. Of the 309 participants, 54% reported a minimum of one concussion (junior: 47%; amateur: 52%; professional: 72%). HA scores were significantly higher in junior players without a history of concussion compared to cases (p=0.006). Specifically, the junior control group had higher "anticipatory worry" (p=0.009) and "fear of uncertainty" (p=0.008). In contrast, the professional control group had lower HA scores than cases (p=0.009), while the amateur cohort displayed no differences between control and case groups. This study identified a novel association between HA and concussion in rugby players, adding evidence to the role of personality in a multifactorial risk-model of concussion. The findings suggest that lower HA may lead to increased dangerous play in youth rugby, influencing concussion susceptibility. Contrasting associations in the professional cohort suggest further research is required to understand the role of personality in concussion. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players: the influence of age, gender, history of knee injury and level of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M; Roos, E M

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if self-reported activity level or knee functions are influenced by subject characteristics, level of competition and history of knee injury. Cross-Sectional study using questionnaires distributed at a personal visit. One hundred and eighty-eight (65 women) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football division) were independently associated with lower self-reported Tegner Activity Scale (P history of knee injury had significantly worse KOOS scores (P football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender.

  17. Medizinhistorische Literatur [Medical history literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] The focus of the current issue 1-2/2012 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is on medical history literature. In six articles special collections and recent projects of medical history libraries in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Vienna and Zurich are presented. The authors in this issue are Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (From Augusta to Klingsor, from Luise to Benjamin – past, present and future of the library of the Institute of the History of Medicine in Berlin, Alexandra Veith (Library of the Institute for History of Medicine and Ethics of Medicine, Heidelberg, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Historic collections of the Medical Library of the University of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and their deacidification, Dagmar Geithner (Library of the Karl Sudhoff Institute for the History of Medicine and Science, Leipzig – a Historical Review, Harald Albrecht, Bruno Bauer & Walter Mentzel (The Josephinian Library and the medical-historic stock of the University Library of the Medical University of Vienna and Monika Huber & Ursula Reis (Library of the Institute and Museum of the History of Medicine Zurich.[german] Schwerpunktthema der aktuellen Ausgabe 1-2/2012von GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information ist medizinhistorische Literatur. In sechs Beiträgen werden Bestände und aktuelle Projekte medizinhistorischer Bibliotheken in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Wien und Zürich vorgestellt. Verfasst wurden die Beiträge der Schwerpunktausgabe von Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (Von August zu Klingsor, von Luise zu Benjamin – Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft der Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte der Medizin in Berlin, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Medizinhistorische Buchbestände am Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf und ihre Entsäuerung, Ara Veith (Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin in Heidelberg, Dagmar Geithner

  18. Residents' Ratings of Their Clinical Supervision and Their Self-Reported Medical Errors: Analysis of Data From 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, DeWitt C; Daugherty, Steven R; Ryan, Patrick M; Yaghmour, Nicholas A; Philibert, Ingrid

    2018-04-01

    Medical errors and patient safety are major concerns for the medical and medical education communities. Improving clinical supervision for residents is important in avoiding errors, yet little is known about how residents perceive the adequacy of their supervision and how this relates to medical errors and other education outcomes, such as learning and satisfaction. We analyzed data from a 2009 survey of residents in 4 large specialties regarding the adequacy and quality of supervision they receive as well as associations with self-reported data on medical errors and residents' perceptions of their learning environment. Residents' reports of working without adequate supervision were lower than data from a 1999 survey for all 4 specialties, and residents were least likely to rate "lack of supervision" as a problem. While few residents reported that they received inadequate supervision, problems with supervision were negatively correlated with sufficient time for clinical activities, overall ratings of the residency experience, and attending physicians as a source of learning. Problems with supervision were positively correlated with resident reports that they had made a significant medical error, had been belittled or humiliated, or had observed others falsifying medical records. Although working without supervision was not a pervasive problem in 2009, when it happened, it appeared to have negative consequences. The association between inadequate supervision and medical errors is of particular concern.

  19. A single-item self-report medication adherence question predicts hospitalisation and death in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Rong; DeWalt, Darren A; Baker, David W; Schillinger, Dean; Ruo, Bernice; Bibbins-Domingo, Kristen; Macabasco-O'Connell, Aurelia; Holmes, George M; Broucksou, Kimberly A; Erman, Brian; Hawk, Victoria; Cene, Crystal W; Jones, Christine DeLong; Pignone, Michael

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether a single-item self-report medication adherence question predicts hospitalisation and death in patients with heart failure. Poor medication adherence is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Having a simple means of identifying suboptimal medication adherence could help identify at-risk patients for interventions. We performed a prospective cohort study in 592 participants with heart failure within a four-site randomised trial. Self-report medication adherence was assessed at baseline using a single-item question: 'Over the past seven days, how many times did you miss a dose of any of your heart medication?' Participants who reported no missing doses were defined as fully adherent, and those missing more than one dose were considered less than fully adherent. The primary outcome was combined all-cause hospitalisation or death over one year and the secondary endpoint was heart failure hospitalisation. Outcomes were assessed with blinded chart reviews, and heart failure outcomes were determined by a blinded adjudication committee. We used negative binomial regression to examine the relationship between medication adherence and outcomes. Fifty-two percent of participants were 52% male, mean age was 61 years, and 31% were of New York Heart Association class III/IV at enrolment; 72% of participants reported full adherence to their heart medicine at baseline. Participants with full medication adherence had a lower rate of all-cause hospitalisation and death (0·71 events/year) compared with those with any nonadherence (0·86 events/year): adjusted-for-site incidence rate ratio was 0·83, fully adjusted incidence rate ratio 0·68. Incidence rate ratios were similar for heart failure hospitalisations. A single medication adherence question at baseline predicts hospitalisation and death over one year in heart failure patients. Medication adherence is associated with all-cause and heart failure-related hospitalisation and death in heart

  20. Relationships between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Gilbert C; Delva, Jorge; Takeuchi, David T

    2007-05-01

    We examined associations between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence. We used data from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Survey, a cross-sectional investigation involving 2217 Filipino Americans interviewed in 1998-1999. Multinomial logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were used in assessing associations between unfair treatment and the substance use categories. Reports of unfair treatment were associated with prescription drug use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence after control for age, gender, location of residence, employment status, educational level, ethnic identity level, nativity, language spoken, marital status, and several health conditions. Unfair treatment may contribute to illness and subsequent use of prescription medications. Furthermore, some individuals may use illicit drugs and alcohol to cope with the stress associated with such treatment. Addressing the antecedents of unfair treatment may be a potential intervention route.

  1. Self-reported patient safety competence among Canadian medical students and postgraduate trainees: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Patricia; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G; Edge, Dana S; Ginsburg, Liane; Goldstein, David H

    2015-02-01

    Quality and patient safety (PS) are critical components of medical education. This study reports on the self-reported PS competence of medical students and postgraduate trainees. The Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey was administered to medical students and postgraduate trainees in January 2012. PS dimension scores were compared across learning settings (classroom and clinical) and year in programme. Sixty-three percent (255/406) of medical students and 32% (141/436) of postgraduate trainees responded. In general, both groups were most confident in their learning of clinical safety skills (eg, hand hygiene) and least confident in learning about sociocultural aspects of safety (eg, understanding human factors). Medical students' confidence in most aspects of safety improved with years of training. For some of the more intangible dimensions (teamwork and culture), medical students in their final year had lower scores than students in earlier years. Thirty-eight percent of medical students felt they could approach someone engaging in unsafe practice, and the majority of medical students (85%) and postgraduate trainees (78%) agreed it was difficult to question authority. Our results suggest the need to improve the overall content, structure and integration of PS concepts in both classroom and clinical learning environments. Decreased confidence in sociocultural aspects of PS among medical students in the final year of training may indicate that culture in clinical settings negatively affects students' perceived PS competence. Alternatively, as medical students spend more time in the clinical setting, they may develop a clearer sense of what they do not know. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. The validity of self-reported cancer screening history and the role of social disadvantage in Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lofters, Aisha; Vahabi, Mandana; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-report may not be an accurate method of determining cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening rates due to recall, acquiescence and social desirability biases, particularly for certain sociodemographic groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the validity of self-report of cancer screening in Ontario, Canada, both for people in the general population and for socially disadvantaged groups based on immigrant status, ethnicity, education, income, languag...

  3. Measuring children's self-reported sport participation, risk perception and injury history: development and validation of a survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siesmaa, Emma J; Blitvich, Jennifer D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F

    2011-01-01

    Despite the health benefits associated with children's sport participation, the occurrence of injury in this context is common. The extent to which sport injuries impact children's ongoing involvement in sport is largely unknown. Surveys have been shown to be useful for collecting children's injury and sport participation data; however, there are currently no published instruments which investigate the impact of injury on children's sport participation. This study describes the processes undertaken to assess the validity of two survey instruments for collecting self-reported information about child cricket and netball related participation, injury history and injury risk perceptions, as well as the reliability of the cricket-specific version. Face and content validity were assessed through expert feedback from primary and secondary level teachers and from representatives of peak sporting bodies for cricket and netball. Test-retest reliability was measured using a sample of 59 child cricketers who completed the survey on two occasions, 3-4 weeks apart. Based on expert feedback relating to face and content validity, modification and/or deletion of some survey items was undertaken. Survey items with low test-retest reliability (κ≤0.40) were modified or deleted, items with moderate reliability (κ=0.41-0.60) were modified slightly and items with higher reliability (κ≥0.61) were retained, with some undergoing minor modifications. This is the first survey of its kind which has been successfully administered to cricketers aged 10-16 years to collect information about injury risk perceptions and intentions for continued sport participation. Implications for its generalisation to other child sport participants are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between mental health screening by self-report questionnaire and insomnia in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Loayza H.,Maria Paz; Ponte,Talles S.; Carvalho,Clarissa G.; Pedrotti,Michell R.; Nunes,Paula V.; Souza,Camila M.; Zanette,Camila B.; Voltolini,Sara; Chaves,Marcia L. F.

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological research points to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among insomniacs. We carried out a cross-sectional study with medical students with the aim of evaluating the association between insomnia and suspicion of psychiatric disorder; 302 medical students were included (184 males and 118 females; mean age = 20.47±1.89 years). The main association was tested by logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of positivity in a screening test for psychiatric disorder...

  5. Concordance of Adherence Measurement Using Self-Reported Adherence Questionnaires and Medication Monitoring Devices: An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnette, Alisha; Zhang, Yichen; Shao, Hui; Shi, Lizheng

    2018-01-01

    As medication adherence continues to be a prevalent issue in today's society, the methods used to monitor medication-taking behaviors are constantly being re-evaluated and compared in search of the 'gold standard' measure. Our review aimed to assess the current literature surrounding the correlation between self-reported questionnaires (SRQs) and electronic monitoring devices to determine if these measures produce similar results. We performed a literature search from 2009 to 2017 using PubMed, PubMed In-Process and Non-Indexed, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, and Ovid MEDLINE In-Process. A keyword search using the terms 'patient compliance', 'treatment compliance', 'medication adherence', 'drug monitoring', 'drug therapy', 'electronic', 'digital', 'computer', 'monitor', 'monitoring', 'drug', 'pharmaceutical preparations', 'compliance', and 'medications' was done to capture all articles. We included articles measuring adherence using both monitoring devices and SRQs. Thirty-five articles were included in this review. The average difference in measured adherence rates between the two measures was 9.2% (range -66.3 to 61.5). A majority (62.7%) of articles reported moderate (n = 12; 27.9%), high (n = 5, 11.6%), or significant (n = 10, 23.3%) correlations between SRQs and monitoring devices. Results from our review are consistent with previous studies, as we found that many of our studies produced moderate to high correlation between both SRQs and monitoring devices [Farmer, Clin Ther 21(6):1074-90 (1999), IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics. Avoidable costs in US health care (2012), Patel et al., Respirology 18(3):546-52 (2013), Siracusa et al., J Cyst Fibros 14(5):621-6 (2015), Smith et al., Int J Cardiol 145(1):122-3 (2010)]. Our findings demonstrate that self-reported adherence produces comparable results to electronic monitoring devices. As there is not yet a 'gold standard' measure for monitoring patient adherence, SRQs and Medication Event Monitoring Systems

  6. Self-reported medical care seeking behaviour of doctors in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.E. Fawibe

    2016-05-14

    May 14, 2016 ... b Department of Family Medicine, University of Ilorin Teaching ... Purpose: This work was therefore designed to study the medical care ... for their health problems and find it difficult to adopt the role ..... Conflict of interest. None ...

  7. Self-reported cannabis use characteristics, patterns and helpfulness among medical cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Bucossi, Meggan M; Babson, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Little research has investigated the demographic and symptom profile of medical cannabis users in states in the USA that have legalized cannabis use. In the present cross-sectional study, we investigated the demographic profile of 217 adults currently receiving medical cannabis, as well as differences in problematic use and perceived helpfulness in terms of (i) symptoms of psychological disorders and pain, and (ii) motives for use. Findings indicated that medical cannabis users (i) use and perceive cannabis to be beneficial for multiple conditions, some for which cannabis is not specifically prescribed or allowed at the state level; and (ii) report similar rates of disordered use as compared with population estimates among regular users. Furthermore, problematic cannabis use was predicted by several symptoms of psychological disorders (e.g. depression) and a variety of use motives (e.g. coping), while cannabis was reported as particularly helpful among those with several psychological symptoms (e.g. traumatic intrusions), as well as those reporting use for social anxiety reasons. Results are discussed in terms of future directions for research given the current debates regarding legalization of cannabis for medical purposes and, more generally, the lack of empirical data to inform such debates.

  8. Conceptualisations of masculinity and self-reported medication adherence among HIV-positive Latino men in Los Angeles, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Frank H; Bogart, Laura M; Wagner, Glenn J; Klein, David J; Chen, Ying-Tung

    2014-06-01

    HIV-positive Latino men have been found to have poorer medication adherence compared to Whites. This study sought to identify how cultural conceptualisations of masculinity are associated with self-reported medication adherence among Latino men. A total of 208 HIV-positive men reported the number of doses of antiretroviral medication missed in the previous seven days (dichotomised at 100% adherence versus less). Conceptualisations of masculinity consisted of traditional machismo (e.g., power and aggressive attitudes, which are normally associated with negative stereotypes of machismo) and caballerismo (e.g., fairness, respect for elders and the importance of family). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with adherence. The mean adherence was 97% (SD = 6.5%; range = 57-100%). In all, 77% of the participants reported 100% adherence in the previous seven days. Caballerismo was associated with a greater likelihood (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.08-2.92; p = 0.03) and machismo with a lower likelihood (OR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.38-0.95; p = 0.03) of medication adherence. In addition, higher medication side-effects were found to be associated with a lower likelihood (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43-0.81; p = 0.001) of medication adherence. These findings reinforce the importance of identifying cultural factors that may affect medication adherence among HIV-positive Latino men resident in the USA.

  9. Self-Reported Behaviour about Internet Addiction among Medical and Paramedical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Ganesh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Internet has become an essential tool in day to day life. It has become an important and convenient mode for networking and information exchange. Excessive use of internet adversely affects an individual’s physical, mental and social health along with academic performance. Aim: The present study aimed at determining the prevalence of internet addiction among undergraduate and postgraduate medical and paramedical students and also the effect of internet on gender. Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire based, cross-sectional study carried out among 1011 medical and paramedical undergraduate and postgraduate students of Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai. A questionnaire consisting of two components; basic demographic information of the participants and Modified Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT was used to gather data. The normal users were categorized as non-addicts and mild, moderate and severe users were categorized as addicts. Descriptive statistics was calculated in terms of frequency and percentage. Inferential statistics was calculated using Chi-Square test. Results: According to the findings, most of the students were mild internet addicts 590 (58.40% followed by moderate addicts 239 (23.60%, normal users 171 (16.90% and severe addicts 11 (1.10%. Prevalence of internet addiction was outnumbered by medical 112 (91.10% students among all the other medical and paramedical specialties. Conclusion: Internet addiction has become an emerging problem among the professional students, which has educational, physical and mental impact on student’s life. So, it is necessary to understand the importance of prevention of internet addiction, which is essential for promoting safe and healthy use of the internet.

  10. Association between mental health screening by self-report questionnaire and insomnia in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loayza H. Maria Paz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological research points to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among insomniacs. We carried out a cross-sectional study with medical students with the aim of evaluating the association between insomnia and suspicion of psychiatric disorder; 302 medical students were included (184 males and 118 females; mean age = 20.47±1.89 years. The main association was tested by logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of positivity in a screening test for psychiatric disorder was 22.19%; and of insomnia, 28.15%. Difficulty initiating sleep (OR=3.45, difficulty maintaining sleep (OR=7.61, falling asleep later (OR=1.99 and waking up earlier (OR=1.91 were associated with suspicion of psychiatric disorder. As a group, the variables difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, falling asleep after 11 pm, and waking up before 6 am presented an odds ratio of 5.96 for positivity in the screening for psychiatric disorder. Furthermore, difficulty maintaining sleep (OR=2.24 was associated with "being female," and falling asleep later (OR=0.43 was associated with "being male". These results underscore the importance of determining in what cases difficulty sleeping may have severe clinical repercussions or affect performance.

  11. Relationship of work-family conflict, self-reported social support and job satisfaction to burnout syndrome among medical workers in southwest China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shujuan; Liu, Danping; Liu, Hongbo; Zhang, Juying; Duan, Zhanqi

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a psychosomatic syndrome widely observed in Chinese medical workers due to the increasing cost of medical treatment, excessive workload, and excessive prescribing behavior. No studies have evaluated the interrelationship among occupational burnout, work-family conflict, social support, and job satisfaction in medical workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate these relationships among medical workers in southwest China. This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2013 and December 2013, and was based on the fifth National Health Service Survey (NHSS). A total of 1382 medical workers were enrolled in the study. Pearson correlation analysis and general linear model univariate analysis were used to evaluate the relationship of work-family conflict, self-reported social support, and job satisfaction with burnout syndrome in medical workers. We observed that five dimensions of job satisfaction and self-reported social support were negatively associated with burnout syndrome, whereas three dimensions of work-family conflict showed a positive correlation. In a four-stage general linear model analysis, we found that demographic factors accounted for 5.4% of individual variance in burnout syndrome (F = 4.720, Pfamily conflict, self-reported social support, and job satisfaction accounted for 2.6% (F = 5.93, Pfamily conflict and self-reported social support slightly affect the level of burnout syndrome, and that job satisfaction is a much stronger influence on burnout syndrome in medical workers of southwest China.

  12. Osteopathic manipulative treatment for self-reported fatigue, stress, and depression in first-year osteopathic medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Sarah; Bianchi, William; Quinn, Thomas A; Best, Mark; Fotopoulos, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    During medical education, many students experience psychological distress, including symptoms such as fatigue, stress, and depression. To evaluate the effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on self-perceived fatigue, stress, and depression in first-year osteopathic medical students. This randomized controlled pilot study with repeated measures was conducted at the Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine-Bradenton in Florida during the fall 2012 semester. First-year osteopathic medical students voluntarily enrolled in the study and were randomly assigned to directed OMT (D-OMT), nondirected OMT (ND-OMT), or control groups. The D-OMT and ND-OMT groups received treatment by osteopathic physicians weekly for 4 weeks. The control group received no treatment. All groups completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Self-Perceived Stress Scale (SPSS), and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) depression scale before treatment (pretest), after 2 treatments (midtest), and after 4 treatments (posttest). All participants self-reported as white and single, with both sexes equally represented, and had an mean age of 24 years. Analysis of ESS scores revealed a statistically significant decrease in the D-OMT group from pretest and posttest scores and a statistically significant increase in the ND-OMT group from pretest to midtest but not from pretest to posttest scores. No statistically significant differences were noted in the control group scores on this measure. No statistically significant differences were seen in the SPSS or PHQ-9 scores from pretest to midtest or pretest to posttest in any of the 3 groups. The D-OMT regimen used in the current study produced a statistically significant decrease in self-perceived fatigue in first-year osteopathic medical students. Osteopathic manipulative treatment represents a potential modality to reduce self-perceived distress in medical students. Further research is

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of self-report and subjective history in the diagnosis of low back pain with non-specific lower extremity symptoms: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Susan; Averell, Kristina; Eickelman, Angela; Sanker, Holly; Donaldson, Megan Burrowbridge

    2015-02-01

    Subjective history questions/self-report items are commonly used to triage the patient with low back pain and related leg symptoms. However the value of the history taking process for decision-making to identify common classifications/diagnosis for patients presenting with low back related leg pain (LBRLP) have not been considered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of self-report items/history-taking questions used to identify patients with LBRLP. Eligible studies included: 1)subjects with low back pain AND related lower extremity pain, 2)details of subjective examination/self-report items, 3)cohort, prospective/longitudinal studies, and randomized control trials, 4)use of statistical reporting, 5)an acceptable reference standard. Quality was evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2. A synthesis of history items that met the threshold for at least a small shift in the likelihood of the condition with a +LR ≥ 2 or -LR ≤ 0.5 were reported. Conditions commonly reported in the literature: lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbosacral nerve root compression/radiculopathy, disc herniation and neurophysiological low back pain ± leg pain. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. This is the first systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies that examined only the history-taking items for their ability to identify LBRLP conditions. Clustering key items may provide a more precise clinical picture necessary to detect and treat a patient's presentation. History questions formed within the interview and their contributing value for decision-making remain understudied. There is a need for better designs to determine a more accurate diagnostic power to identify conditions with LBRLP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-reported medical leave by Brazilian Labor-law magistrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita; Pinheiro, Tarcísio Márcio Magalhães

    2016-11-22

    Sick leave can be envisaged as an important public health indicator. Health problems and trouble at work are predictors of absenteeism. Within the context of reforming the judicial system, the aim of this study was to examine whether individual characteristics and working conditions influenced reports of sick leave amongst a population of Brazilian magistrates. A web-based survey was conducted in 2011 in such a way as to reach the entire population of Brazilian Labor-law magistrates across the country. The variable of interest related to the question: "Have you taken any medical leave due to illness over the last 12 months?" Less than a quarter of the population participated in the survey, despite widespread publicity produced by the professional association. Among the work-related factors, experiences of violence in the courthouse were shown to be associated with the outcome. No significant association with the material or psychosocial working conditions or with the workload was found. Female, worse health assessment, not participating in social activities and having a mother with higher schooling level were significantly associated with absenteeism among the magistrates. It is desirable to formulate sectorial policies focusing on controlling and monitoring violent events in the courthouse.

  15. Self-reported needs for improving the supervision competence of PhD supervisors from the medical sciences in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Raffing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of supervision is a major predictor for successful PhD projects. A survey showed that almost all PhD students in the Health Sciences in Denmark indicated that good supervision was important for the completion of their PhD study. Interestingly, approximately half of the students who withdrew from their program had experienced insufficient supervision. This led the Research Education Committee at the University of Copenhagen to recommend that supervisors further develop their supervision competence. The aim of this study was to explore PhD supervisors’ self-reported needs and wishes regarding the content of a new program in supervision, with a special focus on the supervision of PhD students in medical fields. Methods A semi-structured interview guide was developed, and 20 PhD supervisors from the Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen were interviewed. Empirical data were analysed using qualitative methods of analysis. Results Overall, the results indicated a general interest in improved competence and development of a new supervision programme. Those who were not interested argued that, due to their extensive experience with supervision, they had no need to participate in such a programme. The analysis revealed seven overall themes to be included in the course. The clinical context offers PhD supervisors additional challenges that include the following sub-themes: patient recruitment, writing the first article, agreements and scheduled appointments and two main groups of students, in addition to the main themes. Conclusions The PhD supervisors reported the clear need and desire for a competence enhancement programme targeting the supervision of PhD students at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. Supervision in the clinical context appeared to require additional competence. Trial registration The Scientific Ethical Committee

  16. Self-reported needs for improving the supervision competence of PhD supervisors from the medical sciences in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffing, Rie; Jensen, Thor Bern; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2017-10-23

    Quality of supervision is a major predictor for successful PhD projects. A survey showed that almost all PhD students in the Health Sciences in Denmark indicated that good supervision was important for the completion of their PhD study. Interestingly, approximately half of the students who withdrew from their program had experienced insufficient supervision. This led the Research Education Committee at the University of Copenhagen to recommend that supervisors further develop their supervision competence. The aim of this study was to explore PhD supervisors' self-reported needs and wishes regarding the content of a new program in supervision, with a special focus on the supervision of PhD students in medical fields. A semi-structured interview guide was developed, and 20 PhD supervisors from the Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen were interviewed. Empirical data were analysed using qualitative methods of analysis. Overall, the results indicated a general interest in improved competence and development of a new supervision programme. Those who were not interested argued that, due to their extensive experience with supervision, they had no need to participate in such a programme. The analysis revealed seven overall themes to be included in the course. The clinical context offers PhD supervisors additional challenges that include the following sub-themes: patient recruitment, writing the first article, agreements and scheduled appointments and two main groups of students, in addition to the main themes. The PhD supervisors reported the clear need and desire for a competence enhancement programme targeting the supervision of PhD students at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. Supervision in the clinical context appeared to require additional competence. The Scientific Ethical Committee for the Capital Region of Denmark. Number: H-3-2010-101, date: 2010.09.29.

  17. A utilitarian comparison of two alcohol use biomarkers with self-reported drinking history collected in antenatal clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Hasken, Julie M; De Vries, Marlene M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Stegall, Julie M; Marsden, Daniel; Parry, Charles D H; Seedat, Soraya; Tabachnick, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol use is reported accurately among pregnant women in some populations. Self-reported alcohol use via the AUDIT and 90-day recall for 193 women from antenatal clinics was compared to biomarker results: phosphatidylethanol (PEth) from bloodspots and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in fingernails. AUDIT was positive for 67.9% of respondents, and 65.3% directly reported drinking. Individual biomarkers detected less drinking (PEth = 57.0%, EtG = 38.9%) than self-report. But 64.8% had drinking-positive values (>8 ng) on one or both biomarkers, which was not significantly different from self-report. Biomarkers indicated that 3.1% -6.8% of drinkers denied drinking. Combined biomarker sensitivity was 95% -80% and specificity 49% -76% for drinking in the previous 7-90 days. Combined biomarker results have their best yield (89.6%) and accuracy (78.8%) when measuring 90 day drinking. Women reported their alcohol use accurately, and the combined use of PEth and EtG is supported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Are carer attitudes toward medications related to self-reported medication adherence amongst people with mental illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Frank P; McAlpine, Elizabeth; Byrne, Mitchell K; Davis, Esther L; Mortimer, Christine

    2017-11-22

    Medication nonadherence among consumers with psychiatric disorders can significantly affect the health and wellbeing of the consumer and their family. Previous research has suggested that carers have an impact on consumer attitudes toward medication and adherence. Yet, how carer attitudes toward medication may be related to consumer attitudes and adherence has received little investigation. This exploratory study aimed to investigate the relationships between carer and consumer attitudes toward medication and consumer adherence behaviour. A cross-sectional survey assessing consumer and carer attitudes toward medication and consumer adherence was conducted amongst 42 consumer-carer dyads. Correlation analyses showed a positive association between consumer and carer attitudes toward medication and between consumer and carer attitudes with adherence. There was a general indication that the greater the difference between consumer and carer attitudes, the lower the level of adherence. Regression analyses revealed that while neither consumer nor carer attitudes were significant predictors of adherence, carer attitudes appeared to have a stronger role in adherence than consumer attitudes. These preliminary results highlight the importance of carer attitudes in relation to patient perceptions and behaviours toward medication, and thus the potential benefits of addressing both consumer and carer attitudes in any intervention for improving adherence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Medical History: Compiling Your Medical Family Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are missing. If you're adopted, ask your adoptive parents if they received any medical information about your biological parents at the time of your adoption. Adoption agencies also might have family medical information on file. If you were adopted ...

  20. Self-reported history of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and STI-related utilization of the German health care system by men who have sex with men: data from a large convenience sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel J; Marcus, Ulrich

    2011-05-18

    In Germany, testing and treatment of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) services are not provided by one medical discipline, but rather dispersed among many different providers. Common STIs like gonorrhoea or Chlamydia infection are not routinely reported. Although men who have sex with men (MSM) are particularly vulnerable to STIs, respective health care utilization among MSM is largely unknown. A sexual behaviour survey among MSM was conducted in 2006. Questions on self-reported sexual behaviour, STI-related health care consultation and barriers to access, coverage of vaccination against hepatitis, screening for asymptomatic STIs, self-reported history of STIs, and partner notification were analysed. Analysis was stratified by HIV-serostatus (3,511 HIV-negative/unknown versus 874 positive). General Practitioners, particularly gay doctors, were preferred for STI-related health care. Low threshold testing in sex-associated venues was acceptable for most respondents. Shame and fear of homophobic reactions were the main barriers for STI-testing. More than half of the respondents reported vaccination against hepatitis A/B. HIV-positive MSM reported screening offers for STIs three to seven times more often than HIV-negative or untested MSM. Unlike testing for syphilis or hepatitis C, screening for asymptomatic pharyngeal and rectal infections was rarely offered. STIs in the previous twelve months were reported by 7.1% of HIV-negative/untested, and 34.7% of HIV-positive respondents. Self-reported histories of STIs in MSM convenience samples differ significantly by HIV-serostatus. Higher rates of STIs among HIV-positive MSM may partly be explained by more testing. Communication between health care providers and their clients about sexuality, sexual practices, and sexual risks should be improved. A comprehensive STI screening policy for MSM is needed.

  1. Attitudes and self-reported behavior of patients, doctors, and pharmacists in New Zealand and Belgium toward direct-to-consumer advertising of medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dens, Nathalie; Eagle, Lynne C; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Patients', doctors', and pharmacists' attitudes toward direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for medication and their perceptions of its impact on patient self-reported behavior in terms of request for, and consumption of, advertised medication were investigated. Data were obtained in New Zealand, 1 of only 2 countries that allow mass-media DTCA for prescription medication, and in Belgium, which does not. Attitudes were relatively negative in both countries, but significantly more positive in New Zealand than in Belgium. The impact of DTCA (both in a positive and a negative sense) on self-reported patient behavior and patient interaction with doctors and pharmacists was limited in both countries. Although -- as already established in previous work -- the informativeness and reliability of DTCA can be much improved, and the attitude of medical professionals toward DTCA is negative in both countries, from the point of view of medical professionals and patients, DTCA does not harm the self-reported relationship between doctors, pharmacists, and patients.

  2. Inaccuracy in self-report of fractures may underestimate association with health outcomes when compared with medical record based fracture registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Aspelund, Thor; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Mogensen, Brynjolfur; Chang, Milan; Jonsdottir, Birna; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Launer, Lenore J.; Harris, Tamara B.; Jonsson, Brynjolfur Y.; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2007-01-01

    Introduction and objective Misreporting fractures in questionnaires is known. However, the effect of misreporting on the association of fractures with subsequent health outcomes has not been examined. Methods Data from a fracture registry (FR) developed from an extensive review of radiographic and medical records were related to self-report of fracture for 2,255 participants from the AGES Reykjavik Study. This data was used to determine false negative and false positive rates of self-reported fractures, correlates of misreporting, and the potential effect of the misreporting on estimates of health outcomes following fractures. Results In women, the false positive rate decreased with age as the false negative rate increased with no clear trend with age in men. Kappa values for agreement between FR and self-report were generally higher in women than men with the best agreement for forearm fracture (men 0.64 and women 0.82) and the least for rib (men 0.28 and women 0.25). Impaired cognition was a major factor associated with discordant answers between FR and self-report, OR 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3-2.1) (P < 0.0001). We estimated the effect of misreporting on health after fracture by comparison of the association of the self-report of fracture and fracture from the FR, adjusting for those factors associated with discordance. The weighted attenuation factor measured by mobility and muscle strength was 11% (95% CI: 0-24%) when adjusted for age and sex but reduced to 6% (95% CI: -10-22%) when adjusted for cognitive impairment. Conclusion Studies of hip fractures should include an independent ascertainment of fracture but for other fractures this study supports the use of self-report

  3. Self-reported preclinical mobility limitation and fall history as predictors of future falls in older women: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Heinonen, A; Viljanen, A

    2010-01-01

    mobility limitation. Fall history was recalled for previous 12 months and dichotomized. The incidence of future falls over 12 months was followed up with fall calendars. RESULTS: During the fall follow-up, a total of 440 falls were reported by 201 participants. Among those with fall history, women...

  4. Emotional reactivity and emotion regulation among adults with a history of self-harm: laboratory self-report and functional MRI evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tchiki S; Mauss, Iris B; Lumian, Daniel; Troy, Allison S; Shallcross, Amanda J; Zarolia, Paree; Ford, Brett Q; McRae, Kateri

    2014-08-01

    Intentionally hurting one's body (deliberate self-harm; DSH) is theorized to be associated with high negative emotional reactivity and poor emotion regulation ability. However, little research has assessed the relationship between these potential risk factors and DSH using laboratory measures. Therefore, we conducted 2 studies using laboratory measures of negative emotional reactivity and emotion regulation ability. Study 1 assessed self-reported negative emotions during a sad film clip (reactivity) and during a sad film clip for which participants were instructed to use reappraisal (regulation). Those with a history of DSH were compared with 2 control groups without a history of DSH matched on key demographics: 1 healthy group low in depression and anxiety symptoms and 1 group matched to the DSH group on depression and anxiety symptoms. Study 2 extended Study 1 by assessing neural responding to negative images (reactivity) and negative images for which participants were instructed to use reappraisal (regulation). Those with a history of DSH were compared with a control group matched to the DSH group on demographics, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Compared with control groups, participants with a history of DSH did not exhibit greater negative emotional reactivity but did exhibit lower ability to regulate emotion with reappraisal (greater self-reported negative emotions in Study 1 and greater amygdala activation in Study 2 during regulation). These results suggest that poor emotion regulation ability, but not necessarily greater negative emotional reactivity, is a correlate of and may be a risk factor for DSH, even when controlling for mood disorder symptoms. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Self-reported history of anorexia nervosa and current quality of life: findings from a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, D; Hay, P; Mond, J; Slewa-Younan, S

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a lifetime history of anorexia nervosa (AN) on current quality of life (QoL) and eating disorder (ED) symptomatology. 3,034 participants from a randomly selected sample of households in the Australian population were interviewed for current ED symptoms and QoL (SF-36). 89 participants (2.9 %) reported a history of AN, 73 of whom were female. These participants scored lower on six of the eight subscales on the SF-36, including all of the mental health subscales, and were more likely to report binge eating and extreme weight or shape concerns than participants who did not report a history of AN. On the other hand, participants who reported a history of AN were less likely to be overweight. None of the participants who reported a history of AN met current criteria for AN; however, one met criteria for bulimia nervosa non-purging subtype and four met criteria for binge eating disorder. The endorsement of current ED symptoms was found to moderate the impact of a history of AN on scores of the social functioning and role limitations due to emotional health SF-36 subscales, such that participants who reported a history of AN scored lower on these subscales if they also reported current ED symptoms. A history of AN has a deleterious impact on current QoL, despite remittance from the disorder. This may be explained in part by the presence of certain ED symptoms, including objective binge eating and the persistence of extreme weight and shape concerns.

  6. Associations between self-reported lifetime history of traumatic brain injuries and current disability assessment in a population sample of Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Hamilton, Hayley; Rehm, Jürgen; Asbridge, Mark; Cusimano, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    This study describes the association between history of lifetime traumatic brain injury (TBI) and current disabling functional restrictions among Ontario adults. A two-stage rolling cross-sectional sample of 6,048 adults aged 18 to 93 were interviewed by computer assisted telephone interviewing between 2011-2013 regarding their mental health and substance use in Ontario, Canada. TBI criteria were defined by loss of consciousness for minimum five minutes or at least one overnight hospitalization. Dimensions of functionality restrictions in the last 30 days were measured with the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS). The estimated mean for global disability in this sample of Ontario adults was 2.75 (SD = 5.4, range 0-40). The estimated means of global disability for individuals who reported a history of lifetime TBI was 4.16 (SD = 7.12) and compared with 2.46 (SD = 4.98) for individuals who never had a TBI (p history of lifetime TBI had greater odds of global and item disability including restricted cognition, decreased self-care, difficulties with social relationships, fewer life activities and reduced participation in society compared to adults without a history of TBI (p history of lifetime TBI with self-reported disability within the past 30 days provide evidence that careful consideration, planning and understanding of short and long term health needs of TBI survivors are critical.

  7. Relationship of work-family conflict, self-reported social support and job satisfaction to burnout syndrome among medical workers in southwest China: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shujuan; Liu, Danping; Liu, Hongbo; Zhang, Juying; Duan, Zhanqi

    2017-01-01

    Background Burnout is a psychosomatic syndrome widely observed in Chinese medical workers due to the increasing cost of medical treatment, excessive workload, and excessive prescribing behavior. No studies have evaluated the interrelationship among occupational burnout, work-family conflict, social support, and job satisfaction in medical workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate these relationships among medical workers in southwest China. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2013 and December 2013, and was based on the fifth National Health Service Survey (NHSS). A total of 1382 medical workers were enrolled in the study. Pearson correlation analysis and general linear model univariate analysis were used to evaluate the relationship of work-family conflict, self-reported social support, and job satisfaction with burnout syndrome in medical workers. Results We observed that five dimensions of job satisfaction and self-reported social support were negatively associated with burnout syndrome, whereas three dimensions of work-family conflict showed a positive correlation. In a four-stage general linear model analysis, we found that demographic factors accounted for 5.4% of individual variance in burnout syndrome (F = 4.720, Pjob satisfaction accounted for 2.6% (F = 5.93, Pburnout syndrome, and medical workers without administrative duties had more serious burnout syndrome than those with administrative duties. Conclusions In conclusion, the present study suggests that work-family conflict and self-reported social support slightly affect the level of burnout syndrome, and that job satisfaction is a much stronger influence on burnout syndrome in medical workers of southwest China. PMID:28207821

  8. Multidimensional Inventory of Hypochondriacal Traits: An Examination of a Bifactor Model and Measurement Invariance Between Those With and Without a Self-Reported Medical Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardeen, Joseph R; Fergus, Thomas A

    2017-08-01

    The Multidimensional Inventory of Hypochondriacal Traits (MIHT) is a self-report measure that assesses four interrelated domains of health anxiety (i.e., Cognitive, Behavioral, Perceptual, Affective). Prior research has supported a correlated four-factor model, as well as a hierarchical model, in which each of the four factors load onto the higher order health anxiety construct. However, a bifactor modeling approach has yet to be used to examine the factor structure of the MIHT. Results supported a bifactor model of the MIHT in three different samples (i.e., unselected based on current medical status [ n = 824], and those with [ n = 348] and without [ n = 354] a self-reported medical condition). The MIHT appears to be strongly multidimensional, with three of the four subscales providing substantive value. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the configural and metric/scalar invariance of the bifactor model between those with and without a self-reported medical condition. Results provide support for a bifactor conceptualization of the MIHT and the invariance of that model across levels of current health status.

  9. Swallowing difficulties with medication intake assessed with a novel self-report questionnaire in patients with systemic sclerosis – a cross-sectional population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messerli M

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Markus Messerli,1,2 Rebecca Aschwanden,1 Michael Buslau,2 Kurt E Hersberger,1 Isabelle Arnet1 1Pharmaceutical Care Research Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2European Centre for the Rehabilitation of Scleroderma, Reha Rheinfelden, Rheinfelden, Switzerland Objectives: To assess subjective swallowing difficulties (SD with medication intake and their practical consequences in patients suffering from systemic sclerosis (SSc with a novel self-report questionnaire.Design and setting: Based on a systematic literature review, we developed a self-report questionnaire and got it approved by an expert panel. Subsequently, we sent the questionnaire by post mail to SSc patients of the European Center for the Rehabilitation of Scleroderma Rheinfelden, Switzerland.Participants: Patients were eligible if they were diagnosed with SSc, treated at the center, and were of age ≥18 years at the study start.Main outcome measures: Prevalence and pattern of SD with oral medication intake, including localization and intensity of complaints.Results: The questionnaire consisted of 30 items divided into five sections Complaints, Intensity, Localization, Coping strategies, and Adherence. Of the 64 SSc patients eligible in 2014, 43 (67% returned the questionnaire. Twenty patients reported SD with medication intake (prevalence 47%, either currently (11; 26% or in the past that had been overcome (9; 21%. Self-reported SD were localized mostly in the larynx (43% and esophagus (34%. They were of moderate (45% or strong to unbearable intensity (25%. Modification of the dosage form was reported in 40% of cases with SD. Adherence was poor for 20 (47% patients and was not associated with SD (p=0.148.Conclusion: Our novel self-report questionnaire is able to assess the pattern of complaints linked to medication intake, that is, localization and intensity. It may serve as a guide for health care professionals in selecting the most

  10. Relationship of work-family conflict, self-reported social support and job satisfaction to burnout syndrome among medical workers in southwest China: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Yang

    Full Text Available Burnout is a psychosomatic syndrome widely observed in Chinese medical workers due to the increasing cost of medical treatment, excessive workload, and excessive prescribing behavior. No studies have evaluated the interrelationship among occupational burnout, work-family conflict, social support, and job satisfaction in medical workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate these relationships among medical workers in southwest China.This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2013 and December 2013, and was based on the fifth National Health Service Survey (NHSS. A total of 1382 medical workers were enrolled in the study. Pearson correlation analysis and general linear model univariate analysis were used to evaluate the relationship of work-family conflict, self-reported social support, and job satisfaction with burnout syndrome in medical workers.We observed that five dimensions of job satisfaction and self-reported social support were negatively associated with burnout syndrome, whereas three dimensions of work-family conflict showed a positive correlation. In a four-stage general linear model analysis, we found that demographic factors accounted for 5.4% of individual variance in burnout syndrome (F = 4.720, P<0.001, R2 = 0.054, and that work-family conflict, self-reported social support, and job satisfaction accounted for 2.6% (F = 5.93, P<0.001, R2 = 0.080, 5.7% (F = 9.532, P<0.001, R2 = 0.137 and 17.8% (F = 21.608, P<0.001, R2 = 0.315 of the variance, respectively. In the fourth stage of analysis, female gender and a lower technical title correlated to a higher level of burnout syndrome, and medical workers without administrative duties had more serious burnout syndrome than those with administrative duties.In conclusion, the present study suggests that work-family conflict and self-reported social support slightly affect the level of burnout syndrome, and that job satisfaction is a much stronger influence on burnout syndrome

  11. Learning medical history in Oslo: training for medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, O

    1999-03-01

    The teaching in medical history at the University of Oslo, Norway, is given as an integrated part of the student training for practical work in health care and community health. I summarize here the underlying argumentation and the teaching experiences, concluding that this is felt as an effective way to convey relevant medical historical knowledge and skills to the future doctors.

  12. Psychotropic medication in the French child and adolescent population: prevalence estimation from health insurance data and national self-report survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legleye Stéphane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work is to estimate the French frequencies of dispensed psychotropic prescriptions in children and adolescents. Prevalence estimations of dispensed prescriptions are compared to the frequencies of use of psychotropic reported by 17 year-old adolescents. Methods Prescription data is derived from national health insurance databases. Frequencies of dispensed prescriptions are extrapolated to estimate a range for the 2004 national rates. Self-report data is derived from the 2003 and 2005 ESCAPAD study, an epidemiological study based on a questionnaire focused on health and drug consumption. Results The prevalence estimation shows that the prevalence of prescription of a psychotropic medication to young persons between 3 and 18 years is about 2.2%. In 2005, the self-report study (ESCAPAD shows that 14.9% of 17 year-old adolescents took medication for "nerves" or "to sleep" during the previous 12 months. The same study in 2003 also shows that 62.3% of adolescents aged 17 and 18 reporting psychotropic use, took the medication for anxiety and 56.8% to sleep. Only 49.7% of these medications are suggested by a doctor. Conclusion This study underlines a similar range of prevalence of psychotropic prescriptions in France to that observed in other European countries. Nevertheless, the proportion of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines seems to be higher, whereas the proportion of methylphenidate is lower. Secondly, a disparity between the prevalence of dispensed prescriptions and the self-report of actual use of psychotropics has been highlighted by the ESCAPAD study which shows that these treatments are widely used as "self-medication".

  13. Are psychophysiological arousal and self-reported emotional stress during an oncological consultation related to memory of medical information? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Leonie N C; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Bosch, Jos A; van Doornen, Lorenz J P; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2017-01-01

    Patients forget 20-80% of information provided during medical consultations. The emotional stress often experienced by patients during consultations could be one of the mechanisms that lead to limited recall. The current experimental study therefore investigated the associations between (analog) patients' psychophysiological arousal, self-reported emotional stress and their (long term) memory of information provided by the physician. One hundred and eighty one cancer-naïve individuals acted as so-called analog patients (APs), i.e. they were instructed to watch a scripted video-recoding of an oncological bad news consultation while imagining themselves being in the patient's situation. Electrodermal and cardiovascular activity (e.g. skin conductance level and heart rate) were recorded during watching. Self-reported emotional stress was assessed before and after watching, using the STAI-State and seven Visual Analog Scales. Memory, both free recall and recognition, was assessed after 24-28 h. Watching the consultation evoked significant psychophysiological and self-reported stress responses. However, investigating the associations between 24 psychophysiological arousal measures, eight self-reported stress measures and free recall and recognition of information resulted in one significant, small (partial) correlation (r = 0.19). Considering multiple testing, this significant result was probably due to chance. Alternative analytical methods yielded identical results, strengthening our conclusion that no evidence was found for relationships between variables of interest. These null-findings are highly relevant, as they may be considered to refute the long-standing, but yet untested assumption that a relationship between stress and memory exists within this context. Moreover, these findings suggest that lowering patients' stress levels during the consultation would probably not be sufficient to raise memory of information to an optimal level. Alternative

  14. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinelli Florio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy. All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year. The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age Three hundred five (34% women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58% referred for treatment, 97% complied. Conclusions In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.

  15. Self-reported difficulty in conceiving as a measure of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, M-L B; Bain, C J; Purdie, D M; Siskind, V; Molloy, D; Green, A C

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to explore the meaning and potential use of women's self-reported difficulties in conceiving as a measure of infertility in epidemiological studies, and to compare women's stated reasons for infertility with information in their medical records. Data were available from a population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer involving 1638 women. The sensitivity and specificity of women's self-reported infertility were calculated against their estimated fertility status based on detailed reproductive histories. Self-reported reasons for infertility were compared with diagnoses documented in women's medical records. The sensitivity of women's self-reported difficulty in conceiving was 66 and 69% respectively when compared with calendar-derived and self-reported times taken trying to conceive; its specificity was 95%. Forty-one (23%) of the 179 women for whom medical records were available had their self-reported fertility problem confirmed. Self-reported infertility causes could be compared with diagnoses in medical records for only 22 of these women. Self-reported difficulty conceiving is a useful measure of infertility for quantifying the burden of fertility problems experienced in the community. Validation of reasons for infertility is unlikely to be feasible through examination of medical records. Improved education of the public regarding the availability and success rates of infertility treatments is proposed.

  16. Are patients reliable when self-reporting medication use? Validation of structured drug interviews and home visits by drug analysis and prescription data in acutely hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Hillestrøm, Peter René; Olsen, Lenette Holm

    2007-01-01

    inspected, and patients were interviewed about their drug use. Additional blood samples were drawn for drug analysis. The median age of included patients was 72 years, and 298 patients (60%) were women. Patients reported use of 3 (median) prescription-only medications (range, 0-14) during the structured...... interview. The congruence between self-report and drug analysis was high for all 5 drugs measured (all kappa >0.8). However, 9 patients (2%) reported use of drugs that were not detected in their blood samples. In 29 patients (6%), the blood samples contained drugs not reported during the structured...... to an acute medical department at a Danish university hospital were interviewed on the day of admission about their recent medication use. Blood samples drawn immediately after admission were screened for contents of 5 drugs (digoxin, bendroflumethiazide, amlodipine, simvastatin, glimepiride), and the results...

  17. Medical record validation of maternally reported history of preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Coolman (Marianne); C.J.M. de Groot (Christianne); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); H. Raat (Hein); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: In this study, we assessed the validity of maternally self-reported history of preeclampsia. Study Design and Setting: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study. Data were obtained from prenatal questionnaires and one

  18. Supplementing the Braden scale for pressure ulcer risk among medical inpatients: the contribution of self-reported symptoms and standard laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogestad, Ingrid Johansen; Martinsen, Liv; Børsting, Tove Elisabet; Granheim, Tove Irene; Ludvigsen, Eirin Sigurdssøn; Gay, Caryl L; Lerdal, Anners

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate medical inpatients' symptom experience and selected laboratory blood results as indicators of their pressure ulcer risk as measured by the Braden scale. Pressure ulcers reduce quality of life and increase treatment costs. The prevalence of pressure ulcers is 6-23% in hospital populations, but literature suggests that most pressure ulcers are avoidable. Prospective, cross-sectional survey. Three hundred and twenty-eight patients admitted to medical wards in an acute hospital in Oslo, Norway consented to participate. Data were collected on 10 days between 2012-2014 by registered nurses and nursing students. Pressure ulcer risk was assessed using the Braden scale, and scores indicated pressure ulcer risk. Skin examinations were categorised as normal or stages I-IV using established definitions. Comorbidities were collected by self-report. Self-reported symptom occurrence and distress were measured with 15 items from the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and pain was assessed using two numeric rating scales. Admission laboratory data were collected from medical records. Prevalence of pressure ulcers was 11·9, and 20·4% of patients were identified as being at risk for developing pressure ulcers. Multivariable analysis showed that pressure ulcer risk was positively associated with age ≥80 years, vomiting, severe pain at rest, urination problems, shortness of breath and low albumin and was negatively associated with nervousness. Our study indicates that using patient-reported symptoms and standard laboratory results as supplemental indicators of pressure ulcer risk may improve identification of vulnerable patients, but replication of these findings in other study samples is needed. Nurses play a key role in preventing pressure ulcers during hospitalisation. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms may improve the quality of care. Knowledge about symptoms associated with pressure ulcer risk may contribute to a faster clinical judgment of

  19. Missed doses of oral antihyperglycemic medications in US adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: prevalence and self-reported reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietri, Jeffrey T; Wlodarczyk, Catherine S; Lorenzo, Rose; Rajpathak, Swapnil

    2016-09-01

    Adherence to antihyperglycemic medication is thought to be suboptimal, but the proportion of patients missing doses, the number of doses missed, and reasons for missing are not well described. This survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of and reasons for missed doses of oral antihyperglycemic medications among US adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to explore associations between missed doses and health outcomes. The study was a cross-sectional patient survey. Respondents were contacted via a commercial survey panel and completed an on-line questionnaire via the Internet. Respondents provided information about their use of oral antihyperglycemic medications including doses missed in the prior 4 weeks, personal characteristics, and health outcomes. Weights were calculated to project the prevalence to the US adult population with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Outcomes were compared according to number of doses missed in the past 4 weeks using bivariate statistics and generalized linear models. Approximately 30% of adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus reported missing or reducing ≥1 dose of oral antihyperglycemic medication in the prior 4 weeks. Accidental missing was more commonly reported than purposeful skipping, with forgetting the most commonly reported reason. The timing of missed doses suggested respondents had also forgotten about doses missed, so the prevalence of missed doses is likely higher than reported. Outcomes were poorer among those who reported missing three or more doses in the prior 4 weeks. A substantial number of US adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus miss doses of their oral antihyperglycemic medications.

