Boadie W. Dunlop
Full Text Available Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is an under-recognized comorbid disorder among patients with mood disorders. ADHD is an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation and behavior and contributes to many aspects of impaired function in adults. Diagnosis of ADHD in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD patients is challenging due to the overlap in cognitive symptoms between the two disorders. The ADHD Self-Report Scale, version 1.1 (ASRS-v1.1 is a widely used screening instrument for ADHD in adults but its accuracy has not been evaluated previously in treatment-seeking MDD patients. We administered the ASRS-v1.1 to 55 healthy controls and 40 adults with a primary psychiatric diagnosis of MDD who were participating in clinical research studies. ADHD diagnosis was assessed via structured interview with the adult ADHD module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus version 6.0.0 (MINI along with a psychiatrist’s assessment. Overall, full-syndrome ADHD was diagnosed in 12.5% of the MDD patients. MDD patients endorsed all 18 items of the ASRS-v1.1 more frequently than the healthy controls and the number of ASRS-v1.1 items endorsed correlated with levels of anxiety in the MDD patients. The ASRS-v1.1 demonstrated fair performance for identifying full syndrome DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis, with sensitivity 60%, specificity: 68.6%, positive predictive value 21.4%, negative predictive value 92.3% and total classification accuracy of 67.5%. Positive predictive value improved substantially when the ADHD criterion requiring symptom onset before age 7 was omitted. In adult MDD patients, a negative ASRS-v1.1 screen strongly suggests the absence of ADHD but positive screen results require careful evaluation to determine whether self-reported ADHD symptoms simply emerge from depression or whether comorbid ADHD is present.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Patient-reported Outcomes (PROs as secondary endpoints in the development of new antidepressants has grown in recent years. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the 9-item, patient-administered version of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S. Methods Data from a multicentre, double-blind, 8-week, randomised controlled trial of 278 outpatients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder were used to evaluate the validity, reliability and sensitivity to change of the MADRS-S using psychometric methods. A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve was plotted to identify the most appropriate threshold to define perceived remission. Results No missing values were found at the item level, indicating good acceptability of the scale. The construct validity was satisfactory: all items contributed to a common underlying concept, as expected. The correlation between MADRS-S and physicians' MADRS was moderate (r = 0.54, p Conclusion Taking account of patient's perceptions of the severity of their own symptoms along with the psychometric properties of the MADRS-S enable its use for evaluative purposes in the development of new antidepressant drugs.
Mileviciute, I; Hartley, S L
Virtually nothing is known about potential differences in the types of depression symptoms reported by adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) on self-reported questionnaires as compared with the types of symptoms reported by caregivers on informant questionnaires. Moreover, little is known about how the presentation of depression among adults with mild ID varies based on socio-demographic characteristics. We compared findings from two self-reported questionnaires, the Self-Reported Depression Questionnaire (SRDQ) and the Glasgow Depression Scale for People with a Learning Disability (GDS), to that of an informant questionnaire of depressive symptoms, the Glasgow Depression Scale--Caregiver Supplement (CGDS), in 80 adults with mild ID. We also examined the association between age, sex, IQ and the presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder and frequency of affective, cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms in our sample of adults with mild ID. Adults with mild ID self-reported a higher frequency of affective and cognitive depressive symptoms than staff reported on the informant measure. Staff reported a higher frequency of somatic symptoms than adults with mild ID on one of the self-reported questionnaires (GDS) and a similar frequency on the other self-reported questionnaire (SRDQ). Important differences were found in the types of depressive symptoms based on their IQ, age and presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder. Informant questionnaires offer valuable information, but assessment should include self-reported questionnaires as these questionnaires add unique information about internalised experiences (affective and cognitive symptoms) of adults with mild ID that may not be apparent to caregivers. Health care providers should be made aware of the important differences in the presentation of depressive based on their IQ, age and presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.
Crittenden, Kathleen S.; And Others
A study of self-report depressive symptoms measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was conducted in Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and the United States with 953 college students. There are marked differences among countries in symptoms reported. Research designs and measurement strategies for cross-cultural research are discussed. (SLD)
Smallest detectable change and test-retest reliability of a self-reported outcome measure: Results of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and 12-item General Health Questionnaire.
Ohno, Shotaro; Takahashi, Kana; Inoue, Aimi; Takada, Koki; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Tanigawa, Masaru; Hirao, Kazuki
This study aims to examine the smallest detectable change (SDC) and test-retest reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We tested 154 young adults at baseline and 2 weeks later. We calculated the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability with a two-way random effects model for agreement. We then calculated the standard error of measurement (SEM) for agreement using the ICC formula. The SEM for agreement was used to calculate SDC values at the individual level (SDC ind ) and group level (SDC group ). The study participants included 137 young adults. The ICCs for all self-reported outcome measurement scales exceeded 0.70. The SEM of CES-D was 3.64, leading to an SDC ind of 10.10 points and SDC group of 0.86 points. The SEM of GSES was 1.56, leading to an SDC ind of 4.33 points and SDC group of 0.37 points. The SEM of GHQ-12 with bimodal scoring was 1.47, leading to an SDC ind of 4.06 points and SDC group of 0.35 points. The SEM of GHQ-12 with Likert scoring was 2.44, leading to an SDC ind of 6.76 points and SDC group of 0.58 points. To confirm that the change was not a result of measurement error, a score of self-reported outcome measurement scales would need to change by an amount greater than these SDC values. This has important implications for clinicians and epidemiologists when assessing outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Self-reported perinatal depressive symptoms and postnatal symptom severity after treatment with antidepressants in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study across 12 European countries using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale
postnatal depressive symptoms by severity across multiple countries and the association between antidepressant treatment in pregnancy and postnatal symptom severity. Materials and methods: This was a multinational web-based study conducted across 12 European countries (n=8069. Uniform data collection was ensured via an electronic questionnaire. Pregnant women at any gestational week and mothers of children with <1 year of age could participate. We used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to measure the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms according to severity, which were corrected by survey weight adjustment (descriptive analysis. Within mothers with a psychiatric disorder (n=173, we estimated the association between antidepressant treatment in pregnancy and postnatal depressive symptom severity, as standardized EPDS mean scores, via the inverse probability of treatment weight (association analysis. Results: In the descriptive analysis (n=8069, the period prevalence of moderate-to-very severe depressive symptoms was higher in the western and eastern regions relative to the northern region, both in the antenatal period (6.8%–7.5% vs 4.3% and in the postnatal period (7.6% vs 4.7%. One in two mothers with psychiatric disorders used an antidepressant in pregnancy (86 of 173. In the association analysis, women medicated at any time during pregnancy (adjusted β=−0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] =−0.66, −0.02 had a significant postnatal symptom severity reduction compared with the nonmedicated counterpart. This effect was larger (β=−0.74, 95% CI =−1.24, −0.24 when the analysis was restricted to mothers within 6 months after childbirth. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-reported antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms differs across European countries. Among women with psychiatric disorders, those who had been on treatment with antidepressants during pregnancy were less likely to report postnatal depressive symptoms
Bot, M; Middeldorp, C M; de Geus, E J C; Lau, H M; Sinke, M; van Nieuwenhuizen, B; Smit, J H; Boomsma, D I; Penninx, B W J H
There is a paucity of valid, brief instruments for the assessment of lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD) that can be used in, for example, large-scale genomics, imaging or biomarker studies on depression. We developed the LIfetime Depression Assessment Self-report (LIDAS), which assesses lifetime MDD diagnosis according to DSM criteria, and is largely based on the widely used Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Here, we tested the feasibility and determined the sensitivity and specificity for measuring lifetime MDD with this new questionnaire, with a regular CIDI as reference. Sensitivity and specificity analyses of the online lifetime MDD questionnaire were performed in adults with (n = 177) and without (n = 87) lifetime MDD according to regular index CIDIs, selected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Feasibility was tested in an additional non-selective, population-based sample of NTR participants (n = 245). Of the 753 invited persons, 509 (68%) completed the LIDAS, of which 419 (82%) did this online. User-friendliness of the instrument was rated high. Median completion time was 6.2 min. Sensitivity and specificity for lifetime MDD were 85% [95% confidence interval (CI) 80-91%] and 80% (95% CI 72-89%), respectively. This LIDAS instrument gave a lifetime MDD prevalence of 20.8% in the population-based sample. Measuring lifetime MDD with an online instrument was feasible. Sensitivity and specificity were adequate. The instrument gave a prevalence of lifetime MDD in line with reported population prevalences. LIDAS is a promising tool for rapid determination of lifetime MDD status in large samples, such as needed for genomics studies.
Zimmerman, Mark; Walsh, Emily; Friedman, Michael; Boerescu, Daniela A; Attiullah, Naureen
Recent treatment guidelines have suggested that outcome should be measured in routine clinical practice. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we compared three self-report scales of depressive symptoms and the two most widely used clinician administered scales in treatment studies in their sensitivity to change and evaluation of treatment response in depressed patients treated in routine practice. At baseline and 4-month follow-up 153 depressed outpatients with DSM-IV MDD completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-report version (QIDS-SR), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The patients were rated on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). On each scale treatment response was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in scores from baseline. While there were some differences in the percentage of patients considered to be responders on the different scales, a large effect size was found for each scale, with little variability amongst the scales. The level of agreement between the three self-report scales and the clinician rating scales was approximately the same LIMITATIONS: The present study was conducted in a single clinical practice in which the majority of the patients were white, female, and had health insurance. When measuring outcome in clinical practice the magnitude of change in depressive symptoms is as great on self-report scales as on clinician rating scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Navrady, L B; Adams, M J; Chan, S W Y; Ritchie, S J; McIntosh, A M
Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for depression correlate with depression status and chronicity, and provide causal anchors to identify depressive mechanisms. Neuroticism is phenotypically and genetically positively associated with depression, whereas psychological resilience demonstrates negative phenotypic associations. Whether increased neuroticism and reduced resilience are downstream mediators of genetic risk for depression, and whether they contribute independently to risk remains unknown. Moderating and mediating relationships between depression PRS, neuroticism, resilience and both clinical and self-reported depression were examined in a large, population-based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (N = 4166), using linear regression and structural equation modelling. Neuroticism and resilience were measured by the Eysenck Personality Scale Short Form Revised and the Brief Resilience Scale, respectively. PRS for depression was associated with increased likelihood of self-reported and clinical depression. No interaction was found between PRS and neuroticism, or between PRS and resilience. Neuroticism was associated with increased likelihood of self-reported and clinical depression, whereas resilience was associated with reduced risk. Structural equation modelling suggested the association between PRS and self-reported and clinical depression was mediated by neuroticism (43-57%), while resilience mediated the association in the opposite direction (37-40%). For both self-reported and clinical diagnoses, the genetic risk for depression was independently mediated by neuroticism and resilience. Findings suggest polygenic risk for depression increases vulnerability for self-reported and clinical depression through independent effects on increased neuroticism and reduced psychological resilience. In addition, two partially independent mechanisms - neuroticism and resilience - may form part of the pathway of vulnerability to depression.
Sawyer, Alexia; Fisher, Abi; Llewellyn, Clare; Gregory, Alice M
Research supporting relationships between sleep quality, weight, depression and anxiety has typically examined the relationships separately rather than simultaneously, potentially hampering insights into the characteristics of reported links. This study aimed to fill this gap in the research to provide further insight into the factors associated with sleep. Data from wave 4 of the G1219 cohort were used in cross-sectional analyses. The sample comprised 1392 adult twins and siblings aged 18-27 years. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index as a measure of sleep quality, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire as a measure of depression symptoms and the Revised Symptoms of Anxiety Scale as a measure of anxiety symptoms. Participants were asked to self-report general health and weight and height so researchers could derive weight status from measures of body mass index. An analysis of covariance including weight status, depression, anxiety and general health as predictors and sleep quality as the outcome revealed main effects of depression (F(3,1163) = 10.93, p relationship between weight and sleep should not be assumed as it is possible that the relationship is at least in part accounted for by depression symptoms or general health. Depression symptoms and general health may also account for the association between sleep quality and anxiety symptoms in young adults.
Zohsel, Katrin; Holz, Nathalie E; Hohm, Erika; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred
Depressed mood is prevalent during pregnancy, with accumulating evidence suggesting an impact on developmental outcome in the offspring. However, the long-term effects of prenatal maternal depression regarding internalizing psychopathology in the offspring are as yet unclear. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, prenatal maternal depressed mood was assessed at the child's age of 3 months. In a sample of n=307 offspring, depressive symptoms were obtained via questionnaire at the ages of 19, 22, 23 and 25 years. At age 25 years, diagnoses of depressive disorder were obtained using a diagnostic interview. In a subsample of currently healthy participants, voxel-based morphometry was conducted and amygdala volume was assessed. In n=85 young adults exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood, no significantly higher risk for a diagnosis of depressive disorder was observed. However, they reported significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms. This association was especially pronounced when prenatal maternal depressed mood was present during the first trimester of pregnancy and when maternal mood was depressed pre- as well as postnatally. At an uncorrected level only, prenatal maternal depressed mood was associated with decreased amygdala volume. Prenatal maternal depressed mood was not assessed during pregnancy, but shortly after childbirth. No diagnoses of maternal clinical depression during pregnancy were available. Self-reported depressive symptoms do not imply increased, but rather decreased symptom levels in young adults who were exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood. A long-term perspective may be important when considering consequences of prenatal risk factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Chi Ming Leung
Full Text Available Bipolar II (BP-II depression is often misdiagnosed as unipolar (UP depression, resulting in suboptimal treatment. Tools for differentiating between these two types of depression are lacking. This study aimed to develop a simple, self-report screening instrument to help distinguish BP-II depression from UP depressive disorder. A prototype BP-II depression questionnaire (BPIIDQ-P was constructed following a literature review, panel discussions and a field trial. Consecutively assessed patients with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or BP with depressive episodes completed the BPIIDQ-P at a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Hong Kong between October and December 2013. Data were analyzed using discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Of the 298 subjects recruited, 65 (21.8% were males and 233 (78.2% females. There were 112 (37.6% subjects with BP depression [BP-I = 42 (14.1%, BP-II = 70 (23.5%] and 182 (62.4% with UP depression. Based on family history, age at onset, postpartum depression, episodic course, attacks of anxiety, hypersomnia, social phobia and agoraphobia, the 8-item BPIIDQ-8 was constructed. The BPIIDQ-8 differentiated subjects with BP-II from those with UP depression with a sensitivity/specificity of 0.75/0.63 for the whole sample and 0.77/0.72 for a female subgroup with a history of childbirth. The BPIIDQ-8 can differentiate BP-II from UP depression at the secondary care level with satisfactory to good reliability and validity. It has good potential as a screening tool for BP-II depression in primary care settings. Recall bias, the relatively small sample size, and the high proportion of females in the BP-II sample limit the generalization of the results.
McHugh, R. Kathryn; Behar, Evelyn
As the demand for accountability in service provision settings increases, the need for valid methods for assessing clinical outcomes is of particular importance. Self-report measures of functioning are particularly useful in the assessment of psychological functioning, but a vital factor in their validity and transportability is the reading level…
Neumann, Dawn; Malec, James F; Hammond, Flora M
To compare self-reported aggression in people with and without traumatic brain injury (TBI) and examine the relations of aggression to alexithymia (poor emotional insight), depression, and anxiety. Rehabilitation hospital. Forty-six adults with moderate to severe TBI who were at least 3 months postinjury; 49 healthy controls (HCs); groups were frequency matched for age and gender. Cross-sectional study using a quasi-experimental design. Aggression (Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire); alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20); depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9); and trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Participants with TBI had significantly higher aggression scores than HCs. For participants with TBI, 34.2% of the adjusted variance of aggression was significantly explained by alexithymia, depression, and anxiety; alexithymia accounted for the largest unique portion of the variance in this model (16.2%). Alexithymia, depression, and anxiety explained 46% of the adjusted variance of aggression in HCs; in contrast to participants with TBI, depression was the largest unique contributor to aggression (15.9%). This was the first empirical study showing that poor emotional insight (alexithymia) significantly contributes to aggression after TBI. This relation, and the potential clinical implications it may have for the treatment of aggression, warrants further investigation.
Magiati, Iliana; Ponniah, Kathryn; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fung, Daniel; Woo, Bernardine
Few studies have examined anxiety and depression experiences of primary (middle) school-aged children from ethnically diverse backgrounds, and most have relied on parents or others as informants. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported anxiety and depression symptoms in Singaporean primary school-aged children. Age, gender, and ethnic differences and interactions were explored as well as similarities and differences between Singaporean children and US norms. A large representative community sample of 1655 8- to 12-year-old Singaporean children (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) as part of a larger epidemiological study of mental health in Singaporean children. Rates of clinically elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression were 9.3% and 16.9% on the MASC and the CDI, respectively. Separation and social anxieties were most common. Evidence of a gender difference in levels of emotional symptoms was most evident in Indian children, with girls reporting more symptoms than boys. The relationship between age and internalizing problems was weak. A substantial minority of primary school-aged Singaporean children reported elevated anxious and depressive symptoms. Better understanding of the factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of these problems can help the development of culture-specific interventions and facilitate the planning of community-tailored services and initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Costa, Paul T; Bagby, R Michael; Herbst, Jeffrey H; McCrae, Robert R
It is alleged that depression distorts the assessment of general personality traits. To test that hypothesis, we examined scores on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) administered to acutely depressed patients at baseline and 14 to 26 weeks after treatment with antidepressant medication. Two hundred and fifty patients completed the NEO-PI-R at baseline, 109 patients after 14 to 26 weeks of antidepressant pharmacotherapy. 48 patients (49.5%) were identified as responders while 49 (50.5%) were identified as non-responders. The remaining 12 patients were excluded because they met HRSD response criteria but not the SCID-I MDD criteria at treatment completion. At baseline, NEO-PI-R scales showed high internal consistency and replicated the normative factor structure, suggesting that psychometric properties were preserved. Among non-responders, retest correlations were uniformly high (rs=.50 to .88) and mean levels showed little change, providing evidence for the consistency of personality self-reports during an acute depressive episode. NEO-PI-R scales showed construct validity in the concurrent prediction of a number of clinical criteria. Effective treatment had significant effects on the mean levels of neuroticism, which decreased, and extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness, which increased. The participants were from a clinical database and were not randomly assigned for the treatment. The results suggest that the effect of acute depression is to amplify somewhat the personality profile of people prone to depression. Rather than regard these depression-caused changes in assessed personality trait levels as a distortion, we interpret them as accurate reflections of the current condition of the individual. Personality traits have biological bases, and when they are changed (by disease or therapeutic interventions) trait levels change.
Arjadi, Retha; Nauta, Maaike H; Utoyo, Dharmayati B; Bockting, Claudi L H
BACKGROUND: Depression screening and examination in Indonesia are highly challenging due to the disproportionately low number of mental health professionals in comparison to the Indonesian population. Self-report questionnaires on depression are cost-effective and time-efficient. The current study
Arjadi, Retha; Nauta, Maaike H.; Utoyo, Dharmayati B.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.
Depression screening and examination in Indonesia are highly challenging due to the disproportionately low number of mental health professionals in comparison to the Indonesian population. Self-report questionnaires on depression are cost-effective and time-efficient. The current study investigates
Crisson, James; And Others
Presents two studies designed to examine the self-report of depressive symptoms in low back pain patients (N=134). Both studies found that patients were more likely to report somatic than cognitive symptoms of depression. Patients with multiple physical findings were not more likely to report somatic symptoms than patients with few physical…
Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Dalrymple, Kristy; Walsh, Emily; Rosenstein, Lia
To acknowledge the clinical significance of anxiety in depressed patients, DSM-5 included criteria for an anxious distress specifier for major depressive disorder. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we modified our previously published depression scale to include a subscale assessing the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier. From December 1995 to August 2013, 773 psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) supplemented with questions for the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier (CUDOS-A). To examine discriminant and convergent validity, the patients were rated on clinician severity indices of depression, anxiety, and irritability. Discriminant and convergent validity was further examined in a subset of patients who completed other self-report symptom severity scales. Test-retest reliability was examined in a subset who completed the CUDOS-A twice. We compared patients who did and did not meet the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier on indices of psychosocial functioning and quality of life. The CUDOS-A subscale had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability; was more highly correlated with other self-report measures of anxiety than with measures of depression, substance use problems, eating disorders, and anger; and was more highly correlated with clinician severity ratings of anxiety than depression and irritability. CUDOS-A scores were significantly higher in depressed outpatients with a current anxiety disorder than in depressed patients without a comorbid anxiety disorder (P depressive disorder. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Chongpison, Yuda; Hornbrook, Mark C; Harris, Robin B; Herrinton, Lisa J; Gerald, Joe K; Grant, Marcia; Bulkley, Joanna E; Wendel, Christopher S; Krouse, Robert S
Types of surgery for rectal cancer (RC), including permanent ostomy (PO) or temporary ostomy followed by anastomosis (TO) or initial anastomosis (AN), can affect psychological and financial well-being during active treatment. However, these relationships have not been well studied among long-term survivors (≥5 years post-diagnosis). A mailed survey with 576 long-term RC survivors who were members of Kaiser Permanente was conducted in 2010-2011. Prevalence of current depression was ascertained using a score of ≤45.6 on the Short Form-12 version 2 mental component summary. Perceived financial burden was assessed using a Likert scale ranging from 0 (none) to 10 (severe). Regression analyses were used to measure associations after adjustment for covariates. The overall prevalence of depression was 24% among RC survivors with the highest prevalence among those with a history of PO (31%). The adjusted odds of depression among TO and AN survivors were lower than that among PO survivors, 0.42 (CI 95% 0.20-0.89) and 0.59 (CI 95% 0.37-0.93), respectively. Twenty-two percent perceived moderate-to-high current financial burden (≥4 points). PO survivors also reported higher mean financial burden than AN survivors (2.6 vs. 1.6, respectively; p = 0.002), but perceived burden comparably to TO survivors (2.3). Self-reported depression was associated with higher perceived financial burden (p reported frequently among these long-term RC survivors, particularly among PO survivors. Depression was associated with greater perception of financial burden. Screening for depression and assessing financial well-being might improve care among long-term RC survivors.Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Berant, Ety; Newborn, Michal; Orgler, Smadar
In this study, we addressed the weak associations found in research between self-report measures and the Rorschach test (Exner, 1978, 1991), from the perspective of Bornstein's (2002) "process dissociation framework." Specifically, in the study, we focused on the associations between self-report measures of psychological distress and their corresponding Rorschach indexes while inspecting the moderating role of self-disclosure. A total of 59, nonpatient Israeli adults participated in a 2-session study. In the first session, they completed self-report scales measuring self-disclosure and psychological distress (suicidality, depression, and loneliness). In the second session, the Rorschach test was administered and coded. The participants were divided into high and low self-disclosure groups. A convergence between self-report and Rorschach measures of psychological distress was found only among high self-disclosers. In the discussion, we address the theoretical and clinical implications of these findings.
Engel, Maike; Lincoln, Tania Marie
Validated self-report instruments could provide a time efficient screening method for negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a German version of the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR) which is based on the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). In- and outpatients (N=50) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed with standardized interviews and questionnaires on negative and positive symptoms and general psychopathology in schizophrenia, depression, and global functioning. The German version of the MAP-SR showed high internal consistency. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the MAP-SR with the experience sub-scale of the CAINS and the negative symptom sub-scale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The MAP-SR also exhibited discriminant validity indicated by its non-significant correlations with positive symptoms and general psychopathology, which is in line with the findings for the original version of the MAP-SR. However, the MAP-SR correlated moderately with depression. The German MAP-SR appears to be a valid and suitable diagnostic tool for the identification of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dussault, Marc; Frenette, Eric; Fernet, Claude
The aim of this paper was to propose and test the factor structure of a new self-report questionnaire on leadership. A sample of 373 school principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada completed the initial 46-item version of the questionnaire. In order to obtain a questionnaire of minimal length, a four-step procedure was retained. First, items analysis was performed using Classical Test Theory. Second, Rasch analysis was used to identify non-fitting or overlapping items. Third, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modelling was performed on the 21 remaining items to verify the factor structure of the scale. Results show that the model with a single third-order dimension (leadership), two second-order dimensions (transactional and transformational leadership), and one first-order dimension (laissez-faire leadership) provides a good fit to the data. Finally, invariance of factor structure was assessed with a second sample of 222 vice-principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada. This model is in agreement with the theoretical model developed by Bass (1985), upon which the questionnaire is based.
Ellis, Lee; Hoskin, Anthony
Research has documented that both unipolar and bipolar depression are positively correlated with involvement in delinquency and crime. The present study sought to broaden the understanding of these relationships by looking for links between offending and family histories of depressive symptoms in relationship to offspring delinquency. More than 6,000 college students and their mothers provided self-reported information regarding feelings of depression. Students provided self-reports of involvement in various categories of offending and drug use from ages 10 through 18. Numerous significant positive correlations were found between general feelings of depression and of manic depression and involvement in delinquency. The depression-delinquency relationships were strongest when considering offspring themselves, although maternal depression symptoms were also associated with various forms of offspring delinquency and drug use. To help assess the causal chains that might be involved, multiple regression and mediation analysis revealed that parental depression enhanced the probability of offspring feeling depressed and may have thereby contributed to offspring being delinquent, particularly in the case of manic depression. This study reconfirmed the well-established relationship between depression and involvement in delinquency and drug use, and suggests that it extends back to parental forms of depression, especially by the mother.
Midtgaard, Julie; Rørth, Mikael; Stelter, Reinhard
Little is known about the role of exercise in improving cancer patients' mood while undergoing chemotherapy. In this phase II study changes in self-reported anxiety and depression and fitness (VO2max) are reported in relation to a 6-week, 9 h weekly, multidimensional exercise program. A total of 91...... patients receiving chemotherapy, between 18 and 65 years old, completed a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Questionnaire (HADS; response rate 91%, adherence rate 78%). Anxiety (p depression (p = 0.042) was significantly reduced. The mean +/- SD of the change was -1.14 +/- 2.91 for anxiety...... and -0.44 +/- 2.77 for depression. Improvements in fitness were correlated with improvements in depression, chi2(1) = 3.966, p = 0.046, but not with improvements in anxiety, chi2(1) = 0.540, p = 0.462. The research suggests that exercise intervention may have a beneficial impact on psychological distress...
Goldberg, Joel O.; And Others
Compared two new measures of depression (Millon Multiaxial Inventory Dysthymia and Major Depression subscales) with two established instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, a self-report measure which emphasizes the cognitive-affective aspects of depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, an interview measure that emphasizes somatic…
Cooper, Jessica A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Denny, Taylor; Worthy, Darrell A; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd
Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work has reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced this bias and reduced depressive symptoms. However, the effect of attention training on subsequent learning has yet to be explored. In the present study, participants were required to learn to maximize reward during decision making. Undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n = 20; active training). The active-training group was compared to two other groups: undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms who received placebo training (n = 22; placebo training) and a control group with low levels of depressive symptoms (n = 33; nondepressive control). The placebo-training depressive group performed worse and switched between options more than did the nondepressive controls on the reward maximization task. However, depressives that received active training performed as well as the nondepressive controls. Computational modeling indicated that the placebo-trained group learned more from negative than from positive prediction errors, leading to more frequent switching. The nondepressive control and active-training depressive groups showed similar learning from positive and negative prediction errors, leading to less-frequent switching and better performance. Our results indicate that individuals with elevated depressive symptoms are impaired at reward maximization, but that the deficit can be improved with attention training toward positive stimuli.
Li, Lydia W; Dong, XinQi
Discrimination is part of life for many Americans, especially ethnic minorities. Focusing on older Chinese Americans, this study examines the association between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms and identifies subgroups that are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of data collected from adults (age 60+ years) of Chinese origin residing in the Greater Chicago area (N = 3,004). Self-reported discrimination was assessed by the Experiences of Discrimination instrument and was dichotomized (yes vs no). Depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Logistic regression of self-reported discrimination and negative binominal regression of depressive symptoms were conducted. About 21.5% of the sample reported having experienced discrimination. The odds of reporting discrimination are higher for those who are younger, have higher education and income, are more acculturated, have been in the United States longer, live outside Chinatown, and have higher levels of neuroticism and conscientiousness. Self-reported discrimination is significantly and positively associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, migration-related variables, and personality factors. Findings suggest a robust relationship between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms in older Chinese Americans. They further suggest that the relatively advantaged groups-younger, higher socioeconomic status, more acculturated, and living outside Chinatown-are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mbekou, Valentin; MacNeil, Sasha; Gignac, Martin; Renaud, Johanne
Objective: A multi-informant approach is often used in child psychiatry. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment uses this approach, gathering parent reports on the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and youth reports on the Youth Self-Report (YSR), which contain scales assessing both the child’s problems and competencies. Agreement between parent and youth perceptions of their competencies on these forms has not been studied to date. Method: Our study examined the parent–youth agreement of competencies on the CBCL and YSR from a sample of 258 parent–youth dyads referred to a specialized outpatient clinic for depressive and suicidal disorders. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for all competency scales (activity, social, and academic), with further examinations based on youth’s sex, age, and type of problem. Results: Weak-to-moderate parent–youth agreements were reported on the activities and social subscales. For the activities subscale, boys’ ratings had a strong correlation with parents’ ratings, while it was weak for girls. Also, agreement on activities and social subscales was stronger for dyads with the youth presenting externalizing instead of internalizing problems. Conclusion: Agreement on competencies between parents and adolescents varied based on competency and adolescent sex, age, and type of problem. PMID:25886673
Full Text Available Donna L Berry,1–3 Traci M Blonquist,4 Fangxin Hong,4,5 Barbara Halpenny,1 Ann H Partridge2,3 1Phyllis F Cantor Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 2Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 3Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 5Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Background: Therapeutic cancer chemotherapy is most successful when complete dosing is achieved. Because many newer therapeutic agents are oral and self-administered by the patient, adherence is a concern. The purpose of our analysis was to explore relationships between adherence, patient characteristics, and barriers to adherence.Methods: This secondary analysis utilized self-reported data from a randomized trial of self-care management conducted at two cancer centers in the US. Symptom distress was measured using the 15-item Symptom Distress Scale (SDS-15 and depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Adherence to oral medication was self-reported using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Measures were collected via Web-based, study-specific software ~8 weeks after treatment start date. Odds of low/medium adherence (score <8 were explored using univariate logistic regression. Given the number of factors and possible relationships among factors, a classification tree was built in lieu of a multivariable logistic regression model.Results: Of the eligible participants enrolled, 77 were on oral therapy and 70 had an MMAS score. Forty-nine (70% reported a high adherence score (=8. Higher odds of low/medium adherence were associated with greater symptom distress (P=0.09, more depression (P=0.05, chemotherapy vs hormonal oral medication (P=0.03, being female (P=0.02, and being randomized to the control group in the parent trial (P=0.09. Conversely, high adherence was associated with
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Fatigue, anxiety and depression are very frequent symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Goals: In this study we evaluated the influence of socioeconomic characteristics, therapy and comorbidities on the self-reported high fatigue, anxiety and depression in patients with RA. Method: Multicenter cross-sectional study was performed in 22 health institutions in Serbia during the period from April-August 2014 in population of older RA patients. Self-reported patients health status was measured by: Fatigue Assessment Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7. Treatment modalities were defined as: (1 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and/or analgesics and/or corticosteroids; (2 synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs alone or in combination with corticosteroids and/or NSAIDs and (3 any RA treatment which includes biologic DMARDs. Results: There were significant predictors of high depression: synthetic DMARDs therapy in combination with corticosteroids and/or NSAIDs, physiotherapist self-payment, frequent taxi use, alternative treatment and employment status. The need for another person's assistance, supplemental calcium therapy and professional qualifications were the predictors of a high fatigue, whereas the age above 65 years had the protective effect on it. Anxiety was an independent high fatigue predictor. The predictors of a high anxiety were: gastroprotection with proton-pump inhibitors and patient occupation. Conclusion Socioeconomic predictors of self-reported high depression, anxiety or fatigue are different for each of the mentioned outcomes, while accompanied with the basic RA treatment they exclusively explain a high depression. The anxiety, jointed with the socioeconomic variables and supplemental therapy, is a significant fatigue predictor in RA patients.
Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Dalrymple, Kristy; Martinez, Jennifer H
To acknowledge the clinical significance of manic features in depressed patients, DSM-5 included criteria for a mixed features specifier for major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project we modified our previously published depression scale to include a subscale assessing the DSM-5 mixed features specifier. More than 1100 psychiatric outpatients with MDD or bipolar disorder completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) supplemented with questions for the DSM-5 mixed features specifier (CUDOS-M). To examine discriminant and convergent validity the patients were rated on clinician severity indices of depression, anxiety, agitation, and irritability. Discriminant and convergent validity was further examined in a subset of patients who completed other self-report symptom severity scales. Test-retest reliability was examined in a subset who completed the CUDOS-M twice. We compared CUDOS-M scores in patients with MDD, bipolar depression, and hypomania. The CUDOS-M subscale had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability, was more highly correlated with another self-report measure of mania than with measures of depression, anxiety, substance use problems, eating disorders, and anger, and was more highly correlated with clinician severity ratings of agitation and irritability than anxiety and depression. CUDOS-M scores were significantly higher in hypomanic patients than depressed patients, and patients with bipolar depression than patients with MDD. The study was cross-sectional, thus we did not examine whether the CUDOS-M detects emerging mixed symptoms when depressed patients are followed over time. Also, while we examined the correlation between the CUDOS-M and clinician ratings of agitation and irritability, we did not examine the association with a clinician measure of manic symptomatology such as the Young Mania Rating Scale In the
Full Text Available Two problems regarding Youth Self-Report (YSR in translation to Slovene language and modifications are discussed. The scale evaluates general psychopathology. YSR consists of eight scales (Withdrawn, Somatic complaints, Anxious/depressed, Social problems, Thought problems, Attention problems, Delinquent behavior, Agressive behavior and two general factors (internalizing, externalizing. Objective of the first part is to determine item and scale discrimination between referred and non-referred adolescents (applicability in Slovene culture. The second objective is to determine the prediction value by comparing these diagnoses to ICD-10 diagnoses. YSRs were completed by referred and non-referred adolescents (11-18 years matched by gender, age and socio-economic status. The comparison showed high reliability of some scales. The majority of scales as well as both general factors discriminate well between referred and non-referred youths. Some scales, however, have big discriminant power on sex and age. It was found out that YSR can predict well some of the ICD-10 diagnoses (conduct disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder while it is inappropriate to predict other diagnoses. Suggestions of how to change expressions at some items in Slovene version were made. Besides, more exact names of some scales are required.
Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Menictas, Con; Stevenson, Richard J.; Homewood, Judi
Currently, there is no standard self-report measure of psychopathy in community-dwelling samples that parallels the most commonly used measure of psychopathy in forensic and clinical samples, the Psychopathy Checklist. A promising instrument is the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP), which was derived from the original version the Psychopathy…
Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri
Associations of peer victimization with adolescent depression and social phobia (SP), while controlling for comorbidity between them, have not been sufficiently explored in earlier research. A total of 3156 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 years participated in a survey study. Self-reported peer victimization, as well as self-reported depression…
Cousineau, Tara McKee; Shedler, Jonathan
Researchers have traditionally relied on self-report questionnaires to assess psychological well-being, but such measures may be unable to differentiate individuals who are genuinely psychologically healthy from those who maintain a facade or illusion of mental health based on denial and self-deception. Prior research suggests that clinically derived assessment procedures that assess implicit psychological processes may have advantages over self-report mental health measures. This prospective study compared the Early Memory Index, an implicit measure of mental health/distress, with a range of familiar self-report scales as predictors of physical health. The Early Memory Index showed significant prospective associations with health service utilization and clinically verified illness. In contrast, self-report measures of mental health, perceived stress, life events stress, and mood states did not predict health outcomes. The findings highlight the limitations of self-report questionnaires and suggest that implicit measures have an important role to play in mental health research.
Han, J H; Lee, H J; Jung, J; Park, E-C
The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of either hearing, vision or dual sensory impairment on depressive symptoms and to identify subgroups that are vulnerable and significantly affected. Data from the 2006-2014 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) were used and a total of 5832 individuals were included in this study. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D10) scale. Sensory impairment was assessed according to the levels of self-reported hearing or vision, which were categorised as either good (excellent, very good or good) or poor (fair or poor). The changes in hearing or vision from records of previous survey were investigated. Changes from good to poor, which indicates new onset, were defined as hearing impairment or vision impairment. Interactions of changes in hearing and vision were considered in the analysis. Dual sensory impairment was indicated when hearing impairment and vision impairment both developed at the same time. Demographic, socioeconomic and health-related factors were considered as potential confounders and were adjusted for in the generalised estimating equation model. Individuals with hearing impairment demonstrated significantly more severe depressive symptoms [β = 0.434, standard errors (s.e.) = 0.097, p impairment also showed significantly elevated depressive symptoms (β = 0.253, s.e. = 0.058, p impairment showed significantly more severe depressive symptoms (β = 0.768, s.e. = 0.197, p impairment on depressive symptoms was significant in both sexes and across age groups, except for vision impairment in male participants. Hearing, vision and dual sensory impairment are significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that treatment or rehabilitation of either hearing or vision impairment would help prevent depression.
Wilhelm, Sabine; Greenberg, Jennifer L; Rosenfield, Elizabeth; Kasarskis, Irina; Blashill, Aaron J
The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Scale (BDD-SS) is a new self-report measure used to examine the severity of a wide variety of symptoms associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). The BDD-SS was designed to differentiate, for each group of symptoms, the number of symptoms endorsed and their severity. This report evaluates and compares the psychometric characteristics of the BDD-SS in relation to other measures of BDD, body image, and depression in 99 adult participants diagnosed with BDD. Total scores of the BDD-SS showed good reliability and convergent validity and moderate discriminant validity. Analyses of the individual BDD-SS symptom groups confirmed the reliability of the checking, grooming, weight/shape, and cognition groups. The current findings indicate that the BDD-SS can be quickly administered and used to examine the severity of heterogeneous BDD symptoms for research and clinical purposes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva
diagnosed with depression (range 19-79, median 45,5) Procedure In order to evaluate the participants’ self-reported and observed quality of ADL task performance the ADL-Interview (ADL-I) and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) were chosen. Both instruments are developed to evaluate and measure...... the quality of ADL task performance. The ADL-I was conducted first and thereby formed the basis for identifying relevant tasks for the AMPS evaluation. Both evaluations were conducted on the same day by trained and calibrated occupational therapists. Results The results indicated that the participants both...
Full Text Available Depression screening and examination in Indonesia are highly challenging due to the disproportionately low number of mental health professionals in comparison to the Indonesian population. Self-report questionnaires on depression are cost-effective and time-efficient. The current study investigates the psychometric properties of the Indonesian Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self Report (IDS-SR.The participants were 904 Indonesians (aged 16-61; 50.2% female, recruited via an online survey using Qualtrics. Confirmatory factor analysis of the one-factor, three-factor, and four-factor model were explored. Convergent and divergent validity of the total score of the Indonesian IDS-SR and each factor were examined, as well as the Cronbach's Alpha reliability. In addition, an optimal cut-off score for the Indonesian IDS-SR was established using ROC curve analysis.The three-factor model of "cognitive/mood", "anxiety/arousal", and "sleep disturbance" was the best fit with the Indonesian IDS-SR data. Convergent and divergent validity were good. Cronbach's Alpha reliability was excellent for the total score, good for the factors "cognitive/mood" and "anxiety/arousal", but insufficient for the factor "sleep disturbance". The optimal cut-off score of the Indonesian IDS-SR was 14, with 87% sensitivity and 86% specificity.As a multifactorial instrument to measure depression that has good validity and reliability, the Indonesian IDS-SR can be used to assess depressive symptoms for the purpose of research and clinical practice. The optimal cut-off score of the Indonesian IDS-SR is in accordance with the internationally used cut-off score.
Posmatal depression occurs in 10 - 15% of women. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a ID-item self-report scale designed specifically as a screening instrument for the postnatal period. It was initially validated for use in the UK, but has subsequently been validated for other communities. It has not been ...
Gao, Keming; Wu, Renrong; Wang, Zuowei; Ren, Ming; Kemp, David E; Chan, Philip K; Conroy, Carla M; Serrano, Mary Beth; Ganocy, Stephen J; Calabrese, Joseph R
To study the disagreement between self-reported suicidal ideation (SR-SI) and clinician-ascertained suicidal ideation (CA-SI) and its correlation with depression and anxiety severity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BPD). Routine clinical outpatients were diagnosed with the MINI-STEP-BD version. SR-SI was extracted from the 16 Item Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR-16) item 12. CA-SI was extracted from a modified Suicide Assessment module of the MINI. Depression and anxiety severity were measured with the QIDS-SR-16 and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Chi-square, Fisher exact, and bivariate linear logistic regression were used for analyses. Of 103 patients with MDD, 5.8% endorsed any CA-SI and 22.4% endorsed any SR-SI. Of the 147 patients with BPD, 18.4% endorsed any CA-SI and 35.9% endorsed any SR-SI. The agreement between any SR-SI and any CA-SI was 83.5% for MDD and 83.1% for BPD, with weighted Kappa of 0.30 and 0.43, respectively. QIDS-SR-16 score, female gender, and ≥4 year college education were associated with increased risk for disagreement, 15.44 ± 4.52 versus 18.39 ± 3.49 points (p = 0.0026), 67% versus 46% (p = 0.0783), and 61% versus 29% (p = 0.0096). The disagreement was positively correlated to depression severity in both MDD and BPD with a correlation coefficient R(2) = 0.40 and 0.79, respectively, but was only positively correlated to anxiety severity in BPD with a R(2) = 0.46. Self-reported questionnaire was more likely to reveal higher frequency and severity of SI than clinician-ascertained, suggesting that a combination of self-reported and clinical-ascertained suicidal risk assessment with measuring depression and anxiety severity may be necessary for suicide prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kan, C.C.; Ven, A.H.G.S. van der; Breteler, M.H.M.; Zitman, F.G.
The aim of the present study was to obtain standardized scores that correspond with the raw scores on the four Rasch scales of the Benzodiazepine Dependence-Self Report Questionnaire (Bendep-SRQ). The eligible normative group for standardization of the Bendep-SRQ scales consisted of 217 general
Kan, C.C.; Ven, A.H.G.S. van der; Breteler, M.H.M.; Zitman, F.G.
The aim of the present study was to obtain standardized scores that correspond with the raw scores on the four Rasch scales of the Benzodiazepine Dependence-Self Report Questionnaire (Bendep-SRQ). The eligible normative group for standardization of the Bendep-SRQ scales consisted of 217 general
Full Text Available Depression is a debilitating condition that adversely affects many aspects of a person's life and general health. Earlier work has supported the idea that there may be a relationship between the use of certain media and depression. In this study, we tested if self-report of depression (SRD, which is not a clinically based diagnosis, was associated with increased internet, television, and social media usage by using data collected in the Media Behavior and Influence Study (MBIS database (N=19,776 subjects. We further assessed the relationship of demographic variables to this association. These analyses found that SRD rates were in the range of published rates of clinically diagnosed major depression. It found that those who tended to use more media also tended to be more depressed, and that segmentation of SRD subjects was weighted toward internet and television usage, which was not the case with non-SRD subjects, who were segmented along social media use. This study found that those who have suffered either economic or physical life setbacks are orders of magnitude more likely to be depressed, even without disproportionately high levels of media use. However, among those that have suffered major life setbacks, high media users – particularly television watchers – were even more likely to report experiencing depression, which suggests that these effects were not just due to individuals having more time for media consumption. These findings provide an example of how Big Data can be used for medical and mental health research, helping to elucidate issues not traditionally tested in the fields of psychiatry or experimental psychology.
Block, Martin; Stern, Daniel B; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Sang; Carey, Jim; Humphreys, Ashlee A; Mulhern, Frank; Calder, Bobby; Schultz, Don; Rudick, Charles N; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C
Depression is a debilitating condition that adversely affects many aspects of a person's life and general health. Earlier work has supported the idea that there may be a relationship between the use of certain media and depression. In this study, we tested if self-report of depression (SRD), which is not a clinically based diagnosis, was associated with increased internet, television, and social media usage by using data collected in the Media Behavior and Influence Study (MBIS) database (N = 19,776 subjects). We further assessed the relationship of demographic variables to this association. These analyses found that SRD rates were in the range of published rates of clinically diagnosed major depression. It found that those who tended to use more media also tended to be more depressed, and that segmentation of SRD subjects was weighted toward internet and television usage, which was not the case with non-SRD subjects, who were segmented along social media use. This study found that those who have suffered either economic or physical life setbacks are orders of magnitude more likely to be depressed, even without disproportionately high levels of media use. However, among those that have suffered major life setbacks, high media users-particularly television watchers-were even more likely to report experiencing depression, which suggests that these effects were not just due to individuals having more time for media consumption. These findings provide an example of how Big Data can be used for medical and mental health research, helping to elucidate issues not traditionally tested in the fields of psychiatry or experimental psychology.
Ponsoni, André; Branco, Laura Damiani; Cotrena, Charles; Shansis, Flávio Milman; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Fonseca, Rochele Paz
Studies have reliably identified an association between suicide attempts and executive functions such as decision making (DM) and inhibitory control (IC) in patients with mood disorders. As such, the present study aimed to investigate the association between inhibition, DM, impulsivity and the history of suicide attempts in individuals with bipolar (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD), identifying which assessment instruments may be most strongly associated with suicide in clinical samples. The sample included 80 control subjects and two groups of patients with BD and MDD, matched by age and education (26 with a history of suicide attempts [MD+], and 26 with no such history [MD-]). Participants completed behavioral and self-report measures of DM and IC, which were compared between groups using ANCOVA, followed by logistic regression for patients with mood disorders only, and the presence or absence of a history of suicide as the outcome. Cognitive performance did not differ between groups. The MD+ group showed significantly higher motor and attentional impulsivity on the BIS-11 than the MD- and control groups. A regression analysis containing these scores showed that motor impulsivity was the only significant predictor of a history of suicide (OR = 1.14; 95%CI 1.00-1.30). Self-reported motor impulsivity was a significant predictor of suicide. These findings underscore the importance of self-report measures in neuropsychological assessment, and their contributions to the management and prognosis of patients with mood disorders. Lastly, they point to the role of impulsivity as a target for interventions and public policy on suicide prevention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hedman, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Blom, Kerstin; El Alaoui, Samir; Kraepelien, Martin; Rück, Christian; Andersson, Gerhard; Svanborg, Cecilia; Lindefors, Nils; Kaldo, Viktor
Internet-administered self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties are widely used in clinical trials and in clinical routine care, but data loss is a common problem that could render skewed estimates of symptom levels and treatment effects. One way of reducing the negative impact of missing data could be to use telephone administration of self-report measures as a means to complete the data missing from the online data collection. The aim of the study was to compare the convergence of telephone and Internet administration of self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-Report (LSAS-SR), Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self-Rated (MADRS-S), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were administered over the telephone and via the Internet to a clinical sample (N=82) of psychiatric patients at a clinic specializing in Internet-delivered treatment. Shortened versions of the LSAS-SR and the ISI were used when administered via telephone. As predicted, the results showed that the estimates produced by the two administration formats were highly correlated (r=.82-.91; PInternet: Cronbach alpha=.79-.93). The correlation coefficients were similar across questionnaires and the shorter versions of the questionnaires used in the telephone administration of the LSAS-SR and ISI performed in general equally well compared to when the full scale was used, as was the case with the MADRS-S. Telephone administration of self-report questionnaires is a valid method that can be used to reduce data loss in routine psychiatric practice as well as in clinical trials, thereby contributing to more accurate symptom estimates.