  20. Why Is It Important to Know My Family Medical History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know my family medical history? Why is it important to know my family medical history? A family ... for Links Data Files & API Site Map Subscribe Customer Support USA.gov Copyright Privacy Accessibility FOIA Viewers & ...

  1. Self-reported needs for improving the supervision competence of PhD supervisors from the medical sciences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffing, Rie; Jensen, Thor Bern; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Quality of supervision is a major predictor for successful PhD projects. A survey showed that almost all PhD students in the Health Sciences in Denmark indicated that good supervision was important for the completion of their PhD study. Interestingly, approximately half of the students...... and wishes regarding the content of a new program in supervision, with a special focus on the supervision of PhD students in medical fields. Methods: A semi-structured interview guide was developed, and 20 PhD supervisors from the Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences at the Faculty of Health...... and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen were interviewed. Empirical data were analysed using qualitative methods of analysis. Results: Overall, the results indicated a general interest in improved competence and development of a new supervision programme. Those who were not interested argued that...

  2. The prevalence of self-reported underuse of medications due to cost for the elderly: results from seven European urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankuniene, Aurima; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Avery, Mark; Lindert, Jutta; Mikalauskiene, Rita; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Savickas, Arūnas; Radziunas, Raimondas; Soares, Joaquim J F

    2015-09-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported underuse of medications due to procurement costs amongst older persons from seven European urban communities. The data were collected in a cross-sectional study ("ABUEL, Elder abuse: A multinational prevalence survey") in 2009. Randomly selected people aged 60-84 years (n = 4,467) from seven urban communities: Stuttgart (Germany), Athens (Greece), Ancona (Italy), Kaunas (Lithuania), Porto (Portugal), Granada (Spain) and Stockholm (Sweden) were interviewed. Response rate - 45.2%. Ethical permission was received in each country. The results indicate that 3.6% (n = 162) of the respondents self-reported refraining from buying prescribed medications due to cost. The highest prevalence of this problem was identified in Lithuania (15.7%, n = 99) and Portugal (4.3%, n = 28). Other countries reported lower percentages of refraining from buying medications (Germany - 2.0%, Italy - 1.6%, Sweden - 1.0%, Greece - 0.6%, Spain - 0.3%). Females refrained more often from buying medications than males (2.6% vs. 4.4%, p < 0.0001). The prevalence of this refraining tended to increase with economic hardship. These differences between countries can be only partly described by the financing of health-care systems. In spite of the presence of cost reimbursement mechanisms, patients need to make co-payments (or in some cases to pay the full price) for prescribed medications. This indicates that the purchasing power of people in 10.1186/s12913-015-1089-4 the particular country can play a major role and be related with the economic situation in the country. Lithuania, which has reported the highest refrain rates, had the lowest gross domestic product (at the time of conducting this study) of all participating countries in the study. Refraining from buying the prescribed medications due to cost is a problem for women and men in respect to ageing people in Europe. Prevalence varies by country, sex, and

  3. Associations and predictions of readmission or death in acutely admitted older medical patients using self-reported frailty and functional measures. A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jane; Aadahl, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether frailty in acutely admitted older medical patients, assessed by a self-report questionnaire and evaluation of functional level at discharge, was associated with readmission or death within 6 months after discharge. A second objective was to assess the predictive...... measured. Associations were assessed using Cox regression with first unplanned readmission or death (all-causes) as the outcome. Prediction models including the three exposure variables and known risk factors were modelled using logistic regression and C-statistics. RESULTS: Of 1328 included patients, 50......% were readmitted or died within 6 months. When adjusted for gender and age, there was an 88% higher risk of readmission or death if the TFI scores were 8-13 points compared to 0-1 points (HR 1.88, CI 1.38;2.58). Likewise, higher TUG and lower GS scores were associated with higher risk of readmission...

  4. Associations of moderate and severe overweight with self-reported illness and medical care in Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C; de Groot, L.C.; van Sonsbeek, J L; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    Data on height, weight, illness, medical care consumption, and demographic variables for 19,126 Dutch adults aged 20 years or older were obtained from three annual Health Interview Surveys. Data on severely overweight (Body Mass Index 30.0-40.0 kg/m2) and moderately overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2)

  5. Self-reported cheating among medical students: An alarming finding in a cross-sectional study from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Haque, Shafiul; Almusalam, Yousef Abdullah; Alanezi, Saleh Lafi; Alsulaiman, Yazeed Abdulaziz; Irshad, Mohammad; Shaik, Shaffi Ahmed; Khamis, Nehal

    2018-01-01

    Academic misconduct/dishonesty has become widespread behavior among many university students across the globe, and medical education is not an exception. Until recently, few efforts have been made to study the dishonest behavior in Middle-Eastern universities. This study examined the prevalence and predisposing factors of cheating among medical students in Saudi Arabia and suggests suitable preventive measures. A cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted at a government medical college during the 2014-2015 academic year. The response rate was 58.5% (421/720). The overall cheating behavior practiced by the participants was 29%, predominantly by male students. High GPA scoring students were the least likely to cheat. The participants living with their families were more likely to cheat compared to those who were living apart from their families. The reasons participants gave to justify their cheating behavior included getting better grades, passing the course, and lacking preparation while still recognizing that cheating is a 'mistake.' Overall, significant academic misconduct concerning cheating was found among the Saudi medical students; this misconduct is alarming in a reputable government institution. The implementation of strict punishments, requiring ethical courses and creating ethical awareness by exploiting the potential of Islamic religious belief might help to control this problem.

  6. A survey of mindset theories of intelligence and medical error self-reporting among pediatric housestaff and faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegathesan, Mithila; Vitberg, Yaffa M; Pusic, Martin V

    2016-02-11

    Intelligence theory research has illustrated that people hold either "fixed" (intelligence is immutable) or "growth" (intelligence can be improved) mindsets and that these views may affect how people learn throughout their lifetime. Little is known about the mindsets of physicians, and how mindset may affect their lifetime learning and integration of feedback. Our objective was to determine if pediatric physicians are of the "fixed" or "growth" mindset and whether individual mindset affects perception of medical error reporting.  We sent an anonymous electronic survey to pediatric residents and attending pediatricians at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Respondents completed the "Theories of Intelligence Inventory" which classifies individuals on a 6-point scale ranging from 1 (Fixed Mindset) to 6 (Growth Mindset). Subsequent questions collected data on respondents' recall of medical errors by self or others. We received 176/349 responses (50 %). Participants were equally distributed between mindsets with 84 (49 %) classified as "fixed" and 86 (51 %) as "growth". Residents, fellows and attendings did not differ in terms of mindset. Mindset did not correlate with the small number of reported medical errors. There is no dominant theory of intelligence (mindset) amongst pediatric physicians. The distribution is similar to that seen in the general population. Mindset did not correlate with error reports.

  7. Experience with a pharmacy technician medication history program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Julie B; Lilliston, Michelle; Brooks, DeAnne; Swords, Bruce

    2014-09-15

    The implementation and outcomes of a pharmacy technician medication history program are described. An interprofessional medication reconciliation team, led by a clinical pharmacist and a clinical nurse specialist, was charged with implementing a new electronic medication reconciliation system to improve compliance with medication reconciliation at discharge and capture compliance-linked reimbursement. The team recommended that the pharmacy department be allocated new pharmacy technician full-time-equivalent positions to assume ownership of the medication history process. Concurrent with the implementation of this program, a medication history standard was developed to define rules for documentation of what a patient reports he or she is actually taking. The standard requires a structured interview with the patient or caregiver and validation with outside sources as indicated to determine which medications to document in the medication history. The standard is based on four medication administration category rules: scheduled, as-needed, short-term, and discontinued medications. The medication history standard forms the core of the medication history technician training and accountability program. Pharmacy technicians are supervised by pharmacists, using a defined accountability plan based on a set of medical staff approved rules for what medications comprise a best possible medication history. Medication history accuracy and completeness rates have been consistently over 90% and rates of provider compliance with medication reconciliation rose from under 20% to 100% since program implementation. A defined medication history based on a medication history standard served as an effective foundation for a pharmacy technician medication history program, which helped improve provider compliance with discharge medication reconciliation. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictors of students' self-reported adoption of a smartphone application for medical education in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholzer, Maximilian; Deutsch, Tobias; Frese, Thomas; Winter, Alfred

    2015-05-21

    Smartphones and related applications are increasingly gaining relevance in the healthcare domain. We previously assessed the demands and preferences of medical students towards an application accompanying them during a course on general practice. The current study aims to elucidate the factors associated with adoption of such a technology. Therefore we provided students with a prototype of an application specifically related to their studies in general practice. A total estimation among students participating in a general practice examination at the Leipzig Medical School was conducted in May 2014. Students were asked to answer a structured self-designed questionnaire. Univariable comparisons were made to identify significant differences between those students who reported to have used the application frequently and those who did not. Multivariable binary logistic regression was used to reveal independent predictors of frequent application usage. The response rate was 99.3 % (n = 305/307). The majority (59 %, n = 180/305) were female students. The mean age was 24.5 years and 79.9 % (n = 243/304) owned a smartphone or tablet computer. Regarding the usage of the provided application, 2.3 % (n = 7/303) did not use the app while 68.0 % (n = 206/303) replied to have used it more than five times. Frequent users significantly differed from non-frequent users with regard to being female rather than male, higher mobile device ownership, more frequent exchange about obtaining the course certificate, higher personal interest in new technologies, larger enjoyment of the technology, lower intention to not use smartphone applications in the future, better opinion towards smartphone applications for the profession of a doctor, higher perceived importance of medical applications on the job, higher compatibility of smartphone applications with personal work style, higher perceived relevance of university support and personal benefit of use. Multivariable

  9. Cancer Screening Among Patients Who Self-Identify as Muslim: Combining Self-Reported Data with Medical Records in a Family Practice Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, A K; Slater, M; Vahabi, M

    2018-02-01

    Cancer screening is a core component of family medicine but screening inequalities are well documented in Canada for foreign-born persons. Although people of Muslim faith and culture are the fastest growing immigrant population in Canada, there is little information in the literature about their cancer screening practices. Determining screening gaps could inform practice-based quality improvement initiatives. We conducted a retrospective chart review combining patient-level medical record data with self-reported religious affiliation to examine the relationship between religion and cancer screening in a large multi-site urban family practice. Religious affiliation was classified as Muslim, other affiliation, or atheist/no religious affiliation. 5311 patients were included in the study sample. Muslim patients were significantly less likely to prefer English for spoken communication than the other two groups, less likely to be Canadian-born, more likely to have a female family physician, and were over-represented in the lowest income quintile. Muslim women were most likely to be up-to-date on breast cancer screening (85.2 vs. 77.5 % for those with other religions vs. 69.5 % for those with no religious affiliation). There were no significant differences in cancer screening by physician sex. In this pilot study conducted within a primary care practice, we used self-reported data on religious affiliation to examine possible inequities in cancer screening and observed intriguing variations in screening by self-identified religious affiliation. Future efforts to collect and use similar patient-level data should incorporate non-official languages and intensively outreach to patients with less health system contact. Regardless, the family medicine context may be the ideal setting to collect and act on patient-level sociodemographic data such as religious affiliation.

  10. Self-reported history of stroke and long-term living conditions near air pollution sources: results of a national epidemiological study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Pascale; Farah, Rita; Hallit, Souheil; Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Chahine, Mirna N; Asmar, Roland; Hosseini, Hassan

    2018-02-20

    Stroke is a disease related to high mortality and morbidity, particularly in developing countries. Some studies have linked self-reported indoor and outdoor pollution to stroke and mini-stroke, while some others showed no association. Our objective was to assess this association in Lebanon, a Middle Eastern developing country. A national cross-sectional study was conducted all over Lebanon. In addition to self-reported items of pollution exposure, we assessed potential predictors of stroke and mini-stroke, including sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health information, and biological measurements. Moreover, we assessed dose-effect relationship of pollution items in relation with stroke. Self-reported indoor pollution exposure was associated with stroke and mini-stroke, with or without taking biological values into account. Moreover, we found a dose-effect relationship of exposure with risk of disease, but this effect did not reach statistical significance after adjustment for sociodemographics and biological characteristics. No association was found for any outdoor pollution item. Although additional studies would be necessary to confirm these findings, sensitizing the population about the effect of pollution on chronic diseases, working on reducing pollution, and improving air quality should be implemented to decrease the burden of the disease on the population and health system.

  11. Pharmacy collected medication histories in an observation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle L Procopio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clear processes to facilitate medication reconciliation in a hospital setting are still undefined. The observation unit allows for a high patient turnover rate, where obtaining accurate medication histories is critical. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the ability of pharmacists and student pharmacists to identify discrepancies in medication histories obtained at triage in observation patients. Methods: Pharmacists and student pharmacists obtained a medication history for each patient placed in observation status. Patients were excluded if they were unable to provide a medication history and family, caregiver, or community pharmacy was also unable to provide the history. A comparison was made between triage and pharmacy collected medication histories to identify discrepancies. Results: A total of 501 medications histories were collected, accounting for 3213 medication records. There were 1176 (37% matched medication records and 1467 discrepancies identified, including 808 (55% omissions, 296 (20.2% wrong frequency, 278 (19% wrong dose, 51 (3.5% discontinued, and 34 (2.3% wrong medication. There was an average of 2.9 discrepancies per patient profile. In all, 76 (15% of the profiles were matched. The median time to obtain a medication history was 4 min (range: 1–48 min. Conclusion: Pharmacy collected medication histories in an observation unit identify discrepancies that can be reconciled by the interdisciplinary team.

  12. Self-reported influence of television-based direct-to-consumer advertising on patient seasonal allergy and asthma medication use: An internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanfar, Nile M; Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Shields, Kelly M

    2008-04-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DDTCA) of medications, a marketing tool used by the pharmaceutical industry to increase patient awareness of products, affects both consumer behavior and, ultimately, physician prescribing practices. Billions of dollars are budgeted each year for DTCA, and its influence is far-reaching. However, little information is available about patient-initiated physician interactions in which television-bbased DTCA has played a role in consumer behavior. The objective of this study was to explore the influence of television-based DTCA on treatment changes in patient-initiated medication use. A 68-item survey instrument consisting of dichotomous, multiple-choice, and open-ended questions was constructed and sent to a convenience sample of US residents during 3 consecutive months ending in February 2005. The survey, which was accessed through an Internet link provided in the e-mail, was designed to capture data about patient perceptions and behaviors regarding television-based DTCA of prescription medications used for seasonal allergy and asthma as well as demographic information. Inferential and descriptive analyses were performed. Key tests included Crosstabs analysis and normal approximation to the binomial test with the z score. Surveys were sent to 2500 individuals. A total of 427 valid surveys were returned for a 17.1% response rate. Of the 402 respondents (94.1%) who stated that they had seen DTCA for seasonal allergy medication, 50 (12.4%) said they had discussed the advertised medication with their physician and 22 of those discussions (44.0%) resulted in a change in treatment. Three hundred forty-two respondents (80.1%) stated that they had viewed DTCA for prescription asthma medications, and 23 of those respondents (6.7%) said that they had discussed the brand of asthma medication viewed on television with their physician. Those discussions resulted in a change in treatment for 9 respondents (39.1%). Within th his limited, self-reported

  13. Medical students’ perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) discrimination in their learning environment and their self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients: a survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Nama, Nassr; MacPherson, Paul; Sampson, Margaret; McMillan, Hugh J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Historically, medical students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered (LGBT) report higher rates of social stress, depression, and anxiety, while LGBT patients have reported discrimination and poorer access to healthcare. Objective: The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess if medical students have perceived discrimination in their learning environment and; (2) to determine self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients. Design: Medical students ...

  14. Self-Report and Dry Blood Spot Measurement of Antiretroviral Medications as Markers of Adherence in Pregnant Women in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Maria L; Ramlagan, Shandir; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Cook, Ryan; Peltzer, Karl; Weiss, Stephen M; Sifunda, Sibusiso; Jones, Deborah L

    2017-07-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) adherence is essential to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This study compared self-reported adherence versus ARV detection in dried blood spots (DBS) among N = 392 HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa (SA). Women completed two self-reported adherence measures [visual analog scale (VAS), AIDS Clinical Trials Group Adherence (ACTG)]. Adherence was 89% (VAS), 80% (ACTG), and 74% (DBS). Self-report measures marginally agreed with DBS (VAS: Kappa = 0.101, Area under the ROC curve (AUROC) = 0.543; ACTG: Kappa  = 0.081, AUROC = 0.538). Self-reported adherence was overestimated and agreement with DBS was poor. Validation of self-reported ARV adherence among pregnant HIV+ women in SA is needed.

  15. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  16. Self-reported history of childhood smoking is associated with an increased risk for peripheral arterial disease independent of lifetime smoking burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Priest

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic disorders are well known to be associated with obesity, lipid profile, smoking, hypertension and other medical comorbidities, and large cohort studies have explored the childhood correlates to these adult risk factors. However, there has been little investigation into the childhood risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD. We endeavored to better understand the role of smoking in childhood in the risk for PAD in a well described cohort of 1,537 adults at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In a multivariate regression model, we observed an increased risk of PAD among those who reported a history of smoking during childhood (OR = 2.86; 95% CI, 1.99-4.11; P<0.001, which remained statistically significant after controlling for lifetime smoking burden (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.00-2.41; P = 0.049. Our novel observation of disproportionate risk of PAD conferred by a history of childhood smoking may reflect an unrecognized biological mechanism such as a unique susceptibility to vascular injury or an unaccounted for covariate such as secondhand smoke exposure in childhood. This observation suggests further investigation is required into the pathophysiology of smoking in the developing vasculature and the need for detailed clinical data about patterns of childhood smoking and smoke exposure.

  17. Maltreatment histories of aging out foster youth: A comparison of official investigated reports and self-reports of maltreatment prior to and during out-of-home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, Judy; Courtney, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    This study compared official investigated reports of child maltreatment with retrospective self-reports prior to and during out-of-home care for a sample of foster youth who reached the age of majority in out-of-home care in Illinois. Using matched administrative and self-reported data for 474 youth who completed a baseline interview in the Midwest Evaluation of Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (i.e. the Midwest study) at ages 17-18, and 386 youth who completed a follow up interview at age 19, this study finds that official reports and self-reports of maltreatment prior to and during out-of-home care differ significantly. Findings from this study add insight into measurement discrepancies, and help to inform understanding of the extent of maltreatment experienced by this sub-sample of young people exiting out-of-home care in adulthood. Study findings have implications for independent living policy and practice in child welfare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. History of Medical Specialty Interest Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Stephanie T.

    2016-01-01

    Medical specialties require decidedly different abilities, skills, and talents; which results in divergent experiences, lifestyles, skill sets, and income levels. To help medical students select their preferred medical specialty and alleviate shortages in medical specialty staffing, US medical schools and associations invest time and money in…

  19. Self reported outcomes and adverse events after medical abortion through online telemedicine: population based study in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Abigail R A; Digol, Irena; Trussell, James; Gomperts, Rebecca

    2017-05-16

    Objectives  To assess self reported outcomes and adverse events after self sourced medical abortion through online telemedicine. Design  Population based study. Setting  Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, where abortion is unavailable through the formal healthcare system except in a few restricted circumstances. Population  1000 women who underwent self sourced medical abortion through Women on Web (WoW), an online telemedicine service, between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Main outcome measures  Successful medical abortion: the proportion of women who reported ending their pregnancy without surgical intervention. Rates of adverse events: the proportion who reported treatment for adverse events, including receipt of antibiotics and blood transfusion, and deaths reported by family members, friends, or the authorities. Care seeking for symptoms of potential complications: the frequency with which women reported experiencing symptoms of a potentially serious complication and the proportion who reported seeking medical attention as advised. Results  In 2010-12, abortion medications (mifepristone and misoprostol) were sent to 1636 women and follow-up information was obtained for 1158 (71%). Among these, 1023 women confirmed use of the medications, and follow-up information was available for 1000. At the time women requested help from WoW, 781 (78%) were <7 weeks pregnant and 219 (22%) were 7-9 weeks pregnant. Overall, 94.7% (95% confidence interval 93.1% to 96.0%) reported successfully ending their pregnancy without surgical intervention. Seven women (0.7%, 0.3% to 1.5%) reported receiving a blood transfusion, and 26 (2.6%, 1.7% to 3.8%) reported receiving antibiotics (route of administration (IV or oral) could not be determined). No deaths resulting from the intervention were reported by family, friends, the authorities, or the media. Ninety three women (9.3%, 7.6% to 11.3%) reported experiencing any symptom for which they were advised to seek

  20. Prescription data improve the medication history in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Andersen, S K; Poulsen, H E

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete medication lists increase the risk of medication errors and adverse drug effects. In Denmark, dispensing data and pharmacy records are available directly online to treating physicians. We aimed (1) to describe if use of pharmacy records improved the medication history among patients...... consulting their general practitioner and (2) to characterise inconsistencies between the medication history reported by the patient and the general practitioner's recordings....

  1. Impact of medication adherence on health care utilization and productivity: self-reported data from a cohort of postmenopausal women on osteoporosis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Sally W; Satram-Hoang, Sacha; Nadkar, Aalok; Macarios, David; Tosteson, Anna N A

    2011-12-01

    Many pharmacologic agents are approved for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, which is common among postmenopausal women. Evidence exists relating treatment persistence to fracture risk. Less is known about treatment persistence and the use of health care service and individual productivity. This study was undertaken to describe health care use and productivity loss relative to osteoporosis medication persistence using women's self-reported data from the Prospective Observational Scientific Study Investigating Bone Loss Experience (POSSIBLE US™), a large, longitudinal (October 2004-December 2009) osteoporosis cohort study of postmenopausal women. Analyses included women on pharmacologic osteoporosis therapy (alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, calcitonin, raloxifene, or teriparatide) who provided health care use/productivity data collected using semiannual questionnaires over 1 year of follow-up. Participant characteristics, use, and productivity metrics were summarized. Logistic regression models and generalized linear models were used to examine use, time missed from usual activities, number of days spent in bed, and lost work time relative to treatment persistence, adjusting for potential confounders. At entry, of the 2528 women studied (91% white, 3.1% Hispanic/Latino, 2.3% African American/black, 1.1% Asian, and 2.1% American Indian/Native Alaskan, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, or other; mean age, 64.6 [range, 37-97] years), 43.1% had osteoporosis and 23.4% had a previous fracture. After adjustment, subjects who switched therapies during follow-up were more likely to have had any kind of diagnostic testing (95.2% of switchers vs 91.2% of persistent subjects and 88.9% of discontinuers, P work loss (n = 852 employed subjects) by treatment persistence were not significant. Use of diagnostic testing differed significantly by osteoporosis treatment status. Compared with women who persisted with treatment, primary care provider visits were less

  2. USE OF ELECTRONIC CASE HISTORIES IN OPERATION OF MEDICAL UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Boltenkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of electronic case histories to medical units including TB units is one of the factors allowing enhancing quality of medical care provision. Use of the electronic case histories provides conditions for information transparency improvement in a medical unit: financial, statistic and medico-technological. Information contained in the electronic case history is important and required both for internal and external use. Use of electronic case histories contributes to reduction of labor costs of workers in medical units, provides fast access of medical personnel to information, formalizes data, provides preservation, invariance and reliability of the information entered into electronic case history during the whole period of storage, regulates the access rights and confidentiality, personifies data and allows unifying health data of all Russian population into one pool.

  3. On the history of New York Medical College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, S J

    1986-01-01

    The history of New York Medical College reflects three distinct trends in the development of medical education: the rise and fall of homeopathy, the input of civic leaders (in this case, William Cullen Bryant) and the uneasy relationship between medical schools and hospitals caused by the dramatic increase in the complexity and cost of hospital care.

  4. Prescription data improve the medication history in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Andersen, S K; Poulsen, H E

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete medication lists increase the risk of medication errors and adverse drug effects. In Denmark, dispensing data and pharmacy records are available directly online to treating physicians. We aimed (1) to describe if use of pharmacy records improved the medication history among patients co...

  5. Reliability of self-reported use of amphetamine, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine, methadone, and opiates among acutely hospitalized elderly medical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, B.; Olsen, L.; Poulsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Undisclosed use of illicit drugs and prescription controlled substances is frequent in some settings. The aim of the present study was to estimate the reliability of self-reported use of amphetamine, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine, methadone, and opiates among acutely...

  6. Unesco – to preserve Slovenian medical history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Soban

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The beginnings of university studies of medicine in Ljubljana, and wartime interruptions. – One hundred years of anesthesia on the European continent as part of the surgeon’s work and responsibility. – The organization of health service (1942–1945 within the partisan resistance struggle. – Clandestine partisan hospitals. The wounded, the staff, the physicians. – Wartime anesthesia: an overview and perspectives. – SVPB Franja: a description. The efforts invested so far for the recognition of this war memorial as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. – From the 1982 International Symposium on the History of Modern Anesthesia to ISHA – the international society for the history of anesthesia.

  7. Smoking status and self-reported race affect the frequency of clinically relevant oncogenic alterations in non-small-cell lung cancers at a United States-based academic medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Vanderlaan, Paul A; Folch, Erik; Boucher, David H; Canepa, Hannah M; Kent, Michael S; Gangadharan, Sidharta P; Majid, Adnan; Kocher, Olivier N; Goldstein, Michael A; Huberman, Mark S; Costa, Daniel B

    2013-10-01

    The identification of somatic genomic aberrations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is part of evidence-based practice guidelines for care of patients with NSCLC. We sought to establish the frequency and correlates with these changes in routine patient-tumor sample pairs. Clinicopathologic data and tumor genotype were retrospectively compiled and analyzed from an overall cohort of 381 patient-tumor samples. Of these patients, 75.9% self-reported White race, 13.1% Asian, 6.5% Black, 27.8% were never-smokers, 54.9% former-smokers and 17.3% current-smokers. The frequency of EGFR mutations was 23.9% (86/359), KRAS mutations 34.2% (71/207) and ALK FISH positivity 9.1% (23/252) in tumor samples, and almost all had mutually exclusive results for these oncogenes. In tumors from White, Black and Asian patients, the frequencies of EGFR mutations were 18.4%, 18.2% and 62%, respectively; of ALK FISH positivity 7.81%, 0% and 14.8%, respectively; and of KRAS mutations 41.6%, 20% and 0%. These patterns changed significant with increasing pack-year history of smoking. In White patients, the frequencies of EGFR mutations and ALK FISH positivity decreased with increasing pack-year cohorts; while the frequencies of KRAS mutations increased. Interestingly, in Asian patients the frequencies of EGFR mutations were similar in never smokers and in the cohorts with less than 45pack-year histories of smoking and only decreased in the 45pack-year plus cohort. The frequencies of somatic EGFR, KRAS, and ALK gene abnormalities using routine lung cancer tissue samples from our United States-based academic medical practice reflect the diverse ethnicity (with a higher frequency of EGFR mutations in Asian patients) and smoking patterns (with an inverse correlation between EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement) of our tested population. These results may help other medical practices appreciate the expected results from introduction of routine tumor genotyping techniques into their day-to-day care

  8. CHRONICLES OF MEDICAL HISTORY IN AFRICA Medical Icon and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joly was the Foundation Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, University. College, Ibadan (1948 ... when female education was considered unimportant. Beatrice made up ... best prizes. She went on to pursue a successful postgraduate medical.

  9. [Medical history impressions of Karl Marx 1983].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, W

    1983-12-15

    Excerpts of his London era first published on the occasion of the Karl Marx testimonials of 1983 gave rise to extend the memory of the fundamental achievements of Karl Marx to medico-historical aspects. In this case Karl Marx paid special attention to the working and living conditions of the working class and an analysis of his adequate statements and records shows multifarious details which give a research basis also for the history of medicine. Marx and Engels had friendly contacts with several physicians who shared the opinions of the two classics: their way of life is shown in the most important points.

  10. The History, Biology and Medical Aspects of Leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichman, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    Presents information about the history, biology, and medical aspects of leprosy, including its description in historical documents, its cause and effects, statistics on its prevalence, and various attempts at treatment. Notes that leprosy is one of the few infectious diseases that, although treatable with medication, remains incurable. Contains 30…

  11. Brief histories of medical physics in Asia-Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, W H; Jafari, S; Kron, T; Azhari, H A; Chhom, S; Hu, Y; Mauldon, G F; Cheung, K Y; Kuppusamy, T; Pawiro, S A; Lubis, L E; Soejoko, D S; Haryanto, F; Endo, M; Han, Y; Suh, T S; Ng, K H; Luvsan-Ish, A; Maung, S O; Chaurasia, P P; Jafri, S M A; Farrukh, S; Peralta, A; Toh, H J; Sarasanandarajah, S; Shiau, A C; Krisanachinda, A; Suriyapee, S; Vinijsorn, S; Nguyen, T C

    2015-09-01

    The history of medical physics in Asia-Oceania goes back to the late nineteenth century when X-ray imaging was introduced, although medical physicists were not appointed until much later. Medical physics developed very quickly in some countries, but in others the socio-economic situation as such prevented it being established for many years. In others, the political situation and war has impeded its development. In many countries their medical physics history has not been well recorded and there is a danger that it will be lost to future generations. In this paper, brief histories of the development of medical physics in most countries in Asia-Oceania are presented by a large number of authors to serve as a record. The histories are necessarily brief; otherwise the paper would quickly turn into a book of hundreds of pages. The emphasis in each history as recorded here varies as the focus and culture of the countries as well as the length of their histories varies considerably.

  12. Level of Agreement and Factors Associated With Discrepancies Between Nationwide Medical History Questionnaires and Hospital Claims Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Yong Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objectives of this study were to investigate the agreement between medical history questionnaire data and claims data and to identify the factors that were associated with discrepancies between these data types. Methods Data from self-reported questionnaires that assessed an individual’s history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, stroke, heart disease, and pulmonary tuberculosis were collected from a general health screening database for 2014. Data for these diseases were collected from a healthcare utilization claims database between 2009 and 2014. Overall agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa values were calculated. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with discrepancies and was adjusted for age, gender, insurance type, insurance contribution, residential area, and comorbidities. Results Agreement was highest between questionnaire data and claims data based on primary codes up to 1 year before the completion of self-reported questionnaires and was lowest for claims data based on primary and secondary codes up to 5 years before the completion of self-reported questionnaires. When comparing data based on primary codes up to 1 year before the completion of self-reported questionnaires, the overall agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa values ranged from 93.2 to 98.8%, 26.2 to 84.3%, 95.7 to 99.6%, and 0.09 to 0.78, respectively. Agreement was excellent for hypertension and diabetes, fair to good for stroke and heart disease, and poor for pulmonary tuberculosis and dyslipidemia. Women, younger individuals, and employed individuals were most likely to under-report disease. Conclusions Detailed patient characteristics that had an impact on information bias were identified through the differing levels of agreement.

  13. Level of Agreement and Factors Associated With Discrepancies Between Nationwide Medical History Questionnaires and Hospital Claims Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Yong; Park, Jong Heon; Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Eun Joo; Ha, Seongjun; Shin, Soon-Ae

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the agreement between medical history questionnaire data and claims data and to identify the factors that were associated with discrepancies between these data types. Data from self-reported questionnaires that assessed an individual's history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, stroke, heart disease, and pulmonary tuberculosis were collected from a general health screening database for 2014. Data for these diseases were collected from a healthcare utilization claims database between 2009 and 2014. Overall agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa values were calculated. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with discrepancies and was adjusted for age, gender, insurance type, insurance contribution, residential area, and comorbidities. Agreement was highest between questionnaire data and claims data based on primary codes up to 1 year before the completion of self-reported questionnaires and was lowest for claims data based on primary and secondary codes up to 5 years before the completion of self-reported questionnaires. When comparing data based on primary codes up to 1 year before the completion of self-reported questionnaires, the overall agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa values ranged from 93.2 to 98.8%, 26.2 to 84.3%, 95.7 to 99.6%, and 0.09 to 0.78, respectively. Agreement was excellent for hypertension and diabetes, fair to good for stroke and heart disease, and poor for pulmonary tuberculosis and dyslipidemia. Women, younger individuals, and employed individuals were most likely to under-report disease. Detailed patient characteristics that had an impact on information bias were identified through the differing levels of agreement.

  14. History of Medicine in US Medical School Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramiciu, Justin; Arcella, David; Desai, Manisha S

    2015-10-01

    To determine the extent to which the history of medicine (HOM) and its related topics are included within the curriculum of accredited medical schools in the United States. Survey instrument. US allopathic medical schools. An online survey was sent to officials from every medical school in the US. Respondents were asked to provide institutional identifiers, the presence of an HOM elective offered to medical students, the years during which the elective is offered, the existence of an HOM department, and the contact information for that particular department. Nonresponders were contacted by phone to elicit the same information. History of medicine electives included didactic sessions and seminars with varying degrees of credit offered in different years of medical school. Based on responses from 119 of 121 contacted medical schools (98%), 45 (37%) included formal lectures or weekly seminars in the medical school curriculum. Five (11%) curricula had or have required HOM, whereas 89% offered elective HOM instruction. Course duration and credit awarded varied. Eighteen (15%) medical schools included departments dedicated to HOM. Providing education in HOM was limited by faculty interest, clinical training hours, and low interest. Data collected by our study suggest that substantial barriers exist within the academic medical community towards a wider acceptance of the importance of HOM. Causes for such lack of interest include absence of questions on written or oral tests related to HOM, difficulty in publishing articles related to HOM in peer reviewed journals, near absence of research grants in HOM, difficulty in getting academic promotions or recognition for activities related to HOM, and a lack of support from academic chairpersons for activities related to HOM. Copyright © 2015 Anesthesia History Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Medical history as an academic subject at the Bamberg University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, W

    2000-01-01

    A full program of medicine was taught at the Catholic University of Bamberg (founded 1648 as the Academia Ottonia) from 1773 through 1803. Within this period of time, the History of Medicine was taught from 1790 through 1795 by Johann Baptist Dominicus Fin(c)k. This paper elucidates how in this instance protestant universities served as models for catholic universities. Interestingly, it was not the medical faculty itself which developed an interest in teaching medical history. Rather, it was Adalbert Friedrich Marcus (1753-1816), physician-in-waiting of the Prince-Bishop Franz Ludwig von Erthal and medical officer in the principality of Bamberg since June 22, 1790, who was charged by the Prince-Bishop with developing guidelines for medical education. The start of the History of Medicine lectures brought with it a heated dispute about an appropriate textbook. The discussion is evidence of a transition from historiography understood as an account of learned doctors of the past to a study of history in a modern sense.

  16. Adolescents' knowledge of medical terminology and family health history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, J L; Phillips, S M; Vullo, K; Kang, G; Slomka, L

    1992-01-01

    Compared 309 youths ages 11 to 15 years and their parents with respect to their comprehension of terms for seven common medical disorders: heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis, ulcer, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. For two thirds of the adolescent sample, accuracy of reporting of these disorders among the parents and grandparents was assessed. Results indicated considerable variation among disorders with respect to both comprehension of terms and accuracy of family health history. Adolescents' age was a major predictor of knowledge of medical terms (r = .41). Age was not related to accuracy of family health information. Consonant with this finding, adolescents' level of accuracy regarding family health history was generally similar to that of previous adult samples, suggesting that family health information is acquired and retained at an early age. Adolescents were more accurate concerning parents' compared with grandparents' history of hypertension.

  17. Teaching history taking to medical students: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifenheim, Katharina E; Teufel, Martin; Ip, Julianne; Speiser, Natalie; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Zipfel, Stephan; Herrmann-Werner, Anne

    2015-09-28

    This paper is an up-to-date systematic review on educational interventions addressing history taking. The authors noted that despite the plethora of specialized training programs designed to enhance students' interviewing skills there had not been a review of the literature to assess the quality of each published method of teaching history taking in undergraduate medical education based on the evidence of the program's efficacy. The databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, opengrey, opendoar and SSRN were searched using key words related to medical education and history taking. Articles that described an educational intervention to improve medical students' history-taking skills were selected and reviewed. Included studies had to evaluate learning progress. Study quality was assessed using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). Seventy-eight full-text articles were identified and reviewed; of these, 23 studies met the final inclusion criteria. Three studies applied an instructional approach using scripts, lectures, demonstrations and an online course. Seventeen studies applied a more experiential approach by implementing small group workshops including role-play, interviews with patients and feedback. Three studies applied a creative approach. Two of these studies made use of improvisational theatre and one introduced a simulation using Lego® building blocks. Twenty-two studies reported an improvement in students' history taking skills. Mean MERSQI score was 10.4 (range 6.5 to 14; SD = 2.65). These findings suggest that several different educational interventions are effective in teaching history taking skills to medical students. Small group workshops including role-play and interviews with real patients, followed by feedback and discussion, are widespread and best investigated. Feedback using videotape review was also reported as particularly instructive. Students in the early preclinical state might profit from approaches helping

  18. What's the agreement between self-reported and biochemical verification of drug use? A look at permanent supportive housing residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Alexis; Livingston, Melvin; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Hill, Whitney; Walters, Scott

    2017-07-01

    Self-reported substance use is commonly used as an outcome measure in treatment research. We evaluated the validity of self-reported drug use in a sample of 334 adults with mental health problems who were residing in supportive housing programs. The primary analysis was the calculation of the positive predictive values (PPVs) of self-report compared to an oral fluid test taken at the same time. A sensitivity analysis compared the positive predictive values of two self-reported drug use histories: biological testing window (ranging between the past 96h to 30days depending on drug type) or the full past 90-day comparison window (maximum length recorded during interview). A multivariable logistic regression was used to predict discordance between self-report and the drug test for users. Self-reported drug use and oral fluid drug tests were compared to determine the positive predictive value for amphetamines/methamphetamines/PCP (47.1% agreement), cocaine (43.8% agreement), and marijuana (69.7% agreement) drug tests. Participants who misreported their drug use were more likely to be older, non-White, have no medical insurance, and not report any alcohol use. In general, amphetamine/methamphetamine/PCP and cocaine use was adequately captured by the biological test, while marijuana use was best captured by a combination of self-report and biological data. Using the full past 90day comparison window resulted in higher concordance with the oral fluid drug test, indicating that self-reported drug use in the past 90days may be a proxy for drug use within the biological testing window. Self-report has some disadvantages when used as the sole measure of drug use in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Manual versus automated coding of free-text self-reported medication data in the 45 and Up Study: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnjidic, Danijela; Pearson, Sallie-Anne; Hilmer, Sarah N; Basilakis, Jim; Schaffer, Andrea L; Blyth, Fiona M; Banks, Emily

    2015-03-30

    Increasingly, automated methods are being used to code free-text medication data, but evidence on the validity of these methods is limited. To examine the accuracy of automated coding of previously keyed in free-text medication data compared with manual coding of original handwritten free-text responses (the 'gold standard'). A random sample of 500 participants (475 with and 25 without medication data in the free-text box) enrolled in the 45 and Up Study was selected. Manual coding involved medication experts keying in free-text responses and coding using Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes (i.e. chemical substance 7-digit level; chemical subgroup 5-digit; pharmacological subgroup 4-digit; therapeutic subgroup 3-digit). Using keyed-in free-text responses entered by non-experts, the automated approach coded entries using the Australian Medicines Terminology database and assigned corresponding ATC codes. Based on manual coding, 1377 free-text entries were recorded and, of these, 1282 medications were coded to ATCs manually. The sensitivity of automated coding compared with manual coding was 79% (n = 1014) for entries coded at the exact ATC level, and 81.6% (n = 1046), 83.0% (n = 1064) and 83.8% (n = 1074) at the 5, 4 and 3-digit ATC levels, respectively. The sensitivity of automated coding for blank responses was 100% compared with manual coding. Sensitivity of automated coding was highest for prescription medications and lowest for vitamins and supplements, compared with the manual approach. Positive predictive values for automated coding were above 95% for 34 of the 38 individual prescription medications examined. Automated coding for free-text prescription medication data shows very high to excellent sensitivity and positive predictive values, indicating that automated methods can potentially be useful for large-scale, medication-related research.

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. ... checklist to approximate a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) ADHD diagnosis ...

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret ... divided into two parts. ... representatives prior to the start of whole-class activities and.

  2. Self-Reported Adverse Drug Reactions, Medication Adherence, and Clinical Outcomes among Major Depressive Disorder Patients in Ethiopia: A Prospective Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadesse Melaku Abegaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is paucity of data on prevalence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs and adherence and clinical outcomes of antidepressants. The present study determined the magnitude of ADRs of antidepressants and their impact on the level of adherence and clinical outcome. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among depression patients from September 2016 to January 2017 at Gondar University Hospital psychiatry clinic. The Naranjo ADR probability scale was employed to assess the ADRs. The rate of medication adherence was determined using Morisky Medication Adherence Measurement Scale-Eight. Results. Two hundred seventeen patients participated in the study, more than half of them being males (122; 56.2%. More than one-half of the subjects had low adherence to their medications (124; 57.1% and about 186 (85.7% of the patients encountered ADR. The most common ADR was weight gain (29; 13.2%. More than one-half (125; 57.6% of the respondents showed improved clinical outcome. Optimal level of medication adherence decreased the likelihood of poor clinical outcome by 56.8%. Conclusion. ADRs were more prevalent. However, adherence to medications was very poor in the setup. Long duration of depression negatively affects the rate of adherence. In addition, adherence was found to influence the clinical outcome of depression patients.

  3. Medical students’ perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) discrimination in their learning environment and their self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients: a survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Nassr; MacPherson, Paul; Sampson, Margaret; McMillan, Hugh J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Historically, medical students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered (LGBT) report higher rates of social stress, depression, and anxiety, while LGBT patients have reported discrimination and poorer access to healthcare. Objective: The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess if medical students have perceived discrimination in their learning environment and; (2) to determine self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients. Design: Medical students at the University of Ottawa (N = 671) were contacted via email and invited to complete a confidential web-based survey. Results: Response rate was 15.4% (103/671). This included 66 cis-gender heterosexuals (64.1%) and 37 LGBT students (35.9%). Anti-LGBT discrimination had been witnessed by 14.6% and heterosexism by 31.1% of respondents. Anti-LGBT discrimination most often originated from fellow medical students. Respondents who self-identified as LGBT were more likely to have perceived heterosexism (favoring opposite-sex relationships) (OR = 8.2, p LGBT discrimination (OR = 6.6, p = 0.002). While half of LGBT students shared their status with all classmates (51.4%), they were more likely to conceal this from staff physicians (OR = 27.2, p = 0.002). Almost half of medical students (41.7%) reported anti-LGBT jokes, rumors, and/or bullying by fellow medical students and/or other members of the healthcare team. Still, most respondents indicated that they felt comfortable with and capable of providing medical care to LGBT patients (≥83.5%), and were interested in further education around LGBT health issues (84.5%). Conclusion: Anti-LGBT discrimination and heterosexism are noted by medical students, indicating a suboptimal learning environment for LGBT students. Nonetheless, students report a high level of comfort and confidence providing health care to LGBT patients. PMID:28853327

  4. Medical students' perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) discrimination in their learning environment and their self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Nassr; MacPherson, Paul; Sampson, Margaret; McMillan, Hugh J

    2017-01-01

    Historically, medical students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered (LGBT) report higher rates of social stress, depression, and anxiety, while LGBT patients have reported discrimination and poorer access to healthcare. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess if medical students have perceived discrimination in their learning environment and; (2) to determine self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients. Medical students at the University of Ottawa (N = 671) were contacted via email and invited to complete a confidential web-based survey. Response rate was 15.4% (103/671). This included 66 cis-gender heterosexuals (64.1%) and 37 LGBT students (35.9%). Anti-LGBT discrimination had been witnessed by 14.6% and heterosexism by 31.1% of respondents. Anti-LGBT discrimination most often originated from fellow medical students. Respondents who self-identified as LGBT were more likely to have perceived heterosexism (favoring opposite-sex relationships) (OR = 8.2, p LGBT discrimination (OR = 6.6, p = 0.002). While half of LGBT students shared their status with all classmates (51.4%), they were more likely to conceal this from staff physicians (OR = 27.2, p = 0.002). Almost half of medical students (41.7%) reported anti-LGBT jokes, rumors, and/or bullying by fellow medical students and/or other members of the healthcare team. Still, most respondents indicated that they felt comfortable with and capable of providing medical care to LGBT patients (≥83.5%), and were interested in further education around LGBT health issues (84.5%). Anti-LGBT discrimination and heterosexism are noted by medical students, indicating a suboptimal learning environment for LGBT students. Nonetheless, students report a high level of comfort and confidence providing health care to LGBT patients.

  5. An audit comparing the discrepancies between a verbal enquiry, a written history, and an electronic medical history questionnaire: a suggested medical history/social history form for clinical practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, Barbara

    2011-04-01

    In everyday practice, dentists are confronted with an increasing number of patients with complex medical problems. There is divergence of opinion among dentists regarding how to obtain a thorough medical\\/social history.

  6. A short history of medical informatics in bosnia and herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2014-02-01

    The health informatics profession in Bosnia and Herzegovina has relatively long history. Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data, thirty years from the establishment of Society for Medical Informatics BiH, twenty years from the establishment of the Scientific journal "Acta Informatica Medica (Acta Inform Med", indexed in PubMed, PubMed Central Scopus, Embase, etc.), twenty years on from the establishment of the first Cathedra for Medical Informatics on Biomedical Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, ten years on from the introduction of the method of "Distance learning" in medical curriculum. The author of this article is eager to mark the importance of the above mentioned Anniversaries in the development of Health informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and have attempted, very briefly, to present the most significant events and persons with essential roles throughout this period.

  7. Are psychophysiological arousal and self-reported emotional stress during an oncological consultation related to memory of medical information? : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.N.C.; Tollenaar, M.S.; Bosch, J.A.; van Doornen, L.J.P.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.; Smets, E.M.A.

    Patients forget 20-80% of information provided during medical consultations. The emotional stress often experienced by patients during consultations could be one of the mechanisms that lead to limited recall. The current experimental study therefore investigated the associations between (analog)

  8. Are psychophysiological arousal and self-reported emotional stress during an oncological consultation related to memory of medical information? An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leonie N. C.; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; Bosch, Jos A.; van Doornen, Lorenz J. P.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Patients forget 20-80% of information provided during medical consultations. The emotional stress often experienced by patients during consultations could be one of the mechanisms that lead to limited recall. The current experimental study therefore investigated the associations between (analog)

  9. Medical students' health behaviour and self-reported mental health status by their country of origin: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebessy, András; Czeglédi, Edit; Balla, Bettina Claudia; Horváth, Ferenc; Balázs, Péter

    2016-05-28

    Numerous previous studies have investigated the lifestyle and self-perceived health status of medical students. This study examined whether students' country of origin contributed to their mental health and health risk behaviour. We conducted our cross-sectional questionnaire survey over four consecutive years (2009-2012). The target population was fourth-year English- and Hungarian-language course medical students at Semmelweis University, Hungary. We gathered data on medical students' health behaviour (tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary habits and exercise) and mental health status and used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine the association between country of origin and mental health. The response rate was 76.1 % for the Hungarian and 63.4 % for the English course students. The mean age of our sample was 24.1 years (SD = 2.42). Only 15.3 % of students reported following dietary recommendations, but 75.0 % reported engaging in vigorous and regular physical exercise. The prevalence of tobacco smoking was 18.6 % and 13.8 % overconsumed alcoholic beverages. Hungarian and Iranian students reported lower mental well-being than Mediterranean, Israeli and Scandinavian students (F(4) = 18.943, p mental health: vigorous exercise was associated with better mental health status (F(1) = 5.505, p = 0.019). Medical students' mental health and health behaviour are associated with multiple factors. One of these is country of origin but exercise may also influence mental health. Health promotion programmes organised for medical students should take their country of origin into consideration and should include physical activity.

  10. Self-reported influence of television-based direct-to-consumer advertising on patient seasonal allergy and asthma medication use: An internet survey

    OpenAIRE

    Khanfar, Nile M.; Clauson, Kevin A.; Polen, Hyla H.; Shields, Kelly M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Direct-to-consumer advertising (DDTCA) of medications, a marketing tool used by the pharmaceutical industry to increase patient awareness of products, affects both consumer behavior and, ultimately, physician prescribing practices. Billions of dollars are budgeted each year for DTCA, and its influence is far-reaching. However, little information is available about patient-initiated physician interactions in which television-bbased DTCA has played a role in consumer behavior.

  11. History and development of medical physics and medical physicist in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyofuku, F.

    2014-01-01

    The history of medical physics in Japan dates back to the mid-1950's when radioisotope sources such as cobalt-60 were initiated into hospitals. In 1961, a total of about 30 medical physics researchers created a sub-committee of medical physics under the Japan Radiological Society (JRS), which flourished throughout the decade, and the number of members exceeded to more than 200 in 1970. Although there were great advances in medical technologies, the number of members of the medical physics community did not grow for the next two decades from 1980 to 2000. Then, the JRS began to officially recognize medical physicists as a professional group in 1987. Qualifications of candidacy for the examination included having the education equivalent of a Bachelor of Science/Engineering and being a member of the JRS. For the first official examination, 70 medical physicists were approved by the JRS. As of 2013, there are currently 700 medical physicists, however, the number of practicing clinical medical physicists remains only about 150. The main reason for this limited number of medical physicists is that the certification is not recognized as a national license and therefore is challenging to find professional employment as qualified medical personnel at hospitals. (author)

  12. Paramedic self-reported exposure to violence in the emergency medical services (EMS) workplace: a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Blair L; Jensen, Jan L; Tavares, Walter; Drennan, Ian R; Saleem, Humaira; Dainty, Katie N; Munro, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Studies from Australia, Sweden, the United States, and elsewhere have found that paramedics experience violence in the emergency medical services (EMS) workplace. The objective of this study was to describe and explore violence experienced by paramedics in the ground ambulance setting, including types of violence experienced, by whom the violence was perpetrated, actions taken by paramedics, and effects of these episodes. A cross-sectional study utilizing a mixed-methods paper survey was provided to a convenience sample of rural, suburban, and urban-based ground ambulance paramedics in two Canadian provinces. Paramedics were asked to describe episodes of verbal assault, intimidation, physical assault, sexual harassment, and sexual assault they were exposed to during the past 12 months. Qualitative questions inquired about the impact of these experiences. Response selections were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis, and qualitative data was analyzed using descriptive content analysis. A total of 1,884 paramedics were invited to participate and 1,676 responded (89.0%). Most participants (75%) reported experiencing violence in the past 12 months. The most common form of violence reported was verbal assault (67%), followed by intimidation (41%), physical assault (26%), sexual harassment (14%), and sexual assault (3%). Patients were identified as the most common perpetrators of violence. Serious sequellae were qualitatively reported. The majority of Canadian paramedics surveyed experience violence in the workplace, which can lead to serious personal and professional sequellae. Strategies should be devised and studied to reduce violent events toward paramedics and to mitigate the impact such events have on the wellbeing of paramedics.