McIntyre, Lynn; Wu, Xiuyun; Kwok, Cynthia; Patten, Scott B
We used longitudinal data to clarify the association between self-report of hunger and subsequent depression risk among youth and young adults, accounting for other risk factors. Youth self-report of ever experiencing hunger data were collected from cycles 4-6 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth cohort of Canadian youth 16 years and older (n = 4139). Data on depressive symptoms (CES-D 12) were collected over three cycles (2004-2009, cycles 6-8). We used multivariable regression based on generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine prior youth hunger on later depression risk, adjusting for time-stable, time-varying, and lagged variables (e.g., depressive symptoms in previous cycle), thereby clarifying the temporal relationship. The prevalence of youth hunger experience and depression risk reached 5.9 and 15.0%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio of depression for participants reporting hunger was 2.31 (95% CI 1.54, 3.46) and changed little [2.17 (95% CI 1.29, 3.67)] after accounting for previous CES-D 12 scores, suggesting a temporal relationship in which hunger contributes to depression risk. Unlike never-hungry youth, depression in ever-hungry youth remained comparatively elevated over time. Our models support an independent and temporal relationship between youth self-report of hunger and depression in adolescence and young adulthood.
Greene, Barbara A.
Research spanning 20 years is reviewed as it relates to the measurement of cognitive engagement using self-report scales. The author's research program is at the forefront of the review, although the review is couched within the broader context of the research on motivation and cognitive engagement that began in the early 1990s. The…
Good, Evan; Hopwood, Christopher; Morey, Leslie
Validation of the Levels of Personality Functioning Scale - Self-Report. Results suggest that the measure has a robust single dimension and that it correlates in a very general manner with a wide range of maladaptive personality variables, consistent with its purpose as a measure of non-specific personality pathology.
Gong, Xiaopeng; Paulson, Sharon E.
The current study examined the factor structure of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale with an American college sample (n = 404, 322 females, 88.9% Whites). Data were collected through an online survey, and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test several proposed factor models from previous studies. The results…
Erford, Bradley T.; Schein, Hallie; Duncan, Kelly
The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary analysis of reliability and validity of scores on the "Self-Efficacy Self-Report Scale", which was designed to assess general self-efficacy in students aged 10 to 17 years. Confirmatory factor analysis on cross-validated samples was conducted revealing a marginal fit of the data to the…
Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Kotzin, Megan D; Waugaman, Debby L; Killgore, William D S
It has been shown that higher levels of trait gratitude are associated with better self-reported sleep quality, possibly due to differences in presleep cognitions. However previous studies have not taken into account the role of depressive symptoms in this relationship. In this study, 88 nonclinical 18-29-year-olds completed the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT) as a measure of trait gratitude. The Glasgow Content of Thought Inventory (GCTI) was used to measure the intrusiveness of cognitions prior to sleep onset, the Motivation and Energy Inventory (MEI) assessed daytime fatigue, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess self-reported sleep quality. The BDI-II assessed self-reported depressive symptoms. Consistent with previous work, GRAT scores were positively associated with higher daytime energy and greater number of hours of sleep per night. Importantly, however, we further observed that depressive symptoms mediated the relationships between gratitude scores and sleep metrics. Depressive mood state appears to mediate the association between gratitude and self-reported sleep quality metrics. We suggest, as one plausible model of these phenomena, that highly grateful individuals have lower symptoms of depression, which in turn leads to fewer presleep worries, resulting in better perceived sleep quality. Future work should aim to disentangle the causal nature of these relationships in order to better understand how these important variables interact.
Maske, Ulrike E; Buttery, Amanda K; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Hapke, Ulfert; Busch, Markus A
While standardized diagnostic interviews using established criteria are the gold standard for assessing depression, less time consuming measures of depression and depressive symptoms are commonly used in large population health surveys. We examine the prevalence and health-related correlates of three depression measures among adults aged 18-79 years in Germany. Using cross-sectional data from the national German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (n=7987) and its mental health module (DEGS1-MH) (n=4483), we analysed prevalence and socio-demographic and health-related correlates of (a) major depressive disorder (MDD) established by Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) using DSM-IV-TR criteria (CIDI-MDD) in the last 12 months, (b) self-reported physician or psychotherapist diagnosed depression in the last 12 months, and (c) current depressive symptoms in the last two weeks (PHQ-9, score ≥10). Prevalence of 12-month CIDI-MDD was 4.2% in men and 9.9% in women. Prevalence of 12-month self-reported health professional-diagnosed depression was 3.8% and 8.1% and of current depressive symptoms 6.1% and 10.2% in men and women, respectively. Case-overlap between measures was only moderate (32-45%). In adjusted multivariable analyses, depression according to all three measures was associated with lower self-rated health, lower physical and social functioning, higher somatic comorbidity (except for women with 12-month CIDI-MDD), more sick leave and higher health service utilization. Persons with severe depression may be underrepresented. Associations between CIDI-MDD and correlates and overlap with other measures may be underestimated due to time lag between DEGS1 and DEGS1-MH. Prevalence and identified cases varied between these three depression measures, but all measures were consistently associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wiegand, Sarah; Bianchi, William; Quinn, Thomas A; Best, Mark; Fotopoulos, Thomas
During medical education, many students experience psychological distress, including symptoms such as fatigue, stress, and depression. To evaluate the effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on self-perceived fatigue, stress, and depression in first-year osteopathic medical students. This randomized controlled pilot study with repeated measures was conducted at the Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine-Bradenton in Florida during the fall 2012 semester. First-year osteopathic medical students voluntarily enrolled in the study and were randomly assigned to directed OMT (D-OMT), nondirected OMT (ND-OMT), or control groups. The D-OMT and ND-OMT groups received treatment by osteopathic physicians weekly for 4 weeks. The control group received no treatment. All groups completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Self-Perceived Stress Scale (SPSS), and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) depression scale before treatment (pretest), after 2 treatments (midtest), and after 4 treatments (posttest). All participants self-reported as white and single, with both sexes equally represented, and had an mean age of 24 years. Analysis of ESS scores revealed a statistically significant decrease in the D-OMT group from pretest and posttest scores and a statistically significant increase in the ND-OMT group from pretest to midtest but not from pretest to posttest scores. No statistically significant differences were noted in the control group scores on this measure. No statistically significant differences were seen in the SPSS or PHQ-9 scores from pretest to midtest or pretest to posttest in any of the 3 groups. The D-OMT regimen used in the current study produced a statistically significant decrease in self-perceived fatigue in first-year osteopathic medical students. Osteopathic manipulative treatment represents a potential modality to reduce self-perceived distress in medical students. Further research is
Wardenaar, Klaas J.; van Veen, Tineke; Giltay, Erik J.; den Hollander-Gijsman, Margien; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.
Background: The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self Report (IDS-SR) is a widely used but heterogeneous measure of depression severity. Insight in its factor structure and dimensionality could help to develop more homogeneous IDS-SR subscales. However previous factoranalytical studies have
Burns, Jaimie L.; Lee, Randolph M.; Brown, Lauren J.
The effects of meditation, specifically Transcendental Meditation (TM), on college students' experience of stress, anxiety, depression, and perfectionistic thoughts was investigated using 43 undergraduate students. Self-report measures of the variables were completed prior to the start of the study. Student groups were trained in TM and practiced…
Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Harding, Herndon P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M
Concussions may accelerate the progression to long-term mental health outcomes such as depression in athletes. To prospectively determine the effects of recurrent concussions on the clinical diagnosis of depression in a group of retired football players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Members of the National Football League Retired Players Association responded to a baseline General Health Survey (GHS) in 2001. They also completed a follow-up survey in 2010. Both surveys asked about demographic information, number of concussions sustained during their professional football career, physical/mental health, and prevalence of diagnosed medical conditions. A physical component summary (Short Form 36 Measurement Model for Functional Assessment of Health and Well-Being [SF-36 PCS]) was calculated from responses for physical health. The main exposure, the history of concussions during the professional playing career (self-report recalled in 2010), was stratified into 5 categories: 0 (referent), 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10+ concussions. The main outcome was a clinical diagnosis of depression between the baseline and follow-up GHS. Classic tabular methods computed crude risk ratios. Binomial regression with a Poisson residual and robust variance estimation to stabilize the fitting algorithm estimated adjusted risk ratios. χ(2) analyses identified associations and trends between concussion history and the 9-year risk of a depression diagnosis. Of the 1044 respondents with complete data from the baseline and follow-up GHS, 106 (10.2%) reported being clinically diagnosed as depressed between the baseline and follow-up GHS. Approximately 65% of all respondents self-reported sustaining at least 1 concussion during their professional careers. The 9-year risk of a depression diagnosis increased with an increasing number of self-reported concussions, ranging from 3.0% in the "no concussions" group to 26.8% in the "10+" group (linear trend: P football and 2001 SF-36 PCS
Kim, Taeshik; Kang, Mo-Yeol; Yoo, Min-Sang; Lee, Dongwook; Hong, Yun-Chul
With the development of technology, extensive use of computers in the workplace is prevalent and increases efficiency. However, computer users are facing new harmful working conditions with high workloads and longer hours. This study aimed to investigate the association between computer use at work and self-reported depressive and anxiety disorder (DAD) in a nationally representative sample of South Korean workers. This cross-sectional study was based on the third Korean Working Conditions Survey (2011), and 48,850 workers were analyzed. Information about computer use and DAD was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. We investigated the relation between computer use at work and DAD using logistic regression. The 12-month prevalence of DAD in computer-using workers was 1.46 %. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors, the odds ratio for DAD was higher in workers using computers more than 75 % of their workday (OR 1.69, 95 % CI 1.30-2.20) than in workers using computers less than 50 % of their shift. After stratifying by working hours, computer use for over 75 % of the work time was significantly associated with increased odds of DAD in 20-39, 41-50, 51-60, and over 60 working hours per week. After stratifying by occupation, education, and job status, computer use for more than 75 % of the work time was related with higher odds of DAD in sales and service workers, those with high school and college education, and those who were self-employed and employers. A high proportion of computer use at work may be associated with depressive and anxiety disorder. This finding suggests the necessity of a work guideline to help the workers suffering from high computer use at work.
Wilson, Carlene; Giles, Kristy; Nettelbeck, Ted; Hutchinson, Amanda
To investigate the effects of disposition (locus of control, optimism, and depression) on recollections of cognitive functioning following cancer treatment. Participants were survivors of colorectal cancer (n = 88) and their spouses (n = 40). Survivors retrospectively rated their cognitive functioning and depression, as experienced following treatment and currently rated their dispositions for optimism and locus of control. Survivors' spouses likewise provided their recollections of survivors' cognitive functioning and depression at time following treatment. Correlations between survivors' and spouses' ratings for cognitive functioning were statistically significant but not for depression. Results supported validity of survivors' longer term retrospective reports. Although internal locus of control correlated positively with retrospectively self-reported cognitive functioning, and negatively with retrospectively self-reported depression, moderated hierarchical multiple regression found independent contribution of internal locus of control was limited to predicting quality of life; and that, among variables tested, depression correlated strongest with cognitive functioning. Neither internal locus of control nor optimism in colorectal cancer survivors influences correlation between cognition and depression. Health care providers should note individual differences in responses to treatment and be alert to the impact of depression on perceived everyday functioning. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Background: This study investigated the validity of self-reported concentration and memory problems (CMP) in residents environmentally exposed to manganese (Mn). Method: Self-report of CMP from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was com...
Daniel J. Kruger
Full Text Available Life history theory (LHT is a powerful evolutionary framework for understanding physiological, psychological, and behavioral variation both between and within species. Researchers and theorists are increasingly integrating LHT into evolutionary psychology, as it provides a strong foundation for research across many topical areas. Human life history variation has been represented in psychological and behavioral research in several ways, including indicators of conditions in the developmental environment, indicators of conditions in the current environment, and indicators of maturation and life milestones (e.g., menarche, initial sexual activity, first pregnancy, and in self-report survey scale measures. Survey scale measures have included constructs such as time perspective and future discounting, although the most widely used index is a constellation of indicators assessing the K-factor, thought to index general life history speed (from fast to slow. The current project examined the utility of two brief self-report survey measures assessing the life history dimensions of mating effort and parenting effort with a large undergraduate sample in the United States. Consistent with the theory, items reflected two inversely related dimensions. In regressions including the K-factor, the Mating Effort Scale proved to be a powerful predictor of other constructs and indicators related to life history variation. The Parenting Effort Scale had less predictive power overall, although it explained unique variance across several constructs and was the only unique predictor of the number of long-term (serious and committed relationships. These scales may be valuable additions to self-report survey research projects examining life history variation.
Grace, Lydia; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J
Autobiographical memory (AM) is believed to serve self, social and directive functions; however, little is known regarding how this triad of functions operates in depression. Using the Thinking About Life Experiences questionnaire [Bluck, S., & Alea, N. (2011). Crafting the TALE: Construction of a measure to assess the functions of autobiographical remembering. Memory, 19, 470-486.; Bluck, S., Alea, N., Habermas, T., & Rubin, D. C. (2005). A TALE of three functions: The self-reported uses of autobiographical memory. Social Cognition, 23, 91-117.], two studies explored the relationship between depressive symptomology and the self-reported frequency and usefulness of AMs for self, social and directive purposes. Study 1 revealed that thinking more frequently but talking less frequently about past life events was significantly associated with higher depression scores. Recalling past events more frequently to maintain self-continuity was also significantly associated with higher depressive symptomology. However, results from Study 2 indicated that higher levels of depression were also significantly associated with less-frequent useful recollections of past life events for self-continuity purposes. Taken together, the findings suggest atypical utilisations of AM to serve self-continuity functions in depression and can be interpreted within the wider context of ruminative thought processes.
In a recent study, Dussault, Frenette, and Fernet (2013) developed a 21-item self-report instrument to measure leadership based on Bass's (1985) transformational/transactional leadership paradigm. The final specification included a third-order dimension (leadership), two second-order dimensions (transactional leadership and transformational leadership), and a first-order dimension (laissez-faire leadership). This note focuses on the need for assessing convergent and discriminant validity of the scale, and on ruling out the potential for common method bias.
Valdiney Veloso Gouveia
Full Text Available This study aimed to adapt the Cheating Admission Self Report Scale (CASRSto the Brazilian context and collect evi-dence on factorial validity and internal consistency. 441 students participated (M=16 years, 54.6% females, randomly divided in two groups. All responded to CASRS and to demographic questions. The analysis of the main components demonstrated a bifactor structure, whose factors presented Cronbach’s alphas (α greater than .80 (G1. This structure was corroborated by means of confirmatory factor analysis (for example, CFI=.87 and RMSEA=.08. The scale was shown to be psychometrically adequate and there was evidence of factorial validity and internal consistency; the scale can be used to measure plagiarism in the academic context.
Huang, Vivian; Beshai, Shadi; Yu, Mabel
Research in depression has revealed differences in the way depressed individuals across cultures report their symptoms. This literature also points to possible differences in symptom reporting patterns between men and women. Using data from a larger dataset (Beshai et al. 2016), the current study examined whether non-depressed and depressed Egyptian and Canadian men and women differed in their self-report of the various domains of the Beck Depression Inventory -II (BDI-II). We recruited a total of 131 depressed and non-depressed participants from both Egypt ( n = 29 depressed; n = 29 non-depressed) and Canada ( n = 35 depressed; n = 38 non-depressed). Depression status was ascertained using a structured interview. All participants were asked to complete the BDI-II along with other self-report measures of depression. BDI-II items were divided into two subscales in accordance with Dozois, Dobson & Ahnberg (1998) factor analysis: cognitive-affective and somatic-vegetative subscales. We found a significant three-way interaction effect on the cognitive-affective ( F (1,121) = 9.51, p = .003) and main effect of depression status on somatic-vegetative subscales ( F (1,121) = 42.80, p cultures may differentially report cognitive symptoms of depression. These results also suggest that clinicians and clinical scientists need to further examine the interaction effect of culture and gender when investigating self-reported symptoms of depression.
Nguyen, Thi-My-Uyen; La Caze, Adam; Cottrell, Neil
Medication non-adherence is a significant health problem. There are numerous methods for measuring adherence, but no single method performs well on all criteria. The purpose of this systematic review is to (i) identify self-report medication adherence scales that have been correlated with comparison measures of medication-taking behaviour, (ii) assess how these scales measure adherence and (iii) explore how these adherence scales have been validated. Cinahl and PubMed databases were used to search articles written in English on the development or validation of medication adherence scales dating to August 2012. The search terms used were medication adherence, medication non-adherence, medication compliance and names of each scale. Data such as barriers identified and validation comparison measures were extracted and compared. Sixty articles were included in the review, which consisted of 43 adherence scales. Adherence scales include items that either elicit information regarding the patient's medication-taking behaviour and/or attempts to identify barriers to good medication-taking behaviour or beliefs associated with adherence. The validation strategies employed depended on whether the focus of the scale was to measure medication-taking behaviour or identify barriers or beliefs. Supporting patients to be adherent requires information on their medication-taking behaviour, barriers to adherence and beliefs about medicines. Adherence scales have the potential to explore these aspects of adherence, but currently there has been a greater focus on measuring medication-taking behaviour. Selecting the 'right' adherence scale(s) requires consideration of what needs to be measured and how (and in whom) the scale has been validated. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.
Chun, Audrey; Reinhardt, Joann P; Ramirez, Mildred; Ellis, Julie M; Silver, Stephanie; Burack, Orah; Eimicke, Joseph P; Cimarolli, Verena; Teresi, Jeanne A
To examine agreement between Minimum Data Set clinician ratings and researcher assessments of depression among ethnically diverse nursing home residents using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Although depression is common among nursing homes residents, its recognition remains a challenge. Observational baseline data from a longitudinal intervention study. Sample of 155 residents from 12 long-term care units in one US facility; 50 were interviewed in Spanish. Convergence between clinician and researcher ratings was examined for (i) self-report capacity, (ii) suicidal ideation, (iii) at least moderate depression, (iv) Patient Health Questionnaire severity scores. Experiences by clinical raters using the depression assessment were analysed. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to examine concordance and Cohen's kappa to examine agreement between clinicians and researchers. Moderate agreement (κ = 0.52) was observed in determination of capacity and poor to fair agreement in reporting suicidal ideation (κ = 0.10-0.37) across time intervals. Poor agreement was observed in classification of at least moderate depression (κ = -0.02 to 0.24), lower than the maximum kappa obtainable (0.58-0.85). Eight assessors indicated problems assessing Spanish-speaking residents. Among Spanish speakers, researchers identified 16% with Patient Health Questionnaire scores of 10 or greater, and 14% with thoughts of self-harm whilst clinicians identified 6% and 0%, respectively. This study advances the field of depression recognition in long-term care by identification of possible challenges in assessing Spanish speakers. Use of the Patient Health Questionnaire requires further investigation, particularly among non-English speakers. Depression screening for ethnically diverse nursing home residents is required, as underreporting of depression and suicidal ideation among Spanish speakers may result in lack of depression recognition and referral for evaluation and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that family interactions are associated with depressive symptoms in children. However, detailed classifications of family interaction types have not been studied thoroughly. This study aims to understand the types of family interactions children experience and to identify the specific types of family interactions that are associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms in children. Methods Data used in the study was collected as part of the Child and Adolescent Behavior in Long term Evolution (CABLE project in 2003. CABLE is a longitudinal cohort study that commenced in 2001 and collects data annually from children in Taipei city and Hsinchu county in northern Taiwan. The data analyzed in this study was that obtained from the sixth graders (aged 11 to 12 years old in 2003. Of the 2,449 sixth graders, 51.2% were boys and 48.8% were girls. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to investigate the types of family interactions. One way ANOVA was used to establish the relationship between family interaction types and children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. Results Based on the results of factor analysis, the latent factors for family interactions included supporting activities, psychological control, parental discipline, behavioral supervision, and family conflict. After conducting cluster analysis using factor scores, four types of family interactions were revealed: supervised (29.66%, disciplined (13.56%, nurtured (40.96% and conflict (15.82%. Children from the disciplined or conflict families were more likely to report depressive symptoms. Children from the nurtured families were least likely to report depressive symptoms. Conclusion Family interactions can be classified into four different types, which are related to children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. The creation of a family interaction environment that is beneficial for children's mental health is an important
Full Text Available Olivia R Orta,1 Clarita Barbosa,1 Juan Carlos Velez,2 Bizu Gelaye,1 Xiaoli Chen,1 Lee Stoner,3 Michelle A Williams,1 1Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Worker's Hospital, The Chilean Safety Association, Santiago, Chile; 3School of Sport and Exercise, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association between sleep and depression using both self-reported (subjective and actigraphic (objective sleep traits. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female primary caregivers of children with disabilities receiving care at a rehabilitation center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire was used to ascertain participants' depression status. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to define subjective, or perceived, sleep quality. Wrist-worn actigraph monitors, worn for seven consecutive nights, were used to characterize objective sleep quality and disturbances. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Linear regression models were fit using continuous sleep parameters as the dependent variables and depression status as the independent variable. Multivariable models were adjusted for body mass index, marital status, smoking status, education level, and children's disabilities. Results: Using an eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10, 26.3% of participants presented with depression. Depressed women were more likely to self-report overall poorer (subjective sleep compared to non-depressed women; however, differences in sleep were not consistently noted using actigraphic (objective sleep traits. Among the depressed, both sleep duration and total time in bed were significantly underestimated. In multivariable models, depression was negatively associated with sleep duration using both subjective (β=–0
Larissa Forni dos Santos
Full Text Available Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD is prevalent and rarely diagnosed due to the difficulty in recognizing its symptoms as belonging to a disorder. Therefore, the evaluation/screening scales are of great importance for its detection, with the most used being the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS. Thus, this study proposed to evaluate the psychometric properties of internal consistency and convergent validity, as well as the confirmatory factorial analysis and reliability of the self-reported version of the LSAS (LSAS-SR, translated into Brazilian Portuguese, in a sample of the general population (N = 413 and in a SAD clinical sample (N = 252. The convergent validity with specific scales for the evaluation of SAD and a general anxiety scale presented correlations ranging from 0.21 to 0.84. The confirmatory factorial analysis did not replicate the previously indicated findings of the literature, with the difficulty being in obtaining a consensus factorial structure common to the diverse cultures in which the instrument was studied. The LSAS-SR presented excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90-0.96 and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.81; Pearson's = 0.82. The present findings support those of international studies that attest to the excellent psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR, endorsing its status as the gold standard.
Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Stelter, Reinhard
Little is known about the role of exercise in improving cancer patients' mood while undergoing chemotherapy. In this phase II study changes in self-reported anxiety and depression and fitness (VO2max) are reported in relation to a 6-week, 9 h weekly, multidimensional exercise program. A total of 91...... patients receiving chemotherapy, between 18 and 65 years old, completed a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Questionnaire (HADS; response rate 91%, adherence rate 78%). Anxiety (p depression (p = 0.042) was significantly reduced. The mean ± SD of the change was [minus sign]1.14 ± 2.......91 for anxiety and [minus sign]0.44 ± 2.77 for depression. Improvements in fitness were correlated with improvements in depression, [chi]2(1) = 3.966, p = 0.046, but not with improvements in anxiety, [chi]2(1) = 0.540, p = 0.462. The research suggests that exercise intervention may have a beneficial impact...
Bruce, Jared M; Arnett, Peter A
Depression and memory difficulties are among the most common complaints voiced by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Nevertheless, little is known about how depression might affect patients' perceptions of their memory difficulties. The present investigation was designed to explore this issue. Results supported a model that integrates aspects of Beck's theory of depression and the concept of depressive realism. Consistent with the depressive realism literature, nondepressed MS patients significantly overestimated their everyday memory compared with their actual performance on verbal memory and attention/concentration indices, whereas moderately depressed patients' everyday memory ratings mirrored their actual neuropsychological performance. Supporting Beck's negative cognitive schema notion, mildly depressed patients significantly overestimated their memory difficulties. Implications for the treatment of memory problems among MS patients are discussed.
Full Text Available Ji-Sun Kim,1 Seon-Kyeong Jang,1 Seon-Cheol Park,2 Jung-Seo Yi,3 Joong-Kyu Park,4 Jung Suk Lee,5 Kee-Hong Choi,6 Seung-Hwan Lee1,7 1Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, 4Department of Rehabilitation Psychology, Daegu University, Daegu, 5Department of Psychiatry, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, 6Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, 7Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Republic of Korea Background: The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS is one of the validated interview measures of negative symptoms in psychotic disorders. The Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MPSR is a self-report measure that assesses the motivation and pleasure domains of negative symptoms based on the CAINS. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of a Korean version of the MPSR.Methods: A total of 139 patients with schizophrenia completed the MPSR, CAINS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, and other measures of trait and cognitive function.Results: The 15-item MPSR showed good internal consistency. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Motivation and Pleasure subscale of the CAINS and the anhedonia/avolition subscale of the SANS. The scale was not associated with psychotic symptoms, agitation/mania, and depression/anxiety, and it showed good discriminant validity. MPSR scores were significantly correlated with Behavioral Activation System total score for trait measure.Conclusion: The Korean version of the MPSR is a notable self-report method for examining the severity of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Keywords: Korean
de Win, Maartje M. L.; Schilt, Thelma; Reneman, Liesbeth; Vervaeke, Hylke; Jager, Gerry; Dijkink, Sarah; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim
Although there are indications that ecstasy users have higher levels of depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking, it is unknown whether these are consequences of ecstasy use or predisposing factors for starting ecstasy use. We prospectively assessed the predictive value of depression,
Beard, John D; Hoppin, Jane A; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C R; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P; Kamel, Freya
Depression in women is a public health problem. Studies have reported positive associations between pesticides and depression, but few studies were prospective or presented results for women separately. We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and incident depression among farmers' wives in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Iowa and North Carolina. We used data on 16,893 wives who did not report physician-diagnosed depression at enrollment (1993-1997) and who completed a follow-up telephone interview (2005-2010). Among these wives, 1054 reported physician diagnoses of depression at follow-up. We collected information on potential confounders and on ever use of any pesticide, 11 functional and chemical classes of pesticides, and 50 specific pesticides by wives and their husbands via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for possible selection bias induced by the death or loss of 10,639 wives during follow-up. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After weighting for age at enrollment, state of residence, education level, diabetes diagnosis, and drop out, wives' incident depression was positively associated with diagnosed pesticide poisoning, but was not associated with ever using any pesticide. Use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives' depression. Among wives who never used pesticides, husbands' ever use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives' incident depression. Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of exposure related to depression, thereby providing reassurance that the moderate levels
Moryś, Joanna M; Bellwon, Jerzy; Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Gruchała, Marcin
The presence of depression symptomatology significantly deteriorates the prognosis for the patient. There are many instruments developed to measure depression and anxiety in clinical trials; however, the suitability of the specific scale for screening these disorders in cardiovascular patients is debatable. The aim of current study is to verify which of the major assessment instruments is the most relevant for the screening evaluation of depression and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular system diseases. The sample studied consisted of 120 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). They did not display serious psychiatric or somatic disorders. To assess depressive and anxiety symptoms we used self-reporting measures (BDI-II, HADS, SSAI/STAI, and PHQ), the results of which were compared to results obtained on the basis of a clinician-rating instrument (HRSD). We found that depressive symptoms assessed on the basis of HRSD, BDI-II, and PHQ-9 were equivalent in results, while the results obtained in HADS-D were significantly lower. Anxiety symptoms were found at approximate levels in HADS, SSAI, and GAD-7. The assessment of somatic symptoms in patients with CAD indicates that 87.5% of the subjects reported somatic symptoms of various intensity. Screening assessment of depression in patients with CAD gives different results depending on the tool used. We found that HADS significantly underestimates the percentage of patients with symptoms of depression in patients with CAD. Assessing anxiety symptoms with the aid of HADS gave outcomes close to the results gained by use of other tools.
Waelde, Lynn C.; And Others
Examines whether relationships of self-reported depression and suicidality to gender roles or gender are moderated by stressful life events. Results with 290 female and 247 male undergraduates support the androgyny model of adjustment and a self-schema model of depression. (SLD)
Full Text Available Purpose Research in depression has revealed differences in the way depressed individuals across cultures report their symptoms. This literature also points to possible differences in symptom reporting patterns between men and women. Using data from a larger dataset (Beshai et al. 2016, the current study examined whether non-depressed and depressed Egyptian and Canadian men and women differed in their self-report of the various domains of the Beck Depression Inventory –II (BDI-II. Method We recruited a total of 131 depressed and non-depressed participants from both Egypt (n = 29 depressed; n = 29 non-depressed and Canada (n = 35 depressed; n = 38 non-depressed. Depression status was ascertained using a structured interview. All participants were asked to complete the BDI-II along with other self-report measures of depression. BDI-II items were divided into two subscales in accordance with Dozois, Dobson & Ahnberg (1998 factor analysis: cognitive-affective and somatic-vegetative subscales. Results We found a significant three-way interaction effect on the cognitive-affective (F(1,121 = 9.51, p = .003 and main effect of depression status on somatic-vegetative subscales (F(1,121 = 42.80, p < .001. Post hoc analyses revealed that depressed Egyptian men reported lower scores on the cognitive-affective subscale of the BDI-II compared to their depressed Canadian male counterparts. Conclusions These results suggest that males across cultures may differentially report cognitive symptoms of depression. These results also suggest that clinicians and clinical scientists need to further examine the interaction effect of culture and gender when investigating self-reported symptoms of depression.
Joshua G X Wong
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain is a prominent feature of acute dengue as well as a clinical criterion in World Health Organization guidelines in diagnosing dengue. We conducted a prospective cohort study to compare levels of pain during acute dengue between different ethnicities and dengue severity. METHODS: Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Data on self-reported pain was collected using the 11-point Numerical Rating Scale. Generalized structural equation models were built to predict progression to severe disease. RESULTS: A total of 499 laboratory confirmed dengue patients were recruited in the Prospective Adult Dengue Study at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. We found no statistically significant differences between pain score with age, gender, ethnicity or the presence of co-morbidity. Pain score was not predictive of dengue severity but highly correlated to patients' day of illness. Prevalence of abdominal pain in our cohort was 19%. There was no difference in abdominal pain score between grades of dengue severity. CONCLUSION: Dengue is a painful disease. Patients suffer more pain at the earlier phase of illness. However, pain score cannot be used to predict a patient's progression to severe disease.
Bucciardini, Raffaella; Pugliese, Katherina; Francisci, Daniela; Costantini, Andrea; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Cognigni, Miriam; Tontini, Chiara; Lucattini, Stefano; Fucili, Luca; Di Gregorio, Massimiliano; Mirra, Marco; Fragola, Vincenzo; Pompili, Sara; Murri, Rita; Vella, Stefano
To describe the development and the psychometric properties of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità-HIV symptoms scale (lSS-HIV symptoms scale). The ISS-HIV symptom scale was developed by an Italian working team including researchers, physicians and people living with HIV. The development process went through the following steps: (1) review of HIV/AIDS literature; (2) focus group; (3) pre-test analysis; (4) scale validation. The 22 symptoms of HIV-ISS symptoms scale were clustered in five factors: pain/general discomfort (7 items); depression/anxiety (4 items); emotional reaction/psychological distress (5 items); gastrointestinal discomfort (4 items); sexual discomfort (2 items). The internal consistence reliability was for all factors within the minimum accepted standard of 0.70. The results of this study provide a preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the ISS-HIV symptoms scale. In the new era where HIV infection has been transformed into a chronic diseases and patients are experiencing a complex range of symptoms, the ISS-HIV symptoms scale may represent an useful tool for a comprehensive symptom assessment with the advantage of being easy to fill out by patients and potentially attractive to physicians mainly because it is easy to understand and requires short time to interpret the results.
Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter
INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...
Miller, Joshua D.; Tant, Adam; Bagby, R. Michael
Depressive personality disorder (DPD) was included in the appendix of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", Fourth Edition ("DSM-IV") for further study. Questions abound regarding this disorder in terms of its distinctiveness from extant diagnostic constructs and clinical significance.This study examines…
Antonio, Mapuana Ck; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Ing, Claire Townsend; Dillard, Adrienne; Cassel, Kevin; Kekauoha, B Puni; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku
Discrimination is an acute and chronic stressor that negatively impacts the health of many ethnic groups in the United States. Individuals who perceive increased levels of discrimination are at risk of experiencing psychological distress and symptoms of depression. No study to date has examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health in Native Hawaiians. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between perceived discrimination and depression based on the Homestead Health Survey mailed to Native Hawaiian residents of Hawaiian Home Lands. This study also explores the role of cultural identity and how it may impact experiences of discrimination and symptoms of depression. Based on cross-sectional data obtained from 104 Native Hawaiian residents, a significant positive correlation was found between perceived discrimination and symptoms of depression (r= 0.32, Paccounting for differences in socio-demographics and degree of identification with the Native Hawaiian and American cultures. These findings are consistent with other studies that have focused on the effects of discrimination on psychological wellbeing for other ethnic minority populations.
Harman-Smith, Yasmin E; Mathias, Jane L; Bowden, Stephen C; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Bigler, Erin D
Neuropsychological assessments of outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often unrelated to self-reported problems after TBI. The current study cluster-analyzed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) subtest scores from mild, moderate, and severe TBI (n=220) and orthopedic injury control (n=95) groups, to determine whether specific cognitive profiles are related to people's perceived outcomes after TBI. A two-stage cluster analysis produced 4- and 6-cluster solutions, with the 6-cluster solution better capturing subtle variations in cognitive functioning. The 6 clusters differed in the levels and profiles of cognitive performance, self-reported recovery, and education and injury severity. The findings suggest that subtle cognitive impairments after TBI should be interpreted in conjunction with patient's self-reported problems.
Müller, Matthias Johannes; Olschinski, Christiane; Kundermann, Bernd; Cabanel, Nicole
The stable and persisting preference for activities in the late evening (i.e. eveningness) is associated with a higher risk for depression, suicidality, and non-remission in major depression. The present study investigated symptom patterns in hospitalized patients with depressive syndromes in relation to morningness-eveningness (chronotypes). Depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI-II]) and chronotype (German version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire [D-MEQ]) were assessed after admission and before discharge in inpatients with mainly major depression. Group differences of BDI-II single items and three BDI-II factors (cognitive, affective, somatic) between patients divided at the D-MEQ sample median into "morning preference" (MP) and "evening preference" (EP) were calculated. Data from 64 consecutively admitted patients (31MP/33EP) were analyzed. Both groups (MP/EP) were comparable regarding age, sex, diagnosis, length of stay, and subjective sleep quality, BDI-II scores were significantly higher in EP than in MP at admission. At admission and discharge, cognitive symptoms were significantly more pronounced in EP vs. MP; non-significant differences between EP and MP were found for affective and somatic symptoms. The results underline the importance of the trait-like chronotype for severity and symptomatology in patients with depressive disorders. The patients' chronotype should be taken into account in diagnostics and treatment of depressive disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alexander, Lisa; Liljequist, Laura
The present research examined the validity of self-report versus informant-report in relation to a performance-based indicator of adult ADHD. Archival data from 118 participants (52 males, 66 females) were used to compare Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Self-Report: Long Format (CAARS-S:L) and Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Observer Report: Long Format (CAARS-O:L) with discrepancy scores calculated between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) Verbal Comprehension Index - Working Memory Index (VCI - WMI) and Perceptual-Organizational Index - Processing Speed Index (POI - PSI) scaled scores. Neither the self- nor informant-report formats of the CAARS were better predictors of discrepancies between WAIS-III Index scores. Intercorrelations between the CAARS-S:L and CAARS-O:L revealed generally higher correlations between the same scales of different formats and among scales measuring externally visible symptoms. Furthermore, regression analysis indicated that both the CAARS-S:L and CAARS-O:L clinical scales contributed a significant proportion of variance in WAIS-III VCI - WMI discrepancy scores (14.7% and 16.4%, respectively). Results did not establish greater accuracy of self-report versus informant-report of ADHD symptomatology, rather demonstrate the need for multimodal assessment of ADHD in adults. © The Author(s) 2013.
Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Westerlund, Hugo; Leineweber, Constanze
AIMS: Major depressive disorders are common, with substantial impact on individuals/society. Brief scales for depression severity, based on a small number of characteristics all of which are necessary for diagnosis, have been recommended in self-reported versions for clinical work or research whe...
Adam C. Raikes
Full Text Available Background: Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs are a significant social, sport, and military health issue. In spite of advances in the clinical management of these injuries, the underlying pathophysiology is not well-understood. There is a critical need to advance objective biomarkers, allowing the identification and tracking of the long-term evolution of changes resulting from mTBI. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI allows for the assessment of white-matter properties in the brain and shows promise as a suitable biomarker of mTBI pathophysiology.Methods: 34 individuals within a year of an mTBI (age: 24.4 ± 7.4 and 18 individuals with no history of mTBI (age: 23.2 ± 3.4 participated in this study. Participants completed self-report measures related to functional outcomes, psychological health, post-injury symptoms, and sleep, and underwent a neuroimaging session that included DWI. Whole-brain white matter was skeletonized using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS and compared between groups as well as correlated within-group with the self-report measures.Results: There were no statistically significant anatomical differences between the two groups. After controlling for time since injury, fractional anisotropy (FA demonstrated a negative correlation with sleep quality scores (higher FA was associated with better sleep quality and increasing depressive symptoms in the mTBI participants. Conversely, mean (MD and radial diffusivity (RD demonstrated positive correlations with sleep quality scores (higher RD was associated with worse sleep quality and increasing depressive symptoms. These correlations were observed bilaterally in the internal capsule (anterior and posterior limbs, corona radiata (anterior and superior, fornix, and superior fronto-occipital fasciculi.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the clinical presentation of mTBI, particularly with respect to depression and sleep, is associated with reduced white
Carskadon, Mary A.; Sharkey, Katherine M.; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John E.
Objectives: This study examined whether the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the SLC6A4 gene is associated with self-reported symptoms of depressed mood in first-year university students with a persistent pattern of short sleep. Design: Students provided DNA samples and completed on-line sleep diaries and a mood scale during the first semester. A priori phenotypes for nocturnal sleep and mood scores were compared for the distribution of genotypes. Setting: Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Participants: A sample of 135 first-year students, 54 male, 71 Caucasian, mean age 18.1 (± 0.5) yr. Interventions: None. Measurements: Students completed on-line sleep diaries daily across the first term (21-64 days; mean = 51 days ± 11) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) mood scale after 8 wk. DNA was genotyped for the triallelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Low-expressing S and LGpolymorphisms were designated S′, and high-expressing LA was designated L′. Phenotype groups were identified from a combination of CES-D (median split: high > 12; low sleep time (TST) from diaries: (shorter ≤ 7 hr; longer ≥ 7.5 hr). Three genotypes were identified (S′S′, S′L′, L′L′); the S′S′ genotype was present in a higher proportion of Asian than non-Asian students. Results: Four phenotype groups were compared: 40 students with shorter TST/high CES-D; 34 with shorter TST/low CES-D; 29 with longer TST/high CES-D; 32 with longer TST/low CES-D. Female:male distribution did not vary across phenotype groups (chi-square = 1.39; df = 3; P = 0.71). S′S′ participants (n = 23) were overrepresented in the shorter TST/high CES-D group (chi- square = 15.04; df = 6; P sleep and higher depressed mood are more likely than others to carry a variant of the SLC6A4 gene associated with low expression of the serotonin transporter. Citation: Carskadon MA; Sharkey KM; Knopik VS; McGeary JE. Short sleep as an environmental exposure: a preliminary study associating 5-HTTLPR
Samuelstuen, Marit S.; Braten, Ivar
Background: Self-report inventories trying to measure strategic processing at a global level have been much used in both basic and applied research. However, the validity of global strategy scores is open to question because such inventories assess strategy perceptions outside the context of specific task performance. Aims: The primary aim was to…
Full Text Available Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1, in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD.Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students’ self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1–2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ and executive functioning (BDEFS.Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47, and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66. The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63 and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74. Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores.Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current
Altenstein-Yamanaka, David; Zimmermann, Johannes; Krieger, Tobias; Dörig, Nadja; Grosse Holtforth, Martin
Interpersonal factors play a major role in causing and maintaining depression. This study sought to investigate how patients' self-perceived interpersonal problems and impact messages as perceived by significant others are interrelated, change over therapy, and differentially predict process and outcome in psychotherapy of depression. For the present study, we used data from 144 outpatients suffering from major depression that were treated within a psychotherapy study. Interpersonal variables were assessed pre- and posttherapy with the self-report Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scale (IIP-32; Thomas, Brähler, & Strauss, 2011) and with the informant-based Impact Message Inventory (Caspar, Berger, Fingerle, & Werner, 2016). Patients' levels on the dimensions of Agency and Communion were calculated from both measures; their levels on Interpersonal Distress were measured with the IIP. Depressive and general symptomatology was assessed at pre-, post-, and at 3-month follow-up; patient-reported process measures were assessed during therapy. The Agency scores of IIP and IMI correlated moderately, but the Communion scores did not. IIP Communion was positively associated with the quality of the early therapeutic alliance and with the average level of cognitive-emotional processing during therapy. Whereas IIP Communion and IMI Agency increased over therapy, IIP Distress decreased. A pre-post-decrease in IIP Distress was positively associated with pre-postsymptomatic change over and above the other interpersonal variables, but pre-post-increase in IMI Agency was positively associated with symptomatic improvement from post- to 3-month follow-up. These findings suggest that significant others seem to provide important additional information about the patients' interpersonal style. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kvelde, T.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Delbaere, K.; Close, J.C.; Lord, S.R.
Background. The aim of the study was to use path analysis to test a theoretical model proposing that the relationship between self-reported depressed mood and choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) is mediated by psychoactive medication use, physiological performance, and cognitive ability.A total of
Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen
This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…
Terluin, B.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Ader, H.J.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Hermens, M.L.M.; van Boeijen, C.A.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Stalman, W.A.B.
Background: The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate its criterion and construct validity.
Edinburgh Posmatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a ID-item self-report scale designed ... been denied accessible health care in the past, it is not surprising that .... translated, if necessary, by one of two multilingual nursing sisters experienced in ...
Spielmans, Glen I; Gerwig, Katherine
Recent meta-analyses of the efficacy of second-generation antidepressants for youth have concluded that such drugs possess a statistically significant advantage over placebo in terms of clinician-rated depressive symptoms. However, no meta-analysis has included measures of quality of life, global mental health, self-esteem, or autonomy. Further, prior meta-analyses have not included self-reports of depressive symptoms. Studies were selected through searching Medline, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials databases as well as GlaxoSmithKline's online trial registry. We included self-reports of depressive symptoms and pooled measures of quality of life, global mental health, self-esteem, and autonomous functioning as a proxy for overall well-being. We found a nonsignificant difference between second-generation antidepressants and placebo in terms of self-reported depressive symptoms (k = 6 trials, g = 0.06, p = 0.36). Further, pooled across measures of quality of life, global mental health, self-esteem, and autonomy, antidepressants yielded no significant advantage over placebo (k = 3 trials, g = 0.11, p = 0.13). Though limited by a small number of trials, our analyses suggest that antidepressants offer little to no benefit in improving overall well-being among depressed children and adolescents. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Riedel, Sharon; And Others
Self-report, pre/post testing is a frequently employed measure of therapeutic change. To investigate whether expectation of change might be an alternative explanation to the scale shift explanation of response shift bias in a self-report measure, a two-session assertiveness training intervention for college women was evaluated under manipulated…
Gardulf, Ann; Nilsson, Jan; Florin, Jan; Leksell, Janeth; Lepp, Margret; Lindholm, Christina; Nordström, Gun; Theander, Kersti; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Carlsson, Marianne; Johansson, Eva
International organisations, e.g. WHO, stress the importance of competent registered nurses (RN) for the safety and quality of healthcare systems. Low competence among RNs has been shown to increase the morbidity and mortality of inpatients. To investigate self-reported competence among nursing students on the point of graduation (NSPGs), using the Nurse Professional Competence (NPC) Scale, and to relate the findings to background factors. The NPC Scale consists of 88 items within eight competence areas (CAs) and two overarching themes. Questions about socio-economic background and perceived overall quality of the degree programme were added. In total, 1086 NSPGs (mean age, 28.1 [20-56]years, 87.3% women) from 11 universities/university colleges participated. NSPGs reported significantly higher scores for Theme I "Patient-Related Nursing" than for Theme II "Organisation and Development of Nursing Care". Younger NSPGs (20-27years) reported significantly higher scores for the CAs "Medical and Technical Care" and "Documentation and Information Technology". Female NSPGs scored significantly higher for "Value-Based Nursing". Those who had taken the nursing care programme at upper secondary school before the Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) programme scored significantly higher on "Nursing Care", "Medical and Technical Care", "Teaching/Learning and Support", "Legislation in Nursing and Safety Planning" and on Theme I. Working extra paid hours in healthcare alongside the BSN programme contributed to significantly higher self-reported scores for four CAs and both themes. Clinical courses within the BSN programme contributed to perceived competence to a significantly higher degree than theoretical courses (93.2% vs 87.5% of NSPGs). Mean scores reported by NSPGs were highest for the four CAs connected with patient-related nursing and lowest for CAs relating to organisation and development of nursing care. We conclude that the NPC Scale can be used to identify and measure
Mackinnon Andrew J
Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, there has been very little work investigating behaviour changes induced by interventions that are designed to increase help seeking. The present paper examines the effects of two Internet depression websites on help seeking. Methods 414 individuals with elevated scores on a depression assessment scale were randomly allocated to a depression information website, a cognitive-behavioural skills training website (CBT or an attention control condition. Reports of help seeking for specific treatments, from specific sources and for categories of treatments were assessed. Results Relative to the control, the depression information site was associated with decreases in seeking support from friends and family, the use of music and of everyday treatments and no increase in seeking evidence based interventions. The CBT site was associated with the report of help seeking for CBT, massage and exercise. Conclusion Methods to encourage the use of evidence-based treatments need further research to determine whether the assistance sought is evidence based and whether there are unintended effects.
Full Text Available Internalized weight stigma has gained growing interest due to its association with multiple health impairments in individuals with obesity. Especially high internalized weight stigma is reported by individuals undergoing bariatric surgery. For assessing this concept, two different self-report questionnaires are available, but have never been compared: the Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire (WSSQ and the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS. The purpose of the present study was to provide and to compare reliability, convergent validity with and predictive values for psychosocial health outcomes for the WSSQ and WBIS.The WSSQ and the WBIS were used to assess internalized weight stigma in N = 78 prebariatric surgery patients. Further, body mass index (BMI was assessed and body image, quality of life, self-esteem, depression, and anxiety were measured by well-established self-report questionnaires. Reliability, correlation, and regression analyses were conducted.Internal consistency of the WSSQ was acceptable, while good internal consistency was found for the WBIS. Both measures were significantly correlated with each other and body image. While only the WSSQ was correlated with overweight preoccupation, only the WBIS was correlated with appearance evaluation. Both measures were not associated with BMI. However, correlation coefficients did not differ between the WSSQ and the WBIS for all associations with validity measures. Further, both measures significantly predicted quality of life, self-esteem, depression, and anxiety, while the WBIS explained significantly more variance than the WSSQ total score for self-esteem.Findings indicate the WSSQ and the WBIS to be reliable and valid assessments of internalized weight stigma in prebariatric surgery patients, although the WBIS showed marginally more favorable results than the WSSQ. For both measures, longitudinal studies on stability and predictive validity are warranted, for example, for weight
Kim, O-S; Kim, M S; Lee, J E; Jung, H
The prevalence of night-eating syndrome (NES) and depression is increasing worldwide. Although nurses, in particular, are exposed to work in an environment of irregular eating, shift work, and stressful settings, limited research exist. In fact, the prevalence of NES among Korean nurses has never been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NES as well as the association between NES and severity of self-reported depressive symptoms among South Korean female nurses. The Korea Nurses' Health Study, following the protocols of the Nurses' Health Study led by the Harvard University, collected data on Korean female nurses. Survey responses from 3617 participants were included, and 404 responses were analyzed in this cross-sectional study using propensity score matching. Descriptive, Spearman's and Cramer's correlations, propensity score matching, and multivariable ordinal logistic regression were conducted as statistical analysis. The prevalence of both NES and self-reported depressive symptoms among Korean female nurses were higher compared with nurses in prior studies. Nurses with NES were 1.65 times more likely to have greater severity of depressive symptoms than those without NES (95% confidence interval [1.19-2.10], odds ratio = 1.65) after adjusting for covariates including sociodemographic characteristics, health behavioural factors, and shift work. This study suggests significant association between NES and the severity of self-reported depressive symptoms among Korean female nurses after adjusting for covariates. Policy makers and hospital managers need to develop strategies to reduce depression and NES among nurses for enhancement of nurses' mental and physical health as well as for improvement of care quality. Copyright Â© 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dahm, Jane; Wong, Dana; Ponsford, Jennie
Anxiety and depression following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are associated with poorer outcomes. A brief self-report questionnaire would assist in identifying those at risk, however validity of such measures is complicated by confounding symptoms of the injury. This study investigated the validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in screening for clinical diagnoses of anxiety and mood disorders following TBI. One hundred and twenty-three participants with mild to severe TBI were interviewed using the SCID (Axis I) and completed the DASS and HADS. The DASS, DASS21 and HADS scales demonstrated validity compared with SCID diagnoses of anxiety and mood disorders as measured by Area Under ROC Curve, sensitivity and specificity. Validity of the DASS depression scale benefited from items reflecting symptoms of devaluation of life, self-deprecation, and hopelessness that are not present on the HADS. Validity of the HADS anxiety scale benefited from items reflecting symptoms of tension and worry that are measured separately for the DASS on the stress scale. Participants were predominantly drawn from a rehabilitation centre which may limit the extent to which results can be generalized. Scores for the DASS21 were derived from the DASS rather than being administered separately. The DASS, DASS21 and HADS demonstrated validity as screening measures of anxiety and mood disorders in this TBI sample. The findings support use of these self-report questionnaires for individuals with TBI to identify those who should be referred for clinical diagnostic follow-up. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carskadon, Mary A; Sharkey, Katherine M; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E
This study examined whether the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the SLC6A4 gene is associated with self-reported symptoms of depressed mood in first-year university students with a persistent pattern of short sleep. Students provided DNA samples and completed on-line sleep diaries and a mood scale during the first semester. A priori phenotypes for nocturnal sleep and mood scores were compared for the distribution of genotypes. Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. A sample of 135 first-year students, 54 male, 71 Caucasian, mean age 18.1 (± 0.5) yr. None. Students completed on-line sleep diaries daily across the first term (21-64 days; mean = 51 days ± 11) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) mood scale after 8 wk. DNA was genotyped for the triallelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Low-expressing S and L(G)polymorphisms were designated S', and high-expressing L(A) was designated L'. Phenotype groups were identified from a combination of CES-D (median split: high > 12; low sleep time (TST) from diaries: (shorter ≤ 7 hr; longer ≥ 7.5 hr). Three genotypes were identified (S'S', S'L', L'L'); the S'S' genotype was present in a higher proportion of Asian than non-Asian students. FOUR PHENOTYPE GROUPS WERE COMPARED: 40 students with shorter TST/high CES-D; 34 with shorter TST/low CES-D; 29 with longer TST/high CES-D; 32 with longer TST/low CES-D. Female:male distribution did not vary across phenotype groups (chi-square = 1.39; df = 3; P = 0.71). S'S' participants (n = 23) were overrepresented in the shorter TST/high CES-D group (chi- square = 15.04; df = 6; P sleep and higher depressed mood are more likely than others to carry a variant of the SLC6A4 gene associated with low expression of the serotonin transporter.
Full Text Available Thanita Hiranyatheb,1 Ratana Saipanish,1 Manote Lotrakul,1 Rungthip Prasertchai,1 Wanwisa Ketkaew,1 Sudawan Jullagate,1 Umaporn Udomsubpayakul,2 Pichaya Kusalaruk1 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Section for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: The self-report version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS has been developed to overcome the limitations of the clinician-administered version, which needs to be executed by trained personnel and is time consuming. The second edition of the Y-BOCS (Y-BOCS-II was developed to address some limitations of the original version. However, there is no self-report version of the Y-BOCS-II at the moment. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the developed Thai self-report version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale-Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II-SR-T. Patients and methods: Y-BOCS-II-SR-T was developed from the Thai version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale-Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II-T. The Y-BOCS-II-SR-T, the Y-BOCS-II-T, the Thai version of the Florida Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory (FOCI-T, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D, the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, and the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL instrument were administered to 52 obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD patients. Internal consistency for the Y-BOCS-II-SR-T was calculated with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α, and the factor analyses were completed. Pearson’s correlation was used in determining convergent and divergent validity among the other measures. Results: The mean score of the Y-BOCS-II-SR-T total score was 20.71±11.16. The internal consistencies of the Y-BOCS-II-SR-T total scores, the obsession subscale, and the compulsion subscale scores were excellent (α=0
Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M; Fabiano, Gregory A; Peters, Stephanie
This article presents information about the construct validity and reliability of a new teacher self-report measure of classroom instructional and behavioral practices (the Classroom Strategies Scales-Teacher Form; CSS-T). The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. Information is provided about the construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item-bias of the scales. Given previous investigations with the CSS Observer Form, it was hypothesized that internal consistency would be adequate and that confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of CSS-T data from 293 classrooms would offer empirical support for the CSS-T's Total, Composite and subscales, and yield a similar factor structure to that of the CSS Observer Form. Goodness-of-fit indices of χ2/df, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, Goodness of Fit Index, and Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index suggested satisfactory fit of proposed CFA models whereas the Comparative Fit Index did not. Internal consistency estimates of .93 and .94 were obtained for the Instructional Strategies and Behavioral Strategies Total scales respectively. Adequate test-retest reliability was found for instructional and behavioral total scales (r = .79, r = .84, percent agreement 93% and 93%). The CSS-T evidences freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, and years of teaching experience). Implications of results are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Nichols, David S.
This article places one of Jerry Wiggins' contributions to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), his content scales, in the twin contexts of past and recent research, and of Wiggins' own preoccupations growing out of the interpersonal point of view. It highlights Wiggins' perspective on the position of the person in the process…
Mayville, Stephen B; Williamson, Donald A; White, Marney A; Netemeyer, Richard G; Drab, Danae L
Muscle dysmorphia has recently been described as a variant of body dysmorphic disorder that involves an intense preoccupation with one's perceived lack of muscle size. Currently, no assessment measures specific to the cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions of the construct of muscle dysmorphia have been published. To address this need, the authors developed the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS), a brief 19-item self-report measure for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia symptoms. Psychometric evaluation of the MASS across two samples of male weight lifting participants (total N = 372) revealed a stable five-factor structure. An evaluation of factor content resulted in the following factor labels: Bodybuilding Dependence, Muscle Checking, Substance Use, Injury, and Muscle Satisfaction. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were established with the MASS total score and its subscales. The authors believe the MASS will be a useful measure for research and applied work relating to muscle dysmorphia.
Bodenschatz, Charlott Maria; Skopinceva, Marija; Kersting, Anette; Quirin, Markus; Suslow, Thomas
Cognitive theories of depression assume biased attention towards mood-congruent information as a central vulnerability and maintaining factor. Among other symptoms, depression is characterized by excessive negative affect (NA). Yet, little is known about the impact of naturally occurring NA on the allocation of attention to emotional information. The study investigates how implicit and explicit NA as well as self-reported depressive symptoms predict attentional biases in a sample of healthy individuals (N = 104). Attentional biases were assessed using eye-tracking during a free viewing task in which images of sad, angry, happy and neutral faces were shown simultaneously. Participants' implicit affectivity was measured indirectly using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test. Questionnaires were administered to assess actual and habitual explicit NA and presence of depressive symptoms. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with sustained attention to sad faces and reduced attention to happy faces. Implicit but not explicit NA significantly predicted gaze behavior towards sad faces independently from depressive symptoms. The present study supports the idea that naturally occurring implicit NA is associated with attention allocation to dysphoric facial expression. The findings demonstrate the utility of implicit affectivity measures in studying individual differences in depression-relevant attentional biases and cognitive vulnerability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sukantarat, K T; Williamson, R C N; Brett, S J
Recovery from a critical illness can be delayed by persistent anxiety and depression. To identify such patients, a new self-report questionnaire (the Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale, DASS) was used alongside an established instrument (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, HADS) in those who had spent a minimum of 3 days (median 9 days) in a general intensive care unit. Fifty-one patients were studied 3 months later, and 45 survivors were reviewed at 9 months. High Cronbach alpha values (0.92-0.95) for each subscale of DASS confirmed its internal consistency, and likewise for HADS (0.82-0.86). HADS and DASS correlated strongly at each time point both for anxiety (r = 0.88) and depression (r = 0.93), with few discrepant values on a Bland and Altman plot. DASS performs as consistently as HADS in screening for anxiety and depression, and its psychometric properties support its use in an intensive care setting.
Kösters, M.P.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Zwaanswijk, M.; Koot, H.M.
Background: Although anxiety and, to a lesser extent, depression are highly prevalent in children, these problems are, difficult to identify. The Revised Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) assesses self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth. Methods: The present study examined the
Psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Adult Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS-J) and its short scale in accordance with DSM-5 diagnostic criteria.
Takeda, Toshinobu; Tsuji, Yui; Kurita, Hiroshi
We developed the Japanese version of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-J) and report its psychometric properties. The ASRS-J and other questionnaires were administered to 48 adults with ADHD, 46 adults with non-ADHD psychiatric disorders, 96 non-clinical adults, and 894 university students. ADHD diagnoses were made using the Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview for adult ADHD, which is compatible with the DSM-5. The ASRS-J, its subscales, and the short form, all had Cronbach's α values of around 0.80. Total scores on the ASRS-J and the ASRS-J-6 were highly correlated with readministration after a two-week interval. The total and 18 individual item scores in the ASRS-J were significantly higher in the ADHD group than the other three groups. ASRS-J scores were correlated with scores on the Japanese version of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Self Report subscales (0.59≤r≤0.77), with one exception. ASRS-J scores were also correlated (albeit more weakly; r=0.38) with Beck Depression Inventory-II total scores. Employing optimal cut-offs, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the ASRS-J and ASRS-J-6 are all above 0.69. The ASRS-J and ASRS-J-6 showed acceptable psychometric properties, although further study is necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Allen, Jacqui; Annells, Merilyn
To explore through literature review the appropriateness of three common tools for use by community nurses to screen war veteran and war widow(er) clients for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. War veterans and, to a lesser extent, war widow(er)s, are prone to mental health challenges, especially depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Community nurses do not accurately identify such people with depression and related disorders although they are well positioned to do so. The use of valid and reliable self-report tools is one method of improving nurses' identification of people with actual or potential mental health difficulties for referral to a general practitioner or mental health practitioner for diagnostic assessment and treatment. The Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist are frequently recommended for mental health screening but the appropriateness of using the tools for screening war veteran and war widow(er) community nursing clients who are often aged and have functional impairment, is unknown. Systematic review. Current literature informs that the Geriatric Depression Scale accurately predicts a diagnosis of depression in community nursing cohorts. The three Depression Anxiety Stress Scales subscales of depression, anxiety and stress are valid; however, no studies were identified that compared the performance of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in predicting diagnoses of depression or anxiety. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist predicts post-traumatic stress disorder in community cohorts although no studies meeting the selection criteria included male participants. This review provides recommendations for the use of the Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist based on examination of the published evidence for the application of these screening tools in samples
A.P. Ringoot (Ank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); P. So (Pety); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); P.W. Jansen (Pauline)
textabstractObjectives Effects of maternal and paternal depression on child development are typically evaluated using parental reports of child problems. Yet, parental reports may be biased. Methods In a population-based cohort, parents reported lifetime depression (N = 3,178) and depressive
Lauriola, Marco; Foschi, Renato; Mosca, Oriana; Weller, Joshua
Two studies were conducted to examine the factor structure of attitude toward ambiguity, a broad personality construct that refers to personal reactions to perceived ambiguous stimuli in a variety of context and situations. Using samples from two countries, Study 1 mapped the hierarchical structure of 133 items from seven tolerance-intolerance of ambiguity scales (N = 360, Italy; N = 306, United States). Three major factors-Discomfort with Ambiguity, Moral Absolutism/Splitting, and Need for Complexity and Novelty-were recovered in each country with high replicability coefficients across samples. In Study 2 (N = 405, Italian community sample; N =366, English native speakers sample), we carried out a confirmatory analysis on selected factor markers. A bifactor model had an acceptable fit for each sample and reached the construct-level invariance for general and group factors. Convergent validity with related traits was assessed in both studies. We conclude that attitude toward ambiguity can be best represented a multidimensional construct involving affective (Discomfort with Ambiguity), cognitive (Moral Absolutism/Splitting), and epistemic (Need for Complexity and Novelty) components. © The Author(s) 2015.
Elissa S Epel
Full Text Available Why are some individuals more vulnerable to persistent weight gain and obesity than are others? Some obese individuals report factors that drive overeating, including lack of control, lack of satiation, and preoccupation with food, which may stem from reward-related neural circuitry. These are normative and common symptoms and not the sole focus of any existing measures. Many eating scales capture these common behaviors, but are confounded with aspects of dysregulated eating such as binge eating or emotional overeating. Across five studies, we developed items that capture this reward-based eating drive (RED. Study 1 developed the items in lean to obese individuals (n = 327 and examined changes in weight over eight years. In Study 2, the scale was further developed and expert raters evaluated the set of items. Study 3 tested psychometric properties of the final 9 items in 400 participants. Study 4 examined psychometric properties and race invariance (n = 80 women. Study 5 examined psychometric properties and age/gender invariance (n = 381. Results showed that RED scores correlated with BMI and predicted earlier onset of obesity, greater weight fluctuations, and greater overall weight gain over eight years. Expert ratings of RED scale items indicated that the items reflected characteristics of reward-based eating. The RED scale evidenced high internal consistency and invariance across demographic factors. The RED scale, designed to tap vulnerability to reward-based eating behavior, appears to be a useful brief tool for identifying those at higher risk of weight gain over time. Given the heterogeneity of obesity, unique brief profiling of the reward-based aspect of obesity using a self-report instrument such as the RED scale may be critical for customizing effective treatments in the general population.
Priest, Naomi; Perry, Ryan; Ferdinand, Angeline; Kelaher, Margaret; Paradies, Yin
Racism and racial discrimination are increasingly acknowledged as a critical determinant of health and health inequalities. However, patterns and impacts of racial discrimination among children and adolescents remain under-investigated, including how different experiences of racial discrimination co-occur and influence health and development over time. This study examines associations between self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination experiences and loneliness and depressive symptoms over time among Australian school students. Across seven schools, 142 students (54.2% female), age at T1 from 8 to 15 years old (M = 11.14, SD = 2.2), and from diverse racial/ethnic and migration backgrounds (37.3% born in English-speaking countries as were one or both parents) self-reported racial discrimination experiences (direct and vicarious) and mental health (depressive symptoms and loneliness) at baseline and 9 months later at follow up. A full cross-lagged panel design was modelled using MPLUS v.7 with all variables included at both time points. A cross-lagged effect of perceived direct racial discrimination on later depressive symptoms and on later loneliness was found. As expected, the effect of direct discrimination on both health outcomes was unidirectional as mental health did not reciprocally influence reported racism. There was no evidence that vicarious racial discrimination influenced either depressive symptoms or loneliness beyond the effect of direct racial discrimination. Findings suggest direct racial discrimination has a persistent effect on depressive symptoms and loneliness among school students over time. Future work to explore associations between direct and vicarious discrimination is required.
Schitter, Agnes Maria; Nedeljkovic, Marko; Ausfeld-Hafter, Brigitte; Fleckenstein, Johannes
Taiji is a mind-body practice being increasingly investigated for its therapeutic benefits in a broad range of mental and physical conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential preventive effects of Taiji practice in healthy individuals with regard to their depressive symptomatology and physical well-being. Seventy healthy Taiji novices were randomly assigned to a Taiji intervention group, that is, Taiji beginner course (Yang-Style Taiji, 2 h per week, 12 weeks) or a control group comprised of the waiting list for the course. Self-reported symptoms of depression (CES-D) and physical well-being (FEW-16) were assessed at baseline, at the end of the intervention, as well as 2 months later. The included participants had a mean age of 35.5 years. Physical well-being in the Taiji group significantly increased when comparing baseline to follow-up (FEW-16 sum score T(27) = 3.94, P = 0.001, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.55). Pearson's correlation coefficients displayed a strong negative relationship between self-reported symptoms of depression and physical well-being (P's healthy individuals, with improvements pronouncing over time. Physical well-being was shown to have a strong relationship with depressive symptoms. Based on these results, the consideration of Taiji as one therapeutic option in the development of multimodal approaches in the prevention of depression seems justifiable.
Ustun, Berk; Adler, Lenard A; Rudin, Cynthia; Faraone, Stephen V; Spencer, Thomas J; Berglund, Patricia; Gruber, Michael J; Kessler, Ronald C
Recognition that adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common, seriously impairing, and usually undiagnosed has led to the development of adult ADHD screening scales for use in community, workplace, and primary care settings. However, these scales are all calibrated to DSM-IV criteria, which are narrower than the recently developed DSM-5 criteria. To update for DSM-5 criteria and improve the operating characteristics of the widely used World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) for screening. Probability subsamples of participants in 2 general population surveys (2001-2003 household survey [n = 119] and 2004-2005 managed care subscriber survey [n = 218]) who completed the full 29-question self-report ASRS, with both subsamples over-sampling ASRS-screened positives, were blindly administered a semistructured research diagnostic interview for DSM-5 adult ADHD. In 2016, the Risk-Calibrated Supersparse Linear Integer Model, a novel machine-learning algorithm designed to create screening scales with optimal integer weights and limited numbers of screening questions, was applied to the pooled data to create a DSM-5 version of the ASRS screening scale. The accuracy of the new scale was then confirmed in an independent 2011-2012 clinical sample of patients seeking evaluation at the New York University Langone Medical Center Adult ADHD Program (NYU Langone) and 2015-2016 primary care controls (n = 300). Data analysis was conducted from April 4, 2016, to September 22, 2016. The sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and positive predictive value (PPV) of the revised ASRS. Of the total 637 participants, 44 (37.0%) household survey respondents, 51 (23.4%) managed care respondents, and 173 (57.7%) NYU Langone respondents met DSM-5 criteria for adult ADHD in the semistructured diagnostic interview. Of the respondents who met DSM-5 criteria for adult ADHD, 123 were male (45.9%); mean (SD) age was 33.1 (11.4) years
Ustun, Berk; Adler, Lenard A.; Rudin, Cynthia; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Berglund, Patricia; Gruber, Michael J.
Importance Recognition that adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common, seriously impairing, and usually undiagnosed has led to the development of adult ADHD screening scales for use in community, workplace, and primary care settings. However, these scales are all calibrated to DSM-IV criteria, which are narrower than the recently developed DSM-5 criteria. Objectives To update for DSM-5 criteria and improve the operating characteristics of the widely used World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) for screening. Design, Setting, and Participants Probability subsamples of participants in 2 general population surveys (2001-2003 household survey [n = 119] and 2004-2005 managed care subscriber survey [n = 218]) who completed the full 29-question self-report ASRS, with both subsamples over-sampling ASRS-screened positives, were blindly administered a semistructured research diagnostic interview for DSM-5 adult ADHD. In 2016, the Risk-Calibrated Supersparse Linear Integer Model, a novel machine-learning algorithm designed to create screening scales with optimal integer weights and limited numbers of screening questions, was applied to the pooled data to create a DSM-5 version of the ASRS screening scale. The accuracy of the new scale was then confirmed in an independent 2011-2012 clinical sample of patients seeking evaluation at the New York University Langone Medical Center Adult ADHD Program (NYU Langone) and 2015-2016 primary care controls (n = 300). Data analysis was conducted from April 4, 2016, to September 22, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures The sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and positive predictive value (PPV) of the revised ASRS. Results Of the total 637 participants, 44 (37.0%) household survey respondents, 51 (23.4%) managed care respondents, and 173 (57.7%) NYU Langone respondents met DSM-5 criteria for adult ADHD in the semistructured diagnostic interview. Of the respondents who met
Bech, Per; Paykel, Eugene; Sireling, Lester
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to investigate to what extent the Clinical Interview for Depression (CID) used in the general practice setting covers clinically valid subscales (depression, anxiety, and apathy) which can measure outcome of antidepressant therapy as well as identifying subsyndromes...... within major depressive disorder. The CID was compared to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17). METHODS: 146 patients from a previous study in general practice with the CID were investigated. The item response theory model established by Rasch was used to investigate the scalability (a scale...... (approximately 20%) had an atypical depression. LIMITATIONS: The samples were derived from a single study and were all rated by a single rater. CONCLUSION: The CID contains subscales of depression, anxiety, and apathy with an acceptable scalability for use in general practice. A subsyndrome of atypical...
Kiatrungrit, Komsan; Putthisri, Suwannee; Hongsanguansri, Sirichai; Wisajan, Pattaraporn; Jullagate, Sudawan
The adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Thai version (ASRS-V1.1) (18 items) is a questionnaire for screening adult ADHD. To test the validity and reliability of the 18-question ASRS-V1.1 Thai version (ASRS-V1.1 TH) as a screening tool for adult ADHD. The original 18-question ASRS-V1.1 version was translated into Thai. The process was composed of forward-translation, synthesis of the translation, and back translation. Cross cultural adaptation, field testing, and final adjustment were completed consecutively. The 18-question ASRS-V1.1 TH were sent to 1,500 parents of kindergarten and elementary school students in Bangkok, Thailand. The diagnostic interview was randomly selected for 50 parents from the positive result group and 50 parents from the negative result group. The clinical interview for confirming diagnosis was run by 3 psychiatrists who were blinded to the results and used DSM-5 ADHD criteria for diagnosis. The 18-question ASRS-V1.1 TH had satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92: Cronbach's alpha = 0.87 for inattentive scale, Cronbach's alpha = 0.84 for hyperactive / impulsive scale). For testing the criteria validity, the questionnaire has an adequate. The AUC from the first 6 questions was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68-0.92) while from the 18 questions was 0.71(95% CI: 0.55-0.86). The 18-question ASRS-V1.1TH is a psychometrically reliable and valid measure for screening adult ADHD in Thai clinical samples, especially the first 6 questions of the questionnaire.
Ski Chantal F
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of depression in patients with heart failure (HF that is associated with worsening prognosis. The value of using a reliable and valid instrument to measure depression in this population is therefore essential. We validated the Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS in heart failure patients using a model of ordinal unidimensional measurement known as Mokken scaling. Findings We administered in face-to-face interviews the CDS to 603 patients with HF. Data were analysed using Mokken scale analysis. Items of the CDS formed a statistically significant unidimensional Mokken scale of low strength (H0.8. Conclusions The CDS has a hierarchy of items which can be interpreted in terms of the increasingly serious effects of depression occurring as a result of HF. Identifying an appropriate instrument to measure depression in patients with HF allows for early identification and better medical management.
Wetselaar, P.; Koutris, M.; Visscher, C.M.; Larsson, P.; John, M.T.; Lobbezoo, F.
The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) in dental patients with and without self-reported tooth wear. The English version of the OES was translated into Dutch, following established guidelines for cross-cultural
Niklas, Frank; Nguyen, Cuc; Cloney, Daniel S.; Tayler, Collette; Adams, Raymond
Favourable home learning environments (HLEs) support children's literacy, numeracy and social development. In large-scale research, HLE is typically measured by self-report survey, but there is little consistency between studies and many different items and latent constructs are observed. Little is known about the stability of these items and…
Kelly, Glenn; Simpson, Grahame K; Brown, Suzanne; Kremer, Peter; Gillett, Lauren
The objectives were to test the properties, via a psychometric study, of the Overt Behaviour Scale-Self-Report (OBS-SR), a version of the OBS-Adult Scale developed to provide a client perspective on challenging behaviours after acquired brain injury. Study sample 1 consisted of 37 patients with primary brain tumour (PBT) and a family-member informant. Sample 2 consisted of 34 clients with other acquired brain injury (mixed brain injury, MBI) and a service-provider informant. Participants completed the OBS-SR (at two time points), and the Awareness Questionnaire (AQ) and Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-III (MPAI-III) once; informants completed the OBS-Adult and AQ once only. PBT-informant dyads displayed "good" levels of agreement (ICC 2,k = .74; OBS-SR global index). Although MBI-informant dyads displayed no agreement (ICC 2,k = .22; OBS-SR global index), the sub-group (17/29) rated by clinicians as having moderate to good levels of awareness displayed "fair" agreement (ICC 2,k = .58; OBS-SR global index). Convergent/divergent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between OBS-SR subscales and MPAI-III subscales with behavioural content (coefficients in the range .36 -.61). Scores had good reliability across one week (ICC 2,k = .69). The OBS-SR took approximately 15 minutes to complete. It was concluded that the OBS-SR demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity, providing a useful resource in understanding clients' perspectives about their behaviour.
Lind, Ragna; Berstad, Arnold; Hatlebakk, Jan; Valeur, Jørgen
Patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) suffer from several health complaints, including fatigue. The aim of the present study was to validate a Norwegian translation of the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS), and to assess the impact of fatigue in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, as compared with healthy controls. Thirty-eight patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, who participated in the validation of the FIS completed the following additional questionnaires: the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index for assessment of quality of life, the Subjective Health Complaint Inventory, and questionnaires for diagnosis and severity of IBS. Impact of fatigue was studied in 43 patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity, 70% diagnosed with IBS, and 42 healthy controls. Cronbach's α for the FIS was 0.98, indicating excellent agreement between individual items. Scores on the FIS correlated with scores on the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index (r = 0.50, P = 0.001), indicating good convergent validity, and were higher in patients (median 85.0, interquartile range 36.8-105.3) than in controls (median 14.0, interquartile range 3.0-29.0, P ≤ 0.0001). The Norwegian translation of the FIS performed excellently in patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, with patients reporting significantly more impact of chronic fatigue than healthy controls.
Rush, A John; Bernstein, Ira H; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Carmody, Thomas J; Wisniewski, Stephen; Mundt, James C; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Biggs, Melanie M; Woo, Ada; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Fava, Maurizio
Nine DSM-IV-TR criterion symptom domains are evaluated to diagnose major depressive disorder (MDD). The Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) provides an efficient assessment of these domains and is available as a clinician rating (QIDS-C16), a self-report (QIDS-SR16), and in an automated, interactive voice response (IVR) (QIDS-IVR16) telephone system. This report compares the performance of these three versions of the QIDS and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17). Data were acquired at baseline and exit from the first treatment step (citalopram) in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial. Outpatients with nonpsychotic MDD who completed all four ratings within +/-2 days were identified from the first 1500 STAR*D subjects. Both item response theory and classical test theory analyses were conducted. The three methods for obtaining QIDS data produced consistent findings regarding relationships between the nine symptom domains and overall depression, demonstrating interchangeability among the three methods. The HRSD17, while generally satisfactory, rarely utilized the full range of item scores, and evidence suggested multidimensional measurement properties. In nonpsychotic MDD outpatients without overt cognitive impairment, clinician assessment of depression severity using either the QIDS-C16 or HRSD17 may be successfully replaced by either the self-report or IVR version of the QIDS.
Dujardin, Adinda; Santens, Tara; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Bosmans, Guy
This study tested whether children's more anxious and avoidant attachment is linked to decreased support-seeking behavior toward their mother during stress in middle childhood, and whether children's decreased support-seeking behavior enhances the impact of experiencing life events on the increase of depressive symptoms 18 months later.…
Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Villabø, Marianne A; Lauth, Bertrand
The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) is a widely used self-report questionnaire for the assessment of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with well documented predictive validity of the total score and subscales in internalizing and mixed clinical samples. However, no data exist on the screening efficiency in an inpatient sample of adolescents. To examine the psychometric properties and screening efficiency of the MASC in a high comorbid inpatient sample. The current study used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses to investigate the predictive value of the MASC total and subscale scores for the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), DSM-IV diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and social phobia (SoP) in a highly comorbid inpatient sample of adolescents (11-18 years). The MASC total score predicted any anxiety disorder (AD) and GAD moderately well. Physical symptoms predicted GAD moderately well. Social anxiety and separation anxiety/panic did not predict SoP or SAD, respectively. Physical symptoms and harm avoidance also predicted the presence of major depressive disorder. The findings support the utility of the MASC total score to predict the presence of any AD and GAD. However, the utility of the social anxiety and separation anxiety/panic subscales showed limited utility to predict the presence of SAD and SoP, respectively. The MASC has probably a more limited function in screening for AD among a highly comorbid inpatient sample of severely affected adolescents. Our results should be interpreted in the light of a small, mixed sample of inpatient adolescents.
Williams, Paula G; Rau, Holly K; Suchy, Yana; Thorgusen, Sommer R; Smith, Timothy W
Individual differences in attentional control involve the ability to voluntarily direct, shift, and sustain attention. In studies of the role of attentional control in emotional adjustment, social relationships, and vulnerability to the effects of stress, self-report questionnaires are commonly used to measure this construct. Yet, convincing evidence of the association between self-report scales and actual cognitive performance has not been demonstrated. Across 2 independent samples, we examined associations between self-reported attentional control (Attentional Control Scale; ACS), self-reported emotional adjustment, Five-Factor Model personality traits (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised) and performance measures of attentional control. Study 1 examined behavioral performance on the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, & Posner, 2002) and the Modified Switching Task (MST; Suchy & Kosson, 2006) in a large sample (n = 315) of healthy young adults. Study 2 (n = 78) examined behavioral performance on standardized neuropsychological tests of attention, including Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II and subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Third Edition (WAIS-III; Psychological Corporation, 1997) and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001). Results indicated that the ACS was largely unrelated to behavioral performance measures of attentional control but was significantly associated with emotional adjustment, neuroticism, and conscientiousness. These findings suggest that although self-reported attentional control may be a useful construct, researchers using the ACS should exercise caution in interpreting it as a proxy for actual cognitive ability or performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Crawford, John R; Garthwaite, Paul H; Lawrie, Caroline J; Henry, Julie D; MacDonald, Marie A; Sutherland, Jane; Sinha, Priyanka
A series of recent papers have reported normative data from the general adult population for commonly used self-report mood scales. To bring together and supplement these data in order to provide a convenient means of obtaining percentile norms for the mood scales. A computer program was developed that provides point and interval estimates of the percentile rank corresponding to raw scores on the various self-report scales. The program can be used to obtain point and interval estimates of the percentile rank of an individual's raw scores on the DASS, DASS-21, HADS, PANAS, and sAD mood scales, based on normative sample sizes ranging from 758 to 3822. The interval estimates can be obtained using either classical or Bayesian methods as preferred. The computer program (which can be downloaded at www.abdn.ac.uk/~psy086/dept/MoodScore.htm) provides a convenient and reliable means of supplementing existing cut-off scores for self-report mood scales.
Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Pryor, Lauren R.
There are several self-report measures of psychopathy, most of which use a two-factor structure. There is debate regarding the convergence of these factors, particularly with regard to Factor 1 (F1), which is related to the interpersonal and affective aspects of psychopathy; Factor 2 (F2) is related to the social deviance associated with…
Frühauf, Anika; Burtscher, Martin; Pocecco, Elena; Faulhaber, Martin; Kopp, Martin
There is an ongoing discussion how to assess acute mountain sickness (AMS) in real life conditions. Next to more-item scales with a cut off like the Lake Louise Self-Report (LLS), some authors suggested to use visual analog scales (VAS) to assess AMS. This study tried to contribute to this question using VAS items used for the Subjective Ratings of Drug Effects, including an additional single item for AMS. Furthermore, we investigated if instruments developed to assess psychological well-being might predict AMS assessed via LLS or VAS. 32 (19 Female) adult persons with known AMS susceptibility filled in questionnaires (Feeling Scale, Felt Arousal Scale, Activation Deactivation Check List, LLS, VAS) at a height of 3650 m above sea level. Correlation and regression analysis suggest a moderate to high relationship between the LLS score and the VAS items, including one VAS item asking for the severity of AMS, as well as psychological well-being. In conclusion, using VAS items to assess AMS can be a more precise alternative to questionnaires like LLS, for people knowledgeable with AMS. Furthermore, researchers should be aware that psychological well-being might be an important parameter influencing the assessment of AMS.
Effects of a hops (Humulus lupulus L.) dry extract supplement on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in apparently healthy young adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot study.
Kyrou, Ioannis; Christou, Aimilia; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Skenderi, Katerina; Katsana, Konstantina; Tsigos, Constantine
The Humulus lupulus L. plant (hops) is used as a herbal medicinal product for anxiety/mood disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of a hops dry extract on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in young adults. Apparently healthy young adults from our university completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and those reporting at least mild depression, anxiety and stress were invited to complete the study intervention. This followed a randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design with two 4-week intervention periods (Melcalin hops or placebo; two 0.2 gr capsules once daily) separated by a 2-week wash-out. Anthropometric measurements, DASS-21 assessments and measurements of morning cortisol plasma levels were performed at the beginning and the end of the 4-week treatment periods. 36 participants (Females/Males: 31/5; age: 24.7±0.5 years) completed the study intervention (attrition: 6/42). No significant changes in body weight and composition or morning circulating cortisol were noted with the hops or placebo. Significantly decreased DASS-21 anxiety, depression and stress scores were documented with hops (9.2±7.3 vs. 5.1±5.9, 11.9±7.9 vs. 9.2±7.4, and 19.1±8.1 vs. 11.6±8.1; all p values depression, anxietyand stress symptoms, daily supplementation with a hops dry extract can significantly improve all these symptoms over a 4-week period. These beneficial effects agree with the indication of hops for anxiety/mood disorders and restlessness, as approved by the German Commission E.
Dunstan, Debra A; Scott, Ned; Todd, Anna K
While the gold standard for the diagnosis of mental disorders remains the structured clinical interview, self-report measures continue to play an important role in screening and measuring progress, as well as being frequently employed in research studies. Two widely-used self-report measures in the area of depression and anxiety are Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). However, considerable confusion exists in their application, with clinical cut-offs often applied incorrectly. This study re-examines the credentials of the Zung scales by comparing them with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) in terms of their ability to predict clinical diagnoses of anxiety and depression made using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). A total sample of 376 adults, of whom 87 reported being in receipt of psychological treatment, completed the two-page version of the PHQ relating to depression and anxiety, together with the SDS, the SAS and the DASS. Overall, although the respective DASS scales emerged as marginally stronger predictors of PHQ diagnoses of anxiety and depression, the Zung indices performed more than acceptably in comparison. The DASS also had an advantage in discriminative ability. Using the current recommended cut-offs for all scales, the DASS has the edge on specificity, while the Zung scales are superior in terms of sensitivity. There are grounds to consider making the Zung cut-offs more conservative, and doing this would produce comparable numbers of 'Misses' and 'False Positives' to those obtained with the DASS. Given these promising results, further research is justified to assess the Zung scales ability against full clinical diagnoses and to further explore optimum cut-off levels.
Ramleth, Ruth-Kari; Groholt, Berit; Diep, Lien M; Walby, Fredrik A; Mehlum, Lars
Studies on adults suggest that the presence of comorbid depression and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is associated with an elevated risk of self-harming behaviours and that self-harming behaviours, when present, will have higher severity. This comorbidity, furthermore, complicates clinical assessments, which may be an obstacle to early identification and proper intervention. Adolescents who self-harm frequently report high levels of depressive symptoms, but this is often not reflected in the clinicians' assessment. BPD is still a controversial diagnosis in young people, and less is known about the clinical significance of comorbid BPD in adolescent populations.The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of BPD on the assessment and course of self-reported and clinician-rated depression in self-harming adolescents before and after a treatment period of 19 weeks. We hypothesized that, compared to adolescents without BPD, adolescents with BPD would self-report higher levels of depression at baseline, and that they would have less reduction in depressive symptoms. A total of 39 adolescents with depressive disorders and BPD-traits participating in a randomised controlled trial on treatment of self-harm with Dialectical Behaviour Therapy adapted for Adolescents or enhanced usual care were included. Adolescents with full-syndrome BPD ( n = 10) were compared with adolescents with sub-threshold BPD ( n = 29) with respect to their self-reported and clinician-rated depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and global level of functioning at baseline, and after 19 weeks of treatment (end of trial period). At baseline, adolescents with full-syndrome BPD self-reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation compared to adolescents with sub-threshold BPD, whereas the two groups were rated as equally depressed by the clinicians. At trial completion, all participants had a significant reduction in suicidal ideation
Silverstein, Michael J; Faraone, Stephen V; Alperin, Samuel; Leon, Terry L; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Adler, Lenard A
The aim of this study is to validate the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded versions, including executive function deficits (EFDs) and emotional dyscontrol (EC) items, and to present ASRS and AISRS pilot normative data. Two patient samples (referred and primary care physician [PCP] controls) were pooled together for these analyses. Final analysis included 297 respondents, 171 with adult ADHD. Cronbach's alphas were high for all sections of the scales. Examining histograms of ASRS 31-item and AISRS 18-item total scores for ADHD controls, 95% cutoff scores were 70 and 23, respectively; histograms for pilot normative sample suggest cutoffs of 82 and 26, respectively. (a) ASRS- and AISRS-expanded versions have high validity in assessment of core 18 adult ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM) symptoms and EFD and EC symptoms. (b) ASRS (31-item) scores 70 to 82 and AISRS (18-item) scores from 23 to 26 suggest a high likelihood of adult ADHD.
Full Text Available Ragna Lind,1 Arnold Berstad,2 Jan Hatlebakk,1,3 Jørgen Valeur21Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, 2Unger-Vetlesen Institute, Department of Medicine, Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, Oslo, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, NorwayBackground: Patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS suffer from several health complaints, including fatigue. The aim of the present study was to validate a Norwegian translation of the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS, and to assess the impact of fatigue in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, as compared with healthy controls.Methods: Thirty-eight patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, who participated in the validation of the FIS completed the following additional questionnaires: the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index for assessment of quality of life, the Subjective Health Complaint Inventory, and questionnaires for diagnosis and severity of IBS. Impact of fatigue was studied in 43 patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity, 70% diagnosed with IBS, and 42 healthy controls.Results: Cronbach's α for the FIS was 0.98, indicating excellent agreement between individual items. Scores on the FIS correlated with scores on the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index (r = 0.50, P = 0.001, indicating good convergent validity, and were higher in patients (median 85.0, interquartile range 36.8–105.3 than in controls (median 14.0, interquartile range 3.0–29.0, P ≤0.0001.Conclusion: The Norwegian translation of the FIS performed excellently in patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, with patients reporting significantly more impact of chronic fatigue than healthy controls.Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, fatigue, food hypersensitivity, quality of life
Kessler, R C; van Loo, H M; Wardenaar, K J; Bossarte, R M; Brenner, L A; Cai, T; Ebert, D D; Hwang, I; Li, J; de Jonge, P; Nierenberg, A A; Petukhova, M V; Rosellini, A J; Sampson, N A; Schoevers, R A; Wilcox, M A; Zaslavsky, A M
Heterogeneity of major depressive disorder (MDD) illness course complicates clinical decision-making. Although efforts to use symptom profiles or biomarkers to develop clinically useful prognostic subtypes have had limited success, a recent report showed that machine-learning (ML) models developed from self-reports about incident episode characteristics and comorbidities among respondents with lifetime MDD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys predicted MDD persistence, chronicity and severity with good accuracy. We report results of model validation in an independent prospective national household sample of 1056 respondents with lifetime MDD at baseline. The WMH ML models were applied to these baseline data to generate predicted outcome scores that were compared with observed scores assessed 10-12 years after baseline. ML model prediction accuracy was also compared with that of conventional logistic regression models. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve based on ML (0.63 for high chronicity and 0.71-0.76 for the other prospective outcomes) was consistently higher than for the logistic models (0.62-0.70) despite the latter models including more predictors. A total of 34.6-38.1% of respondents with subsequent high persistence chronicity and 40.8-55.8% with the severity indicators were in the top 20% of the baseline ML-predicted risk distribution, while only 0.9% of respondents with subsequent hospitalizations and 1.5% with suicide attempts were in the lowest 20% of the ML-predicted risk distribution. These results confirm that clinically useful MDD risk-stratification models can be generated from baseline patient self-reports and that ML methods improve on conventional methods in developing such models.
Full Text Available Objectives: The association between depressive symptoms and psycho‑organisational work environment has been established in the literature. Some studies have evaluated depressive symptoms in healthcare workers, but little research has been carried out among nurse managers. The aim of the study is to evaluate the depressive symptoms prevalence among nurse managers' population and work environment factors. Material and Methods: A descriptive correlational research design was used. Data were collected from 296 nurse managers in five hospitals in the eastern area of France between 2007 and 2008. Health outcomes were evaluated by measuring depressive symptoms (CES-D scale, the exposure data by assessing psycho‑organisational work environment with effort-reward imbalance-model of Siegrist. Multiple logistic regressions were used to describe the strength of the association between depressive symptoms and effort-reward imbalance adjusted for personal and occupational characteristics of the nurse managers. Results: Among the nurse managers, a third had depressive symptoms, and 18% presented an effort-reward imbalance (ratio: ≥ 1. A significant association was found between depressive symptoms and effort-reward imbalance (OR = 10.81, 95% CI: 5.1-23, p < 10-3, and with esteem as a reward (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.6-6.3, p < 10-2. Conclusion: In view of the hierarchical situation of nurse managers and their primary roles in hospitals, it is necessaryto take prevention measures to improve their work environment and health.
Kathleen W. Wyrwich PhD
Full Text Available The ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS-IV; parent report and Adult ADHD Self-Rating Scale (ASRS; self-report are validated instruments for measuring symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objectives of this study were to elicit descriptions of phenylketonuria (PKU symptoms and assess content validity of these instruments in PKU. Parents (N = 15 of children with PKU (≥8 years old and adults with PKU (N=13 described PKU-related symptoms and commented on the scale’s clarity, comprehensiveness, and relevance to their experience with PKU. Most of the adults (84.6% and all of the children were on a phenylalanine-restricted diet, according to respondent report. The inattentiveness symptoms reported by participants mapped to the inattentive items of the questionnaires. Most participants felt the inattentive items were clear and relevant to their experience. Despite study design limitations, these results demonstrate the relevance of assessing inattentiveness in PKU, and both instruments achieved content validity for inattentive subscale items.
Li, Ho Cheung William; Chung, Oi Kwan Joyce; Ho, Ka Yan
This paper is a report of psychometric testing of the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children. The availability of a valid and reliable instrument that accurately detects depressive symptoms in children is crucial before any psychological intervention can be appropriately planned and evaluated. There is no such an instrument for Chinese children. A test-retest, within-subjects design was used. A total of 313 primary school students between the ages of 8 and 12 years were invited to participate in the study in 2009. Participants were asked to respond to the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, short form of the State Anxiety Scale for Children and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The internal consistency, content validity and construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children were assessed. The newly-translated scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good content validity and appropriate convergent and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analysis added further evidence of the construct validity of the scale. Results suggest that the newly-translated scale can be used as a self-report assessment tool in detecting depressive symptoms of Chinese children aged between 8 and 12 years. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Romm, K L; Rossberg, J I; Berg, A O; Hansen, C F; Andreassen, O A; Melle, I
Social anxiety is a common problem in psychotic disorders. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating version (LSAS-SR) is a widely used instrument to capture different aspects of social anxiety, but its psychometric properties have not been tested in this patient group. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR in patients with first episode psychosis, to investigate whether it differentiated between active and passive social withdrawal and to test which clinical factors contributed to current level of social anxiety. A total of 144 first episode psychosis patients from the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) study were included at the time of first treatment. Diagnoses were set according to the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-1) for DSM-IV. A factor analysis was carried out and the relationship of social anxiety to psychotic and general symptomatology measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was evaluated. Possible contributors to social anxiety were analyzed using multiple hierarchic regression analysis. The factor analysis identified three subscales: public performance, social interaction and observation. All three subscales showed satisfactory psychometric properties, acceptable convergent and discriminate properties, and confirmed previous findings in social anxiety samples. Self-esteem explained a significant amount of the variance in social anxiety, even after adjusting for the effects of delusions, suspiciousness and depression. The study shows that the LSAS-SR can be used in this patient group, that social anxiety is strongly related to both behavioral social avoidance and to self-esteem. The results support the use of this measure in assessment of social anxiety in both clinical settings and in research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Stice, E; Telch, C F; Rizvi, S L
This article describes the development and validation of a brief self-report scale for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. Study 1 used a panel of eating-disorder experts and provided evidence for the content validity of this scale. Study 2 used data from female participants with and without eating disorders (N = 367) and suggested that the diagnoses from this scale possessed temporal reliability (mean kappa = .80) and criterion validity (with interview diagnoses; mean kappa = .83). In support of convergent validity, individuals with eating disorders identified by this scale showed elevations on validated measures of eating disturbances. The overall symptom composite also showed test-retest reliability (r = .87), internal consistency (mean alpha = .89), and convergent validity with extant eating-pathology scales. Results implied that this scale was reliable and valid in this investigation and that it may be useful for clinical and research applications.
Bech, Per; Allerup, Peter; Larsen, Erik Roj
The objective of this re-analysis of the European Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression Study (GENDEP) was to psychometrically test the unidimensionality of the full Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS10) and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) versus their respective...... subscales (MADRS5 and HAM-D6) containing the core symptoms of depression severity. Rasch analysis was applied using RUMM 2030 software to assess the overall fit for unidimensionality. Neither the MADRS10 nor the HAM-D17 was found to fit the Rasch model for unidimensionality. The HAM-D6 (containing the items...... of depressed mood, guilt, work and interests, psychomotor retardation, psychic anxiety, and somatic general) as well as the analogue MADRS5 were tested for unidimensionality by use of the RUMM 2030 programme, and only the HAM-D6 was accepted. When testing for invariance across rating weeks or centres, the RUMM...
Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Auguste, Priscilla; Yu, Ren; Zhang, Charlie; Dewees, Benjamin; Winslow, Barbara; Yu, Shui; Merilainen, Markus; Prasad, Suyash
Previous qualitative research among adults and parents of children with phenylketonuria (PKU) has identified inattention as an important psychiatric aspect of this condition. The parent-reported ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD RS-IV) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) have been validated for measuring inattention symptoms in persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, their psychometric attributes for measuring PKU-related inattention have not been established. The primary objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the ADHD RS-IV and ASRS inattention symptoms subscales in a randomized controlled trial of patients with PKU aged 8 years or older. A post hoc analysis investigated the psychometric properties (Rasch model fit, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness) of the ADHD RS-IV and ASRS inattention subscales using data from a phase 3b, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in those with PKU aged 8 years or older. The Rasch results revealed good model fit, and reliability analyses revealed strong internal consistency reliability (α ≥ 0.87) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.87) for both measures. Both inattention measures demonstrated the ability to discriminate between known groups (P < 0.001) created by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale. Correlations between the ADHD RS-IV and the ASRS with the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale and the age-appropriate Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory subscale were consistently moderate to strong (r ≥ 0.56). Similarly, results of the change score correlations were of moderate magnitude (r ≥ 0.43) for both measures when compared with changes over time in Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory subscales. These findings of reliability, validity, and responsiveness of both the ADHD RS-IV and the ASRS inattention scales
Bech, P; Wilson, P; Wessel, T
the unidimensionality of this administration form in patients with mild-to-moderate depression. METHOD: The item response theory analysis of Mokken was used to test the unidimensionality of both the Interactive Voice Recording System (IVRS) version of the HAM-D(6) and a paper-and-pencil self-reported version (S-HAM-D(6......OBJECTIVE: The six items of the clinician-administrated Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(6)) cover the core items of depressive states reflecting the antidepressive effect of medication. In this study, the two self-reported versions of the HAM-D(6) have been psychometrically validated to ensure...