  13. Teaching history of medicine in the perspective of "medical humanities".

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Engelhardt, D

    1999-03-01

    The current interest in philosophical questions and ethical aspects of medicine turns attention towards the past and obtains suggestions and perspectives from previous descriptions and interpretations of sickness, therapy, and the relation between the patient and physician. Culture as therapy and therapy as culture are fundamental challenges for the present; physician, patient, and society, i.e., humans and humane medicine, need this dialogue, which should also be constitutive for teaching history of medicine. Through the separation of the natural sciences and the humanities, modern progress of medicine has produced many benefits but has, at the same time, raised many problems. Negative consequences of this development exist not only for the patient, but also for his personal environment and for the physician. In the course of modern history, there have been several reactions aimed at overcoming these one-sided tendencies: in the Renaissance, in the epoch of Romanticism and Idealism, and at the beginning and the end of the 19th century. This article outlines, with historical examples and contemporary reflections, the concept of teaching history of medicine in the perspective of "medical humanities".

  14. Association between chronic urticaria and self-reported penicillin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Susanna; Localio, Russell; Apter, Andrea J

    2016-04-01

    Penicillin allergy is the most commonly reported drug allergy and often presents with cutaneous symptoms. Other common diagnoses, such as chronic urticaria, may be falsely attributed to penicillin allergy. Because chronic urticaria is fairly common in the general population, evaluation of its prevalence in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was of interest. Similarly, the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria is not well known and also becomes interesting in light of the high prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in the general population. To determine the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and the prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. This was a retrospective medical record review of 11,143 patients completed using the electronic health record of the University of Pennsylvania Allergy and Immunology clinic. The prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria was found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the general population. The prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was also found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the population. This link between chronic urticaria and self-reported penicillin allergy highlights the need for clinicians to inquire about self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and to consider penicillin skin testing. Furthermore, patients who report penicillin allergy might actually have chronic urticaria, indicating the importance of inquiring about chronic urticaria symptoms in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inverse probability weighting and doubly robust methods in correcting the effects of non-response in the reimbursed medication and self-reported turnout estimates in the ATH survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkänen, Tommi; Kaikkonen, Risto; Virtala, Esa; Koskinen, Seppo

    2014-11-06

    To assess the nonresponse rates in a questionnaire survey with respect to administrative register data, and to correct the bias statistically. The Finnish Regional Health and Well-being Study (ATH) in 2010 was based on a national sample and several regional samples. Missing data analysis was based on socio-demographic register data covering the whole sample. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) and doubly robust (DR) methods were estimated using the logistic regression model, which was selected using the Bayesian information criteria. The crude, weighted and true self-reported turnout in the 2008 municipal election and prevalences of entitlements to specially reimbursed medication, and the crude and weighted body mass index (BMI) means were compared. The IPW method appeared to remove a relatively large proportion of the bias compared to the crude prevalence estimates of the turnout and the entitlements to specially reimbursed medication. Several demographic factors were shown to be associated with missing data, but few interactions were found. Our results suggest that the IPW method can improve the accuracy of results of a population survey, and the model selection provides insight into the structure of missing data. However, health-related missing data mechanisms are beyond the scope of statistical methods, which mainly rely on socio-demographic information to correct the results.

  16. Self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...

  17. Role of medical history and medication use in the aetiology of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in Europe: the ARCAGE study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Macfarlane, T V

    2012-04-01

    The study aimed to investigate the role of medical history (skin warts, Candida albicans, herpetic lesions, heartburn, regurgitation) and medication use (for heartburn; for regurgitation; aspirin) in the aetiology of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer.

  18. A study on the optimization of referring method about medical images using MIH (Medical Image History)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Chil; Kim, Jung Min

    2002-01-01

    The recent development of embodiment technology of the medical images makes most medical institutions introduce PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) in haste. However lots of PACS solutions, currently developed and distributed, haven't been able to serve the convenience of users and to satisfy user's demand because of economic limitations and administrator-oriented con-siderations in the process of development. So we have developed MIH (Medical Image History), by which we can search and refer to the patient's medical images and information with few restrictions of time and space for diagnosis and treatment. The program will contribute to the improvement in the medical environment and meet the clients' need. We'll make more effort to develop the application which insures the better quality of medical images. MIH manages the patient's image files and medical records like film chart in connection with time. This trial will contribute to the reduction of the economical loss caused by unnecessary references and improve the quality in the medical services. The demand on the development of the program which refers to the medical data quickly and keeps them stable will be continued by the medical institute. This will satisfy the client's demand and improve the service to the patients in that the program will be modified from the standpoint of the users. MIH is trying to keep user-oriented policy and to apply the benefit of the analog system to the digital environment. It is necessary to lead the public to the better understanding that the systematic management and referring of the medical images is as important as the quality of the images

  19. A study on the optimization of referring method about medical images using MIH (Medical Image History)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Chil; Kim, Jung Min [College of Health Sciences, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    The recent development of embodiment technology of the medical images makes most medical institutions introduce PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) in haste. However lots of PACS solutions, currently developed and distributed, haven't been able to serve the convenience of users and to satisfy user's demand because of economic limitations and administrator-oriented con-siderations in the process of development. So we have developed MIH (Medical Image History), by which we can search and refer to the patient's medical images and information with few restrictions of time and space for diagnosis and treatment. The program will contribute to the improvement in the medical environment and meet the clients' need. We'll make more effort to develop the application which insures the better quality of medical images. MIH manages the patient's image files and medical records like film chart in connection with time. This trial will contribute to the reduction of the economical loss caused by unnecessary references and improve the quality in the medical services. The demand on the development of the program which refers to the medical data quickly and keeps them stable will be continued by the medical institute. This will satisfy the client's demand and improve the service to the patients in that the program will be modified from the standpoint of the users. MIH is trying to keep user-oriented policy and to apply the benefit of the analog system to the digital environment. It is necessary to lead the public to the better understanding that the systematic management and referring of the medical images is as important as the quality of the images.

  20. Inconsistent Self-Report of Delinquency by Adolescents and Young Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was…

  1. The history of parkinsonism: descriptions in ancient Indian medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovallath, Sujith; Deepa, P

    2013-05-01

    The clinical syndrome of parkinsonism was identified in ancient India even before the period of Christ and was treated methodically. The earliest reference to bradykinesia dates to 600 bc. Evidences prove that as early as 300 bc, Charaka proposed a coherent picture of parkinsonism by describing tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and gait disturbances as its components. The scenario was further developed by Madhava, Vagbhata, and Dalhana all through history. The 15th-century classic "Bhasava rajyam" introduced the term kampavata, which may be regarded as an ayurvedic analogue of parkinsonism. The pathogenesis of kampavata centered on the concept of imbalance in the vata factor, which controls psychomotor activities. The essential element in therapy was the administration of powdered seed of Mucuna pruriens, or atmagupta, which as per reports, contains 4%-6% of levodopa. In addition to proving the existence and identification of parkinsonism in ancient India, the study points to the significance of ancient Indian Sanskrit works in medical history. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Dispatch from the non-HITECH-incented Health IT world: electronic medication history adoption and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Meghan Hufstader; Smith, Jaime Y; Sow, Max; Charles, Dustin; Joseph, Seth; Wilkins, Tricia Lee

    2016-05-01

    To document national trends of electronic medication history use in the ambulatory setting and describe the characteristics and predicting factors of providers who regularly use medication history transaction capabilities through their e-prescribing systems. The study used provider-initiated medication history data requests, electronically sent over an e-prescribing network from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data from 138,000 prescribers were evaluated using multivariate analyses from 2007 to 2013. Medication history use showed significant growth, increasing from 8 to 850 million history requests during the study period. Prescribers on the network for histories more often than those in large and small cities, these findings were not significant in multivariate analyses. Providers in orthopedic surgery and internal medicine had a higher likelihood of more requests than family practice prescribers, with 12% and 7% higher likelihood, respectively. Early adopters of e-prescribing have remained medication history users and have continually increased their volume of requests for medication histories. Despite the fact that the use of medication histories through e-prescribing networks in the ambulatory care setting has not been encouraged through federal incentive programs, there has been substantial growth in the use of medication histories offered through e-prescribing networks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Geographic Medical History: Advances in Geospatial Technology Present New Potentials in Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, F. S.; Finley, R. W.

    2016-06-01

    Genes, behaviour, and the environment are known to be the major risk factors for common diseases. When the patient visits a physician, typical questions include family history (genes) and lifestyle of the patient (behaviour), but questions concerning environmental risk factors often remain unasked. It is ironic that 25 centuries ago Hippocrates, known as the father of medicine, noted the importance of environmental exposure in medical investigation as documented in his classic work, "Airs, Waters, Places", yet the practice of routinely incorporating environmental risk factors is still not in place. Modern epigenetic studies have found that unhealthy lifestyle and environmental factors can cause changes to our genes that can increase disease risk factors. Therefore, attempting to solve the puzzle of diseases using heredity and lifestyle alone will be incomplete without accounting for the environmental exposures. The primary reason why environmental exposure has not yet been a routine part of the patient's medical history is mostly due to our inability to provide clinicians useful measures of environmental exposures suitable for their clinical practices. This presentation will discuss advances in geospatial technology that show the potential to catalyse a paradigm shift in medical practice and health research by allowing environmental risk factors to be documented as the patient's "Geographic Medical History". In order to accomplish this we need information on: a) relevant spatiotemporal environmental variables, and b) location of the individual in that person's dynamic environment. Common environmental agents that are known to interact with genetic make-up include air pollutants, mold spores, pesticides, etc. Until recently, the other component, location of an individual was limited to a static representation such as residential or workplace location. Now, with the development of mobile technology, changes in an individual's location can be tracked in real time if

  4. The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-07-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

  5. Psychiatric Diagnoses of Self-Reported Child Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    1993-01-01

    Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)

  6. Self-reported sexual behaviour among adolescent girls in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Information about risk factors revealed in individual interviews and by the midwives taking a history was incongruent. Any approach for management of STIs, which is built on self-reported risk factors, needs careful assessment of reliability. Keywords: Adolescents, Risk factors, reliability, STI, Uganda

  7. Identifying high-functioning dyslexics: is self-report of early reading problems enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S Hélène; Cook, Kathryn; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-07-01

    We used a questionnaire to identify university students with self-reported difficulties in reading acquisition during elementary school (self-report; n=31). The performance of the self-report group on standardized measures of word and non-word reading and fluency, passage comprehension and reading rate, and phonological awareness was compared to that of two other groups of university students: one with a recent diagnosis (diagnosed; n=20) and one with no self-reported reading acquisition problems (comparison group; n=33). The comparison group outperformed both groups with a history of reading difficulties (self-report and diagnosed) on almost all measures. The self-report and diagnosed groups performed similarly on most tasks, with the exception of untimed reading comprehension (better performance for diagnosed) and reading rate (better performance for self-report). The two recruitment methods likely sample from the same underlying population but identify individuals with different adaptive strategies.

  8. Medical Genetics at McGill: The History of a Pioneering Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Christopher; Weisz, George; Tone, Andrea; Cambrosio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The McGill Group in Medical Genetics was formed in 1972, supported by the Medical Research Council and successor Canadian Institutes for Health Research until September 2009, making it the longest active biomedical research group in the history of Canada. We document the history of the McGill Group and situate its research within a broader history of medical genetics. Drawing on original oral histories with the Group's members, surviving documents, and archival materials, we explore how the Group's development was structured around epistemological trends in medical genetics, policy choices made by research agencies, and the development of genetics at McGill University and its hospitals.

  9. Statin Use and Self-Reported Hindering Muscle Complaints in Older Persons: A Population Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milly A van der Ploeg

    Full Text Available Statins are widely used by older persons in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Although serious adverse events are rare, many statin users report mild muscle pain and/or muscle weakness. It's unclear what impact statins exert on a patient's daily life. Research on statin related side effects in older persons is relatively scarce. We therefore investigated the relation between statin use and self-reported hindering muscle complaints in older persons in the general population.The present research was performed within the Integrated Systematic Care for Older Persons (ISCOPE study in the Netherlands (Netherlands trial register, NTR1946. All registered adults aged ≥ 75 years from 59 participating practices (n = 12,066 were targeted. Information about the medical history and statin use at baseline and after 9 months was available for 4355 participants from the Electronic Patient Records of the general practitioners. In the screening questionnaire at baseline we asked participants: 'At the moment, which health complaints limit you the most in your day-to-day life?' Answers indicating muscle or musculoskeletal complaints were coded as such. No specific questions about muscle complaints were asked.The participants had a median age of 80.3 (IQR 77.6-84.4 years, 60.8% were female and 28.5% had a history of CVD. At baseline 29% used a statin. At follow-up, no difference was found in the prevalence of self-reported hindering muscle complaints in statin users compared to non-statin users (3.3% vs. 2.5%, OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.94-2.05; P = 0.98. Discontinuation of statin use during follow-up was independent of self-reported hindering muscle complaints.Based on the present findings, prevalent statin use in this community-dwelling older population is not associated with self-reported hindering muscle complaints; however, the results might be different for incident users.

  10. Statin Use and Self-Reported Hindering Muscle Complaints in Older Persons: A Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Milly A; Poortvliet, Rosalinde K E; van Blijswijk, Sophie C E; den Elzen, Wendy P J; van Peet, Petra G; de Ruijter, Wouter; Blom, Jeanet W; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2016-01-01

    Statins are widely used by older persons in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Although serious adverse events are rare, many statin users report mild muscle pain and/or muscle weakness. It's unclear what impact statins exert on a patient's daily life. Research on statin related side effects in older persons is relatively scarce. We therefore investigated the relation between statin use and self-reported hindering muscle complaints in older persons in the general population. The present research was performed within the Integrated Systematic Care for Older Persons (ISCOPE) study in the Netherlands (Netherlands trial register, NTR1946). All registered adults aged ≥ 75 years from 59 participating practices (n = 12,066) were targeted. Information about the medical history and statin use at baseline and after 9 months was available for 4355 participants from the Electronic Patient Records of the general practitioners. In the screening questionnaire at baseline we asked participants: 'At the moment, which health complaints limit you the most in your day-to-day life?' Answers indicating muscle or musculoskeletal complaints were coded as such. No specific questions about muscle complaints were asked. The participants had a median age of 80.3 (IQR 77.6-84.4) years, 60.8% were female and 28.5% had a history of CVD. At baseline 29% used a statin. At follow-up, no difference was found in the prevalence of self-reported hindering muscle complaints in statin users compared to non-statin users (3.3% vs. 2.5%, OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.94-2.05; P = 0.98). Discontinuation of statin use during follow-up was independent of self-reported hindering muscle complaints. Based on the present findings, prevalent statin use in this community-dwelling older population is not associated with self-reported hindering muscle complaints; however, the results might be different for incident users.

  11. Medical History in the Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine is about to celebrate its 20th anniversary end of 2017. On board of the editorial team since 2003, this journal has influenced me like a good friend over the many past years. From time to time, the journal has published interesting and valuable historical notes. They show that nuclear medicine has a history and that medicine is its basis. They also teach us today, and some of the ancient perspectives and approaches are still valid. The reader of HJNM may be interested in these historical contributions, as they are timeless. Therefore, it was our idea to summarize these in the following pages. Where there is a link to the free article, this is noted. Upon opening all articles, you will find out that these are a book or so of its own. In thanks to the editor-in-chief of the Journal for his continuing support on the historical section. Below we refer to the historical papers of the Journal: History of Nuclear Medicine. Nuclear Medicine and History of Science and Philosophy: Atomic Theory of the Matter. G.N. Sfakianakis, 2001; 4(3); 155-60. Editorial. Pioneers of nuclear medicine, Madame Curie. P.C. Grammaticos. 2004; 7(1); 29-30. http://nuclmed.web.auth.gr/ magazine/eng/jan04/editorial.htm Editor's note. Hippocrates' Oath. The editor. 2004; 7(1); 31. Editorial. Useful known and unknown views of the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates and his teacher Democritus. P. Grammaticos, A. Diamantis. 2008; 11(1): 2-4. http://nuclmed.web.auth.gr/magazine/eng/jan08/2.pdf Special Article. The contribution of Maria Sklodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie to Nuclear and Medical Physics. A hundred and ten years after the discovery of radium. A. Diamantis, E. Magiorkinis, 2008; 11(1): 33-8. http://nuclmed.web.auth.gr/magazine/ eng/jan08/33.pdf Brief Historical Review. Lymphatic system and lymphoscintigraphy. P. Valsamaki. 2009; 12(1): 87-89. http://nuclmed.web. auth.gr/magazine/eng/jan09/89.pdf (In Greek) Historical Review. The philosophic and

  12. Mapping "region" in Canadian medical history: the case of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M J

    2000-11-01

    The notion of "region" can be a valuable analytical tool in the writing of Canadian medical history. This article explores themes in the history of British Columbia that link medicine and regional development. Employing a historiographical sweep from the colonial period to the 1970s, the author considers doctors and imperialism, medical practice and the economy, and the relationship between metropolis and periphery in shaping medical institutions and medical culture in the western province. The intent of the piece is to stimulate thought about the potential of introducing the sense of place into regional medical history in Canada.

  13. [The function of philosophy of science in the teaching of medical history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaming

    2014-05-01

    The philosophy of science yields 3 important functions in the teaching of medical history. Firstly, by analyzing the development of medicine from the perspective of philosophy, we can integrate medical history into the history of human thought and clearly show the close connection between the development of humanity and the development of medical science. Secondly, philosophical analysis on the general rules of scientific discoveries involved in medical history can help medical students to understand the methodology in the research of sciences in history. Thirdly, philosophy of science offers new dimensions for understanding the relationship between medicine and the society. By making use of the relevant theory in scientific philosophy to explore the relationship between medicine and the society, the nature of medicine and the social nature and function of science can be further understood by medical students so as to exert an active role in the research and clinical work in the future.

  14. The Establishment and operation of Longjing Medical College - The History of Longjing Medical College as Frontier History: Focusing on its ‘Disconnection’ and ‘Continuity’ -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira MOON

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Longjing Medial College, established in Longjing, Yanbian, China on September 12, 1945, existed for about 1 year and 6 months until it was renamed as the Medical Department of Dongbei Junzheng Daxue Jilin Fenxiao in April 1947. However, there are only few records and studies on Longjing Medical College in Yanbian as well as in Korea. In order to fill the gap, this study attempted to restore the history of Longjing Medical College built in Yanbian, China immediately after the liberation. In particular, it analyzed how and why the Longjing Medical College was founded and operated, and which relations the college had with the post-war medical educational institutions, focusing on the ‘disconnection’ and ‘continuity’ in the historical sense. Since the establishment of Manchukuo, the Japanese colonial government had made it a major “frontier” and actively promoted the mass migration of Japanese and Koreans. For them, the government also set up three Exploitation Medical Schools in 1940. As a part of these three institutions, Longjing Exploitation Medical School educated more than 150 students by 1945, of which about one third was Korean. After the liberation, the Longjing Educational Alliance decided to pursue the return-movement of the Longjing Exploitation Medical School and took over the institution. On September 12, 1945, Longjing Medical College opened at the school site of Longjing Exploitation Medical School. Longjing Medical College was founded by people who had ‘the perspective of Korean nationality’ in an atmosphere where the ‘ethnicity’ of the Koreans exercised considerable power. Nevertheless, in 1946, when the Chinese Civil War began and the Yanbian region became an important base of the Chinese Communist Party, the Party began to expand and strengthen their influences in the region. Accordingly, the operation rights of Longjing Medical College were transferred to the Yanbian Administrative offices of Supervision and

  15. 77 FR 45717 - Proposed Information Collection (Former Prisoner of War Medical History); Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Former Prisoner of War (FPOW) Medical History, VA... Prisoner of War veteran. VA will use the data collected as a guide and reference for treatment planning for... Prisoner of War Medical History); Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration, Department of...

  16. Using medical history embedded in biometrics medical card for user identity authentication: data representation by AVT hierarchical data tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    User authentication has been widely used by biometric applications that work on unique bodily features, such as fingerprints, retina scan, and palm vessels recognition. This paper proposes a novel concept of biometric authentication by exploiting a user's medical history. Although medical history may not be absolutely unique to every individual person, the chances of having two persons who share an exactly identical trail of medical and prognosis history are slim. Therefore, in addition to common biometric identification methods, medical history can be used as ingredients for generating Q&A challenges upon user authentication. This concept is motivated by a recent advancement on smart-card technology that future identity cards are able to carry patents' medical history like a mobile database. Privacy, however, may be a concern when medical history is used for authentication. Therefore in this paper, a new method is proposed for abstracting the medical data by using attribute value taxonomies, into a hierarchical data tree (h-Data). Questions can be abstracted to various level of resolution (hence sensitivity of private data) for use in the authentication process. The method is described and a case study is given in this paper.

  17. Using Medical History Embedded in Biometrics Medical Card for User Identity Authentication: Data Representation by AVT Hierarchical Data Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available User authentication has been widely used by biometric applications that work on unique bodily features, such as fingerprints, retina scan, and palm vessels recognition. This paper proposes a novel concept of biometric authentication by exploiting a user’s medical history. Although medical history may not be absolutely unique to every individual person, the chances of having two persons who share an exactly identical trail of medical and prognosis history are slim. Therefore, in addition to common biometric identification methods, medical history can be used as ingredients for generating Q&A challenges upon user authentication. This concept is motivated by a recent advancement on smart-card technology that future identity cards are able to carry patents’ medical history like a mobile database. Privacy, however, may be a concern when medical history is used for authentication. Therefore in this paper, a new method is proposed for abstracting the medical data by using attribute value taxonomies, into a hierarchical data tree (h-Data. Questions can be abstracted to various level of resolution (hence sensitivity of private data for use in the authentication process. The method is described and a case study is given in this paper.

  18. Correlation between self-reported gestational age and ultrasound measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Thomsen, Sten Grove

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We studied the agreement between different measurements of gestational age, i.e. self-reported gestational age in the Danish National Birth Cohort Study, ultrasound-estimated gestational age from the medical records in one Danish county and gestational age from the Danish National...

  19. GEOGRAPHIC MEDICAL HISTORY: ADVANCES IN GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY PRESENT NEW POTENTIALS IN MEDICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Faruque

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes, behaviour, and the environment are known to be the major risk factors for common diseases. When the patient visits a physician, typical questions include family history (genes and lifestyle of the patient (behaviour, but questions concerning environmental risk factors often remain unasked. It is ironic that 25 centuries ago Hippocrates, known as the father of medicine, noted the importance of environmental exposure in medical investigation as documented in his classic work, “Airs, Waters, Places”, yet the practice of routinely incorporating environmental risk factors is still not in place. Modern epigenetic studies have found that unhealthy lifestyle and environmental factors can cause changes to our genes that can increase disease risk factors. Therefore, attempting to solve the puzzle of diseases using heredity and lifestyle alone will be incomplete without accounting for the environmental exposures. The primary reason why environmental exposure has not yet been a routine part of the patient’s medical history is mostly due to our inability to provide clinicians useful measures of environmental exposures suitable for their clinical practices. This presentation will discuss advances in geospatial technology that show the potential to catalyse a paradigm shift in medical practice and health research by allowing environmental risk factors to be documented as the patient’s “Geographic Medical History”. In order to accomplish this we need information on: a relevant spatiotemporal environmental variables, and b location of the individual in that person’s dynamic environment. Common environmental agents that are known to interact with genetic make-up include air pollutants, mold spores, pesticides, etc. Until recently, the other component, location of an individual was limited to a static representation such as residential or workplace location. Now, with the development of mobile technology, changes in an individual’s location

  20. An Unbiased View of the History of Polish Medical Physics by a Senior Polish Medical Physicist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomicki, O. A.

    2008-01-01

    Here is a story told by Maria Sklodowska-Curie at the meeting of the International Committee of Intellectual Cooperation in 1921: 'In a free literary competition on the role and importance of elephants the Englishman's story was 'My adventures while shooting elephants in South Africa', the Frenchman was more concerned with 'The sexual and erotic life of elephants', while the Polish approach was invariably 'The elephant versus Poland's national independence', which seemed quite understandable in the light of over 120 years when Poland was partitioned and lost its independence. Since then this saying has become proverbial and came to express the unmistakably Polish tendency to see everything in terms of Polish interests. In my remarks and reminiscences on the history of the Polish Society of Medical Physics you will quickly recognize the same tendency. First, I will, among other things, try to open some old cupboards to 'produce good [things] from the store of good' (Matthew 12:35), especially concerning the first few years of the activity in medical physics in Poland, and second, I will draw some conclusions and/or offer suggestions based on what a senior medical physicist has seen for more than 50 years of his activity in this field. (author)

  1. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Mohsin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130. Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80% of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not

  2. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Suri, Sushil; Menezes, Ritesh G; Kumar, H N Harsha; Rahman, Mahbubur; Islam, Md R; Pereira, Xavier V; Shah, Mohsin; Sathian, Brijesh; Shetty, Ullasa; Vaswani, Vina R

    2010-11-16

    Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130). Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80%) of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not systematically and should be included as a separate module

  3. Eliciting comprehensive medication histories in the emergency department: the role of the pharmacist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crook M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Pharmaceutical Advisory Committee guidelines call for a detailed medication history to be taken at the first point of admission to hospital. Accurate medication histories are vital in optimising health outcomes and have been shown to reduce mortality rates. This study aimed to examine the accuracy of medication histories taken in the Emergency Department of the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Medication histories recorded by medical staff were compared to those elicited by a pharmacy researcher. The study, conducted over a six-week period, included 100 patients over the age of 70, who took five or more regular medications, had three or more clinical co-morbidities and/or had been discharged from hospital in three months prior to the study. Following patient interviews, the researcher contacted the patient’s pharmacist and GP for confirmation and completion of the medication history. Out of the 1152 medications recorded as being used by the 100 patients, discrepancies were found for 966 medications (83.9%. There were 563 (48.9% complete omissions of medications. The most common discrepancies were incomplete or omitted dosage and frequency information. Discrepancies were mostly medications that treated dermatological and ear, nose and throat disorders but approximately 29% were used to treat cardiovascular disorders. This study provides support for the presence of an Emergency Department pharmacist who can compile a comprehensive and accurate medication history to enhance medication management along the continuum of care. It is recommended that the patient’s community pharmacy and GP be contacted for clarification and confirmation of the medication history.

  4. Sleep Characteristics of Self-Reported Long Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Blackwell, Terri; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Stone, Katie L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-reported long habitual sleep durations (≥ 9 h per night) consistently predict increased mortality. We compared objective sleep parameters of self-reported long versus normal duration sleepers to determine whether long sleepers truly sleep more or have an underlying sleep abnormality. Methods: Older men participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) were recruited for a comprehensive sleep assessment, which included wrist actigraphy, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and a question about usual nocturnal sleep duration. Results: Of the 3134 participants (mean age 76.4 ± 5.6; 89.9% Caucasian), 1888 (60.2%) reported sleeping 7-8 h (normal sleepers) and 174 (5.6%) reported ≥ 9 h (long sleepers). On actigraphy, long sleepers spent on average 63.0 min more per night in bed (P sleep stage distribution did not differ. After adjusting for differences in demographics, comorbidities, and medication usage, self-reported long sleepers continued to spend more time in bed and sleep more, based on both actigraphy and PSG. Each additional 30 min in bed or asleep as measured by actigraphy increased the odds of being a self-reported long-sleeper 1.74-fold and 1.33-fold, respectively (P sleep disorders. Citation: Patel SR; Blackwell T; Ancoli-Israel S; Stone KL. Sleep characteristics of self-reported long sleepers. SLEEP 2012;35(5):641-648. PMID:22547890

  5. Self-reported halitosis and emotional state: impact on oral conditions and treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimarchi Giuseppe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Halitosis represents a common dental condition, although sufferers are often not conscious of it. The aim of this study was to examine behavior in a sample of Italian subjects with reference to self-reported halitosis and emotional state, and specifically the presence of dental anxiety. Methods The study was performed on Italian subjects (N = 1052; range 15-65 years. A self-report questionnaire was used to detect self-reported halitosis and other variables possibly linked to it (sociodemographic data, medical and dental history, oral hygiene, and others, and a dental anxiety scale (DAS divided into two subscales that explore a patient's dental anxiety and dental anxiety concerning dentist-patient relations. Associations between self-reported halitosis and the abovementioned variables were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Correlations between the two groups, with self-perceived halitosis and without, were also investigated with dental anxiety and with the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Results The rate of self-reported halitosis was 19.39%. The factors linked with halitosis were: anxiety regarding dentist patient relations (relational dental anxiety (OR = 1.04, CI = 1.01-1.07, alcohol consumption (OR = 0.47, CI = 0.34-0.66, gum diseases (OR = 0.39, CI = 0.27-0.55, age > 30 years (OR = 1.01, CI = 1.00-1.02, female gender (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.51-0.98, poor oral hygiene (OR = 0.65, CI = 0.43-0.98, general anxiety (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.49-0.90, and urinary system pathologies (OR = 0.46, CI = 0.30-0.70. Other findings emerged concerning average differences between subjects with or without self-perceived halitosis, dental anxiety and the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Conclusions Halitosis requires professional care not only by dentists, but also psychological support as it is a problem that leads to avoidance behaviors and thereby limits relationships. It

  6. An Effective Teaching Method to Enhance History-Taking Skills for Chinese Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Simin; Xu, Peng; Feng, Lie; Lu, Chunting; Yang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    History taking is an extremely important skill for medical students to master. In China, medical students usually have opportunities to practise this skill on real patients after they have learned diagnostics and basic relevant theoretical knowledge. Today, however, several factors, such as increased enrolment of medical students and the need to…

  7. Reliability of self-reported questionnaire on occupational radiation work of radiologic technologists in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Jung [Graduate School of Public Health, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Eun Shil; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Self-completed questionnaires were used to obtain information on exposures and otherb factors necessary to evaluated disease risks. Although reliability of lifetime sun exposure of U.S. radiologic technologists and life-style factors, medical exams, and disease history of Korean nuclear power plants workers (2) were reported, few studies have evaluated the reliability of information obtained on radiation-related work in epidemiologic investigations. The aims of the study is to assess reliability of self-reported questionnaire for occupational radiation work in the radiologic technologists in Korea. Overall agreement and kappa regarding radiation work procedure, work practice, and work history were similar to those generally found for factors typically used in epidemiologic studies such as smoking (98% and 0.95) and alcohol consumption (88% and 0.67), and higher than physical activity (76% and 0.51).

  8. Reliability of self-reported questionnaire on occupational radiation work of radiologic technologists in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moon Jung; Cha, Eun Shil; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    Self-completed questionnaires were used to obtain information on exposures and otherb factors necessary to evaluated disease risks. Although reliability of lifetime sun exposure of U.S. radiologic technologists and life-style factors, medical exams, and disease history of Korean nuclear power plants workers (2) were reported, few studies have evaluated the reliability of information obtained on radiation-related work in epidemiologic investigations. The aims of the study is to assess reliability of self-reported questionnaire for occupational radiation work in the radiologic technologists in Korea. Overall agreement and kappa regarding radiation work procedure, work practice, and work history were similar to those generally found for factors typically used in epidemiologic studies such as smoking (98% and 0.95) and alcohol consumption (88% and 0.67), and higher than physical activity (76% and 0.51).

  9. Prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to dietary habits, in Greek adults; a national nutrition & health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagopoulos George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strong causal role of hypercholesterolaemia on the progression of atherosclerosis and subsequently on the development of cardiovascular disease is well described. Main aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to nutritional habits, in a representative nationwide sample of adult Greek population. Methods Cross sectional survey. Based on a multistage sampling, 5003 adults (18 – 74 yr were enrolled (men: 48.8%, women: 51.2%. All participants were interviewed by trained personnel who used a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle habits and nutritional assessment. Results The prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia was 16.4% in men and 21.8% in women (P Conclusion Hypercholesterolaemia seems to affect a large part of Greek population. It is hopeful that hypercholesterolaemics may have started adopting some more healthy nutritional behaviour compared to normocholesterolaemic ones.

  10. The humanising power of medical history: responses to biomedicine in the 20th century United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, John Harley

    2011-12-01

    Most American historians of medicine today would be very hesitant about any claim that medical history humanises doctors, medical students or the larger health care enterprise. Yet, the idea that history can and ought to serve modern medicine as a humanising force has been a persistent refrain in American medicine. This essay explores the emergence of this idea from the end of the 19th century, precisely the moment when modern biomedicine became ascendant. At the same institutions where the new version of scientific medicine was most energetically embraced, some professional leaders warned that the allegiance to science driving the profession's technical and cultural success was endangering humanistic values fundamental to professionalism and the art of medicine. They saw in history a means for rehumanising modern medicine and countering the risk of cultural crisis. While some iteration of this vision of history was remarkably durable, the meanings attached to 'humanism' were both multiple and changing, and the role envisioned for history in a humanistic intervention was transformed. Starting in the 1960s as part of a larger cultural critique of the putative 'dehumanisation' of the medical establishment, some advocates promoted medical history as a tool to help fashion a new kind of humanist physician and to confront social inequities in the health care system. What has persisted across time is the way that the idea of history as a humanising force has almost always functioned as a discourse of deficiency-a response to perceived shortcomings of biomedicine, medical institutions and medical professionalism.

  11. What goes around, comes around: a history of medical tuition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, Jacalyn

    2001-01-01

    IN THIS ARTICLE THE ACTUAL AND RELATIVE COSTS OF TUITION AT 3 Ontario medical schools are traced over the past 150 years. In addition, the factors that led to Ontario's nearly 4-decade experiment in private medical education (and to its eventual demise) are presented. In relative terms, tuition was stable for over a century, then declined (after 1960) as government support rose. Access to medical training for students from middle-income families may also have improved steadily until the late 1980s. Because there is no shortage of people wanting to become doctors, there seems to be no limit to the price that could be set for a medical education. The recent hikes in tuition have outstripped inflation and may be reducing accessibility to restrictive levels, similar to those that prevailed in the 19th century. The author invites readers to question current trends. PMID:11202668

  12. What goes around, comes around: a history of medical tuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, J

    2001-01-09

    In this article the actual and relative costs of tuition at 3 Ontario medical schools are traced over the past 150 years. In addition, the factors that led to Ontario's nearly 4-decade experiment in private medical education (and to its eventual demise) are presented. In relative terms, tuition was stable for over a century, then declined (after 1960) as government support rose. Access to medical training for students from middle-income families may also have improved steadily until the late 1980s. Because there is no shortage of people wanting to become doctors, there seems to be no limit to the price that could be set for a medical education. The recent hikes in tuition have outstripped inflation and may be reducing accessibility to restrictive levels, similar to those that prevailed in the 19th century. The author invites readers to question current trends.

  13. A history of the American College of Medical Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterolf, Donald; Brodie, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    The American College of Medical Quality is a national organization of health care professionals who are interested in the advancement of medical quality as a field. Composed primarily of doctorate-level individuals in medicine, dentistry, and podiatry, it also includes affiliate members in preprofessional training as well as nursing. Origins of the organization date to 1973, when it was first called the American College of Utilization Review Physicians. It is formally recognized by the American Medical Association and holds a seat in its House of Delegates. The College views the advancement of medical quality as a field of study within itself and offers multiple venues for self-education, testing, and professional networking for its members. Recently, rising national awareness of quality in health care as a field of endeavor has elevated enrollment levels and increased interest in the organization.

  14. chronicles of medical history biomimetics: the early years

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-22

    Dec 22, 2014 ... basic sciences of physics, mathematics and chemistry ... Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of ... approach man's tool for the ultimate conquest of sickness and disease ...

  15. [The history of the institutionalization of medical psychology in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnsperger, Hans; Mundschütz, Reinhard; Sonneck, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with Freudian psychoanalysis and the Zürich school of psychiatry, which in the early 20th century were the first to call for studies in medical psychology at universities, the article traces the path to the institutionalization of medical psychology in Austria especially in Vienna. Particular attention is devoted to the Academic Society for Medical Psychology (Akademischer Verein für Medizinische Psychologie) which held lectures and courses at the University of Vienna from 1926 to 1938. The Society can thus be viewed as a predecessor of the foundation of the institutes for medical psychology and psychotherapeutic clinics, starting in the late 1960s and continuing into the early 1980s.

  16. An educational tool for teaching medication history taking to pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Karen R; Elliott, Jennifer; Stanton, Melonie L; Doty, Randell

    2013-06-12

    To implement and evaluate the use of a situated-learning experience to prepare second-year pharmacy students to conduct medication history interviews in preparation for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPE) at ambulatory clinic sites. Second-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students (n=200) used the Medication Mysteries Infinite Case Tool, a game-like educational tool in which groups of 3 students assumed the roles of pharmacist, patient, and observer and rolled a die and drew cards to determine the drugs, patient personality, medication problems, and other variables that guided a medication history taking session. After the laboratory session, faculty members assessed students' medication history-taking skills. One hundred sixteen (58%) and 78 (39%) of 200 students achieved excellence or competence, respectively, on the final assessment. Two weeks after the assessment, 53 of 200 (26.5%) students completed a survey instrument. The respondents indicated that their self-confidence in conducting medical history taking significantly improved following completion of the learning experience. Using the Medication Mysteries Infinite Case Tool increased students' confidence and skills in conducting medication history taking prior to their clinical IPPE experience.

  17. [The role of chronic gastritis in past medical history with NSAID administration in patients with osteoarthrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M Iu

    2014-11-01

    122 patients with osteoarthrosis, who have in the past medical history verified chronic gastritis (50 males and 72 females) at the age from 42 to 64 have been examined. Control group was comprised of 40 patients with osteoarthrosis without gastroduodenal zone pathology in the past medical history. For arthralgia relief patients were prescribed meloxicam (average dose--12.5 - 1.39 mg daily) or nimesulide (average dose--150 ± 14.91 mg daily). As a result of this research it was determined that administration of selective NSAID (meloxicam and nimesulide) in patients with chronic gastritis in the past medical history raised the risk of NSAID gastropathy/dyspepsia 2.9 times (P 0.05) of erosive gastropathy. Patients with chronic gastritis in the past medical history when taking NSAID with the purpose of gastropathy prevention are recommended to undergo gastroprotective therapy.

  18. Validation of self-reported erythema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B; Thieden, E; Lerche, C M

    2013-01-01

    Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data.......Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data....

  19. Self-Report Measures of Family Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family…

  20. Prevalence of Self-Reported Food Allergy in Six Regions of Inner Mongolia, Northern China: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Yan; Ma, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Xue-Yan

    2018-04-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in 6 regions of Inner Mongolia, northern China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A random cluster sampling population study using a field questionnaire was distributed to 4714 individuals in 6 regions within Inner Mongolia, northern China; the study included ethnic Mongol minorities and Chinese Han populations. The questionnaire obtained data on ethnicity, age, sex, level of education, income, socioeconomic status, rural versus urban location, medical and family history, and food allergy. RESULTS There were 4441 (73.5%) completed questionnaires. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was 18.0% (15.2% men; 20.6% women) and was age-related, being significantly greater in children compared with adults (38.7% vs. 11.9%) (P1, P<0.001). There were no significant associations between the prevalence of food allergy and birth history, infant feeding, and duration of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS An increase in the prevalence of self-reported food allergy was found in the Inner Mongolia region of northern China, which was greater in urban areas compared with rural areas.

  1. Medical profession and nuclear war: a social history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, B.; Waitzkin, H.

    1985-01-01

    Since World War II, individual physicians and medical organizations in the US have cooperated with the federal government in preparing for nuclear war. While most physicians have maintained a neutral stance, a minority have resisted federal policies. Health professionals participated actively at the wartime laboratories that developed the atomic bomb and in the medical research that followed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Professional organizations helped with civil defense planning for nuclear conflict during the Cold War of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Medical resistance to nuclear war began in the same period, gained wide attention with the growth of Physicians for Social Responsibility in the early 1960s, declined during the Vietnam War, and vastly increased in the early 1980s. Activism by health professionals usually has responded to government policies that have increased the perceived risk of nuclear conflict. The recent return of civil defense planning has stimulated opposition in medical circles. Ambiguities of medical professionalism limit the scope of activism in the nuclear arena. These ambiguities concern the interplay of organized medicine and government, tensions between science and politics, and the difficulties of day-to-day work in medicine while the arms race continues

  2. Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croon Marcel A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI. This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.. ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009, social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011, and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048 predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures.

  3. 78 FR 50136 - Notice of Information Collection Under Emergency Review: Medical History and Examination for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ...: Medical History and Examination for Foreign Service DS-1843 and DS-1622 ACTION: Notice of request for... methods: Web: Persons with access to the Internet may use the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) to... History and Examination for Foreign Service. OMB Control Number: 1405-0068. Type of Request: Emergency...

  4. History of TB in the Sudan | Zaki | Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Medical history in Sudan is far from being complete. There are no reliable records. Attempt to write on the projects and development of history of TB in the Sudan is a difficult task. Objective: To study and trace the progress of TB in Sudan during the last century through their historical development. Design: A ...

  5. Hypertension in Asymptomatic, Young Medical Students with Parental History of Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Sidhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Family history of hypertension in medical students is an important, non-modifiable risk factor for hypertension in future. Aim: To determine the prevalence of sustained hypertension in young asymptomatic medical students with a parental history of hypertension. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical college of Dehradun. A total of 104 medical students with parental history of hypertension (Group A and 100 medical students without a parental history of hypertension (Group B were included. Electronically blood pressures were recorded on two separate occasions at an interval of 15 days. Comparison was done using Chi-square test/Likelihood ratio, Un-paired t-test and ANCOVA. Results: Overall, Group A had significantly higher percentage of prehypertensive (56.7% and hypertensive (17.3% students as compared to Group B which were 19% and 1%, respectively. Group A students had significantly higher Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP as compared to Group B, even after controlling for the differences in Body Mass Index (BMI and gender (p<0.001. Conclusion: Hypertension was significantly higher in asymptomatic, healthy medical students with parental history of hypertension as compared to those with normotensive parents. We need to orient medical students to improve their knowledge, attitude and lifestyle practices early in life to prevent, treat hypertension and prevent its subsequent morbidity and mortality.

  6. 'What is not written does not exist': the importance of proper documentation of medication use history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Carina Carvalho; Santos, Lincoln Marques Cavalcante; de Oliveira-Filho, Alfredo Dias; de Lyra, Divaldo Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Medications are perceived as health risk factors, because they might cause damage if used improperly. In this context, an adequate assessment of medication use history should be encouraged, especially in transitions of care to avoid unintended medication discrepancies (UMDs). In a case-controlled study, we investigated potential risk factors for UMDs at hospital admission and found that 150 (42%) of the 358 patients evaluated had one or more UMDs. We were surprised to find that there was no record of a patient and/or relative interview on previous use of medication in 117 medical charts of adult patients (44.8%). Similarly, in the medical charts of 52 (53.6%) paediatric patients, there was no record of parents and/or relatives interviews about prior use of medications. One hundred thirty-seven medical charts of adult patients (52.4%) and seventy-two medical charts of paediatric patients (74.2%) had no record about medication allergies and intolerances. In other words, there was a lack of basic documentation regarding the patient's medication use history. As patients move between settings in care, there is insufficient tracking of verbal and written information related to medication changes, which results in a progressive and cumulative loss of information, as evidenced by problems associated with clinical transfers and medication orders. Proper documentation of medication information during transfer is a key step in the procedure; hence, it should be rightly performed. It remains unclear whether interviews, and other investigations about medication use history have been performed but have not been recorded as health-care data. Therefore, it is crucial to the improvement of medication use safety that documentation of all drug-related information-even if not directly related to the actual event-become routine practice in health-care organizations, since 'what is not written does not exist'.

  7. Self-reported use of evidence-based medicine and smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-reported use of evidence-based medicine and smoking cessation 6 - 9 months after acute coronary syndrome: A single-centre perspective. ... questionnaire detailing current medication use, reasons for non-adherence and smoking status.

  8. A Preoperative Medical History and Physical Should Not Be a Requirement for All Cataract Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Oliver D; Pronovost, Peter J

    2017-07-01

    Cataract surgery poses minimal systemic medical risk, yet a preoperative general medical history and physical is required by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and other regulatory bodies within 1 month of cataract surgery. Based on prior research and practice guidelines, there is professional consensus that preoperative laboratory testing confers no benefit when routinely performed on cataract surgical patients. Such testing remains commonplace. Although not yet tested in a large-scale trial, there is also no evidence that the required history and physical yields a benefit for most cataract surgical patients above and beyond the screening performed by anesthesia staff on the day of surgery. We propose that the minority of patients who might benefit from a preoperative medical history and physical can be identified prospectively. Regulatory agencies should not constrain medical practice in a way that adds enormous cost and patient burden in the absence of value.

  9. Wandering spleen: a medical enigma, its natural history and rationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magowska, Anita

    2013-03-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant but is found lower in the abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. Many patients with wandering spleen are asymptomatic, hence the condition can be discovered only by abdominal examination or at a hospital emergency department if a patient is admitted to hospital because of severe abdominal pain, vomiting or obstipation. This article aims to provide a historical overview of wandering spleen diagnostics and surgical treatment supplemented with an analyses of articles on wandering spleen included in the PubMed database. One of the first clinical descriptions of a wandering spleen was written by Józef Dietl in 1854. The next years of vital importance are 1877 when A. Martin conducted the first splenectomy and in 1895 when Ludwik Rydygier carried out the first splenopexy to immobilize a wandering spleen. Since that time various techniques of splenectomy and splenopexy have been developed. Introducing medical technologies was a watershed in the development and treatment of wandering spleen, which is confirmed by the PubMed database. Despite the increased number of publications medical literature shows that a wandering spleen still remains a misdiagnosed condition, especially among children.

  10. [History of Medical Mycology in the former German Democratic Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, C; Blaschke-Hellmessen, Renate; Kielstein, P

    2002-01-01

    After the Second World War the development of medical mycology in Germany had taken a very different course in the east and west parts depending on the political division. In this respect our contribution deals with the situation in the former German Democratic Republic. Efficient mycological centres were founded step by step almost in all medical universities on the basis of the mycological laboratories in dermatological hospitals competent for diagnostic work, but also for teaching and scientific research. In this context biologists were the main stay of mycology, they finally were integrated to the same degree in the universities like physicians. The effectiveness of the Gesellschaft für Medizinische Mykologie der DDR (GMM), its board of directors and its working groups as well as the topics of human and animal mycology during this period are described. Especially the merger of the GMM with the Deutschsprachige Mykologische Gesellschaft after the reunification of Germany without problems and the kind co-operation of Prof. Dr. Johannes Müller during this procedure are emphasized.

  11. Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...

  12. Comparison of Pilot Medical History and Medications Found In Postmortem Specimens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canfield, Dennis V; Salazar, Guillermo J; Lewis, Russell J; Whinnery, James E

    2006-01-01

    Pilots are required by FAA regulations to report all medications and medical conditions to the FAA Office of Aerospace Medicine for review as to the overall suitability of the pilot for flight activities...

  13. Validity and reliability of self-reported diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrea L C; Pankow, James S; Heiss, Gerardo; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity of prevalent and incident self-reported diabetes compared with multiple reference definitions and to assess the reliability (repeatability) of a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes. Data from 10,321 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who attended visit 4 (1996-1998) were analyzed. Prevalent self-reported diabetes was compared with reference definitions defined by fasting glucose and medication use obtained at visit 4. Incident self-reported diabetes was assessed during annual follow-up telephone calls and was compared with reference definitions defined by fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and medication use obtained during an in-person visit attended by a subsample of participants (n = 1,738) in 2004-2005. The sensitivity of prevalent self-reported diabetes ranged from 58.5% to 70.8%, and specificity ranged from 95.6% to 96.8%, depending on the reference definition. Similarly, the sensitivity of incident self-reported diabetes ranged from 55.9% to 80.4%, and specificity ranged from 84.5% to 90.6%. Percent positive agreement of self-reported diabetes during 9 years of repeat assessments ranged from 92.7% to 95.4%. Both prevalent self-reported diabetes and incident self-reported diabetes were 84%-97% specific and 55%-80% sensitive as compared with reference definitions using glucose and medication criteria. Self-reported diabetes was >92% reliable over time.

  14. [The red face: art, history and medical representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribier, B

    2011-09-01

    For millennia, a red face has been a handicap in social relations, mainly because of the associated bias against alcoholics. The color red is also the color of emotion, betrayal of the person who blushes. Since the color red is one of the main characteristics of rosacea, it contributes to the bad reputation this disorder has, which is therefore the subject of a pressing therapeutic demand, principally in women. Nineteenth-century French novelists such as Balzac and later Proust, admirably described blotchy, red, or sanguine faces, which always announced a difficult, violent temperament, or was simply the mark of the laboring class. The color red remains ambivalent today, on the one hand denoting blood and life and on the other suffering, shame, and death. The history of dermatology shows that the semiology of rosacea was very well described in the earliest reports, notably those written in the Middle Ages. The term "acne rosacea" appeared in Bateman's writings, who made it a clinical form of acne. This confusion lasted throughout the nineteenth century. It was not until Hebra in Austria and Darier in France that the differential diagnosis was clearly made between acne and rosacea. A "couperosis" previously referred to the entire range of the disease, particularly the papules and pustules, and it was not until the twentieth century that the current meaning of rosacea progressively gained ground: this term today designates facial telangiectasia, whether or not it is associated with a characteristic redness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [Medication reconciliation: an innovative experience in an internal medicine unit to decrease errors due to inacurrate medication histories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérennes, Maud; Carde, Axel; Nicolas, Xavier; Dolz, Manuel; Bihannic, René; Grimont, Pauline; Chapot, Thierry; Granier, Hervé

    2012-03-01

    An inaccurate medication history may prevent the discovery of a pre-admission iatrogenic event or lead to interrupted drug therapy during hospitalization. Medication reconciliation is a process that ensures the transfer of medication information at admission to the hospital. The aims of this prospective study were to evaluate the interest in clinical practice of this concept and the resources needed for its implementation. We chose to include patients aged 65 years or over admitted in the internal medicine unit between June and October 2010. We obtained an accurate list of each patient's home medications. This list was then compared with medication orders. All medication variances were classified as intended or unintended. An internist and a pharmacist classified the clinical importance of each unintended variance. Sixty-one patients (mean age: 78 ± 7.4 years) were included in our study. We identified 38 unintended discrepancies. The average number of unintended discrepancies was 0.62 per patient. Twenty-five patients (41%) had one or more unintended discrepancies at admission. The contact with the community pharmacist permitted us to identify 21 (55%) unintended discrepancies. The most common errors were the omission of a regularly used medication (76%) and an incorrect dosage (16%). Our intervention resulted in order changes by the physician for 30 (79%) unintended discrepancies. Fifty percent of the unintended variances were judged by the internist and 76% by the pharmacist to be clinically significant. The admission to the hospital is a critical transition point for the continuity of care in medication management. Medication reconciliation can identify and resolve errors due to inaccurate medication histories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The red face: art, history and medical representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribier, B

    2011-11-01

    For millennia, a red face has been a handicap in social relations, mainly because of the associated bias against alcoholics. The color red is also the color of emotion, betrayal of the person who blushes. Since the color red is one of the main characteristics of rosacea, it contributes to the bad reputation this disorder has, which is therefore the subject of a pressing therapeutic demand, principally in women. Nineteenth-century French novelists such as Balzac and later Proust, admirably described blotchy, red, or sanguine faces, which always announced a difficult, violent temperament, or was simply the mark of the laboring class. The color red remains ambivalent today, on the one hand denoting blood and life and on the other suffering, shame, and death. The history of dermatology shows that the semiology of rosacea was very well described in the earliest reports, notably those written in the Middle Ages. The term "acne rosacea" appeared in Bateman's writings, who made it a clinical form of acne. This confusion lasted throughout the nineteenth century. It was not until Hebra in Austria and Darier in France that the differential diagnosis was clearly made between acne and rosacea. A "couperosis" previously referred to the entire range of the disease, particularly the papules and pustules, and it was not until the twentieth century that the current meaning of rosacea progressively gained ground: this term today designates facial telangiectasia, whether or not it is associated with a characteristic redness. Rosacea is a conspicuous disease, since the lesions involve the central portion of the face.Among the many manifestations of rosacea, redness is the most characteristic [1]. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The library of the Royal Society of Physicians in Budapest becomes today's Semmelweis Medical History Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaproncszay, Katalin; Magyar, László András; Putnam, Constance E

    2011-01-01

    The 170-year history of the library of the Royal Society of Medicine in Budapest illustrates both that political and cultural context matter and that "medical" libraries, if they survive, in due course become primarily "medical history" libraries. Two of the authors are on the staff of the Semmelweis Medical History Library; the third is a US scholar who makes frequent use of the library. Together, they avail themselves of archival and published materials-and personal experience with the collection-to establish the context that produced the original library, trace its evolution, and describe its present-day incarnation. A tale of transformation emerges that reflects how collections are likely to change. The authors present events and individuals in the life of the Royal Society's library and paint a picture of the value of today's Semmelweis Medical History Library. Unique treasures in the collection are described. The story told here is of how a particular nineteenth-century library became a twenty-first-century institution. The authors establish its peculiarly Hungarian context and potential value to librarians and historians from outside Hungary. The overall message is that general medical libraries everywhere are perforce likely to become medical historical libraries over time.