Jeon, Sang Won; Han, Changsu; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seo Young; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Park, Yong Chon; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Ko, Seung-Duk; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Zimmerman, Mark
Objective This study was aimed at evaluating the diagnostic validity of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) with varying follow-up in a typical clinical setting in multiple centers. Methods In total, 891 psychiatric outpatients were enrolled at the time of their intake appointment. Current diagnostic characteristics were examined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (41% major depressive disorder). The CUDOS was measured and compared with three clinician rating scales and four self-report scales. Results The CUDOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach’s α, 0.91), test-retest reliability (patients at intake, r=0.81; depressed patients in ongoing treatment, r=0.89), and convergent and discriminant validity (measures of depression, r=0.80; measures of anxiety and somatization, r=0.42). The CUDOS had a high ability to discriminate between different levels of depression severity based on the rating of Clinical Global Impression for depression severity and the diagnostic classification of major depression, minor depression, and non-depression. The ability of the CUDOS to identify patients with major depression was high (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.867). A score of 20 as the optimal cutoff point was suggested when screening for major depression using the CUDOS (sensitivity=89.9%, specificity=69.5%). The CUDOS was sensitive to change after antidepressant treatment: patients with greater improvement showed a greater decrease in CUDOS scores (p<0.001). Conclusion The results of this multi-site outpatient study found that the Korean version of the CUDOS is a very useful measurement for research and for clinical practice. PMID:28138107
Bachner, Yaacov G; O'Rourke, Norm; Goldfracht, Margalit
The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) is commonly used as a screening instrument, as a continuous measure of change in depressive symptoms over time, and as a means to compare the relative efficacy of treatments. Among several abridged versions, the 6-item HAM-D6 is used most widely in lar...... degree because of its good psychometric properties. The current study compares both self-report and clinician-rated versions of the Hebrew version of this scale....
Tuohy, Alan; McVey, Cynthia
There has been considerable research and clinical interest in the comorbidity of anxiety and depression in the post-partum period, and specifically in the possibility that the commonly used Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) incorporates an anxiety component. We hypothesized that the recommended version of factor analysis (Fabrigar, Wegener, MacCallum, & Strahan, 1999) would identify such covert dimensions more reliably than the commonly used principal components analysis with varimax rotation and eigenvalues greater than 1. Principal axis factor extraction with parallel analysis and oblique (direct quartimin) factor rotation was applied to the 10 EPDS items. The study used a sample of recent mothers recruited and assessed via e-mail and the Internet (N=440). In addition to the EPDS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Scales (PANAS) were also administered. Three factors were found, which were identified as 'non-specific depressive symptoms', 'anhedonia', and 'anxietal symptoms' subscales, respectively. These subscales were regressed on the HADS anxiety and depression and the PANAS positive and negative affectivity scales, with results substantially consistent with current structural models of the taxonomy of the emotional disorders. The data were obtained from a self-selected non-clinical sample. In addition, it is known that the use of computer-based assessment may tend to inflate self-report scores. It was concluded that there is now sufficient evidence that clinicians should not assume the EPDS to be unidimensional, but should assess all three subscales when screening for susceptibility to post-partum depression and/or post-partum anxiety.
Ana R Quiñones
Full Text Available Objectives: Optimal depression screening necessitates measurement tools that are valid across varied populations and in the presence of comorbidities. Methods: This study assessed the test properties of two versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale against psychiatric diagnoses established by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview among a clinical sample of US Veterans deployed during Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn. Participants (N = 359 recruited from two Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals completed a clinical interview, structured diagnostic interview, and self-reported measures. Results: Based on diagnostic interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition criteria, 29.5% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and 26.5% met diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Both Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 scales performed well and almost identically against the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-major depressive disorder in identifying Veterans with major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve 91%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 area under the ROC curve 90%. Overall, higher cut points for the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales performed better in correctly identifying true positives and true negatives for major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 cut point 18+ sensitivity 92% specificity 72%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 cut point 10+ sensitivity 92% specificity 69%. Conclusions: The specificity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales was poor among Veterans with co-occurring post-traumatic stress disorder (13% and 16%. Veterans with post
Wygant, Dustin B.; Sellbom, Martin; Graham, John R.; Schenk, Paul W.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Personality Psychopathology-Five (PSY-5) scales were developed to measure abnormal personality symptomatology. The present study examines the incremental validity of the PSY-5 scales beyond the clinical and content scales in assessing criteria associated with personality disorders. The…
Tadesse Melaku Abegaz
Full Text Available Background. There is paucity of data on prevalence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs and adherence and clinical outcomes of antidepressants. The present study determined the magnitude of ADRs of antidepressants and their impact on the level of adherence and clinical outcome. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among depression patients from September 2016 to January 2017 at Gondar University Hospital psychiatry clinic. The Naranjo ADR probability scale was employed to assess the ADRs. The rate of medication adherence was determined using Morisky Medication Adherence Measurement Scale-Eight. Results. Two hundred seventeen patients participated in the study, more than half of them being males (122; 56.2%. More than one-half of the subjects had low adherence to their medications (124; 57.1% and about 186 (85.7% of the patients encountered ADR. The most common ADR was weight gain (29; 13.2%. More than one-half (125; 57.6% of the respondents showed improved clinical outcome. Optimal level of medication adherence decreased the likelihood of poor clinical outcome by 56.8%. Conclusion. ADRs were more prevalent. However, adherence to medications was very poor in the setup. Long duration of depression negatively affects the rate of adherence. In addition, adherence was found to influence the clinical outcome of depression patients.
Bergink, Veerle; Kooistra, Libbe; Lambregtse-van den Berg, Mijke P.; Wijnen, Henny; Bunevicius, Robertas; van Baar, Anneloes; Pop, Victor
Background: Untreated depression during pregnancy may have adverse outcomes for the mother and her child. Screening for depression in the general pregnant population is thus recommended. The Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) is widely used for postpartum depression screening. There is no consensus on
Pozzebon, Julie A; Visser, Beth A; Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom; Goldberg, Lewis R
We investigated the psychometric properties of the Oregon Vocational Interest Scales (ORVIS), a brief public-domain alternative to commercial inventories, in a large community sample and in a college sample. In both samples, we examined the factor structure, scale intercorrelations, and personality correlates of the ORVIS, and in the community sample, we also examined the correlations of the ORVIS scales with cognitive abilities and with the scales of a longer, proprietary interest survey. In both samples, all 8 scales-Leadership, Organization, Altruism, Creativity, Analysis, Producing, Adventuring, and Erudition-showed wide variation in scores, high internal-consistency reliabilities, and a pattern of high convergent and low discriminant correlations with the scales of the proprietary interest survey. Overall, the results support the construct validity of the scales, which are recommended for use in research on vocational interests and other individual differences.
Full Text Available Aki Tsuchiyagaito,1–3 Satoshi Horiuchi,4 Toko Igarashi,5 Yoshiya Kawanori,4 Yoshiyuki Hirano,1,3 Hirooki Yabe,2 Akiko Nakagawa1,3 1Research Center for Child Mental Development, Chiba University, Chiba, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 3United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Kanazawa University, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Chiba University and University of Fukui, Osaka, 4Faculty of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, 5Graduate School of Education, Joetsu University of Education, Niigata, Japan Background: The Hoarding Rating Scale-Self-Report (HRS-SR is a five-item scale that assesses the symptoms of hoarding. These symptoms include excessive acquisition, difficulty in discarding, and excessive clutter that causes distress. We conducted three studies to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the HRS-SR (HRS-SR-J. Methods: Study 1 examined its reliability; 193 college students and 320 adolescents and adults completed the HRS-SR-J and, of the college students, 32 took it again 2 weeks later. Study 2 aimed to confirm that its scores in a sample of 210 adolescents and adults are independent of social desirability. Study 3 aimed to validate the HRS-SR-J in the aspects of convergent and discriminant validity in a sample of 550 adults. Results: The HRS-SR-J showed good internal consistency and 2-week test–retest reliability. Based on the nonsignificant correlations between the HRS-SR-J and social desirability, the HRS-SR-J was not strongly affected by social desirability. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Japanese version of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R-J and the hoarding subscale of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, while having a significantly weaker correlation with the five subscales of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, except for the hoarding subscale. In addition, the
Leboeuf, C; Love, A; Crisp, T C
The subjective complaints of 41 chronic low back pain sufferers attending a chiropractic clinic were assessed twice prior to therapy with a widely used psychological self-report assessment tool, the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ) and a newly developed VAS Disability Scales Questionnaire (DISQ), both of which investigate various aspects of certain basic positions and activities. Reliability was generally acceptable with these two questionnaires. Subjects participating in the study were commonly found to score within the normal range on the MHQ, indicating that psychological disturbance was not a major feature of their presentation. However, mild mood disturbance was commonly reported, and a more sensitive tool may need to be developed for this type of mildly affected chronic low back pain sufferers. The DISQ generally indicated subjects were mildly to moderately affected by their low back trouble and that sitting and leisure activities were the most pain provoking. Recommendations for further development of the disability scale are made.
Latorre-Marco, I; Acevedo-Nuevo, M; Solís-Muñoz, M; Hernández-Sánchez, L; López-López, C; Sánchez-Sánchez, M M; Wojtysiak-Wojcicka, M; de Las Pozas-Abril, J; Robleda-Font, G; Frade-Mera, M J; De Blas-García, R; Górgolas-Ortiz, C; De la Figuera-Bayón, J; Cavia-García, C
To assess the psychometric properties of the behavioral indicators of pain scale (ESCID) when applied to a wide range of medical and surgical critical patients. A multicentre, prospective observational study was designed to validate a scale measuring instrument. Twenty Intensive Care Units of 14 hospitals belonging to the Spanish National Health System. A total of 286 mechanically ventilated, unable to self-report critically ill medical and surgical adult patients. Pain levels were measured by two independent evaluators simultaneously, using two scales: ESCID and the behavioral pain scale (BPS). Pain was observed before, during, and after two painful procedures (turning, tracheal suctioning) and one non-painful procedure. ESCID reliability was measured on the basis of internal consistency using the Cronbach-α coefficient. Inter-rater and intra-rater agreement were measured. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between ESCID and BPS. A total of 4386 observations were made in 286 patients (62% medical and 38% surgical). High correlation was found between ESCID and BPS (r=0.94-0.99; p<0.001), together with high intra-rater and inter-rater concordance. ESCID was internally reliable, with a Cronbach-α value of 0.85 (95%CI 0.81-0.88). Cronbach-α coefficients for ESCID domains were high: facial expression 0.87 (95%CI 0.84-0.89), calmness 0.84 (95%CI 0.81-0.87), muscle tone 0.80 (95%CI 0.75-0.84), compliance with mechanical ventilation 0.70 (95%CI 0.63-0.75) and consolability 0.85 (95%CI 0.81-0.88). ESCID is valid and reliable for measuring pain in mechanically ventilated unable to self-report medical and surgical critical care patients. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01744717. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Skogestad, Ingrid Johansen; Martinsen, Liv; Børsting, Tove Elisabet; Granheim, Tove Irene; Ludvigsen, Eirin Sigurdssøn; Gay, Caryl L; Lerdal, Anners
To evaluate medical inpatients' symptom experience and selected laboratory blood results as indicators of their pressure ulcer risk as measured by the Braden scale. Pressure ulcers reduce quality of life and increase treatment costs. The prevalence of pressure ulcers is 6-23% in hospital populations, but literature suggests that most pressure ulcers are avoidable. Prospective, cross-sectional survey. Three hundred and twenty-eight patients admitted to medical wards in an acute hospital in Oslo, Norway consented to participate. Data were collected on 10 days between 2012-2014 by registered nurses and nursing students. Pressure ulcer risk was assessed using the Braden scale, and scores indicated pressure ulcer risk. Skin examinations were categorised as normal or stages I-IV using established definitions. Comorbidities were collected by self-report. Self-reported symptom occurrence and distress were measured with 15 items from the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and pain was assessed using two numeric rating scales. Admission laboratory data were collected from medical records. Prevalence of pressure ulcers was 11·9, and 20·4% of patients were identified as being at risk for developing pressure ulcers. Multivariable analysis showed that pressure ulcer risk was positively associated with age ≥80 years, vomiting, severe pain at rest, urination problems, shortness of breath and low albumin and was negatively associated with nervousness. Our study indicates that using patient-reported symptoms and standard laboratory results as supplemental indicators of pressure ulcer risk may improve identification of vulnerable patients, but replication of these findings in other study samples is needed. Nurses play a key role in preventing pressure ulcers during hospitalisation. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms may improve the quality of care. Knowledge about symptoms associated with pressure ulcer risk may contribute to a faster clinical judgment of
Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Teerenstra, S.; Smalbrugge, M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to test the accuracy of the Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression (NORD) scale, a new short scale for screening of depression in nursing home (NH) residents with and without dementia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study with 103 residents with dementia (N = 19 depressed) and
Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.; Teerenstra, S.; Smalbrugge, M.; Koopmans, R.T.
Objective This study aims to test the accuracy of the Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression (NORD) scale, a new short scale for screening of depression in nursing home (NH) residents with and without dementia. Methods This cross-sectional study with 103 residents with dementia (N = 19 depressed) and 72
Nilsson, Jan; Johansson, Eva; Egmar, Ann-Charlotte; Florin, Jan; Leksell, Janeth; Lepp, Margret; Lindholm, Christina; Nordström, Gun; Theander, Kersti; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Carlsson, Marianne; Gardulf, Ann
To develop and validate a new tool intended for measuring self-reported professional competence among both nurse students prior to graduation and among practicing nurses. The new tool is based on formal competence requirements from the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare, which in turn are based on WHO guidelines. A methodological study including construction of a new scale and evaluation of its psychometric properties. 1086 newly graduated nurse students from 11 universities/university colleges. The analyses resulted in a scale named the NPC (Nurse Professional Competence) Scale, consisting of 88 items and covering eight factors: "Nursing care", "Value-based nursing care", "Medical/technical care", "Teaching/learning and support", "Documentation and information technology", "Legislation in nursing and safety planning", "Leadership in and development of nursing care" and "Education and supervision of staff/students". All factors achieved Cronbach's alpha values greater than 0.70. A second-order exploratory analysis resulted in two main themes: "Patient-related nursing" and "Nursing care organisation and development". In addition, evidence of known-group validity for the NPC Scale was obtained. The NPC Scale, which is based on national and international professional competence requirements for nurses, was comprehensively tested and showed satisfactory psychometrical properties. It can e.g. be used to evaluate the outcomes of nursing education programmes, to assess nurses' professional competences in relation to the needs in healthcare organisations, and to tailor introduction programmes for newly employed nurses. © 2013.
Gonzalez, Araceli; Rozenman, Michelle; Langley, Audra K; Kendall, Philip C; Ginsburg, Golda S; Compton, Scott; Walkup, John T; Birmaher, Boris; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John
Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health problems in youth, and faulty interpretation bias has been positively linked to anxiety severity, even within anxiety-disordered youth. Quick, reliable assessment of interpretation bias may be useful in identifying youth with certain types of anxiety or assessing changes on cognitive bias during intervention. This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Self-report of Ambiguous Social Situations for Youth (SASSY) scale, a self-report measure developed to assess interpretation bias in youth. Participants (N=488, age 7 to 17) met diagnostic criteria for Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and/or Separation Anxiety Disorder. An exploratory factor analysis was performed on baseline data from youth participating in a large randomized clinical trial. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors (Accusation/Blame, Social Rejection). The SASSY full scale and Social Rejection factor demonstrated adequate internal consistency, convergent validity with social anxiety, and discriminant validity as evidenced by non-significant correlations with measures of non-social anxiety. Further, the SASSY Social Rejection factor accurately distinguished children and adolescents with Social Phobia from those with other anxiety disorders, supporting its criterion validity, and revealed sensitivity to changes with treatment. Given the relevance to youth with social phobia, pre- and post-intervention data were examined for youth social phobia to test sensitivity to treatment effects; results suggested that SASSY scores reduced for treatment responders. Findings suggest the potential utility of the SASSY Social Rejection factor as a quick, reliable, and efficient way of assessing interpretation bias in anxious youth, particularly as related to social concerns, in research and clinical settings.
Hansen, Jesper Bent; Bech, Per
, and their corresponding definite versions of the self-rating questionnaires DMQ and DHAM6 were accepted by the Rasch analysis, and only these four valid scales discriminated significantly between the effect of citalopram and placebo treatment. Our results are limited to patients with moderate depression. Two new self......-report scales with unparalleled construct validity, reliability, sensitivity, and convergent validity have been identified (DMQ and DHAM6). We have also identified a crucial importance of format for the means and variances of self-rating scales. These findings are of high practical and scientific value....
How Informative Are Self-Reported Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms? An Examination of the Agreement Between the Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale V1.1 and Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Investigator Symptom Rating Scale.
Silverstein, Michael J; Faraone, Stephen V; Alperin, Samuel; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Adler, Lenard A
Assess agreement between self-ratings via the adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS)-v1.1 Symptom Checklist and clinician ratings via the adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded version using DSM-5 adult ADHD patients (referred sample) and ADHD controls (recruited from a primary care physician practice). The ASRS v1.1 Symptom Checklist was administered to measure self-reported ADHD symptoms and impairment, the Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale v1.2 was used to establish an adult ADHD diagnosis and the childhood and adult/current sections of the scale were used to provide scores to measure symptoms of childhood ADHD and recent symptoms of adult ADHD, the AISRS to measure ADHD current symptom severity. Participants (n = 299; range 18-58), of which 171 were ADHD+ and 128 ADHD-. ASRS and AISRS total scores and individual subsections examining inattention, hyperactivity, emotional dysfunction (EF), and emotional dyscontrol (EC) were all significantly correlated (Spearman's ρ's = 0.78-0.89, ps < 0.01). Correlations remained significant when controlling for demographic factors and psychiatric conditions. The ASRS (self) and AISRS (clinician rated) scales have high agreement. This agreement extended not only the to the core 18 DSM symptoms, but also to the additional 13 symptoms that examine EC and EF.
Sammallahti, P R; Holi, M J; Komulainen, E J; Aalberg, V A
Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and Bond's Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) were compared in a sample of 334 community controls and 122 psychiatric outpatients. The major question was, whether the two coping inventories with different theoretical backgrounds-stress research vs. psycho-analysis-tap similar phenomena. The affinity of the two coping measures was evident: in multiple regression analysis defenses explained 68% of the variance in sense of coherence. Not surprisingly, the SOC scale-emerging out of the salutogenic orientation-showed more expertise in measuring how people manage when they do well, whereas the DSQ-with its theoretical roots deep in psychopathology-was most sensitive to how people manage when they do rather poorly.
Østergaard, Søren D; Pedersen, Christina H; Uggerby, Peter
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), consisting of the 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and 5 psychosis items from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), is a valid measure for the ...
Sveen, Unni; Andelic, Nada; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Røe, Cecilie
To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 12 months post-injury. Demographic and injury-related data were registered upon admission to the hospital in 148 TBI patients with mild, moderate, or severe TBI. At 12 months post-injury, competency in activities and global functioning were measured using the PCRS patient version and the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE). Descriptive reliability statistics, factor analysis and Rasch modeling were applied to explore the psychometric properties of the PCRS. External validity was evaluated using the GOSE. The PCRS can be divided into three subscales that reflect interpersonal/emotional, cognitive, and activities of daily living competency. The three-factor solution explained 56.6% of the variance in functioning. The internal consistency was very good, with a Cronbach's α of 0.95. Item 30, "controlling my laughter", did not load above 0.40 on any factors and did not fit the Rasch model. The external validity of the subscales was acceptable, with correlations between 0.50 and 0.52 with the GOSE. The Norwegian version of the PCRS is reliable, has an acceptable construct and external validity, and can be recommended for use during the later phases of TBI.
Green, Robert G.
Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family…
Gomaa, Mohammed Abdel Motaal; Elmagd, Manal Hassan Abo; Elbadry, Mohammed Mohammed; Kader, Rafeek Mohammed Abdel
The study was proposed to evaluate co-morbid depression, anxiety and stress associated with tinnitus patients. The study was done on 196 subjects: 100 patients suffering from subjective tinnitus associated with hearing loss (tinnitus group), 45 patients suffering from hearing loss only (hearing loss group) and 50 healthy subjects not suffering from tinnitus or hearing loss (control group); the age ranges from 20 to 60 years old. The studied sample was subjected to full ear, nose and throat examinations and audiological evaluation. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) was developed by Levibond H and Levibond F to assess three self-report scales designed to measure the negative emotional status of depression, anxiety and stress. All patients and control group were evaluated by DASS. (1) Depression: males were affected more than females. All patients over 60 years were affected by depression. The duration of tinnitus seems correlating with the severity of depression. Only 2 patients (4.3 %) of the hearing loss group suffer from depression. (2) Anxiety: 90 % of males suffer from anxiety as compared to 83.3 % females. The age group 20-29 years old suffers more than other age groups. Only 4 patients (8.7 %) of hearing loss group suffer from anxiety. (3) Stress: females seem to be affected by the stress (76.7 %) more than males (67.5). Patients in age group 30-39 suffer the most from the disease. There is a direct correlation between duration of tinnitus and severity of stress. No one of the hearing loss group suffers from stress. In conclusion, depression, anxiety and stress should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients suffering from tinnitus.
Ana M. Galetti
Full Text Available Objective: To validate the Gambling Follow-up Scale, Self-Report version (GFS-SR, a 10-item scale designed to assess gambling frequency, time and money spent on gambling, gambling craving, debts, emotional distress, family relationships, autonomy, and frequency of and satisfaction with leisure activities in individuals diagnosed with gambling disorder according to the DSM-5 criteria. Methods: One hundred and twenty treatment-seeking gamblers were evaluated, 84 of whom proceeded to treatment. Fifty-two relatives provided collateral informant reports at baseline. Six months later, the 50 patients who completed the program were reassessed. Results: The GFS-SR showed good inter-rater agreement and internal consistency. Factor analysis presented a three-factor solution: gambling behavior (factor 1; social life (factor 2; and personal hardship (factor 3. There was a high degree of convergence between GFS-SR scores and those of reference scales. The GFS-SR scores showed excellent sensitivity to change (factor 1, predictive validity for treatment response (factor 2, and ability to distinguish recovered from unrecovered patients after treatment (factor 3. A cutoff score of 33 was found to have 87% sensitivity and 80% specificity for gambling recovery. Conclusion: The GFS-SR is well suited to providing reliable follow-up of gamblers under treatment and assessing the efficacy of their treatment.
Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth
The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening instruments for mental disorders need to be short, engaging, and valid. Current screening instruments are usually questionnaire-based and may be opaque to the user. A prototype approach where individuals identify with a description of an individual with typical symptoms of depression, anxiety, social phobia or panic may be a shorter, faster and more acceptable method for screening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of four new prototype screeners for predicting depression and anxiety disorders and to compare their performance with existing scales. Methods Short and ultra-short prototypes were developed for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD, Panic Disorder (PD and Social Phobia (SP. Prototypes were compared to typical short and ultra-short self-report screening scales, such as the Centre for Epidemiology Scale, CES-D and the GAD-7, and their short forms. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI version 6 1 was used as the gold standard for obtaining clinical criteria through a telephone interview. From a population sample, 225 individuals who endorsed a prototype and 101 who did not were administered the MINI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were plotted for the short and ultra short prototypes and for the short and ultra short screening scales. Results The study found that the rates of endorsement of the prototypes were commensurate with prevalence estimates. The short-form and ultra short scales outperformed the short and ultra short prototypes for every disorder except GAD, where the GAD prototype outperformed the GAD 7. Conclusions The findings suggest that people may be able to self-identify generalised anxiety more accurately than depression based on a description of a prototypical case. However, levels of identification were lower than expected. Considerable benefits from this method of screening may ensue if our prototypes can be
Glassmire, David M; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Burchett, Danielle; Martinez, Jennifer; Gomez, Anthony
In this study, we examined whether the 5 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) Suicidal/Death Ideation (SUI) items (93, 120, 164, 251, and 334) would provide incremental suicide-risk assessment information after accounting for information garnered from clinical interview questions. Among 229 forensic inpatients (146 men, 83 women) who were administered the MMPI-2-RF, 34.9% endorsed at least 1 SUI item. We found that patients who endorsed SUI items on the MMPI-2-RF concurrently denied conceptually related suicide-risk information during the clinical interview. For instance, 8% of the sample endorsed Item 93 (indicating recent suicidal ideation), yet denied current suicidal ideation upon interview. Conversely, only 2.2% of the sample endorsed current suicidal ideation during the interview, yet denied recent suicidal ideation on Item 93. The SUI scale, as well as the MMPI-2-RF Demoralization (RCd) and Low Positive Emotions (RC2) scales, correlated significantly and meaningfully with conceptually related suicide-risk information from the interview, including history of suicide attempts, history of suicidal ideation, current suicidal ideation, and months since last suicide attempt. We also found that the SUI scale added incremental variance (after accounting for information garnered from the interview and after accounting for scores on RCd and RC2) to predictions of future suicidal behavior within 1 year of testing. Relative risk ratios indicated that both SUI-item endorsement and the presence of interview-reported risk information significantly and meaningfully increased the risk of suicidal behavior in the year following testing, particularly when endorsement of suicidal ideation occurred for both methods of self-report. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Carlucci, Samantha; Ivanova, Iryna; Bissada, Hany; Tasca, Giorgio A
Individuals with eating disorders (EDs) commonly experience comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The shared features of EDs and ADHD, such as inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, may exacerbate ED symptomatology and pose challenges to treatment. It is important to screen patients with EDs for symptoms of ADHD to optimize their treatment outcomes. However, the psychometrics of common measures of ADHD have not yet been examined within an ED population. An example of such a measure is the ADHD self-report scale (ASRS-v1.1) symptom checklist, which identifies the presence of ADHD symptoms. This study reports a psychometric study of the ASRS-v1.1 in a clinical sample of 500 adults with an ED. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated the ASRS-v1.1 maintained its two-factor structure of inattention and impulsivity/hyperactivity. The item loadings demonstrated path invariance across ED diagnostic groups indicating construct validity. Further, the subscales exhibited good internal consistency and they were significantly correlated with other measures of impulsivity indicating convergent validity. The ED sample had significantly higher mean scores than published nonclinical norms indicating predictive validity, but the ASRS-v1.1 scores were not significantly different among ED diagnostic groups. Results suggest the ASRS-v1.1 is a valid and reliable screening tool for identifying symptoms of ADHD among adults seeking treatment for ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Santos, Larissa F; Loureiro, Sonia R; Crippa, José A S; Osório, Flávia L
The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) was the first evaluation instrument developed for screening for the signs and symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and is currently still the most used worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of the LSAS - self-report version (LSAS-SR) to discriminate different Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) clinical groups. The sample was composed of Brazilians university students, allocated into three different groups, i.e., cases (C=118), non-cases (NC=95) and subclinical cases (SC=39). To achieve the aim, calculations of the ROC Curve and ANOVA were performed. The results found were excellent regardless of the technique used, highlighting the discriminatory capacity of the LSAS-SR. The score equal to or greater than 32 is suggested as a cutoff score for the Brazilian population, since this presented balance between the standards evaluated and the ability to differentiate both clinical and subclinical SAD cases from non-cases. Despite the specific sample used in this study being composed only of university students, the use of the LSAS-SR can be indicated, in the Brazilian setting, for SAD screening in both clinical and research contexts.
Clément de Tovar
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To augment available validation data for the Faces Pain Scale – Revised (FPS-R and to assess interscale agreement and preference in comparison with the Coloured Analogue Scale (CAS in pediatric acute pain.
Cho, Sungkun; Cho, Yongrae
Depressive symptoms have been recognized as one of the most frequent complaints among natural disaster survivors. One of the most frequently used self-report measures of depressive symptoms is the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). To our knowledge, no study has yet examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the CES-D in a sample of natural disaster survivors. Thus, the present study investigated the factor structure, reliability, and validity of a Korean language version of the CES-D (KCES-D) for natural disaster survivors. We utilized two archived datasets collected independently for two different periods in 2008 in the same region of Korea (n = 192 for sample 1; n = 148 for sample 2). Participants were survivors of torrential rains in the mid-eastern region of the Korean peninsula. For analysis, Samples 1 and 2 were merged (N = 340). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to evaluate the one-factor model, the four-factor model, and the bi-factor models, as well as the second-order factor model. Composite reliability was computed to examine the internal consistency of the KCES-D total and subscale scores. Finally, Pearson's r was computed to examine the relationship between the KCES-D and the trauma-related measures. The four-factor model provided the best fit to the data among the alternatives. The KCES-D showed adequate internal consistency, except for the 'interpersonal difficulties' subscale. Also regarding concurrent validity, weak to moderate positive correlations were observed between the KCES-D and the trauma-related measures. The results support the four-factor model and indicate that the KCES-D has adequate psychometric properties for natural disaster survivors. If these findings are further confirmed, the KCES-D can be used as a useful, rapid, and inexpensive screening tool for assessing depressive symptoms in natural disaster survivors.
Baka, Łukasz; Bazińska, Róża
The objective of the present study was to test the psychometric properties, reliability and validity of three job stressor measures, namely, the Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, the Organizational Constraints Scale and the Quantitative Workload Inventory. The study was conducted on two samples (N = 382 and 3368) representing a wide range of occupations. The estimation of internal consistency with Cronbach's α and the test-retest method as well as both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were the main statistical methods. The internal consistency of the scales proved satisfactory, ranging from 0.80 to 0.90 for Cronbach's α test and from 0.72 to 0.86 for the test-retest method. The one-dimensional structure of the three measurements was confirmed. The three scales have acceptable fit to the data. The one-factor structures and other psychometric properties of the Polish version of the scales seem to be similar to those found in the US version of the scales. It was also proved that the three job stressors are positively related to all the job strain measures. The Polish versions of the three analysed scales can be used to measure the job stressors in Polish conditions.
Zimmerman, Mark; Clark, Heather; McGonigal, Patrick; Harris, Lauren; Guzman Holst, Carolina; Martin, Jacob
We examined the association between the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) approach to classifying depressed patients into anxious and nonanxious subgroups and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) anxious distress specifier subtyping. Two hundred two depressed patients were interviewed with semistructured diagnostic interviews. Patients were rated on the 17-item HAMD and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and completed the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale. Both approaches toward identifying anxiety in depressed patients resulted in most of the patients meeting the anxiety subtype. Both subtyping methods were significantly correlated with clinician-rated and self-report measures of anxiety, and scores on the anxiety scales were higher in the patients who met the anxious subtype. However, DSM-5 anxious distress subtyping was only marginally associated with the HAMD anxiety/somatization factor subtyping approach (k = 0.21), and dimensional scores were only moderately correlated (r = 0.50). These findings indicate that the DSM-5 and HAMD approaches toward identifying an anxious subtype of depression are not interchangeable.
Alfonsson, S; Wallin, E; Maathz, P
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is a widely used measurement for psychological symptoms and distress. Some previous studies have shown that the DASS-21 can accurately measure symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress, while other studies have indicated that the DASS-21 mainly measures overall distress. The factor structure of the DASS-21 is important and debated since if affects interpretations of findings. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: In this study, the DASS-21 was translated into Swedish and evaluated in three diverse samples. The DASS-21 subscales of Depression and Anxiety correlated significantly with corresponding criteria instruments. The DASS-21 Stress subscale showed more diverse associations with psychological distress. The analyses supported a bifactor model of the DASS-21 with three specific factors of depression, anxiety and stress as well as a general distress factor. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The results show that the DASS-21 may be used to measure unique symptoms of depression, anxiety and, with some caveat, stress as well as overall psychological distress. This study confirms that the DASS-21 is theoretically sound instrument that is feasible for both research and clinical practice. The DASS-21 can be an accessible tool for screening and evaluation in first-line mental health services. Introduction There is a constant need for theoretically sound and valid self-report instruments for measuring psychological distress. Previous studies have shown that the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is theoretically sound, but there have been some inconsistent results regarding its factor structure. Aims The aim of the present study was to investigate and elucidate the factor structure and convergent validity of the DASS-21. Methods A total of 624 participants recruited from student, primary care and psychotherapy populations. The factor structure of the DASS
Full Text Available Aims: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in children, and in adolescents, as in adults. Once its occurrence during childhood and adolescence leads to serious consequences in adulthood, its early detection is an important goal. Self-report instruments have a key role on accessing thoughts, feelings and behaviors in an easily, reliably and validly way. The aim of the current study is to assess psychometric properties (reliability and validity of the Portuguese translation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC. Methods: A school-based sample of 417 adolescents aged 12–18 years (M = 15,20, SD = 1,72 was involved in this study. Translation and Back Translation was made. To study convergent and divergent validity there were used the Portuguese versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21, of the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI, and of the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS which measure, respectively, negative emotional states (depression, anxiety and stress, depressive symptoms and global life satisfaction. Results: Factor analysis revealed three factors (mood, interpersonal relationships and happiness that explain 54% of the variance. The results show that the scale has an excellent internal consistency (α = 0,90, good temporal stability (r = 0,72 as an adequate convergent and divergent validity. Results showed that depressive symptoms varied in function of age and gender. Conclusions: The results of the present study provide initial adequate validity and reliability of the CES-DC. Nevertheless some limitations to this study, the results suggest that CES-DC can be a useful questionnaire in the assessment of depressive symptoms in Portuguese adolescents.
Lasko, David S.; And Others
A set of self-report scales on depression, parental happiness, intimacy, social support, self-esteem, and risk-taking behavior was administered to 455 adolescents to determine the role of depression with the other variables. Depressed adolescents were found to be less intimate with parents, felt less social support, and had lower self-esteem.…
Vandeputte, Melissa; de Weerd, Al
Patients with (chronic) sleep disorders are prone to depression. Until now studies on the prevalence of depression in the various sleep disorders focused mainly on obstructive sleep apnea patients and narcolepsy. Studies in other common sleep disorders are scarce. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of depressive feelings in the various sleep disorders diagnosed in a Center for Sleep and Wake Disorders. We included 917 consecutive patients (age between 14 and 84 years, median age: 49, 396 male and 521 female), seen in our center for sleep and wake disorders during 2001 and first half of 2002. The diagnosis was based on the history taken at the outpatient-clinic and two consecutive 24-h polysomnographic recordings at home (APSG). The final decisions on the diagnosis were made according to the ASDA international classification of sleep disorders. The severity of depressive feelings was based on the Beck depression scale. Overall, the prevalence of depressive feelings was high. There were no significant differences in age and gender. In psychophysiological insomnia, inadequate sleep- and wake hygiene, sleep state misperception and periodic limb movement disorder/restless legs syndrome some form of depression occurred in more than half of the patients. Moderate to severe depression was found in 3.5% of the patients. The study suggests that the use of a depression scale in the daily routine of diagnosing and treating sleep disorders should be encouraged in order to optimise diagnosis and therapy in these patients.
Self-reported pain severity, quality of life, disability, anxiety and depression in patients classified with 'nociceptive', 'peripheral neuropathic' and 'central sensitisation' pain. The discriminant validity of mechanisms-based classifications of low back (±leg) pain.
Smart, Keith M
Evidence of validity is required to support the use of mechanisms-based classifications of pain clinically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the discriminant validity of \\'nociceptive\\' (NP), \\'peripheral neuropathic\\' (PNP) and \\'central sensitisation\\' (CSP) as mechanisms-based classifications of pain in patients with low back (±leg) pain by evaluating the extent to which patients classified in this way differ from one another according to health measures associated with various dimensions of pain. This study employed a cross-sectional, between-subjects design. Four hundred and sixty-four patients with low back (±leg) pain were assessed using a standardised assessment protocol. Clinicians classified each patient\\'s pain using a mechanisms-based classification approach. Patients completed a number of self-report measures associated with pain severity, health-related quality of life, functional disability, anxiety and depression. Discriminant validity was evaluated using a multivariate analysis of variance. There was a statistically significant difference between pain classifications on the combined self-report measures, (p = .001; Pillai\\'s Trace = .33; partial eta squared = .16). Patients classified with CSP (n = 106) reported significantly more severe pain, poorer general health-related quality of life, and greater levels of back pain-related disability, depression and anxiety compared to those classified with PNP (n = 102) and NP (n = 256). A similar pattern was found in patients with PNP compared to NP. Mechanisms-based pain classifications may reflect meaningful differences in attributes underlying the multidimensionality of pain. Further studies are required to evaluate the construct and criterion validity of mechanisms-based classifications of musculoskeletal pain.
Zhong, Qiuyue; Gelaye, Bizu; Rondon, Marta; Sánchez, Sixto E; García, Pedro J; Sánchez, Elena; Barrios, Yasmin V; Simon, Gregory E.; Henderson, David C.; Cripe, Swee May; Williams, Michelle A
Objective We sought to evaluate the psychometric properties of two widely used screening scales: the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) among pregnant Peruvian women. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,517 women receiving prenatal care from February 2012 to March 2013. A structured interview was used to collect data using PHQ-9 and EPDS. We examined reliability, construct and concurrent validity between two scales using internal consistency indices, factor structures, correlations, and Cohen’s kappa. Results Both scales had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.8). Correlation between PHQ-9 and EPDS scores was fair (rho=0.52). Based on exploratory factor analysis (EFA), both scales yielded a two-factor structure. EFA including all items from PHQ-9 and EPDS yielded four factors, namely, “somatization”, “depression and suicidal ideation”, “anxiety and depression”, and “anhedonia”. The agreement between the two scales was generally fair at different cutoff scores with the highest Cohen’s kappa being 0.46. Conclusions Both the PHQ-9 and EPDS are reliable and valid scales for antepartum depression assessment. The PHQ-9 captures somatic symptoms, while EPDS detects depressive symptoms comorbid with anxiety during early pregnancy. Our findings suggest simultaneous administration of both scales may improve identification of antepartum depressive disorders in clinical settings. PMID:24766996
Nguyen, Thao Thi Thu; Nguyen, Ngoc Thi Minh; Pham, Manh Van; Pham, Han Van; Nakamura, Hiroyuki
Depression is a common mental health problem with a higher prevalence in medical students than in the general population. This study aims to investigate the association between depressive symptoms, particularly those in each domain of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and related factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 1319 medical students at Haiphong University of Medicine and Pharmacy in 2016. The CES-D scale and a self-reported questionnaire were used to identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms and related risk factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess the risk factors associated with depressive symptoms and the score for each structure factor. Depressive symptoms were observed in 514 (39%) students, including more males than females (44.2% vs 36.9%, p = 0.015). Students whose mothers' highest education level was primary school had a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than students whose mothers had higher education levels (p = 0.038). There was a significant relationship between depressive symptoms and stressful life events, especially a decline in personal health. A higher correlation was found between the somatic complaints and depressive affect domains. The impacts of risk factors differed for each domain of the depression scale. Only the factor of achieving excellence showed no statistically significant associations with depressive symptoms and the scores on the four domains considered in this study. The high prevalence of depressive symptoms among medical students with risk factors and the impact of these risk factors on each domain of depression scale need further clarification to alleviate depression in students during their medical training.
Page, Andrew C; Hooke, Geoffrey R; Morrison, David L
The psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995a) were examined in depressed psychiatric hospital samples. Three studies administered the DASS and other symptom measures at admission and discharge to consecutive adult hospital patients with a primary diagnosis of depression. Study 3 aimed to address problems with the DASS by extending the response options. Study 1 found that the DASS had good reliability and validity, was moderately sensitive to change, but the Depression Scale exhibited a ceiling effect. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure and the DASS continued to demonstrate good psychometric properties, but the ceiling effect was replicated. Study 3 found that by extending the response scale to include an additional option, the factor structure of the instrument as a whole was maintained, the sensitivity to treatment was increased, but the ceiling effect was only marginally reduced. The psychometric properties of the DASS were sound in clinically depressed samples, but the Depression Scale exhibited a ceiling effect that could not be resolved with minor changes to the scale. Suggestions for revisions of the DASS are made.
Grossi, Giorgio; Jeding, Kerstin; Söderström, Marie; Osika, Walter; Levander, Maria; Perski, Aleksander
Insomnia-type sleep disturbances are frequent among patients suffering from stress-related exhaustion disorder. However, clinical observations indicate that a subgroup suffer from sleep lengths frequently exceeding 9 hours, coupled with great daytime sleepiness. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in socio-demographic variables, use of medications, sleep parameters, anxiety, depression and fatigue, between individuals with varying sleep lengths, in a sample of 420 Swedish patients (mean age 42 ± 9 years; 77% women) referred to treatment for exhaustion disorder. Patients were allocated to the groups: "never/seldom ≥ 9 hours" (n = 248), "sometimes ≥ 9 hours" (n = 115) and "mostly/always ≥ 9 hours" (n = 57), based on their self-rated frequency of sleep lengths ≥ 9 hours. The design was cross-sectional and data was collected by means of questionnaires at pre-treatment. Univariate analyses showed that patients in the "mostly/always ≥ 9 hours" group were more often on sick leave, and reported more depression and fatigue, better sleep quality and more daytime sleepiness, than patients in the other groups. Multivariate analyses showed that these patients scored higher on measures of fatigue than the rest of the sample independently of gender, use of antidepressants, sick leave, depression and quality of sleep. Patients suffering from exhaustion disorder and reporting excessive sleep seem to have a generally poorer clinical picture but better quality of sleep than their counterparts with shorter sleep lengths. The mechanisms underlying these differences, together with their prognostic value and implications for treatment remain to be elucidated in future studies.
Runnals, Jennifer Jane; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; Robbins, Allison T; Brancu, Mira; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S
Research has shown significant rates of comorbidity among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and pain in prior era veterans but less is known about these disorders in Iraq and Afghanistan war era veterans. This study seeks to extend previous work by evaluating the association among PTSD, MDD, and pain (back, muscle, and headache pain) in this cohort. A sample of 1,614 veterans, recruited from 2005 to 2010, completed a structured clinical interview and questionnaires assessing trauma experiences, PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain endorsement. Veterans with PTSD endorsed pain-related complaints at greater rates than veterans without PTSD. The highest rate of pain complaints was observed in veterans with comorbid PTSD/MDD. Women were more likely to endorse back pain and headaches but no gender by diagnosis interactions were significant. Findings highlight the complex comorbid relationship between PTSD, MDD, and pain among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. This observed association suggests that integrated, multidisciplinary treatments may be beneficial, particularly when multiple psychological and physical health comorbidities are present with pain. Further support may be indicated for ongoing education of mental health and primary care providers about these co-occurring disorders. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Darharaj, Mohammad; Habibi, Mojtaba; Power, Michael J; Farzadian, Farzaneh; Rahimi, Maesoumeh; Kholghi, Habibeh; Kazemitabar, Maryam
The New Multi-dimensional Depression Scale (NMDS) is one of the most comprehensive scales that measures depression symptoms in four domains, including emotional, cognitive, somatic, and interpersonal. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the NMDS in a group of Iranian inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). At first, the scale was translated into Persian and used as part of a battery consisting of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The battery was administered to 271 inpatients with MDD (90 men and 181 women) aged from 18 to 60 who had been referred to psychiatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Persian version of the NMDS upheld its original four-factor structure. Moreover, the results showed its good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranging from 0.70 for the emotional subscale to 0.83 for the interpersonal subscale). In addition, the NMDS scores were correlated with other constructs in empirically and theoretically expected ways, which provides evidence for the convergent (positive significant relationships with anxiety and cognitive and somatic-affective symptoms of depression) and divergent (negative significant relationships with happiness and mental health and physical health) validity of the scale. These findings supported the Persian version of the NMDS as a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of depression symptoms in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vandana A. Kakrani
Full Text Available Background: India is in the process of rapid demographic progression of increased life expectancy and aging with geriatric population of 7.2 percent which is estimated to rise to 20 percent in 2050. With increasing geriatric population elderly with dementia and associated depressive illness are expected to rise in number to almost an epidemic. Among the morbidity encountered in elderly, depressive disorders are common. Aim & Objectives: The present study was conducted with the objective to assess the extent and degree of depression in elderly, and study some correlates associated with depression in them. Material & Methods: The study was carried out at geriatric clinic of Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Pune under the guidance of department of community medicine. Methodology:The randomly selected elderly above the age of 60 years attending the clinic and willing to participate in study were administered the questionnaire of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, scores were given, based on which the subjects were categorized as mild, moderate and severe. Those with score >5 were considered as suggestive of depression and some factors studied were analysed to find out their association with depression. Results: It was revealed that the proportion of elderly having depression was 52.4% with 84.6% of depressed in age group of 76-80 years. Moderate to severe type was more commonly seen in illiterate; however some degree of depression was present in all elderly irrespective of literacy status. Moderate to severe type was seen more commonly in elderly living in nuclear families (23.8%, and living alone (33.3%. Thus more than half of elderly studied were having depression, and it was observed that as the age advanced the degree of depression significantly increased. Some of the factors studied like low education status, poor economic status, nuclear family status, single status, loneliness, were associated with depression. The GDS Scale can be considered as
Cucciare, Michael A; Gray, Heather; Azar, Armin; Jimenez, Daniel; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores
The present study examined the relationship between self-reported physical health, depressive symptoms, and the occurrence of depression diagnosis in Hispanic female dementia caregivers. Participants were 89 Hispanic female dementia caregivers. This study used a cross-sectional design. Baseline depression and physical health data were collected from participants enrolled in the 'Reducing Stress in Hispanic Anglo Dementia Caregivers' study sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. Physical health was assessed using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), a one-item self-report health rating, body mass index, and the presence or history of self-reported physical illness. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The occurrence of depression diagnosis was assessed using the Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID). Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which indices of physical health and depressive symptoms accounted for variance in participants' depressive symptoms and depressive diagnoses. Self-reported indices of health (e.g., SF-36) accounted for a significant portion of variance in both CES-D scores and SCID diagnoses. Caregivers who reported worsened health tended to report increased symptoms of depression on the CES-D and increased likelihood of an SCID diagnosis of a depressive disorder. Self-reported health indices are helpful in identifying Hispanic dementia caregivers at risk for clinical levels of depression.
Uwakwe, Richard; Okonkwo, John E N
To determine the rate of depression in a group of postpartum Nigerian women and to validate the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in this group. Between April and August 2000, all postpartum women who remained in the maternity ward for up to 7 days, and those who attended the postnatal clinics of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital were recruited. Translated local language versions of the EPDS and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were used to screen the subjects. A structured interview schedule was adapted from the depression section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and affective module of the ICD-10 Symptom Check List to assess screened subjects. The total rejection rate was 23%, with 225 women participating in the study. Twenty-four subjects (10.7%) had depression. At the optimal cut-off score of 9, the EPDS had a sensitivity of 0.75, and specificity of 0.97. The EPDS clearly distinguished between depressed and non-depressed postpartum mothers (t = 7.63, P < 0.001, df = 222). Because of its brevity and acceptability, it is recommended that the EPDS be used in routine postnatal screening.
Bener A; Alsulaiman R; Doodson LG; El Ayoubi HR
Background: No study has been conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Hospital Anxiety and Depression [HADS] and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) among the Arab Breast Cancer population. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the reliability and validity of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale (DASS-21), the Beck Depression Inventory-(BDI-II) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) among Breast Cancer women ...
Huang, Vivian; Beshai, Shadi; Korol, Stephanie; Nicholas Carleton, R
Depression is a significant contributor of global disease burden. Previous studies have revealed cross-cultural and gender differences in the presentation of depressive symptoms. Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), the present study examined differences in self-reported somatic, negative affective, and anhedonia symptoms of depression among Egyptian and Canadian university students. A total of 338 university students completed study questionnaires from two major universities in Egypt (n=152) and Canada (n=186). Symptom domains were calculated based on the 14-item model of the CES-D. We found significant culture by gender interactions of total CES-D scores, wherein Egyptian females reported higher scores compared to their Canadian and Egyptian male counterparts. Limitations include using analogue student samples and using only one self-report measure to examine different depressive symptom domains. Findings of this study provided support that males and females may differentially report depressive symptoms across cultures. Implications of these results are further discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cosco, Theodore D; Doyle, Frank; Watson, Roger; Ward, Mark; McGee, Hannah
The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a prolifically used scale of anxiety and depression. The original bidimensional anxiety-depression latent structure of the HADS has come under significant scrutiny, with previous studies revealing one-, two-, three- and four-dimensional structures. The current study examines the latent structure of the HADS using a non-parametric item response theory method. Using data conglomerated from four independent studies of cardiovascular disease employing the HADS (n=893), Mokken scaling procedure was conducted to assess the latent structure of the HADS. A single scale consisting of 12 of 14 HADS items was revealed, indicating a unidimensional latent HADS structure. The HADS was initially intended to measure mutually exclusive levels of anxiety and depression; however, the current study indicates that a single dimension of general psychological distress is captured. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.
The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operator characteristic analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8 and 14-item subscales, were examined in relation to both current and lifetime DSM-IV depressive disorder diagnoses in two nonpatient samples. As a means of comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of a measure of a relevant personality dimension, neuroticism, was also examined. Results from both samples support the clinical utility of the MASQ-AD scale as a means of screening for depressive disorders. Findings were strongest for the MASQ-AD 8-item subscale and when predicting current depression status. Furthermore, the MASQ-AD 8-item subscale outperformed the neuroticism measure under certain conditions. The overall usefulness of the MASQ-AD scale as a screening device is discussed, as well as possible cutoff scores for use in research. PMID:20822283
Wege, Natalia; Li, Jian; Siegrist, Johannes
Cohort studies established elevated risks of depression among employees experiencing psychosocial stress at work, defined by 'job strain' or 'effort-reward imbalance' (ERI). Yet, conflicting evidence exists on whether the strength of these associations varies by gender. We explore this question in a nationally representative sample of working women and men where work stress (ERI) was related to reported depression over a 2-year follow-up. Data were derived from the panel waves 2011 and 2013 of the German Socio-Economic Panel. Work stress was assessed by validated short scales of the ERI questionnaire, and doctor-diagnosed depression reported in 2013 (after excluding cases reported in 2011) was used as outcome variable. The sample with full data in 2013 consisted of 6693 participants (49.4% women). In 2011, men scored significantly higher than women on the scale 'effort' and on the 'effort-reward ratio', whereas no significant gender differences for 'reward' and 'over-commitment' were observed. Women reported a diagnosed depression almost twice as often as men (4.2 vs. 2.6%). Associations of all ERI scales with depression were statistically significant, with no noticeable differences in the strength of associations between women and men. Risk of depression was higher among men and women with effort-reward imbalance [RR (risk ratio) of 1.82; 95% CI (confidence interval) 1.36-2.44 and RR of 1.88; 95% CI 1.51-2.33, respectively]. Despite higher effort and slightly higher effort-reward ratio among men interaction terms between gender, work stress and depression were generally not significant. While gender inequities in the labour market are persisting stress-reducing worksite health promotion programs should apply equally for men and women.
Bottesi, Gioia; Ghisi, Marta; Altoè, Gianmarco; Conforti, Erica; Melli, Gabriele; Sica, Claudio
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) is the short version of a self-report measure that was originally developed to provide maximum differentiation between depressive and anxious symptoms. Despite encouraging evidence, the factor structure and other features of the DASS-21 are yet to be firmly established. A community sample of 417 participants and two clinical groups (32 depressive patients and 25 anxious patients) completed the Italian version of the DASS-21 along with several measures of psychopathology. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that the DASS-21 is a measure of general distress plus three additional orthogonal dimensions (anxiety, depression, and stress). The internal consistency and temporal stability of the measure were good; each DASS-21 scale correlated more strongly with a measure of a similar construct, demonstrating good convergent and divergent validity. Lastly, the DASS-21 demonstrated good criterion-oriented validity. The validity of the Italian DASS-21 and its utility, both for community and clinical individuals, are supported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Missing data present a challenge to many research projects. The problem is often pronounced in studies utilizing self-report scales, and literature addressing different strategies for dealing with missing data in such circumstances is scarce. The objective of this study was to compare six different imputation techniques for dealing with missing data in the Zung Self-reported Depression scale (SDS. Methods 1580 participants from a surgical outcomes study completed the SDS. The SDS is a 20 question scale that respondents complete by circling a value of 1 to 4 for each question. The sum of the responses is calculated and respondents are classified as exhibiting depressive symptoms when their total score is over 40. Missing values were simulated by randomly selecting questions whose values were then deleted (a missing completely at random simulation. Additionally, a missing at random and missing not at random simulation were completed. Six imputation methods were then considered; 1 multiple imputation, 2 single regression, 3 individual mean, 4 overall mean, 5 participant's preceding response, and 6 random selection of a value from 1 to 4. For each method, the imputed mean SDS score and standard deviation were compared to the population statistics. The Spearman correlation coefficient, percent misclassified and the Kappa statistic were also calculated. Results When 10% of values are missing, all the imputation methods except random selection produce Kappa statistics greater than 0.80 indicating 'near perfect' agreement. MI produces the most valid imputed values with a high Kappa statistic (0.89, although both single regression and individual mean imputation also produced favorable results. As the percent of missing information increased to 30%, or when unbalanced missing data were introduced, MI maintained a high Kappa statistic. The individual mean and single regression method produced Kappas in the 'substantial agreement' range
Johnco, Carly; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Rapee, Ronald M
Neuropsychological testing currently represents the gold standard in assessing cognitive flexibility. However, this format presents some challenges in terms of time and skills required for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Two self-report measures of cognitive flexibility have been developed to measure aspects of cognitive flexibility in everyday settings, although neither has been validated in an older sample. In this study, we investigated the psychometric properties of 2 self-report measures of cognitive flexibility, the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI; Dennis & Vander Wal, 2010) and the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS; Martin & Rubin, 1995), against neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility in a clinical sample of 47 older adults with comorbid anxiety and depression and a nonclinical sample of 53 community-dwelling older adults. Internal consistency was good for the CFS and CFI in all samples. The clinical sample reported poorer cognitive flexibility than did the nonclinical sample on self-report measures and performed more poorly on some neuropsychological measures. There was evidence of convergent validity between the 2 self-report measures but little relationship between the self-report and neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility, suggesting that self-report measures assess a different aspect of cognitive flexibility than does neuropsychological testing. Divergent validity was weak from measures of anxiety and depression in the combined and nonclinical samples but acceptable in the clinical sample. Results suggest that these measures are suitable for use with an older adult sample but do not assess the same aspects of cognitive flexibility as are assessed by neuropsychological assessment. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Country level comparisons of HIV prevalence among men having sex with men (MSM is challenging for a variety of reasons, including differences in the definition and measurement of the denominator group, recruitment strategies and the HIV detection methods. To assess their comparability, self-reported data on HIV diagnoses in a 2010 pan-European MSM internet survey (EMIS were compared with pre-existing estimates of HIV prevalence in MSM from a variety of European countries. Methods The first pan-European survey of MSM recruited more than 180,000 men from 38 countries across Europe and included questions on the year and result of last HIV test. HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS was compared with national estimates of HIV prevalence based on studies using biological measurements or modelling approaches to explore the degree of agreement between different methods. Existing estimates were taken from Dublin Declaration Monitoring Reports or UNAIDS country fact sheets, and were verified by contacting the nominated contact points for HIV surveillance in EU/EEA countries. Results The EMIS self-reported measurements of HIV prevalence were strongly correlated with existing estimates based on biological measurement and modelling studies using surveillance data (R2=0.70 resp. 0.72. In most countries HIV positive MSM appeared disproportionately likely to participate in EMIS, and prevalences as measured in EMIS are approximately twice the estimates based on existing estimates. Conclusions Comparison of diagnosed HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS with pre-existing estimates based on biological measurements using varied sampling frames (e.g. Respondent Driven Sampling, Time and Location Sampling demonstrates a high correlation and suggests similar selection biases from both types of studies. For comparison with modelled estimates the self-selection bias of the Internet survey with increased participation of men diagnosed with HIV has to be
Jeon, Sang Won; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seoyoung; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Kim, Jae-Min; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Hoseon; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Zimmerman, Mark
Background This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale (CUXOS) and to examine the current diagnostic comorbidity and differential severity of anxiety symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders. Methodology In total, 838 psychiatric outpatients were analyzed at their intake appointment. Diagnostic characteristics were examined using the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV because the DSM5 was not available at the start of the study. The CUXOS score was measured and compared with that of 3 clinician rating scales and 4 self-report scales. Principal findings The CUXOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.90), test–retest reliability (r = 0.74), and discriminant and convergent validity. The CUXOS significantly discriminated between different levels of anxiety severity, and the measure was sensitive to change after treatment. Approximately 45% of patients with MDD were additionally diagnosed with anxiety disorders while 55% of patients with anxiety disorders additionally reported an MDD. There was a significant difference in CUXOS scores between diagnostic categories (MDD only, anxiety only, both disorders, and no MDD or anxiety disorder). The CUXOS scores differed significantly between all categories of depression (major, minor, and non-depression) except for the comparison between minor depression and non-depression groups. Conclusions The Korean version of the CUXOS is a reliable and valid measure of the severity of anxiety symptoms. The use of the CUXOS could broaden the understanding of coexisting and differentiating characteristics of anxiety and depression. PMID:28604808
Sang Won Jeon
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale (CUXOS and to examine the current diagnostic comorbidity and differential severity of anxiety symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD and anxiety disorders.In total, 838 psychiatric outpatients were analyzed at their intake appointment. Diagnostic characteristics were examined using the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV because the DSM5 was not available at the start of the study. The CUXOS score was measured and compared with that of 3 clinician rating scales and 4 self-report scales.The CUXOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.90, test-retest reliability (r = 0.74, and discriminant and convergent validity. The CUXOS significantly discriminated between different levels of anxiety severity, and the measure was sensitive to change after treatment. Approximately 45% of patients with MDD were additionally diagnosed with anxiety disorders while 55% of patients with anxiety disorders additionally reported an MDD. There was a significant difference in CUXOS scores between diagnostic categories (MDD only, anxiety only, both disorders, and no MDD or anxiety disorder. The CUXOS scores differed significantly between all categories of depression (major, minor, and non-depression except for the comparison between minor depression and non-depression groups.The Korean version of the CUXOS is a reliable and valid measure of the severity of anxiety symptoms. The use of the CUXOS could broaden the understanding of coexisting and differentiating characteristics of anxiety and depression.
Makilim Nunes Baptista
Full Text Available This study’s objective was to analyze the diagnostic capabilities of a depression screening scale. For that, this scale was administered along with two diagnostic instruments, namely, the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV (SCID-CV and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D, which are considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing depressive disorders. Participants were 22 subjects diagnosed by psychiatrists with Major Depressive Disorder. The EBADEP-A correctly identified cases of depression, showing a high correlation with the HAM-D, which indicates the scale correctly captures most depressive symptoms, even though it was initially used as a depression-screening tool.
Full Text Available The Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D is a commonly used self-report scale to measure depressive symptoms in the general population. In the present study, the Dutch version of the CES-D was administered to a sample of 837 Dutch-speaking adults of Belgium to examine the factor structure of the scale. Using confirmatory factory analysis (CFA, four first-order models and two second-order models were tested, and the second-order factor model with three pairs of correlated error terms provided the best fit to the data. Second, five socio-demographic variables (age, gender, education level, relation status, and family history of depression were included as covariates to the second-order factor model to explore the associations between background characteristics and the latent factor depression using a multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC approach. Age had a significantly negative effect on depression, but the effect was not substantial. Female gender, lower education level, being single or widowed, and having a family history of depression were found to be significant predictors of higher levels of depression symptomatology. Finally, percentile norms on the CES-D raw scores were provided for subgroups of gender by education level for the general Dutch-speaking adult population of Belgium.
Screening for major and minor depression in a multiethnic sample of Asian primary care patients: a comparison of the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology - Self-Report (QIDS-SR16 ).
Sung, Sharon Cohan; Low, Charity Cheng Hong; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Chan, Yiong Huak
Depression is common, disabling, and the single most important factor leading to suicide, yet it is underdiagnosed in busy primary care settings. A key challenge facing primary care clinicians in Asia is the selection of instruments to facilitate depression screening. Although the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology - Self-Report (QIDS-SR16 ) are used internationally, they have not been directly compared or widely validated in Asian primary care populations. This study aimed to validate the PHQ-9 and QIDS-SR16 against a structured interview diagnosis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th Edition, depression based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview in a multiethnic Asian sample. From April through August 2011, we enrolled 400 English-speaking Singaporean primary care patients. Participants completed a demographic data form, the PHQ-9, and the QIDS-SR16 . They were assessed independently for major and minor depression using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing major depression were 91.7% and 72.2%, respectively, for the PHQ-9 (optimal cutoff score of 6), and 83.3% and 84.7%, respectively, for the QIDS-SR16 (optimal cutoff score of 9). The QIDS-SR16 also detected minor depression at an optimal cutoff score of 7, with a sensitivity of 94.4% and specificity of 77.9%. The PHQ-9 and QIDS-SR16 showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α: 0.87 and 0.79, respectively) and good convergent validity (correlation coefficient: r = 0.73, P depressive disorders was 9%. The PHQ-9 and QIDS-SR16 appear to be valid and reliable for depression screening in Asian primary care settings. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.
The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item…
Full Text Available The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS is a brief, five-item measure for assessing the frequency and intensity of depressive symptoms, as well as functional impairments in pleasurable activities, work or school, and interpersonal relationships due to depression. Although this scale is expected to be useful in various psychiatric and mental health settings, the reliability, validity, and interpretability have not yet been fully examined. This study was designed to examine the reliability, factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of a Japanese version of the ODSIS, as well as its ability to distinguish between individuals with and without a major depressive disorder diagnosis.From a pool of registrants at an internet survey company, 2830 non-clinical and clinical participants were selected randomly (619 with major depressive disorder, 619 with panic disorder, 576 with social anxiety disorder, 645 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 371 non-clinical panelists. Participants were asked to respond to the ODSIS and conventional measures of depression, functional impairment, anxiety, neuroticism, satisfaction with life, and emotion regulation.Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of three split subsamples indicated the unidimensional factor structure of ODSIS. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed invariance of factor loadings between non-clinical and clinical subsamples. The ODSIS also showed excellent internal consistency and test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients. Convergence and discriminance of the ODSIS with various measures were in line with our expectations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that the ODSIS was able to detect a major depressive syndrome accurately.This study supports the reliability and validity of ODSIS in a non-western population, which can be interpreted as demonstrating cross-cultural validity.
Paans, Nadine P G; Bot, Mariska; van Strien, Tatjana; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Visser, Marjolein; Penninx, Brenda W J H
Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating styles. Cross-sectional and course data from 1060 remitted depressed patients, 309 currently depressed patients and 381 healthy controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used. Depressive disorders (DSM-IV based psychiatric interview) and self-reported depressive symptoms (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology) were related to emotional, external and restrained eating (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) using analyses of covariance and linear regression. Remitted and current depressive disorders were significantly associated with higher emotional eating (Cohen's d = 0.40 and 0.60 respectively, p eating (Cohen's d = 0.20, p = 0.001 and Cohen's d = 0.32, p eating styles between depression course groups were observed. Associations followed a dose-response association, with more emotional and external eating when depression was more severe (both p-values eating (p depressive symptoms, neuro-vegetative depressive symptoms contributed relatively more to emotional and external eating, while mood and anxious symptoms contributed relatively less to emotional and external eating. No depression associations were found with restrained eating. Intervention programs for depression should examine whether treating disordered eating specifically in those with neuro-vegetative, atypical depressive symptoms may help prevent or minimize adverse health consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Defreyne, Justine; T'Sjoen, Guy; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Arcelus, Jon
Although research on the relation between testosterone and aggression in humans is inconclusive, guidelines (including the World Professional Association for Transgender Health Standards of Care, edition 7) have warned for an increase in aggression in transgender men taking testosterone treatment. To investigate the association between levels of testosterone and aggression in treatment-seeking transgender people and explore the role of mental health psychopathology (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and social support in aggression in this population. Every transgender person invited for assessment at a national transgender health clinic in the United Kingdom during a 3-year period (2012-2015) completed self-report measures for interpersonal problems, including levels of aggression (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems [IIP-32]), symptoms of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and experiences of transphobia before and 1 year after the initiation of gender-affirming hormonal therapy. Correlations between prospective scores for the IIP-32 factor "too aggressive" and prospective levels of sex steroids, prospective psychological (HADS), and baseline psychosocial measurements were tested. Prospective scores for the factor "too aggressive" were not correlated to prospective serum testosterone levels. Results of 140 people (56 transgender men, 84 transgender women) were analyzed. A prospective increase in scores for the factor "too aggressive" of the IIP-32 in transgender men 1 year after being treated with testosterone treatment or a decrease of the IIP-32 aggression scores in transgender women 1 year after gender-affirming hormonal therapy was not found. However, a positive correlation was found between increasing HADS anxiety scores and increasing scores for the IIP-32 "too aggressive" score in the entire study population and a positive correlation with lower support
The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI), Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR), Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI), Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment. Results. Two models were examined: one ...
Full Text Available Elite young athletes have to cope with multiple psychological demands such as training volume, mental and physical fatigue, spatial separation of family and friends or time management problems may lead to reduced mental and physical recovery. While normative data regarding symptoms of anxiety and depression for the general population is available (Hinz and Brähler, 2011, hardly any information exists for adolescents in general and young athletes in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess overall symptoms of anxiety and depression in young athletes as well as possible sex differences. The survey was carried out within the scope of the study “Resistance Training in Young Athletes” (KINGS-Study. Between August 2015 and September 2016, 326 young athletes aged (mean ± SD 14.3 ± 1.6 years completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD Scale. Regarding the analysis of age on the anxiety and depression subscales, age groups were classified as follows: late childhood (12–14 years and late adolescence (15–18 years. The participating young athletes were recruited from Olympic weight lifting, handball, judo, track and field athletics, boxing, soccer, gymnastics, ice speed skating, volleyball, and rowing. Anxiety and depression scores were (mean ± SD 4.3 ± 3.0 and 2.8 ± 2.9, respectively. In the subscale anxiety, 22 cases (6.7% showed subclinical scores and 11 cases (3.4% showed clinical relevant score values. When analyzing the depression subscale, 31 cases (9.5% showed subclinical score values and 12 cases (3.7% showed clinically important values. No significant differences were found between male and female athletes (p ≥ 0.05. No statistically significant differences in the HADS scores were found between male athletes of late childhood and late adolescents (p ≥ 0.05. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing questionnaire based indicators of symptoms of anxiety and depression in young
Perlmutter, M; Nyquist, L
One hundred and twenty-seven adults between 20 and 90 years of age were tested on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for their digit span memory (forward and backward), fluid intelligence (block design and digit symbol), and crystallized intelligence (vocabulary and information), as well as assessed for self-reported health (Cornell Medical Index, Zung Depression Scale, health habits, and self-ratings of physical and mental health). As expected, across the entire age range there was no correlation between age and digit span memory (r = .03), a strong negative correlation between age and fluid intelligence (r = -.78), and a modest positive correlation between age and crystallized intelligence (r = .27). In addition, older adults reported more physical (r = .36) and mental (r = .32) health problems than did younger adults. Of special interest was the finding that both self-reported physical and mental health accounted for significant variance in intelligence performance, particularly in older adults. Moreover, self-reported health accounted for a considerable portion of observed variance, even when age differences in self-reported health were statistically controlled.
There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical neuropsychological test performance in 147 manganese (Mn) exposed residents. These residents were from two Ohio towns exposed to ambient air-Mn from an industrial source with modeled average air-Mn concentrations of 0.54 µg/m3 (range: 0.01-4.58) and were part of a larger study of cognitive, motor, tremor abnormalities and their relationship to Mn exposure.The primarily white (94.6%) participants (aged 30-64) lived in the towns for at least 10 years (range: 10-64) and had 13.9 years of education, on average. In the last 7 days before testing, 94 (64.4%) participants self-reported concentration problems and 105 (71.8%) self-reported memory problems. After adjusting for age and education, participants who self-reported cognitive problems did not perform worse on the objective neuropsychological measures than those who reported not having problems, except on 1 of 17 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Color). Greater levels of depression and female sex predicted having more self-reported cognitive problems. Higher education was associated with fewer self-reported cognitive problems. Measures of Mn in air, blood, hair, and toenails were not associated with subjective cognitive self-reported p
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the Depression Subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D in spine surgery, comparing it to Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, the HADS-D and the BDI were applied to patients undergoing spine surgery for lumbar (n=139 or cervical spondylosis (n=17. Spearman correlation tests for HADS-D and BDI were applied. The internal consistency of HADS-D was estimated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. RESULTS: According to the BDI, the prevalence of depression was of 28.8% (n=45. The Spearman r coefficient between HADS-D and BDI was 0.714 (p10, there was a sensitivity of 71.1%, specificity of 95.4%, and positive likelihood-ratio of 15.78. CONCLUSIONS: HADS-D showed a strong correlation with BDI and good reliability. HADS-D is a good alternative for screening depression and assessing its severity.
Vanderhill, Susan; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A; Strauss, Esther
Insight into one's own cognitive abilities, or metacognition, has been widely studied in developmental psychology. Relevance to the clinician is high, as memory complaints in older adults show an association with impending dementia, even after controlling for likely confounds. Another candidate marker of impending dementia under study is inconsistency in cognitive performance over short time intervals. Although there has been a recent proliferation of studies of cognitive inconsistency in older adults, to date, no one has examined adults' self-perceptions of cognitive inconsistency. Ninety-four community-dwelling older adults (aged 70-91) were randomly selected from a parent longitudinal study of short-term inconsistency and long-term cognitive change in aging. Participants completed a novel 40-item self-report measure of everyday cognitive inconsistency, including parallel scales indexing perceived inconsistency 5 years ago and at present, yielding measures of past, present, and 5-year change in inconsistency. The questionnaire showed acceptable psychometric characteristics. The sample reported an increase in perceived inconsistency over time. Higher reported present inconsistency and greater 5-year increase in inconsistency were associated with noncognitive (e.g., older age, poorer ADLs, poorer health, higher depression), metacognitive (e.g., poorer self-rated memory) and neuropsychological (e.g., poorer performance and greater 5-year decline in global cognitive status, vocabulary, and memory) measures. Correlations between self-reported inconsistency and neuropsychological performance were attenuated, but largely persisted when self-rated memory and age were controlled. Observed relationships between self-reported inconsistency and measures of neuropsychological (including memory) status and decline suggest that self-perceived inconsistency may be an area of relevance in evaluating older adults for memory disorders.
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Arata, Catalina; Bowers, David; O'Brien, Natalie; Morgan, Allen
The associations among suicidal behavior, negative affect, and delinquency were assessed via an anonymous self-report survey administered to male and female college students ( N = 383). Contrary to our hypothesized results, there were no gender differences in rates of suicidal ideation and attempts. Confirming our hypotheses about gender differences, college men did report significantly more delinquent behavior than college women. College men also scored higher on the suicide-proneness scale, which contained a mixture of death-related, risk-related, and negative self- and health-related items. Furthermore, as predicted, college students with a history of depression, suicide ideation, and/or suicide attempts all reported significantly more delinquent behavior. Self-reported delinquency and current levels of depressive symptomology emerged as significant predictors of suicide-prone behavior for both college men and women, explaining 34% of the variance for women and 17% for men. Levels of engagement in suicide-prone behavior and feelings of depression were elevated in college students with any type of juvenile arrest history. Students with an arrest history were also more likely to have had a diagnosis of depression and to have engaged in suicide ideation in their past. These findings suggest there are complex links between depression, delinquency, and suicidal behavior in college men and women.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to assess the reliability, validity and the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the Symptoms Rating Scale For Depression and Anxiety. The scale consists of 42 items and permits the calculation of the scores of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-21, the BDI 13, the Melancholia Subscale, the Asthenia Subscale, the Anxiety Subscale and the Mania Subscale Methods 29 depressed patients 30.48 ± 9.83 years old, and 120 normal controls 27.45 ± 10.85 years old entered the study. In 20 of them (8 patients and 12 controls the instrument was re-applied 1–2 days later. Translation and Back Translation was made. Clinical Diagnosis was reached by consensus of two examiners with the use of the SCAN v.2.0 and the IPDE. CES-D and ZDRS were used for cross-validation purposes. The Statistical Analysis included ANOVA, the Spearman Correlation Coefficient, Principal Components Analysis and the calculation of Cronbach's alpha. Results The optimal cut-off points were: BDI-21: 14/15, BDI-13: 7/8, Melancholia: 8/9, Asthenia: 9/10, Anxiety: 10/11. Chronbach's alpha ranged between 0.86 and 0.92 for individual scales. Only the Mania subscale had very low alpha (0.12. The test-retest reliability was excellent for all scales with Spearman's Rho between 0.79 and 0.91. Conclusions The Greek translation of the SRSDA and the scales that consist it are both reliable and valid and are suitable for clinical and research use with satisfactory properties. Their properties are close to those reported in the international literature. However one should always have in mind the limitations inherent in the use of self-report scales.
The Bosnian version of the international self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, is reliable and valid in a variety of different adult samples affected by war
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to assess the internal consistency and discriminant and convergent validity of the Bosnian version of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PTDS. The PTDS yields both a PTSD diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV and a measure of symptom severity. Methods 812 people living in Sarajevo or in Banja Luka in Bosnia-Herzegovina, of whom the majority had experienced a high number of traumatic war events, were administered the PTDS and other measures of trauma-related psychopathology. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed using Cronbach's alpha and principal components analysis, and its construct validity was assessed via Spearman correlation coefficients with the other instruments. Results The PTDS and its subscales demonstrated high internal consistency. The principal components revealed by an exploratory analysis are broadly consistent with the DSM-IV subscales except that they reproduce some previously reported difficulties with the "numbing" items from the avoidance subscale. The construct validity of the PTDS was supported by appropriate correlations with other relevant measures of trauma related psychopathology. Conclusion The Bosnian version of the PTDS thus appears to be a time-economic and psychometrically sound measure for screening and assessing current PTSD. This self-report measure awaits further validation by interview methods.
Martinsen, Kristin D; Neumer, Simon-Peter; Holen, Solveig; Waaktaar, Trine; Sund, Anne Mari; Kendall, Philip C
Anxiety and depressive symptoms are common in childhood, however problems in need of intervention may not be identified. Children at risk for developing more severe problems can be identified based on elevated symptom levels. Quality of life and self-esteem are important functional domains and may provide additional valuable information. Schoolchildren (n = 915), aged 9-13, who considered themselves to be more anxious or sad than their peers, completed self-reports of anxiety (Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for children (MASC-C), depression (The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire; SMFQ), quality of life (Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen; KINDL) and self-esteem (Beck self-concept inventory for youth (BSCI-Y) at baseline of a randomized controlled indicative study. Using multivariate analyses, we examined the relationships between internalizing symptoms, quality of life and self-esteem in three at-risk symptom groups. We also examined gender and age differences. 52.1 % of the screened children scored above the defined at-risk level reporting elevated symptoms of either Anxiety and Depression (Combined group) (26.6 %), Depression only (15.4 %) or Anxiety only (10.2 %). One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant mean differences between the symptom groups on self-reported quality of life and self-esteem. Regression analysis predicting quality of life and self-esteem showed that in the Depression only group and the Combined group, symptom levels were significantly associated with lower self-reported scores on both functional domains. In the Combined group, older children reported lower quality of life and self-esteem than younger children. Internalizing symptoms explained more of the variance in quality of life than in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression explained more of the variance than anxious symptoms. Female gender was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms, but there was no gender difference in quality of life and self
Kösters, Mia P; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Zwaanswijk, Marieke; van der Wal, Marcel F; Koot, Hans M
Although anxiety and, to a lesser extent, depression are highly prevalent in children, these problems are, difficult to identify. The Revised Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) assesses self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth. The present study examined the factor structure, internal consistency, short-term stability, and validity including sensitivity to change of the RCADS in a multi-ethnic urban sample of 3636 Dutch children aged 8 to 13 years old. Results indicate that the RCADS is a reliable and valid instrument. The original 6-factor structure was replicated to a fair extent in the present study (RMSEA = 0.048) and internal consistency was good (αs = 0.70-0.96). ICCs for short-term stability were 0.76 to 0.86. Girls and children who indicated wishing to participate in a program targeting anxiety and depression had higher RCADS scores. Sensitivity to change analyses showed that the RCADS can detect changes in anxiety and depression symptoms in children who participated in a preventive intervention. The study showed low agreement between teacher and self-reported internalizing problems, even for children scoring above the 90(th) percentile of the RCADS, indicating a high level of problems, emphasizing the need to also take child reports into account when screening for anxiety and depression in children. This study shows that the RCADS can yield reliable data on a diversity of anxiety disorders and depression in urban children aged 8-13 from very diverse ethnic backgrounds. Netherlands Trial Register: NTR2397 . Registered 30 June 2010.
Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.F.J.; Smalbrugge, M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.
Objective: To 1) compare the accuracy of the Montgomery-̊Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) in nursing home residents with dementia when professional caregivers are the only available source of information and 2) explore different methods
Raufelder, Diana; Hoferichter, Frances
The current study presents a newly developed measurement: the TEMO (Teacher and Motivation) scale, which assesses adolescent students' perception of liked and disliked teachers and the resulting impact on their academic motivation. A total of 1,088 students from secondary schools in Germany participated in this study. To explore the underlying…
Osman, Augustine; Wong, Jane L; Bagge, Courtney L; Freedenthal, Stacey; Gutierrez, Peter M; Lozano, Gregorio
We conducted two studies to examine the dimensions, internal consistency reliability estimates, and potential correlates of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Participants in Study 1 included 887 undergraduate students (363 men and 524 women, aged 18 to 35 years; mean [M] age = 19.46, standard deviation [SD] = 2.17) recruited from two public universities to assess the specificity of the individual DASS-21 items and to evaluate estimates of internal consistency reliability. Participants in a follow-up study (Study 2) included 410 students (168 men and 242 women, aged 18 to 47 years; M age = 19.65, SD = 2.88) recruited from the same universities to further assess factorial validity and to evaluate potential correlates of the original DASS-21 total and scale scores. Item bifactor and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a general factor accounted for the greatest proportion of common variance in the DASS-21 item scores (Study 1). In Study 2, the fit statistics showed good fit for the bifactor model. In addition, the DASS-21 total scale score correlated more highly with scores on a measure of mixed depression and anxiety than with scores on the proposed specific scales of depression or anxiety. Coefficient omega estimates for the DASS-21 scale scores were good. Further investigations of the bifactor structure and psychometric properties of the DASS-21, specifically its incremental and discriminant validity, using known clinical groups are needed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
de Cock, Evi S A; Emons, Wilco H M; Nefs, Giesje
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common complication in type 2 diabetes (DM2), affecting 10-30% of patients. Since depression is underrecognized and undertreated, it is important that reliable and validated depression screening tools are available for use in patients with DM2. The Edinburgh Depression...... Scale (EDS) is a widely used method for screening depression. However, there is still debate about the dimensionality of the test. Furthermore, the EDS was originally developed to screen for depression in postpartum women. Empirical evidence that the EDS has comparable measurement properties in both...
Evans, Maggie; Gregory, Alison; Feder, Gene; Howarth, Emma; Hegarty, Kelsey
This article explores the challenges of providing a quantitative measure of domestic violence and abuse (DVA), illustrated by the Composite Abuse Scale, a validated multidimensional measure of frequency and severity of abuse, used worldwide for prevalence studies and intervention trials. Cognitive "think-aloud" and qualitative interviewing with a sample of women who had experienced DVA revealed a tendency toward underreporting their experience of abuse, particularly of coercive control, threatening behavior, restrictions to freedom, and sexual abuse. Underreporting was linked to inconsistency and uncertainty in item interpretation and response, fear of answering truthfully, and unwillingness to identify with certain forms of abuse. Suggestions are made for rewording or reconceptualizing items and the inclusion of a distress scale to measure the individual impact of abuse. The importance of including qualitative methods in questionnaire design and in the interpretation of quantitative findings is highlighted.
Haslam, Divna; Filus, Ania; Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R; Fletcher, Renee
This paper outlines the development and validation of the Work-Family Conflict Scale (WAFCS) designed to measure work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) for use with parents of young children. An expert informant and consumer feedback approach was utilised to develop and refine 20 items, which were subjected to a rigorous validation process using two separate samples of parents of 2-12 year old children (n = 305 and n = 264). As a result of statistical analyses several items were dropped resulting in a brief 10-item scale comprising two subscales assessing theoretically distinct but related constructs: FWC (five items) and WFC (five items). Analyses revealed both subscales have good internal consistency, construct validity as well as concurrent and predictive validity. The results indicate the WAFCS is a promising brief measure for the assessment of work-family conflict in parents. Benefits of the measure as well as potential uses are discussed.
Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)
Covic Tanya; Cumming Steven R; Pallant Julie F; Manolios Nick; Emery Paul; Conaghan Philip G; Tennant Alan
Abstract Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific ca...
Full Text Available With the aim of verifying the suitability of the CES-D scale for use in long-term care institutions for older adults, the CES-D questionnaire was used to collect patient-reported assessments, and two well-known psychometric instruments – the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the Barthel Index of Abilities of Daily Living – were used to collect nurse-reported assessments, based on observations of patients’ behaviours. With regard to possible frequent cases of cognitive impairment and/or insufficient motivation to give sensible responses to CES-D questions, the patient-reported responses were collected from patients during one-on-one sessions with a nurse. The reliability, concurrent validity, and the trustworthiness of the obtained data were supported with proper values of the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, 0.70 < alpha < 0.85, with significant correlation between CES-D and HADS-Depression, R = 0.50, p < 0.001, and with significant correlation between scores of particular CES-D items vs. final CES-D evaluations of depression, proved by significance p < 0.001 for 18 of 20 CES-D items. These findings supported the effectiveness of the one-on-one session methodology in questionnaire surveys for older adults. The postulation that cases of self-reported depression included somewhat different information about the patient than nurse-reported depression concerning the same patient was supported with the evidence that, in spite of the significant correlation between the Barthel Index and HADS-Depression, R = −0.17, p = 0.016, and in spite of the significant correlation between CES-D and HADS-Depression, the correlation between the Barthel Index and CES-D, equal to R = −0.08 was insignificant at p = 0.244. The findings of this study, considered jointly, support the valuableness of the CES-D scale for use in one-on-one surveys for older adults.
Huang, Si-Sheng; Liao, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Wen-Fu
Background: To define the factor structures of the 30 items Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) when assessing the depression in patients with very mild to moderate dementia. Methods: A total of 240 pairs of patients with very mild to moderate dementia and their caregivers who visited the memory clinic of the medical center in Taiwan from July 2001 to October 2008 were surveyed. The depression of patients with dementia was evaluated using the Chinese version of the GDS-30. We analyzed the ...
Del Rosso, A; Mikhaylova, S; Baccini, M; Lupi, I; Matucci Cerinic, M; Maddali Bongi, S
Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119?SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ?8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV), hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening) and face d...
Rice, Simon M; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Kealy, David; Seidler, Zac E; Dhillon, Haryana M; Oliffe, John L
Clinical practice and literature has supported the existence of a phenotypic sub-type of depression in men. While a number of self-report rating scales have been developed in order to empirically test the male depression construct, psychometric validation of these scales is limited. To confirm the psychometric properties of the multidimensional Male Depression Risk Scale (MDRS-22) and to develop clinical cut-off scores for the MDRS-22. Data were obtained from an online sample of 1000 Canadian men (median age (M) = 49.63, standard deviation (SD) = 14.60). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to replicate the established six-factor model of the MDRS-22. Psychometric values of the MDRS subscales were comparable to the widely used Patient Health Questionnaire-9. CFA model fit indices indicated adequate model fit for the six-factor MDRS-22 model. ROC curve analysis indicated the MDRS-22 was effective for identifying those with a recent (previous four-weeks) suicide attempt (area under curve (AUC) values = 0.837). The MDRS-22 cut-off identified proportionally more (84.62%) cases of recent suicide attempt relative to the PHQ-9 moderate range (53.85%). The MDRS-22 is the first male-sensitive depression scale to be psychometrically validated using CFA techniques in independent and cross-nation samples. Additional studies should identify differential item functioning and evaluate cross-cultural effects.
Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.
Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)
Full Text Available Aim of the Study: This study aimed to evaluate the symptom profile, including somatic symptoms among elderly patients with first episode depression using the Geriatric depression scale (GDS-30 and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15 items version scale. Additional aims were to carry out the factor analysis of symptoms reported on GDS-30 and PHQ-15 among elderly. Methodology: Seventy-nine elderly patients (age ≥60 years were evaluated on GDS-30 item Hindi version and Hindi version of the PHQ-15. Results: As per GDS-30, the most common symptom noted among elderly was “dropped many of your activities and interests” (91.1%, mind not as clear as it used (88.6%, feeling that life is empty (86.1%, bothered by thoughts you cannot get out of your head (86.1% and hard to get started on new projects (86.1%, prefer to avoid social gatherings (86.1%. All patients reported at least one somatic complaint as per PHQ-15. The most common somatic symptoms were trouble sleeping (97.5%, feeling tired or having little energy (96.2%, feeling that the heart is racing (52.9%, constipation, loose bowels, or diarrhea (49.6%, shortness of breath (46.8%, nausea, gas or indigestion (45.6%, pain in the arms, legs, or joints (43.3%, and back pain (41.8%. The prevalence of somatic symptoms was not influenced to a large extent by the demographic variables, clinical variables and presence or absence of physical comorbidity. However, the severity of somatic symptoms correlated positively with GDS-30 score. Factor analysis of Hindi version of GDS-30 yielded a four-factor solution, which was similar to many studies across the world. The addition of items of PHQ-15 items of factor analysis still yielded a four-factor solution. Factor 1 of combined GDS-30 and PHQ-15 items included items only from GDS-30 and Factor 3 and 4 included items only from PHQ-15. There was some overlap of items on Factor 2. Conclusion: The present study suggests that GDS-30 does not tap all the
Vaccarino, Anthony L; Evans, Kenneth R; Sills, Terrence L; Kalali, Amir H
Although diagnostically dissociable, anxiety is strongly co-morbid with depression. To examine further the clinical symptoms of anxiety in major depressive disorder (MDD), a non-parametric item response analysis on "blinded" data from four pharmaceutical company clinical trials was performed on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) across levels of depressive severity. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). HAMA and HAMD measures were supplied for each patient on each of two post-screen visits (n=1,668 observations). Option characteristic curves were generated for all 14 HAMA items to determine the probability of scoring a particular option on the HAMA in relation to the total HAMD score. Additional analyses were conducted using Pearson's product-moment correlations. Results showed that anxiety-related symptomatology generally increased as a function of overall depressive severity, though there were clear differences between individual anxiety symptoms in their relationship with depressive severity. In particular, anxious mood, tension, insomnia, difficulties in concentration and memory, and depressed mood were found to discriminate over the full range of HAMD scores, increasing continuously with increases in depressive severity. By contrast, many somatic-related symptoms, including muscular, sensory, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastro-intestinal, and genito-urinary were manifested primarily at higher levels of depression and did not discriminate well at lower HAMD scores. These results demonstrate anxiety as a core feature of depression, and the relationship between anxiety-related symptoms and depression should be considered in the assessment of depression and evaluation of treatment strategies and outcome.
Sardá, Jamir; Nicholas, Michael K; Pimenta, Cibele A M; Asghari, Ali
Depression is a common contributor to suffering and disability in people with chronic pain. However, the assessment of depression in this population has been hampered by the presence of a number of somatic symptoms that are shared between chronic pain, treatment side-effects and traditional concepts of depression. As a result, the use of depression measures that do not contain somatic items has been encouraged. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Depression sub-scale of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) in a Brazilian chronic pain patient population. Data on a number of measures were collected from 348 participants attending pain facilities. Principal components and exploratory factor analyses indicated the presence of only one factor. Item analyses indicated adequate item-scale correlations. The Cronbach alpha was .96, which suggests an excellent internal consistency. The DASS-Depression scale has adequate psychometric properties and its further use with Brazilian chronic pain populations can now be supported.
Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn
BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...
Kirby, Amanda; Williams, Natalie; Thomas, Marie; Hill, Elisabeth L
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affects around 2-6% of the population and is diagnosed on the basis of poor motor coordination in the absence of other neurological disorders. Its psychosocial impact has been delineated in childhood but until recently there has been little understanding of the implications of the disorder beyond this. This study aims to focus on the longer term impact of having DCD in adulthood and, in particular, considers the effect of employment on this group in relation to psychosocial health and wellbeing. Self-reported levels of life satisfaction, general health and symptoms of anxiety and depression were investigated in a group of adults with a diagnosis of DCD and those with suspected DCD using a number of published self-report questionnaire measures. A comparison between those in and out of employment was undertaken. As a group, the unemployed adults with DCD reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Whilst there was no significant difference between those who were employed and unemployed on General Health Questionnaire scores; both groups reported numbers of health related issues reflective of general health problems in DCD irrespective of employment status. While both groups reported high levels of depressive symptoms and rated their satisfaction with life quite poorly, the unemployed group reported significantly more depressive symptoms and less satisfaction. Additionally, the results identified high levels of self-reported anxiety in both groups, with the majority sitting outside of the normal range using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. These findings add to the small but increasing body of literature on physical and mental health and wellbeing in adults with DCD. Furthermore, they are the first to provide insight into the possible mediating effects of employment status in adults with DCD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gloster, Andrew T.; Rhoades, Howard M.; Novy, Diane; Klotsche, Jens; Senior, Ashley; Kunik, Mark; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda A.
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was designed to efficiently measure the core symptoms of anxiety and depression and has demonstrated positive psychometric properties in adult samples of anxiety and depression patients and student samples. Despite these findings, the psychometric properties of the DASS remain untested in older adults, for whom the identification of efficient measures of these constructs is especially important.
Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.
Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…
Jee, Young Ju; Lee, Yun Bok
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression among elderly patients and identify the factors influencing depression in a geriatric hospital in Korea. [Subjects] A self-report questionnaire was administered to the patients in community geriatric hospitals. Participants were 195 elderly patients. [Methods] The instruments utilized in this study were the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form Korea (GDSSF-K), an activity of daily living scale, a self-esteem ...
Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dine J; Kamphuis, Jan H
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) introduced a new paradigm for the assessment of PDs that includes levels of personality functioning indexing the severity of personality pathology irrespective of diagnosis. In this study, we describe the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a newly developed brief self-report questionnaire to assess levels of personality functioning, the Level of Personality Functioning Scale-Brief Form (LPFS-BF; Bender, Morey, & Skodol, 2011). Patients (N = 240) referred to a specialized setting for the assessment and treatment of PDs completed the LPFS-BF, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; Derogatis, 1975), the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008), and were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Personality Disorders (SCID-I; APA, 1994; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997) and the SCID Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, Williams, & Benjamin, 1996). When constrained to a 2-factor oblique solution, the LPFS-BF yielded a structure that corresponded well to an interpretation of Self- and Interpersonal Functioning scales. The instrument demonstrated fair to satisfactory internal consistency and promising construct validity. The LPFS-BF constitutes a short, user-friendly instrument that provides a quick impression of the severity of personality pathology, specifically oriented to the DSM-5 model. Clearly, more research is needed to test its validity and clinical utility. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives 1 to evaluate the role of the pediatrician in detecting postnatal depression (PD symptoms by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; 2 to detect factors increasing the risk of PD and, 3 to assess the importance of scores gained from fathers' questionnaire. Methods we surveyed 1122 mothers and 499 fathers who were assessed using the EPDS during the first well-child visit. After 5 weeks, high scoring parents, completed a second EPDS. High scoring parents were examined by a psychiatrist who had to confirm the PD diagnosis. Results 26.6% of mothers and 12.6% of fathers at the first visit, 19.0% of mothers and 9.1% of fathers at the second visit, gained scores signaling the risk of PD. Four mothers and two fathers had confirmed PD diagnosis. Younger maternal age, non-Italian nationality and low socio-economic condition were related to higher EPDS scores. Conclusion PD is common in the average population. Using a simple and standardized instrument, pediatricians are able to detect parents with higher risk of suffering from PD.
Angela Del Rosso
Full Text Available Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119 SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ≥8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV, hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening and face disability (MHISS, mouth opening, global disability, and fatigue (HAQ, FACIT. Results. Both depression and anxiety in SSc are 36%. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher HADS-D score than patients with depression only (. HADS-A and -D are positively correlated with global disability, hands and mouth disability, fatigue, self-esteem and avoidance coping strategy, and, only HADS-A, also with social support (. By multiple regression, HADS-D is independently associated with FACIT-F (, RSES (, and MHISS total score (, together explaining 50% of variance. HADS-A is independently associated with RSES (, COPE-NIV SA (, COPE-NIV SS (, FACIT-F (, and MHISS mouth opening (, explaining 41% of variance. Conclusions. In SSc depression and anxiety correlate to local and global disabilities and psychological characteristics. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher level of depressive symptoms.
Emons, Wilco H M; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S.
The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined...... items each were found to be structurally sound and reliable. These scales covered the two key attributes of anxiety and (anhedonic) depression. The findings suggest that the HADS may be reduced to a 10-item questionnaire comprising two 5-item scales measuring anxiety and depressive symptoms....
Bayani, Ali Asghar
The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.
Full Text Available Objectives: Prospective evaluations of the associations between depressive symptoms and suicide deaths have been mainly performed in high-risk populations, such as individuals with psychiatric disorders or histories of self-harm. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether more severe depressive symptoms assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS were associated with a greater risk of death from suicide in a general-risk population. Methods: A total of 113 478 men from the Korean Veterans Health Study (mean age, 58.9 years who participated in a postal survey in 2004 were followed up for suicide mortality until 2010. Results: Over 6.4 years of follow-up, 400 men died by suicide (56.7 deaths per 100 000 person-years. More severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater risk of suicide death (p for trend <0.001. The unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs in comparison to the absence of depression were 2.18 for mild depression, 2.13 for moderate depression, 3.33 for severe depression, and 3.67 for extreme depression. After adjusting for potential confounders, men with a potential depressive disorder had an approximate 90% higher mortality from suicide (adjusted HR, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.68; p<0.001 than men without depression. Each five-point increase in the GDS score was associated with a higher risk of death by suicide (adjusted HR, 1.22; p<0.001. The value of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of GDS scores for suicide deaths was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.64. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms assessed using the GDS were found to be a strong independent predictor of future suicide. However, the estimate of relative risk was weaker than would be expected based on retrospective psychological autopsy studies.
Canuto, Alessandra; Rudhard-Thomazic, Valérie; Herrmann, François R; Delaloye, Christophe; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Weber, Kerstin
To date, there is no widely accepted clinical scale to monitor the evolution of depressive symptoms in demented patients. We assessed the sensitivity to treatment of a validated French version of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS) 65+ compared to five routinely used scales. Thirty elderly inpatients with ICD-10 diagnosis of dementia and depression were evaluated at admission and discharge using paired t-test. Using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) "depressive mood" item as gold standard, a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis assessed the validity of HoNOS65+F "depressive symptoms" item score changes. Unlike Geriatric Depression Scale, Mini Mental State Examination and Activities of Daily Living scores, BPRS scores decreased and Global Assessment Functioning Scale score increased significantly from admission to discharge. Amongst HoNOS65+F items, "behavioural disturbance", "depressive symptoms", "activities of daily life" and "drug management" items showed highly significant changes between the first and last day of hospitalization. The ROC analysis revealed that changes in the HoNOS65+F "depressive symptoms" item correctly classified 93% of the cases with good sensitivity (0.95) and specificity (0.88) values. These data suggest that the HoNOS65+F "depressive symptoms" item may provide a valid assessment of the evolution of depressive symptoms in demented patients.
Ermel, Julia; Carter, Cameron S; Gold, James M; MacDonald, Angus W; Daniel Ragland, J; Silverstein, Steven M; Strauss, Milton E; Barch, Deanna M
The goal of the current study was to examine the relationships between insight and both cognitive function and depression in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, and to determine if there were similar relationships across diagnostic categories. We examined discrepancies between self and informant reports of function on the Specific levels of function scale as a metric of insight for interpersonal, social acceptance, work and activities. We examined two samples of individuals with schizophrenia and/or schizoaffective disorder (Ns of 188 and 67 respectively). In Sample 1, cognition was measured using the Dot Probe Expectancy Task. In Sample 2, cognition was measured by averaging several subtests from the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery, as well as additional measures of working memory. In both samples, depression was measured using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In both samples, we found significant relationships between worse cognition and overestimations of work function, as well as between higher depression levels and underestimation of interpersonal function. These relationships were specific to interpersonal and work function, with significantly stronger correlations with interpersonal and work function compared to the other areas of function. Similar results were found across diagnostic categories. These results have important implications for treatment planning, as they suggest the need to take into account depression and cognitive function when evaluating the patient's self-report of function, and highlight the utility of informant reports in evaluating function and treatment planning. Further, they add to the literature on the similarity across schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in a variety of pathological mechanisms.