  18. Giuseppe and Aloysius Frari's works on rabies and history of Frari medical family of Sibenik, Dalmatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krnić, Anton

    2007-06-01

    This article is an attempt to reconstruct the family history of the Fraris, the famous Sibenik medical family. Three generations of physicians from the Frari family played an important role not only at medical and social scene of Sibenik in the 18th and 19th century, but also in Croatian and Italian medical history. I will try to provide important details on the lives, medical and social work, and publications of 5 members of the family, Giuseppe (Josip), Angelo Antonio (Andeo Antun), Sebastiano (Sebastijan), Michele Carlo (Mihovil), and Aloysius (Luigi) Frari. I would also like to pay a special attention to the works on rabies, written by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari, which are among the earliest and most accurate Croatian works on the subject. To reconstruct the history of the family, I studied the relevant editions about the medical and social history of Sibenik, Dalmatia, Venice, and Croatia, together with the Fraris' publications and reflections. This was the first time Italian and Latin language works by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari on rabies were analyzed. The story on Fraris also documents that medical publishing was a common practice in Dalmatia in the 18th and the 19th century.

  19. Case studies in cholera: lessons in medical history and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavic, S. M.; Frehm, E. J.; Segal, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Cholera, a prototypical secretory diarrheal disease, is an ancient scourge that has both wrought great suffering and taught many valuable lessons, from basic sanitation to molecular signal transduction. Victims experience the voluminous loss of bicarbonate-rich isotonic saline at a rate that may lead to hypovolemic shock, metabolic acidosis, and death within afew hours. Intravenous solution therapy as we know it was first developed in an attempt to provide life-saving volume replacement for cholera patients. Breakthroughs in epithelial membrane transport physiology, such as the discovery of sugar and salt cotransport, have paved the way for oral replacement therapy in areas of the world where intravenous replacement is not readily available. In addition, the discovery of the cholera toxin has yielded vital information about toxigenic infectious diseases, providing a framework in which to study fundamental elements of intracellular signal transduction pathways, such as G-proteins. Cholera may even shed light on the evolution and pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis, the most commonly inherited disease among Caucasians. The goal of this paper is to review, using case studies, some of the lessons learned from cholera throughout the ages, acknowledging those pioneers whose seminal work led to our understanding of many basic concepts in medical epidemiology, microbiology, physiology, and therapeutics. PMID:11138935

  20. On the borderland of medical and disability history: a survey of the fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Beth

    2013-01-01

    This essay explores the multiple sites where disability appears in the history of medicine and suggests ways in which medical historians can self-consciously incorporate a disability perspective into their own work. Just as medical historians have much to learn from disability historians, disability historians could benefit from looking more closely at the history of medicine. While disability cannot (and should not) be reduced to disease, the fact remains that some forms of disability are brought about by disease processes, and some require daily regimes of home health care, therapy, and pain management. How the disabled have interacted with health care institutions, caretakers, and the medical establishment is too significant to be written out of its history.

  1. Utility of an Algorithm to Increase the Accuracy of Medication History in an Obstetrical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, Aline; Baud, David; Chaouch, Aziz; Beney, Johnny; Csajka, Chantal; Panchaud, Alice

    2016-01-01

    In an obstetrical setting, inaccurate medication histories at hospital admission may result in failure to identify potentially harmful treatments for patients and/or their fetus(es). This prospective study was conducted to assess average concordance rates between (1) a medication list obtained with a one-page structured medication history algorithm developed for the obstetrical setting and (2) the medication list reported in medical records and obtained by open-ended questions based on standard procedures. Both lists were converted into concordance rate using a best possible medication history approach as the reference (information obtained by patients, prescribers and community pharmacists' interviews). The algorithm-based method obtained a higher average concordance rate than the standard method, with respectively 90.2% [CI95% 85.8-94.3] versus 24.6% [CI95%15.3-34.4] concordance rates (phistory in our obstetric population, without using substantial resources. Its implementation is an effective first step to the medication reconciliation process, which has been recognized as a very important component of patients' drug safety.

  2. How important is medical ethics and history of medicine teaching in the medical curriculum? An empirical approach towards students' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; Woestmann, Barbara; Huenges, Bert; Schweikardt, Christoph; Schäfer, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    It was investigated how students judge the teaching of medical ethics and the history of medicine at the start and during their studies, and the influence which subject-specific teaching of the history, theory and ethics of medicine (GTE)--or the lack thereof--has on the judgement of these subjects. From a total of 533 students who were in their first and 5th semester of the Bochum Model curriculum (GTE teaching from the first semester onwards) or followed the traditional curriculum (GTE teaching in the 5th/6th semester), questionnaires were requested in the winter semester 2005/06 and in the summer semester 2006. They were asked both before and after the 1st and 5th (model curriculum) or 6th semester (traditional curriculum). We asked students to judge the importance of teaching medical ethics and the history of medicine, the significance of these subjects for physicians and about teachability and testability (Likert scale from -2 (do not agree at all) to +2 (agree completely)). 331 questionnaire pairs were included in the study. There were no significant differences between the students of the two curricula at the start of the 1st semester. The views on medical ethics and the history of medicine, in contrast, were significantly different at the start of undergraduate studies: The importance of medical ethics for the individual and the physician was considered very high but their teachability and testability were rated considerably worse. For the history of medicine, the results were exactly opposite. GTE teaching led to a more positive assessment of items previously ranked less favourably in both curricula. A lack of teaching led to a drop in the assessment of both subjects which had previously been rated well. Consistent with the literature, our results support the hypothesis that the teaching of GTE has a positive impact on the views towards the history and ethics of medicine, with a lack of teaching having a negative impact. Therefore the teaching of GTE

  3. How Important is Medical Ethics and History of Medicine Teaching in the Medical Curriculum? An Empirical Approach towards Students' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; Woestmann, Barbara; Huenges, Bert; Schweikardt, Christoph; Schäfer, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: It was investigated how students judge the teaching of medical ethics and the history of medicine at the start and during their studies, and the influence which subject-specific teaching of the history, theory and ethics of medicine (GTE) - or the lack thereof - has on the judgement of these subjects. Methods: From a total of 533 students who were in their first and 5th semester of the Bochum Model curriculum (GTE teaching from the first semester onwards) or followed the traditional curriculum (GTE teaching in the 5th/6th semester), questionnaires were requested in the winter semester 2005/06 and in the summer semester 2006. They were asked both before and after the 1st and 5th (model curriculum) or 6th semester (traditional curriculum). We asked students to judge the importance of teaching medical ethics and the history of medicine, the significance of these subjects for physicians and about teachability and testability (Likert scale from -2 (do not agree at all) to +2 (agree completely)). Results: 331 questionnaire pairs were included in the study. There were no significant differences between the students of the two curricula at the start of the 1st semester. The views on medical ethics and the history of medicine, in contrast, were significantly different at the start of undergraduate studies: The importance of medical ethics for the individual and the physician was considered very high but their teachability and testability were rated considerably worse. For the history of medicine, the results were exactly opposite. GTE teaching led to a more positive assessment of items previously ranked less favourably in both curricula. A lack of teaching led to a drop in the assessment of both subjects which had previously been rated well. Conclusion: Consistent with the literature, our results support the hypothesis that the teaching of GTE has a positive impact on the views towards the history and ethics of medicine, with a lack of teaching having a negative

  4. On history of medical radiology in Ukraine: main directions of scientific development (1920-1941)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilipenko, M.Yi.; Artamonova, N.O.; Busigyina, N.O.

    1994-01-01

    The work is devoted to the history of medical radiology in Ukraine. It deals with principal problems of scientific research development during 1920-1941. The authors describe both known and little known facts of the history of foundation and development of the first Ukrainian radiological, roentgenological and oncological institutes. Main achievements in radiology development i.e. foundation of large specialized research centres in Kharkov, kiev, Odessa, independent departments of roentgenology both at the majority of medical institutes and three advanced training institutes for doctors, organization of ALL-Union and Republican Congresses and Conferences of Radiologists, publication of a special journal > (Problems of Oncology) are described

  5. Evaluation of computer-based medical histories taken by patients at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Warner V; Kowaloff, Hollis B; Davis, Roger B; Delbanco, Tom; Locke, Steven E; Safran, Charles; Bleich, Howard L

    2012-01-01

    The authors developed a computer-based general medical history to be taken by patients in their homes over the internet before their first visit with their primary care doctor, and asked six doctors and their participating patients to assess this history and its effect on their subsequent visit. Forty patients began the history; 32 completed the history and post-history assessment questionnaire and were for the most part positive in their assessment; and 23 continued on to complete their post-visit assessment questionnaire and were for the most part positive about the helpfulness of the history and its summary at the time of their visit with the doctor. The doctors in turn strongly favored the immediate, routine use of two modules of the history--the family and social histories--for all their new patients. The doctors suggested further that the summaries of the other modules of the history be revised and shortened to make it easier for them to focus on clinical issues in the order of their preference.

  6. A history of medical student debt: observations and implications for the future of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greysen, S Ryan; Chen, Candice; Mullan, Fitzhugh

    2011-07-01

    Over the last 50 years, medical student debt has become a problem of national importance, and obtaining medical education in the United States has become a loan-dependent, individual investment. Although this phenomenon must be understood in the general context of U.S. higher education as well as economic and social trends in late-20th-century America, the historical problem of medical student debt requires specific attention for several reasons. First, current mechanisms for students' educational financing may not withstand debt levels above a certain ceiling which is rapidly approaching. Second, there are no standards for costs of medical school attendance, and these can vary dramatically between different schools even within a single city. Third, there is no consensus on the true cost of educating a medical student, which limits accountability to students and society for these costs. Fourth, policy efforts to improve physician workforce diversity and mitigate shortages in the primary care workforce are inhibited by rising levels of medical student indebtedness. Fortunately, the current effort to expand the U.S. physician workforce presents a unique opportunity to confront the unsustainable growth of medical student debt and explore new approaches to the financing of medical students' education.

  7. [About Itching and scabies. Pruritus in medical history--from ancient world to the French revolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, E; König, A; Diepgen, T L; Eckart, W U

    2008-12-01

    Pruritus (itching) as a disease state and especially as a disease symptom has been object of medical and scientific descriptions and examinations in all epochs since the antiquity and in different cultural periods. Antiquity was dominated by observations and descriptions but during the course of medical history and particularly since the establishment of dermatology, more and more emphasis has been placed on classification and etiologic research.

  8. Effect of teaching and checklist implementation on accuracy of medication history recording at hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Marianne; Barstad, Ingeborg; Mathiesen, Liv; Mowe, Morten; Molden, Espen

    2016-02-01

    Medication discrepancies at hospital admission is an extensive problem and knowledge is limited regarding improvement strategies. To investigate the effect of teaching and checklist implementation on accuracy of medication history recording during hospitalization. Patients admitted to an internal medicine ward were prospectively included in two consecutive periods. Between the periods, non-mandatory teaching lessons were provided and a checklist assisting medication history recording implemented. Discrepancies between the recorded medications at admission and the patient's actual drug use, as revealed by pharmacist-conducted medication reconciliation, were compared between the periods. The primary endpoint was difference between the periods in proportion of patients with minimum one discrepancy. Difference in median number of discrepancies was included as a secondary endpoint. 56 and 119 patients were included in period 1 (P1) and period 2 (P2), respectively. There was no significant difference in proportion of patients with minimum one discrepancy in P2 (68.9 %) versus P1 (76.8 %, p = 0.36), but a tendency of lower median number of discrepancies was observed in P2 than P1, i.e. 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.087). More powerful strategies than non-mandatory teaching activities and checklist implementation are required to achieve sufficient improvements in medication history recording during hospitalization.

  9. Self-reported skin morbidity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Zarchi, Kian; Ellervik, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Skin diseases are thought to be common in the general population. In 2004, a cross-sectional study in Norway, using a validated questionnaire for 18,770 individuals, revealed a high prevalence of skin diseases in the general population. To describe the prevalence of self-reported skin morbidities...... questionnaire. In total, 17.2% self-reported skin complaints. The most prominent self-reported skin complaint was itch with an overall prevalence of 6.5%. The skin morbidity most influenced by age was pimples. There was a uniform pattern showing fewer skin complaints with increasing education. Women reported...... skin morbidities more frequently than men. Participants in employment reported fewer skin morbidities compared to unemployed participants. Skin morbidities in Denmark are common, and the distribution of prevalence estimates in the Danish population parallel those of the Norwegian population, although...

  10. Family history and medical examination of occupationally exposed employees against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, G.

    2000-01-01

    Searching for individual radiosensitivity could improve the quality of the medical examination of occupationally exposed employees and thus provide real protection of the individual against ionizing radiation. For this purpose genetic family history should be recorded by a skilled interviewer. (orig.) [de

  11. [The origin, diffusion and development of healing doctrines in medical history--exemplified by homeopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Josef M

    2007-01-01

    As a paradigmatic case study of the origin, spread, and development of medical systems, this paper investigates the 200-years history of homeopathy from different perspectives of medical history. On the basis of new research on Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), first, a concise and critical overview on the principles, explanations, and implications of his doctrine is presented. The historical, conceptual, and social background of the founder of homeopathy is then elaborated in terms of history of medicine, science, philosophy, sociology, culture, and ideas, as well as theory of science, theory of communication, and sociology of science. The process of the world wide spread of homeopathy is examined from different points of view, ranging from history of heroes, institutions, professionalisation, politics, economics, religion, and organisations to history of patients, perception, and semiotics. Finally, a comparative approach to the different development and status of homeopathy in different countries results in the extraction of a set of crucial variables, such as charismatic personage, influential patronage, economic sponsorship, political protection, media support, and patients' demand, which might explane a major part of these differences. Eventually, the notorious splits of homeopathy's doctrine suggest the idea that--in analogy to theory of evolution--a variety of concurrent strains (rather than one monolithic block) of a doctrine may prove to be a kind of advantage for survival. In conclusion, acceptance and relevance of medical systems are determined by many factors. Since external ones are usually outweighing internal ones, medical history may offer a broader and more comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of their spread and development than clinical trials and scientific objection alone.

  12. Self-Reported Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity in High School Students: Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carroccio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS has recently been included among the gluten-related disorders. As no biomarkers of this disease exist, its frequency has been estimated based on self-reported symptoms, but to date no data are available about self-reported NCWS in teenagers. Aim: To explore the prevalence of self-reported NCWS in a group of high school students and to study their demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: The study was performed between April 2015 and January 2016 in two high schools of a coastal town in the south of Sicily (Italy. A total of 555 students (mean age 17 years, 191 male, 364 female completed a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported NCWS. The subjects who self-reported NCWS were then compared with all the others. Results: Seven individuals (1.26% had an established diagnosis of CD. The prevalence of self-reported NCWS was 12.2%, and 2.9% were following a gluten-free diet (GFD. Only 15 out of 68 (23% NCWS self-reporters had consulted a doctor for this problem and only nine (14% had undergone serological tests for celiac disease. The NCWS self-reporters very often had IBS symptoms (44%. Conclusions: Self-reported NCWS was found to be common in teenagers, with a frequency of 12.2%; the frequency of GFD use was 2.9%, which was much higher than the percentage of known CD in the same population (1.26%. A greater awareness of the possible implications on the part of the subjects involved, and a more thorough medical approach to the study of self-reported wheat-induced symptoms are required.

  13. Previous medical history of diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The etiology of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is complex and most likely includes genetic and environmental factors. This study was conducted to evaluatethe role of previous medical history of diseases in ADHD children and their parents during theearlier years of the ADHD children's lives. Methods: In this case-control study, 164 ADHD children attending to Child and AdolescentPsychiatric Clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, compared with 166 normal children selected in a random-cluster method from primary and guidance schools. ADHDrating scale (Parents version and clinical interview based on schedule for Schedule forAffective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version(K-SADS were used to diagnose ADHD cases and to select the control group. Two groupswere compared for the existence of previous medical history of diseases in children andparents. Fisher's exact test and logistic regression model were used for data analysis. Results: The frequency of maternal history of medical disorders (28.7% vs. 12.0%; P = 0.001was significantly higher in children with ADHD compared with the control group. The frequency of jaundice, dysentery, epilepsy, asthma, allergy, and head trauma in the medicalhistory of children were not significantly differed between the two groups. Conclusion: According to this preliminary study, it may be concluded that the maternal historyof medical disorders is one of contributing risk factors for ADHD.

  14. A brief history of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monekosso, G L

    2014-08-01

    Developments in medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa over the past 100 years have been characterized by the continent's unique history. During the first half of the 20th century, the Europeans effectively installed medical education in their African colonies. The years 1950 to 1960 were distinguished by successful movements for independence, with new governments giving priority to medical education. By 1980, there were 51 medical schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. The period from 1975 to 1990 was problematic both politically and economically for Sub-Saharan Africa, and medical schools did not escape the general difficulties. War, corruption, mounting national debts, and political instability were characteristics of this period. In many countries, maintaining medical school assets--faculty members, buildings, laboratories, libraries--became difficult, and emigration became the goal of many health professionals. In contrast, the past 20 years have seen rapid growth in the number of medical schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. Economic growth and political stability in most Sub-Saharan African countries augur well for investment in health systems strengthening and in medical education. There are, nonetheless, major problem areas, including inadequate funding, challenges of sustainability, and the continuing brain drain. The 20th century was a time of colonialism and the struggle for independence during which medical education did not advance as quickly or broadly as it did in other regions of the world. The 21st century promises a different history, one of rapid growth in medical education, leading to better care and better health for the people of Africa.

  15. What's in a Self-report?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Else Marie

    2016-01-01

    of ED recorded in the health registers. Women with self-reported ED were comparable with women with hospital diagnosed ED on most reproductive and health characteristics, while they differed from women without ED concerning all characteristics studied. Our findings highlight that women with self...

  16. Medical education in a foreign language and history-taking in the native language in Lebanon – a nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Abi Raad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the adoption of the English language in medical education, a gap in clinical communication may develop in countries where the native language is different from the language of medical education. This study investigates the association between medical education in a foreign language and students’ confidence in their history-taking skills in their native language. Methods This cross-sectional study consisted of a 17-question survey among medical students in clinical clerkships of Lebanese medical schools. The relationship between the language of medical education and confidence in conducting a medical history in Arabic (the native language was evaluated (n = 457. Results The majority (88.5% of students whose native language was Arabic were confident they could conduct a medical history in Arabic. Among participants enrolled in the first clinical year, high confidence in Arabic history-taking was independently associated with Arabic being the native language and with conducting medical history in Arabic either in the pre-clinical years or during extracurricular activities. Among students in their second clinical year, however, these factors were not associated with confidence levels. Conclusions Despite having their medical education in a foreign language, the majority of students in Lebanese medical schools are confident in conducting a medical history in their native language.

  17. Self-reported health-related behaviors and dietary habits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Pałkowska, Ewelina; Bartnikowska, Elżbieta; Krzesiński, Paweł; Stańczyk, Adam; Biecek, Przemysław; Skrobowski, Andrzej; Gielerak, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about factors affecting the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle especially in the population without coronary artery disease (CAD) symptoms and with one or several risk factors. The study was aimed at describing self-reported health-related behaviors and dietary habits in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Consecutive patients with an outpatient diagnosis of MetS admitted to our cardiology department underwent clinical examination and cardiovascular risk assessment based on the SCORE scale. Self-reported intensity of pro-healthy behaviors was described using the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI) developed by Juczynski. Diet quality was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method, diet history questionnaire and the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI). A total of 113 patients were recruited (90 males, mean age 48 ± 9 years) including 85% of patients with at least moderate cardiovascular risk (SCORE ≥ 1%). Central obesity was confirmed in 100%, family history of CAD in 75%, LDL exceeding 115 mg/dL in 68% of the patients. A total of 66% of the patients had already been on antihypertensive and 30% on lipid-lowering treatment without previous counselling on lifestyle modification. Most patients reported high or medium level health-related behaviors (23% and 45%, respectively). However, 91% led sedentary lifestyle and none of the patients followed cardioprotective diet recommendations. According to the HEI, 73% required partial and 27% complete diet modification. There is a significant discrepancy between health perception and medical recommendations in patients with MetS. Effective patient education, taking into account a revision of the patient's knowledge on the principles of prophylaxis, may form the fundament for the changes in patient behavior, and cardiovascular risk reduction.

  18. A history and overview of the certification exam for medical dosimetrists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusey, Damien; Smith, Lisette; Zeman, Elaine M.; Adams, Robert

    2005-01-01

    During the last century, the creation and implementation of board certification has had a powerful impact on the medical community. Board certification has helped to shape the scope and practice of medical professionals and the care they provide, as well as to influence the way the health insurance industry sets standards for reimbursement. One profession that offers board certification to its members is medical dosimetry. The Medical Dosimetrist Certification Board exam has been administered since 1988 and its content covers a broad spectrum of information from the radiation therapy sciences. The exam has strict application requirements and is rather difficult to pass. Those who pass the exam can then call themselves Certified Medical Dosimetrists. For data purposes of this study, several members of the dosimetry community were solicited to participate in a survey regarding the exam's content and history, and to provide relevant statistical data. Currently 2,177 medical dosimetrists are board certified, with an additional 1,500 estimated to be working without certification. Although board certification is not currently required to practice medical dosimetry, new legislation known as the CARE Bill could change this. The CARE Bill, if passed, would mandate nationwide compulsory licensure and/or certification for medical dosimetrists and other medical professionals who want to work in radiation-related health care. Health maintenance organizations and other insurance carriers may likewise require certification for reimbursement purposes

  19. Nine-year risk of depression diagnosis increases with increasing self-reported concussions in retired professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Harding, Herndon P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2012-10-01

    Concussions may accelerate the progression to long-term mental health outcomes such as depression in athletes. To prospectively determine the effects of recurrent concussions on the clinical diagnosis of depression in a group of retired football players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Members of the National Football League Retired Players Association responded to a baseline General Health Survey (GHS) in 2001. They also completed a follow-up survey in 2010. Both surveys asked about demographic information, number of concussions sustained during their professional football career, physical/mental health, and prevalence of diagnosed medical conditions. A physical component summary (Short Form 36 Measurement Model for Functional Assessment of Health and Well-Being [SF-36 PCS]) was calculated from responses for physical health. The main exposure, the history of concussions during the professional playing career (self-report recalled in 2010), was stratified into 5 categories: 0 (referent), 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10+ concussions. The main outcome was a clinical diagnosis of depression between the baseline and follow-up GHS. Classic tabular methods computed crude risk ratios. Binomial regression with a Poisson residual and robust variance estimation to stabilize the fitting algorithm estimated adjusted risk ratios. χ(2) analyses identified associations and trends between concussion history and the 9-year risk of a depression diagnosis. Of the 1044 respondents with complete data from the baseline and follow-up GHS, 106 (10.2%) reported being clinically diagnosed as depressed between the baseline and follow-up GHS. Approximately 65% of all respondents self-reported sustaining at least 1 concussion during their professional careers. The 9-year risk of a depression diagnosis increased with an increasing number of self-reported concussions, ranging from 3.0% in the "no concussions" group to 26.8% in the "10+" group (linear trend: P football and 2001 SF-36 PCS

  20. The end of medical confidentiality? Patients, physicians and the state in history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Philip; Louis-Courvoisier, Micheline; Huber, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Medical confidentiality has come under attack in the public sphere. In recent disasters both journalists and politicians have questioned medical confidentiality and claimed that in specific contexts physicians should be compelled to communicate data on their patients' health. The murders of innocent individuals by a suicidal pilot and a Swiss convicted criminal have generated polemical debates on the topic. In this article, historical data on medical confidentiality is used to show that medical practices of secrecy were regularly attacked in the past, and that the nature of medical confidentiality evolved through time depending on physicians' values and judgements. Our demonstration is based on three moments in history. First, at the end of the 16th century, lay authorities put pressure on physicians to disclose the names of patients suffering from syphilis. Second, in the 18th century, physicians faced constant demands for information about patients' health from relatives and friends. Third, employers and insurance companies in the 20th century requested medical data on sick employees. In these three different situations, history reveals that the concept of medical confidentiality was plastic, modelled in the first instance to defend well-to-do patients, in the second instance it was adapted to accommodate the physician's social role and, finally, to defend universal values and public health. Medical secrecy was, and is today, a medical and societal norm that is shaped collectively. Any change in its definition and enforcement was and should be the result of negotiations with all social actors concerned. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Sex in the Curriculum: The Effect of a Multi-Modal Sexual History-Taking Module on Medical Student Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Goodrich, Katie G.; Leitsch, Sara A.; Cook, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a multi-modal curricular intervention designed to teach sexual history-taking skills to medical students. The Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics, the National Board of Medical Examiners, and others, have identified sexual history-taking as a learning objective…

  2. [A history of internal medicine: medical specialization: as old as antiquity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echenberg, Donald

    2007-11-28

    This article presents a short review of the history of medical specialization and the evolution of internal medicine within the last two centuries. Medical specialization, far from being a recent phenomenon, existed in the Hellenistic world and in Rome. The development of specialization during the latter part of the 19th century and early 20th century is credited to the rapid expansion of medical knowledge which made it impossible for a single doctor to encompass all the different spheres of the profession. The term innere medizin or internal medicine was adopted from German terminology in the 1880's. The Canadian society of internal medicine was formed in 1983 and its main goal is to promote a broad perspective of medical care and to master the complexity in medicine through a generalist approach.

  3. Self-reported efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine: the Akershus study of chronic headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Espen Saxhaug; Aaseth, Kjersti; Grande, Ragnhild Berling; Lundqvist, Christofer; Russell, Michael Bjørn

    2013-04-18

    Chronic headache is associated with disability and high utilisation of health care including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). We investigated self-reported efficacy of CAM in people with chronic headache from the general population. Respondents with possible self-reported chronic headache were interviewed by physicians experienced in headache diagnostics. CAM queried included acupuncture, chiropractic, homeopathy, naprapathy, physiotherapy, psychological treatment, and psychomotor physiotherapy. Sixty-two % and 73% of those with primary and secondary chronic headache had used CAM.Self-reported efficacy of CAM ranged from 0-43% without significant differences between gender, headache diagnoses, co-occurrence of migraine, medication use or physician contact. CAM is widely used, despite self-reported efficacy of different CAM modalities is modest in the management of chronic headache.

  4. Accuracy of Self-Reported Breast Cancer Information among Women from the Ontario Site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, A.; Glendon, G.; Andrulis, I. L.; Knight, J. A.; Barisic, A.; Knight, J. A.; Glendon, G.; Weerasooriya, N.; Andrulis, I. L.

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining complete medical record information can be challenging and expensive in breast cancer studies. The current literature is limited with respect to the accuracy of self-report and factors that may influence this. We assessed the agreement between self-reported and medical record breast cancer information among women from the Ontario site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Women aged 20-69 years diagnosed with incident breast cancer 1996-1998 were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry, sampled on age and family history. We calculated kappa statistics, proportion correct, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values and conducted unconditional logistic regression to examine whether characteristics of the women influenced agreement. The proportions of women who correctly reported having received a broad category of therapy (hormone therapy, chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery) as well as sensitivity and specificity were above 90%, and the kappa statistics were above 0.80. The specific type of hormonal or chemotherapy was reported with low-to-moderate agreement. Aside from recurrence, no factors were consistently associated with agreement. Thus, most women were able to accurately report broad categories of treatment but not necessarily specific treatment types. The finding of this study can aid researchers in the use and design of self-administered treatment questionnaires

  5. A tale of Congress, continuing medical education, and the history of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Clyde; Kushner, Howard I; Horton, Mary E Kollmer

    2014-04-01

    Well-intentioned attempts by the Senate Finance Committee to improve the content and quality of continuing medical education (CME) offerings had the unanticipated consequence of decimating academically oriented history of medicine conferences. New guidelines intended to keep CME courses free of commercial bias from the pharmaceutical industry were worded in a fashion that caused CME officials at academic institutions to be reluctant to offer CME credit for history of medicine gatherings. At the 2013 annual conference of the American Association for the History of Medicine, we offered a novel solution for determining CME credit in line with current guidelines. We asked attendees to provide narrative critiques for each presentation for which they desired CME credit. In this essay, we evaluate the efficacy of this approach.

  6. Medical History of Elderly Patients in the Emergency Setting: Not an Easy Point-of-Care Diagnostic Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Lindner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medical histories are a crucially important diagnostic tool. Elderly patients represent a large and increasing group of emergency patients. Due to cognitive deficits, taking a reliable medical history in this patient group can be difficult. We sought to evaluate the medical history-taking in emergency patients above 75 years of age with respect to duration and completeness. Methods. Anonymous data of consecutive patients were recorded. Times for the defined basic medical history-taking were documented, as were the availability of other sources and times to assess these. Results. Data of 104 patients were included in the analysis. In a quarter of patients (25%, n=26 no complete basic medical history could be obtained. In the group of patients where complete data could be gathered, only 16 patients were able to provide all necessary information on their own. Including other sources like relatives or GPs prolonged the time until complete medical history from 7.3 minutes (patient only to 26.4 (+relatives and 56.3 (+GP minutes. Conclusions. Medical histories are important diagnostic tools in the emergency setting and are prolonged in the elderly, especially if additional documentation and third parties need to be involved. New technologies like emergency medical cards might help to improve the availability of important patient data but implementation of these technologies is costly and faces data protection issues.

  7. Using medical history embedded in biometrics medical card for user identity authentication: privacy preserving authentication model by features matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Many forms of biometrics have been proposed and studied for biometrics authentication. Recently researchers are looking into longitudinal pattern matching that based on more than just a singular biometrics; data from user's activities are used to characterise the identity of a user. In this paper we advocate a novel type of authentication by using a user's medical history which can be electronically stored in a biometric security card. This is a sequel paper from our previous work about defining abstract format of medical data to be queried and tested upon authentication. The challenge to overcome is preserving the user's privacy by choosing only the useful features from the medical data for use in authentication. The features should contain less sensitive elements and they are implicitly related to the target illness. Therefore exchanging questions and answers about a few carefully chosen features in an open channel would not easily or directly expose the illness, but yet it can verify by inference whether the user has a record of it stored in his smart card. The design of a privacy preserving model by backward inference is introduced in this paper. Some live medical data are used in experiments for validation and demonstration.

  8. Using Medical History Embedded in Biometrics Medical Card for User Identity Authentication: Privacy Preserving Authentication Model by Features Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many forms of biometrics have been proposed and studied for biometrics authentication. Recently researchers are looking into longitudinal pattern matching that based on more than just a singular biometrics; data from user’s activities are used to characterise the identity of a user. In this paper we advocate a novel type of authentication by using a user’s medical history which can be electronically stored in a biometric security card. This is a sequel paper from our previous work about defining abstract format of medical data to be queried and tested upon authentication. The challenge to overcome is preserving the user’s privacy by choosing only the useful features from the medical data for use in authentication. The features should contain less sensitive elements and they are implicitly related to the target illness. Therefore exchanging questions and answers about a few carefully chosen features in an open channel would not easily or directly expose the illness, but yet it can verify by inference whether the user has a record of it stored in his smart card. The design of a privacy preserving model by backward inference is introduced in this paper. Some live medical data are used in experiments for validation and demonstration.

  9. [The life of Dr. RO Kishun, a reflection of modern Korean medical history of the borders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Jeon; Park, Se-Hong

    2009-06-01

    borderlands or frontiers of Joseon Korea, China, and Japan, where the history of the three nations met and intermingled with one another. He was a biochemist and researcher, practicing physician and medical professor of the era under Japanese Rule and the one following it. In modern Korean medicine, his life is viewed as a history of the borders, or a transnational legacy going beyond individual history of Korea, China, and Japan.

  10. Medical history and the onset of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mos, M; Huygen, F J P M; Dieleman, J P; Koopman, J S H A; Stricker, B H Ch; Sturkenboom, M C J M

    2008-10-15

    Knowledge concerning the medical history prior to the onset of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) might provide insight into its risk factors and potential underlying disease mechanisms. To evaluate prior to CRPS medical conditions, a case-control study was conducted in the Integrated Primary Care Information (IPCI) project, a general practice (GP) database in the Netherlands. CRPS patients were identified from the records and validated through examination by the investigator (IASP criteria) or through specialist confirmation. Cases were matched to controls on age, gender and injury type. All diagnoses prior to the index date were assessed by manual review of the medical records. Some pre-specified medical conditions were studied for their association with CRPS, whereas all other diagnoses, grouped by pathogenesis, were tested in a hypothesis-generating approach. Of the identified 259 CRPS patients, 186 cases (697 controls) were included, based on validation by the investigator during a visit (102 of 134 visited patients) or on specialist confirmation (84 of 125 unvisited patients). A medical history of migraine (OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.18-5.02) and osteoporosis (OR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.17-5.14) was associated with CRPS. In a recent history (1-year before CRPS), cases had more menstrual cycle-related problems (OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.16-5.83) and neuropathies (OR: 5.7; 95% CI: 1.8-18.7). In a sensitivity analysis, including only visited cases, asthma (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.3-6.9) and CRPS were related. Psychological factors were not associated with CRPS onset. Because of the hypothesis-generating character of this study, the findings should be confirmed by other studies.

  11. Correlates of self-reported, autobiographical, and mini-mental status examination defined memory deficits following electroconvulsive therapy in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Anto P; Petit, Cheryl P; Rachana, Arun; Deinde, Funmi; Shyamsundar, G; Thangadurai, P; Jacob, Kuruthukulangara S

    2018-04-01

    Cognitive deficits, self-reported or found following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and their correlates are diverse. Despite the characteristics of people receiving ECT in Asia differ widely from the west, pertinent research from Asia remains sparse. We investigated the correlates of self-reported, mini-mental status examination (MMSE) defined, and autobiographical memory deficits in a cohort that received ECT in a south Indian tertiary-care setting. 76 consecutive consenting people were recruited within seven days of completing their ECT course. Memory was assessed by a subjective Likert scale, MMSE, and an autobiographical memory scale (AMS). Psychopathology was assessed by brief psychiatric rating scale, and serum cortisol levels were estimated by chemi-luminescence immunoassays. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical data were collected from the participants, and their medical records. The correlates were analysed using generalised linear models after adjusting for the effects of potential confounders. Self-reported, MMSE-defined, and autobiographical memory deficits were present in 27.6% (95%CI 17.6-37.7%), 42.1% (95%CI 31.0-53.2%), and 36.8% (95%CI 26.0-47.7%) of participants, respectively. Agreement between the memory deficits was poor. Age, less education, duration of illness, hypothyroidism, and past history of another ECT course were significantly associated with MMSE-defined deficits. Age, anaemia, past ECT course, and pre-ECT blood pressure were significantly associated with autobiographical memory deficits, while residual psychopathology and cortisol levels were significantly associated with self-reported memory deficits. Self-reported, MMSE-defined, and autobiographical memory deficits are common at the completion of ECT course, and their correlates differ. All service users receiving ECT need periodic cognitive assessments evaluating multiple cognitive domains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The many and conflicting histories of medical education in Canada and the USA: an introduction to the paradigm wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Brian

    2005-06-01

    Medical education research is a maturing field of inquiry that derives theoretical perspectives from many domains. Yet while such theoretical diversity holds the promise of rich paradigmatic writing and debate, too often medical education researchers do not place their work in a historical or cultural context, giving the impression that they have somehow unearthed universal 'truths' about medical education. This paper introduces some of the key 'histories' of medical education from the contexts of Anglophone Canada and the USA following a review of major works in the history of medical education. There are many and conflicting histories of medical education in North America that can be classified according to different socio-historical paradigms. To avoid the error of over-generalisation, a much greater effort must be made to include historical, sociological, economic and other social science perspectives in the design, interpretation and application of medical education research.

  13. Rhazes, a genius physician in diagnosis and treatment of kidney calculi in medical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Cyrus, Ali

    2010-04-01

    Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya Razi, known in the west as Rhazes (865 to 925 AD), was born in the ancient city of Rayy, near Tehran, Iran. He was a renowned physician in medical history and not only followed Hippocrates and Galen, but also greatly extended the analytical approach of his predecessors. Based on the existing documents, he was known as the most distinguished character in the world of medicine up to the 17th century. A great number of innovations and pioneering works in the medical science have been recorded in the name of Rhazes. His fundamental works in urology as part of his research in the realm of medicine have remained unknown. Pathophysiology of the urinary tract, venereal diseases, and kidney and bladder calculi are among his main interests in this field. He also purposed and developed methods for diagnosis and treatment of kidney calculi for the first time in medical history. He also presented a very exact and precise description of neuropathic bladder followed by vertebral fracture. He advanced urine analysis and studied function and diseases of the kidneys. Rhazes recommendations for the prevention of calculi are quite scientific and practical and in accordance with current recommendations to avoid hypercalciuria and increased saturation of urine. Rhazes was not only one of the most important Persian physician-philosophers of his era, but for centuries, his writings became fundamental teaching texts in European medical schools. Some important aspects of his contributions to medicine are reviewed.

  14. The agreement between self-reported cervical smear abnormalities and screening programme records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfell, Karen; Beral, Valerie; Green, Jane; Cameron, Rebecca; Baker, Krys; Brown, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The Million Women Study is a cohort study of women aged 50-64 years in England and Scotland. As a component of the follow-up questionnaire, participants were asked to indicate if they had an abnormal cervical smear in the previous five years. This study compared self-reported cervical abnormalities with screening records obtained from the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme. For 1944 randomly selected Million Women Study participants in Oxfordshire, screening records were assessed over a six-year period prior to the date of self-reporting. The six-year period was chosen to allow for errors in the recall of timing of abnormal smears. A total of 68 women (3.5%) had a record of at least one equivocal or abnormal smear within the last six years, whereas 49 women (2.5%) self-reported an abnormality. There was a strong trend for an increased probability of self-reporting a history of an abnormal smear as the severity of the recorded abnormality increased (P screening programme records show an abnormal smear, the proportion self-reporting an abnormality increases with the severity of the recorded lesion. Almost all women with a record of negative or inadequate smear(s) correctly interpret the result and do not self-report an abnormality.

  15. Evaluation of forensic medical history taking from the child in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Rachel; Gall, John A M

    2017-02-01

    Suspected child physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect are not uncommon presentations. As part of the assessment of these cases, a forensic medical history may be taken. This forensic history is used not only to determine the steps necessary to address the child's wellbeing but also to direct the forensic examination. Currently, there is no clear consensus on whether or not a forensic medical history should consistently be considered an integral element within the paediatric forensic evaluation. This study examines the value derived by the medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history rather than relying on hearsay evidence when a child presents for an assessment. A retrospective review of paediatric cases seen by the Victorian Forensic Paediatric Medical Service (VFPMS) between 2014 and 2015 was undertaken. 274 forensic case reports were reviewed and the data was entered into an Excel spread sheet and analysed using chi squared tests within STATA ® . With increasing age of the child, a forensic medical history is significantly more likely to be taken. Additional information is made available to the medical practitioner what would otherwise have been provided if the medical practitioner relied only on the interview conducted by the police. Discrepancies observed between the official third parties (police or child protection) report of what a child has said and what the child says to the medical practitioner decrease with age, as do discrepancies observed between the child's version of events and a third party's (eg. parents, caregivers, friends) version of events. The study showed that by taking a forensic medical history from the child additional information can be obtained. Further, that there is a value in the examining medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history from children in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of medical record quality and communication skills among pediatric interns after standardized parent training history-taking in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mu Xue; Jiang, Xiao Yun; Li, Yi Juan; Shen, Zhen Yu; Zhuang, Si Qi; Gu, Yu Fen

    2018-02-01

    The effect of using standardized parent training history-taking on the quality of medical records and communication skills among pediatric interns was determined. Fifth-year interns who were undertaking a pediatric clinical practice rotation were randomized to intervention and control groups. All of the pediatric interns received history-taking training by lecture and bedside teaching. The pediatric interns in the intervention group also received standardized parent history-taking training. The following two outcome measures were used: the scores of medical records, which were written by the pediatric interns after history-taking from real parents of pediatric patients; and the communication assessment tool (CAT) assessed by real parents. The general information, history of present illness (HPI), past medical history, personal history, family history, diagnosis, diagnostic analysis, and differential diagnosis scores in the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group (p history-taking is effective in improving the quality of medical records by pediatric interns. Standardized parent training history-taking is a superior teaching tool for clinical reasoning ability, as well as communication skills in clinical pediatric practice.

  17. Competing risks model in screening for preeclampsia by maternal characteristics and medical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David; Syngelaki, Argyro; Akolekar, Ranjit; Poon, Leona C; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model for preeclampsia based on maternal demographic characteristics and medical history. This was a screening study of 120,492 singleton pregnancies at 11-13 weeks' gestation, including 2704 pregnancies (2.2%) that experienced preeclampsia. A survival-time model for the gestational age at delivery with preeclampsia was developed from variables of maternal characteristics and history. This approach assumes that, if the pregnancy was to continue indefinitely, all women would experience preeclampsia and that whether they do so or not before a specified gestational age depends on competition between delivery before or after development of preeclampsia. A 5-fold cross validation study was conducted to compare the performance of the new model with the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines. In the new model, increased risk for preeclampsia, with a consequent shift in the Gaussian distribution of the gestational age at delivery with preeclampsia to the left, is provided by advancing maternal age, increasing weight, Afro-Caribbean and South Asian racial origin, medical history of chronic hypertension, diabetes mellitus and systemic lupus erythematosus or antiphospholipid syndrome, family history and personal history of preeclampsia, and conception by in vitro fertilization. The risk for preeclampsia decreases with increasing maternal height and in parous women with no previous preeclampsia; in the latter, the protective effect, which is related inversely to the interpregnancy interval, persists beyond 15 years. At a screen-positive rate of 11%, as defined by NICE, the new model predicted 40%, 48%, and 54% of cases of total preeclampsia and preeclampsia requiring delivery at preeclampsia. Such estimation of the a priori risk for preeclampsia is an essential first step in the use of Bayes theorem to combine maternal factors with biomarkers for the continuing development of more effective methods of

  18. Youth Self-Report of Physical and Sexual Abuse: A Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooner, Kate B.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Thompson, Richard; Margolis, Benjamin; English, Diana J.; Knight, Elizabeth D.; Everson, Mark D.; Roesch, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if meaningful groups of at-risk pre-adolescent youth could be identified based on their self-report of physical and sexual abuse histories. Methods: Youth participating in a consortium of ongoing longitudinal studies were interviewed using an audio-computer assisted self-interview (A-CASI) when they were approximately 12…

  19. Medical history for the masses: how American comic books celebrated heroes of medicine in the 1940s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bert

    2004-01-01

    When comic books rose to mass popularity in the early 1940s, one segment of the industry specialized in "true adventures," with stories about real people from the past and the present--in contrast to competing books that offered fantasy, science fiction, superheroes, detectives and crime, funny people, or funny animals. This study examines the figures from both medical history and twentieth-century medicine who were portrayed as heroes and role models in these comic books: first, to call attention to this very popular, if unknown, genre of medical history, and second, to illustrate how medical history was used at that time to popularize scientific and medical ideas, to celebrate the achievements of medical research, to encourage medical science as a career choice, and to show medicine as a humane and noble enterprise. The study explains how these medical history stories were situated in American popular culture more generally, and how the graphic power of comic books successfully conveyed both values and information while also telling a good story. Attention to this colorful genre of popular medical history enriches our picture of the mid-twentieth-century public's enthusiasm for medical progress.

  20. The prevalence of self-reported deliberate self harm in Irish adolescents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morey, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm is major public health problem, in particular among young people. Although several studies have addressed the prevalence of deliberate self harm among young people in the community, little is known about the extent to which deliberate self harm comes to the attention of medical services, the self harm methods used and the underlying motives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the methods, motives and help seeking behaviour associated with this behaviour. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was administered in 39 schools in the Southern area of the Health Service Executive, Ireland. Of the 4,583 adolescents aged 15-17 years who were invited to participate in the survey, 3,881 adolescents took part (response: 85%). RESULTS: A lifetime history of DSH was reported by 9.1% (n = 333) of the adolescents. DSH was more common among females (13.9%) than males (4.3%). Self cutting (66.0%) and overdose (35.2%) were the most common DSH methods. A minority of participants accessed medical services after engaging in DSH (15.3%). CONCLUSION: DSH is a significant problem in Irish adolescents and the vast majority do not come to the attention of health services. Innovative solutions for prevention and intervention are required to tackle DSH in adolescents.

  1. Parochialism or self-consciousness? Internationality in medical history journals 1997-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Hubert; Lang, Yves

    2011-10-01

    Research councils, universities and funding agencies are increasingly asking for tools to measure the quality of research in the humanities. One of their preferred methods is a ranking of journals according to their supposed level of internationality. Our quantitative survey of seventeen major journals of medical history reveals the futility of such an approach. Most journals have a strong national character with a dominance of native language, authors and topics. The most common case is a paper written by a local author in his own language on a national subject regarding the nineteenth or twentieth century. American and British journals are taken notice of internationally but they only rarely mention articles from other history of medicine journals. Continental European journals show a more international review of literature, but are in their turn not noticed globally. Increasing specialisation and fragmentation has changed the role of general medical history journals. They run the risk of losing their function as international platforms of discourse on general and theoretical issues and major trends in historiography, to international collections of papers. Journal editors should therefore force their authors to write a more international report, and authors should be encouraged to submit papers of international interest and from a more general, transnational and methodological point of view.

  2. Parochialism or Self-Consciousness? Internationality in Medical History Journals 1997–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Hubert; Lang, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Research councils, universities and funding agencies are increasingly asking for tools to measure the quality of research in the humanities. One of their preferred methods is a ranking of journals according to their supposed level of internationality. Our quantitative survey of seventeen major journals of medical history reveals the futility of such an approach. Most journals have a strong national character with a dominance of native language, authors and topics. The most common case is a paper written by a local author in his own language on a national subject regarding the nineteenth or twentieth century. American and British journals are taken notice of internationally but they only rarely mention articles from other history of medicine journals. Continental European journals show a more international review of literature, but are in their turn not noticed globally. Increasing specialisation and fragmentation has changed the role of general medical history journals. They run the risk of losing their function as international platforms of discourse on general and theoretical issues and major trends in historiography, to international collections of papers. Journal editors should therefore force their authors to write a more international report, and authors should be encouraged to submit papers of international interest and from a more general, transnational and methodological point of view. PMID:22028500

  3. Factors associated with false-positive self-reported adherence to antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedla, Y G; Bautista, L E

    2017-05-01

    Self-reported medication adherence is known to overestimate true adherence. However, little is known about patient factors that may contribute to the upward bias in self-reported medication adherence. The objective of this study is to examine whether demographic, behavioral, medication and mood factors are associated with being a false-positive self-reported adherer (FPA) to antihypertensive drug treatment. We studied 175 patients (mean age: 50 years; 57% men) from primary-care clinics starting antihypertensive drug treatment. Self-reported adherence (SRA) was measured with the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS) and by the number of drug doses missed in the previous week/month, and compared with pill count adherence ratio (PCAR) as gold standard. Data on adherence, demographic, behavioral, medication and mood factors were collected at baseline and every 3 months up to 1 year. FPA was defined as being a non-adherer by PCAR and an adherer by self-report. Mixed effect logistic regression was used for the analysis. Twenty percent of participants were FPA. Anxiety increased (odds ratio (OR): 3.00; P=0.01), whereas smoking (OR: 0.40; P=0.03) and drug side effects (OR: 0.46, P=0.03) decreased the probability for FPA by MARS. Education below high-school completion increased the probability of being an FPA as measured by missing doses in the last month (OR: 1.66; P=0.04) and last week (OR: 1.88; P=0.02). The validity of SRA varies significantly according to drug side effects, behavioral factors and patient's mood. Careful consideration should be given to the use of self-reported measures of adherence among patients likely to be false-positive adherers.

  4. Prevalence of self-reported stroke and disability in the French adult population: a transversal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Alexis; Woimant, France; Tuppin, Philippe; de Peretti, Christine

    2014-01-01

    In France, the prevalence of stroke and the level of disability of stroke survivors are little known. The aim of this study was to evaluate functional limitations in adults at home and in institutions, with and without self-reported stroke. A survey named "the Disability Health survey" was carried out in people's homes (DHH) and in institutions (DHI). Medical history and functional level (activities-of-daily-living, ADL and instrumented-activities-of-daily-living IADL) were collected through interviews. The modified Rankin score (mRS) and the level of dependence and disability were compared between participants with and without stroke. 33896 subjects responded. The overall prevalence of stroke was 1.6% (CI95% [1.4%-1.7%]). The mRS was over 2 for 34.4% of participants with stroke (28.7% of participants at home and 87.8% of participants in institutions) versus respectively 3.9%, 3.1% and 71.6% without stroke. Difficulty washing was the most frequently reported ADL for those with stroke (30.6% versus 3% for those without stroke). Difficulty with ADL and IADL increased with age but the relative risk was higher below the age of 60 (17 to 25) than over 85 years (1.5 to 2.2), depending on the ADL. In the overall population, 22.6% of those confined to bed or chair reported a history of stroke. These results thus demonstrate a high national prevalence of stroke. Older people are highly dependent, irrespective of stroke history and the relative risk of dependence in young subjects with a history of stroke is high compared with those without.