Full Text Available The goal of the current study was to examine the relationships between insight and both cognitive function and depression in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, and to determine if there were similar relationships across diagnostic categories. We examined discrepancies between self and informant reports of function on the Specific levels of function scale as a metric of insight for interpersonal, social acceptance, work and activities. We examined two samples of individuals with schizophrenia and/or schizoaffective disorder (Ns of 188 and 67 respectively. In Sample 1, cognition was measured using the Dot Probe Expectancy Task. In Sample 2, cognition was measured by averaging several subtests from the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery, as well as additional measures of working memory. In both samples, depression was measured using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In both samples, we found significant relationships between worse cognition and overestimations of work function, as well as between higher depression levels and underestimation of interpersonal function. These relationships were specific to interpersonal and work function, with significantly stronger correlations with interpersonal and work function compared to the other areas of function. Similar results were found across diagnostic categories. These results have important implications for treatment planning, as they suggest the need to take into account depression and cognitive function when evaluating the patient's self-report of function, and highlight the utility of informant reports in evaluating function and treatment planning. Further, they add to the literature on the similarity across schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in a variety of pathological mechanisms.
Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D; Wiltink, Jörg
The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N = 2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The correlational trends found in a representative
Kapi, Aikaterini; Veltsista, Alexandra; Sovio, Ulla; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bakoula, Chryssa
To compare self-reported emotional and behavioural problems among Greek and Finnish adolescents. Youth Self-Report scores were analysed for 3373 Greek adolescents aged 18 years and 7039 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 years from the general population in both countries. The impact of country, gender, place of residence, socioeconomic status (SES) and family stability on the scores was evaluated. Only country and gender yielded small to medium effect on the scores. Greek boys scored significantly higher than Finns on 10 of the 11 YSR syndromes, particularly on the anxious/depressed scale. Greek girls scored significantly lower than Finnish girls on the somatic complaints and delinquent behaviour scales. In general, girls scored higher than boys on both internalising and externalising problems. The gender by country interaction revealed that Finnish girls reported more externalising problems. The main differences marked in this comparison were the higher level of anxiety and depression in Greeks than Finns and the higher level of externalising problems in Finnish girls than boys. Cultural standards could play an important role in explaining these differences. Overall, it seems that only a small number of differences exist between a northern and southern European region.
Rehman, Rehana; Zafar, Amara; Mohib, Aleena; Hussain, Mehwish; Ali, Rabiya
To find an association between self-reported academic performance with different socio-demographic factors, health behaviours and mental health amongst university students. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Bahria University, Karachi, from January 2012 to December 2013, and comprised university students of different disciplines. An anonymous, self-reported questionnaire was distributed among the subjects. Convenient sampling technique was used. Demographic information, including age, gender and field of study, were obtained. Depresion was evaluated via Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. SPSS 22 was used to analyse data. Of the 813 respondents, 334(41.1%) were males and 479(58.9%) females. The mean age was 19.9±1.8 years. Overall, 126(15.5%) subjects reported excellent, 242(29.8%) very good, 310(38.1%) good, 100(12.3%) satisfactory and 35(4.3%) not satisfactory academic performance. Residential status of students played a significant role on their academic performance (p=0.011). Breakfast eating behaviour depicted a significant association with the academic performance (p=0.04).The proportion of unsatisfactory academic performances among students having severe sleep disorder was the highest, followed by mild/moderate (p=0.01). The depression scale's item 'troubling in mind' was highly associated with academic performance (pacademic performance. .
Lim, Hyun Kook; Hong, Seung Chul; Won, Wang Youn; Hahn, Changtae; Lee, Chang Uk
The aim of this study was to explore the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD-K), a scale for assessment of depression in dementia. The original CSDD was translated into Korean and the content was verified through back-translation procedures. This study included 59 depressive patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 62 non-depressive patients with AD and 36 healthy elderly controls. The subjects were assessed using CSDD-K, the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D(17)), the 15-item Korean version of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS(15)) and the Korean version of Mini-mental Status Examination (MMSE-K). In the reliability test, Cronbach's α coefficient and test-retest reliabilities were 0.92 and 0.91, respectively, indicating that the CSDD-K has good internal consistency. There were significant differences in CSDD-K total scores between AD patients with depression and AD patients without depression (preliability and validity for the assessment of depressive symptom severity in AD patients. The CSDD-K is a useful instrument for assessing AD patients with depressive symptoms in Korean ethnic population.
de Waard, Dick; Lewis Evans, Ben
Mental workload is an operational concept that can only be assessed indirectly. Self-reports such as the NASA-TLX however will never suffice to describe how a task was performed, and how heavily loaded operators were.
Nilges, P; Essau, C
The assessment of mental distress is a central aspect in pain research and treatment. Particularly for depression the comorbidity with pain poses methodological and conceptual challenges. This study examined the psychometric properties of the short version of the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS), used in both pain research and treatment and constructed to overcome the particular problems by omitting somatic items and concentrating on the psychological core aspects of depression, anxiety and stress. The psychometric properties of the DASS-21 were compared between patients with pain and various people without any pain problems (N = 950). The DASS has three subscales, depression, anxiety and stress, each with seven items. The construct validity of the DASS was examined using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) for anxiety and depression and the general depression scale (Allgemeine Depressionsskala, ADS) for depression. The sensitivity and specificity for depression were determined against a structured interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) and compared with the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale (CESD) and HADS in pain patients. Cronbach's alpha of the DASS for the depression subscale was at least 0.91, while the anxiety and stress subscales had Cronbach alphas of 0.78-0.82 and 0.81-0.89, respectively. Although the depression subscale has only 7 items, it is just as reliable as the ADS with 21 items. It also has a better sensitivity and specificity than the HADS in identifying clinical patients with depression. The DASS is a reliable questionnaire, free to use and brief to administer; therefore, it is an alternative to the previously used instruments for the screening of depression. Furthermore, the subscale stress measures irritability and tension, which are important aspects of pain experience but underused in assessment procedures for the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of patients
Prospective evaluations of the associations between depressive symptoms and suicide deaths have been mainly performed in high-risk populations, such as individuals with psychiatric disorders or histories of self-harm. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether more severe depressive symptoms assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were associated with a greater risk of death from suicide in a general-risk population. A total of 113 478 men from the Korean Veterans Health Study (mean age, 58.9 years) who participated in a postal survey in 2004 were followed up for suicide mortality until 2010. Over 6.4 years of follow-up, 400 men died by suicide (56.7 deaths per 100 000 person-years). More severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater risk of suicide death (p for trend depression were 2.18 for mild depression, 2.13 for moderate depression, 3.33 for severe depression, and 3.67 for extreme depression. After adjusting for potential confounders, men with a potential depressive disorder had an approximate 90% higher mortality from suicide (adjusted HR, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.68; pdepression. Each five-point increase in the GDS score was associated with a higher risk of death by suicide (adjusted HR, 1.22; psuicide deaths was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.64). Depressive symptoms assessed using the GDS were found to be a strong independent predictor of future suicide. However, the estimate of relative risk was weaker than would be expected based on retrospective psychological autopsy studies.
Full Text Available Wadih Rhondali,1 Gilles Freyer,2 Virginie Adam,3 Marilène Filbet,4 Martine Derzelle,5 Gaelle Abgrall-Barbry,6 Sophie Bourcelot,7 Jean-Louis Machavoine,8 Muriel Chomat-Neyraud,9 Olivier Gisserot,10 Rémi Largillier,11 Annick Le Rol,12 Frank Priou,13 Pierre Saltel,14 Claire Falandry15 1Clinique Mon Repos, Clinea, Marseille, France; 2Medical Oncology Unit, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Université Lyon 1, Pierre-Benite, France; 3Institut de Cancérologie de Lorraine Alexis Vautrin, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; 4Palliative Unit, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Université Lyon 1, Pierre-Benite, France; 5Institut Jean Godinot, Reims, France; 6Tenon Hospital, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France; 7Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France; 8Centre François Baclesse, Caen, France; 9Centre Hospitalier de la région d’Annecy, Pringy, France; 10Hôpital d’Instruction des Armées Sainte-Anne, Toulon, France; 11Centre Azuréen de Cancérologie, Mougins, France; 12Medical Oncology, Hôpital Perpétuel Secours, Levallois-Perret, France; 13Medical Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Départemental Les Oudairies, La Roche-sur-Yon, France; 14Supportive Care Department, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France; 15Geriatrics and Oncology Unit, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Université Lyon 1, Pierre-Bénite, France Background: Depression, a major outcome in cancer patients, is often evaluated by physicians relying on their clinical impressions rather than patient self-report. Our aim was to assess agreement between patient self-reported depression, oncologist assessment (OA, and psychiatric clinical interview (PCI in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC.Methods: This analysis was a secondary endpoint of the Elderly Women AOC Trial 3 (EWOT3, designed to assess the impact of geriatric covariates, notably depression, on survival in patients older than 70 years of age. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (GDS, the Hospital
Bamber, David; Castka, Pavel
Purpose: To identify competencies connecting personality, organizational orientations and self-reported learning outcomes (as measured by concise Likert-type scales), for individuals who are learning for their organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Five concise factor scales were constructed to represent aspects of personality. Three further…
Thóra Hafsteinsdóttir; Roelof G.A. Ettema; Diederick Grobbee; Prof. Dr. Marieke J. Schuurmans; Janneke van Man-van Ginkel; Eline Lindeman
Background and Purpose—The timely detection of post-stroke depression is complicated by a decreasing length of hospital stay. Therefore, the Post-stroke Depression Prediction Scale was developed and validated. The Post-stroke Depression Prediction Scale is a clinical prediction model for the early
Portugal, Maria da Glória; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Almeida, Cloyra; Barca, Maria Lage; Knapskog, Anne-Brita; Engedal, Knut; Laks, Jerson
There are few studies on validation of depression scales in the elderly in Latin America. This study aimed to assess the validity of Montgomery-Åsberg. Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) in Brazilian elderly outpatients. A convenience sample of 95 outpatients was diagnosed for dementia and depression according to DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, and PDC-dAD criteria. Receiver Operating Curves (ROC) were used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) and to assess MADRS and CSDD cut-offs for each diagnostic criterion. Dementia was diagnosed in 71 of 95 patients. Depression was diagnosed in 35, 30, and 51 patients by ICD-10, DSM-IV, and PDC-dAD, respectively. MADRS cut-off score of 10 correctly diagnosed 67.4% and 66.3% patients as depressed according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. A cut-off of 9 correctly identified 74.7% by PDC-dAD criteria; a CSDD cut-off score of 13 best recognized depression according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. A score of 11 diagnosed depression according to PDC-dAD, while MADRS = 9 recognized depression in dementia. CSDD was more efficient in showing depression in mild than in moderate/severe dementia according to DSM-IV/ICD-10. PDC-dAD behaved nicely for any severity stage. MADRS and CSDD cut-offs of 10 and 13 were the optimal ones to diagnose depression in elderly, respectively. CSDD cut-offs are higher than those found in other countries. Other Latin American studies are needed to compare results with our study.
Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A
The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.
Blount, Claire; Evans, Chris; Birch, Sarah; Warren, Fiona; Norton, Kingsley
Self-report measures pertinent for personality disorder are widely used and many are available. Their relative merits are usually assessed on nomothetic psychometrics and acceptability to users is neglected. We report reactions of lay, patient and professional groups to the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-IV); Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III); the Borderline Syndrome Index (BSI); Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ). These were sent to 148 professionals, ex-patients and lay people for comment. Thirty-six per cent were returned. Pattern-coding by three raters revealed problematic themes across all measures, including inappropriate length, vague items and language, cultural assumptions and slang, state-bias and response-set. Measures can be depressing and upsetting for some participants (both patients and non-patients), hence administration of measures should be sensitive. Treatment may make people more self-aware, which may compromise validity for outcome research. This evaluation raises issues and concerns, which are missed in traditional psychometric evaluation.
Zimmerman, Mark; Martin, Jacob; Clark, Heather; McGonigal, Patrick; Harris, Lauren; Holst, Carolina Guzman
DSM-5 included criteria for an anxious distress specifier for major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project we examined whether a measure of the specifier, the DSM-5 Anxious Distress Specifier Interview (DADSI), was as valid as the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) as a measure of the severity of anxiety in depressed patients. Two hundred three psychiatric patients with MDD were interviewed by trained diagnostic raters who administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) supplemented with questions to rate the DADSI, HAMA, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). The patients completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and irritability. Sensitivity to change was examined in 30 patients. The DADSI and HAMA were significantly correlated (r = 0.60, p anxiety than with measures of the other symptom domains. The HAMD was significantly more highly correlated with the HAMA than with the DADSI. For each anxiety disorder, patients with the disorder scored significantly higher on both the DADSI and HAMA than did patients with no current anxiety disorder. A large effect size of treatment was found for both measures (DADSI: d = 1.48; HAMA: d = 1.37). Both the DADSI and HAMA were valid measures of anxiety severity in depressed patients, though the HAMA was more highly confounded with measures of depression than the DADSI. The DADSI is briefer than the HAMA, and may be more feasible to use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Di Benedetto, Mirella; Sheehan, Matthew
Comorbid depression and medical illness is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes such as lower medication adherence and higher rates of subsequent mortality. Reliable and valid psychological measures capable of detecting a range of depressive symptoms found in medical settings are needed. The Cardiac Depression Visual Analogue Scale (CDVAS) is a recently developed, brief six-item measure originally designed to assess the range and severity of depressive symptoms within a cardiac population. The current study aimed to further investigate the psychometric properties of the CDVAS in a general and medical sample. The sample consisted of 117 participants, whose mean age was 40.0 years (SD = 19.0, range 18-84). Participants completed the CDVAS, the Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and a demographic and health questionnaire. The CDVAS was found to have adequate internal reliability (α = .76), strong concurrent validity with the CDS (r = .89) and the depression sub-scale of the DASS (r = .70), strong discriminant validity and strong predictive validity. The principal components analysis revealed that the CDVAS measured only one component, providing further support for the construct validity of the scale. Results of the current study indicate that the CDVAS is a short, simple, valid and reliable measure of depressive symptoms suitable for use in a general and medical sample.
Brian P. Keane
Full Text Available BackgroundPast studies using the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (hereafter, Bonn Scale have shown that self-reported perceptual/cognitive disturbances reveal which persons have or will soon develop schizophrenia. Here, we focused specifically on the clinical value of self-reported visual perceptual abnormalities (VPAs since they are underexplored and have been associated with suicidal ideation, negative symptoms, and objective visual dysfunction.MethodUsing the 17 Bonn Scale vision items, we cross-sectionally investigated lifetime occurrence of VPAs in 21 first-episode psychosis and 22 chronic schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SA patients. Relationships were probed between VPAs and illness duration, symptom severity, current functioning, premorbid functioning, diagnosis, and age of onset.ResultsIncreased VPAs were associated with: earlier age of onset; more delusions, hallucinations, bizarre behavior, and depressive symptoms; and worse premorbid social functioning, especially in the childhood and early adolescent phases. SZ/SA participants endorsed more VPAs as compared to those with schizophreniform or psychotic disorder-NOS, especially in the perception of color, bodies, faces, object movement, and double/reversed vision. The range of self-reported VPAs was strikingly similar between first-episode and chronic patients and did not depend on the type or amount of antipsychotic medication. As a comparative benchmark, lifetime occurrence of visual hallucinations did not depend on diagnosis and was linked only to poor premorbid social functioning.ConclusionA brief 17-item interview derived from the Bonn Scale is strongly associated with core clinical features in schizophrenia. VPAs hold promise for clarifying diagnosis, predicting outcome, and guiding neurocognitive investigations.
Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)
Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use. PMID:22269280
Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).
Covic, Tanya; Cumming, Steven R; Pallant, Julie F; Manolios, Nick; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G; Tennant, Alan
While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.
Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS
Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA, recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.
Sømhovd, M J; Esbjørn, B H; Hansen, B M
AIM: To compare anxiety symptoms in adolescents born extremely prematurely to term-born controls. METHODS: We had 96 preterm-born adolescents and 40 term-born controls from Denmark, and their mothers score the adolescents on the Revised Children Anxiety and Depression scale. We analysed group...... differences, cross-informant correlations and relative risks for elevated anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: Self-reported anxiety symptoms did not significantly differ, although the upper confidence limit (95% CI: -3.3 to 5.1) supported an odds ratio of 2 for the preterm-born participants. Mothers of the preterm......-born participants reported higher social anxiety symptoms than did mothers of controls (51.7 versus 46.8, p = 0.001). The relative risk for being above a threshold indicating distressing anxiety was small from self-reports (1.39; p = 0.60). From mother-reports, the relative risk was noticeable but not significant...
Full Text Available Objective. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS is an evaluation tool to diagnose older adult’s depression. This questionnaire was defined by Yesavage and Brink in 1982; it was designed expressly for the older person and defines his/her degree of satisfaction, quality of life, and feelings. The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian translation of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-IT. Methods. The Italian version of the Geriatric Depression Scale was administered to 119 people (79 people with a depression diagnosis and 40 healthy ones. We examined the following psychometric characteristics: internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, and construct validity (factor structure. Results. Cronbach’s Alpha for the GDS-IT administered to the depressed sample was 0.84. Test-retest reliability was 0.91 and the concurrent validity was 0.83. The factorial analysis showed a structure of 5 factors, and the scale cut-off is between 10 and 11. Conclusion. The GDS-IT proved to be a reliable and valid questionnaire for the evaluation of depression in an Italian population. In the present study, the GDS-IT showed good psychometric properties. Health professionals now have an assessment tool for the evaluation of depression symptoms in the Italian population.
Montag, Christian; Widenhorn-Müller, Katharina; Panksepp, Jaak; Kiefer, Markus
The present study investigated individual differences in the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS), representing measures of primary emotional systems, and depressive tendencies in two independent samples. In order to be able to find support for a continuum model with respect to the relation of strength in the cross-species "affective neuroscience" taxonomy of primary emotional systems, we investigated ANPS measured personality traits in a psychologically mostly healthy population (n=614 participants) as well as a sample of clinically depressed people (n=55 depressed patients). In both normal and depressed samples robust associations appeared between higher FEAR and SADNESS scores and depressive tendencies. A similar - albeit weaker - association was observed with lower SEEKING system scores and higher depressive tendencies, an effect again seen in both samples. The study is of cross-sectional nature and therefore only associations between primary emotional systems and depressive tendencies were evaluated. These results show that similar associations between ANPS monitored primary emotional systems and tendencies toward depression can be observed in both healthy and depressed participants. This lends support for a continuum of affective changes accompanying depression, potentially reflecting differences in specific brain emotional system activities in both affectively normal as well as clinically depressed individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pham, Uyen Ha Gia; Andersson, Stein; Toft, Mathias; Pripp, Are Hugo; Konglund, Ane Eidahl; Dietrichs, Espen; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Skogseid, Inger Marie; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebolt; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin
Objective. Studies on the effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on executive functioning in Parkinson's disease (PD) are still controversial. In this study we compared self-reported daily executive functioning in PD patients before and after three months of STN-DBS. We also examined whether executive functioning in everyday life was associated with motor symptoms, apathy, and psychiatric symptoms. Method. 40 PD patients were examined with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-S). Results. PD patients reported significant improvement in daily life executive functioning after 3 months of STN-DBS. Anxiety scores significantly declined, while other psychiatric symptoms remained unchanged. The improvement of self-reported executive functioning did not correlate with motor improvement after STN-DBS. Apathy scores remained unchanged after surgery. Only preoperative depressed mood had predictive value to the improvement of executive function and appears to prevent potentially favorable outcomes from STN-DBS on some aspects of executive function. Conclusion. PD patients being screened for STN-DBS surgery should be evaluated with regard to self-reported executive functioning. Depressive symptoms in presurgical PD patients should be treated. Complementary information about daily life executive functioning in PD patients might enhance further treatment planning of STN-DBS.
Basudan, Sumaya; Binanzan, Najla; Alhassan, Aseel
Objectives To measure the occurrence and levels of depression, anxiety and stress in undergraduate dental students using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2014. A total of 289 dental students were invited to participate, and 277 responded, resulting in a response rate of 96%. The final sample included 247 participants. Eligible participants were surveyed via a self-reported questionnaire that includ...
Yue, Yingying; Liu, Rui; Lu, Jian; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Shining; Wu, Aiqin; Wang, Qiao; Yuan, Yonggui
Nowadays there is still a lack of effective method to evaluate post-stroke depression. To distinguish patients with and without depression after stroke reliably, this study proposes a new Post-Stroke Depression Scale (PSDS). PSDS was developed based on various depression scales and clinician experiences. 158 stroke patients who were able to finish PSDS and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were recruited. Cronbach α, Spearman rank coefficient and Kruskal-Wallis test were respectively used to examine reliability, internal consistency and discriminate validity. Then the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the ability of scale and categorized scales to the range of depression. Finally, the factors of the PSDS were classified by average clustering analysis. The Cronbach α of PSDS was 0.797 (95% CI) indicted a good reliability. The Spearman correlation coefficient between PSDS and HDRS was 0.822 (Psize maybe the main limitation, the larger sample used in different fields according sex, age and side-lesion was needed to verity the results. The cut off value calculated by ROC curve maybe react the severity of the disease to some extent, but it is not absolute. PSDS is a valid, reliable and specific tool for evaluating post-stroke depression patients and can be conveniently utilized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bech, Per; Timmerby, N; Martiny, K
BACKGROUND: The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) was developed to cover the universe of depressive symptoms in DSM-IV major depression as well as in ICD-10 mild, moderate, and severe depression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the standardization of the MDI as a depression severity......-IV major depression. The conventional VAS scores for no, mild, moderate, and severe depression were used for the standardization of the MDI. RESULTS: The inter-correlation for the MDI with the clinician ratings (VAS, MES, HAM-D17 and HAM-D6) increased over the rating weeks in terms of Pearson coefficients....... After nine weeks of therapy the coefficient ranged from 0.74 to 0.83. Using the clinician-rated VAS depression severity scale, the conventional MDI cut-off scores for no or doubtful depression, and for mild, moderate and severe depression were confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Using the VAS as index of external...
Leenaars, Lindsey; Lester, David
In a sample of 117 undergraduates, helplessness scores and the discrepancy scores on a measure of perfectionism predicted depression scores, providing evidence for construct validity for the hopelessness, helplessness, and haplessness scales.
Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Mehta, Natasha; Lee, Steve S.
Objective: To study the independent association of parental depression and ADHD on three dimensions of child psychopathology among 178 children aged 5 to 10 years. Method: Self-reported measures of parental depression and ADHD as well as rating scales and structure diagnostic interviews of child internalizing, ADHD, and externalizing problems were…
Full Text Available Several studies have found that fatigue is one of the most commonly reported symptoms after stroke and the most difficult to cope with. The present study aimed to investigate the presence and severity of self-reported fatigue six years after stroke onset and associated factors. The cohort "Life After Stroke Phase I" (n = 349 persons was invited at six years to report fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale 7-item version, perceived impact of stroke and global recovery after stroke (Stroke Impact Scale, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Checklist and participation in everyday social activities (Frenchay Activities Index. At six years 37% of the 102 participants in this cross-sectional study reported fatigue. The results showed that in nearly all SIS domains the odds for post-stroke fatigue were higher in persons with a higher perceived impact. Furthermore, the odds for post-stroke fatigue were higher in those who had experienced a moderate/severe stroke and had signs of depression and anxiety. Fatigue is still present in one-third of persons as long as six years after stroke onset and is perceived to hinder many aspects of functioning in everyday life. There is an urgent need to develop and evaluate interventions to reduce fatigue.
Apóstolo,João Luís Alves; Mendes,Aida Cruz; Azeredo,Zaida Aguiar
Objective: to adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21), designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. Method: After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101), and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. Results: The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional state...
Hyun, Myung-Sun; Nam, Kyoung-A; Kang, Hee Sun; Reynolds, William M
This paper is a report of a study conducted to test the validity and reliability of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition in Korean culture. Depression is a significant mental health problem in adolescents. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition has been shown to be a useful tool to assess depression in adolescents, with extensive research on this measure having been conducted in western cultures. Measures developed in western cultures need to be tested and validated before being used in Asian cultures. The participants were a convenience sample of 440 Korean adolescents with a mean age of 13.78 years (sd = 0.95) from grades 7 to 9 in three public middle schools in South Korea. A cross-sectional design was used. Back-translation was used to create the Korean version, with additional testing for cultural meaning and comprehension. The data were collected at the end of 2004. Internal consistency reliability for the Korean version of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition was 0.89, with subscale reliability ranging from 0.66 to 0.81. Evidence for criterion-related, convergent and discriminant validity for the Korean version of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition was found. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the 4-factor structure of Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition. Our results support the validity and reliability for the Korean version of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition as a measure of depression and suggest that it can be used to screen students and to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive interventions in school settings.
Kopf, Tamara; Galić, Slavka; Matešić, Krunoslav
The aim of this study was to examine the efficiency of the validity scales (F, Fb, Fp, F-K, K, L, S, VRIN and TRIN) of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) in the detection of malingering mixed anxiety-depressive disorder and the possibility of differentiating between groups of persons with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder and persons instructed to malinger the mixed anxiety-depressive disorder on the basis of basic and content scales. The participants in the study were...
Connor, Jane M.; And Others
Reported a self-report measure of adolescents' assertiveness. Items for the scale were presented to sixth-grade students. Factor analysis revealed factors of submissiveness, aggressiveness, and assertiveness. After the validational study, a small assertiveness training program indicated that training effects were obtained and could be generalized…
Mauger, Paul A.; And Others
The differences between aggressiveness and assertiveness were examined using the Interpersonal Behavior Survey (IBS), a 136-item self-report questionnaire which was developed to distinguish between assertive and aggressive behaviors. Item level factor analysis was used in scale construction. Results indicated that: (1) the correlation between the…
Empirical studies that assess which items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) are the best predictors of anxiety disorders in adolescents are lacking, whereas several attempts have been made to construct an anxiety scale for the YSR. It is important to gap the bridge between existing YSR and DSM-IV
Ranta, Klaus; Väänänen, Juha; Fröjd, Sari; Isomaa, Rasmus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri
Longitudinal associations between social phobia (SP), depression and eating disorders (EDs), and the impact of antecedent SP and depression on subsequent treatment seeking for EDs have rarely been explored in prospective adolescent population studies. We aimed to examine these associations in a large-scale follow-up study among middle adolescents. We surveyed 3278 Finnish adolescents with a mean age of 15 years for these disorders. Two years later, 2070 were reached and again surveyed for psychopathology and treatment seeking. Longitudinal associations between the self-reported disorders and treatment-seeking patterns for self-acknowledged ED symptoms were examined in multivariate analyses, controlling for SP/depression comorbidity and relevant socioeconomic covariates. Self-reported anorexia nervosa (AN) at age 15 years predicted self-reported depression at age 17 years. Furthermore, self-reported SP at age 15 years predicted not seeking treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN) symptoms, while self-reported depression at age 15 years predicted not seeking treatment for AN symptoms during the follow-up period. Adolescents with AN should be monitored for subsequent depression. Barriers caused by SP to help seeking for BN, and by depression for AN, should be acknowledged by healthcare professionals who encounter socially anxious and depressive adolescents, especially when they present with eating problems.
Schou, Lone; Ostergaard, Birte; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan
We investigated self-reported outcome in patients with COPD and exacerbation. Consecutive patients were randomised to an intervention group with home telemedicine and a control group who had conventional hospital admission. We assessed Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) using the St George......'s Respiratory Questionnaire, daily activity using Instrumental Activity of Daily Living, anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and self-assessed cognitive decline using Subjective Cognitive Functioning. Data were collected at 3 days, 6 weeks and 3 months after discharge...
Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Mendes, Aida Cruz; Azeredo, Zaida Aguiar
To adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21), designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101), and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional states. The instrument reveals good internal consistency. Factorial analysis shows that the two-factor structure is more adequate. The first factor groups most of the items that theoretically assess anxiety and stress, and the second groups most of the items that assess depression, explaining, on the whole, 58.54% of total variance. The strong positive correlation between the DASS 21 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD) confirms the hypothesis regarding the criterion validity, however, revealing fragilities as to the divergence between theoretically different constructs.
Wesseloo, Richard; Kamperman, Astrid M; Bergink, Veerle; Pop, Victor J M
During the postpartum period, women are at risk for the new onset of both auto-immune thyroid disorders and depression. The presence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-ab) during early gestation is predictive for postpartum auto-immune thyroid dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between TPO-ab status during early gestation and first-onset postpartum depression. Prospective cohort study (n = 1075) with follow-up during pregnancy up to one year postpartum. Thyroid function and TPO-ab status were measured during early gestation. Depressive symptomatology was assessed during each trimester and at four time points postpartum with the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS). Women with antenatal depression were not eligible for inclusion. Self-reported postpartum depression was defined with an EDS cut-off of ≥ 13. The cumulative incidence of self-reported first-onset depression in the first postpartum year was 6.3%. A positive TPO-ab status was associated with an increased risk for self-reported first-onset depression at four months postpartum (adjusted OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.3-11.6), but not at other postpartum time points. Prevalence rates of self-reported postpartum depression declined after four months postpartum in the TPO-ab positive group, but remained constant in the TPO-ab negative group. Depression was defined with a self-rating questionnaire (EDS). Women with an increased TPO-ab titer during early gestation are at increased risk for self-reported first-onset depression. The longitudinal pattern of self-reported postpartum depression in the TPO-ab positive group was similar to the typical course of postpartum TPO-ab titers changes. This suggests overlap in the etiology of first-onset postpartum depression and auto-immune thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid function should be evaluated in women with first-onset postpartum depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Lezhi; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huilin; Wang, Li; Chen, Xiaofang
Postpartum depression is an important public health problem in China. Although 10%-20% of Chinese women having recently given birth are affected by postpartum depression, only 10% receive treatment due to the lack of proper screening. The aims of this study were to translate the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale into Chinese (C-PDSS) and establish the psychometric properties of the C-PDSS. The study was undertaken in three phases, composed of forward and backward translation of the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale into Chinese, examination of content validity, and field testing to establish the reliability, validity, and optimal cutoff score of the C-PDSS along with its sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. A total sample of 387 mothers within 12 weeks postpartum participated in the study. Each mother was asked to complete the C-PDSS and the Chinese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and then was interviewed by an experienced researcher using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was .96 for the total C-PDSS, and the overall intraclass correlation was .79. Factor analysis of the scale revealed that it was composed of 7 factors with eigenvalues >1, accounting for 74.25% of the total variance. There was a significantly positive correlation between the C-PDSS and the Chinese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (r = .66, p confirmatory factor analysis and generalization of the C-PDSS to a different sample in China.
Imai, Teppei; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nishihara, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Dohi, Seitaro
Objective: Working long hours is a potential health hazard. Although self-reporting of working hours in various time frames has been used in epidemiologic studies, its validity is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reproducibility of self-reported working hours among Japanese male employees. Methods: The participants were 164 male employees of four large-scale companies in Japan. For validity, the Spearman correlation between self-reported working hours in th...
Mõttus, René; Allik, Jüri; Realo, Anu; Rossier, Jérôme; Zecca, Gregory; Ah-Kion, Jennifer; Amoussou-Yéyé, Dénis; Bäckström, Martin; Barkauskiene, Rasa; Barry, Oumar; Bhowon, Uma; Björklund, Fredrik; Bochaver, Aleksandra; Bochaver, Konstantin; de Bruin, Gideon
Rankings of countries on mean levels of self-reported Conscientiousness continue to puzzle researchers. Based on the hypothesis that cross-cultural differences in the tendency to prefer extreme response categories of ordinal rating scales over moderate categories can influence the comparability of self-reports, this study investigated possible effects of response style on the mean levels of self-reported Conscientiousness in 22 samples from 20 countries. Extreme and neutral responding were es...
Evaluations of treatment efficacy of depression from perspective of both patients' symptoms and general sense of mental health and wellbeing: A large scale, multi-centered, longitudinal study in China.
Zeng, Qingzhi; Wang, Wei Chun; Fang, Yiru; Mellor, David; Mccabe, Marita; Byrne, Linda; Zuo, Sai; Xu, Yifeng
Relying on the absence, presence of level of symptomatology may not provide an adequate indication of the effects of treatment for depression, nor sufficient information for the development of treatment plans that meet patients' needs. Using a prospective, multi-centered, and observational design, the present study surveyed a large sample of outpatients with depression in China (n=9855). The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17) and the Remission Evaluation and Mood Inventory Tool (REMIT) were administered at baseline, two weeks later and 4 weeks, to assess patients' self-reported symptoms and general sense of mental health and wellbeing. Of 9855 outpatients, 91.3% were diagnosed as experiencing moderate to severe depression. The patients reported significant improvement over time on both depressive symptoms and general sense after 4-week treatment. The effect sizes of change in general sense were lower than those in symptoms at both two week and four week follow-up. Treatment effects on both general sense and depressive symptomatology were associated with demographic and clinical factors. The findings indicate that a focus on both general sense of mental health and wellbeing in addition to depressive symptomatology will provide clinicians, researchers and patients themselves with a broader perspective of the status of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Suzuki, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Michio; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shirayama, Yukihiko
The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34), remitted depression (n = 25), acute depression (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI. ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F), hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D. The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.
Full Text Available The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented.We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34, remitted depression (n = 25, acute depression (n = 21, and healthy controls (n = 64. Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI.ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F, hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D.The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.
Suzuki, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Michio; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shirayama, Yukihiko
Background The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. Methods We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34), remitted depression (n = 25), acute depression (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI. Results ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F), hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D. Conclusions The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts. PMID:25279466
Faerden, Ann; Lyngstad, Siv Hege; Simonsen, Carmen; Ringen, Petter Andreas; Papsuev, Oleg; Dieset, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Agartz, Ingrid; Marder, Stephen R; Melle, Ingrid
Negative symptoms have traditionally been assessed based on clinicians' observations. The subjective experience of negative symptoms in people with psychosis may bring new insight. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) is commonly used to study apathy in psychosis and has corresponding self-rated (AES-S) and clinician-rated (AES-C) versions. The aim of the present study was to determine the validity and reliability of the AES-S by investigating its concordance with the AES-C. Eighty-four first-episode (FEP) patients completed the shortened 12-item AES-S and AES-C at baseline (T1) and 12 months (T2). Concordance was studied by degree of correlation, comparison of mean scores, and change and difference between diagnostic groups. The Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) was used to study convergent and discriminative properties. High concordance was found between AES-S and AES-C at both T1 and T2 regarding mean values, change from T1 to T2, and the proportion with high levels of apathy. Both versions indicated high levels of apathy in FEP, while associations with PANSS negative symptoms were weaker for AES-S than AES-C. Controlling for depression did not significantly alter results. We concluded that self-rated apathy in FEP patients is in concordance with clinician ratings, but in need of further study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Vogeli, Jo M; Hooker, Stephanie A; Everhart, Kevin D; Kaplan, Peter S
Accurate postpartum depression screening measures are needed to identify mothers with depressive symptoms both in the postpartum period and beyond. Because it had not been tested beyond the immediate postpartum period, the reliability and validity of the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) and its sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value for diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) were assessed in a diverse community sample of 238 mothers of 4- to 15-month-old infants. Mothers (N = 238; M age = 30.2, SD = 5.3) attended a lab session and completed the PDSS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and a structured clinical interview (SCID) to diagnose MDD. The reliability, validity, specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value of the PDSS to identify maternal depression were assessed. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of five but not seven content subscales. The PDSS total and subscale scores demonstrated acceptable to high reliability (α = 0.68-0.95). Discriminant function analysis showed the scale correctly provided diagnostic classification at a rate higher than chance alone. Sensitivity and specificity for major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis were good and comparable to those of the BDI-II. Even in mothers who were somewhat more diverse and had older infants than those in the original normative study, the PDSS appears to be a psychometrically sound screener for identifying depressed mothers in the 15 months after childbirth. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Edwards, B C; Lambert, M J; Moran, P W; McCully, T; Smith, K C; Ellingson, A G
Some clinicians have considered the Beck Depression Inventory, a self-rating scale, too reactive to patient halo effects and, therefore, a liberal measure of treatment outcome. On the other hand, interviewer-rating scales, like the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression have been viewed as more conservative measures of treatment gain. Studies which compared the Beck Depression Inventory to the Hamilton Rating Scale, as dependent measures, were reviewed for the purpose of determining if the scales provided comparable data for assessing treatment effects. The use of meta-analysis techniques resulted in a comparison of effect sizes which indicated that the Beck Depression Inventory was significantly less liberal than the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The implications of these results for selecting outcome measures and the application of meta-analysis techniques for comparing dependent measures are discussed.
Lucas Primo de Carvalho Alves
Full Text Available Melancholic features of depression (MFD seem to be a unidimensional group of signs and symptoms. However, little importance has been given to the evaluation of what features are related to a more severe disorder. That is, what are the MFD that appear only in the most depressed patients. We aim to demonstrate how each MFD is related to the severity of the major depressive disorder.We evaluated both the Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS-17 and its 6-item melancholic subscale (HAM-D6 in 291 depressed inpatients using Rasch analysis, which computes the severity of each MFD. Overall measures of model fit were mean (±SD of items and persons residual = 0 (±1; low χ2 value; p>0.01.For the HDRS-17 model fit, mean (±SD of item residuals = 0.35 (±1.4; mean (±SD of person residuals = -0.15 (±1.09; χ2 = 309.74; p<0.00001. For the HAM-D6 model fit, mean (±SD of item residuals = 0.5 (±0.86; mean (±SD of person residuals = 0.15 (±0.91; χ2 = 56.13; p = 0.196. MFD ordered by crescent severity were depressed mood, work and activities, somatic symptoms, psychic anxiety, guilt feelings, and psychomotor retardation.Depressed mood is less severe, while guilt feelings and psychomotor retardation are more severe MFD in a psychiatric hospitalization. Understanding depression as a continuum of symptoms can improve the understanding of the disorder and may improve its perspective of treatment.
Petersen, B; Thieden, E; Lerche, C M
Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data.......Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data....
Akin, Ahmet; Cetin, Bayram
This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). The sample of the study consisted of 590 university students, 121 English teachers and 136 emotionally disturbed individuals who sought treatment in various clinics and counseling centers. Factor loadings of the scale ranged…
Emery Paul; Cox Sally; Tennant Alan; Pallant Julie F; Covic Tanya; Conaghan Philip G
Abstract Background Depression is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), however reported prevalence varies considerably. Two frequently used instruments to identify depression are the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The objectives of this study were to test if the CES-D and HADS-D (a) satisfy current modern psychometric standards for unidimensional measurement in an early RA sample; (b) measure the same construc...
Patrick, Jeff; Dyck, Murray; Bramston, Paul
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) is used to assess the severity of symptoms in child and adolescent samples although its validity in these populations has not been demonstrated. The authors assessed the latent structure of the 21-item version of the scale in samples of 425 and 285 children and adolescents on two occasions, one year apart. On each occasion, parallel analyses suggested that only one component should be extracted, indicating that the test does not differentiate depression, anxiety, and stress in children and adolescents. The results provide additional evidence that adult models of depression do not describe the experience of depression in children and adolescents. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Torkan Behnaz; Montazeri Ali; Omidvari Sepideh
Abstract Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a widely used instrument to measure postnatal depression. This study aimed to translate and to test the reliability and validity of the EPDS in Iran. Methods The English language version of the EPDS was translated into Persian (Iranian language) and was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to a consecutive sample of 100 women with normal (n = 50) and caesarean section (n = 50) deliveries at two points in ...
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to construct, to validate and to determine normalization factors associated with adolescents depression scale. The study is performed among 750 randomly selected guided and high school students, 364 male and 386 female, who live in city of Zanjan, Iran. Validity of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Validity of Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS and divergence validity of the Coopersmith self- esteem coefficients are 0.72, 0.37 and -0.71, respectively. Result suggests that adolescents’ depression test is a reliable and valid tool for assessing depression, with utility in both research and clinical settings, counseling centers. In addition, the results of correlation test indicate there are some meaningful differences between depression levels of female and male students. In fact, our survey indicates that female students have more depression than male students do (F-value = 33.06, Sig. = 0.000. In addition, there are some meaningful differences between depression levels in various educational levels (F-value = 8.59, Sig. = 0.000. However, the study does not find sufficient evidence to believe there is any meaningful correlation between educational backgrounds and gender.
Maxwell, Lizzie; Barrett, Bruce; Chase, Joseph; Brown, Roger; Ewers, Tola
Poor mental health conditions, including stress and depression, have been recognized as a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory infection. Very few studies have considered the role of general mental health in acute respiratory infection occurrence. The aim of this analysis is to determine if overall mental health, as assessed by the mental component of the Short Form 12 Health Survey, predicts incidence, duration, or severity of acute respiratory infection. Data utilized for this analysis came from the National Institute of Health-funded Meditation or Exercise for Preventing Acute Respiratory Infection (MEPARI) and MEPARI-2 randomized controlled trials examining the effects of meditation or exercise on acute respiratory infection among adults aged > 30 years in Madison, Wisconsin. A Kendall tau rank correlation compared the Short Form 12 mental component, completed by participants at baseline, with acute respiratory infection incidence, duration, and area-under-the-curve (global) severity, as assessed by the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey. Participants were recruited from Madison, Wis, using advertisements in local media. Short Form 12 mental health scores significantly predicted incidence (P = 0.037) of acute respiratory infection, but not duration (P = 0.077) or severity (P = 0.073). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) negative emotion measure significantly predicted global severity (P = 0.036), but not incidence (P = 0.081) or duration (P = 0.125). Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores significantly predicted incidence of acute respiratory infection (P = 0.040), but not duration (P = 0.053) or severity (P = 0.70). The PHQ-9, PSS-10, and PANAS positive measures did not show significant predictive associations with any of the acute respiratory infection outcomes. Self-reported overall mental health, as measured by the mental component of Short Form 12, predicts acute respiratory infection incidence.
... in the winter. Depression is one part of bipolar disorder. There are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants, talk therapy, or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health
Objective — This study aimed to assess the reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale for epidemiological investigations of adolescents' symptoms. Method — Self-report questionnaires were administered on two occasions to 104 students in four private high schools in Cape Town ...
Chou, Y C; Pu, C-Y; Fu, L-Y; Kröger, T
This survey study aims to examine the prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among primary older female family carers of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). In total, 350 female family carers aged 55 and older took part and completed the interview in their homes. The survey package contained standardised scales to assess carer self-reported depressive symptoms, social support, caregiving burden and disease and health, as well as adult and carer sociodemographic information. Multiple linear regressions were used to identify the factors associated with high depressive symptoms in carers. Between 64% and 72% of these carers were classified as having high depressive symptoms. The factors associated with carer self-reported depressive symptoms were carer physical health, social support and caregiving burden; overall, the carer self-reported physical health was a stronger factor associated with depressive symptoms than their physical disease status. The level of the adult with ID's behavioural functioning and the carer age, marital status, employment status, education level and the family income level were not significantly associated with carer depressive symptoms. The factors identified in this study as correlating with self-reported depressive symptoms suggest that researchers and mental health professionals should collaborate to help improve the physical health and social support networks of the most vulnerable older female family carers. This should reduce depressive symptoms directly among this high-risk group. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
... reasons why a woman may have depression: Family history . Women with a family history of depression may be more at risk. But depression can also happen in women who don’t have a family history of depression. Brain changes. The brains of people ...
Full Text Available Major depression occurs at high prevalence in the general population, often starts in juvenile years, recurs over a lifetime, and is strongly associated with disability and suicide. Searches for biological markers in depression may have been hindered by assuming that depression is a unitary and relatively homogeneous disorder, mainly of mood, rather than addressing particular, clinically crucial features or diagnostic subtypes. Many studies have implicated quantitative alterations of motility rhythms in depressed human subjects. Since a candidate feature of great public-health significance is the unusually high risk of suicidal behavior in depressive disorders, we studied correlations between a measure (vulnerability index [VI] derived from multi-scale characteristics of daily-motility rhythms in depressed subjects (n = 36 monitored with noninvasive, wrist-worn, electronic actigraphs and their self-assessed level of suicidal thinking operationalized as a wish to die. Patient-subjects had a stable clinical diagnosis of bipolar-I, bipolar-II, or unipolar major depression (n = 12 of each type. VI was associated inversely with suicidal thinking (r = -0.61 with all subjects and r = -0.73 with bipolar disorder subjects; both p<0.0001 and distinguished patients with bipolar versus unipolar major depression with a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 79.2%. VI may be a useful biomarker of characteristic features of major depression, contribute to differentiating bipolar and unipolar depression, and help to detect risk of suicide. An objective biomarker of suicide-risk could be advantageous when patients are unwilling or unable to share suicidal thinking with clinicians.
Edwards, Chad; Myers, Scott A
Using a convenience sample, 172 college students' (M age = 20.2 yr., SD = 2.5) motives for communicating with their instructors and their own verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness were studied using the Argumentativeness Scale, the Verbal Aggressiveness Scale, and the Student Motives to Communicate Scale. Significant negative relationships were obtained between students' self-reports of argumentativeness and the sycophantic motive and between students' self-reports of verbal aggressiveness and the functional motive, but generally, students' motives to communicate with their instructors generally were not associated with their self-reported aggressive communication behaviors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS has been used in several languages to assess anxiety and depression in general hospital patients with good results. Methods The HADS was administered to 521 participants (275 controls and 246 inpatients and outpatients of the Internal Medicine and Surgical Departments in 'Attikon' General Hospital in Athens. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were used as 'gold standards' for depression and anxiety respectively. Results The HADS presented high internal consistency; Cronbach's α cofficient was 0.884 (0.829 for anxiety and 0.840 for depression and stability (test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient 0.944. Factor analysis showed a two-factor structure. The HADS showed high concurrent validity; the correlations of the scale and its subscales with the BDI and the STAI were high (0.722 – 0.749. Conclusion The Greek version of HADS showed good psychometric properties and could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to assess anxiety and depression in general hospital patients.
Amris, Kirstine; Omerovic, Emina; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente
BACKGROUND: Assessment of depression in chronic pain patients by self-rating questionnaires developed and validated for use in normal and/or psychiatric populations is common. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) in a sample of ...... core of pain-related somatic symptoms. Careful consideration when interpreting questionnaire-derived scores of depression implemented in research and routine clinical care of patients with chronic pain is warranted.......BACKGROUND: Assessment of depression in chronic pain patients by self-rating questionnaires developed and validated for use in normal and/or psychiatric populations is common. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) in a sample...... and further aspects of validity, including fit of individual scale items to a unidimensional model indicating assessment of a single construct (depression), as a prerequisite for measurement. RESULTS: The Rasch analysis revealed substantial problems with the rating scale properties of the MDI and lack...
Thomas M. Brinthaupt
Full Text Available Self-Talk Scale (STS; Brinthaupt, Hein, & Kramer, 2009 is a self-report measure of self-talk frequency that has been shown to possess acceptable reliability and validity. However, no research using the STS has examined the accuracy of respondents’ self-reports. In the present paper, we report a series of studies directly examining the measurement of self-talk frequency and functions using the STS. The studies examine ways to validate self-reported self-talk by (1 comparing STS responses from 6 weeks earlier to recent experiences that might precipitate self-talk, (2 using experience sampling methods to determine whether STS scores are related to recent reports of self-talk over a period of a week, and (3 comparing self-reported STS scores to those provided by a significant other who rated the target on the STS. Results showed that (1 overall self-talk scores, particularly self-critical and self-reinforcing self-talk, were significantly related to reports of context-specific self-talk; (2 high STS scorers reported talking to themselves significantly more often during recent events compared to low STS scorers, and, contrary to expectations, (3 friends reported less agreement than strangers in their self-other self-talk ratings. Implications of the results for the validity of the STS and for measuring self-talk are presented.
Khubchandani, Jagdish; Brey, Rebecca; Kotecki, Jerome; Kleinfelder, JoAnn; Anderson, Jason
Depression and anxiety are some of the most common causes of morbidity, social dysfunction, and reduced academic performance in college students. The combination of improved surveillance and access to care would result in better outreach. Brief screening tools can help reach larger populations of college students efficiently. However, reliability and validity of brief screeners for anxiety and depression have not been assessed in college students. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess in a sample of college students the psychometric properties of PHQ-4, a brief screening tool for depression and anxiety. Undergraduate students were recruited from general education classes at a Midwestern university. Students were given a questionnaire that asked them whether they had been diagnosed by a doctor or health professional with anxiety or depression. Next, they were asked to respond to the items on the PHQ-4 scale. A total of 934 students responded to the survey (response rate=72%). Majority of the participants were females (63%) and Whites (80%). The internal reliability of PHQ-4 was found to be high (α=0.81). Those who were diagnosed with depression or anxiety had statistically significantly higher scores on PHQ-4 (panxiety and depression. The PHQ-4 is a reliable and valid tool that can serve as a mass screener for depression and anxiety in young adults. Widespread implementation of this screening tool should be explored across college campuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...
Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj
for comorbid personality disorder among patients suffering from depression would be of clinical use. METHOD: The present study aimed to assess the utility of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) as a screen for personality disorder in a population of patients recently......BACKGROUND: Personality disorder frequently co-occurs with depression and seems to be associated with a poorer outcome of treatment and increased risk for recurrences. However, the diagnosing of personality disorder can be lengthy and requires some training. Therefore, a brief screening interview...... diagnosed with first episode depression. A total number of 394 patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of a single depressive episode were sampled consecutively via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register during a 2years inclusion period and assessed by the screening interview and, subsequently...
Gloster, Andrew T; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane; Klotsche, Jens; Senior, Ashley; Kunik, Mark; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda A
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was designed to efficiently measure the core symptoms of anxiety and depression and has demonstrated positive psychometric properties in adult samples of anxiety and depression patients and student samples. Despite these findings, the psychometric properties of the DASS remain untested in older adults, for whom the identification of efficient measures of these constructs is especially important. To determine the psychometric properties of the DASS 21-item version in older adults, we analyzed data from 222 medical patients seeking treatment to manage worry. Consistent with younger samples, a three-factor structure best fit the data. Results also indicated good internal consistency, excellent convergent validity, and good discriminative validity, especially for the Depression scale. Receiver operating curve analyses indicated that the DASS-21 predicted the diagnostic presence of generalized anxiety disorder and depression as well as other commonly used measures. These data suggest that the DASS may be used with older adults in lieu of multiple scales designed to measure similar constructs, thereby reducing participant burden and facilitating assessment in settings with limited assessment resources.
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos
We sought to evaluate the capacity of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in discriminating mental disorders other than depression in pregnant women in northern Mexico. Three hundred pregnant women attending prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico submitted a validated EPDS and were examined for mental disorders other than depression using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4th Ed. (DSM-IV) criteria. Sensitivity and specificity ...
Lovibond, P F; Lovibond, S H
The psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) were evaluated in a normal sample of N = 717 who were also administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The DASS was shown to possess satisfactory psychometric properties, and the factor structure was substantiated both by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In comparison to the BDI and BAI, the DASS scales showed greater separation in factor loadings. The DASS Anxiety scale correlated 0.81 with the BAI, and the DASS Depression scale correlated 0.74 with the BDI. Factor analyses suggested that the BDI differs from the DASS Depression scale primarily in that the BDI includes items such as weight loss, insomnia, somatic preoccupation and irritability, which fail to discriminate between depression and other affective states. The factor structure of the combined BDI and BAI items was virtually identical to that reported by Beck for a sample of diagnosed depressed and anxious patients, supporting the view that these clinical states are more severe expressions of the same states that may be discerned in normals. Implications of the results for the conceptualisation of depression, anxiety and tension/stress are considered, and the utility of the DASS scales in discriminating between these constructs is discussed.
Doyle, Frank; McGee, Hannah; Delaney, Mary; Motterlini, Nicola; Conroy, Ronán
Depression is prevalent in patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We determined whether theoretical vulnerabilities for depression (interpersonal life events, reinforcing events, cognitive distortions, Type D personality) predicted depression, or depression trajectories, post-hospitalization. We followed 375 ACS patients who completed depression scales during hospital admission and at least once during three follow-up intervals over 1 year (949 observations). Questionnaires assessing vulnerabilities were completed at baseline. Logistic regression for panel/longitudinal data predicted depression status during follow-up. Latent class analysis determined depression trajectories. Multinomial logistic regression modeled the relationship between vulnerabilities and trajectories. Vulnerabilities predicted depression status over time in univariate and multivariate analysis, even when controlling for baseline depression. Proportions in each depression trajectory category were as follows: persistent (15%), subthreshold (37%), never depressed (48%). Vulnerabilities independently predicted each of these trajectories, with effect sizes significantly highest for the persistent depression group. Self-reported vulnerabilities - stressful life events, reduced reinforcing events, cognitive distortions, personality - measured during hospitalization can identify those at risk for depression post-ACS and especially those with persistent depressive episodes. Interventions should focus on these vulnerabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann
The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...
Loosman, W.L.; Siegert, C.E.H.; Korzec, A.; Honig, A.
Objective. To validate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for use in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to compare the outcome of both screening measures with each other. Design. Cross-sectional and between-subjects design. The
Meijer, J. L.; Beijers, C.; van Pampus, M. G.; Verbeek, T.; Stolk, R. P.; Milgrom, J.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Burger, H.
ObjectiveTo investigate whether the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) administered antenatally is accurate in predicting postpartum depressive symptoms, and whether a two-item EPDS has similar predictive accuracy. DesignProspective cohort study. SettingObstetric care in the
Costa Elisabeth Maria Sene
Full Text Available OBJETIVE: Recent literature has highlighted the role of psychotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Combined therapies comprising both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy have presented the best results. Although several kinds of psychotherapies have been studied in the treatment of depressive disorders, there remains a lack of data on psychodramatic psychotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of psychodramatic psychotherapy (in a sample of major depressive disorder patients. METHOD: This is an open, naturalistic, controlled, non-randomized study. Twenty major depressive disorder patients (according to the DSM-IV criteria, under pharmacological treatment for depression, with Hamilton Depression Scale total scores between 7 and 20 (mild to moderate depression, were divided into two groups. Patients in the psychotherapeutic group took part in 4 individual and 24 structured psychodramatic group sessions, whilst subjects in the control group did not participate in this psychodramatic psychotherapy. Both groups were evaluated with the Social Adjustment Scale - Self Report and the Hamilton Depression Scale. RESULTS: Psychotherapeutic group patients showed a significant improvement according to the Social Adjustment Scale - Self Report and the Hamilton Depression Scale scores at endpoint, compared to those of the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that individual and group psychodramatic psychotherapy, associated to pharmacological treatment, provides good clinical benefits in the treatment of major depressive disorder.
Basha, Ertan; Kaya, Mehmet
The purpose of this study is to examine validity and reliability of the Albanian version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), which is developed by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995). The sample of this study is consisted of 555 subjects who were living in Kosovo. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated 42 items loaded on…
Johnson, Andrew R; Lawrence, Blake J; Corti, Emily J; Booth, Leon; Gasson, N; Thomas, Meghan G; Loftus, A M; Bucks, Romola S
The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale -21 (DASS-21) is a frequently used measure of emotional disturbance symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the factor structure of the DASS-21 in PD has yet to be explored. To assess whether the scale is measuring these symptoms in PD in the same way as the general population. The present study fit a series of established DASS-21 factor structures with both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) using data from 251 participants with PD. The 3-factor ESEM provided the best fit. The depression and stress scales fit well, however, few items on the anxiety subscale loaded clearly, with several items significantly loading onto the depression or stress factors. Whilst the depression and stress subscales appear suitable in PD, poor loadings and internal consistency indicate the anxiety subscale may not accurately assess anxiety symptomology in PD. This may be due to the scale's reliance on physiological symptoms as indicators of anxiety, when many of these are present in PD. Thus, the anxiety subscale of the DASS-21 may not be a suitable measure of anxiety in PD.
Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose
The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…
Moore, Stephanie A.; Dowdy, Erin; Furlong, Michael J.
As part of universal screening efforts in schools, validated measures that identify internalizing distress are needed. One promising available measure, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21), has yet to be thoroughly investigated with adolescents in the United States. This study investigated the underlying factor structure of the…
Makowski, Anna Christin; Mnich, Eva E; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf
Objectives A better understanding of self-stigma facilitates the development and evaluation of anti-stigma measures. In this study, the Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS) is applied for the first time in Germany. The focus lies on feasibility and psychometric characteristics of the scale. Methods Data stem from a representative population survey in Germany (N = 2,013). The 16 items of the original SSDS are used to assess anticipated self-stigma in case of depression. Main component analysis is applied to analyze the factor structure. Results The original version of the SDSS could not be replicated in the German sample. Instead of four, three factors emerged in the German version. They are similar to three subscales of the original SSDS: "social inadequacy", "help-seeking inhibition" and "self-blame". The internal reliability of the total scale as well as of the first two subscales is acceptable. Conclusion SSDS is a multidimensional construct and can serve as an important instrument in research regarding self-stigma of depression in Germany. A further development of the German scale is recommended in order to gain greater insight into the nature of (anticipated) depression self-stigma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Schönberger, Michael; Ponsford, Jennie
There is a lack of validated scales for screening for anxiety and depression in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in individuals with TBI. A total of 294 individuals with TBI (72.1% male; mean age 37.1 years, S.D. 17.5, median post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) duration 17 days) completed the HADS 1 year post-injury. A series of confirmatory factor analyses was conducted to examine the fit of a one-, two- and three-factor solution, with and without controlling for item wording effects (Multi-Trait Multi-Method approach). The one-, two- or three-factor model fit the data only when controlling for negative item wording. The results are in support of the validity of the original anxiety and depression subscales of the HADS and demonstrate the importance of evaluating item wording effects when examining the factor structure of a questionnaire. The results would also justify the use of the HADS as a single scale of emotional distress. However, even though the three-factor solution fit the data, alternative scales should be used if the purpose of the assessment is to measure stress symptoms separately from anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klaassen, Rianne M. C.; Velthorst, Eva; Nieman, Dorien H.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Becker, Hiske E.; Dingemans, Peter M.; van de Fliert, J. Reinaud; van der Gaag, Mark; Linszen, Don H.
This study examines the ability of the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS) to differentiate between negative and depression symptoms in a young help-seeking ultrahigh risk (UHR) group. SOPS data of 77 help-seeking patients at UHR for psychosis were analyzed with an exploratory factor analysis. The
Moussa, Miriam Taouk; Lovibond, Peter; Laube, Roy; Megahead, Hamido A.
Objective: To translate and evaluate the psychometric properties of an Arabic-language version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS). Method: The items were translated, back translated, refined, and tested in an Australian immigrant sample (N = 220). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Arabic DASS discriminates between…
... For Teens / Depressants Print en español Depresores del sistema nervioso What They Are: Tranquilizers and other depressants ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...
Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher
We examined self-reported health among formerly incarcerated mothers. We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 4096), a longitudinal survey of mostly unmarried parents in urban areas, to estimate the association between recent incarceration (measured as any incarceration in the past 4 years) and 5 self-reported health conditions (depression, illicit drug use, heavy drinking, fair or poor health, and health limitations), net of covariates including health before incarceration. In adjusted logistic regression models, recently incarcerated mothers, compared with their counterparts, have an increased likelihood of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 2.17), heavy drinking (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.19, 2.68), fair or poor health (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.06), and health limitations (OR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.50). This association is similar across racial/ethnic subgroups and is larger among mothers who share children with fathers who have not been recently incarcerated. Recently incarcerated mothers struggle with even more health conditions than expected given the disadvantages they experience before incarceration. Furthermore, because incarceration is concentrated among those who are most disadvantaged, incarceration may increase inequalities in population health.
Kennard, Betsy D; Hughes, Jennifer L; Stewart, Sunita M; Mayes, Taryn; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Tao, Rongrong; Carmody, Thomas; Emslie, Graham J
In the present study, we assess maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of treatment to investigate the possible reciprocal relationship of maternal illness with the child's depressive illness and treatment. We present data on 146 children and their mothers who were participating in a pediatric acute treatment study of fluoxetine. Patients were assessed with the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised at baseline and at each treatment visit. Mothers completed the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report at baseline and end of acute treatment. Thirty percent of mothers had moderate to severe levels of depressive symptoms at the child's baseline assessment. Overall, mothers reported improvement in maternal depressive symptoms at the end of their child's acute treatment, although maternal depression was not specifically targeted for intervention. Furthermore, mother's depressive symptoms appear to be associated with the child's depression severity both at the beginning and end of treatment. Mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms had children with higher levels of depression severity at baseline and over the course of treatment. However, maternal depressive symptoms at baseline had no association with the rate of improvement of child depression severity. This study indicates a positive relationship between the depression severity of mothers and their children. These findings highlight potential areas of intervention in the acute treatment of childhood depression.
Bekhet, Abir K; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio
Depression is currently considered the second leading cause of disability worldwide. Positive thinking is a cognitive process that helps individuals to deal with problems more effectively, and has been suggested as a useful strategy for coping with adversity, including depression. The Positive Thinking Skills Scale (PTSS) is a reliable and valid measure that captures the frequency of use of positive thinking skills that can help in the early identification of the possibility of developing depressive thoughts. However, no meaningful cutoff score has been established for the PTSS. To establish a cutoff score for the PTSS for early identification of risk for depression. This study used a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to establish a PTSS cutoff score for risk for depression, using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) as the gold standard measure. In a sample of 109 caregivers, the ROC showed that the cutoff score of PTSS that best classify the participants is 13.5. With this PTSS score, 77.8% of the subjects with low CES-D are classify correctly, and 69.6% of the subjects with high CES-D are classify correctly. Since the PTSS score should be integer numbers, functionally the cutoff would be 13. The study showed that a cut off score of 13 is a point at which referral, intervention, or treatment would be recommended. Consequently, this can help in the early identification of depressive symptoms that might develop because of the stress of caregiving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E.
The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale--Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the "DSM" diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive…
Ebesutani, Chad; Bernstein, Adam; Nakamura, Brad J.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Weisz, John R.
The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a 47-item parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression, with scales corresponding to the DSM-IV categories of Separation Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Major Depressive…
Sjöberg, Linnea; Karlsson, Björn; Atti, Anna-Rita; Skoog, Ingmar; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin
Depression prevalence in older adults varies largely across studies, which probably reflects methodological rather than true differences. This study aims to explore whether and to what extent the prevalence of depression varies when using different diagnostic criteria and rating scales, and various samples of older adults. A population-based sample of 3353 individuals aged 60-104 years from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) were examined in 2001-2004. Point prevalence of depression was estimated by: 1) diagnostic criteria, ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5; 2) rating scales, MADRS and GDS-15; and 3) self-report. Depression prevalence in sub-samples by dementia status, living place, and socio-demographics were compared. The prevalence of any depression (including all severity grades) was 4.2% (moderate/severe: 1.6%) for ICD-10 and 9.3% (major: 2.1%) for DSM-IV-TR; 10.6% for MADRS and 9.2% for GDS-15; and 9.1% for self-report. Depression prevalence was lower in the dementia-free sample as compared to the total population. Furthermore, having poor physical function, or not having a partner were independently associated with higher depression prevalence, across most of the depression definitions. The response rate was 73.3% and this may have resulted in an underestimation of depression. Depression prevalence was similar across all depression definitions except for ICD-10, showing much lower figures. However, independent of the definition used, depression prevalence varies greatly by dementia status, physical functioning, and marital status. These findings may be useful for clinicians when assessing depression in older adults and for researchers when exploring and comparing depression prevalence across studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M
) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football...... is recommended. We suggest that self-reported Tegner Activity Scale scores should be adjusted for age, gender and level of competition. In amateur football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender....
Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P
Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....
Tonsing, Kareen N
This study investigated the reliability of the Nepali version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) among non-clinical sample. The purpose of this paper is to report the dimensionality and internal consistency of the DASS-21in a sample of non-clinical adults. This study was conducted in Hong Kong among 212 Nepali adults, aged 18-60 years. Life satisfaction was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Scale. The dimensionality of the DASS-21 scale was investigated using exploratory factor analysis. Construct validity was evaluated using the life satisfaction scale. The intercorrelation among depression, anxiety and stress subscales indicates that symptoms of psychological distress as measured by the DASS-21-N can distinguished between the three constructs in adult community sample. The results also showed inverse correlation among DASS-21-N and life satisfaction scale, supporting the assumption that the higher the life satisfaction, the lower the psychological distress. The results of this study indicate that the Nepali version of the DASS-21 demonstrate adequate psychometric properties in relation to internal consistency and validity, lending support to prior studies and suggest that the DASS-21 can be utilized among diverse groups with confidence. It supports the reliability of the 3-factorial dimensionality of the DASS-21, and highlight that it is a valid and useful tool that can distinguish between depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Grunhaus, Leon; Dolberg, Ornah T; Polak, Dana; Dannon, Pinhas N
Visual analog scales (VAS) administered on a daily basis provide a fast and reliable method for assessing clinical change during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We treated 40 patients with major depression with TMS and assessed their clinical condition with VAS. Response to TMS was defined with the Hamilton rating scale for depression and the Global assessment of function scale. Nineteen patients of 40 were responders to TMS (when the whole sample was considered) whereas 17 of 29 responded when only the non-psychotic patients were considered. Patients who eventually responded to TMS demonstrated early changes in the VAS scores. We conclude that monitoring with VAS scores can detect early response to TMS. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dale, Maria; Maltby, John; Martucci, Rossana
INTRODUCTION: Depression and anxiety are common in Huntington's disease, a genetic neurodegenerative disorder. There is a need for measurement tools of mood to be validated within a Huntington's disease population. The current study aimed to analyze the factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety...... and Depression Scale in Huntington's disease. METHODS: Data from the European Huntington's Disease Network study REGISTRY 3 were used to undertake a factor analysis of the scale among a sample of 492 Huntington's disease mutation carriers. The sample was randomly divided into two equal subsamples...... support for an eight-item version of the scale to be used as a measure of general distress within Huntington's disease populations. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society....
Williams, Janet B W; Kobak, Kenneth A
The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is often used in clinical trials to select patients and to assess treatment efficacy. The scale was originally published without suggested questions for clinicians to use in gathering the information necessary to rate the items. Structured and semi-structured interview guides have been found to improve reliability with other scales. To describe the development and test-retest reliability of a structured interview guide for the MADRS (SIGMA). A total of 162 test-retest interviews were conducted by 81 rater pairs. Each patient was interviewed twice, once by each rater conducting an independent interview. The intraclass correlation for total score between raters using the SIGMA was r=0.93, Preliability. Use of the SIGMA can result in high reliability of MADRS scores in evaluating patients with depression.
Vignola, Rose Claudia Batistelli; Tucci, Adriana Marcassa
Depression and anxiety have been associated with a range of symptoms that often overlap. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is a single instrument to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. This study aimed to adapt and validate the DASS-21 for use in the Brazilian Portuguese language. The DASS-21 has been adapted following the translation-back translation methodology from English to Portuguese. 242 subjects completed the following assessments: the DASS-21, the Beck Depression Index (BDI), Beck Anxiety Index (BAI) and the Inventory of Stress Symptoms of Lipp (ISSL). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) result was .949, indicating that the adequacy of the model was high. Cronbach's alpha was .92 for the depression, .90 for the stress, and .86 for the anxiety, indicating a good internal consistency for each subscale. The correlations between DASS scale and BDI scale, BAI scale and ISSL inventory were strong. The factorial analysis and distribution of factors among the subscales indicated that the structure of three distinct factors is adequate. Older subjects over 65 years of age were not largely represented in this sample. A study specific to this elderly population should be conducted. Another limitation of the study was education level. The impact of low education in its applicability should be considered. The findings support the validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the DASS-21 and add to the evidence of the DASS-21 quality and ability to assess emotional states separately, eliminating the use of different instruments to assess these states. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS is a 10 item self-rating post-natal depression scale which has seen widespread use in epidemiological and clinical studies. Concern has been raised over the validity of the EPDS as a single summed scale, with suggestions that it measures two separate aspects, one of depressive feelings, the other of anxiety. Methods As part of a larger cross-sectional study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, a community sample (324 women, ranging in age from 18 to 44 years: mean = 32 yrs, SD = 4.6, was obtained by inviting primiparous women to participate voluntarily in this study. Data from the EPDS were fitted to the Rasch measurement model and tested for appropriate category ordering, for item bias through Differential Item Functioning (DIF analysis, and for unidimensionality through tests of the assumption of local independence. Results Rasch analysis of the data from the ten item scale initially demonstrated a lack of fit to the model with a significant Item-Trait Interaction total chi-square (chi Square = 82.8, df = 40; p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that EPDS, in its original 10 item form, is not a viable scale for the unidimensional measurement of depression. Rasch analysis suggests that a revised eight item version (EPDS-8 would provide a more psychometrically robust scale. The revised cut points of 7/8 and 9/10 for the EPDS-8 show high levels of agreement with the original case identification for the EPDS-10.
Miller, Iben Marie; Zarchi, Kian; Ellervik, Christina
Skin diseases are thought to be common in the general population. In 2004, a cross-sectional study in Norway, using a validated questionnaire for 18,770 individuals, revealed a high prevalence of skin diseases in the general population. To describe the prevalence of self-reported skin morbidities...... questionnaire. In total, 17.2% self-reported skin complaints. The most prominent self-reported skin complaint was itch with an overall prevalence of 6.5%. The skin morbidity most influenced by age was pimples. There was a uniform pattern showing fewer skin complaints with increasing education. Women reported...... skin morbidities more frequently than men. Participants in employment reported fewer skin morbidities compared to unemployed participants. Skin morbidities in Denmark are common, and the distribution of prevalence estimates in the Danish population parallel those of the Norwegian population, although...
Pop Victor JM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a common complication in type 2 diabetes (DM2, affecting 10-30% of patients. Since depression is underrecognized and undertreated, it is important that reliable and validated depression screening tools are available for use in patients with DM2. The Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS is a widely used method for screening depression. However, there is still debate about the dimensionality of the test. Furthermore, the EDS was originally developed to screen for depression in postpartum women. Empirical evidence that the EDS has comparable measurement properties in both males and females suffering from diabetes is lacking however. Methods In a large sample (N = 1,656 of diabetes patients, we examined: (1 dimensionality; (2 gender-related item bias; and (3 the screening properties of the EDS using factor analysis and item response theory. Results We found evidence that the ten EDS items constitute a scale that is essentially one dimensional and has adequate measurement properties. Three items showed differential item functioning (DIF, two of them showed substantial DIF. However, at the scale level, DIF had no practical impact. Anhedonia (the inability to be able to laugh or enjoy and sleeping problems were the most informative indicators for being able to differentiate between the diagnostic groups of mild and severe depression. Conclusions The EDS constitutes a sound scale for measuring an attribute of general depression. Persons can be reliably measured using the sum score. Screening rules for mild and severe depression are applicable to both males and females.
Brown, Ruth C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J.; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C. W.; Amstadter, Ananda B.
Objective Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Method Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a four-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring aged 10–14 at the first year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale [CESD]; Radloff, 1977), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale [RCADS]; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). Results The final model, χ2 (14) = 23.74, p= .05; TLI= .97; CFI= .98; RMSEA= .05, indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression two years later. Interestingly, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Conclusions Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods of time is warranted. PMID:24702257
Hoogewerf, Cornelis Johannes; van Baar, Margriet Elisabeth; Middelkoop, Esther; van Loey, Nancy Elisa
This study assessed the role of self-reported facial scar severity as a possible influencing factor on self-esteem and depressive symptoms in patients with facial burns. A prospective multicentre cohort study with a 6 months follow-up was conducted including 132 patients with facial burns. Patients completed the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the relations between depressive symptoms, self-esteem and scar severity. The model showed that patient-rated facial scar severity was not predictive for self-esteem and depressive symptoms six months post-burn. There was, however, a significant relationship between early depressive symptoms and both patient-rated facial scar severity and subsequent self-esteem. The variables in the model accounted for 37% of the variance in depressive symptoms six months post-burn and the model provided a moderately well-fitting representation of the data. The study suggests that self-esteem and depressive symptoms were not affected by self-reported facial scar severity but that earlier depressive symptoms were indicative for a more severe self-reported facial scar rating. Therefore, routine psychological screening during hospitalisation is recommended in order to identify patients at risk and to optimise their treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pettit, Jeremy W.; Roberts, Robert E.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya
Longitudinal trajectories of depressive symptoms, perceived support from family, and perceived support from friends were examined among 816 emerging adults (480 women; 59%). In the context of a larger longitudinal investigation on the predictors and course of depression, data were drawn from eight self-report questionnaire assessments that roughly spanned the third decade of life. An age-based scaling approach was used to model trajectories of depressive symptoms and perceived social support ...
Vivilaki, Victoria G; Dafermos, Vassilis; Kogevinas, Manolis; Bitsios, Panos; Lionis, Christos
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is an important screening instrument that is used routinely with mothers during the postpartum period for early identification of postnatal depression. The purpose of this study was to validate the Greek version of EPDS along with sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. 120 mothers within 12 weeks postpartum were recruited from the perinatal care registers of the Maternity Departments of 4 Hospitals of Heraklion municipality, Greece. EPDS and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) surveys were administered in random order to the mothers. Each mother was diagnosed with depression according to the validated Greek version of BDI-II. The psychometric measurements that were performed included: two independent samples t-tests, One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), reliability coefficients, Explanatory factor analysis using a Varimax rotation and Principal Components Method. Confirmatory analysis -known as structural equation modelling- of principal components was conducted by LISREL (Linear Structural Relations). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out to evaluate the global functioning of the scale. 8 (6.7%) of the mothers were diagnosed with major postnatal depression, 14 (11.7%) with moderate and 38 (31.7%) with mild depression on the basis of BDI-II scores. The internal consistency of the EPDS Greek version -using Chronbach's alpha coefficient- was found 0.804 and that of Guttman split-half coefficient 0.742. Our findings confirm the multidimensionality of EPDS, demonstrating a two-factor structure which contained subscales reflecting depressive symptoms and anxiety. The Confirmatory Factor analysis demonstrated that the two factor model offered a very good fit to our data. The area under ROC curve AUC was found 0.7470 and the logistic estimate for the threshold score of 8/9 fitted the model sensitivity at 76.7% and model specificity at 68.3%. Our data confirm the validity of the Greek
Full Text Available Abstract Background Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS is an important screening instrument that is used routinely with mothers during the postpartum period for early identification of postnatal depression. The purpose of this study was to validate the Greek version of EPDS along with sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Methods 120 mothers within 12 weeks postpartum were recruited from the perinatal care registers of the Maternity Departments of 4 Hospitals of Heraklion municipality, Greece. EPDS and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II surveys were administered in random order to the mothers. Each mother was diagnosed with depression according to the validated Greek version of BDI-II. The psychometric measurements that were performed included: two independent samples t-tests, One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, reliability coefficients, Explanatory factor analysis using a Varimax rotation and Principal Components Method. Confirmatory analysis -known as structural equation modelling- of principal components was conducted by LISREL (Linear Structural Relations. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was carried out to evaluate the global functioning of the scale. Results 8 (6.7% of the mothers were diagnosed with major postnatal depression, 14 (11.7% with moderate and 38 (31.7% with mild depression on the basis of BDI-II scores. The internal consistency of the EPDS Greek version -using Chronbach's alpha coefficient- was found 0.804 and that of Guttman split-half coefficient 0.742. Our findings confirm the multidimensionality of EPDS, demonstrating a two-factor structure which contained subscales reflecting depressive symptoms and anxiety. The Confirmatory Factor analysis demonstrated that the two factor model offered a very good fit to our data. The area under ROC curve AUC was found 0.7470 and the logistic estimate for the threshold score of 8/9 fitted the model sensitivity at 76.7% and model specificity at 68
Moorhouse, Anne; Caltabiano, Marie L.
This study examined adult resilience in the context of the adversity of unemployment. Seventy-seven unemployed job seekers completed a self-report survey containing the Resilience Scale (G. M. Wagnild & H. M. Young, 1993), Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depressed Mood Scale (L. S. Radloff, 1977), and the Assertive Job Hunting Survey (H. A.…
Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann
In long-term follow-up studies on depression, the Eysenck Neuroticism Scale (ENS) at the score level of dysthymia has been found to be valid at predicting poor outcome. The ENS dysthymia level was compared with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) level to predict the prevalence of depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up of patients initially diagnosed with first episode depression using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) to express depressive symptoms. A total of 301 in- or outpatients aged 18-70 years with a recent single depressive episode were assessed by ENS, BDI, and HAM-D from 2005-2007. At 5-year follow-up from 2011-2013, the participants were re-assessed by HAM-D. The HAM-D was used to measure depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up. The Mokken analysis was used to indicate scalability of the BDI and ENS. A total of 185 participants were available for the psychometric analysis of the ESN and BDI, and the scalability was found acceptable. In total, 99 patients were available for the predictive analysis. Both the ENS and the BDI were significantly associated with depressive symptoms (HAM-D17 ≥ 8) at the 5-year follow-up (p Dysthymia as measured by the two self-rating scales ENS and BDI can be considered part of a 'double depression' in patients with first episode depression, implying an existence of depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up. Evaluation of dysthymia or neuroticism is important to perform, even in patients with first episode depression, in order to identify 'double depression'.
Heene, Els; De Raedt, Rudi; Buysse, Ann; Van Oost, Paulette
The present study was designed to test the influence of negative mood on the self-report of individual and relational correlates of depression and marital distress. The authors applied a combined experimental mood induction procedure, based on music, autobiographical recall, and environmental manipulation. Results showed that the mood manipulation…
Nuijens, Karen L.; Teglasi, Hedwig; Hancock, Gregory R.
Self and others' perceptions of victimization, bullying, and academic competence were examined in relation to self-reported anxiety, depression, anger, and global self-worth in a non-clinical sample of second- and third-grade children. Previous studies document links between negative emotions and self-perceptions that are less favorable than…
There is ample evidence that depression is000 a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...
Barney, Lisa J; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F
Self-stigma may feature strongly and be detrimental for people with depression, but the understanding of its nature and prevalence is limited by the lack of psychometrically-validated measures. This study aimed to develop and validate a measure of self-stigma about depression. Items assessing self-stigma were developed from focus group discussions, and were tested and refined over three studies using surveys of 408 university students, 330 members of a depression Internet network, and 1312 members of the general Australian public. Evaluation involved item-level and bivariate analyses, and factor analytic procedures. Items performed consistently across the three surveys. The resulting Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS) comprised 16 items representing subscales of Shame, Self-Blame, Social Inadequacy, and Help-Seeking Inhibition. Construct validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were satisfactory. The SSDS distinguishes self-stigma from perceptions of stigma by others, yields in-depth information about self-stigma of depression, and possesses good psychometric properties. It is a promising tool for the measurement of self-stigma and is likely to be useful in further understanding self-stigma and evaluating stigma interventions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sarkar, Sonali; Kattimani, Shivananand; Roy, Gautam; Premarajan, K C; Sarkar, Siddharth
Local language screening instruments can be helpful in early assessment of depression in the elderly in the community and primary care population. This study describes the validation of a Tamil version of Geriatric Depression Scale (short form 15 [GDS-15] item) in a rural population. A Tamil version of GDS-15 was developed using standardized procedures. The questionnaire was applied in a sample of elderly (aged 60 years and above) from a village in South India. All the participants were also assessed for depression by a clinical interview by a psychiatrist. A total of 242 participants were enrolled, 64.9% of them being females. The mean score on GDS-15 was 7.4 (±3.4), while the point prevalence of depression was 6.2% by clinical interview. The area under the receiver-operator curve was 0.659. The optimal cut-off for the GDS in this sample was found at 7/8 with sensitivity and specificity being 80% and 47.6%, respectively. The Tamil version of GDS-15 can be a useful screening instrument for assessment of depression in the elderly population.
de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B; Lindeman, Eline; Ettema, Roelof G A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Schuurmans, Marieke J
The timely detection of post-stroke depression is complicated by a decreasing length of hospital stay. Therefore, the Post-stroke Depression Prediction Scale was developed and validated. The Post-stroke Depression Prediction Scale is a clinical prediction model for the early identification of stroke patients at increased risk for post-stroke depression. The study included 410 consecutive stroke patients who were able to communicate adequately. Predictors were collected within the first week after stroke. Between 6 to 8 weeks after stroke, major depressive disorder was diagnosed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted. A bootstrap-backward selection process resulted in a reduced model. Performance of the model was expressed by discrimination, calibration, and accuracy. The model included a medical history of depression or other psychiatric disorders, hypertension, angina pectoris, and the Barthel Index item dressing. The model had acceptable discrimination, based on an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.78 (0.72-0.85), and calibration (P value of the U-statistic, 0.96). Transforming the model to an easy-to-use risk-assessment table, the lowest risk category (sum score, depression, which increased to 82% in the highest category (sum score, >21). The clinical prediction model enables clinicians to estimate the degree of the depression risk for an individual patient within the first week after stroke.
Challenor Emily C
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Recently, there is a steady increase in the number of university students diagnosed and treated as depression patients. It can be assumed that depression is a serious mental health problem for university students because it affects all age groups of the students either younger or older equally. The current study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression scale in a UK sample. Methods The study was a cross-sectional online survey. A sample of 133 out of 275 undergraduate students from a range of UK Universities in the academic year 2008-2009, aged 20.3 ± 6.3 years old were recruited. A modified back translated version of Zagazig Depression scale was used. In order to validate the Zagazig Depression scale, participants were asked to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis includes Kappa analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's correlation analysis, and Confirmatory Factor analysis. Results Using the recommended cut-off of Zagazig Depression scale for possible minor depression it was found that 30.3% of the students have depression and higher percentage was identified according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (37.4%. Females were more depressed. The mean ZDS score was 8.3 ± 4.2. Rates of depression increase as students get older. The reliability of The ZDS was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha was .894. For validity, ZDS score was strongly associated with PHQ, with no significant difference (p-value > 0.05, with strong positive correlation (r = +.8, p-value Conclusion The strong, significant correlation between the PHQ and ZDS, along with high internal consistency of the ZDS as a whole provides evidence that ZDS is a reliable measure of depressive symptoms and is promising for the use of the translated ZDS in a large-scale cross-culture study.
Ibrahim, Ahmed K; Kelly, Shona J; Challenor, Emily C; Glazebrook, Cris
It is thought that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Recently, there is a steady increase in the number of university students diagnosed and treated as depression patients. It can be assumed that depression is a serious mental health problem for university students because it affects all age groups of the students either younger or older equally. The current study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression scale in a UK sample. The study was a cross-sectional online survey. A sample of 133 out of 275 undergraduate students from a range of UK Universities in the academic year 2008-2009, aged 20.3 ± 6.3 years old were recruited. A modified back translated version of Zagazig Depression scale was used. In order to validate the Zagazig Depression scale, participants were asked to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis includes Kappa analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's correlation analysis, and Confirmatory Factor analysis. Using the recommended cut-off of Zagazig Depression scale for possible minor depression it was found that 30.3% of the students have depression and higher percentage was identified according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (37.4%). Females were more depressed. The mean ZDS score was 8.3 ± 4.2. Rates of depression increase as students get older. The reliability of The ZDS was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha was .894). For validity, ZDS score was strongly associated with PHQ, with no significant difference (p-value > 0.05), with strong positive correlation (r = +.8, p-value depressive symptoms and is promising for the use of the translated ZDS in a large-scale cross-culture study.
Lydsdottir, Linda B; Howard, Louise M; Olafsdottir, Halldora; Thome, Marga; Tyrfingsson, Petur; Sigurdsson, Jon F
Few studies are available on the effectiveness of screening tools such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in pregnancy or the extent to which such tools may identify women with mental disorders other than depression. We therefore aimed to investigate the mental health characteristics of pregnant women who screen positive on the EPDS. Consecutive women receiving antenatal care in primary care clinics (from November 2006 to July 2011) were invited to complete the EPDS in week 16 of pregnancy. All women who scored above 11 (screen positive) on the EPDS and randomly selected women who scored below 12 (screen negative) were invited to participate in a psychiatric diagnostic interview. 2,411 women completed the EPDS. Two hundred thirty-three women (9.7%) were screened positive in week 16, of whom 153 (66%) agreed to a psychiatric diagnostic interview. Forty-eight women (31.4%) were diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV criteria, 20 (13.1%) with bipolar disorder, 93 (60.8%) with anxiety disorders (including 27 [17.6%] with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD]), 8 (5.2%) with dysthymia, 18 (11.8%) with somatoform disorder, 3 (2%) with an eating disorder, and 7 (4.6%) with current substance abuse. Women who screened positive were significantly more likely to have psychosocial risk factors, including being unemployed (χ(2)(1) = 23.37, P ≤.001), lower educational status (χ(2)(1)= 31.68, P ≤ .001), and a history of partner violence (χ(2)(1) = 10.30, P ≤ 001), compared with the women who screened negative. Use of the EPDS early in the second trimester of pregnancy identifies a substantial number of women with potentially serious mental disorders other than depression, including bipolar disorder, OCD, and eating disorders. A comprehensive clinical assessment is therefore necessary following use of the EPDS during pregnancy to ensure that women who screen positive receive appropriate mental health management. © Copyright 2014
Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Else Marie
of ED recorded in the health registers. Women with self-reported ED were comparable with women with hospital diagnosed ED on most reproductive and health characteristics, while they differed from women without ED concerning all characteristics studied. Our findings highlight that women with self...
Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the extent and nature of depressive symptoms exhibited by black South African children during hospitalisation for orthopaedic procedures. Social factors associated with the risk for depression, in response to hospitalisation, were also examined. Pre- and post-test assessments were conducted on a sample of 30 children aged between 6 and 12 years. The assessment entailed a structured interview, together with the following psychometric instruments: A Global Mood Scale, a Depressive Symptoms Checklist, a Hospital Fears Rating Scale and a Self Report Depression Rating Scale. A large proportion of the children were rated by ward sisters as showing high levels of depressive symptomatology two weeks after admission to hospital. As expected, discrepancies were found between adult and child self-ratings of depression. The results of this study indicate that hospitalisation for orthopaedic child patients is associated with the development of depressive symptomatology. It is suggested that emphasis be placed on the development of supportive programmes and procedures aimed at maximising children's coping responses to hospitalisation, particularly for children who find themselves Isolated from their communities and families, as a result of both centralised health services and poor socio-economic conditions.
Hayashi, Yumi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Takagaki, Koki; Okada, Go; Toki, Shigeru; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanabe, Hajime; Kobayakawa, Makoto; Yamawaki, Shigeto
It is known that the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder are affected by interactions between a number of factors. This study investigated how childhood abuse, personality, and stress of life events were associated with symptoms of depression in depressed people. Patients with major depressive disorder (N = 113, 58 women and 55 men) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS), and the Life Experiences Survey (LES), which are self-report scales. Results were analyzed with correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM), by using SPSS AMOS 21.0. Childhood abuse directly predicted the severity of depression and indirectly predicted the severity of depression through the mediation of personality. Negative life change score of the LES was affected by childhood abuse, however it did not predict the severity of depression. This study is the first to report a relationship between childhood abuse, personality, adulthood life stresses and the severity of depression in depressed patients. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depression. These results suggest the need for clinicians to be receptive to the possibility of childhood abuse in patients suffering from depression. SEM is a procedure used for hypothesis modeling and not for causal modeling. Therefore, the possibility of developing more appropriate models that include other variables cannot be excluded.
Nasim, Sara; Khan, Mahjabeen; Aziz, Sina
To determine the association of terrorism with psychiatric morbidity by Hospital Anxiety Depression scale among medical students in Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2011 and comprised students of the Institute of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation and the Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi. The study tool was a validated Hospital Anxiety Depression scale questionnaire. The data was analysed on SPSS 16. Factor analysis was performed to check which factors had the most influence. Overall there were 1036 respondents. The impact of terrorism on physical, social and mental health was 40 (3.9%), 178 (17.2%) and 818 (79%) respectively. There was an association of terrorism in 980 (84.6%) respondents with psychiatric morbidity. There was an association of terrorism with psychiatric morbidity in majority of respondents. The significant risk factors were age, gender, physical, mental and social health and the desire to live in Pakistan.
Norton, Peter J
Growing cross-cultural awareness has led researchers to examine frequently used research instruments and assessment tools in racially diverse populations. The present study was conducted to assess the psychometric characteristics of the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) among different racial groups. The DASS-21 was chosen because it appears to be a reliable and easy to administer measure, ideal for both clinical and research purposes. Results suggest that the internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity of the DASS-21 are similar across racial groups. Multigroup CFA, however, indicated that item loadings were invariant, while scale covariances were not invariant. This suggests that, although the items may load similarly on the depression, anxiety and stress constructs, these constructs may be differentially inter-related across groups. Implications for application in clinical practice are discussed.
Bailey Catherine M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, which can influence the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs. It is therefore important for clinicians involved in musculoskeletal rehabilitation programs to consider screening patients for elevated levels of anxiety and depression and to provide appropriate counselling or treatment where necessary. The HADS has been used as a screening tool for assessment of anxiety and depression in a wide variety of clinical groups. Recent research however has questioned its suitability for use with some patient groups due to problems with dimensionality and the behaviour of individual items. The aim of this study is to assess the underlying structure and psychometric properties of the HADS among patients attending musculoskeletal rehabilitation. Methods Data was obtained from 296 patients attending an outpatient musculoskeletal pain clinic. The total sample was used to identify the proportion of patients with elevated levels of anxiety and depression. Half the sample (n = 142 was used for exploratory factor analysis (EFA, with the holdout sample (n = 154 used for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA to explore the underlying structure of the scale. Results A substantial proportion of patients were classified as probable cases on the HADS Anxiety subscale (38.2% and HADS Depression subscale (30.1%, with the sample recording higher mean HADS subscales scores than many other patient groups (breast cancer, end-stage renal disease, heart disease reported in the literature. EFA supported a two factor structure (representing anxiety and depression as proposed by the scale's authors, however item 7 (an anxiety item failed to load appropriately. Removing Item 7 resulted in a clear two factor solution in both EFA and CFA. Conclusion The high levels of anxiety and depression detected in this sample suggests that screening for
Pallant, Julie F; Bailey, Catherine M
Background Research suggests there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, which can influence the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs. It is therefore important for clinicians involved in musculoskeletal rehabilitation programs to consider screening patients for elevated levels of anxiety and depression and to provide appropriate counselling or treatment where necessary. The HADS has been used as a screening tool for assessment of anxiety and depression in a wide variety of clinical groups. Recent research however has questioned its suitability for use with some patient groups due to problems with dimensionality and the behaviour of individual items. The aim of this study is to assess the underlying structure and psychometric properties of the HADS among patients attending musculoskeletal rehabilitation. Methods Data was obtained from 296 patients attending an outpatient musculoskeletal pain clinic. The total sample was used to identify the proportion of patients with elevated levels of anxiety and depression. Half the sample (n = 142) was used for exploratory factor analysis (EFA), with the holdout sample (n = 154) used for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to explore the underlying structure of the scale. Results A substantial proportion of patients were classified as probable cases on the HADS Anxiety subscale (38.2%) and HADS Depression subscale (30.1%), with the sample recording higher mean HADS subscales scores than many other patient groups (breast cancer, end-stage renal disease, heart disease) reported in the literature. EFA supported a two factor structure (representing anxiety and depression) as proposed by the scale's authors, however item 7 (an anxiety item) failed to load appropriately. Removing Item 7 resulted in a clear two factor solution in both EFA and CFA. Conclusion The high levels of anxiety and depression detected in this sample suggests that screening for psychological
Pallant, Julie F; Miller, Renée L; Tennant, Alan
Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a 10 item self-rating post-natal depression scale which has seen widespread use in epidemiological and clinical studies. Concern has been raised over the validity of the EPDS as a single summed scale, with suggestions that it measures two separate aspects, one of depressive feelings, the other of anxiety. Methods As part of a larger cross-sectional study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, a community sample (324 women, ranging in age from 18 to 44 years: mean = 32 yrs, SD = 4.6), was obtained by inviting primiparous women to participate voluntarily in this study. Data from the EPDS were fitted to the Rasch measurement model and tested for appropriate category ordering, for item bias through Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis, and for unidimensionality through tests of the assumption of local independence. Results Rasch analysis of the data from the ten item scale initially demonstrated a lack of fit to the model with a significant Item-Trait Interaction total chi-square (chi Square = 82.8, df = 40; p < .001). Removal of two items (items 7 and 8) resulted in a non-significant Item-Trait Interaction total chi-square with a residual mean value for items of -0.467 with a standard deviation of 0.850, showing fit to the model. No DIF existed in the final 8-item scale (EPDS-8) and all items showed fit to model expectations. Principal Components Analysis of the residuals supported the local independence assumption, and unidimensionality of the revised EPDS-8 scale. Revised cut points were identified for EPDS-8 to maintain the case identification of the original scale. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that EPDS, in its original 10 item form, is not a viable scale for the unidimensional measurement of depression. Rasch analysis suggests that a revised eight item version (EPDS-8) would provide a more psychometrically robust scale. The revised cut points of 7/8 and 9/10 for the EPDS-8 show high
Ali, Amira Mohammed; Ahmed, Anwar; Sharaf, Amira; Kawakami, Norito; Abdeldayem, Samia M; Green, Joseph
This study aimed to examine the validity of the Arabic version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) in 149 illicit drug users. We calculated α coefficient, inter-item and item-total correlations, coefficients of reproducibility and scalability (CR and CS), item difficulty and discrimination indices. The DASS-21 had an acceptable reliability; but values of the CR and the CS were less than acceptable. Items varied in difficulty and discrimination; some items are candidates for elimination. The DASS-21 is a probabilistic and not a deterministic measure of distress; it has problematic items and needs further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Missinne, Sarah; Vandeviver, Christophe; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet
Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in later life. However, despite considerable research attention, great confusion remains regarding the association between ageing and depression. There is doubt as to whether a depression scale performs identically for different age groups and countries. Although measurement equivalence is a crucial prerequisite for valid comparisons across age groups and countries, it has not been established for the eight-item version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D8). Using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we assess configural, metric, and scalar measurement equivalence across two age groups (50-64 years of age and 65 or older) in eleven European countries, employing data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement (SHARE). Results indicate that the construct of depression is comparable across age and country groups, allowing the substantive interpretation of correlates and mean levels of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johansen, Jon O. J.
Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...
Epkins, C C; Dedmon, A M
The authors examined siblings' reports of children's depression, anxiety, and aggression, and their reports of the sibling relationship, and compared them with children's self-reports. In two samples, including 169 sibling pairs (age M = 9.98 years, SD = 1.51), no significant differences emerged in the levels of depression and anxiety found in siblings' reports of children's behavior and children's self-reports, although siblings reported children to have significantly higher levels of aggression than the children self-reported. Age, the difference in ages between siblings, sex, and sibling sex were not related to siblings' reports of children's behavior. The relations between children's and siblings' reports of children's behavior were significant, yet moderate (average r = .22). Both siblings' self-reports of internalizing behavior and their perceptions of aspects of the sibling relationship (affection, rivalry, hostility, and satisfaction with the sibling relationship) explained significant, and unique, variance in siblings' reports of children's internalizing behavior. The findings for aggressive behavior were similar, although siblings' perceptions of affection in the sibling relationship were not significantly related to their reports of children's aggression. The potential uses and benefits of sibling reports of children's behavior, and sibling and family relationships, are discussed.