  5. Comparing the Self-Report and Measured Smartphone Usage of College Students: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heyoung; Ahn, Heejune; Nguyen, Trung Giang; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dae Jin

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays smartphone overuse has become a social and medical concern. For the diagnosis and treatment, clinicians use the self-report information, but the report data often does not match actual usage pattern. The paper examines the similarity and variance in smartphone usage patterns between the measured data and self-reported data. Together with the self-reported data, the real usage log data is collected from 35 college students in a metropolitan region of Northeast Asia, using Android smartphone monitoring application developed by the authors. The unconscious users underestimate their usage time by 40%, in spite of 15% more use in the actual usage. Messengers are most-used application regardless of their self-report, and significant preference to SNS applications was observed in addict group. The actual hourly pattern is consistent with the reported one. College students use more in the afternoon, when they have more free time and cannot use PCs. No significant difference in hourly pattern is observed between the measured and self-report. The result shows there are significant cognitive bias in actual usage patterns exists in self report of smartphone addictions. Clinicians are recommended to utilize measurement tools in diagnosis and treatment of smartphone overusing subjects.

  6. Self-Reported Acute and Chronic Voice Disorders in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The dependent variable, self-reported dysphonia, was determined via a single question, "Have you noticed changes in your voice quality?" and if so, a follow-up question queried the duration of this change, acute or chronic. The independent variables were dichotomized and divided into five categories: sociodemographic and economic data; lifestyle; organizational and environmental data; health-disease processes; and voice. Analyses of associated factors were performed via a hierarchical multiple logistic regression model. The present study included 226 teachers, of whom 38.9% reported no voice disorders, 35.4% reported an acute disorder, and 25.7% reported a chronic disorder. Excessive voice use daily, consuming more than one alcoholic drink per time, and seeking medical treatment because of voice disorders were associated factors for acute and chronic voice disorders. Consuming up to three glasses of water per day was associated with acute voice disorders. Among teachers who reported chronic voice disorders, teaching for over 15 years and the perception of disturbing or unbearable noise outside the school were both associated factors. Identification of organizational, environmental, and predisposing risk factors for voice disorders is critical, and furthermore, a vocal health promotion program may address these issues. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impression Management and Self-Report among Violent Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.

    2006-01-01

    Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…

  8. Observable phenomena that reveal medical students' clinical reasoning ability during expert assessment of their history taking: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haring, C.M.; Cools, B.M.; Gurp, P.J.M. van; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Postma, C.T.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During their clerkships, medical students are meant to expand their clinical reasoning skills during their patient encounters. Observation of these encounters could reveal important information on the students' clinical reasoning abilities, especially during history taking. METHODS: A

  9. A history of the INTERNIST-1 and Quick Medical Reference (QMR) computer-assisted diagnosis projects, with lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R A

    2010-01-01

    The INTERNIST-1/Quick Medical Reference (QMR) diagnostic decision support project spans four decades, from 1971-onward. This paper describes the history of the project and details insights gained of relevance to the general clinical and informatics communities.

  10. Significance of experts' overall ratings for medical student competence in relation to history-taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernesto de Almeida Troncon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Overall ratings (ORs of competence, given by expert physicians, are increasingly used in clinical skills assessments. Nevertheless, the influence of specific components of competence on ORs is incompletely understood. The aim here was to investigate whether ORs for medical student history-taking competence are influenced by performance relating to communication skills, completeness of questioning and asking contentdriven key questions. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive, quantitative study at Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Thirty-six medical students were examined in a 15-station high-stake objective structured clinical examination (OSCE. At four stations devoted to history-taking, examiners filled out checklists covering the components investigated and independently rated students’ overall performance using a five-point scale from 1 (poor to 5 (excellent. Physician ratings were aggregated for each student. Nonparametric correlations were made between ORs. RESULTS: ORs presented significant correlations with checklist scores (Spearman’s rs = 0.38; p = 0.02 and OSCE general results (rs = 0.52; p < 0.001. Scores for "communication skills" tended to correlate with ORs (rs = 0.31, but without reaching significance (p = 0.06. Neither the scores for "completeness" (rs = 0.26; p = 0.11 nor those for "asking key questions" (rs = 0.07; p = 0.60 correlated with ORs. CONCLUSIONS: Experts’ overall ratings for medical student competence regarding history-taking is likely to encompass a particular dimension, since ratings were only weakly influenced by specific components of performance.

  11. Institutional practices and policies in acid-base testing: a self reported Croatian survey study on behalf of the Croatian society of medical biochemistry and laboratory medicine Working Group for acid-base balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Lora; Simundić, Ana-Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this survey study was to assess the current practices and policies in use related to the various steps in the blood gas testing process, across hospital laboratories in Croatia. First questionnaire was sent by email to all medical biochemistry laboratories (N = 104) within general, specialized and clinical hospitals and university hospital centres to identify laboratories which perform blood gas analysis. Second questionnaire with detailed questions about sample collection, analysis and quality control procedures, was sent only to 47 laboratories identified by the first survey. Questionnaire was designed as combination of questions and statements with Likert scale. Third questionnaire was sent to all participating laboratories (N=47) for additional clarification for either indeterminate or unclear answers. Blood gas analysis is performed in 47/104 hospital laboratories in Croatia. In 25/41 (0.61) of the laboratories capillary blood gas sampling is the preferred sample type for adult patient population, whereas arterial blood sample is preferentially used in only 5/44 laboratories (0.11). Blood sampling and sample processing for capillary samples is done almost always by laboratory technicians (36/41 and 37/44, respectively), whereas arterial blood sampling is almost always done by the physician (24/29) and only rarely by a nurse (5/28). Sample acceptance criteria and sample analysis are in accordance with international recommendations for majority of laboratories. 43/44 laboratories participate in the national EQA program. POCT analyzers are installed outside of the laboratory in 20/47 (0.43) institutions. Laboratory staff is responsible for education and training of ward personnel, quality control and instrument maintenance in only 12/22, 11/20 and 9/20 institutions, respectively. Practices related to collection and analysis for blood gases in Croatia are not standardised and vary substantially between laboratories. POCT analyzers are not under the

  12. Social, psychological and psychosomatic disorders in the people with combat stress in their medical histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Gracheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors examined three groups of patients – military men (40 men in each group with combat stress of different intensity in their medical histories (two main groups and a  control group – without combat stress. The results showed that the military men with a high level combat stress in the past (more than 5 years ago more frequently demonstrated socialmental disadaptation against the background of subclinical chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The conclusion is that this group of people requires dynamic followup and adequate medicopsychological aid.

  13. Self-reported infertility among male and female veterans serving during Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katon, Jodie; Cypel, Yasmin; Raza, Mubashra; Zephyrin, Laurie; Reiber, Gayle; Yano, Elizabeth M; Barth, Shannon; Schneiderman, Aaron

    2014-02-01

    Infertility is associated with psychosocial distress and is a growing public health concern. Our objective was to report the prevalence of lifetime history of infertility among men and women Veterans. We used data from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs National Health Study for a New Generation of U.S. Veterans, a nationally representative survey of Veterans serving during Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). The primary dependent variables were self-reported lifetime history of infertility among Veterans and their partners, defined as trying unsuccessfully to become pregnant for at least 12 months, and seeking medical help for infertility. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether gender was associated with lifetime history of infertility or seeking medical help for infertility, after adjusting for sociodemographic and military characteristics. All analyses were weighted to account for the complex survey design and nonresponse. Among the 20,370 Veterans (16,056 men; 4,314 women) in our final analytic sample, the prevalence of lifetime history of infertility was 15.8% for women and 13.8% for men. After adjusting for age, ever married, education, race/ethnicity, component, branch of service, and deployment to OEF/OIF, compared with men, women Veterans had similar odds of lifetime history of infertility (odds ratio [OR] 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94, 1.20), but increased odds of seeking medical help for infertility (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.06, 1.72). Women Veterans are more likely than their male counterparts to seek care for infertility, and given their increasing numbers, the demand for infertility evaluation and care within Veterans' Affairs may increase.

  14. Education at the Dittrick Museum of Medical History, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, James M

    2009-01-01

    The Dittrick Museum of Medical History pursues an educational mission as being part of a major research university. While the Dittrick dates to 1899 as a historical committee of the Cleveland Medical Library Association, it first affiliated with Case Western Reserve University in 1966, and became a department of the College of Arts and Sciences of CWRU in 1998. The Dittrick maintains a museum exhibition gallery that is open to the public free of charge, and museum staff provide guided tours on appointment. Much of the teaching and instruction at the Dittrick is conducted by university professors; their classes meet in the museum and use museum resources in the form of artifacts, images, archives, and rare books. Class projects using Dittrick collections may take the form of research papers, exhibitions, and online presentations. Dittrick staff assist in these classes and are available to help researchers use museum resources.

  15. Medical conditions, family history of cancer, and the risk of biliary tract cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Valentina; Bosetti, Cristina; Dal Maso, Luigino; Montella, Maurizio; Serraino, Diego; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2016-06-02

    Scanty data exist on the role of personal medical conditions, except for gallstones, and family history of cancer on the risk of biliary tract cancers (BTC). We analyzed this issue using data from two Italian case-control studies, including 159 cases of BTC and 795 matched hospital controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of BTC and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Gallstones were associated with a 2-fold excess risk of BTC (95% CI 1.24-3.45). No significant associations were observed with other conditions investigated, including diabetes (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.63-2.11), hypertension (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.39-1.11), hyperlipidemia (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.31-1.21), allergy (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.29-1.40), gastroduodenal ulcer (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.24-1.12), hepatitis (OR 2.02, 95% CI 0.35-11.67), benign thyroid diseases (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.56-2.40), hysterectomy (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.53-2.68), unilateral oophorectomy (OR 1.75, 95% CI 0.44-6.93), and bilateral oophorectomy (OR 2.48, 95% CI 0.79-7.82). We found an excess risk of BTC in relation to family history of any cancer (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.03-2.24) and family history of gallbladder cancer (OR 3.83, 95% CI 0.59-24.75). The present study confirms a strong association between BTC and history of gallstones, and provides further evidence of a positive association with family history of cancer.

  16. Implementation of an IT-guided checklist to improve the quality of medication history records at hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Tanja; Brinkmann, Franziska; Lim, Silke; Schröder, Christoph; Stekhoven, Daniel Johannes; Marti, Walter Richard; Egger, Richard Robert

    2017-12-01

    Background Medication discrepancies often occur at transition of care such as hospital admission and discharge. Obtaining a complete and accurate medication history on admission is essential as further treatment is based on it. Objective The goal of this study was to reduce the proportion of patients with at least one medication discrepancy in the medication history at admission by implementing an IT-guided checklist. Setting Surgery ward focused on vascular and visceral surgery at a Swiss Cantonal Hospital. Method The study was divided into two phases, before and after implementation of an IT-guided checklist. For both phases a pharmacist collected and compared the medication history (defined as gold standard) with that of the admitting physician. Medication discrepancies were subdivided in omissions and commissions, incorrect medications or dose changes, and incorrect dosage forms or strength. Main outcome measure The proportion of patients with at least one medication discrepancy in the medication history before and after intervention was assessed. Results Out of 415 admissions, 228 patients that met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study, 113 before and 115 patients after intervention. After intervention, medication discrepancies declined from 69.9 to 29.6% (p < 0.0001) of patients, the mean medication discrepancy per patient was reduced from 2.3 to 0.6 (p < 0.0001), and the most common error, omission of a regularly used medication, was reduced from 76.4 to 44.1% (p < 0.001). Conclusion The implementation of the IT-guided checklist is associated with a significant reduction of medication discrepancies at admission and potentially improves the medication safety for the patient.

  17. [[History of Community Health in Africa. The Swiss Medical Missionaries' Endeavour in South Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabika, Hines

    2015-01-01

    It was not Dutch settlers nor British colonizers who introduced public and community health practice in north-eastern South Africa but medical doctors of the Swiss mission in southern Africa. While the history of medical knowledge transfer into 19th-20th century Africa emphasises colonial powers, this paper shows how countries without colonies contributed to expand western medical cultures, including public health. The Swiss took advantage of the local authorities' negligence, and implemented their own model of medicalization of African societies, understood as the way of improving health standards. They moved from a tolerated hospital-centred medicine to the practice of community health, which was uncommon at the time. Elim hospital's physicians moved back boundaries of segregationist policies, and sometime gave the impression of being involved in the political struggle against Apartheid. Thus, Swiss public health activities could later be seen as sorts of seeds that were planted and would partly reappear in 1994 with the ANC-projected national health policy.

  18. Introducing medical genetics services in Ethiopia using the MiGene Family History App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinonez, Shane C; Yeshidinber, Abate; Lourie, Michael A; Bekele, Delayehu; Mekonnen, Yemisrach; Nigatu, Balkachew; Metaferia, Gesit; Jebessa, Solomie

    2018-06-11

    Almost all low-income countries and many middle-income countries lack the capacity to deliver medical genetics services. We developed the MiGene Family History App (MFHA), which assists doctors with family history collection and population-level epidemiologic analysis. The MFHA was studied at St. Paul's Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A needs assessment was used to assess Ethiopian physicians' experience with genetics services. The MFHA then collected patient data over a 6-month period. The majority of doctors provide genetics services, with only 16% reporting their genetics knowledge is sufficient. A total of 1699 patients from the pediatric ward (n = 367), neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (n = 477), and antenatal clinic (n = 855) were collected using the MFHA with a 4% incidence of a MFHA-screened condition present. The incidence was 11.7% in the pediatric ward, 3% in the NICU, and 0.5% in the antenatal clinic. Heart malformations (5.5% of patients) and trisomy 21 (4.4% of patients) were the most common conditions in the pediatric ward. Medical genetics services are needed in Ethiopia. As other countries increase their genetics capacity, the MFHA can provide fundamental genetics services and collect necessary epidemiologic data.

  19. [Study on medical records of acupuncture-moxibustion in The Twenty-four Histories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Wen

    2012-03-01

    Through the combination of manual retrieval and computerized retrieval, medical records of acupuncture-moxibustion in The Twenty-Four Histories were collected. Acupuncture cases from the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B.C.) to the end of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)were retrieved. From the medical records of acupuncture-moxibustion in Chinese official history books, it can be found that systematic diseases or emergent and severe diseases were already treated by physicians with the combination of acupuncture and medicine as early as in the Spring and Autumn Period as well as the Warring States Period(475-221 B.C.). CANG Gong, a famous physician of the Western Han Dynasty (206 B. C.-A. D. 24), cured diseases by selecting points along the running courses of meridians where the illness inhabited, which indicates that the theory of meridians and collaterals was served as a guide for clinical practice as early as in the Western Han Dynasty. Blood letting therapy, which has surprising effect, was often adopted by physicians of various historical periods to treat diseases. And treatment of diseases with single point was approved to be easy and effective.

  20. The Roman-Irish Bath: Medical/health history as therapeutic assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan

    2014-04-01

    The invention of a new form of hot-air bath in Blarney, Ireland in 1856, variously known in its lifetime as the Roman-Irish or Turkish Bath, acted as the starting point for a the production of a globalised therapeutic landscape. Tracking the diffusion of the Roman-Irish bath template from its local invention in Ireland to a global reach across the Victorian world and recognizing its place within a wider hydrotherapeutic history, this paper frames that diffusion as a valuable empirical addition to assemblage theory. The specific empirical history of the spread of the Roman-Irish/Turkish bath idea is drawn from primary archival and secondary historical sources. It is then discussed and, drawing from work on assemblage theory, analyzed against three broad themes: mobile networks, socio-material practices and contested emergence. The emergent relational geographies of the Roman-Irish Bath identify important roles for the diffusion and transformation of specific medical settings, identities and functions. These were linked in turn to competing social-healing pathways wherein bodies were technologically and morally managed, to produce a more inhabited form of therapeutic assemblage. In all cases the differential diffusion of the bath idea, it's shifting and fractured material forms and multiple inhabitations and discourses were contested and mobile and spoke to an assemblage approach which has ripe potential for exploration across a range of medical/health geography settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Marijuana Use and Self-reported Quality of Eyesight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akano, Obinna F

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing use of marijuana among young adults and more states in the United States are legalizing medical marijuana use. A number of studies have revealed both the beneficial and harmful effects of marijuana to the human system. Despite some beneficial effects, studies have shown marijuana to have a lot of deleterious effects on the visual system, which subsequently reduces the quality of eyesight. The aim of this study was to investigate if heavy marijuana smoking is associated with a poor quality of eyesight compared with light/no use of marijuana. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youths (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young men and women surveyed in 1979 to 2010 was used for this study. The quality of eyesight of 1304 heavy marijuana users was compared with 1304 respondents with light or no marijuana use. The t test, multivariate and weighted logistic regression were used in the data analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in the self-reported quality of eyesight among heavy marijuana smokers compared with youths who never used marijuana or are light marijuana users. Among heavy marijuana smokers, males and high school graduates have decreased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight, whereas blacks have increased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight. The self-reported quality of eyesight among marijuana users can aid clinicians and other health practitioners facilitate the development of sex-, racial/ethnic-, and educational level-informed prevention and early intervention programs and also help characterize public opinions regarding cannabis, which are particularly relevant given the ongoing debate concerning the medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the United States.

  2. Self-report disability in an international primary care study of psychological illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VonKorff, M; Ustun, TB; Ormel, J; Kaplan, [No Value; Simon, GE

    We assessed the replicability of reliability and validity of a brief self-report disability scale, adapted from the Medical Outcomes Survey (short form), in a 15-center, cross-national, multilingual study of psychological illness among primary care patients (n = 5438). Across all 15 centers in the

  3. Dental patients' self-reports of xerostomia and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Alessandro; Polimeni, Antonella; Strohmenger, Laura; Cicciù, Domenico; Gherlone, Enrico; Abati, Silvio

    2011-07-01

    Most studies regarding xerostomia focus on elderly people. Therefore, the authors conducted a study of dental patients 18 years or older to determine the prevalence of self-reported xerostomia and associated risk factors. The authors sent a total of 2,200 questionnaires to four dental clinics to assess patients' self-reported xerostomia. They also collected sociodemographic data and information regarding personal behavior. They used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) to explore the relationship between self-reported xerostomia and risk factors that reasonably might be expected to be associated with self-reported xerostomia. The overall prevalence of xerostomia in participants was 7 percent. Participants with burning-mouth sensations were associated with having higher odds of experiencing dry mouth (OR, 2.1; 95 percent CI, 0.9-5.2). Participants 51 years or older were significantly more likely to report having dry mouth than were younger participants (P xerostomia increased with increasing numbers of medications patients reported using. The authors found that medication use and age were highly significant risk factors for dental patients reporting xerostomia. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully regarding their use of medications and provide proper oral health care to improve xerostomia resulting from medication use.

  4. Accuracy of Self-Reported Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening by Women with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Esther; Parish, Susan L.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Luken, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the accuracy of self-report of cervical and breast cancer screening by women with intellectual disability ("n" ?=? 155). Data from face-to-face interviews and medical records were analyzed. Total agreement, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Total…

  5. Menopause is associated with self-reported poor sleep quality in women without vasomotor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hao-Chang; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Ou, Horng-Yih; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between menopause and self-reported sleep quality in Chinese women without vasomotor symptoms. Cross-sectional data were collected from a decoded database of the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. Menopause was defined as absence of menses for at least 12 months or a history of hysterectomy and oophorectomy. Self-reported sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A higher global PSQI score indicates poorer self-reported sleep quality, and a global PSQI score greater than 5 differentiates poor sleepers from good sleepers. Of the 1,088 women recruited, 353 (32.4%) were in postmenopause status. Postmenopausal women had higher mean (SD) global PSQI scores (8.0 [3.3] vs. 6.1 [2.2], P menopause (β = 1.532; 95% CI, 1.135 to 1.949; P menopause (odds ratio, 1.453; 95% CI, 1.030 to 2.051; P menopause and snoring are associated with an increased risk of poor self-reported sleep quality independently of cardiometabolic factors and lifestyle, whereas long sleep duration is associated with a decreased risk of poor self-reported sleep quality.

  6. Best possible medication history for hemodialysis patients obtained by a pharmacy technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Marianna; Jung, Joanne; Lau, Wynnie; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Jung, Beverly

    2009-09-01

    Outpatients undergoing hemodialysis are at high risk for adverse drug events. Limited resources make it challenging for pharmacists to routinely obtain a best possible medication history (BPMH). The primary objective was to determine whether, for patients undergoing hemodialysis, a pharmacy technician has the skills to obtain a BPMH that would allow a pharmacist to identify drug-related problems. The secondary objectives were to determine the number and types of medication discrepancies and drug-related problems identified and the time required by the technician to complete the BPMH. All patients treated in the hemodialysis unit during the study period were included, except for those who required an interpreter or were unable to participate in an in-person interview. A single technician was taught how to interview patients according to a structured format. For each patient, the technician's BMPH was verified by a pharmacist. The agreement rate between technician and pharmacists was determined, along with the number and types of discrepancies and drug-related problems identified. The technician interviewed 99 patients. Of the 1334 medication orders reviewed, the technician and pharmacists agreed on all but 15 (agreement rate 98.9%). A total of 358 medication discrepancies were noted for 93 patients (3.8 discrepancies per patient). Of these, 210 (59%) were undocumented intentional discrepancies, and 148 (41%) were unintentional discrepancies (most commonly errors of commission). Of the 135 drug-related problems identified, the majority involved dosing problems or nonadherence. The technician required an average of 17 min for each interview. An adequately trained technician was capable of interviewing patients to create a BPMH. A variety of medication discrepancies and drug-related problems were identified. Generation of a BPMH by a technician is a useful approach allowing pharmacists to identify drug-related problems.

  7. The choice of surgical specialization by medical students and their syncopal history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicki, Jerzy; Zyśko, Dorota; Kozłowski, Dariusz; Kuliczkowski, Wiktor; Koźluk, Edward; Lelonek, Małgorzata; Piątkowska, Agnieszka; Gajek, Jacek; Negrusz-Kawecka, Marta; Agrawal, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether medical students' fainting outside the university or while witnessing surgical procedures and/or autopsies influenced their choice of a specialization. The study group consisted of 605 medical students (from fourth to sixth year of study) from five medical universities in Poland (325 women, 212 men and 8 responders of an unspecified gender). The median age of subjects studied was 23 years, and the interquartile range was 23-24 years. The students at each university were chosen randomly by the author who worked there and had contact with them. An anonymous questionnaire was developed to gather information regarding demographics, the specialization which each student wanted to choose, the syncope occurrence in the medical history, the syncope and presyncope occurrence during surgery and autopsy as well as the syncopal events' characteristics. The group of 15% of women and 30% of men declared to have pursued the surgical specialization (P<0.001), 29% of women and 56% of men declared the intention to pursue an invasive specialization (P<0.001). As many as 36.0% of women studied and 13.1% of men studied reported syncopal spells outside university (P<0.001). Only 41 students (6.8%) reported that syncope or presyncope in any studied circumstances had an impact on their specialization choice. The multivariate analysis showed that the choice of surgical specialization is related to the male gender and the absence of syncopal spells outside the university. Syncopal and presyncopal spells may affect the professional choices of the medical students. The male gender and a lack of syncope occurrence outside operating room are related to the choice of surgical specialization.

  8. The choice of surgical specialization by medical students and their syncopal history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Rudnicki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess whether medical students' fainting outside the university or while witnessing surgical procedures and/or autopsies influenced their choice of a specialization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 605 medical students (from fourth to sixth year of study from five medical universities in Poland (325 women, 212 men and 8 responders of an unspecified gender. The median age of subjects studied was 23 years, and the interquartile range was 23-24 years. The students at each university were chosen randomly by the author who worked there and had contact with them. An anonymous questionnaire was developed to gather information regarding demographics, the specialization which each student wanted to choose, the syncope occurrence in the medical history, the syncope and presyncope occurrence during surgery and autopsy as well as the syncopal events' characteristics. RESULTS: The group of 15% of women and 30% of men declared to have pursued the surgical specialization (P<0.001, 29% of women and 56% of men declared the intention to pursue an invasive specialization (P<0.001. As many as 36.0% of women studied and 13.1% of men studied reported syncopal spells outside university (P<0.001. Only 41 students (6.8% reported that syncope or presyncope in any studied circumstances had an impact on their specialization choice. The multivariate analysis showed that the choice of surgical specialization is related to the male gender and the absence of syncopal spells outside the university. CONCLUSIONS: Syncopal and presyncopal spells may affect the professional choices of the medical students. The male gender and a lack of syncope occurrence outside operating room are related to the choice of surgical specialization.

  9. A validation analysis of two self-reported HAM-D6 versions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Wilson, P; Wessel, T

    2009-01-01

    the unidimensionality of this administration form in patients with mild-to-moderate depression. METHOD: The item response theory analysis of Mokken was used to test the unidimensionality of both the Interactive Voice Recording System (IVRS) version of the HAM-D(6) and a paper-and-pencil self-reported version (S-HAM-D(6......OBJECTIVE: The six items of the clinician-administrated Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(6)) cover the core items of depressive states reflecting the antidepressive effect of medication. In this study, the two self-reported versions of the HAM-D(6) have been psychometrically validated to ensure...

  10. Using Self-reports or Claims to Assess Disease Prevalence: It's Complicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Patricia; Gaudette, Étienne; Zhao, Henu; Tysinger, Bryan; Seyedin, Roxanna; Goldman, Dana P

    2017-08-01

    Two common ways of measuring disease prevalence include: (1) using self-reported disease diagnosis from survey responses; and (2) using disease-specific diagnosis codes found in administrative data. Because they do not suffer from self-report biases, claims are often assumed to be more objective. However, it is not clear that claims always produce better prevalence estimates. Conduct an assessment of discrepancies between self-report and claims-based measures for 2 diseases in the US elderly to investigate definition, selection, and measurement error issues which may help explain divergence between claims and self-report estimates of prevalence. Self-reported data from 3 sources are included: the Health and Retirement Study, the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Claims-based disease measurements are provided from Medicare claims linked to Health and Retirement Study and Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey participants, comprehensive claims data from a 20% random sample of Medicare enrollees, and private health insurance claims from Humana Inc. Prevalence of diagnosed disease in the US elderly are computed and compared across sources. Two medical conditions are considered: diabetes and heart attack. Comparisons of diagnosed diabetes and heart attack prevalence show similar trends by source, but claims differ from self-reports with regard to levels. Selection into insurance plans, disease definitions, and the reference period used by algorithms are identified as sources contributing to differences. Claims and self-reports both have strengths and weaknesses, which researchers need to consider when interpreting estimates of prevalence from these 2 sources.

  11. Cardiovascular disease guideline adherence and self-reported statin use in longstanding type 1 diabetes: results from the Canadian study of longevity in diabetes cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Johnny W; Boulet, Geneviève; Halpern, Elise M; Lovblom, Leif E; Eldelekli, Devrim; Keenan, Hillary A; Brent, Michael; Paul, Narinder; Bril, Vera; Cherney, David Z I; Weisman, Alanna; Perkins, Bruce A

    2016-01-25

    Older patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes have high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk such that statin therapy is recommended independent of prior CVD events. We aimed to determine self-reported CVD prevention guideline adherence in patients with longstanding diabetes. 309 Canadians with over 50 years of type 1 diabetes completed a medical questionnaire for presence of lifestyle and pharmacological interventions, stratified into primary or secondary CVD prevention subgroups based on absence or presence of self-reported CVD events, respectively. Associations with statin use were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. The 309 participants had mean ± SD age 65.7 ± 8.5 years, median diabetes duration 54.0 [IQR 51.0, 59.0] years, and HbA1c of 7.5 ± 1.1 % (58 mmol/mol). 159 (52.7 %) participants reported diet adherence, 296 (95.8 %) smoking avoidance, 217 (70.5 %) physical activity, 218 (71.5 %) renin-angiotensin-system inhibitor use, and 220 (72.1 %) statin use. Physical activity was reported as less common in the secondary prevention subgroup, and current statin use was significantly lower in the primary prevention subgroup (65.5 % vs. 84.8 %, p = 0.0004). In multivariable logistic regression, the odds of statin use was 0.38 [95 % CI 0.15-0.95] in members of the primary compared to the secondary prevention subgroup, adjusting for age, sex, hypertension history, body mass, HbA1c, cholesterol, microvascular complications, acetylsalicylic acid use, and renin-angiotensin system inhibitor use. Despite good self-reported adherence to general CVD prevention guidelines, against the principles of these guidelines we found that statin use was substantially lower in those without CVD history. Interventions are needed to improve statin use in older type 1 diabetes patients without a history of CVD.

  12. Medication refusal in children with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder and comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: medication history and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidovich, Mark; Kolko, David J; Bukstein, Oscar G; Hart, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    Abstract Objective: This study examines the characteristics of 96 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their families who refused a recommendation for medication as part of their treatment for disruptive disorders. The ADHD cases were taken from a sample of 139 youth (age 6-11) who were recruited for a clinical trial that compared the administration of a modular psychosocial treatment in an outpatient clinic or community settings. Medication management was an optional treatment module for children with ADHD in both conditions. Children who were (vs. were not) taking medication at intake, and children who accepted (vs. refused) medication recommendations during the study were compared on diagnostic and clinical measures related to child, school, parent, and family domains of functioning. Parents of 30% of the children refused study medication for ADHD. Parental medication acceptability and intake correlated highly with both medication history and study refusal of medication. Increased parental self-efficacy and emotional support for their youth correlated with medication refusal. No demographics and few child or school factors were associated with medication refusal. Medication use was associated with reductions in some key ADHD symptoms, but did not affect disruptive behaviors as did the psychosocial interventions. Medication refusers remain poorly understood but certain correlates, such as parental self-efficacy, parental emotional support for their youth, and medication acceptability, warrant further evaluation.

  13. Writing women into medical history in the 1930s: Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead and "medical women" of the past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Toby A

    2014-01-01

    Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead (1867–1941), a leader among second-generation women physicians in America, became a pioneer historian of women in medicine in the 1930s. The coalescence of events in her personal life, the declining status of women in medicine, and the growing significance of the new and relatively open field of history of medicine all contributed to this transformation in her career. While she endeavored to become part of the community of male physicians who wrote medical history, her primary identity remained that of a “medical woman.” For Hurd-Mead, the history of women in the past not only filled a vital gap in scholarship but served practical ends that she had earlier pursued by other means—those of inspiring and advancing the careers of women physicians of the present day, promoting organizations of women physicians, and advocating for equality of opportunity in the medical profession.

  14. Governmental oversight of prescribing medications: history of the US Food and Drug Administration and prescriptive authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of drug regulation and awarding of prescriptive authority is a complex and sometimes convoluted process that can be confusing for health care providers. A review of the history of how drugs have been manufactured and dispensed helps explain why this process has been so laborious and complicated. Because the federal and state governments have the responsibility for protecting the public, most regulations have been passed with the intentions of ensuring consumer safety. The current system of laws and regulations is the result of many years of using the legal system to correct drug marketing that had adverse health consequences. Government oversight will continue as prescribing medications transitions to an electronic form and as health care professionals in addition to physicians seek to gain prescriptive authority. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  15. [Thoughts and methods of study on acupuncture medical history: an example of Mr. MA Ji-Xing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Zhu, Ling

    2014-03-01

    Mr. MA Ji-xing has devoted himself into the study of acupuncture medical history for more than 70 years. As a result, a great work of Zhenjiuxue Tongshi (see text), History of Acupuncture-Moxibustion) has been completed. The author has expensively studied for history of acupuncture medicine in time and space. Base on abundant historical materials, deliberate textual research as well as strategically situated academic view, it is considered as a masterpiece of acupuncture on real significance. It is worthwhile to note that the book has a systematic and profound explanation on Bian-stone therapy, unearthed literature relics of acupuncture, the bronze figure or illustration of acupoint as well as special topics of Japan and Korea acupuncture history. Filled several gaps of the field, and explored some significant new paths of study, it laid the groundwork for the profound study and unscramble of traditional acupuncture theory as well as the investigation of the academic history, which is considered to have a profound and persistent influence. The careful sorting and profound digging of many distinguish thoughts and methods of Mr. MA Ji-xing in the study of acupuncture medical history has significant meaning in references and enlightenment of the future research on acupuncture medical history.

  16. Pilot Trial of an Electronic Family Medical History in US Faith-Based Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Patricia; Canclini, Sharon; Cauble, Denise; Raudonis, Barbara; Golden, Paulette

    2014-07-01

    In spite of the acknowledged importance of collecting family health information, methods of collecting, organizing, and storage of pedigree data are not uniformly utilized in practice, though several electronic tools have been developed for the purpose. Using electronic tools to gather health information may empower individuals to take responsibility in managing their family health history. The purpose of this study was to describe the feasibility and outcomes of introducing small groups to the My Family Health Portrait tool in faith-based communities using faith community nurses (FCNs). This pilot project adopted a mixed methods approach to assess the potential of an educational intervention delivered by FCNs for increasing the use of electronic technologies for organizing and storing family health histories among the general public. Treatment and control groups were recruited from four faith-based communities in north Texas using a parallel-groups quasi-experimental design. Qualitative data were gleaned from field notes made by investigators interacting with FCNs and observing their teaching. A majority of respondents believed that knowing one's health history and passing it on to family and medical personnel is important. Those receiving face-to-face instruction on the electronic tool were significantly more likely to have written down family health information than the control group who received only an informational handout (χ(2) = 5.96, P = .015). Barriers to teaching about and using the electronic tool included FCNs' lack of facility with computers in the educational context and FCN and respondent mistrust of electronic storage for family health information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Predicting Risk of Suicide Attempt Using History of Physical Illnesses From Electronic Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Tran, Truyen; Berk, Michael; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2016-01-01

    Background Although physical illnesses, routinely documented in electronic medical records (EMR), have been found to be a contributing factor to suicides, no automated systems use this information to predict suicide risk. Objective The aim of this study is to quantify the impact of physical illnesses on suicide risk, and develop a predictive model that captures this relationship using EMR data. Methods We used history of physical illnesses (except chapter V: Mental and behavioral disorders) from EMR data over different time-periods to build a lookup table that contains the probability of suicide risk for each chapter of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes. The lookup table was then used to predict the probability of suicide risk for any new assessment. Based on the different lengths of history of physical illnesses, we developed six different models to predict suicide risk. We tested the performance of developed models to predict 90-day risk using historical data over differing time-periods ranging from 3 to 48 months. A total of 16,858 assessments from 7399 mental health patients with at least one risk assessment was used for the validation of the developed model. The performance was measured using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results The best predictive results were derived (AUC=0.71) using combined data across all time-periods, which significantly outperformed the clinical baseline derived from routine risk assessment (AUC=0.56). The proposed approach thus shows potential to be incorporated in the broader risk assessment processes used by clinicians. Conclusions This study provides a novel approach to exploit the history of physical illnesses extracted from EMR (ICD-10 codes without chapter V-mental and behavioral disorders) to predict suicide risk, and this model outperforms existing clinical assessments of suicide risk. PMID:27400764

  18. From papyrus to the electronic tablet: a brief history of the clinical medical record with lessons for the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, Richard F

    2013-10-01

    A major transition is underway in documentation of patient-related data in clinical settings with rapidly accelerating adoption of the electronic health record and electronic medical record. This article examines the history of the development of medical records in the West in order to suggest lessons applicable to the current transition. The first documented major transition in the evolution of the clinical medical record occurred in antiquity, with the development of written case history reports for didactic purposes. Benefiting from Classical and Hellenistic models earlier than physicians in the West, medieval Islamic physicians continued the development of case histories for didactic use. A forerunner of modern medical records first appeared in Paris and Berlin by the early 19th century. Development of the clinical record in America was pioneered in the 19th century in major teaching hospitals. However, a clinical medical record useful for direct patient care in hospital and ambulatory settings was not developed until the 20th century. Several lessons are drawn from the 4000-year history of the medical record that may help physicians improve patient care in the digital age. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Giuseppe and Aloysius Frari’s Works on Rabies and History of Frari Medical Family of Šibenik, Dalmatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krnić, Anton

    2007-01-01

    This article is an attempt to reconstruct the family history of the Fraris, the famous Šibenik medical family. Three generations of physicians from the Frari family played an important role not only at medical and social scene of Šibenik in the 18th and 19th century, but also in Croatian and Italian medical history. I will try to provide important details on the lives, medical and social work, and publications of 5 members of the family, Giuseppe (Josip), Angelo Antonio (Anđeo Antun), Sebastiano (Sebastijan), Michele Carlo (Mihovil), and Aloysius (Luigi) Frari. I would also like to pay a special attention to the works on rabies, written by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari, which are among the earliest and most accurate Croatian works on the subject. To reconstruct the history of the family, I studied the relevant editions about the medical and social history of Šibenik, Dalmatia, Venice, and Croatia, together with the Fraris’ publications and reflections. This was the first time Italian and Latin language works by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari on rabies were analyzed. The story on Fraris also documents that medical publishing was a common practice in Dalmatia in the 18th and the 19th century. PMID:17589982

  20. Argentina enacts first law on medical use of the cannabis plant. History and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo L De Vito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, great expectations have risen in the society concerning the eventual therapeutic usefulness of compounds derived from the cannabis plant. It is well known that these compounds are being used in treating certain health conditions, either through medical prescription or self-administration. Extreme opinions range from believing that it is a harmful and dangerous drug to sustaining that it is a panacea. However, the sheer existence of an endocannabinoid system in the brain compels us to study its dimensions and derivations thoroughly. It is expected that controversies and knowledge gaps will be clarified within the framework of this new law. Prohibitionism should not be a category of analysis. Regardless of the therapeutic effects of cannabinoid compounds, demonstrated or to be demonstrated, there are already severe restrictions on their use, which mirror the still existing restrictions to the use of opioids (drugs of definite utility but on which a huge taboo persists. This review presents the first Argentine law on the medical use of cannabis. Milestones in the history of marijuana at the national level are pointed out, which are inextricably linked to world trends either in favor or against prohibition. The current status of the use of cannabis oil in the country and evidences for its therapeutic value are also analyzed. Evidences on its therapeutic value are also analyzed as well as the current status of the use of cannabis oil in our country.

  1. Importance of philosophy of science to the history of medical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Z

    1999-03-01

    Popular approach to the history of medicine rests on naive assumptions that: 1) only the present state of medical knowledge can be counted as scientific and only those elements of the former knowledge and practice which fitted the body of contemporary science should be regarded by the historians of medicine (presentism); 2) medical sciences, like the other natural sciences, portray natural phenomena as they really are (naturalism); 3) progress in sciences consists of cumulative growth of information and explanation. The twentieth century philosophical critique of science revealed that none of these assumptions were true. Empirical facts, which are taken as a basis for any true knowledge, are dependent on the presumed theories; theories are intertwined into a broader socio-cultural context; theory-changing processes are caused by social factors rather than by the theoretical content. Therefore, it is a common task of historians of medicine and philosophers of science to reveal all theoretical and cultural premises on which our comprehension of the contemporary medicine is founded.

  2. [2000 year history of tonsillectomy. Images from the history of otorhinolaryngology, highlighted by instruments from the collection of the German Medical History Museum in Ingolstadt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H

    1997-12-01

    The etymology of the anatomical terms and their use in history are elucidated: "Tonsil" (from Latin tonsa = the oar) in use since Celsus (about 40 AD). The Greek terms of that time, "antiádes", "paristhmia", were not adopted in later medical terminology. "Amygdala" (Greek/Latin = the almond) was introduced by Vesalius in 1543. Vesalius was also the first to depict the tonsils in a specimen of the whole human body; Duverney (1761) gives the first exact depiction of the pharyngeal region. Special anatomical and histological studies of the tonsils were carried out in the 19 century. Cornelius Celsus in Rome (about 40 AD) described the blunt removal of the tonsils by use of the finger. This method was favoured anew by numerous laryngologists at the beginning of the 20th century when it had been realised that a gentle enucleation of the entire tonsil including its capsule was advisable against cutting off a slice, but before long this procedure was discarded again for hygienic reasons. Precursors of special instruments for tonsillectomy were instruments designed for shortening the uvula: uvulotomy. Paré (1564) and Scultetus (1655) devised instruments that permitted placing a thread shaped like a snare around the uvula and cutting it off by strangulation. Hildanus (1646), Scultetus (1655) and Heister (1763) presented an instrument of the guillotine-type for uvulotomy. This instrument was modified by P. S. Physick (USA 1828) and used for tonsillotomy. It became the prototype for a number of similar instruments which were to follow: W. M. F. Fahnestock (USA 1832). M. Mackenzie (London 1880), G. Sluder (USA 1911). Besides these guillotines snares were also perfected and used for tonsillotomy, e.g. by W. Brünings (1908). The concentration on tonsillotomy aimed at performing the operation as quickly as possible, especially in children, as it was not yet possible to sustain general anaesthesia for a longer period of time while doing surgery in the pharynx. The operation of

  3. Assessment of Medical Student and Resident/Fellow Knowledge, Comfort, and Training With Sexual History Taking in LGBTQ Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Victoria; Blondeau, Whitney; Bing-You, Robert G

    2015-05-01

    Sexual health is an important aspect of overall health. Barriers to taking an adequate patient sexual history exist. Few studies have explored medical learners' comfort, knowledge, and training surrounding taking sexual histories with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning/queer (LGBTQ) patients specifically. A 10-question survey was offered to medical students and resident/fellows at one US institution. Survey questions reflected participants' knowledge, comfort, and training related to sexual history taking with attention to LGBTQ care. A total of 159 surveys were returned (rate of 42%). A significantly lower level of comfort existed with taking sexual histories and managing sexual health issues in the LGBTQ segment of the patient population versus all patients, especially in the advanced training group. Participants recognized the importance of understanding their patients' overall sexual health, though medical students rated this as more important than the resident/fellow group did. A correlation existed between both comfort with taking sexual histories and discussing safe sexual practices and management of sexual issues, suggesting that further training would be helpful in this area. Twenty percent of the respondents reported receiving no training at all in eliciting sexual histories in LGBTQ patients. The most preferred format in this study for future training was interviewing standardized patients. Medical students and resident/fellows reported a significantly lower level of comfort with sexual history-taking and management of sexual issues in the LGBTQ population. A comprehensive training format that not only views sexual health as an integral part of overall patient health, but also integrates LGBTQ care, is needed in medical education.

  4. Systems of medicine and nationalist discourse in India: towards "new horizons" in medical anthropology and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shamshad

    2006-06-01

    While accepting medical "pluralism" as a historical reality, as an intrinsic value inherent in any medical system, and as an ideal or desired goal that any multicultural society ought to achieve, this paper argues the need to go beyond the liberal pluralist tendencies that have dominated the debate so far. It holds that while documenting or dealing with the "co-existence" of varied medical traditions and practices, we must not ignore or underplay issues of power, domination and hegemony and must locate our work in a larger historical, social and political context. With this perspective, and based essentially on Assembly proceedings, private papers, official documents and archival materials from the first half of the 20th-century, this paper identifies three major streams in the nationalist discourse in India: conformity, defiance and the quest for an alternative. It shows that while the elements of conformity to biomedicine and its dominance remained more pronounced and emphatic, those of defiance were conversely weak and at times even apologetic. The quest for alternatives, on the other hand, although powerful and able to build trenchant civilizational and institutional critique of modern science and medicine, could never find adequate space in the national agenda for social change. The paper further holds that although the "cultural authority" and hegemony of biomedicine over indigenous science and knowledge were initiated by the colonial state, they were extended by the mainstream national leaderships and national governments with far more extensive and profound implications and less resistance. In light of the growing global networking of "traditional", "complementary" and "alternative" health systems on the one hand and the hegemonic and homogenizing role and presence of multilateral organizations (such as the World Bank and IMF) in shaping national health policies on the other, such insights from history become extraordinarily important.

  5. Details acquired from medical history and patients’ experience of empathy – two sides of the same coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background History taking and empathetic communication are two important aspects in successful physician-patient interaction. Gathering important information from the patient’s medical history is needed for effective clinical decision making while empathy is relevant for patient satisfaction. We wanted to investigate whether medical students near graduation are able to combine both skills as required in daily medical practice. Methods Thirty near graduates from Hamburg Medical School participated in an assessment for clinical competences including a consultation hour with five standardized patients. Each patient interview was videotaped and standardized patients rated participants with the CARE questionnaire for consultation and relational empathy. All videotaped interviews were rated with a checklist based on the number of important medical aspects for each case. Data were analysed with the linear mixed model to correct for random effects. Regression analysis was performed to look for correlations between the number of questions asked by a participant and their respective empathy rating. Results Of the 123 aspects that could have been gathered in total, students only requested 56.4% (95% CI 53.5-59.3). While no difference between male and female participants was found, a significant difference (p sides of the coin of history taking. While both skills have to be acquired during medical school training with particular focus on their respective learning objectives, medical students need to be provided with additional learning and feedback opportunities where they can be observed exercising both skills combined as required in physicians’ daily practice. PMID:23659369

  6. Impact of a Student Pharmacist Driven Medication Reconciliation and Antidepressant Treatment History Project at a Depression Clinic: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Stella S.; Jaward, Leanna; Ward, Kristen; Parikh, Sagar V.; Bostwick, Jolene R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To improve treatment of patients with depression, a new pilot service project involving student pharmacists who would conduct medication reconciliation and review of antidepressant treatment history was created and evaluated. Experimental design A prospective study conducted at the University of Michigan Depression Center. Principal observations From an initial sample of 78 referrals, 41 subjects were reached by phone, with 34 completing medication reconciliation and antidepressant treatment history. Of the 34 patients, 25 (73.5%) had at least one discrepancy identified in their medication list, resulting in 164 medication changes in the electronic medical record (EMR). A total of 105 past antidepressant trials were documented in the 34 individuals, with 34 (32.4%) trials found to be inadequate. Thirteen (38.2%) patients reported failure to respond to two different antidepressants from different classes. All 34 patients participated well in the phone calls and were willing to consult a pharmacist at their upcoming clinic visit. Conclusions A student pharmacist pilot was feasible, identified many discrepancies in the medication record, and identified important medication treatment history in patients with depression in advance of the clinic visit. The project provides support for a specialized role for student pharmacists and demonstrates that interprofessional care can contribute to improved treatment of depression. PMID:28626270

  7. Self-reported financial barriers to care among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David J T; King-Shier, Kathryn; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Sanmartin, Claudia; Ronksley, Paul E; Weaver, Robert G; Tonelli, Marcello; Hennessy, Deirdre; Manns, Braden J

    2014-05-01

    People with chronic conditions who do not achieve therapeutic targets have a higher risk of adverse health outcomes. Failure to meet these targets may be due to a variety of barriers. This article examines self-reported financial barriers to health care among people with cardiovascular-related chronic conditions. A population-based survey was administered to western Canadians with cardiovascular-related chronic conditions (n = 1,849). Associations between self-reported financial barriers and statin use, the likelihood of stopping use of prescribed medications, and emergency department visits or hospitalizations were assessed. More than 10% respondents reported general financial barriers (12%) and lack of drug insurance (14%); 4% reported financial barriers to accessing medications. Emergency department visits or hospitalizations were 70% more likely among those reporting a general financial barrier. Those reporting a financial barrier to medications were 50% less likely to take statins and three times more likely to stop using prescribed medications. Individuals without drug insurance were nearly 30% less likely to take statins. In this population, self-reported financial barriers were associated with lower medication use and increased likelihood of emergency department visits or hospitalization.

  8. 12-Step participation reduces medical use costs among adolescents with a history of alcohol and other drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Marlon P; Parthasarathy, Sujaya; Chi, Felicia W; Sterling, Stacy; Campbell, Cynthia I

    2012-11-01

    Adolescents who attend 12-step groups following alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment are more likely to remain abstinent and to avoid relapse post-treatment. We examined whether 12-step attendance is also associated with a corresponding reduction in health care use and costs. We used difference-in-difference analysis to compare changes in seven-year follow-up health care use and costs by changes in 12-step participation. Four Kaiser Permanente Northern California AOD treatment programs enrolled 403 adolescents, 13-18-years old, into a longitudinal cohort study upon AOD treatment entry. Participants self-reported 12-step meeting attendance at six-month, one-year, three-year, and five-year follow-up. Outcomes included counts of hospital inpatient days, emergency room (ER) visits, primary care visits, psychiatric visits, AOD treatment costs and total medical care costs. Each additional 12-step meeting attended was associated with an incremental medical cost reduction of 4.7% during seven-year follow-up. The medical cost offset was largely due to reductions in hospital inpatient days, psychiatric visits, and AOD treatment costs. We estimate total medical use cost savings at $145 per year (in 2010 U.S. dollars) per additional 12-step meeting attended. The findings suggest that 12-step participation conveys medical cost offsets for youth who undergo AOD treatment. Reduced costs may be related to improved AOD outcomes due to 12-step participation, improved general health due to changes in social network following 12-step participation, or better compliance to both AOD treatment and 12-step meetings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detecting Careless Responses to Self-Reported Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountur, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The use of self-report questionnaires may lead to biases such as careless responses that distort the research outcomes. Early detection of careless responses in self-report questionnaires may reduce error, but little guidance exists in the literature regarding techniques for detecting such careless or random responses in…

  10. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on

  11. Validation of Self-Reported Cognitive Problems with Objective ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical neuropsychological test performance in 147 manganese (Mn) exposed residents. These residents were from two Ohio towns exposed to ambient air-Mn from an industrial source with modeled average air-Mn concentrations of 0.54 µg/m3 (range: 0.01-4.58) and were part of a larger study of cognitive, motor, tremor abnormalities and their relationship to Mn exposure.The primarily white (94.6%) participants (aged 30-64) lived in the towns for at least 10 years (range: 10-64) and had 13.9 years of education, on average. In the last 7 days before testing, 94 (64.4%) participants self-reported concentration problems and 105 (71.8%) self-reported memory problems. After adjusting for age and education, participants who self-reported cognitive problems did not perform worse on the objective neuropsychological measures than those who reported not having problems, except on 1 of 17 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Color). Greater levels of depression and female sex predicted having more self-reported cognitive problems. Higher education was associated with fewer self-reported cognitive problems. Measures of Mn in air, blood, hair, and toenails were not associated with subjective cognitive self-reported p

  12. Peer-Assisted History-Taking Groups: A Subjective Assessment of their Impact Upon Medical Students' Interview Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keifenheim, Katharina Eva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Among the clinical skills needed by all physicians, history taking is one of the most important. The teaching model for peer-assisted history-taking groups investigated in the present study consists of small-group courses in which students practice conducting medical interviews with real patients. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the expectations, experiences, and subjective learning progress of participants in peer-assisted history-taking groups.Methods: The 42 medical student participants completed a 4-month, peer-assisted, elective history-taking course, which both began and ended with a subjective assessment of their interview skills by way of a pseudonymized questionnaire. Measures comprised the students’ self-assessment of their interview skills, their expectations of, and their experiences with the course and especially with the peer tutors. Results: Medical students’ most important motivations in attending peer-assisted history-taking groups were becoming able to complete a structured medical interview, to mitigate difficult interviewing situations, and to address patients’ emotional demands appropriately. By the end of the course, students’ self-assessment of both their interview skills and management of emotional issues improved significantly. Students especially benefitted from individual feedback regarding interview style and relationship formation, as well as generally accepted and had their expectations met by peer tutors. Conclusions: To meet the important learning objectives of history-taking and management of emotional issues, as well as self-reflection and reflection of student–patient interactions, students in the field greatly appreciate practicing medical interviewing in small, peer-assisted groups with real patients. At the same time, peer tutors are experienced to be helpful and supportive and can help students to overcome inhibitions in making contact with patients.

  13. Designing hunting regulation under population uncertainty and self-reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2016-01-01

    A number of methods exist for estimating the size of animal populations. All methods generate an uncertain estimate of population size, and have different properties, which can be taken into account when designing regulation. We consider hunting regulation when the population size is uncertain...... and when the self-reported bag is used to estimate the population size. The properties of a population tax and a tax on self-reported bag are analyzed and we begin by considering a baseline situation with full certainty and no use of self-reporting for population size estimation. Here individual hunters...... self-report a bag on zero and a population tax alone can secure an optimum. Next we show that when facing uncertain population size, a risk-averse hunter will self-report part of the bag to reduce the uncertain population tax payment, making both tax instruments necessary for reaching an optimum...

  14. The use of virtual patients to teach medical students history taking and communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Amy; Hernandez, Jonathan; Johnsen, Kyle; Dickerson, Robert; Raij, Andrew; Harrison, Cyrus; DiPietro, Meredith; Allen, Bryan; Ferdig, Richard; Foti, Sebastian; Jackson, Jonathan; Shin, Min; Cendan, Juan; Watson, Robert; Duerson, Margaret; Lok, Benjamin; Cohen, Marc; Wagner, Peggy; Lind, D Scott

    2006-06-01

    At most institutions, medical students learn communication skills through the use of standardized patients (SPs), but SPs are time and resource expensive. Virtual patients (VPs) may offer several advantages over SPs, but little data exist regarding the use of VPs in teaching communication skills. Therefore, we report our initial efforts to create an interactive virtual clinical scenario of a patient with acute abdominal pain to teach medical students history-taking and communication skills. In the virtual scenario, a life-sized VP is projected on the wall of an examination room. Before the virtual encounter, the student reviews patient information on a handheld tablet personal computer, and they are directed to take a history and develop a differential diagnosis. The virtual system includes 2 networked personal computers (PCs), 1 data projector, 2 USB2 Web cameras to track the user's head and hand movement, a tablet PC, and a microphone. The VP is programmed with specific answers and gestures in response to questions asked by students. The VP responses to student questions were developed by reviewing videotapes of students' performances with real SPs. After obtaining informed consent, 20 students underwent voice recognition training followed by a videotaped VP encounter. Immediately after the virtual scenario, students completed a technology and SP questionnaire (Maastricht Simulated Patient Assessment). All participants had prior experience with real SPs. Initially, the VP correctly recognized approximately 60% of the student's questions, and improving the script depth and variability of the VP responses enhanced most incorrect voice recognition. Student comments were favorable particularly related to feedback provided by the virtual instructor. The overall student rating of the virtual experience was 6.47 +/- 1.63 (1 = lowest, 10 = highest) for version 1.0 and 7.22 +/- 1.76 for version 2.0 (4 months later) reflecting enhanced voice recognition and other

  15. Association between self-reported sleep duration and serum vitamin D level in elderly Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hong; Chang, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong Young; Kang, Ju Wan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the association between self-reported sleep duration and serum vitamin D level in elderly Korean adults. Cross-sectional data analysis. Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010. Noninstitutionalized adults aged 60 to 80 (N = 1,614). The confounding variables were serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and self-reported daily sun exposure and sleep duration. Self-reported daily sleep duration was divided into four groups: Q1 (≤4 hours), Q2 (5-6 hours), Q3 (7-8 hours), and Q4 (≥9 hours). Mean serum vitamin D levels of subjects in the Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 groups were 44.18, 48.08, 48.83, and 51.78 nmol/L, respectively. On multivariate linear regression analysis, subjects in the Q2 (B = 3.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42-7.19), Q3 (B = 4.89, 95% CI = 1.54-8.24), and Q4 (B = 5.18, 95% CI = 0.78-9.58) groups had significantly higher serum vitamin D levels than subjects in the Q1 group. Serum vitamin D level is positively associated with self-reported daily sleep duration in elderly Korean individuals. These results suggest that inadequate sleep duration may be associated with lower vitamin D levels in elderly adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Factors associated with self-reported discrimination against men who have sex with men in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laio Magno

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate self-reported discrimination due to sexual orientation among men who have sex with men (MSM in Brazil and to analyze associated factors. METHODS A cross-sectional study of 3,859 MSM recruited in 2008–2009 with respondent driven sampling. Data collection conducted in health centers in 10 Brazilian cities. A face-to-face questionnaire was used and rapid HIV and syphilis tests conducted. Aggregated data were weighted and adjusted odds ratio estimated to measure the association between selected factors and self-reported discrimination due to sexual orientation. RESULTS The sample was predominantly young, eight plus years of schooling, pardo (brown, single, low-income, and identified themselves as gay or homosexual. The prevalence of self-reported discrimination due to sexual orientation was 27.7% (95%CI 26.2–29.1. Discrimination was independently associated with: age < 30 years, more years of schooling, community involvement and support, history of sexual and physical violence, suicidal thoughts, and unprotected receptive anal intercourse. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of self-reported discrimination among MSM in Brazil is high. These results challenge the assumptions that MSM-specific prevention and support programs are not required or that health professionals do not need special training to address MSM needs.

  17. Self-report and longitudinal predictors of violence in Iraq and Afghanistan war era veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbogen, Eric B; Johnson, Sally C; Newton, Virginia M; Fuller, Sara; Wagner, H Ryan; Beckham, Jean C

    2013-10-01

    This study, using a longitudinal design, attempted to identify whether self-reported problems with violence were empirically associated with future violent behavior among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans and whether and how collateral informant interviews enhanced the risk assessment process. Data were gathered from N = 300 participants (n = 150 dyads of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans and family/friends). The veterans completed baseline and follow-up interviews 3 years later on average, and family/friends provided collateral data on dependent measures at follow-up. Analyses showed that aggression toward others at follow-up was associated with younger age, posttraumatic stress disorder, combat exposure, and a history of having witnessed parental violence growing up. Self-reported problems controlling violence at baseline had robust statistical power in predicting aggression toward others at follow-up. Collateral report enhanced detection of dependent variables: 20% of cases positive for violence toward others would have been missed relying only on self-report. The results identify a subset of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans at higher risk for problematic postdeployment adjustment and indicate that the veterans' self-report of violence was useful in predicting future aggression. Underreporting of violence was not evidenced by most veterans but could be improved upon by obtaining collateral information.

  18. Relative accuracy and availability of an Irish National Database of dispensed medication as a source of medication history information: observational study and retrospective record analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimes, T

    2013-01-27

    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The medication reconciliation process begins by identifying which medicines a patient used before presentation to hospital. This is time-consuming, labour intensive and may involve interruption of clinicians. We sought to identify the availability and accuracy of data held in a national dispensing database, relative to other sources of medication history information. METHODS: For patients admitted to two acute hospitals in Ireland, a Gold Standard Pre-Admission Medication List (GSPAML) was identified and corroborated with the patient or carer. The GSPAML was compared for accuracy and availability to PAMLs from other sources, including the Health Service Executive Primary Care Reimbursement Scheme (HSE-PCRS) dispensing database. RESULTS: Some 1111 medication were assessed for 97 patients, who were median age 74 years (range 18-92 years), median four co-morbidities (range 1-9), used median 10 medications (range 3-25) and half (52%) were male. The HSE-PCRS PAML was the most accurate source compared to lists provided by the general practitioner, community pharmacist or cited in previous hospital documentation: the list agreed for 74% of the medications the patients actually used, representing complete agreement for all medications in 17% of patients. It was equally contemporaneous to other sources, but was less reliable for male than female patients, those using increasing numbers of medications and those using one or more item that was not reimbursable by the HSE. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: The HSE-PCRS database is a relatively accurate, available and contemporaneous source of medication history information and could support acute hospital medication reconciliation.

  19. Faculty self-reported experience with racial and ethnic discrimination in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Neeraja B; Friedman, Robert H; Ash, Arlene S; Franco, Shakira; Carr, Phyllis L

    2004-03-01

    Despite the need to recruit and retain minority faculty in academic medicine, little is known about the experiences of minority faculty, in particular their self-reported experience of racial and ethnic discrimination at their institutions. To determine the frequency of self-reported experience of racial/ethnic discrimination among faculty of U.S. medical schools, as well as associations with outcomes, such as career satisfaction, academic rank, and number of peer-reviewed publications. A 177-item self-administered mailed survey of U.S. medical school faculty. Twenty-four randomly selected medical schools in the contiguous United States. A random sample of 1,979 full-time faculty, stratified by medical school, specialty, graduation cohort, and gender. Frequency of self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic bias and discrimination. The response rate was 60%. Of 1,833 faculty eligible, 82% were non-Hispanic white, 10% underrepresented minority (URM), and 8% non-underrepresented minority (NURM). URM and NURM faculty were substantially more likely than majority faculty to perceive racial/ethnic bias in their academic environment (odds ratio [OR], 5.4; P discrimination by a superior or colleague. Faculty with such reported experiences had lower career satisfaction scores than other faculty (P discrimination achieved academic productivity similar to that of other faculty.

  20. Hannah's Feeding Journey: A Multidisciplinary Treatment Approach to Establishing Oral Acceptance for a Toddler with a Complex Medical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dena M.; Galbally, Sandra Lynn; Markowitz, Goldie; Pucci, Kristy N.; Brochi, Ligia; Cohen, Sherri Shubin

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the importance of multidisciplinary, family-centered care, and a developmental bio-psycho-social approach to treating feeding difficulties in a child with a complex medical history. Hannah spent the first 9 months of her life in the hospital and was discharged dependent on nasogastric tube feeding. Her journey to recovery…

  1. Self-reported adherence and biomarker levels of CoQ10 and alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitolins MZ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mara Z Vitolins,1 L Douglas Case,1 Stephen R Rapp,2 Mark O Lively,3 Edward G Shaw,4 Michelle J Naughton,5 Jeffrey Giguere,6 Glenn J Lesser7 1Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Department of Internal Medicine-Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 5Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 6Greenville Community Oncology Research Program of the Carolinas, Greenville, SC, USA; 7Department of Internal Medicine-Hematology and Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Purpose: Women with breast cancer were randomized to receive coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 plus Vitamin E or placebo in a clinical trial. The objective of this evaluation is to examine the association between participant self-reported adherence to the study supplements and changes in plasma biomarker levels.Patients and methods: Correlation coefficients quantified the association between changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels and the association between self-reported adherence and changes in biomarkers. Participants were categorized by self-reported adherence; Kruskal–Wallis tests compared changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels between self-reported adherence groups.Results: Women (N=155 provided baseline and post-treatment biomarkers; 147 completed at least one diary. While changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels were moderately correlated, correlations ranged from 0.40 to 0.48, association between self-reported adherence and plasma alpha-tocopherol or CoQ10 levels was weak; correlations ranged from 0.10 to 0.29 at weeks 8, 16, and 24. Some participants with high self-reported adherence actually

  2. Self-Reported Presence and Experience of Pain in Adults with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Knegt, Nanda C; Lobbezoo, Frank; Schuengel, Carlo; Evenhuis, Heleen M; Scherder, Erik J A

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to examine whether the presence of pain (based on physical conditions and participants' report) and self-reported pain experience in adults with Down syndrome (DS) differ from general population controls. Cross-sectional study of 224 adults with DS (mean age = 38.1 years, mild-severe intellectual disabilities) and 142 age-matched controls (median age = 40.5 years, mean estimated IQ = 105.7) in the Netherlands. File-based medical information was evaluated. Self-reported presence and experience of pain were assessed in rest and after movement during a test session (affect with facial affective scale (FAS: 0.04-0.97), intensity assessed with numeric rating scale (NRS: 0-10). Compared with controls, more DS participants had physical conditions that may cause pain and/or discomfort ( p  = .004, 50% vs 35%), but fewer DS participants reported pain during the test session ( p  = .003, 58% vs 73%). Of the participants who indicated pain and comprehended self-reporting scales ( n  = 198 FAS, n  = 161 NRS), the DS group reported a higher pain affect and intensity than the controls ( p  painful/discomforting physical conditions reported pain. Those who did indicated a higher pain experience than adults from the general population. Research into spontaneous self-report of pain, repeated pain assessment, and acute pain is needed in people with DS for more insight into pain experience and mismatches between self-report and medical information. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Relationship between Self-Reported Dietary Nutrient Intake and Self-Reported Sleep Duration among Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Komada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration and dietary nutrient intake, with and without adjustments for variations in sleep timing (i.e., the midpoint of sleep. We conducted a questionnaire survey, comprising a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI among 1902 healthy Japanese adults and found that the dietary intakes of several nutrients correlated with sleep duration among men regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep. Particularly, (1 small but significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and the percentage of energy from protein, regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep; (2 energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 also significantly correlated with sleep duration; and (3 intakes of bread, pulses, and fish and shellfish correlated with sleep duration. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and dietary intakes among women. This study revealed that after controlling for the midpoint of sleep, sleep duration correlated significantly with the dietary intake of specific nutrients and foods in a population of Japanese men.

  4. Are medical students confident in taking a sexual history? An assessment on attitude and skills from an upper middle income country

    OpenAIRE

    Ariffin, Farnaza; Chin, Ken Lee; Ng, ChirkJenn; Miskan, Maizatullifah; Lee, Verna KarMun; Isa, Mohammad Rodi

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexual history training during undergraduate education is essential for preparing future doctors to handle patients? sexual health concerns. The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes and perceptions of final-year medical students in Malaysia toward sexual history taking and the training they receive from their medical schools. Methods The study used a cross-sectional survey of 379 final-year medical students from three medical schools in Malaysia. Students were asked to...

  5. Self-reported quality of ADL task performance among patients with COPD exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Hans Jørgen; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen; Wilcke, Jon Torgny; Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes

    2014-07-01

    Patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience problems in the performance of activities of daily living (ADL) tasks. The objective was to examine the self-reported quality of ADL task performance among COPD patients, and to investigate whether age, gender, and routine COPD characteristics correlate with the self-reported ADL ability. Eighty patients admitted to hospital with COPD exacerbations participated. In a cross-sectional study, the patients' self-reported ADL ability was assessed using the ADL-Interview (ADL-I) instrument. Data concerning age, gender, and routine COPD characteristics were drawn from the patients' medical records. The patients reported being inefficient to markedly inefficient when performing ADL tasks within the personal hygiene, toileting, dressing, household, mobility, and transportation domains. While more than 90% of the participants reported increased effort and/or fatigue when performing the ADL tasks, up to 88% of the participants relied on help from others in the performance of general household chores like cooking and shopping. Self-reported ADL ability did not correlate with age, gender, or routine COPD characteristics. Decreased quality of ADL task performance seemed to be extremely common among COPD patients. Therefore, addressing the problems in individually tailored pulmonary rehabilitation programmes may be advantageous.

  6. Relationships between self-reported physical and mental health and intelligence performance across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, M; Nyquist, L

    1990-07-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven adults between 20 and 90 years of age were tested on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for their digit span memory (forward and backward), fluid intelligence (block design and digit symbol), and crystallized intelligence (vocabulary and information), as well as assessed for self-reported health (Cornell Medical Index, Zung Depression Scale, health habits, and self-ratings of physical and mental health). As expected, across the entire age range there was no correlation between age and digit span memory (r = .03), a strong negative correlation between age and fluid intelligence (r = -.78), and a modest positive correlation between age and crystallized intelligence (r = .27). In addition, older adults reported more physical (r = .36) and mental (r = .32) health problems than did younger adults. Of special interest was the finding that both self-reported physical and mental health accounted for significant variance in intelligence performance, particularly in older adults. Moreover, self-reported health accounted for a considerable portion of observed variance, even when age differences in self-reported health were statistically controlled.

  7. Do Workers Underreport Morbidity? The Accuracy of Self-reports of Chronic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Jürges, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    We use matched Danish health survey and register data to investigate discrepancies between register-based diagnoses and self-reported morbidity. We hypothesize that false negatives (medical diagnoses existing in the register but not reported in the survey) arise partly because individuals fear ca...... career repercussions of being discovered suffering a chronic or severe illness that potentially lowers productivity. We find evidence of substantial underreporting, which is indeed systematically higher for individuals in the labor market....

  8. [Teaching courses on aspects of medical history taking and communication skills in Germany: a survey among students of 12 medical faculties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Jan; Kampmann, Margareta; Schwantes, Ulrich

    2004-06-01

    Good communication between patients and doctors has positive effects on health and the patients' quality of life. Communication skills can be trained. In many countries communication skills training is an important part of medical education and continuing medical education. In this study German medical students were questioned about current communication training. Questionnaires were sent to 28 Medical Schools in Germany and distributed in General Practice courses. Using Likert scales students were asked to rate both existing teaching courses on communication skills and their ability to communicate. 377 students of 12 Medical Schools participated in this study. Two Medical Schools offer teaching courses on communication skills as part of their regular curriculum. On a scale ranging from 1 (no such courses available) to 7 (courses fully available) students assessed the practical teaching of communication skills to be 3 (median). In addition, on a scale ranging from 1 to 7 students rated their general communication skills as 3 (median) and their ability of taking a sexual history and breaking bad news as 4 (median). Although these results are not representative, they give a general idea of communication skills teaching in Germany. During their clinical education students should be especially trained for difficult situations in the patient-doctor encounter. The international experience of other Medical Schools should be taken into account when implementing communication skills training as part of medical education.

  9. Severe preeclampsia and maternal self-report of oral health, hygiene, and dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Kim A; Berggren, Erica K; Koskenoja, Viktoria; Urlaub, Diana; Lorenz, Carol

    2013-02-01

    Maternal periodontal disease diagnosed by a detailed oral health examination is associated with preeclampsia. Our objective was to measure the association between maternal self-report of oral symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, and/or dental service use before or during pregnancy and severe preeclampsia. A written questionnaire was administered to pregnant females at the time of prenatal ultrasound and outcomes were ascertained by chart abstraction. The χ(2) test compared maternal oral symptoms/problems, hygiene practices, and dental service use between females with severe preeclampsia versus normotensive females. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for severe preeclampsia. A total of 48 (10%) of 470 females reported ≥2 oral symptoms/problems in the 6 months before pregnancy and 77 (16%) since pregnancy. Fifty-one (11%) reported previous periodontal treatment. Twenty-eight (6%) of 470 developed severe preeclampsia. Females with a history of periodontal treatment were more likely to develop severe preeclampsia (aOR = 3.71; 95% CI = 1.40 to 9.83) than females without a history of periodontal treatment. Self-reported oral health symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, or dental service use before or during pregnancy were not associated with severe preeclampsia when considered in the context of other maternal risk factors. Maternal self-report of previous periodontal treatment before pregnancy is associated with severe preeclampsia.

  10. Observable phenomena that reveal medical students' clinical reasoning ability during expert assessment of their history taking: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Catharina M; Cools, Bernadette M; van Gurp, Petra J M; van der Meer, Jos W M; Postma, Cornelis T

    2017-08-29

    During their clerkships, medical students are meant to expand their clinical reasoning skills during their patient encounters. Observation of these encounters could reveal important information on the students' clinical reasoning abilities, especially during history taking. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze what expert physicians apply as indicators in their assessment of medical students' diagnostic reasoning abilities during history taking. Twelve randomly selected clinical encounter recordings of students at the end of the internal medicine clerkships were observed by six expert assessors, who were prompted to formulate their assessment criteria in a think-aloud procedure. These formulations were then analyzed to identify the common denominators and leading principles. The main indicators of clinical reasoning ability were abstracted from students' observable acts during history taking in the encounter. These were: taking control, recognizing and responding to relevant information, specifying symptoms, asking specific questions that point to pathophysiological thinking, placing questions in a logical order, checking agreement with patients, summarizing and body language. In addition, patients' acts and the course, result and efficiency of the conversation were identified as indicators of clinical reasoning, whereas context, using self as a reference, and emotion/feelings were identified by the clinicians as variables in their assessment of clinical reasoning. In observing and assessing clinical reasoning during history taking by medical students, general and specific phenomena to be used as indicators for this process could be identified. These phenomena can be traced back to theories on the development and the process of clinical reasoning.

  11. Self-reported knowledge and awareness about blood pressure and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Ina; Thomsen, Marie D; Lindholt, Jes S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In general, it is assumed that patient education, by increasing knowledge, may change behavior and lifestyle and promote health. In this context, it is a surprise that knowledge and awareness about blood pressure and hypertension among elderly people is poor. We hypothesized...... that knowledge about blood pressure and hypertension would be better among individuals with self-reported hypertension compared with subjects without self-reported hypertension. METHODS: We mailed a questionnaire to a random sample of 1,000 subjects living in the municipality of Silkeborg, Denmark. The study...... often had a family history of hypertension. More than 80% reported that overweight and obesity increases blood pressure. More than 60% reported that untreated hypertension may cause heart disease or stroke. More than half of the responders did not know their blood pressure, and only 21% knew...

  12. Health aspects of Arctic exploration – Alaska's medical history based on the research files of Dr. Robert Fortuine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Murray

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Robert Fortuine provided basic medical care to Alaska Native people, chronicled the Health Aspects of Arctic Exploration and through a number of influential publications, was the first to thoroughly document and analyse Alaska's Medical History. This overview of his published work will provide the reader with a detailed overview, so that they can begin to explore Dr. Fortuine's many published works in more detail. Objective . This review will explore Alaska's Medical History and the Health Aspects of Arctic Exploration through the research files and the 10 most significant publications of Dr. Robert Fortuine. Design . Review of Dr. Fortuine's major works and the master bibliography has over 3,000 references and 81 subjects. The master bibliography is a merger of 55 separate bibliographies, which provides a wealth of bibliographic information. This paper will describe his 10 most significant publications, 2 of which began as a journal issue. Results . Dr. Fortuine was a prolific writer throughout his career, publishing 134 articles and books. He wrote papers and books on Alaska's medical history, tuberculosis and health care delivery from Russian–America through the Public Health Service efforts in the territory and then the State of Alaska. The master bibliography has over 3,000 references and 81 subjects. This list has a significant number of entries for tuberculosis with almost one-third of the entries including this heading. Others dwell on the history of “pre-contact” health, the history of Alaska Native health care, the history of the Alaska Department of Health, especially the tuberculosis programme, the role of the US Public Health Service and traditional medicine. He completely reviewed every Governors’ and the US Surgeon General's reports in regard to Alaska content. This paper describes his 10 most significant publications. Conclusions . Robert Fortuine's published works offer a wealth of information and insight

  13. Job insecurity and the use of antidepressant medication among Danish employees with and without a history of prolonged unemployment: a 3.5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, R; Thielen, K; Nygaard, E

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate whether job insecurity predicts incident use of antidepressant medication and whether the association is modified by a history of prolonged unemployment.......A study was undertaken to investigate whether job insecurity predicts incident use of antidepressant medication and whether the association is modified by a history of prolonged unemployment....

  14. Enhancing Student Empathetic Engagement, History-Taking, and Communication Skills During Electronic Medical Record Use in Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoSasso, Alisa Alfonsi; Lamberton, Courtney E; Sammon, Mary; Berg, Katherine T; Caruso, John W; Cass, Jonathan; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether an intervention on proper use of electronic medical records (EMRs) in patient care could help improve medical students' empathic engagement, and to test the hypothesis that the training would reduce communication hurdles in clinical encounters. Seventy third-year medical students from the Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University were randomly divided into intervention and control groups during their six-week pediatric clerkship in 2012-2013. The intervention group received a one-hour training session on EMR-specific communication skills, including discussion of EMR use, the SALTED mnemonic and technique (Set-up, Ask, Listen, Type, Exceptions, Documentation), and role-plays. Both groups completed the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) at the clerkship's start and end. At clerkship's end, faculty and standardized patients (SPs) rated students' empathic engagement in SP encounters, using the Jefferson Scale of Patient Perceptions of Physician Empathy (JSPPPE), and their history-taking and communication skills. Faculty mean ratings on the JSPPPE, history-taking skills, and communication skills were significantly higher for the intervention group than the control group. SP mean ratings on history-taking skills were significantly higher for the intervention group than the control group. Both groups' JSE mean scores increased pretest to posttest, but the changes were not significant. The intervention group's posttest JSE mean score was higher than the control group's, but the difference was not significant. The findings suggest that a simple intervention providing specialized training in EMR-specific communication can improve medical students' empathic engagement in patient care, history-taking skills, and communication skills.

  15. History of the Rochester Epidemiology Project: half a century of medical records linkage in a US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Walter A; Yawn, Barbara P; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Grossardt, Brandon R; Melton, L Joseph

    2012-12-01

    The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) has maintained a comprehensive medical records linkage system for nearly half a century for almost all persons residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Herein, we provide a brief history of the REP before and after 1966, the year in which the REP was officially established. The key protagonists before 1966 were Henry Plummer, Mabel Root, and Joseph Berkson, who developed a medical records linkage system at Mayo Clinic. In 1966, Leonard Kurland established collaborative agreements with other local health care providers (hospitals, physician groups, and clinics [primarily Olmsted Medical Center]) to develop a medical records linkage system that covered the entire population of Olmsted County, and he obtained funding from the National Institutes of Health to support the new system. In 1997, L. Joseph Melton III addressed emerging concerns about the confidentiality of medical record information by introducing a broad patient research authorization as per Minnesota state law. We describe how the key protagonists of the REP have responded to challenges posed by evolving medical knowledge, information technology, and public expectation and policy. In addition, we provide a general description of the system; discuss issues of data quality, reliability, and validity; describe the research team structure; provide information about funding; and compare the REP with other medical information systems. The REP can serve as a model for the development of similar research infrastructures in the United States and worldwide. Copyright © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transgender transitioning and change of self-reported sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthias K; Fuss, Johannes; Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K; Sievers, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM") patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. In total, 32.9% (n = 23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10) FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05). In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.

  17. Structured communicative skills training for medical interns improves history taking skills on sensitive issues: An interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Sukhlecha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Communication is a process that allows us to interact with other people. Medical professionals need to possess good communication skills for history taking, diagnosis, and treatment. Communicative skills are hardly taught in medical schools of India. The students are expected to learn them on their own. To address this issue, we introduced communicative skills training (CST for medical interns. Objective: Primary – To determine the effectiveness of CST in improving history taking on sensitive issues by medical interns. Secondary – To improve patients' satisfaction through improved communicative skills. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized control study carried out on medical interns at Jamnagar. The interns were randomized to either Group A or Group B. Intervention in the form of CST was given to Group A while Group B was control. The topic of CST was “eliciting sexual history.” Assessment of participants was done by pre- and post-intervention objective structured clinical examination. For ethical reasons, Group B was also given CST by experts after completion of our study but their results were not included for analysis. Results: Although mean scores increased in both the groups, (from 6.4 to 13.4 in the intervention group and from 6.5 to 7.5 in controls, the percent increase was much larger in the intervention group than controls (109% vs. 15%. Students gave a positive feedback to CST. Opinion of teachers was favoring CST. Among the patients allotted to intervention group, 83% were satisfied. Conclusion: CST imparted to medical interns helps in improving doctor–patient relationship.

  18. Details acquired from medical history and patients' experience of empathy--two sides of the same coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Friedemann; Vogel, Daniela; Sehner, Susanne; Wijnen-Meijer, Marjo; Harendza, Sigrid

    2013-05-09

    History taking and empathetic communication are two important aspects in successful physician-patient interaction. Gathering important information from the patient's medical history is needed for effective clinical decision making while empathy is relevant for patient satisfaction. We wanted to investigate whether medical students near graduation are able to combine both skills as required in daily medical practice. Thirty near graduates from Hamburg Medical School participated in an assessment for clinical competences including a consultation hour with five standardized patients. Each patient interview was videotaped and standardized patients rated participants with the CARE questionnaire for consultation and relational empathy. All videotaped interviews were rated with a checklist based on the number of important medical aspects for each case. Data were analysed with the linear mixed model to correct for random effects. Regression analysis was performed to look for correlations between the number of questions asked by a participant and their respective empathy rating. Of the 123 aspects that could have been gathered in total, students only requested 56.4% (95% CI 53.5-59.3). While no difference between male and female participants was found, a significant difference (pexercising both skills combined as required in physicians' daily practice.

  19. Radiology Physician Extenders: A Literature Review of the History and Current Roles of Physician Extenders in Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Vicki L; Flanagan, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the literature review was to assess the origins of radiology physician extenders and examine the current roles found in the literature of advanced practice physician extenders within medical imaging. Twenty-six articles relating to physician assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs), radiologist assistants (RAs), and nuclear medicine advanced associates (NMAAs) were reviewed to discern similarities and differences in history, scope of practice, and roles in the medical imaging field. The literature showed PAs and NPs are working mostly in interventional radiology. PAs, NPs, and RAs perform similar tasks in radiology, including history and physicals, evaluation and management, preprocedure work-up, obtaining informed consent, initial observations/reports, and post-procedure follow-up. NPs and PAs perform a variety of procedures but most commonly vascular access, paracentesis, and thoracentesis. RAs perform gastrointestinal, genitourinary, nonvascular invasive fluoroscopy procedures, and vascular access procedures. The review revealed NMAAs are working in an advanced role, but no specific performances of procedures was found in the literature, only suggested tasks and clinical competencies. PAs, NPs, and RAs are currently the three main midlevel providers used in medical imaging. These midlevel providers are being used in a variety of ways to increase the efficiency of the radiologist and provide diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures to patients. NMAAs are being used in medical imaging but little literature is available on current roles in clinical practice. More research is needed to assess the exact procedures and duties being performed by these medical imaging physician extenders.

  20. Disruption to radiation therapy sessions due to anxiety among patients receiving radiation therapy to the head and neck area can be predicted using patient self-report measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, Kerrie; Oultram, Sharon; Adams, Catherine; Cross, Laraine; Findlay, Naomi; Ponman, Leah

    2011-12-01

    This analysis sought to determine whether patient self-report measures were associated with disruption to radiation therapy sessions due to anxiety among cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy to the head and neck region. A cohort of patients undergoing radiation therapy to the head and neck region at a major regional radiation oncology treatment centre (ROTC) in Australia completed self-report measures of anxiety, history of panic and fears relevant to use of an immobilising mask. The treating Radiation Therapist (RT) rated the level of session disruption due to patient anxiety during the Computerised Tomography/Simulation (CT/Sim) (baseline) session and first treatment session. Complete data were obtained for 90 patients. RTs rated 11 and 24% of patients as having some level of session disruption session due to anxiety at baseline and Treatment 1, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with session disruption at baseline in bivariate analyses: currently taking psycho-active medication (p=0.008); fear of enclosed spaces (p=0.006); fear of face being covered up (p=0.006); fear of movement restriction (p=0.041) and ever had an anxiety attack (p=0.034). Sensitivity ranged from 0.57 to 0.75 and specificity ranged from 0.68 to 0.90. Only session disruption at baseline predicted disruption at Treatment 1 (pdisruption and patient self-report measures which might be used to flag patients for prophylactic treatment. Further development and replication in a larger sample is warranted before introduction of these measures into routine practice. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for adult acute lymphocytic leukemia: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibola, Christine F; Slager, Susan L; Berndt, Sonja I; Lightfoot, Tracy; Sampson, Joshua N; Morton, Lindsay M; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2014-08-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) in adults is a rare malignancy with a poor clinical outcome, and few reported etiologic risk factors. We performed an exploratory pooled study of 152 ALL cases and 23096 controls from 16 case-control studies to investigate the role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors and risk of ALL. Age- race/ethnicity-, sex-, and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. An increased risk of ALL was found in those with a family history of a hematological malignancy (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.22 to 5.54) and in leather (OR = 3.91, 95% CI = 1.35 to 11.35) and sewing/embroidery workers (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.00 to 8.49). Consumers of alcohol had an increased risk of B-cell ALL (OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.18 to 6.95). The small number of statistically significant risk factors identified out of the 112 variables examined could be chance findings and will require further replication to assess their role in the etiology of adult ALL. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. 78 FR 17917 - Medical Waivers for Merchant Mariner Credential Applicants With a History of Seizure Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... be considered for a waiver. (1) Mariners with a history of epilepsy or seizure disorder may be... Waivers for Merchant Mariner Credential Applicants With a History of Seizure Disorders AGENCY: Coast Guard... of seizure disorders. Coast Guard regulations provide that convulsive disorders (also known as...

  3. The reliability, concurrent validity and association with salivary oxytocin of the self-report version of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in adolescents with conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Tomer; Apter, Alan; Djalovski, Amir; Peskin, Miriam; Fennig, Silvana; Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Bar-Maisels, Meytal; Borodkin, Katy; Bloch, Yuval

    2017-10-01

    The present study evaluated the self-report version of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU-SR) in terms of reliability, concurrent validity, and correlation with salivary oxytocin levels, a potential biomarker of CU traits. 67 socially at-risk male adolescents (mean 16.2 years) completed the ICU-SR, ICU teacher-version (ICU-TR), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and their medical files were coded for previous antisocial acts using Brown-Goodwin Lifetime Aggression Scale. Salivary samples were assayed for oxytocin. The reliability of ICU-SR was lower (α = 0.71) than ICU-TR (α = 0.86). ICU-SR mean score was significantly lower than ICU-TR (M = 25.29, SD = 8.02; M = 33.14, SD = 9.47). ICU-TR but not ICU-SR, significantly correlated with history of antisocial acts (r = 0.40). Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of conduct disorder and oxytocin on ICU-TR but not ICU-SR [F(1,59) = 6.53; F(1,59) = 6.08], and a significant interaction only for ICU-TR [F(1,59) = 2.89]. Subjective self-reports of CU traits may be less reliable and valid than teachers' reports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Oral health Status, Medical History, Xerostomia dan Quality of Life of elderly In Luwu Timur, Sulawesi Selatan

    OpenAIRE

    Samad, Rasmidar

    2013-01-01

    Xerostomia is a common condition in elderly people which may result in permanent impairtment that would be one risk factor for decreased quality of life Objective the aim of this study is to determine the relathionship of sociodemographic status, medical history, xerostomia, tooth loss and caries status with quality of life of elderly in luwu timur Xerostomia is a common condition in elderly people which may result in permanent impairtment that would be one risk factor for decreased qua...

  5. Analysis of differences in exercise recognition by constraints on physical activity of hospitalized cancer patients based on their medical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ri; Jeon, Sang-Wan; Yi, Eun-Surk

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the differences among the hospitalized cancer patients on their perception of exercise and physical activity constraints based on their medical history. The study used questionnaire survey as measurement tool for 194 cancer patients (male or female, aged 20 or older) living in Seoul metropolitan area (Seoul, Gyeonggi, Incheon). The collected data were analyzed using frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis t -test, and one-way distribution using statistical program SPSS 18.0. The following results were obtained. First, there was no statistically significant difference between cancer stage and exercise recognition/physical activity constraint. Second, there was a significant difference between cancer stage and sociocultural constraint/facility constraint/program constraint. Third, there was a significant difference between cancer operation history and physical/socio-cultural/facility/program constraint. Fourth, there was a significant difference between cancer operation history and negative perception/facility/program constraint. Fifth, there was a significant difference between ancillary cancer treatment method and negative perception/facility/program constraint. Sixth, there was a significant difference between hospitalization period and positive perception/negative perception/physical constraint/cognitive constraint. In conclusion, this study will provide information necessary to create patient-centered healthcare service system by analyzing exercise recognition of hospitalized cancer patients based on their medical history and to investigate the constraint factors that prevents patients from actually making efforts to exercise.

  6. Self-reported quality of ADL task performance among patients with COPD exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Hans Jørgen; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen; Wilcke, Jon Torgny

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience problems in the performance of activities of daily living (ADL) tasks. The objective was to examine the self-reported quality of ADL task performance among COPD patients, and to investigate whether age...... concerning age, gender, and routine COPD characteristics were drawn from the patients' medical records. RESULTS: The patients reported being inefficient to markedly inefficient when performing ADL tasks within the personal hygiene, toileting, dressing, household, mobility, and transportation domains. While...... more than 90% of the participants reported increased effort and/or fatigue when performing the ADL tasks, up to 88% of the participants relied on help from others in the performance of general household chores like cooking and shopping. Self-reported ADL ability did not correlate with age, gender...

  7. Might ART Adherence Estimates Be Improved by Combining Biomarker and Self-Report Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Rhead

    Full Text Available As we endeavour to examine rates of viral suppression in PLHIV, reliable data on ART adherence are needed to distinguish between the respective contributions of poor adherence and treatment failure on high viral load. Self-reported data are susceptible to response bias and although biomarker data on drug presence and concentration can provide a superior, alternative method of measurement, complications due to drug-drug interactions and genetic variations can cause some inaccuracies. We investigate the feasibility of combining both biomarker and self-report data to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence.Data were taken from a large general-population survey in the Manicaland province, Zimbabwe, conducted in 2009-2011. HIV-infected adults who had initiated ART (N = 560 provided self-report data on adherence and dried blood spot samples that were analysed for traces of ART medication. A new three-category measure of ART adherence was constructed, based on biomarker data but using self-report data to adjust for cases with abnormally low and high drug concentrations due to possible drug-drug interactions and genetic factors, and was assessed for plausibility using survey data on socio-demographic correlates.94.3% (528/560 and 92.7% (519/560 of the sample reported faithful adherence to their medication and had traces of ART medication, respectively. The combined measure estimated good evidence of ART adherence at 69% and excellent evidence of adherence at 53%. The regression analysis results showed plausible patterns of ART adherence by socio-demographic status with men and younger participants being more likely to adhere poorly to medication, and higher socio-economic status individuals and those living in more urban locations being more likely to adhere well.Biomarker and self-reported measures of adherence can be combined in a meaningful way to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence. Results indicate that

  8. Might ART Adherence Estimates Be Improved by Combining Biomarker and Self-Report Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhead, Rebecca; Masimirembwa, Collen; Cooke, Graham; Takaruza, Albert; Nyamukapa, Constance; Mutsimhi, Cosmas; Gregson, Simon

    2016-01-01

    As we endeavour to examine rates of viral suppression in PLHIV, reliable data on ART adherence are needed to distinguish between the respective contributions of poor adherence and treatment failure on high viral load. Self-reported data are susceptible to response bias and although biomarker data on drug presence and concentration can provide a superior, alternative method of measurement, complications due to drug-drug interactions and genetic variations can cause some inaccuracies. We investigate the feasibility of combining both biomarker and self-report data to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence. Data were taken from a large general-population survey in the Manicaland province, Zimbabwe, conducted in 2009-2011. HIV-infected adults who had initiated ART (N = 560) provided self-report data on adherence and dried blood spot samples that were analysed for traces of ART medication. A new three-category measure of ART adherence was constructed, based on biomarker data but using self-report data to adjust for cases with abnormally low and high drug concentrations due to possible drug-drug interactions and genetic factors, and was assessed for plausibility using survey data on socio-demographic correlates. 94.3% (528/560) and 92.7% (519/560) of the sample reported faithful adherence to their medication and had traces of ART medication, respectively. The combined measure estimated good evidence of ART adherence at 69% and excellent evidence of adherence at 53%. The regression analysis results showed plausible patterns of ART adherence by socio-demographic status with men and younger participants being more likely to adhere poorly to medication, and higher socio-economic status individuals and those living in more urban locations being more likely to adhere well. Biomarker and self-reported measures of adherence can be combined in a meaningful way to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence. Results indicate that ART adherence

  9. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare?Affiliated Adolescents: Prevalence Rates and Associations With Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare?documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare?identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between th...

  10. Accurate assessment of adherence: self-report and clinician report vs electronic monitoring of nebulizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Tracey; Goodacre, Lynne; Sutton, Chris; Pollard, Kim; Conway, Steven; Peckham, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    People with cystic fibrosis have a high treatment burden. While uncertainty remains about individual patient level of adherence to medication, treatment regimens are difficult to tailor, and interventions are difficult to evaluate. Self- and clinician-reported measures are routinely used despite criticism that they overestimate adherence. This study assessed agreement between rates of adherence to prescribed nebulizer treatments when measured by self-report, clinician report, and electronic monitoring suitable for long-term use. Seventy-eight adults with cystic fibrosis were questioned about their adherence to prescribed nebulizer treatments over the previous 3 months. Self-report was compared with clinician report and stored adherence data downloaded from the I-Neb nebulizer system. Adherence measures were expressed as a percentage of the prescribed regimen, bias was estimated by the paired difference in mean (95% CI) patient and clinician reported and actual adherence. Agreement between adherence measures was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (95% CI), and disagreements for individuals were displayed using Bland-Altman plots. Patient-identified prescriptions matched the medical record prescription. Median self-reported adherence was 80% (interquartile range, 60%-95%), whereas median adherence measured by nebulizer download was 36% (interquartile range, 5%-84.5%). Nine participants overmedicated and underreported adherence. Median clinician report ranged from 50% to 60%, depending on profession. Extensive discrepancies between self-report and clinician report compared with nebulizer download were identified for individuals. Self- and clinician-reporting of adherence does not provide accurate measurement of adherence when compared with electronic monitoring. Using inaccurate measures has implications for treatment burden, clinician prescribing practices, cost, and accuracy of trial data.

  11. Occlusal factors are not related to self-reported bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Visscher, Corine M; Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the contribution of various occlusal features of the natural dentition that may identify self-reported bruxers compared to nonbruxers. Two age- and sex-matched groups of self-reported bruxers (n = 67) and self-reported nonbruxers (n = 75) took part in the study. For each patient, the following occlusal features were clinically assessed: retruded contact position (RCP) to intercuspal contact position (ICP) slide length ( 4 mm, a deep bite), horizontal overlap (> 4 mm was considered a large horizontal overlap), incisor dental midline discrepancy (bruxism (dependent variable). Accuracy values to predict self-reported bruxism were unacceptable for all occlusal variables. The only variable remaining in the final regression model was laterotrusive interferences (P = .030). The percentage of explained variance for bruxism by the final multiple regression model was 4.6%. This model including only one occlusal factor showed low positive (58.1%) and negative predictive values (59.7%), thus showing a poor accuracy to predict the presence of self-reported bruxism (59.2%). This investigation suggested that the contribution of occlusion to the differentiation between bruxers and nonbruxers is negligible. This finding supports theories that advocate a much diminished role for peripheral anatomical-structural factors in the pathogenesis of bruxism.

  12. Sexual Orientation, Objective Height, and Self-Reported Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    Studies that have used mostly self-reported height have found that androphilic men and women are shorter than gynephilic men and women, respectively. This study examined whether an objective height difference exists or whether a psychosocial account (e.g., distortion of self-reports) may explain these putative height differences. A total of 863 participants, recruited at a Canadian university, the surrounding region, and through lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) events across Canada, self-reported their height and had their height measured. Androphilic men were shorter, on average, than gynephilic men. There was no objective height difference between gynephilic, ambiphilic, and androphilic women. Self-reported height, statistically controlling for objective height, was not related to sexual orientation. These findings are the first to show an objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. Also, the findings suggest that previous studies using self-reported height found part of a true objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. These findings have implications for existing biological theories of men's sexual orientation development.

  13. Self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorains, Felicity K; Stout, Julie C; Bradshaw, John L; Dowling, Nicki A; Enticott, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is considered a core feature of problem gambling; however, self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control may reflect disparate constructs. We examined self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in 39 treatment-seeking problem gamblers and 41 matched controls using a range of self-report questionnaires and laboratory inhibitory control tasks. We also investigated differences between treatment-seeking problem gamblers who prefer strategic (e.g., sports betting) and nonstrategic (e.g., electronic gaming machines) gambling activities. Treatment-seeking problem gamblers demonstrated elevated self-reported impulsivity, more go errors on the Stop Signal Task, and a lower gap score on the Random Number Generation task than matched controls. However, overall we did not find strong evidence that treatment-seeking problem gamblers are more impulsive on laboratory inhibitory control measures. Furthermore, strategic and nonstrategic problem gamblers did not differ from their respective controls on either self-reported impulsivity questionnaires or laboratory inhibitory control measures. Contrary to expectations, our results suggest that inhibitory dyscontrol may not be a key component for some treatment-seeking problem gamblers.

  14. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and associated features in German adolescents: A self-report survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möllmann, Anne; Dietel, Fanny A; Hunger, Antje; Buhlmann, Ulrike

    2017-08-01

    Prior research has not yet investigated the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in adolescents and young adults based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). In the current study, the point prevalence of BDD, comorbid symptoms, and associated features, such as appearance-related suicidality, level of insight or history of plastic surgeries, were examined in a non-clinical sample of German adolescents and young adults (n=308), between 15 and 21 years old, using self-report measures. Eleven participants (3.6%; 95% CI=[1.9, 5.8]) met DSM-5 criteria for BDD. Self-reported BDD (vs. no-BDD) was related to respondents showing significantly more obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and lower degrees of insight regarding appearance concerns. Significantly more adolescents and young adults with vs. without self-reported BDD (36.4% vs. 8.8%) reported appearance-related suicidal ideation. In conclusion, body dysmorphic symptoms are common in adolescents and young adults and are associated with high rates of comorbid symptoms and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare-Affiliated Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U; Trickett, Penelope K

    2017-02-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare-documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare-identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between the number of different types of maltreatment and mental health and risk behavior outcomes. Maltreatment was coded from case records using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) and participants were asked at mean age = 18.49 about childhood maltreatment experiences using the Comprehensive Trauma Interview (CTI). Results showed that an average of 48% of maltreatment found by the MCRAI for each type of maltreatment were unique cases not captured by the CTI, whereas an average of 40% self-reported maltreatment (CTI) was not indicated by the MCRAI. Analyses with outcomes showed generally, self-reported maltreatment, regardless of concordance with MCRAI, was related to the poorest outcomes. The difference in associations with the outcomes indicates both self-report and case record review data may have utility depending on the outcomes being assessed.

  16. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750

  17. Suicidal behavior, negative affect, gender, and self-reported delinquency in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Arata, Catalina; Bowers, David; O'Brien, Natalie; Morgan, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The associations among suicidal behavior, negative affect, and delinquency were assessed via an anonymous self-report survey administered to male and female college students ( N = 383). Contrary to our hypothesized results, there were no gender differences in rates of suicidal ideation and attempts. Confirming our hypotheses about gender differences, college men did report significantly more delinquent behavior than college women. College men also scored higher on the suicide-proneness scale, which contained a mixture of death-related, risk-related, and negative self- and health-related items. Furthermore, as predicted, college students with a history of depression, suicide ideation, and/or suicide attempts all reported significantly more delinquent behavior. Self-reported delinquency and current levels of depressive symptomology emerged as significant predictors of suicide-prone behavior for both college men and women, explaining 34% of the variance for women and 17% for men. Levels of engagement in suicide-prone behavior and feelings of depression were elevated in college students with any type of juvenile arrest history. Students with an arrest history were also more likely to have had a diagnosis of depression and to have engaged in suicide ideation in their past. These findings suggest there are complex links between depression, delinquency, and suicidal behavior in college men and women.

  18. [Self-reporting of road traffic accidents in a national survey of urban population in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paolo; Gutiérrez, César; Romaní, Franco

    2010-06-01

    To estimate the frequency of self-reporting of road traffic accidents in the previous year in the general population and to determine the associated factors. We conducted a secondary analysis of the data of the III National Survey of Drug Use in the General Population of Peru, 2006. We measured socio-demographical variables: age, gender, place of origin, educational level and marital status. We also evaluated the use of legal, illegal and medical drugs. The independent variable was the self-reporting of a road traffic accident. We performed the descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis of the socio-demographical variables and the drug use (legal and illegal), together with the self-reporting of the traffic accident. The frequency of reporting of road traffic accidents in the last year according to the survey was 2.93% (95%CI: 2.92-2.94). The associated factors for self-reporting of a road traffic accident were: to live in the jungle areas (OR: 2.03; 95%CI:1.55-2.65), male gender (OR: 1.79; 95%CI: 1.46-2.22), legal drugs use in the last year (OR: 1.98, 95%CI: 1.53-2.55), alcohol consumption in the last year (OR: 1.82; 95%CI: 1.44-2.32) and medical drugs use in the last year (OR: 2.45, 95%CI 1.63-3.68). The prevalence of self-reporting of road traffic accidents in the last year was very high compared to similar studies and other reporting sources. The variables associated with having had a traffic accident were: living in the jungle area, being male, legal drug use in the last month, especially alcohol and medical drug use in the last month. It is necessary to think carefully about the information system of the road traffic accidents in order to achieve a better picture of the problem putting emphasis in the legal drugs use.

  19. History of the medical licensing examination (uieop in Korea’s Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Lock Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe the training and medical licensing system (uieop for becoming a physician officer (uigwan during Korea’s Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392. In the Goryeo Dynasty, although no license was necessary to provide medical services to the common people, there was a licensing examination to become a physician officer. No other national licensing system for healthcare professionals existed in Korea at that time. The medical licensing examination was administered beginning in 958. Physician officers who passed the medical licensing examination worked in two main healthcare institutions: the Government Hospital (Taeuigam and Pharmacy for the King (Sangyakguk. The promotion and expansion of medical education differed depending on the historical period. Until the reign of King Munjong (1046-1083, medical education as a path to licensure was encouraged in order to increase the number of physician officers qualifying for licensure by examination; thus, the number of applicants sitting for the examination increased. However, in the late Goryeo Dynasty, after the officer class of the local authorities (hyangri showed a tendency to monopolize the examination, the Goryeo government limited the examination applications by this group. The medical licensing examination was divided into two parts: medicine and ‘feeling the pulse and acupuncture’ (jugeumeop. The Goryeo Dynasty followed the Chinese Dang Dynasty’s medical system while also taking a strong interest in the Chinese Song Dynasty’s ideas about medicine.

  20. [History of diaphanoscopy. Pictures from the history of otorhinolaryngology, illustrated by instruments from the collection of the Ingolstadt German Medical History Museum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H

    1998-05-01

    introduced this technique prior to Voltolini. Voltolini had died in 1889 and could not comment on this. A careful study of the original publications, however, shows that Cozzolino had only inspected the nasal cavity with retronasal illumination, but had not demonstrated the maxillary sinus by transillumination. The diaphanoscopy of the paranal sinuses was very soon elaborated to perfection: Vohse in 1890 applied it to the frontal sinuses, Gerber in 1900 invented a double diaphanoscope for examining both frontal sinuses simultaneously. Although the shortcomings of diaphanoscopy soon became apparent, the method was widely used for about half a century, but in the end could not compete with modern techniques of radiography and ultrasound. The history is related in detail and illustrated with numerous figures.

  1. Setting Standards for Medically-Based Running Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Heather K.; Herman, Daniel C.; Lear-Barnes, Leslie; Barnes, Robert; Chen, Cong; Greenberg, Scott; Vincent, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Setting standards for medically based running analyses is necessary to ensure that runners receive a high-quality service from practitioners. Medical and training history, physical and functional tests, and motion analysis of running at self-selected and faster speeds are key features of a comprehensive analysis. Self-reported history and movement symmetry are critical factors that require follow-up therapy or long-term management. Pain or injury is typically the result of a functional deficit above or below the site along the kinematic chain. PMID:25014394

  2. "Modern medical science and the divine providence of god": rethinking the place of religion in postwar U.S. medical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Janet; Abel, Emily K

    2014-10-01

    Drawing on a large cache of letters to John and Frances Gunther after the death of their son as well as memoirs and fiction by bereaved parents, this essay challenges the assumptions of secularization that infuse histories of twentieth-century American medicine. Many parents who experienced the death of children during the postwar period relied heavily on religion to help make sense of the tragedies medicine could not prevent. Parental accounts included expression of belief in divine intervention and the power of prayer, gratitude for God's role in minimizing suffering, confidence in the existence of an afterlife, and acceptance of the will of God. Historians seeking to understand how parents and families understood both the delivery of medical care and the cultural authority of medical science must integrate an understanding of religious experiences and faith into their work. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Transgender transitioning and change of self-reported sexual orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias K Auer

    Full Text Available Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known.We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM" patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation.In total, 32.9% (n = 23 MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10 FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132. Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF and 60% (FtM reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic, were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012. Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05.In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.

  4. Online self-report questionnaire on computer work-related exposure (OSCWE): validity and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhora, Keerin; Jalayondeja, Wattana; Jalayondeja, Chutima; Bhuanantanondh, Petcharatana; Dusadiisariyavong, Asadang; Upiriyasakul, Rujiret; Anuraktam, Khajornyod

    2014-07-01

    To develop an online, self-report questionnaire on computer work-related exposure (OSCWE) and to determine the internal consistency, face and content validity of the questionnaire. The online, self-report questionnaire was developed to determine the risk factors related to musculoskeletal disorders in computer users. It comprised five domains: personal, work-related, work environment, physical health and psychosocial factors. The questionnaire's content was validated by an occupational medical doctor and three physical therapy lecturers involved in ergonomic teaching. Twenty-five lay people examined the feasibility of computer-administered and the user-friendly language. The item correlation in each domain was analyzed by the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha; alpha). The content of the questionnaire was considered congruent with the testing purposes. Eight hundred and thirty-five computer users at the PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Limited registered to the online self-report questionnaire. The internal consistency of the five domains was: personal (alpha = 0.58), work-related (alpha = 0.348), work environment (alpha = 0.72), physical health (alpha = 0.68) and psychosocial factor (alpha = 0.93). The findings suggested that the OSCWE had acceptable internal consistency for work environment and psychosocial factors. The OSCWE is available to use in population-based survey research among computer office workers.

  5. The role of psychosocial and belief factors in self-reported cigarette smoking among university students in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Al-Dubai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore factors associated, specifically belief factors, with self-reported tobacco smoking status. A sample of 300 students was recruited from a private university in Malaysia. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administrated questionnaire that investigated various factors including socio-demographics, socio-economic status, smoking behavior and beliefs on tobacco smoking. The main tobacco use in this study sample was cigarettes and the estimated prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking was 10.3%. In bivariate analysis, self-reported cigarette smoking was significantly associated with socio-demographic, behavioral factors and faculty of study (P<0.05. In multivariate modeling, being male and a non-medical student, did not exercise, having a smoker father and brother or sister, suffering from financial difficulties and having the belief that smokers had more friends, all had statistically significant associations (P<0.05 with self-reported cigarette smoking. Social and interpersonal factors were associated with self-reported cigarette smoking status. A comprehensive health model focusing on changing the social norms of parent and sibling tobacco smoking and students’ beliefs, alongside nurturing skills of dealing with stressful situations, warrant implementation.

  6. [From otoscope to ophthalmoscope and back. The interwoven history of their invention and introduction into medical practice. Pictures from the history of otorhinolaryngology, illustrated by instruments from the collection of the Ingolstadt German Medical History Museum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H

    1995-11-01

    Friedrich Hofmann, medical officer in Burgsteinfurt, Westphalia, Germany, in 1841 described a concave mirror with a central aperture in it as the ideal instrument that allowed reflecting and focussing light into the external auditory canal and simultaneously inspecting the tympanic membrane without obstructing either the light or the view. He recommended his device also for the inspection of other concealed regions of the body. His invention was referred to by Martell Frank in his textbook of otology in 1845, but otherwise attracted no attention. Hermann Helmholtz, physiologist in Königsberg, East Prussia, devised his ophthalmoscope in 1850-51 in order to study the phenomenon of glowing eyes. With this instrument he was the first to see the retina of a living human. As means of illumination he used small panes of glass similar to cover-glasses which were introduced into the common visual axis of the observer and the subject at such an angle that light from a lamp was reflected into the subject's eye while the observer inspected the subject's retina through the glass and an appropriate lens. He recommended this type of illumination also for otoscopy. His invention was at once acclaimed throughout the world and opened completely new opportunities in ophthalmology. The slanting panes of glass, however, were not the ideal solution for illumination. It was only one year later that Ruete in Göttingen replaced them with a concave mirror with a central aperture, and there is every indication that Frank's report on Hofmann's mirror had suggested this technique to him. During the following two years quite a number of other modifications of the ophthalmoscope were constructed, all of them using the concave mirror with a central aperture, which soon became synonymous with the ophthalmoscope as such. Von Tröltsch, otologist and ophthalmologist in Würzburg, presented a concave mirror with a central aperture for otoscopy in Paris in 1855-56. His instrument was obviously

  7. Sexual orientation and medical history among Iranian people with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorashad, Behzad S; Roshan, Ghasem M; Reid, Alistair G; Aghili, Zahra; Hiradfar, Mehran; Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan; Talaei, Ali; Aarabi, Azadeh; Ghaemi, Nosrat; Taghehchian, Negin; Saberi, Hedieh; Farahi, Nazanin; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    To report sexual orientation, relationship status and medical history of Iranian people with Differences of Sex Development (DSD) who were raised female. Our participants consisted of nineteen 46,XY individuals with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS) and eighteen 46,XX individuals with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) who were raised as females and older than 13years. As well as their relationship status and detailed medical history, an expert psychiatrist assessed their sexual orientation by a semi-structured psychiatric interview with them and, where applicable, their parents. Five percent of CAH participants and 42% of CAIS participants were in a relationship, which was significantly different. All CAH individuals had been diagnosed at birth; 89% of CAIS had been diagnosed after puberty and due to primary amenorrhea and 11% were diagnosed in childhood due to inguinal hernia. Genital reconstructive surgery had been performed in 100% of CAH participants and 37% of CAIS. Regarding sexual contact experiences and sexual fantasies (androphilic, gynephilic or both), no significant differences were found. However, CAH females had significantly more gynephilic dreams (P=0.045). This study, notable as one of the rare from a non-western culture, described sexual, medical and socioeconomic status of 46,XX CAH and 46,XY CAIS individuals living in Iran. Although broadly in line with previous findings from Western cultures, Iranian CAH individuals had fewer romantic relationships, but in contrast to previous studies their sexual orientation was only different from CAIS in the contents of sexual dreams. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality issues of self-report of hypertension: analysis of a population representative sample of older adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alan Chung-Hong; Chang, Tsui-Lan

    2012-01-01

    The study was to evaluate the quality of self-report of hypertension and examine the factors associated with under- and over-reporting of hypertension in older Taiwanese. Data for this analysis were from the Social Environment and Biomarkers Study in Taiwan 2000, which involved a national sample of 1021 Taiwanese over 54 years of age. We performed binary classification tests to compare the prevalence rates of self-reported vs. clinically measured hypertension according to World Health Organization (WHO) (blood pressure ≥ 160/95 mm Hg or on hypertension medication) and JNC-6 (140/90 mm Hg or on hypertension medication) definitions. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the potential factors associated with under- or over-reporting of blood pressure status. Results showed the test characteristics of self-reports were: sensitivity 73%, specificity 93%, and kappa = 0.68 (p WHO definition; and sensitivity 51%, specificity 95% and kappa = 0.43 (p definition. Old age was associated with over-reporting whereas having no health checkup during the past 12 months was associated with under-reporting. The relatively low agreement between self-reports and clinically measured hypertension (JNC-6 definition) was mainly due to the lack of a well-defined hypertension practice guideline and the failure of clinicians to clearly inform patients of their diagnoses. The consistency of hypertension practice guidelines and the effectiveness of informing the patients of their diagnoses are two main factors impacting the quality of self-report of hypertension in elderly Taiwanese. Better self-reports of health data can improve the efficiency of public health surveillance efforts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. History of neurosciences at the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Badrisyah; Sayuti, Sani; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2007-02-01

    Universiti Sains Malaysia is the only institution in Malaysia which incorporates all fields of the neurosciences under one roof. The integration of basic and clinical neurosciences has made it possible for this institution to become an excellent academic and research centre. This article describes the history, academic contributions and scientific progress of neurosciences at Universiti Sains Malaysia.

  10. Veterinary Homeopathy: The Implications of Its History for Unorthodox Veterinary Concepts and Veterinary Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Dwight B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of veterinary homeopathy, its future and implications are discussed. The need for investigation into the validity of both allopathic and homeopathic claims is stressed and it is suggested that maintenance of quality is the key factor in any approach. (BH)

  11. [The life of medical historian Miki Sakae, and the "history of Korean medicine and of diseases in Korea"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho

    2005-12-01

    Miki Sakae was a Medical historian, who is well known for his studies of Korean medicine. He authored the renowned trilogy which dealt with subjects of Korean medicine and diseases, namely the "History of Korean Medicine and of Diseases in Korea", "Bibliography of Korean Medical Books", and "The Chronological Table of Medical Events in Korea"), during the Japanese Occupation period. He was born in 1903 in Osaka, Japan, and graduated from the Kyushu College of Medicine. In 1928 he was assigned to the Gyeongseong Imperial University's College of Medicine as a professor, and also served as Chief of the Suweon Provincial Hospital while he was staying in Korea. During the 18-year period of his stay, he widely collected medical books of Korea and also thoroughly studied them. He returned to Japan in 1944 due to the illness of his father, but continued his studies of Korean medicine, and in 1955 published the "History of Korean Medicine and of Diseases in Korea" for the first time. Following such accomplishment, "Bibliography of Korean Medical Books" was published in 1956, the next year, and finally "The Chronological Table of Medical Events in Korea" was published a few decades later, in 1985. Since the 1950s, aside of continuing to study and author the history of Korean medicine, he had also engaged himself in a joint effort associated with the members of the Medical History Association of Japan (which also included the alumni of the Kyushu College of Medicine) in a group study of Huseya Soteki, the first Japanese Experimental Physiologist. He also attempted at establishing an academic branch which could be referred to as Experimental Historical Studies of Medicine, by recreating the experiments of Huseya Soteki with his own son. Later he also expanded his interest and studies to the medical history of the world and also the area of Medical Ethics. But his ultimate interest and passion were always targeted at the Medicine of Korea, and the one consistent position he

  12. State of Digital Education Options in the areas of Medical Terminology and the History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochow, Maximilian; Steger, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Institutes of the history of medicine, the theory of medicine, and medical ethics at German institutions of higher learning have created various e-learning options that are based on different learning platforms and tailored to the specific curricular needs of individual teaching. Up to now no valid data has been available about the types of such e-learning options as well as possibilities of future developments thanks to coordinated cooperation among the different institutes. Methods: Of 31 German institutes of the history and theory of medicine and medical ethics that were asked to fill out a questionnaire, 30 answered, which equals a return rate of 97 per cent. The questionnaire was completed between July and August 2012 using a telephone survey. Results: Available to students online, digitally interactive teaching tools have boomed in the course of the last few years at German institutes of the history of medicine, the theory of medicine, and medical ethics. This trend is also reflected in a willingness of more than half of the respective departments (67 per cent) to expand their e-learning options on the basis of previous experience. The offered e-learning systems are accepted very well by the students. 57 per cent of the institutes stated, that 90-100 per cent of the students use the offered systems regularly. E-learning courses for terminology are offered particularly often, this is also reflected in the intended extension of these courses by the majority of institutes which plan to expand their e-learning systems. Conclusions: This article discusses the results of a comprehensive empirical survey about e-learning. It illustrates ways in which individual German institutes plan to expand their e-learning options in the future. Finally, specific proposals for cooperation among institutions (not just online) are introduced, the purpose of which is to produce synergy in e-learning. PMID:26038682

  13. Serum alpha-fetoprotein in the three trimesters of pregnancy: effects of maternal characteristics and medical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredaki, F E; Sciorio, C; Wright, A; Wright, D; Nicolaides, K H

    2015-07-01

    To define the contribution of maternal variables which influence the measured level of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in screening for pregnancy complications. Maternal characteristics and medical history were recorded and serum AFP was measured in women with a singleton pregnancy attending for three routine hospital visits at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6, 19 + 0 to 24 + 6 and 30 + 0 to 34 + 6 weeks' gestation. For pregnancies delivering phenotypically normal live births or stillbirths ≥ 24 weeks' gestation, variables from maternal demographic characteristics and medical history that are important in the prediction of AFP were determined from a linear mixed-effects multiple regression. Serum AFP was measured in 17 071 cases in the first trimester, 8583 in the second trimester and 8607 in the third trimester. Significant independent contributions to serum AFP were provided by gestational age, maternal weight, racial origin, gestational age at delivery and birth-weight Z-score of the neonate of the previous pregnancy and interpregnancy interval. Cigarette smoking was found to significantly affect serum AFP in the first trimester only. The machine used to measure serum AFP was also found to have a significant effect. Random-effects multiple regression analysis was used to define the contribution of maternal variables that influence the measured level of serum AFP and express the values as multiples of the median (MoMs). The model was shown to provide an adequate fit of MoM values for all covariates, both in pregnancies that developed pre-eclampsia and in those without this pregnancy complication. A model was fitted to express measured serum AFP across the three trimesters of pregnancy as MoMs, after adjusting for variables from maternal characteristics and medical history that affect this measurement. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. State of Digital Education Options in the areas of Medical Terminology and the History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochow, Maximilian; Steger, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Institutes of the history of medicine, the theory of medicine, and medical ethics at German institutions of higher learning have created various e-learning options that are based on different learning platforms and tailored to the specific curricular needs of individual teaching. Up to now no valid data has been available about the types of such e-learning options as well as possibilities of future developments thanks to coordinated cooperation among the different institutes. Of 31 German institutes of the history and theory of medicine and medical ethics that were asked to fill out a questionnaire, 30 answered, which equals a return rate of 97 per cent. The questionnaire was completed between July and August 2012 using a telephone survey. Available to students online, digitally interactive teaching tools have boomed in the course of the last few years at German institutes of the history of medicine, the theory of medicine, and medical ethics. This trend is also reflected in a willingness of more than half of the respective departments (67 per cent) to expand their e-learning options on the basis of previous experience. The offered e-learning systems are accepted very well by the students. 57 per cent of the institutes stated, that 90-100 per cent of the students use the offered systems regularly. E-learning courses for terminology are offered particularly often, this is also reflected in the intended extension of these courses by the majority of institutes which plan to expand their e-learning systems. This article discusses the results of a comprehensive empirical survey about e-learning. It illustrates ways in which individual German institutes plan to expand their e-learning options in the future. Finally, specific proposals for cooperation among institutions (not just online) are introduced, the purpose of which is to produce synergy in e-learning.

  15. International survey of self-reported medicine use among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ebba H; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine gender, age, and country variations in adolescents' self-reported medicine use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional school surveys of representative samples of 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys were used. The 1997/1998 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was referenced. A sta...

  16. Self-reported acne is not associated with prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, R.G.; Aben, K.K.; Verrneulen, S.H.; den Heijer, M.; van Oort, I.M.; van de Kerkhof, P.C.; Schalken, JA; Kiemeney, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Some studies have suggested an inverse association between acne vulgaris and the acne-related bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and prostate cancer (PCa). Self-reported acne might be an easily obtainable marker to identify men at relatively low risk of PCa and might be incorporated into

  17. Self-reported acne is not associated with prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Oort, I.M. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Schalken, J.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Some studies have suggested an inverse association between acne vulgaris and the acne-related bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and prostate cancer (PCa). Self-reported acne might be an easily obtainable marker to identify men at relatively low risk of PCa and might be incorporated into

  18. Children's self-reported pain at the dentist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, J.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to get an insight into the pain report of children over two sequential dental visits. Furthermore, it was studied whether age, previous dental experience, level of dental anxiety and injection site were of influence on the self-reported pain of children during the

  19. Readability of Self-Report Measures of Depression and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Behar, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    As the demand for accountability in service provision settings increases, the need for valid methods for assessing clinical outcomes is of particular importance. Self-report measures of functioning are particularly useful in the assessment of psychological functioning, but a vital factor in their validity and transportability is the reading level…

  20. Validation of self-reported cellular phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now there is ......BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now...... there is very little information published on this subject. METHODS: We conducted a study to validate the questionnaire used in an ongoing international case-control study on cellular phone use, the "Interphone study". Self-reported cellular phone use from 68 of 104 participants who took part in our study...... was compared with information derived from the network providers over a period of 3 months (taken as the gold standard). RESULTS: Using Spearman's rank correlation, the correlation between self-reported phone use and information from the network providers for cellular phone use in terms of the number of calls...

  1. Smoking Habit and Self Reported Periodontal Treatment Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study ai 's to determine by questionnaire the prevalence of smoking and its associated sociodemographic factors in adult dentate populations in Southwestern Nigeria and to examine self reported periodontal treatment experience between smokers and nonsmokers. A descriptive study of prevalence of smoking and ...

  2. Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes and associated risk factors among university employees in Jos, Nigeria. ... Concerted efforts to implement NCD prevention measures will serve to reduce the high burden of NCDs. Keywords: Non-communicable disease, Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Lifestyle, risk ...

  3. Self-Report and Psychophysiological Responses to Fear Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonana, Juan R.; Gonzalez-Javier, Francisca; Espin-Lopez, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relationship between self-report and psychophysiological responses to fear appeals and behavioral changes elicited by these. Ninety-two subjects watched one of four messages that varied in level of threat (high vs. low) and efficacy (high vs. low). Concomitantly, psychophysiological measures (heart rate and…

  4. Self-reported adverse effects as barriers to adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: In conclusion, self-reported barriers to optimal adherence included the use of non-prescribed drugs, and the presence of side effects such as insomnia, headaches and abdominal pain; while eating well was a facilitator. These findings emphasise the need for better communication between patients and ...

  5. A Self-Report Measure of Assertiveness in Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jane M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reported a self-report measure of adolescents' assertiveness. Items for the scale were presented to sixth-grade students. Factor analysis revealed factors of submissiveness, aggressiveness, and assertiveness. After the validational study, a small assertiveness training program indicated that training effects were obtained and could be generalized…

  6. Can Assertiveness be Distinguished From Aggressiveness Using Self Report Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Paul A.; And Others

    The differences between aggressiveness and assertiveness were examined using the Interpersonal Behavior Survey (IBS), a 136-item self-report questionnaire which was developed to distinguish between assertive and aggressive behaviors. Item level factor analysis was used in scale construction. Results indicated that: (1) the correlation between the…

  7. Reliability of self-reported eating disorders : Optimizing population screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Sihvola, Elina; Raevuori, Anu; Kaukoranta, Jutta; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess whether short self-report eating disorder screening questions are useful population screening methods. Method: We screened the female participants (N = 2881) from the 1975-1079 birth cohorts of Finnish twins for eating disorders, using several

  8. The Self-Report Family Inventory: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Selig, James P.; Trahan, Don P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers explored the factor structure of the Self-Report Family Inventory with a sample of heterosexual parents who have a son or daughter who self-identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Results suggest that a two-factor solution is appropriate. Research and clinical implications are offered. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  9. Personality, Organizational Orientations and Self-Reported Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, David; Castka, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To identify competencies connecting personality, organizational orientations and self-reported learning outcomes (as measured by concise Likert-type scales), for individuals who are learning for their organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Five concise factor scales were constructed to represent aspects of personality. Three further…

  10. Assessing the Accuracy of Self-Reported Self-Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Brinthaupt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-Talk Scale (STS; Brinthaupt, Hein, & Kramer, 2009 is a self-report measure of self-talk frequency that has been shown to possess acceptable reliability and validity. However, no research using the STS has examined the accuracy of respondents’ self-reports. In the present paper, we report a series of studies directly examining the measurement of self-talk frequency and functions using the STS. The studies examine ways to validate self-reported self-talk by (1 comparing STS responses from 6 weeks earlier to recent experiences that might precipitate self-talk, (2 using experience sampling methods to determine whether STS scores are related to recent reports of self-talk over a period of a week, and (3 comparing self-reported STS scores to those provided by a significant other who rated the target on the STS. Results showed that (1 overall self-talk scores, particularly self-critical and self-reinforcing self-talk, were significantly related to reports of context-specific self-talk; (2 high STS scorers reported talking to themselves significantly more often during recent events compared to low STS scorers, and, contrary to expectations, (3 friends reported less agreement than strangers in their self-other self-talk ratings. Implications of the results for the validity of the STS and for measuring self-talk are presented.

  11. Cultural values: can they explain self-reported health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roudijk, B.; Donders, R.; Stalmeier, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Self-reported health (SRH) is a measure widely used in health research and population studies. Differences in SRH have been observed between countries and cultural values have been hypothesized to partly explain such differences. Cultural values can be operationalized by two cultural

  12. Cognitive Abilities Relate to Self-Reported Hearing Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…

  13. Cognitive abilities relate to self-reported hearing disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zekveld, A.A.; George, E.L.J.; Houtgast, T.; Kramer, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH;

  14. Self-reported Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among university students in Eldoret, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all students who gave consent to participate in the study. Setting: Moi University's Town Campus, comprising the ...

  15. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined. Results. Average ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among employed South African adults. Participant ... acquired information on physical activity habits. Questions ..... How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and ...

  16. Predicting anxiety diagnoses with the youth self-report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Empirical studies that assess which items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) are the best predictors of anxiety disorders in adolescents are lacking, whereas several attempts have been made to construct an anxiety scale for the YSR. It is important to gap the bridge between existing YSR and DSM-IV

  17. Blouse sizing using self-reported body dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Byvoet, Michel B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The challenge for companies selling clothing over the internet is to combine a minimal requested effort of the visitor in entering (body) information with low-percentage no-fit returns. The purpose of this paper is to present a method that converts self-reported information to individual

  18. On history of medical radiology development in Ukraine: war period and after war reconstruction (1941-1947)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilipenko, M.Yi.; Artamonova, N.O.; Busigyina, N.O.; Kononenko, O.K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper is devoted to history of Ukrainian medical radiology development, namely main problems of its scientific and practical aspects of development during 1941-1947. The authors describe the work of Ukrainian roentgenologists and radiologists during the war and after war restoration of radiological service. Contribution of Ukrainian scientists to practical and theoretical achievements of military roentgenology is shown. Operative mobilization of all the forces for restoration of destroyed during the war years roentgenological service allowed to start scientific research within a short term (already in 1945)

  19. Self-Reported Knee Symptoms Assessed by KOOS Questionnaire in Downhill Runners (Skyrunners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Sergio Roi

    Full Text Available The knee is the weight-bearing joint most commonly associated with sports injuries, and therefore is most at risk of developing degenerative changes, including osteoarthritis. Skyrunners can be considered to be at risk of developing symptoms of post-traumatic osteoarthritis due to downhill running.The aim of this study was to analyze the health of the knee joints of a large group of these athletes via a specific self-report questionnaire.This study was carried out by asking the participants of seven official Skyraces (22.4±3.1 km length; 1596±393 m elevation to fill out a questionnaire. Information regarding age, sex, downhill elevation (m during training and competitions over the last month, and history of previous knee injury was also collected before the participants filled out the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS, which is a reliable and validated instrument designed to assess patients' opinions about their knees and associated problems that can result in post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Athletes were divided into six age groups (from 17 to 70 years and 12 groups based on the downhill gradient they had covered over the last month (from 1,000 to 40,000 m.Six hundred twenty-one questionnaires were collected from 45% of the participants in the seven races. Multivariate analysis revealed that self-reported KOOS scores were unrelated to age, sex and monthly downhill gradient. Only 74 (12% of the participants reported previous knee injuries. Significant differences in the five subscales of the KOOS were found between skyrunners with and without previous knee injuries (P<0.01.In the studied population, regular training for downhill running and participation in Skyraces could not be considered risk factors for subjective knee symptoms. Skyrunners with self-reported histories of knee injuries scored worse on all five subscales of the KOOS.

  20. Development of a Computerized Medical History Profile for Children in Out-of-Home Placement Using Medicaid Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Deena J.; Scribano, Philip V.; Purnell, Tanjala S.; Kelleher, Kelly J.

    2010-01-01

    Children in out-of-home placements (foster children) often undergo multiple placement changes while under the care of child protective services. This instability can result in lack of health care continuity and poor health outcomes. This brief describes the development of a medical history profile, or passport, developed from Medicaid administrative data. A purposive sample of 25 youths was provided from a county child protective services agency. The patients were systematically matched with data from the state Medicaid agency. Using Medicaid claims/encounter data we generated health care profiles that provided information on historical use of ambulatory care, diagnoses, providers seen, medications used, and inpatient admissions. Profiles were however limited by missing provider information and non-specific diagnostic coding. Despite these limitations, Medicaid data-based profiles show the potential to be a cost efficient method for improving continuity of care for children in out-of-home placement. PMID:19648702

  1. Mental Development of Children with Non-epileptic Paroxysmal States in Medical History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turovskaya N.G.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author studied mental functions disorders in children with a history of paroxysmal states of various etiologies and compared mental development disorder patterns in patients with epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysms. Study sample were 107 children, aged 6 to 10 years. The study used experimental psychological and neuropsychological techniques. According to the empirical study results, non-epileptic paroxysms unlike epileptic much less combined with a number of mental functions disorders and intelligence in general. However, non-epileptic paroxysmal states as well as epileptic seizure associated with increasing activity exhaustion and abnormal function of the motor analyzer (dynamic and kinesthetic dyspraxia. Visual memory disorders and modal-nonspecific memory disorders have more pronounced importance in the mental ontogenesis structure in children with convulsive paroxysms compared to children with cerebral pathology without paroxysms history

  2. 50th Anniversary International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) History Working Group and Its Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowski, Casimir A; Mihalas, George; Greenes, Robert; Yacubsohn, Valerio; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2017-01-01

    The IMIA History Working Group has as its first goal the editing of a volume of contributions from pioneers and leaders in the field of biomedical and health informatics (BMHI) to commemorate the 50th anniversary of IMIA's predecessor IFIP-TC4. This paper describes how the IMIA History WG evolved from an earlier Taskforce, and has focused on producing the edited book of original contributions. We describe its proposed outline of objectives for the personal stories, and national and regional society narratives, together with some comments on the evolution of Medinfo meeting contributions over the years, to provide a reference source for the early motivations of the scientific, clinical, educational, and professional changes that have influenced the historical course of our field.

  3. Self-reported adherence rates in glaucoma patients in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeola Olukorede Onakoya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nigerian glaucoma patients have an aversion to surgery and often rely on medical therapy to prevent disease progression. For medical therapy to be effective, the drugs have to be used as prescribed. Compliance has been reported to be low in the previous Nigerian studies. Aims: To evaluate the adherence rates of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG patients on medical therapy using patient self-report. Settings and Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional design was used to assess consecutive POAG patients attending a glaucoma clinic in a Tertiary Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Self-reported adherence was evaluated by trained interviewers. Comprehensive clinical assessment including intraocular pressure, gonioscopy, visual field assessment, and dilated binocular funduscopy using the slit lamp and + 78D fundus lens was done. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was done using MedCalc Statistical Software. Results: One hundred and fourteen patients reported adherence rates ranging from 10% to 100% with a mean adherence rate of 82.33% ± 19.25%. Only 31 respondents (27.2% reported 100% adherence. Duration of the disease was the only significant factor on multiple regression analysis. Conclusions: The development of strategies to improve compliance and persistence in glaucoma patients is crucial for the reduction of disease progression and blindness.

  4. Beliefs about medicines and self-reported adherence among pharmacy clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Akerlind, Ingemar; Jörgensen, Tove

    2007-12-01

    To analyse any association between general beliefs about medicines and self-reported adherence among pharmacy clients. Further, to examine general beliefs about medicines by background variables. The data were collected by questionnaires including the general section of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), the self-reporting Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS) and the following background variables: gender, age, education, country of birth and medicine use. The General BMQ measures beliefs about medicines as something harmful (General-Harm), beneficial (General-Benefit) and beliefs about how doctors prescribe medicines (General-Overuse). Of the 324 participating pharmacy clients, 54% were considered non-adherent. An association was found between General-Harm and adherence. Adherent behaviour and higher level of education were associated respectively with more beneficial and less harmful beliefs about medicines. Those born in the Nordic countries regarded medicines as more beneficial. Current users of herbal medicines and non-users of medicines were more likely to believe that doctors overprescribed medicines. General-Harm was associated with adherence to medication among Swedish pharmacy clients. Country of birth, education and medicine use influenced beliefs about medicines. Increased awareness of the patient's beliefs about medicines is needed among healthcare providers. We should encourage patients to express their views about medicines in order to optimize and personalize the information process. This can stimulate concordance and adherence to medication.

  5. Medical record review to recover missing data in a Portuguese birth cohort: agreement with self-reported data collected by questionnaire and inter-rater variability Revisión de registros médicos para recuperar datos incompletos en una cohorte de nacimiento portuguesa: concordancia con datos recogidos por cuestionario y variabilidad interobservador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Alves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the yield of medical record review to recover missing data originally collected by questionnaire, to analyze the agreement between these two data sources and to determine interobserver variability in clinical record review. Methods: We analyzed data from a birth cohort of 8,127 women who were consecutively recruited after giving birth from 2005-2006. Recruitment was conducted at all public maternity units of Porto, Portugal. We reviewed the medical records of 3,657 women with missing data in the baseline questionnaire and assessed agreement between these two sources by using information from participants with data from both sources. Interobserver variability was assessed by using 400 randomly selected clinical records. Results: Data on pregnancy complications and maternal anthropometric parameters were successfully recovered. Agreement between the questionnaire and records in family history data was fair, particularly for cardiovascular disease [k=0.27; 95% confidence interval (95%CI: 0.23-0.32]. The highest agreement was observed for personal history of diabetes (k=0.82; 95%CI 0.70-0.93, while agreement for hypertension was moderate (k=0.60; 95%CI 0.50-0.69. Discrepancies in prepregnancy body mass index classes were observed in 10.3% women. Data were highly consistent between the two reviewers, with the highest agreement found for gestational diabetes (k=1.00 and birth weight (99.5% concordance. Conclusion: Data from the medical records and questionnaire were concordant with regard to pregnancy and well-known risk factors. The low interobserver variability did not threaten the precision of our data.Objetivo: Evaluar el rendimiento de la revisión de registros médicos para completar datos originalmente recogidos por cuestionario, y analizar la concordancia entre ambas fuentes de datos y la variabilidad interobservador en la revisión de registros médicos. Métodos: Cohorte de nacimiento con 8.127 mujeres reclutadas de

  6. The effective and preventive factors of taking patients\\' history from the viewpoint of the students of Birjand Medical School in 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Khazaee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taking patients' history and doing physical examinations help physicians to diagnose correctly and treat accordingly. There are several factors which may affect the quality of taking patients' history. This study aims to assess determinants of taking patients' history from the viewpoint of the students of Birjand Medical School. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in 2010-2011 on all 137 medical trainees and interns studying at Birjand Medical School. To determine the students’ attitudes towards history taking and to evaluate their performance a questionnaire and a check-list were used, respectively. The data analyzed using SPSS software. Descriptive-deductive statistics (T-test were applied on the data. Results: The average score of the motivational factors was more than the preventive factors. Among the motivational factors, the statement “taking patient history is a basis of proper diagnosis and treatment” (3.58 and among the preventive factors the statement “taking patient history just to evade responsibility”(2.57had the highest scores. Moreover, there was a significant difference between the performance of trainees and interns in taking and recording patients’ history (P<0.005. Conclusion: Although the students held a positive attitude toward taking patients' history, they didn’t have satisfactory performance in recording disease symptoms, diagnosis and treatment plans this entails more attention. Observation of trainers on the process of history taking may help.

  7. [Maimonides, a physician in the 12 century. Contribution to the history of medical ethics and deontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, B

    2000-01-01

    Maimonides, Moses ben Maimon (1135-1204), Jewish physician, philosopher and scholar was the first after Hippocrates to write a text of a "prayer" he spoke out at the beginning of his medical profession, e. i. when he took oath. The text of "Maimonides's prayer" is today obligatory in some schools of medicine in the United States of America.

  8. Daniel Alcides Carrion (1857-1885) and a history of medical martyrdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pranab; Chandra, Shivika; Biswas, Tamoghna

    2015-11-01

    Daniel Carrion, a sixth-year medical student, died while investigating the effects of self-inoculation of the causative organism of Oroya Fever and Bartonellosis and thereby contributed to understanding of the disease before the organisms had been identified. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Burnout syndrome among non-consultant hospital doctors in Ireland: relationship with self-reported patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Che Fatehah Che; Henn, Patrick; Smith, Simon; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P

    2017-10-01

    Intensive workload and limited training opportunities for Irish non-consultant hospital doctors (NCHDs) has a negative effect on their health and well-being, and can result in burnout. Burnout affects physician performance and can lead to medical errors. This study examined the prevalence of burnout syndrome among Irish NCHDs and its association with self-reported medical error and poor quality of patient care. A cross-sectional quantitative survey-based design. All teaching hospitals affiliated with University College Cork. NCHDs of all grades and specialties. The following instruments were completed by all participants: Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey (MBI-HSS), assessing three categories of burnout syndrome: Emotional exhaustion (EE), Personal Achievement (PA) and Depersonalization (DP); questions related to self-reported medical errors/poor patient care quality and socio-demographic information. Self-reported measures of burnout and poor quality of patient care. Prevalence of burnout among physicians (n = 265) was 26.4%. There was a significant gender difference for EE and DP, but none for PA. A positive weak correlation was observed between EE and DP with medical error or poor patient care. A negative association was reported between PA and medical error and reduced quality of patient care. Burnout is prevalent among NCHDs in Ireland. Burnout syndrome is associated with self-reported medical error and quality of care in this sample population. Measures need to be taken to address this issue, with a view to protecting health of NCHDs and maintaining quality of patient care. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. A history of shaker nurse-herbalists, health reform, and the american botanical medical movement (1830-1860).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libster, Martha M

    2009-12-01

    During the mid 19th century, herbal remedies were the platform for a major health reform movement in America known as the Botanical Medical Movement (BMM). A number of histories have been written on the BMM from the perspectives of physicians and pharmacists. This article describes the history of nurse-herbalism during the period and the impact that Shaker nurses, in particular, had on the BMM. The article traces the history and findings of a triangulated case study. Shaker nurses used herbs extensively in their caring and curing practices. They applied the botanical remedies recommended by BMM leaders. The nurses were also expert herbal medicine makers who used their own remedies in patient care. The Shaker infirmary was the nurses' behind-the-scenes research and development laboratory for the Shaker herbal cottage industry, which ultimately developed into an international, entrepreneurial endeavor. The Shaker infirmary was the nurses' organized proving ground for the implementation of the botanical health reforms of the mid 19th century. The nurse-herbalists' contribution to the promotion and production of herbal remedies had a significant impact on the success of botanical health reform in America.

  11. Acculturation and self-reported health among Hispanics using a socio-behavioral model: the North Texas Healthy Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katandria L; Carroll, Joan F; Fulda, Kimberly G; Cardarelli, Kathryn; Cardarelli, Roberto

    2010-02-02

    Acculturation is a continuous, firsthand contact with other cultures functioning at both group and individual levels and is reflected in our culturally diverse society, calling for a greater understanding of the environmental and cultural impact on health. Self-reported health (SRH), a robust and well validated predictor of future mortality for all racial/ethnic groups, has been differentially reported by Hispanics compared to whites, especially based on their acculturation status. This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and SRH among Hispanics. An adapted Andersen framework was used to develop logistic regression models to assess for an association between acculturation and general health status. Hispanic participants (n = 135), as part of the North Texas Healthy Heart Study, were administered standardized questionnaires on acculturation, psychosocial measures which included sense of control, stress, depression and social support and a single item SRH measure. In addition, physiological measurements and demographic characteristics including age, gender, body mass index, medical history, and socioeconomic status were also obtained. Bivariate analyses found Mexican-oriented participants 3.16 times more likely to report fair/poor SRH compared to Anglo-oriented Hispanics. Acculturation was also associated with SRH in multiple regression models controlling for enabling, need, and predisposing factors together (OR: 3.53, 95% CI: 1.04, 11.97). Acculturation status was associated with SRH after accounting for other underlying factors. Medical and public health professionals should promote the use of acculturation measures in order to better understand its role in Hispanic behaviors, health outcomes and health care use. Such research findings will contribute to the design of culturally sensitive prevention and treatment strategies for diverse and immigrant populations.

  12. Acculturation and self-reported health among Hispanics using a socio-behavioral model: the North Texas Healthy Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulda Kimberly G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acculturation is a continuous, firsthand contact with other cultures functioning at both group and individual levels and is reflected in our culturally diverse society, calling for a greater understanding of the environmental and cultural impact on health. Self-reported health (SRH, a robust and well validated predictor of future mortality for all racial/ethnic groups, has been differentially reported by Hispanics compared to whites, especially based on their acculturation status. This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and SRH among Hispanics. An adapted Andersen framework was used to develop logistic regression models to assess for an association between acculturation and general health status. Methods Hispanic participants (n = 135, as part of the North Texas Healthy Heart Study, were administered standardized questionnaires on acculturation, psychosocial measures which included sense of control, stress, depression and social support and a single item SRH measure. In addition, physiological measurements and demographic characteristics including age, gender, body mass index, medical history, and socioeconomic status were also obtained. Results Bivariate analyses found Mexican-oriented participants 3.16 times more likely to report fair/poor SRH compared to Anglo-oriented Hispanics. Acculturation was also associated with SRH in multiple regression models controlling for enabling, need, and predisposing factors together (OR: 3.53, 95% CI: 1.04, 11.97. Conclusions Acculturation status was associated with SRH after accounting for other underlying factors. Medical and public health professionals should promote the use of acculturation measures in order to better understand its role in Hispanic behaviors, health outcomes and health care use. Such research findings will contribute to the design of culturally sensitive prevention and treatment strategies for diverse and immigrant populations.

  13. Measuring Patient Adherence to Malaria Treatment: A Comparison of Results from Self-Report and a Customised Electronic Monitoring Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruxvoort, Katia; Festo, Charles; Cairns, Matthew; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Mayaya, Frank; Kachur, S Patrick; Schellenberg, David; Goodman, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Self-report is the most common and feasible method for assessing patient adherence to medication, but can be prone to recall bias and social desirability bias. Most studies assessing adherence to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have relied on self-report. In this study, we use a novel customised electronic monitoring device--termed smart blister packs--to examine the validity of self-reported adherence to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in southern Tanzania. Smart blister packs were designed to look identical to locally available AL blister packs and to record the date and time each tablet was removed from packaging. Patients obtaining AL at randomly selected health facilities and drug stores were followed up at home three days later and interviewed about each dose of AL taken. Blister packs were requested for pill count and extraction of smart blister pack data. Data on adherence from both self-report verified by pill count and smart blister packs were available for 696 of 1,204 patients. There was no difference between methods in the proportion of patients assessed to have completed treatment (64% and 67%, respectively). However, the percentage taking the correct number of pills for each dose at the correct times (timely completion) was higher by self-report than smart blister packs (37% vs. 24%; psmart blister packs, 64% of patients completing treatment did not take the correct number of pills per dose or did not take each dose at the correct time interval. Smart blister packs resulted in lower estimates of timely completion of AL and may be less prone to recall and social desirability bias. They may be useful when data on patterns of adherence are desirable to evaluate treatment outcomes. Improved methods of collecting self-reported data are needed to minimise bias and maximise comparability between studies.

  14. Measuring Patient Adherence to Malaria Treatment: A Comparison of Results from Self-Report and a Customised Electronic Monitoring Device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Bruxvoort

    Full Text Available Self-report is the most common and feasible method for assessing patient adherence to medication, but can be prone to recall bias and social desirability bias. Most studies assessing adherence to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs have relied on self-report. In this study, we use a novel customised electronic monitoring device--termed smart blister packs--to examine the validity of self-reported adherence to artemether-lumefantrine (AL in southern Tanzania.Smart blister packs were designed to look identical to locally available AL blister packs and to record the date and time each tablet was removed from packaging. Patients obtaining AL at randomly selected health facilities and drug stores were followed up at home three days later and interviewed about each dose of AL taken. Blister packs were requested for pill count and extraction of smart blister pack data.Data on adherence from both self-report verified by pill count and smart blister packs were available for 696 of 1,204 patients. There was no difference between methods in the proportion of patients assessed to have completed treatment (64% and 67%, respectively. However, the percentage taking the correct number of pills for each dose at the correct times (timely completion was higher by self-report than smart blister packs (37% vs. 24%; p<0.0001. By smart blister packs, 64% of patients completing treatment did not take the correct number of pills per dose or did not take each dose at the correct time interval.Smart blister packs resulted in lower estimates of timely completion of AL and may be less prone to recall and social desirability bias. They may be useful when data on patterns of adherence are desirable to evaluate treatment outcomes. Improved methods of collecting self-reported data are needed to minimise bias and maximise comparability between studies.

  15. History and Outcomes of 50 Years of Physician-Scientist Training in Medical Scientist Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Clifford V; Akabas, Myles H; Andersen, Olaf S

    2017-10-01

    Physician-scientists are needed to continue the great pace of recent biomedical research and translate scientific findings to clinical applications. MD-PhD programs represent one approach to train physician-scientists. MD-PhD training started in the 1950s and expanded greatly with the Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP), launched in 1964 by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the National Institutes of Health. MD-PhD training has been influenced by substantial changes in medical education, science, and clinical fields since its inception. In 2014, NIGMS held a 50th Anniversary MSTP Symposium highlighting the program and assessing its outcomes. In 2016, there were over 90 active MD-PhD programs in the United States, of which 45 were MSTP supported, with a total of 988 trainee slots. Over 10,000 students have received MSTP support since 1964. The authors present data for the demographic characteristics and outcomes for 9,683 MSTP trainees from 1975-2014. The integration of MD and PhD training has allowed trainees to develop a rigorous foundation in research in concert with clinical training. MSTP graduates have had relative success in obtaining research grants and have become prominent leaders in many biomedical research fields. Many challenges remain, however, including the need to maintain rigorous scientific components in evolving medical curricula, to enhance research-oriented residency and fellowship opportunities in a widening scope of fields targeted by MSTP graduates, to achieve greater racial diversity and gender balance in the physician-scientist workforce, and to sustain subsequent research activities of physician-scientists.

  16. Rembrandt’s Jewish Physician—Dr Ephraim Bueno (1599–1665: A Brief Medical History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Weisz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Medicine in the Middle Ages was, and ever since remained, one of the main preoccupations of the professionally restricted Jews. One of the medical dynasties on the Iberian Peninsula was the Bueno (Bonus family. Following the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and their spread in Europe, these Iberian physicians became successful everywhere—just as the Buenos were in the Netherlands.

  17. Health care among adults with self-reported diabetes mellitus in Brazil, National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Chueiri, Patricia Sampaio; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2015-12-01

    To describe the care measurements provided to patients with self-reported diabetes mellitus in Brazil. Data from the Brazilian National Health Survey (2013) were used. This is a cross-sectional population-based study in which the subjects with self-reported diabetes mellitus answered questions concerning their use of health services and access to medicine. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes mellitus was 6.2%, while 11.5% of the population had never undergone a glucose testing. From the adults with diabetes mellitus, 80.2% had taken medications two weeks before the interview, 57.4% used the Popular Pharmacy Program, 73.2% received medical care, and 47.1% were cared for in the Health Basic Units. In 65.2%, the physician who cared for them in the last appointment was the same from previous ones, 95.3% of the patients were able to perform the required complementary examinations, and 83.3% could go to the appointments with a specialist. About 35.6 and 29.1% of the subjects with diabetes mellitus reported feet and eyes examination, respectively. About 13.4% declared previous hospitalization owing to diabetes or any complications, and 7.0% mentioned limitations in their daily activities owing to the disease. In general, women and the elderly people, those with higher education levels, white, and those living in the south and southeastern regions showed a higher prevalence of the disease and greater access to services, medicine, and appointments. The care reported by patients with diabetes, which is essential to maintain their quality of life and prevent serious outcomes, seemed, in most cases, to be adequate.

  18. From Roentgen to magnetic resonance imaging: the history of medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatliff, James H; Morris, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging has advanced in remarkable ways since the discovery of x-rays 120 years ago. Today's radiologists can image the human body in intricate detail using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, ultrasound, and various other modalities. Such technology allows for improved screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease, but it also comes with risks. Many imaging modalities expose patients to ionizing radiation, which potentially increases their risk of developing cancer in the future, and imaging may also be associated with possible allergic reactions or risks related to the use of intravenous contrast agents. In addition, the financial costs of imaging are taxing our health care system, and incidental findings can trigger anxiety and further testing. This issue of the NCMJ addresses the pros and cons of medical imaging and discusses in detail the following uses of medical imaging: screening for breast cancer with mammography, screening for osteoporosis and monitoring of bone mineral density with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, screening for congenital hip dysplasia in infants with ultrasound, and evaluation of various heart conditions with cardiac imaging. Together, these articles show the challenges that must be met as we seek to harness the power of today's imaging technologies, as well as the potential benefits that can be achieved when these hurdles are overcome.

  19. Anti-tuberculosis medication-induced oculogyric crisis and the importance of proper history taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong LH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lin Ho Wong,1 Endean Tan2 1University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore Abstract: Oculogyric crisis (OGC, frequently caused by medications such as antiemetics, antidepressants, and anti-epileptics, is an acute dystonic reaction of the ocular muscles. It consists of wide-staring gaze (lasting variably from seconds to minutes, seizures, and a widely-opened mouth. To date, there have been no reports of anti-tuberculosis medications such as rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide or ethambutol inducing OGC. It is of utmost importance to recognize this adverse reaction, which could be incorrectly diagnosed as an anaphylactic-like reaction. In this paper, we highlight a case of a 66-year-old Indian man who presented with OGC induced by anti-tuberculosis medications which was initially suspected to be an anaphylactic reaction and was subsequently halted with the administration of diphenhydramine. Keywords: oculogyric crisis, tuberculosis, rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, adverse drug reaction 

  20. History of the medical uses of radiation regulatory and voluntary standards of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.; Kathren, R.L.; Willis, Ch.A.

    1996-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is on the historical development of safety in the use of radiation or radioactive materials in medicine. However, to provide better understanding and perspective on this history, it must be interwoven with major events and advancements in the development and use of radiation, particularly in the field of medicine. Since this history, as well as that of major events that stimulated the development of radiation protection standard, is extensive, only a very brief overview can be given here. Thus, a sufficient list of references is also provided to allow further examination of detailed historical documentation, and to provide an easier entry into further research. Also, some identification of individuals who have made important contributions to the development of standards, but who are not widely identified in either the relevant standards or the historical literature, is included. This will aid the serious historian in examining files of organizations to uncover facts or nationals that could better explain historical events or developments. (author), 233 Refs., 1 Tabs

  1. Impulsive aggression, delay discounting, and adolescent suicide attempts: effects of current psychotropic medication use and family history of suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Reynolds, Brady; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Sheftall, Arielle H; Ackerman, John; Stevens, Jack; Mendoza, Kristen; Campo, John V; Brent, David A

    2015-03-01

    Impulsive-aggressive behaviors have been consistently implicated in the phenomenology, neurobiology, and familial aggregation of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to extend previous work by examining laboratory behavioral measures of delayed reward impulsivity and impulsive aggression in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison subjects. Using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDQ), the authors examined delay discounting and impulsive aggression in 40 adolescent suicide attempters, ages 13-18, and 40 never-suicidal, demographically matched psychiatric comparison subjects. Overall, suicide attempters and comparison subjects performed similarly on the PSAP and DDQ. There was a significant group by current psychotropic medication use interaction (p=0.013) for mean aggressive responses on the PSAP. Group comparisons revealed that attempters emitted more aggressive responses per provocation than comparison subjects, only in those not on psychotropic medication (p=0.049), whereas for those currently treated with psychotropic medication, there were no group differences (p>0.05). This interaction effect was specific to current antidepressant use. Among all subjects, family history of suicidal behavior (suicide or suicide attempt) in first degree relatives was significantly correlated with both delay discounting (r=-0.22, p=0.049), and aggressive responding (r=0.27, p=0.015). Family history of suicidal behavior was associated with delay discounting, but not with aggressive responding on the PSAP, after controlling for relevant covariates. In this study, impulsive-aggressive responding was associated with suicide attempt only in those not being treated with antidepressants. Future work to replicate and extend these findings could have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of depressed suicide attempters, many of whom are affected by impulsive aggression.

  2. Texas Medication Algorithm Project, phase 3 (TMAP-3): clinical results for patients with a history of mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppes, Trisha; Rush, A John; Dennehy, Ellen B; Crismon, M Lynn; Kashner, T Michael; Toprac, Marcia G; Carmody, Thomas J; Brown, E Sherwood; Biggs, Melanie M; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Witte, Bradley P; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Miller, Alexander L; Altshuler, Kenneth Z; Shon, Steven P

    2003-04-01

    The Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP) assessed the clinical and economic impact of algorithm-driven treatment (ALGO) as compared with treatment-as-usual (TAU) in patients served in public mental health centers. This report presents clinical outcomes in patients with a history of mania (BD), including bipolar I and schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type, during 12 months of treatment beginning March 1998 and ending with the final active patient visit in April 2000. Patients were diagnosed with bipolar I disorder or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type, according to DSM-IV criteria. ALGO was comprised of a medication algorithm and manual to guide treatment decisions. Physicians and clinical coordinators received training and expert consultation throughout the project. ALGO also provided a disorder-specific patient and family education package. TAU clinics had no exposure to the medication algorithms. Quarterly outcome evaluations were obtained by independent raters. Hierarchical linear modeling, based on a declining effects model, was used to assess clinical outcome of ALGO versus TAU. ALGO and TAU patients showed significant initial decreases in symptoms (p =.03 and p <.001, respectively) measured by the 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-24) at the 3-month assessment interval, with significantly greater effects for the ALGO group. Limited catch-up by TAU was observed over the remaining 3 quarters. Differences were also observed in measures of mania and psychosis but not in depression, side-effect burden, or functioning. For patients with a history of mania, relative to TAU, the ALGO intervention package was associated with greater initial and sustained improvement on the primary clinical outcome measure, the BPRS-24, and the secondary outcome measure, the Clinician-Administered Rating Scale for Mania (CARS-M). Further research is planned to clarify which elements of the ALGO package contributed to this between-group difference.

  3. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Jari; Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (pbruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects.

  4. Self-reported delinquency in a probation service in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lylla Cysne Frota D'Abreu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International research shows that self-reported delinquency is a successful strategy to improve data collection on the identification of the so-called "dark figure", ie, offenses that are not reported to the justice system. This technique, however, is still little used in Brazil. Through documentary research from data archive, this study described the socio-demographic variables and the severity of unofficial delinquency of a sample of 211 adolescents who attended a probation service in Brazil. The results showed that adolescents in conflict with the law have delinquent engagement with higher polymorphism and intensity than the official data are able to identify. Self-reported delinquency can improve data collection, provide more reliable rates and guide more assertive intervention actions in these services.

  5. Are medical students confident in taking a sexual history? An assessment on attitude and skills from an upper middle income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Farnaza; Chin, Ken Lee; Ng, ChirkJenn; Miskan, Maizatullifah; Lee, Verna KarMun; Isa, Mohammad Rodi

    2015-06-17

    Sexual history training during undergraduate education is essential for preparing future doctors to handle patients' sexual health concerns. The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes and perceptions of final-year medical students in Malaysia toward sexual history taking and the training they receive from their medical schools. The study used a cross-sectional survey of 379 final-year medical students from three medical schools in Malaysia. Students were asked to rate their attitudes and perceptions regarding training on taking sexual histories using a newly developed questionnaire with good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73). Ethics approval was obtained from the relevant medical schools, and the statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS, Version 20.0. The mean age of participants was 23.58 ± 0.65 SD. Participants reported high interest in sexual health and felt it was important for doctors to know how to take a sexual history (95%). Among the participants, only half felt comfortable in taking sexual histories from patients. The participants identified cultural and religious differences between the doctor and the patient as a potential barrier for discussing sexual health. Participants were aware of their own practice and ability, as well as their limitations, in taking sexual histories. Less than half (46%) felt that the training they received adequately prepared them to take sexual histories. This study identified gaps in sexual health training among medical schools in Malaysia. The delivery of sexual health education program should incorporate confidence building and to make students feel comfortable to take sexual histories from patients. The barrier caused by differences in culture or religion between a doctor and a patient may be overcome through cross cultural and cultural competency training. This is important for multi-faith, multi cultural societies such as Malaysia and other similar countries.

  6. Accuracy of self-reports of fecal occult blood tests and test results among individuals in the carpentry trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Samsa, Gregory P; Dement, John; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Green, La Sonya G; Pompeii, Lisa; Ransohoff, David F

    2003-11-01

    Inaccuracy in self-reports of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening procedures (e.g., over- or underreporting) may interfere with individuals adhering to appropriate screening intervals, and can blur the true effects of physician recommendations to screen and the effects of interventions designed to promote screening. We assessed accuracy of self-report of having a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) within a 1-year window based on receipt of FOBT kits among individuals aged 50 and older in the carpentry trade (N = 658) who were off-schedule for having had a FOBT. Indices of evaluating accuracy of self-reports (concordance, specificity, false-positive and false-negative rates) were calculated relative to receipt of a mailed FOBT. Among those who mailed a completed FOBT, we assessed accuracy of reporting the test result. Participants underestimated having performed a FOBT (false-negative rate of 44%). Accuracy was unrelated to perceptions of getting or worrying about CRC or family history. Self-reports of having a negative FOBT result more consistently matched the laboratory result (specificity 98%) than having a positive test result (sensitivity 63%). Contrary to other findings, participants under- rather than over reported FOBT screening. Results suggest greater efforts are needed to enhance accurate recall of FOBT screening.

  7. Self-Reported bruxism and associated factors in Israeli adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emodi Perlman, A; Lobbezoo, F; Zar, A; Friedman Rubin, P; van Selms, M K A; Winocur, E

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the epidemiological characteristics of sleep and awake bruxism (SB and AB) in adolescents. The aims of the study were: to assess the prevalence rates of self-reported SB and AB in Israeli adolescents; to determine the associations between SB/AB and several demographical, exogenous and psychosocial factors in Israeli adolescents; and to investigate the possible concordance between SB and AB. The study made use of a questionnaire. The study population included 1000 students from different high schools in the centre of Israel. Prevalence of self-reported SB and AB in the Israeli adolescents studied was 9·2% and 19·2%, respectively. No gender difference was found regarding the prevalence of SB and AB. Multiple variable regression analysis revealed that the following predicting variables were related to SB: temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002) and feeling stressed (P = 0·001). The following predicting variables were related to AB: age (P = 0·018), temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002), oro-facial pain (P = 0·006), and feeling stressed (P = 0·002) or sad (P = 0·006). A significant association was found between SB and AB; that is, an individual reporting SB had a higher probability of reporting AB compared with an individual who did not report SB (odds ratio = 5·099). Chewing gum was the most common parafunction reported by adolescents. The results of this study demonstrate that self-reports of AB and SB are common in the Israeli adolescents population studied and are not related to gender. The significant correlation found between SB and AB may be a confounding bias that affects proper diagnosis of bruxism through self-reported questionnaires only. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Accuracy in the medication history and reconciliation errors in the emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés-Lázaro, Ana M; Sevilla-Sánchez, Daniel; Ortega-Romero, M del Mar; Codina-Jané, Carles; Calderón-Hernanz, Beatriz; Sánchez-Sánchez, Miquel

    2015-10-05

    To assess the accuracy of pharmaceutical anamnesis obtained at the Emergency Department (ED) of a tertiary referral hospital and to determine the prevalence of medication reconciliation errors (RE). This was a single-center, prospective, interventional study. The home medication list obtained by a pharmacist was compared with the one recorded by a doctor to identify inaccuracies. Subsequently, the home medication list was compared with the active prescription at the ED. All unexplained discrepancies were checked with the doctor in charge to evaluate if a RE has occurred. An univariate analysis was performed to identify factors associated with RE. The pharmacist identified a higher number of drugs than doctors (6.89 versus 5.70; P<0.05). Only 39% of the drugs obtained by doctors were properly written down in the patient's record. The main cause of discrepancy was omission of information regarding the name of the drug (39%) or its dosage (33%). One hundred and fifty-seven RE were identified and they affected 85 patients (43%), mainly related to information omission (62%). Age and polymedication were identified as main risk factors of RE. The presence of a caregiver or relative in the ED was judged to be a protective factor. No relationship was found between inaccuracies in the registries and RE. The process of obtaining a proper pharmaceutical anamnesis still needs improvement. The pharmacist may play a role in the process of obtaining a good quality anamnesis and increase patient safety by detecting RE. Better information systems are needed to avoid this type of incidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. John Foster Dulles, his medical history and its impact on Cold War politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Theodore N; Willett, Christopher G

    2018-01-01

    John Foster Dulles was the United States Secretary of State during the administration of President Dwight D Eisenhower. At the height of the Cold War, Dulles was Eisenhower's emissary, traveling over 450,000 international miles, leading United States foreign policy. In November of 1956, during an international crisis involving the Suez Canal, Dulles became ill and underwent an operation for a perforated colon cancer. During much of his impactful term as Secretary of State, Dulles was being treated for this cancer that ultimately resulted in his death in May of 1959. This paper highlights the medical care of John Foster Dulles and the global events during his illness.

  10. Text mining a self-report back-translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2016-06-01

    There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A Self-report of reading disabilities for adults: ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Giménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a self-report questionnaire on reading-writing difficulties for adults in Spanish (ATLAS is presented. Studies that use self-report questionnaires as a tool for screening of reading-writing difficulties in adults were reviewed. Two studies were carried out to determine the validity and reliability of ATLAS. The first study was aimed to select the critical items and to assess their reliability and their ability to discriminate. In the second study the assessment reported through the answers to the questionnaire was contrasted with the results of psychometric tests. Results showed that (a items were suitable descriptors for adult difficulties, (b there were significant correlations between self-report scores and reading measures, and (c the items discriminate between good and poor readers. The results of this study demonstrated that ATLAS is a sensitive tool to screen adults with reading difficulties. As a further advantage, ATLAS is an easy-to-use and time-saving instrument.

  12. Readability and comprehension of self-report binge eating measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lauren K; McHugh, R Kathryn; Pratt, Elizabeth M; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2013-04-01

    The validity of self-report binge eating instruments among individuals with limited literacy is uncertain. This study aims to evaluate reading grade level and multiple domains of comprehension of 13 commonly used self-report assessments of binge eating for use in low-literacy populations. We evaluated self-report binge eating measures with respect to reading grade levels, measure length, formatting and linguistic problems. All measures were written at a reading grade level higher than is recommended for patient materials (above the 5th to 6th grade level), and contained several challenging elements related to comprehension. Correlational analyses suggested that readability and comprehension elements were distinct contributors to measure difficulty. Individuals with binge eating who have low levels of educational attainment or limited literacy are often underrepresented in measure validation studies. Validity of measures and accurate assessment of symptoms depend on an individual's ability to read and comprehend instructions and items, and these may be compromised in populations with lower levels of literacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-reported motivation to smoke in schizophrenia is related to antipsychotic drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Alasdair M; Procyshyn, Ric M; Hui, Philip; Johnson, Joy L; Honer, William G

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of smoking in schizophrenia has reliably been reported as being higher than for any other psychiatric disorder. While a number of theories have been proposed to account for such high rates of smoking, little is known about the subjective motivation for why schizophrenia patients smoke in comparison with those without the disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare smoking motivation in control subjects and schizophrenia patients, and determine if factors such as type of medication or access to cigarettes could contribute to self-reported motivation for smoking. We assessed motivation to smoke in 61 schizophrenia inpatients and 33 non-psychiatric health worker controls at a tertiary care psychiatric facility in a cross-sectional study. Nicotine dependency and smoking behavior were evaluated using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and a validated questionnaire that assesses motivation for smoking along seven different dimensions. Schizophrenia patients reported a stronger motivation to smoke than controls for reasons related to pleasure from the act of smoking, as well as a need for psychomotor stimulation. Scores on both these factors were significantly associated with daily antipsychotic drug dose. The sedative and anxiolytic effects of smoking were related to anticholinergic load of psychiatric medications. The findings highlight important differences in self-reported motivation to smoke between schizophrenia patients and normals. Antipsychotic drugs may also influence aspects of motivation to smoke.

  14. Health Behaviors and Self-Reported Health Among Cancer Survivors by Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M; Farmer, Grant W; Bowen, Deborah J

    2015-03-01

    Health behaviors and self-reported health are important for understanding cancer survivor health. However, there is a paucity of published research about how cancer survivors' health behaviors and self-rated health vary by sexual orientation. This study examined cancer survivors' health behaviors and self-reported health by sexual orientation. This study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001-2010. Self-reported health and cancer-related health behaviors were compared by sexual orientation. Propensity score adjustment was used to account for differences in age, race, education, gender and health insurance status. Of the 602 survivors eligible for the study, 4.3% identified as sexual minorities. Sexual minorities were 2.6 times more likely to report a history of illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 5.35), and 60% less likely to report their current health status as good (aOR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.89), compared to heterosexual cancer survivors. These disparities persisted even after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest that sexual minority cancer survivors may be at greater risk for poorer outcomes after cancer than other survivors. A possible explanation for the observed differences involves minority stress. Future research should test stress as an explanation for these differences. However, using population-methods to achieve this goal requires larger samples of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) cancer survivors.

  15. What are validated self-report adherence scales really measuring?: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi-My-Uyen; La Caze, Adam; Cottrell, Neil

    2014-03-01

    Medication non-adherence is a significant health problem. There are numerous methods for measuring adherence, but no single method performs well on all criteria. The purpose of this systematic review is to (i) identify self-report medication adherence scales that have been correlated with comparison measures of medication-taking behaviour, (ii) assess how these scales measure adherence and (iii) explore how these adherence scales have been validated. Cinahl and PubMed databases were used to search articles written in English on the development or validation of medication adherence scales dating to August 2012. The search terms used were medication adherence, medication non-adherence, medication compliance and names of each scale. Data such as barriers identified and validation comparison measures were extracted and compared. Sixty articles were included in the review, which consisted of 43 adherence scales. Adherence scales include items that either elicit information regarding the patient's medication-taking behaviour and/or attempts to identify barriers to good medication-taking behaviour or beliefs associated with adherence. The validation strategies employed depended on whether the focus of the scale was to measure medication-taking behaviour or identify barriers or beliefs. Supporting patients to be adherent requires information on their medication-taking behaviour, barriers to adherence and beliefs about medicines. Adherence scales have the potential to explore these aspects of adherence, but currently there has been a greater focus on measuring medication-taking behaviour. Selecting the 'right' adherence scale(s) requires consideration of what needs to be measured and how (and in whom) the scale has been validated. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Factors that determine self-reported immunosuppressant adherence in kidney transplant recipients: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Li-Chueh; Yang, Ya-Chen; Huang, Hsiu-Li; Chiang, Yang-Jen; Tsai, Yu-Hsia

    2017-01-01

    To determine the factors related to immunosuppressant therapy adherence in kidney transplant recipients in Taiwan. Adherence to immunosuppressant treatment is critical after kidney transplantation. Thus, the factors associated with self-reported medication adherence in kidney transplant recipients warrant investigation. The study used a cross-sectional and correlation design. A convenience sample of 145 kidney transplant recipients was included. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data during 2012-2013. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the factors related to immunosuppressant therapy adherence. Over half of the participants were female (54·5%), mean age was 45·5 years, and mean year after transplant was 7·4. The mean score for medication adherence was 29·73 (possible score range 7-35). The results of the multivariate linear regression analysis showed that gender (male), low income with a high school or college education, years after transplantation and concerns about medication taking were negatively associated with adherence. Medication self-efficacy was positively associated with adherence. Therapy-related factors, partnerships with healthcare professionals and having private healthcare insurance did not significantly relate to immunosuppressant therapy adherence. Kidney transplant recipients demonstrated a high level of adherence. Strategies to enhance patients' self-efficacy and alleviate concerns about medication may promote medication adherence. Male patients, those with a lower income and those with a higher education level, should be a focus of efforts to maintain adherence to the medication regimen. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toar, Magzoub; O'Brien, Kirsty K; Fahey, Tom

    2009-06-30

    Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups for use of dentists, medication, hospitalisation or mental health services. Asylum seekers have a higher level of self reported

  18. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toar, Magzoub

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. METHODS: Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety\\/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. RESULTS: Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression\\/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression\\/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression\\/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P < 0.001).In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups

  19. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Tom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. Methods Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60 and refugees (n = 28 from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36, presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. Results Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2–17.9 and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2–15.4, while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3–12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2–10.1, high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1–11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0–10.4 or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9–60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.3 were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (χ2 = 19.74, df = 1, P In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found

  20. Remarkable Works and Cases in the History of Medical Mycology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Katsutaro

    2017-01-01

    Several pathogenic fungi and cases related to Japanese medical mycologists were reviewed. Trichosporon inkin (as Sarcinomyces inkin) was reported as a pathogen of scrotal lesion by Oho in 1921, and Trichosporon asahii was isolated from generalized keratotic lesions in 1922 by Akagi in Japan. They were once included in Trichophyton beigelii, but then based on revision using DNA molecular technology, were returned to their original names.Microsporum ferrugineum was reported by Ota as a causative dermatophyte of tinea capitis in Japan and surrounding areas. It was once classified under the genus Trichophyton, but after the discovery of characteristic rough-walled macroconidia belonging to genus Microsporum, the fungus was again assigned to the original name.

  1. Correlation between self-reported and clinically based diagnoses of bruxism in temporomandibular disorders patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesani, D A; Lobbezoo, F; Gelos, C; Guarda-Nardini, L; Ahlberg, J; Manfredini, D

    2013-11-01

    The present investigation was performed in a population of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and it was designed to assess the correlation between self-reported questionnaire-based bruxism diagnosis and a diagnosis based on history taking plus clinical examination. One-hundred-fifty-nine patients with TMD underwent an assessment including a questionnaire investigating five bruxism-related items (i.e. sleep grinding, sleep grinding referral by bed partner, sleep clenching, awake clenching, awake grinding) and an interview (i.e. oral history taking with specific focus on bruxism habits) plus a clinical examination to evaluate bruxism signs and symptoms. The correlation between findings of the questionnaire, viz., patients' report, and findings of the interview/oral history taking plus clinical examination, viz., clinicians' diagnosis, was assessed by means of φ coefficient. The highest correlations were achieved for the sleep grinding referral item (φ = 0·932) and for the awake clenching item (φ = 0·811), whilst lower correlation values were found for the other items (φ values ranging from 0·363 to 0·641). The percentage of disagreement between the two diagnostic approaches ranged between 1·8% and 18·2%. Within the limits of the present investigation, it can be suggested that a strong positive correlation between a self-reported and a clinically based approach to bruxism diagnosis can be achieved as for awake clenching, whilst lower levels of correlation were detected for sleep-time activities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [A history of Korean medical association's emblem: the caduceus of Asklepios and Hermes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Jeon

    2007-06-01

    An emblem represents the identity of an organization. Through the emblem of an organization, they differentiate the members from others and reinforce the membership, homogeneity, and pride. It is also a tool that an organization officially publicizes its mission and values. The symbol designed by Cho, Byungduk was announced as the first emblem of Korean Medical Association (KMA) on October 31st 1947. His design work has the caduceus with the Taeguk sign on the top, the symbol of Korea, and the Red Cross in the background including the name, 'KMA'. Since then, the emblem was revised three times: in 1964, 1973, and 1995. The current symbol is based on the design of the first one. Although Asklepian, the single serpent-entwined staff of Asklepios, is the one known as the symbol of medicine, this emblem takes the caduceus of Hermes who is the patron god of merchants, thieves, and travelers. The mistake comes from the unawareness of the distinction between the caduceus of Asklepios and Hermes. Moreover, it proves that U. S. Army Medical Corps (USAMC) heavily influenced the reconstruction of Korean health care system including KMA. The USAMC has used the symbol of caduceus since 1902. In 1947, the year that the first emblem of KMA was established, Southern part of Korea was governed by the United States Military Government (USMG, 1945-1948). The current emblem of KMA brings up a question whether we should continue to use the symbol that was taken from USMAC in the historical period of USMG governance. Celebrating 100th anniversary year of KMA, KMA needs to re-evaluate the appropriateness of the KMA symbol.

  3. Self-report and long-term field measures of MP3 player use: how accurate is self-report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnuff, C D F; Fligor, B J; Arehart, K H

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the usage patterns of portable listening device (PLD) listeners, and the relationships between self-report measures and long-term dosimetry measures of listening habits. This study used a descriptive correlational design. Participants (N = 52) were 18-29 year old men and women who completed surveys. A randomly assigned subset (N = 24) of participants had their listening monitored by dosimetry for one week. Median weekly noise doses reported and measured through dosimetry were low (9-93%), but 14.3% of participants reported exceeding a 100% noise dose weekly. When measured by dosimetry, 16.7% of participants exceeded a 100% noise dose weekly. The self-report question that best predicted the dosimetry-measured dose asked participants to report listening duration and usual listening level on a visual-analog scale. This study reports a novel dosimetry system that can provide accurate measures of PLD use over time. When not feasible, though, the self-report question described could provide a useful research or clinical tool to estimate exposure from PLD use. Among the participants in this study, a small but substantial percentage of PLD users incurred exposure from PLD use alone that increases their risk of music-induced hearing loss.

  4. [Who decides what data should be recorded in the medical history in relation to the biological origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego Riestra, Sergio; Riaño Galán, Isolina

    2018-02-01

    There is an increasing request by patients or their representatives not to have some data registered in their clinical history or if such data exists to be deleted. Without doubt, this is so because such clinical data is accessed by various professionals who in most cases are not directly involved in caring for such patients. On the other hand, such data is copied and iteratively and unnecessary reproduced in various discharge reports and others forms. The problem arises when such controversial data refer to particularly sensitive clinical aspects such as assisted reproduction techniques, which invades personal and family privacy. Therefore, the question is who determines what data should be recorded in the medical records and according to what criteria should be taken that decision? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Cupping Therapy Simulation Course; A Pilot Study Assessing Self Reporting of Confidence, Expectations/Satisfaction and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Aboushanab, Tamer; Khalil, Mohammed; El-Olemy, Ahmed; Alsanad, Saud

    2017-01-01

    This paper aimed to assess self-reporting of confidence, expectations/satisfaction, and performance of medical students before and after the cupping therapy simulation training course and to validate cupping simulation training evaluation questionnaire (CSTEQ). It was a pilot study to evaluate cupping therapy simulation course provided by National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM).  The number of participants was 29/41 (70.7%) (20 females and 9 males) before train...

  6. Safety climate and self-reported injury: assessing the mediating role of employee safety control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Ho, Michael; Smith, Gordon S; Chen, Peter Y

    2006-05-01

    To further reduce injuries in the workplace, companies have begun focusing on organizational factors which may contribute to workplace safety. Safety climate is an organizational factor commonly cited as a predictor of injury occurrence. Characterized by the shared perceptions of employees, safety climate can be viewed as a snapshot of the prevailing state of safety in the organization at a discrete point in time. However, few studies have elaborated plausible mechanisms through which safety climate likely influences injury occurrence. A mediating model is proposed to link safety climate (i.e., management commitment to safety, return-to-work policies, post-injury administration, and safety training) with self-reported injury through employees' perceived control on safety. Factorial evidence substantiated that management commitment to safety, return-to-work policies, post-injury administration, and safety training are important dimensions of safety climate. In addition, the data support that safety climate is a critical factor predicting the history of a self-reported occupational injury, and that employee safety control mediates the relationship between safety climate and occupational injury. These findings highlight the importance of incorporating organizational factors and workers' characteristics in efforts to improve organizational safety performance.

  7. Familial Depressive Symptoms and Delinquency: Separate Self-Reports From Mothers and Their Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Hoskin, Anthony

    2018-04-01

    Research has documented that both unipolar and bipolar depression are positively correlated with involvement in delinquency and crime. The present study sought to broaden the understanding of these relationships by looking for links between offending and family histories of depressive symptoms in relationship to offspring delinquency. More than 6,000 college students and their mothers provided self-reported information regarding feelings of depression. Students provided self-reports of involvement in various categories of offending and drug use from ages 10 through 18. Numerous significant positive correlations were found between general feelings of depression and of manic depression and involvement in delinquency. The depression-delinquency relationships were strongest when considering offspring themselves, although maternal depression symptoms were also associated with various forms of offspring delinquency and drug use. To help assess the causal chains that might be involved, multiple regression and mediation analysis revealed that parental depression enhanced the probability of offspring feeling depressed and may have thereby contributed to offspring being delinquent, particularly in the case of manic depression. This study reconfirmed the well-established relationship between depression and involvement in delinquency and drug use, and suggests that it extends back to parental forms of depression, especially by the mother.

  8. Do self-reported concussions have cumulative or enduring effects on drivers' anticipation of traffic hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Megan H W; Horswill, Mark S; Ownsworth, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the cumulative effect of multiple self-reported concussions and the enduring effect of concussion on drivers' hazard perception ability. It was hypothesized: (1) that individuals reporting multiple previous concussions would be slower to anticipate traffic hazards than individuals reporting either one previous concussion or none; and (2) that individuals reporting a concussion within the past 3 months would be slower to anticipate traffic hazards than individuals reporting either an earlier concussion or no prior concussion. Two hundred and eighty-two predominantly young drivers (nconcussed = 68, Mage = 21.57 years, SDage = 6.99 years, 66% female) completed a validated hazard perception test (HPT) and measures of emotional, cognitive, health and driving status. A one-way analysis of variance showed that there was no significant effect of concussion number on HPT response times. Similarly, pairwise comparisons showed no significant differences between the HPT response times of individuals reporting a concussion within the previous 3 months, individuals reporting an earlier concussion and the never concussed group. The findings suggest that previous concussions do not adversely affect young drivers' ability to anticipate traffic hazards; however, due to reliance on self-reports of concussion history, further prospective longitudinal research is needed.

  9. Validation of smoking cessation self-reported by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander R Hilberink

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sander R Hilberink1, Johanna E Jacobs1, Sanne van Opstal2, Trudy van der Weijden2, Janine Keegstra1, Pascal LJ Kempers3, Jean WM Muris2, Richard PTM Grol1, Hein de Vries41IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2Department of General Practice, Maastricht University, Research Institute CAPHRI, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 3Department of Health Risk, Analysis and Toxicology, 4Department of Health Promotion and Health, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The NetherlandsPurpose: The present study reports on the biochemical validation of the self-reported smoking status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The objective is to establish the proportion of overestimation of self-reported success rates.Methods: A cross-sectional smoking-status validation study including 60 patients with COPD who reported that they had stopped smoking. In the analysis of urine samples, a cut-off point of 50 ng/mL of cotinine was used.Results: At the time of biochemical validation, 55 patients reported that they had quit smoking while five patients resumed smoking. Smoking status was biochemically confirmed for 43 patients (78% and 12 patients (22% were classified as smokers. The sensitivity of the self-report of smoking was 29% and the specificity was 100%.Conclusion: Many primary care patients with COPD do not provide valid information on their smoking status, which hamper adequate therapeutic interventions. Integration of biochemical validation in daily care could overcome this problem, but may harm the doctor–patient relationship.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking cessation, biochemical validation, general practice, outcome measurement

  10. Patient Self-Report of Prior Laser Treatment Reliably Indicates Presence of Severe Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRASSI, MICHAEL A.; MAZZULLA, D. ANTHONY; KNUDTSON, MICHAEL D.; HUANG, WENDY W.; LEE, KRISTINE E.; KLEIN, BARBARA E.; NICOLAE, DAN L.; KLEIN, RONALD

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine whether patient self-report of prior laser treatment can be used as a reliable tool for assessing the presence of severe diabetic retinopathy. DESIGN This was a retrospective study on two groups of diabetic subjects. METHODS One hundred patients with diabetes were recruited from the general eye and retina clinics at the University of Chicago Hospitals. The patients were asked, “Have you ever received laser treatment for your diabetic eye disease (DED)?” A chart review was then conducted noting if the patient had received either focal laser treatment for diabetic macular edema or panretinal photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Data from the Wisconsin Epidemiological Study of Diabetic Retinopathy (WESDR) were also analyzed. Participant responses to the question “Have you had laser photocoagulation treatment for your eyes?” were analyzed with documentation of photocoagulation scars determined by grading seven-standard field color fundus photographs. RESULTS In the University of Chicago group, 96 of 100 (96%) of patients were accurate in reporting whether they had received previous laser treatment for DED (sensitivity 95.8%, specificity 96.1%, and positive predictive value 88.5%). In the WESDR analysis, 2,329 of 2,348 (99%) of participants were accurate in reporting whether they had prior laser treatment for DED (sensitivity 96.0%, specificity 99.5%, and positive predictive value 95.6%). CONCLUSIONS The high sensitivity and specificity of our results validate the use of patient self-report as a useful tool in assessing past laser treatment for severe diabetic retinopathy. Patient self-report may be a useful surrogate to clinical examination or medical record review to determine the presence of severe diabetic retinopathy. PMID:19054495

  11. Water sanitation, access, use and self-reported diarrheal disease in rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Gabriela E; Bearman, Gonzalo; Sanogo, Kakotan; Stevens, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Only 79% of individuals living in rural Honduras use improved water sources. Inadequate drinking water quality is related to diarrheal illness, which in Honduras contributes to 18.6 episodes of diarrhea per child year in children under five years of age. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare access to drinking water and sanitation, as well as self-reported diarrheal disease incidence among three proximal communities in the Department of Yoro area of Honduras. An 11-item language-specific, interviewer-administered, anonymous questionnaire was administered to 263 randomly selected adults attending a June 2011 medical brigade held in the communities of Coyoles, La Hicaca, and Lomitas. Chi-square with Fisher exact tests were utilized to compare water access, sanitation, and self-reported diarrheal incidence among these communities. Coyoles and La Hicaca used private faucets as their primary water sources. Coyoles had the greatest use of bottled water. Lomitas used rivers as their primary water source, and did not use bottled water. Mostly, females were responsible for acquiring water. Usage of multiple water sanitation methods was most common in Coyoles, while no sanitation method was most common in Lomitas. In Lomitas and La Hicaca, water filters were mostly provided via donation by non-governmental organizations. Lomitas had the highest reported incidence of diarrhea among self and other household members. Critical differences in water access, sanitation, and self-reported diarrheal incidence among three geographically distinct, yet proximal, communities highlights the need for targeted interventions even in geographically proximal rural areas.

  12. Self-Reported Visual Perceptual Abnormalities Are Strongly Associated with Core Clinical Features in Psychotic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Keane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPast studies using the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (hereafter, Bonn Scale have shown that self-reported perceptual/cognitive disturbances reveal which persons have or will soon develop schizophrenia. Here, we focused specifically on the clinical value of self-reported visual perceptual abnormalities (VPAs since they are underexplored and have been associated with suicidal ideation, negative symptoms, and objective visual dysfunction.MethodUsing the 17 Bonn Scale vision items, we cross-sectionally investigated lifetime occurrence of VPAs in 21 first-episode psychosis and 22 chronic schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SA patients. Relationships were probed between VPAs and illness duration, symptom severity, current functioning, premorbid functioning, diagnosis, and age of onset.ResultsIncreased VPAs were associated with: earlier age of onset; more delusions, hallucinations, bizarre behavior, and depressive symptoms; and worse premorbid social functioning, especially in the childhood and early adolescent phases. SZ/SA participants endorsed more VPAs as compared to those with schizophreniform or psychotic disorder-NOS, especially in the perception of color, bodies, faces, object movement, and double/reversed vision. The range of self-reported VPAs was strikingly similar between first-episode and chronic patients and did not depend on the type or amount of antipsychotic medication. As a comparative benchmark, lifetime occurrence of visual hallucinations did not depend on diagnosis and was linked only to poor premorbid social functioning.ConclusionA brief 17-item interview derived from the Bonn Scale is strongly associated with core clinical features in schizophrenia. VPAs hold promise for clarifying diagnosis, predicting outcome, and guiding neurocognitive investigations.

  13. [History of training and certification programs of medical specialists in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein Alva, Zuño

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, historical reference is made about legal provisions for recognition of the training and certification of medical specialists in Peru through university programs provided since 1928 and culminating in 1973 with the legal authorization by the relevant state authority to implement the Second Specialization Program in Human Medicine and to grant the Certification of Specialist in the Name of the Nation upon completion of a university residency program and specialized training by the “regular modality”, and the recognition by the university with the “non-regular modality”. In Peru it has been established to the present that the Professional Certifications of Specialists in Human Medicine “in the Name of the Nation”, both in “regular modality” as well as in “non-regular modality”, can only be granted by public or private universities authorized for this mission and, besides, no other public or private institution can claim this role that corresponds exclusively for the Peruvian University.

  14. Self-reported cognitive inconsistency in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhill, Susan; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A; Strauss, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Insight into one's own cognitive abilities, or metacognition, has been widely studied in developmental psychology. Relevance to the clinician is high, as memory complaints in older adults show an association with impending dementia, even after controlling for likely confounds. Another candidate marker of impending dementia under study is inconsistency in cognitive performance over short time intervals. Although there has been a recent proliferation of studies of cognitive inconsistency in older adults, to date, no one has examined adults' self-perceptions of cognitive inconsistency. Ninety-four community-dwelling older adults (aged 70-91) were randomly selected from a parent longitudinal study of short-term inconsistency and long-term cognitive change in aging. Participants completed a novel 40-item self-report measure of everyday cognitive inconsistency, including parallel scales indexing perceived inconsistency 5 years ago and at present, yielding measures of past, present, and 5-year change in inconsistency. The questionnaire showed acceptable psychometric characteristics. The sample reported an increase in perceived inconsistency over time. Higher reported present inconsistency and greater 5-year increase in inconsistency were associated with noncognitive (e.g., older age, poorer ADLs, poorer health, higher depression), metacognitive (e.g., poorer self-rated memory) and neuropsychological (e.g., poorer performance and greater 5-year decline in global cognitive status, vocabulary, and memory) measures. Correlations between self-reported inconsistency and neuropsychological performance were attenuated, but largely persisted when self-rated memory and age were controlled. Observed relationships between self-reported inconsistency and measures of neuropsychological (including memory) status and decline suggest that self-perceived inconsistency may be an area of relevance in evaluating older adults for memory disorders.

  15. Validity of self-reported adult secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Grossman, William; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Benowitz, Neal L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of adults to secondhand smoke (SHS) has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease. The current study evaluated brief self-report screening measures for accurately identifying adult cardiology patients with clinically significant levels of SHS exposure in need of intervention. A cross-sectional study conducted in a university-affiliated cardiology clinic and cardiology inpatient service. Participants were 118 non-smoking patients (59% male, mean age=63.6 years, SD=16.8) seeking cardiology services. Serum cotinine levels and self-reported SHS exposure in the past 24 h and 7 days on 13 adult secondhand exposure to smoke (ASHES) items. A single item assessment of SHS exposure in one's own home in the past 7 days was significantly correlated with serum cotinine levels (r=0.41, p85% and correct classification rates >85% at cotinine cut-off points of >0.215 and >0.80 ng/mL. The item outperformed multi-item scales, an assessment of home smoking rules, and SHS exposure assessed in other residential areas, automobiles and public settings. The sample was less accurate at self-reporting lower levels of SHS exposure (cotinine 0.05-0.215 ng/mL). The single item ASHES-7d Home screener is brief, assesses recent SHS exposure over a week's time, and yielded the optimal balance of sensitivity and specificity. The current findings support use of the ASHES-7d Home screener to detect SHS exposure and can be easily incorporated into assessment of other major vital signs in cardiology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Factors Influencing Suicidal Tendencies of Patients with Diagnosis of Attempted Suicide in Medical History and Potential Prevention of Relapse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrbová, Kvetoslava; Dóci, Ivan; Hamplová, Lidmila; Dvořák, Vít; Selingerová, Šárka; Růžičková, Veronika; Chmelařová, Šárka

    2017-12-01

    The authors researched the incidence of suicidal thoughts and related factors in 123 patients of the psychiatric ward of the Hospital of České Budějovice with diagnosed attempted suicide in their medical history for the period from January 2013 – June 2015. The research was carried out in two stages. At the beginning of the hospitalization, quantitative data collection was implemented using a semi-structured questionnaire, followed by qualitative research conducted with semi-structured phone conversation, based on previous patient's written consent. The research data were statistically processed to obtain information about the character of relations among individual characteristics. To quantify them, the Bayesian Network (BN) was constructed, and to identify relations among individual characteristics, the Hill-Climbing algorithm was used. Before deriving the network, variables were discretized. The network parameters were set based on a data matrix using the maximal plausibility method. The results of analysed set show that the probability of suicidal thoughts is high, achieving a value of 0.750 (0.781 for women and 0.724 for men). If the patient visits a contact centre for drug-addicted persons, the probability of suicidal thoughts decreases to 0.683. If the patient visits a psychotherapist, the values of 0.736 are achieved. If a daily care centre is visited, the estimated risk rises to 0.832 and the probability of the patient repetitively attempting suicide is 0.606. If the interviewed person regularly consumes alcohol, the probable relapse amounts to 0.616. But if the person consumes alcohol from time to time, the probability rises to 0.701. In case of abstinence, the probable relapse decreases to 0.565. The incidence of suicidal thoughts in observed patients was high, and the amount of risk was influenced by gender, by visiting follow-up care facilities, psychotherapy, and particularly by the frequency of alcohol consumption. Intermittent alcohol

  17. Electronic medical history designed by a multidisciplinary unit mastology; Historia clinica electronica disenada por una unidad de mastologia multidisciplinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camejo, N.; Castillo, C.; Vaca, N.; Camargo, B.; Artagaveytia, N.; Acuna, S.; Milans, S.; Lavina, G.; Carzoglio, J.; Jacobo, O.; Pressa, C.; Delgado, L. [Servicio de Oncologia, Hospital de Clinicas, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-11-15

    Full text: Objective: To facilitate the collection, organization and analysis of data from patients Unit assisted in Mastology by producing an electronic health record. Materials and Methods: We evaluated forms provided by medical oncologists, radio therapists, radiologists, pathologists, and plastic surgeons mastologists collect data interrogation, physical examination, complementary examinations, diagnoses, anatomy pathological evolution and treatment instituted and generating the system was computerized {sup U}nit Mastology - Electronic Health Record ( UMAHCE){sup .} Results: The story was designed in modules that collect data on instances arising diagnostic, treatment and monitoring of patients. Each module is represented by an icon that changes color to enter data, allowing the objectify doctor if they are or not the data for that module. The system can attach images recorded by breast exam photos, photos of study, imaging (mammography, CT, MRI) in the same way that the surgeon to enter the protocol surgical or anatomical pathologist enter a pathological report of a study untimely or after definitive surgery. The system can generate an automatic report of the input data that can be printed and placed in the patient's medical history. It also can generate the e mail alerts doctors on pathological results were entered into regarding the diagnosis or treatment breast cancer (eg, mammography B I-Rads 4 or 5, report positive cytologic puncture malignancy, H R and Her status). Conclusions: We developed an electronic medical record that allows different doctors involved in the management of breast disease can be accessed through the web regardless of where they are ( pathology laboratory, room radiology reports, clinic, operation theater), both for information about a patient to enter data the same in relation to their specialty. Moreover, homogenize manages the type and quality of the data and therefore can improve the care and research activities as well as

  18. History and Guideline of Emergency Medicine Residency Discipline in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran; Review of 2014

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    Majid Shojaee

    2014-09-01

    directly declared to him. Lastly, in ministry time of Dr. Farhadi in 2001 this major was initiated for the first time in Iran University of Medical Sciences. The present report was addressed to the education guideline of emergency medicine at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences besides evaluating the formation history of emergency medicine discipline in Iran. 

  19. Validity of self-reported exposure to shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härmä, Mikko; Koskinen, Aki; Ropponen, Annina; Puttonen, Sampsa; Karhula, Kati; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the validity of widely used questionnaire items on work schedule using objective registry data as reference. A cohort study of hospital employees who responded to a self-administered questionnaire on work schedule in 2008, 2012 and 2014 and were linked to individual-level pay-roll-based records on work shifts. For predictive validity, leisure-time fatigue was assessed. According to the survey data in 2014 (n=8896), 55% of the day workers had at least 1 year of earlier shift work experience. 8% of the night shift workers changed to day work during the follow-up. Using pay-roll data as reference, questions on 'shift work with night shifts' and 'permanent night work' showed high sensitivity (96% and 90%) and specificity (92% and 97%). Self-reported 'regular day work' showed moderate sensitivity (73%), but high specificity (99%) and 'shift work without night shifts' showed low sensitivity (62%) and moderate specificity (87%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the age-adjusted, sex-adjusted and baseline fatigue-adjusted association between 'shift work without night shifts' and leisure-time fatigue was lower for self-reported compared with objective assessment (1.30, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.82, n=1707 vs 1.89, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.39, n=1627). In contrast, shift work with night shifts, compared with permanent day work, was similarly associated with fatigue in the two assessments (2.04, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.57, n=2311 vs 1.82, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.58, n=1804). The validity of self-reported assessment of shift work varies between work schedules. Exposure misclassification in self-reported data may contribute to bias towards the null in shift work without night shifts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Comparison of self-reported and register data on sickness absence among Norwegian patients participating in an occupational rehabilitation program

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    Irene Øyeflaten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sick leave and return to work are common outcome variables in studies where the aim is to measure the effect of targeted interventions for individuals that are on sick leave benefits or other allowances. Use of official register data is often restricted, and research on sick leave and return to work are often based on the participants self-reports. However, there is insufficient documentation that there is agreement between self-reports and register data on sick leave benefits and allowances.Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the individuals' knowledge about states of sick leave benefits or allowances compared with register data from The Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV in Norway.Method: 153 individuals, sick-listed or on allowances, participated in a 4-week inpatient occupational rehabilitation program. 132 (86% answered a questionnaire on assessments of work, sick leave, and allowances three months after completed rehabilitation. Self-reported data were compared with register data from NAV according to four categories: working, sick-listed, on medical/vocational rehabilitation allowance or disability pension. Agreement between self-reported and register data was evaluated in cross-tabulations and reported with kappa values. Stratified analyses were done for gender, age, education, medical diagnosis and length of sick leave/allowances at baseline.Results: Good agreement was found for medical/vocational rehabilitation allowance (kappa=.70 and disability pension (kappa=.65. Moderate agreement was found for working (kappa=.49 and fair agreement for sick-listed (kappa=.36. Stratified analyses showed significant better kappa values for individuals that had been sick-listed less than 12 months before entering the rehabilitation program.Conclusions: Agreements from good to fair were found between self-reported and official register data on sick leave. However, official register data is preferred in research because this will

  1. Self-reported premature ejaculation prevalence and characteristics in Korean young males: community-based data from an internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Soo Woong; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is suspected to be the most prevalent male sexual complaint, and the prevalence of PE is considerably high also in the younger generation. We investigated the PE prevalence based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed text revision; DSM-IV-TR) definition and the risk factors of PE in Korean young men via Internet survey. Subjects (n = 3980) aged from 20 to 59, who performed sexual intercourse more than once a month during the past 6 months were asked to participate in this study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that consisted of questions on general, medical, and sexual history related to ejaculation. A total of 600 subjects were included in this study. PE prevalence was found to be 18.3%. Prevalences were not significantly different across age groups, after excluding subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Educational level, marital status and duration, average income, sexual orientation, smoking, alcohol consumption, and circumcision status showed no difference in the PE and non-PE groups. Partners perceived satisfaction rates were 45.0% in the PE group and 63.9% in the non-PE group. Significant differences were found between the PE and non-PE groups in terms of ED, obesity, and depression prevalence. However, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors of PE were age and the frequency of conversations with partners about sexual intercourse. This Internet-based study is limited because participants probably represent a selected population of Internet users with non-representative educational and socioeconomic profiles. This study is the first to report the prevalence of both self-reported PE and PE on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR definition in the Korean population. This study demonstrates that PE in Korea is as prevalent as it is in European countries and the United States.

  2. Development of a self-reporting tool to obtain a Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF*

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    Esteve-Vives Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia is a syndrome with heterogeneous symptoms. The evaluation in the clinical setting usually fails to cover the complexity of the syndrome. This study aims to determine how different aspects of fibromyalgia are inter-related when measured by means of a self-reporting tool. The objective is to develop a more complete evaluation model adjusted to the complexity and multi-dimensional nature of the syndrome. Methods Application was made of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Brief Pain Inventory, the Fatigue Assessment Scale, the Health Assessment Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory, the Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale and the Sleep Quality Scale. An assessment was made, on the basis of clinical interviews, case histories and specific tests, of the patient sociodemographic data, comorbidity, physical exploration and other clinical indexes. An exploratory factor analysis was made, with comparisons of the clinical index scores in extreme groups of patients. Results The ICAF composed of 59 items was obtained, offering four factors that explain 64% of the variance, and referred to as Emotional Factor (33.7%, Physical-Activity (15%, Active Coping (9% and Passive Coping (6.3%. A t-test between the extreme scores of these factors in the 301 patients revealed statistically significant differences in occupational status, medically unexplained syndromes, number of tender points, the six-minutes walk test, comorbidity and health care costs. Conclusions This study offers a tool allowing more complete and rapid evaluation of patients with fibromyalgia. The test intrinsically evaluates the emotional aspects: anxiety and depression, and their impact upon social aspects. It also evaluates patient functional capacity, fatigue, sleep quality, pain, and the way in which the patient copes with the disease. This is achieved by means of a

  3. Self-reports on students' learning processes are academic metacognitive knowledge

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    Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study postulates that students' self-reported perceptions on their academic processes are a type of metacognition: academic metacognitive knowledge (AMcK. We investigated, using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, three hypotheses: (a AMcK explains the variance of factor scores of students' learning approaches (SLA and academic motivation (AM; (b AMcK is distinct from working metacognition (WMC; and (c AMcK has incremental validity, beyond WMC, on the explanation of general academic achievement (GAA variance. Two tests (indicators of WMC and two scales (indicators of AMcK were administered to 684 ten-to-eighteen-year-old Brazilian children and adolescents. Annual grades in Math, Portuguese, Geography and History were used as indicators of GAA. The results show that none of the three hypotheses can be refuted.

  4. Self-reported confidence and skills of general practitioners in management of mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley Browne, Mark; Lee, Adeline; Prabhu, Radha

    2007-10-01

    To identify the predictors of self-reported confidence and skills of GPs in management of patients with mental health problems. Cross-sectional survey, with questionnaire presented to 246 GPs working in 62 practices throughout Gippsland. Rural general practices in Gippsland. One hundred and thirty-four GPs across Gippsland. GPs completed a questionnaire assessing self-perception of knowledge and skills in recognition and management of common mental health problems. Of 134 GPs, 45% reported that they have a specific interest in mental health, and 39% of GPs reported that they had previous mental health training. Only 22% of GPs describe having both an interest and prior training in mental health care. Age and years since graduation are not significantly related to self-reported confidence and skills. The results of this study highlight that self-professed interest and prior training in mental health are associated. Self-professed interest in mental health care predicts confidence and self-perceived skills in recognition, assessment and management of common mental health disorders. Similarly, prior training in mental health care predicts confidence and self-perceived skills in recognition, assessment and management of common mental health problems. Self-professed interest in mental health issues is also associated with hours of participation in continuing medical education related to mental health care. Unfortunately, only a minority described having both interest and prior training in mental health care.

  5. Self-reported oral health behavior and attitudes of dental and technology students in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacauskiene, Ingrida M; Smailiene, Dalia; Siudikienė, Jolanta; Savanevskyte, Julija; Nedzelskiene, Irena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess self-reported oral health habits, attitudes, lifestyle between the sample groups of preclinical and clinical dental and technology students in Lithuania using the Hiroshima University Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI), and to evaluate the impact of education on their behavior and self-reported oral health. A sample of 183 dental and 75 technology students at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, Faculty of Odontology, and Kaunas University of Technology completed the Lithuanian version the HU-DBI questionnaire with 11 additional items. The data were analyzed using the "SPSS 19.0 for Windows" software package. The mean HU-DBI score of clinical final-year dentistry students was significantly higher (p=0.001) than the score of the preclinical group (6.81 (1.2) and 5.96 (1.5), respectively). The mean scores of both groups of dental students were significantly (ptechnology group (5.37 (1.8)). Oral health behaviors and knowledge were superior in dental students. Dental education had a significant positive impact on the oral health and behavior improvement. The attitudes of the Lithuanian dental students should be further improved by initiating a comprehensive program that would emphasize the importance of oral hygiene before the clinical program starts.

  6. Self-Reported Fractures in Dermatitis Herpetiformis Compared to Coeliac Disease

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    Camilla Pasternack

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH is a cutaneous manifestation of coeliac disease. Increased bone fracture risk is known to associate with coeliac disease, but this has been only scantly studied in DH. In this study, self-reported fractures and fracture-associated factors in DH were investigated and compared to coeliac disease. Altogether, 222 DH patients and 129 coeliac disease-suffering controls were enrolled in this study. The Disease Related Questionnaire and the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and Psychological General Well-Being questionnaires were mailed to participants; 45 out of 222 (20% DH patients and 35 out of 129 (27% of the coeliac disease controls had experienced at least one fracture (p = 0.140. The cumulative lifetime fracture incidence did not differ between DH and coeliac disease patients, but the cumulative incidence of fractures after diagnosis was statistically significantly higher in females with coeliac disease compared to females with DH. The DH patients and the coeliac disease controls with fractures reported more severe reflux symptoms compared to those without, and they also more frequently used proton-pump inhibitor medication. To conclude, the self-reported lifetime bone fracture risk is equal for DH and coeliac disease. After diagnosis, females with coeliac disease have a higher fracture risk than females with DH.

  7. Self-Reported Fractures in Dermatitis Herpetiformis Compared to Coeliac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, Camilla; Mansikka, Eriika; Kaukinen, Katri; Hervonen, Kaisa; Reunala, Timo; Collin, Pekka; Mattila, Ville M.

    2018-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a cutaneous manifestation of coeliac disease. Increased bone fracture risk is known to associate with coeliac disease, but this has been only scantly studied in DH. In this study, self-reported fractures and fracture-associated factors in DH were investigated and compared to coeliac disease. Altogether, 222 DH patients and 129 coeliac disease-suffering controls were enrolled in this study. The Disease Related Questionnaire and the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and Psychological General Well-Being questionnaires were mailed to participants; 45 out of 222 (20%) DH patients and 35 out of 129 (27%) of the coeliac disease controls had experienced at least one fracture (p = 0.140). The cumulative lifetime fracture incidence did not differ between DH and coeliac disease patients, but the cumulative incidence of fractures after diagnosis was statistically significantly higher in females with coeliac disease compared to females with DH. The DH patients and the coeliac disease controls with fractures reported more severe reflux symptoms compared to those without, and they also more frequently used proton-pump inhibitor medication. To conclude, the self-reported lifetime bone fracture risk is equal for DH and coeliac disease. After diagnosis, females with coeliac disease have a higher fracture risk than females with DH. PMID:29538319

  8. Frequency of self-reported sexual aggression and victimization in Brazil: a literature review

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    Lylla Winzer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The lack of official data on rape has been a challenge for researchers in Brazil. Two recently published studies were based on law enforcement and medical records. Although these studies represent important progress in research on rape in the country, they have several limitations. In order to obtain more realistic rates, the current article reviews Brazilian studies on self-reported sexual aggression and victimization in individuals over 14 years of age. Forty-one studies were identified through electronic searches and reference verification. From 1% to 40% of women and 1% to 35% of men reported some form of victimization in the previous year. The male perpetration incidence ranged from 2% to 44%. Despite the wide variability, these rates were much higher than those provided by official data. The results suggest that sexual orientation is associated with vulnerability. Mixed findings were found concerning race. Most studies were based on convenience samples and focused on female victimization. Male victimization has received increasing attention, but studies on self-reported perpetration are still limited.

  9. Self-Reported Health Among Recently Incarcerated Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    We examined self-reported health among formerly incarcerated mothers. We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 4096), a longitudinal survey of mostly unmarried parents in urban areas, to estimate the association between recent incarceration (measured as any incarceration in the past 4 years) and 5 self-reported health conditions (depression, illicit drug use, heavy drinking, fair or poor health, and health limitations), net of covariates including health before incarceration. In adjusted logistic regression models, recently incarcerated mothers, compared with their counterparts, have an increased likelihood of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 2.17), heavy drinking (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.19, 2.68), fair or poor health (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.06), and health limitations (OR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.50). This association is similar across racial/ethnic subgroups and is larger among mothers who share children with fathers who have not been recently incarcerated. Recently incarcerated mothers struggle with even more health conditions than expected given the disadvantages they experience before incarceration. Furthermore, because incarceration is concentrated among those who are most disadvantaged, incarceration may increase inequalities in population health.

  10. Smartphone addiction, daily interruptions and self-reported productivity

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    Éilish Duke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N=262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.

  11. Smartphone addiction, daily interruptions and self-reported productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Éilish; Montag, Christian

    2017-12-01

    The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N  = 262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.

  12. Self-Reported Disability in Adults with Severe Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kyrou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-reported