Esteban A. Cedillo-Couvert
Full Text Available Introduction: In the general population, medication nonadherence contributes to poorer outcomes. However, little is known about medication adherence among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We evaluated the association of self-reported medication adherence with CKD progression and all-cause death in patients with CKD. Methods: In this prospective observational study of 3305 adults with mild-to-moderate CKD enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC Study, the baseline self-reported medication adherence was assessed by responses to 3 questions and categorized as high, medium, and low. CKD progression (50% decline in eGFR or incident end-stage renal disease and all-cause death were measured using multivariable Cox proportional hazards. Results: Of the patients, 68% were categorized as high adherence, 17% medium adherence, and 15% low adherence. Over a median follow-up of 6 years, there were 969 CKD progression events and 675 deaths. Compared with the high-adherence group, the low-adherence group experienced increased risk for CKD progression (hazard ratio = 1.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.54 after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical factors, cardiovascular medications, number of medication types, and depressive symptoms. A similar association existed between low adherence and all-cause death, but did not reach standard statistical significance (hazard ratio = 1.14 95% confidence interval = 0.88, 1.47. Conclusion: Baseline self-reported low medication adherence was associated with an increased risk for CKD progression. Future work is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying this association and to develop interventions to improve adherence. Keywords: CKD, death, medication adherence, progression
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI is frequently used in medical care and clinical research because of its face validity and practicability. This study proposes to improve the reliability of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI scale in depressive disorders by the use of a semi-standardized interview, a new response format, and a Delphi procedure. Methods Thirty patients hospitalised for a major depressive episode were filmed at T1 (first week in hospital and at T2 (2 weeks later during a 5' specific interview. The Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale and the Symptom Check List were also rated. Eleven psychiatrists rated these videos using either the usual CGI response format or an improved response format, with or without a Delphi procedure. Results The new response format slightly improved (but not significantly the interrater agreement, the Delphi procedure did not. The best results were obtained when ratings by 4 independent raters were averaged. In this situation, intraclass correlation coefficients were about 0.9. Conclusion The Clinical Global Impression is a useful approach in psychiatry since it apprehends patients in their entirety. This study shows that it is possible to quantify such impressions with a high level of interrater agreement.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: In Alzheimer disease (AD, depression is among the most common accompanying neuropsychiatric symptoms and has different clinical manifestations when compared with early-life depression. In patients with drug-naïve AD, we tried to explore the structure of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15 and the effect of donepezil on these substructures. Methods: GDS15, cognitive function, and activities of daily living function tests were administered to 412 patients with probable AD who had not been medicated before visiting the hospital. Using principal component analysis, three factors were identified. The patients with AD who received only donepezil were retrospectively analyzed and we compared the change of cognition and GDS15 subgroup after donepezil medication. Results: Our study identified three factors and revealed that the GDS15 may be comprised of a heterogeneous scale. The Barthel index was significantly correlated with factor 1 (positively and factor 2 (negatively. The Korean version of the MMSE (K-MMSE was significantly correlated with factor 2 and factor 3. Compared to the baseline state, K-MMSE and GDS15 showed significant improvement after taking donepezil. Among GDS15 subgroups, factor 2 and factor 3 showed significant improvement after donepezil treatment. Conclusions: These results suggest that the GDS15 may be comprised of a heterogeneous scale and donepezil differentially affects the GDS15 subgroup in AD.
Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete
Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not
Baumstarck, Karine; Boyer, Laurent; Boucekine, Mohamed; Aghababian, Valérie; Parola, Nathalie; Lançon, Christophe; Auquier, Pascal
Impaired executive functions are among the most widely observed in patients suffering from schizophrenia. The use of self-reported outcomes for evaluating treatment and managing care of these patients has been questioned. The aim of this study was to provide new evidence about the suitability of self-reported outcome for use in this specific population by exploring the internal structure, reliability and external validity of a specific quality of life (QoL) instrument, the Schizophrenia Quality of Life questionnaire (SQoL18). cross-sectional study. age over 18 years, diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV criteria. sociodemographic (age, gender, and education level) and clinical data (duration of illness, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia); QoL (SQoL18); and executive performance (Stroop test, lexical and verbal fluency, and trail-making test). Non-impaired and impaired populations were defined for each of the three tests. For the six groups, psychometric properties were compared to those reported from the reference population assessed in the validation study. One hundred and thirteen consecutive patients were enrolled. The factor analysis performed in the impaired groups showed that the questionnaire structure adequately matched the initial structure of the SQoL18. The unidimensionality of the dimensions was preserved, and the internal/external validity indices were close to those of the non-impaired groups and the reference population. Our study suggests that executive dysfunction did not compromise the reliability or validity of self-reported disease-specific QoL questionnaire. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Turkoz, Ibrahim; Fu, Dong-Jing; Bossie, Cynthia A; Sheehan, John J; Alphs, Larry
This analysis explored the relationship between ratings on HAM-D-17 or YMRS and those on the depressive or manic subscale of CGI-S for schizoaffective disorder (CGI-S-SCA). This post hoc analysis used the database (N=614) from two 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of paliperidone ER versus placebo in symptomatic subjects with schizoaffective disorder assessed using HAM-D-17, YMRS, and CGI-S-SCA scales. Parametric and nonparametric regression models explored the relationships between ratings on YMRS and HAM-D-17 and on depressive and manic domains of the CGI-S-SCA from baseline to the 6-week end point. A clinically meaningful improvement was defined as a change of 1 point in the CGI-S-SCA score. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. Multiple linear regression models suggested that a 1-point change in the depressive domain of CGI-S-SCA corresponded to an average 3.6-point (SE=0.2) change in HAM-D-17 score. Similarly, a 1-point change in the manic domain of CGI-S-SCA corresponded to an average 5.8-point (SE=0.2) change in YMRS score. Results were confirmed using local and cumulative logistic regression models in addition to equipercentile linking. Lack of subjects scoring over the complete range of possible scores may limit broad application of the analyses. Clinically meaningful score changes in depressive and manic domains of CGI-S-SCA corresponded to approximately 4- and 6-point score changes on HAM-D-17 and YMRS, respectively, in symptomatic subjects with schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Portnuff, C D F; Fligor, B J; Arehart, K H
This study was designed to evaluate the usage patterns of portable listening device (PLD) listeners, and the relationships between self-report measures and long-term dosimetry measures of listening habits. This study used a descriptive correlational design. Participants (N = 52) were 18-29 year old men and women who completed surveys. A randomly assigned subset (N = 24) of participants had their listening monitored by dosimetry for one week. Median weekly noise doses reported and measured through dosimetry were low (9-93%), but 14.3% of participants reported exceeding a 100% noise dose weekly. When measured by dosimetry, 16.7% of participants exceeded a 100% noise dose weekly. The self-report question that best predicted the dosimetry-measured dose asked participants to report listening duration and usual listening level on a visual-analog scale. This study reports a novel dosimetry system that can provide accurate measures of PLD use over time. When not feasible, though, the self-report question described could provide a useful research or clinical tool to estimate exposure from PLD use. Among the participants in this study, a small but substantial percentage of PLD users incurred exposure from PLD use alone that increases their risk of music-induced hearing loss.
Full Text Available Self-reported disability in performing daily life activities was assessed in adults with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ. 262 participants were recruited into three BMI groups: Group I: 35–39.99 kg/m2; Group II: 40–44.99 kg/m2; Group III: ≥45.0 kg/m2. Progressively increasing HAQ scores were documented with higher BMI; Group I HAQ score: 0.125 (median (range: 0–1.75; Group II HAQ score: 0.375 (0–2.5; Group III HAQ score: 0.75 (0–2.65 (Group III versus II P 0. The prevalence of this degree of disability increased with increasing BMI and age. It also correlated to type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and clinical depression, but not to gender. Our data suggest that severe obesity is associated with self-reported disability in performing common daily life activities, with increasing degree of disability as BMI increases over 35 kg/m2. Functional assessment is crucial in obesity management, and establishing the disability profiles of obese patients is integral to both meet the specific healthcare needs of individuals and develop evidence-based public health programs, interventions, and priorities.
Punkanen, Marko; Eerola, Tuomas; Erkkilä, Jaakko
Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder, that impairs a person's social skills and also their quality of life. Populations affected with depression also suffer from a higher mortality rate. Depression affects person's ability to recognize emotions. We designed a novel experiment to test the hypothesis that depressed patients show a judgment bias towards negative emotions. To investigate how depressed patients differ in their perception of emotions conveyed by musical examples, both healthy (n=30) and depressed (n=79) participants were presented with a set of 30 musical excerpts, representing one of five basic target emotions, and asked to rate each excerpt using five Likert scales that represented the amount of each one of those same emotions perceived in the example. Depressed patients showed moderate but consistent negative self-report biases both in the overall use of the scales and their particular application to certain target emotions, when compared to healthy controls. Also, the severity of the clinical state (depression, anxiety and alexithymia) had an effect on the self-report biases for both positive and negative emotion ratings, particularly depression and alexithymia. Only musical stimuli were used, and they were all clear examples of one of the basic emotions of happiness, sadness, fear, anger and tenderness. No neutral or ambiguous excerpts were included. Depressed patients' negative emotional bias was demonstrated using musical stimuli. This suggests that the evaluation of emotional qualities in music could become a means to discriminate between depressed and non-depressed subjects. The practical implications of the present study relate both to diagnostic uses of such perceptual evaluations, as well as a better understanding of the emotional regulation strategies of the patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Amira H. Allam
Summary at a glance: This study included 420 subjects divided into three groups: Group I asthmatic (150 patients, group II COPD patients (150 and control group contain (120 healthy subjects. All patients and healthy subjects were instructed to answer the questionnaire of HADS. Anxiety and depression scales were calculated with prevalence of each. Anxiety and depression were more common in people with asthma and COPD.
Karolina G. César
Full Text Available Depression is a major growing public health problem. Many population studies have found a significant relationship between depression and the presence of cognitive disorders. OBJECTIVE: To establish the correlation between the Visual Analogue Scale of Happiness and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia in the population aged 60 years or over in the city of Tremembé, state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An epidemiological survey involving home visits was carried out in the city of Tremembé. The sample was randomly selected by drawing 20% of the population aged 60 years or older from each of the city's census sectors. In this single-phase study, the assessment included clinical history, physical and neurological examination, cognitive evaluation, and application of both the Cornell Scale and the Analogue Scale of Happiness for psychiatric symptoms. The presence of depressive symptoms was defined as scores greater than or equal to 8 points on the Cornell Scale. RESULTS: A total of 623 subjects were evaluated and of these 251 (40.3% had clinically significant depressive symptoms on the Cornell Scale, with a significant association with female gender (p<0.001 and with lower education (p=0.012. One hundred and thirty-six participants (21.8% chose the unhappiness faces, with a significant association with age (p<0.001, female gender (p=0.020 and low socioeconomic status (p=0.012. Although there was a statistically significant association on the correlation test, the correlation was not high (rho=0.47. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was high in this sample and the Visual Analogue Scale of Happiness and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia should not be used as similar alternatives for evaluating the presence of depressive symptoms, at least in populations with low educational level.
Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy caused extensive physical and economic damage; the long-term mental health consequences are unknown. Flooding is a central component of hurricane exposure, influencing mental health through multiple pathways that unfold over months after flooding recedes. Here we assess the concordance in self-reported and Federal Emergency Management (FEMA flood exposure after Hurricane Sandy and determine the associations between flooding and anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Self-reported flood data and mental health symptoms were obtained through validated questionnaires from New York City and Long Island residents (N = 1231 following Sandy. Self-reported flood data was compared to FEMA data obtained from the FEMA Modeling Task Force Hurricane Sandy Impact Analysis. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to determine the relationship between flooding exposure and mental health outcomes. There were significant discrepancies between self-reported and FEMA flood exposure data. Self-reported dichotomous flooding was positively associated with anxiety (ORadj: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.1-1.9], depression (ORadj: 1.7 [1.3-2.2], and PTSD (ORadj: 2.5 [1.8-3.4], while self-reported continuous flooding was associated with depression (ORadj: 1.1 [1.01-1.12] and PTSD (ORadj: 1.2 [1.1-1.2]. Models with FEMA dichotomous flooding (ORadj: 2.1 [1.5-2.8] or FEMA continuous flooding (ORadj: 1.1 [1.1-1.2] were only significantly associated with PTSD. Associations between mental health and flooding vary according to type of flood exposure measure utilized. Future hurricane preparedness and recovery efforts must integrate micro and macro-level flood exposures in order to accurately determine flood exposure risk during storms and realize the long-term importance of flooding on these three mental health symptoms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In situations where children are unable or unwilling to respond for themselves, measurement of quality of life (QOL is often obtained by parent proxy-report. However the relationship between child self and parent proxy-reports has been shown to be poor in some circumstances. Additionally the most appropriate statistical method for comparing ratings between child and parent proxy-reports has not been clearly established. The objectives of this study were to assess the: 1 agreement between child and parent proxy-reports on an established child QOL measure (the PedsQL™ using two different statistical methods; 2 effect of chronological age and domain type on agreement between children's and parents' reports on the PedsQL™; 3 relationship between parents' own well-being and their ratings of their child's QOL. Methods One hundred and forty-nine healthy children (5.5 – 6.5, 6.5 – 7.5, and 7.5 – 8.5 years completed the PedsQL™. One hundred and three of their parents completed these measures in relation to their child, and a measure of their own QOL (SF-36. Results Consistency between child and parent proxy-reports on the PedsQL™ was low, with Intra-Class correlation coefficients ranging from 0.02 to 0.23. Correlations were higher for the oldest age group for Total Score and Psychosocial Health domains, and for the Physical Health domain in the youngest age group. Statistically significant median differences were found between child and parent-reports on all subscales of the PedsQL™. The largest median differences were found for the two older age groups. Statistically significant correlations were found between parents' own QOL and their proxy-reports of child QOL across the total sample and within the middle age group. Conclusion Intra-Class correlation coefficients and median difference testing can provide different information on the relationship between parent proxy-reports and child self-reports. Our findings
Jefferson, Tyrone; Herbst, Jeffrey H.; McCrae, Robert R.
Sulloway (1996) proposed that personality traits developed in childhood mediate the association of birth order with scientific radicalism. Birth-order effects on traits within the five-factor model of personality were examined in three studies. Self-reports on brief measures of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness in a national sample (N= 9664) were unrelated to birth order. Self-reports on the 30 facet scales of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in an adult sample (N= 612) ...
Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Daeho; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Jo, Sun-Jin; Park, Yong Chon
Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale), suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version). Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Full Text Available Although major depressive disorder (MDD has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS, depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale, suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation, functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version. Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients.
Ostacher, Michael J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Rabideau, Dustin; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Sylvia, Louisa G; Gold, Alexandra K; Shesler, Leah W; Ketter, Terence A; Bowden, Charles L; Calabrese, Joseph R; Friedman, Edward S; Iosifescu, Dan V; Thase, Michael E; Leon, Andrew C; Trivedi, Madhukar H
People with bipolar disorder are at high risk of suicide, but no clinically useful scale has been validated in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties in bipolar disorder of the 7- and 12-item versions of the Concise Health Risk Tracking Self-Report (CHRT-SR), a scale measuring suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior, and associated symptoms. The CHRT was administered to 283 symptomatic outpatients with bipolar I or II disorder who were randomized to receive lithium plus optimized personalized treatment (OPT), or OPT without lithium in a six month longitudinal comparative effectiveness trial. Participants were assessed using structured diagnostic interviews, clinician-rated assessments, and self-report questionnaires. The internal consistency (Cronbach α) was 0.80 for the 7-item CHRT-SR and 0.90 for the 12-item CHRT-SR with a consistent factor structure, and three independent factors (current suicidal thoughts and plans, hopelessness, and perceived lack of social support) for the 7-item version. CHRT-SR scores are correlated with measures of depression, functioning, and quality of life, but not with mania scores. The 7- and 12-item CHRT-SR both had excellent psychometric properties in a sample of symptomatic subjects with bipolar disorder. The scale is highly correlated with depression, functioning, and quality of life, but not with mania. Future research is needed to determine whether the CHRT-SR will be able to predict suicide attempts in clinical practice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Gerritsen, DL; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW
Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in diagnosing depression in older nursing home patients. Method Three hundred and thirty-three older nursing home patients participated in a prospective cross-sectional study
Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Gerritsen, DL; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW
Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in diagnosing depression in older nursing home patients. Method Three hundred and thirty-three older nursing home patients participated in a prospective cross-sectional study
Kubota, Chika; Okada, Takashi; Aleksic, Branko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kunimoto, Shohko; Morikawa, Mako; Shiino, Tomoko; Tamaji, Ai; Ohoka, Harue; Banno, Naomi; Morita, Tokiko; Murase, Satomi; Goto, Setsuko; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Ando, Masahiko; Ozaki, Norio
The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a widely used screening tool for postpartum depression (PPD). Although the reliability and validity of EPDS in Japanese has been confirmed and the prevalence of PPD is found to be about the same as Western countries, the factor structure of the Japanese version of EPDS has not been elucidated yet. 690 Japanese mothers completed all items of the EPDS at 1 month postpartum. We divided them randomly into two sample sets. The first sample set (n = 345) was used for exploratory factor analysis, and the second sample set was used (n = 345) for confirmatory factor analysis. The result of exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor model consisting of anxiety, depression and anhedonia. The results of confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the anxiety and anhedonia factors existed for EPDS in a sample of Japanese women at 1 month postpartum. The depression factor varies by the models of acceptable fit. We examined EPDS scores. As a result, "anxiety" and "anhedonia" exist for EPDS among postpartum women in Japan as already reported in Western countries. Cross-cultural research is needed for future research.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS is a widely used screening tool for postpartum depression (PPD. Although the reliability and validity of EPDS in Japanese has been confirmed and the prevalence of PPD is found to be about the same as Western countries, the factor structure of the Japanese version of EPDS has not been elucidated yet. METHODS: 690 Japanese mothers completed all items of the EPDS at 1 month postpartum. We divided them randomly into two sample sets. The first sample set (n = 345 was used for exploratory factor analysis, and the second sample set was used (n = 345 for confirmatory factor analysis. RESULTS: The result of exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor model consisting of anxiety, depression and anhedonia. The results of confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the anxiety and anhedonia factors existed for EPDS in a sample of Japanese women at 1 month postpartum. The depression factor varies by the models of acceptable fit. CONCLUSIONS: We examined EPDS scores. As a result, "anxiety" and "anhedonia" exist for EPDS among postpartum women in Japan as already reported in Western countries. Cross-cultural research is needed for future research.
Kaur, Satpal; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Low, Wah Yun; Ramasamy, Ravindran; Sidhu, Jaideep Singh
The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a common screening instrument used to determine the levels of anxiety and depression experienced by a patient and has been extensively used in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to establish the factor structure of HADS in a Malaysian sample of 189 patients with CAD. Factor analysis of HADS using principal component analysis with varimax rotation yielded 3 factors. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the use of HADS in assessing 3 distinct dimensions of psychological distress--namely, anxiety, anhedonia, and psychomotor retardation. The HADS showed good internal consistency and was found to be a valid measure of psychological distress among Malaysian patients with CAD. However, low mean scores on the original 2 factors--that is, anxiety and depression--and also on the 2 depression subscales--anhedonia and psychomotor retardation--suggests that the recommended cutoff score to screen for psychological distress among CAD patients be reevaluated. Further research to determine the generalizability and consistency for the tridimensional structure of the HADS in Malaysia is recommended. © 2014 APJPH.
Piqueras, Jose A; Martín-Vivar, María; Sandin, Bonifacio; San Luis, Concepción; Pineda, David
Anxiety and depression are among the most common mental disorders during childhood and adolescence. Among the instruments for the brief screening assessment of symptoms of anxiety and depression, the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) is one of the more widely used. Previous studies have demonstrated the reliability of the RCADS for different assessment settings and different versions. The aims of this study were to examine the mean reliability of the RCADS and the influence of the moderators on the RCADS reliability. We searched in EBSCO, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and NCBI databases and other articles manually from lists of references of extracted articles. A total of 146 studies were included in our meta-analysis. The RCADS showed robust internal consistency reliability in different assessment settings, countries, and languages. We only found that reliability of the RCADS was significantly moderated by the version of RCADS. However, these differences in reliability between different versions of the RCADS were slight and can be due to the number of items. We did not examine factor structure, factorial invariance across gender, age, or country, and test-retest reliability of the RCADS. The RCADS is a reliable instrument for cross-cultural use, with the advantage of providing more information with a low number of items in the assessment of both anxiety and depression symptoms in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Heo, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Yu, Je-Chun; Nam, Ji-Ae
The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is designed to measure the current level of depressive symptomatology in the general population. However, no review has examined whether the scale is reliable and valid among children and adolescents in Korea. The purpose of this study was to test whether the Korean form of the CES-D is valid in adolescents. Data were obtained from 1,884 adolescents attending grades 1-3 in Korean middle schools. Reliability was evaluated by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha). Concurrent validity was evaluated by a correlation analysis between the CES-D and other scales. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory factor and confirmatory factor analyses. The internal consistency coefficient for the entire group was 0.88. The CES-D was positively correlated with scales that measure negative psychological constructs, such as the State Anxiety Inventory for Children, the Korean Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents, and the Reynold Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, but it was negatively correlated with scales that measure positive psychological constructs, such as the Korean version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2. The CES-D was examined by three-dimensional exploratory factor analysis, and the three-factor structure of the scale explained 53.165% of the total variance. The variance explained by factor I was 24.836%, that explained by factor II was 15.988%, and that explained by factor III was 12.341%. The construct validity of the CES-D was tested by confirmatory factor analysis, and we applied the entire group's data using a three-factor hierarchical model. The fit index showed a level similar to those of other countries' adolescent samples. The CES-D has high internal consistency and addresses psychological constructs similar to those addressed by other scales. The CES-D showed a three-factor structure in an exploratory factor analysis. The present
Schäfer, G; Smoltczyk, H; Dengler, W; Buchkremer, G
The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency and nature of self-reported and drug-related emergencies. 47 patients of a ward for opiate detoxification were interviewed about their experiences with drug-related emergencies. Typical categories had to be found like overdoses, seizures, accidents and suicide attempts respectively. 68% had own experience with drug-related emergency. A majority suffered opiate overdose with different extensions as unconsciousness or breath-depression. Alcohol and polydrug use was associated with overdose. Drug-related accidents were only reported by men. Half the number of drug-related emergencies were treated in hospital. Most emergencies occurred alone either in a home environment or outside. Harm reduction interventions like observed user rooms should be established. Furthermore other strategies to reduce the number of emergencies as sharing naloxon or resuscitation programs in wards for detoxification could also be an effective method to prevent near fatal or fatal overdoses in dependent subjects.
Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Rasmussen, Niels Kristian; Avlund, Kirsten
, more frequently than males, reported on all symptoms and all disease groups except injuries. People with relatively low levels of education reported most diseases, especially musculoskeletal and cardiovascular diseases, more frequently than people with higher education. Age-adjusted mean SF-36 scores...... for all dimensions combined showed that the symptoms of melancholy/depression and breathing difficulties, psychiatric disorders and respiratory diseases scored lowest (i.e. were most often associated with worse health). Females had lower SF-36 combined scores (worse health) than males on all symptoms. We......OBJECTIVE: To estimate and rank the relative severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark. METHOD: The 1994 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey collected data from 5,472 Danes older than 16 years of age. Interviews (response frequency: 79%) gave information on diseases and symptoms...
Zhou, Ying; Bullock, Amanda; Liu, Junsheng; Fu, Rui; Coplan, Robert J.; Cheah, Charissa S. L.
Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Self-Regulation Scale (C-SRS) were examined in a sample of 1,458 third- to eighth-grade students in China. Children completed self-reports of self-regulation, loneliness, depression, and self-esteem, and teachers rated children's school adjustment. Results showed a stable three-factor model…
Dørheim, Signe K.; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Eberhard-Gran, Malin
Background Insomnia and depression are strongly interrelated. This study aimed to describe changes in sleep across childbirth, and to evaluate whether insomnia in pregnancy is a predictor of postpartum depression. Methods A longitudinal, population-based study was conducted among perinatal women giving birth at Akershus University Hospital, Norway. Women received questionnaires in weeks 17 and 32 of pregnancy and eight weeks postpartum. This paper presents data from 2,088 of 4,662 women with complete data for insomnia and depression in week 32 of pregnancy and eight weeks postpartum. Sleep times, wake-up times and average sleep durations were self-reported. The Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS) was used to measure insomnia. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to measure depressive symptoms. Results After delivery, sleep duration was reduced by 49 minutes (to 6.5 hours), and mean sleep efficiency was reduced from 84% to 75%. However, self-reported insomnia scores (BIS) improved from 17.2 to 15.4, and the reported prevalence of insomnia decreased from 61.6% to 53.8%. High EPDS scores and anxiety in pregnancy, fear of delivery, previous depression, primiparity, and higher educational level were risk factors for both postpartum insomnia and depression. Insomnia did not predict postpartum depression in women with no prior history of depression, whereas women who recovered from depression had residual insomnia. Limitations Depression and insomnia were not verified by clinical interviews. Women with depressive symptoms were less likely to remain in the study. Conclusions Although women slept fewer hours at night after delivery compared to during late pregnancy, and reported more nights with nighttime awakenings, their self-reported insomnia scores improved, and the prevalence of insomnia according to the DSM-IV criteria decreased. Insomnia in pregnancy may be a marker for postpartum recurrence of depression among women with previous depression. PMID
Prather, Aric A; Gottlieb, Laura M; Giuse, Nunzia B; Koonce, Taneya Y; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Stead, William W; Adler, Nancy E
Social and behavioral factors play important roles in physical and mental health; however, they are not routinely assessed in the healthcare system. A brief panel of measures of social and behavioral determinants of health (SBDs) were recommended in a National Academy of Medicine report for use in electronic health records. Initial testing of the panel established feasibility of use and robustness of the measures. This study evaluates their convergent and divergent validity in relation to self-reported physical and mental health and social desirability bias. Adults, aged ≥18 years, were recruited through Qualtrics online panel survey platform in 2015 (data analyzed in 2015-2016). Participants completed the (1) panel of SBD measures; (2) 12-Item Short Form Health Survey to assess associations with global physical and mental health; and (3) Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale short form to assess whether social desirability influenced associations between SBD measures and self-reported health. The sample included 513 participants (mean age, 47.9 [SD=14.2] years; 65.5% female). Several SBD domain measures were associated with physical and mental health. Adjusting for age, poorer physical and mental health were observed among participants reporting higher levels of financial resource strain, stress, depression, physical inactivity, current tobacco use, and a positive score for intimate partner violence. These associations remained significant after adjustment for social desirability bias. SBD domains were associated with global measures of physical and mental health and were not impacted by social desirability bias. The panel of SBD measures should now be tested in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Istriana, Erita; Kurnia, Ade; Weijers, Annelies; Hidayat, Teddy; Pinxten, Lucas; de Jong, Cor; Schellekens, Arnt
The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) is the most widely used depression rating scale worldwide. Reliability of HDRS has been reported mainly from Western countries. The current study tested the reliability of HDRS ratings among psychiatric residents in Indonesia, before and after HDRS training. The hypotheses were that: (i) prior to the training reliability of HDRS ratings is poor; and (ii) HDRS training can improve reliability of HDRS ratings to excellent levels. Furthermore, we explored cultural validity at item level. Videotaped HDRS interviews were rated by 30 psychiatric residents before and after 1 day of HDRS training. Based on a gold standard rating, percentage correct ratings and deviation from the standard were calculated. Correct ratings increased from 83% to 99% at item level and from 70% to 100% for the total rating. The average deviation from the gold standard rating improved from 0.07 to 0.02 at item level and from 2.97 to 0.46 for the total rating. HDRS assessment by psychiatric trainees in Indonesia without prior training is unreliable. A short, evidence-based HDRS training improves reliability to near perfect levels. The outlined training program could serve as a template for HDRS trainings. HDRS items that may be less valid for assessment of depression severity in Indonesia are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Paquet, Lise; Verma, Shailendra; Collins, Barbara; Chinneck, Anne; Bedard, Marc; Song, Xinni
A puzzling observation pertaining to the impact of breast cancer on memory is the frequently reported dissociation between breast cancer survivors' self-reported memory problems and memory performance. We evaluated the hypothesis that the dissociation is related to the fact that the objective memory measures previously used assessed retrospective memory (RM) and did not tap prospective memory (PM), a domain about which survivors are complaining. In a case-healthy-control (N = 80) cross-sectional study, the Memory for Intention Screening Test was used to assess PM and the Wechsler Logical Memory Test was used to evaluate RM. Self-reported problems were assessed with the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire. Measures of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and fatigue (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy: Fatigue) were also administered. Both groups reported more PM than RM problems (P memory problems than controls (all P memory problems. Although unrelated to performance, memory complaints should not be dismissed, as they are closely associated with depression and fatigue and reveal an important facet of the cancer experience. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bech, Per; Lunde, Marianne; Lauritzen, Lise
. The remaining 31 patients received active T-PEMF twice daily. Duration of treatment was 8 weeks in both groups. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) and the Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale (MES) were used to measure remission. We also focused on the Diagnostic Apathia Scale, which is based on a mixture...
Chisholm, Dan; Sweeny, Kim; Sheehan, Peter; Rasmussen, Bruce; Smit, Filip; Cuijpers, Pim; Saxena, Shekhar
Depression and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and disabling disorders, which result not only in an enormous amount of human misery and lost health, but also lost economic output. Here we propose a global investment case for a scaled-up response to the public health and economic burden of depression and anxiety disorders. In this global return on investment analysis, we used the mental health module of the OneHealth tool to calculate treatment costs and health outcomes in 36 countries between 2016 and 2030. We assumed a linear increase in treatment coverage. We factored in a modest improvement of 5% in both the ability to work and productivity at work as a result of treatment, subsequently mapped to the prevailing rates of labour participation and gross domestic product (GDP) per worker in each country. The net present value of investment needed over the period 2016-30 to substantially scale up effective treatment coverage for depression and anxiety disorders is estimated to be US$147 billion. The expected returns to this investment are also substantial. In terms of health impact, scaled-up treatment leads to 43 million extra years of healthy life over the scale-up period. Placing an economic value on these healthy life-years produces a net present value of $310 billion. As well as these intrinsic benefits associated with improved health, scaled-up treatment of common mental disorders also leads to large economic productivity gains (a net present value of $230 billion for scaled-up depression treatment and $169 billion for anxiety disorders). Across country income groups, resulting benefit to cost ratios amount to 2·3-3·0 to 1 when economic benefits only are considered, and 3·3-5·7 to 1 when the value of health returns is also included. Return on investment analysis of the kind reported here can contribute strongly to a balanced investment case for enhanced action to address the large and growing burden of common mental disorders worldwide. Grand
Tran, Thach Duc; Tran, Tuan; Fisher, Jane
Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam. The DASS-21 was translated from English to Vietnamese, culturally verified, back-translated and administered to women who also completed, separately, a psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis 1 diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders. The sample was a community-based representative cohort of adult women with young children living in Ha Nam Province in northern Viet Nam. Cronbach's alpha, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to identify the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales and the overall scale. Complete data were available for 221 women. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of each sub-scale and the overall scale were high, ranging from 0.70 for the Stress subscale to 0.88 for the overall scale, but EFA indicated that the 21 items all loaded on one factor. Scores on each of the three sub-scales, and the combinations of two or three of them were able to detect the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in women with a sensitivity of 79.1% and a specificity of 77.0% at the optimal cut off of >33. However, they did not distinguish between those experiencing only depression or only anxiety. The total score of the 21 items of the DASS21-Vietnamese validation appears to be comprehensible and sensitive to detecting common mental disorders in women with young children in primary health care in rural northern Vietnam and therefore might also be useful to screen for these conditions in other resource-constrained settings.
This paper presented the Turkish version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) in community and clinical samples, examined its psychometric properties. Construct validity and concurrent validity were conducted in validity studies. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-42 (DASS-42) was used for concurrent validity. In reliability analysis, the instruments internal consistency and re-test reliability were studied. Results of explanatory factor analyses demonstrated that 21 items yielded...
Silva, Hítalo Andrade da; Passos, Muana Hiandra Pereira Dos; Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly Alves de; Palmeira, Aline Cabral; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato de
To evaluate the interday reproducibility, agreement and validity of the construct of short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 applied to adolescents. The sample consisted of adolescents of both sexes, aged between 10 and 19 years, who were recruited from schools and sports centers. The validity of the construct was performed by exploratory factor analysis, and reliability was calculated for each construct using the intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement and the minimum detectable change. The factor analysis combining the items corresponding to anxiety and stress in a single factor, and depression in a second factor, showed a better match of all 21 items, with higher factor loadings in their respective constructs. The reproducibility values for depression were intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.86, standard error of measurement with 0.80, and minimum detectable change with 2.22; and, for anxiety/stress: intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.82, standard error of measurement with 1.80, and minimum detectable change with 4.99. The short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 showed excellent values of reliability, and strong internal consistency. The two-factor model with condensation of the constructs anxiety and stress in a single factor was the most acceptable for the adolescent population. Avaliar a reprodutibilidade interdias, a concordância e a validade do construto da versão reduzida da Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 aplicada a adolescentes. A amostra foi composta por adolescentes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 10 e 19 anos, recrutados de escolas e centros esportivos. A validade de construto foi realizada por análise fatorial exploratória, e a confiabilidade foi calculada para cada construto, por meio de coeficiente de correlação intraclasse, erro padrão de medida e mudança mínima detectável. A análise fatorial combinando os itens correspondentes a ansiedade e estresse em um
Sensitivity to changes during antidepressant treatment: a comparison of unidimensional subscales of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression.
Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André
In the efficacy evaluation of antidepressant treatments, the total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is still regarded as the 'gold standard'. We previously had shown that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) was more sensitive to detect depressive symptom changes than the HAMD17 (Helmreich et al. 2011). Furthermore, studies suggest that the unidimensional subscales of the HAMD, which capture the core depressive symptoms, outperform the full HAMD regarding the detection of antidepressant treatment effects. The aim of the present study was to compare several unidimensional subscales of the HAMD and the IDS regarding their sensitivity to changes in depression symptoms in a sample of patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C28 and HAMD17 data from 287 patients of a 10-week randomised, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with MIND were converted to subscale scores and analysed during the antidepressant treatment course. We investigated sensitivity to depressive change for all scales from assessment-to-assessment, in relation to depression severity level and placebo-verum differences. The subscales performed similarly during the treatment course, with slight advantages for some subscales in detecting treatment effects depending on the treatment modality and on the items included. Most changes in depressive symptomatology were detected by the IDS short scale, but regarding the effect sizes, it performed worse than most subscales. Unidimensional subscales are a time- and cost-saving option in judging drug therapy outcomes, especially in antidepressant treatment efficacy studies. However, subscales do not cover all facets of depression (e.g. atypical symptoms, sleep disturbances), which might be important for comprehensively understanding the nature of the disease depression. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be
Wang, Kui; Shi, Hai-Song; Geng, Fu-Lei; Zou, Lai-Quan; Tan, Shu-Ping; Wang, Yi; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K
The gap between the demand and delivery of mental health services in mainland China can be reduced by validating freely available and psychometrically sound psychological instruments. The present research examined the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Study 1 administered the DASS-21 to 1,815 Chinese college students and found internal consistency indices (Cronbach's alpha) of .83, .80, and .82 for the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales, respectively, and .92 for the total DASS total. Test-retest reliability over a 6-month interval was .39 to .46 for each of the 3 subscales and .46 for the total DASS. Moderate convergent validity of the Depression and Anxiety subscales was demonstrated via significant correlations with the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (r = .51 at Time 1 and r = .64 at Time 2) and the Chinese State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .41), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original 3-factor model with 1 minor change (nonnormed fit index [NNFI] = .964, comparative fit index [CFI] = .968, and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .079). Study 2 examined the clinical utility of the Chinese DASS-21 in 166 patients with schizophrenia and 90 matched healthy controls. Patients had higher Depression and Anxiety but not Stress subscale scores than healthy controls. A discriminant function composed of the linear combination of 3 subscale scores correctly discriminated 69.92% of participants, which again supported the potential clinical utility of the DASS in mainland China. Taken together, findings in these studies support the cross-cultural validity of the DASS-21 in China. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Montazeri, Ali; Torkan, Behnaz; Omidvari, Sepideh
The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a widely used instrument to measure postnatal depression. This study aimed to translate and to test the reliability and validity of the EPDS in Iran. The English language version of the EPDS was translated into Persian (Iranian language) and was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to a consecutive sample of 100 women with normal (n = 50) and caesarean section (n = 50) deliveries at two points in time: 6 to 8 weeks and 12 to 14 weeks after delivery. Statistical analysis was performed to test the reliability and validity of the EPDS. Overall 22% of women at time 1 and 18% at time 2 reported experiencing postpartum depression. In general, the Iranian version of the EPDS was found to be acceptable to almost all women. Cronbach's alpha coefficient (to test reliability) was found to be 0.77 at time 1 and 0.86 at time 2. In addition, test-rest reliability was performed and the intraclass correlation coefficient was found to be 0.80. Validity as performed using known groups comparison showed satisfactory results. The questionnaire discriminated well between sub-groups of women differing in mode of delivery in the expected direction. The factor analysis indicated a three-factor structure that jointly accounted for 58% of the variance. This preliminary validation study of the Iranian version of the EPDS proved that it is an acceptable, reliable and valid measure of postnatal depression. It seems that the EPDS not only measures postpartum depression but also may be measuring something more.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS is a widely used instrument to measure postnatal depression. This study aimed to translate and to test the reliability and validity of the EPDS in Iran. Methods The English language version of the EPDS was translated into Persian (Iranian language and was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to a consecutive sample of 100 women with normal (n = 50 and caesarean section (n = 50 deliveries at two points in time: 6 to 8 weeks and 12 to 14 weeks after delivery. Statistical analysis was performed to test the reliability and validity of the EPDS. Results Overall 22% of women at time 1 and 18% at time 2 reported experiencing postpartum depression. In general, the Iranian version of the EPDS was found to be acceptable to almost all women. Cronbach's alpha coefficient (to test reliability was found to be 0.77 at time 1 and 0.86 at time 2. In addition, test-rest reliability was performed and the intraclass correlation coefficient was found to be 0.80. Validity as performed using known groups comparison showed satisfactory results. The questionnaire discriminated well between sub-groups of women differing in mode of delivery in the expected direction. The factor analysis indicated a three-factor structure that jointly accounted for 58% of the variance. Conclusion This preliminary validation study of the Iranian version of the EPDS proved that it is an acceptable, reliable and valid measure of postnatal depression. It seems that the EPDS not only measures postpartum depression but also may be measuring something more.
Sarró, Salvador; Madre, Mercè; Fernández-Corcuera, Paloma; Valentí, Marc; Goikolea, José M; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Berk, Michael; Amann, Benedikt L
The Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS) arguably better captures symptoms in bipolar depression especially depressive mixed states than traditional unipolar depression rating scales. The psychometric properties of the Spanish adapted version, BDRS-S, are reported. The BDRS was translated into Spanish by two independent psychiatrists fluent in English and Spanish. After its back-translation into English, the BDRS-S was administered to 69 DSMI-IV bipolar I and II patients who were recruited from two Spanish psychiatric hospitals. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were concurrently administered. 42 patients were reviewed via video by four psychiatrists blind to the psychopathological status of those patients. In order to assess the BDRS-S intra-rater or test-retest validity, 22 subjects were assessed by the same investigator performing two evaluations within five days. The BDRS-S had a good internal consistency (Cronbach׳s α=0.870). We observed strong correlations between the BDRS-S and the HDRS (r=0.874) and MADRS (r=0.854) and also between the mixed symptom cluster score of the BDRS-S and the YMRS (r=0.803). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three factor solution: psychological depressive symptoms cluster, somatic depressive symptoms cluster and mixed symptoms cluster. A relatively small sample size for a 20-item scale. The BDRS-S provides solid psychometric performance and in particular captures depressive or mixed symptoms in Spanish bipolar patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common complaint in cirrhotic patients and may be considered a debilitating symptom with negative impact on quality of life. Research on its etiology and treatment has been hampered by the lack of relevant and reproducible measures of fatigue. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS in cirrhotic patients and to correlate with depressive symptomatology and quality of life. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 106 cirrhotic patients, aged between 18 and 70 years, both genders, literate, pre and post liver transplantation in outpatient follow-up. Internal consistency, reproducibility, discriminant validity, criterion validity, construct validity, responsiveness criterion, depressive symptomatology and quality of life were evaluated through questionnaires between January and October 2015. RESULTS: The mean age was 54.75±9.9 years, 65.1% male and 32.1% of the sample had cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus. The mean FSS score was 4.74±1.64. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.93, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient was 0.905 (95% CI: 0.813-0.952. For discriminant validity, FSS differentiated scores from different groups (P=0.009 and presented a correlation with the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (r=0.606, P=0.002. FSS correlated significantly and positively with depressive symptomatology and correlated negatively with the SF-36 domains for construct validity. For responsiveness, no significant changes were observed in the fatigue scores in the pre and post-liver transplantation periods (P=0.327. CONCLUSION: FSS showed good psychometric performance in the evaluation of fatigue in patients with cirrhosis. Fatigue presented a strong correlation with depressive symptomatology and quality of life.
Roebke, Patrick V; Vadhan, Nehal P; Brooks, Daniel J; Levin, Frances R
Both individuals with marijuana use and depressive disorders exhibit verbal learning and memory decrements. This study investigated the interaction between marijuana dependence and depression on learning and memory performance. The California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) was administered to depressed (n = 71) and non-depressed (n = 131) near-daily marijuana users. The severity of depressive symptoms was measured by the self-rated Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the clinician-rated Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Multivariate analyses of covariance statistics (MANCOVA) were employed to analyze group differences in cognitive performance. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relative associations between marijuana use, depression and CVLT-II performance. Findings from each group were compared to published normative data. Although both groups exhibited decreased CVLT-II performance relative to the test's normative sample (p marijuana-dependent subjects with a depressive disorder did not perform differently than marijuana-dependent subjects without a depressive disorder (p > 0.05). Further, poorer CVLT-II performance was modestly associated with increased self-reported daily amount of marijuana use (corrected p depressive symptoms (corrected p > 0.002). These findings suggest an inverse association between marijuana use and verbal learning function, but not between depression and verbal learning function in regular marijuana users.
Beaufort, Ilse N; De Weert-Van Oene, Gerdien H; Buwalda, Victor A J; de Leeuw, J Rob J; Goudriaan, Anna E
Depression is a common co-morbid disorder in substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Hence, valid instruments are needed to screen for depression in this subpopulation. In this study, the predictive validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) for the presence of a depressive disorder was investigated in SUD inpatients. Furthermore, differences between DASS-21 scores at intake and those recorded one week after inpatient detoxification were assessed in order to determine the measurement point of the assessment of the DASS-21 leading to the best predictive validity. The DASS-21 was administered to 47 patients at intake and shortly after inpatient detoxification. The results of the DASS-21 were compared to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which served as the gold standard. Levels of sensitivity and specificity of 78-89% and 71-76% were found for the DASS-21 assessed after detoxification, satisfactorily predicting depression as diagnosed with the MINI. Total DASS-21 scores as well as the DASS subscale for depression were significantly reduced at the second measurement, compared to the DASS at intake. We conclude that the DASS-21 may be a suitable instrument to screen for depressive disorders in SUD patients when administered (shortly) after detoxification. Future research is needed to support this conclusion. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Flicker, Leon; Fenner, Stephen; Smith, Kate; Hyde, Zoe; Atkinson, David; Skeaf, Linda; Malay, Roslyn; LoGiudice, Dina
Objective This study aimed to develop a culturally acceptable and valid scale to assess depressive symptoms in older Indigenous Australians, to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders in the older Kimberley community, and to investigate the sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with depression in this population. Methods Cross-sectional survey of adults aged 45 years or over from six remote Indigenous communities in the Kimberley and 30% of those living in Derby, Western Australia. The 11 linguistic and culturally sensitive items of the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment of Depression (KICA-dep) scale were derived from the signs and symptoms required to establish the diagnosis of a depressive episode according to the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria, and their frequency was rated on a 4-point scale ranging from ‘never’ to ‘all the time’ (range of scores: 0 to 33). The diagnosis of depressive disorder was established after a face-to-face assessment with a consultant psychiatrist. Other measures included sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, and clinical history. Results The study included 250 participants aged 46 to 89 years (mean±SD = 60.9±10.7), of whom 143 (57.2%) were women. The internal reliability of the KICA-dep was 0.88 and the cut-point 7/8 (non-case/case) was associated with 78% sensitivity and 82% specificity for the diagnosis of a depressive disorder. The point-prevalence of a depressive disorder in this population was 7.7%; 4.0% for men and 10.4% for women. Heart problems were associated with increased odds of depression (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2,8.8). Conclusions The KICA-dep has robust psychometric properties and can be used with confidence as a screening tool for depression among older Indigenous Australians. Depressive disorders are common in this population, possibly because of increased stressors and health morbidities. PMID:24740098
Osvaldo P Almeida
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a culturally acceptable and valid scale to assess depressive symptoms in older Indigenous Australians, to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders in the older Kimberley community, and to investigate the sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with depression in this population. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of adults aged 45 years or over from six remote Indigenous communities in the Kimberley and 30% of those living in Derby, Western Australia. The 11 linguistic and culturally sensitive items of the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment of Depression (KICA-dep scale were derived from the signs and symptoms required to establish the diagnosis of a depressive episode according to the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria, and their frequency was rated on a 4-point scale ranging from 'never' to 'all the time' (range of scores: 0 to 33. The diagnosis of depressive disorder was established after a face-to-face assessment with a consultant psychiatrist. Other measures included sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, and clinical history. RESULTS: The study included 250 participants aged 46 to 89 years (mean±SD = 60.9±10.7, of whom 143 (57.2% were women. The internal reliability of the KICA-dep was 0.88 and the cut-point 7/8 (non-case/case was associated with 78% sensitivity and 82% specificity for the diagnosis of a depressive disorder. The point-prevalence of a depressive disorder in this population was 7.7%; 4.0% for men and 10.4% for women. Heart problems were associated with increased odds of depression (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2,8.8. CONCLUSIONS: The KICA-dep has robust psychometric properties and can be used with confidence as a screening tool for depression among older Indigenous Australians. Depressive disorders are common in this population, possibly because of increased stressors and health morbidities.
Dáu, Ana Luísa B T; Callinan, Laura S; Mayes, Linda C; Smith, Megan V
This study examined the relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms, directly observed maternal sensitivity, and the content and themes of pictures posted on a mobile application. Data on 20 participants were analyzed. Results suggested that mothers' scoring as more intrusive on the maternal sensitivity scale tended to post a higher proportion of photos of themselves interacting with their babies. An association between higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms and a lower proportion of posts of baby smiling photos was also suggested.
Göritz Anja S
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the relation between social desirability and self-reported physical activity in web-based research. Findings A longitudinal study (N = 5,495, 54% women was conducted on a representative sample of the Dutch population using the Marlowe-Crowne Scale as social desirability measure and the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Social desirability was not associated with self-reported physical activity (in MET-minutes/week, nor with its sub-behaviors (i.e., walking, moderate-intensity activity, vigorous-intensity activity, and sedentary behavior. Socio-demographics (i.e., age, sex, income, and education did not moderate the effect of social desirability on self-reported physical activity and its sub-behaviors. Conclusions This study does not throw doubt on the usefulness of the Internet as a medium to collect self-reports on physical activity.
Hartung, Tim J; Friedrich, Michael; Johansen, Christoffer
all major tumor sites and treatment settings. The PHQ-9 and HADS-D were assessed and compared in terms of diagnostic accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition diagnosis of major depressive disorder using......BACKGROUND: Depression screening in patients with cancer is recommended by major clinical guidelines, although the evidence on individual screening tools is limited for this population. Here, the authors assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of 2 established screening instruments......: the depression modules of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), in a representative sample of patients with cancer. METHODS: This multicenter study was conducted with a proportional, stratified, random sample of 2141 patients with cancer across...
Al-Gelban, Khalid S; Al-Amri, Hasan S; Mostafa, Ossama A
To determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among secondary school girls. A cross- sectional study was carried out on secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia, using the Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42). Of 545 female students recruited in this study, 73.4% had the symptoms of at least one of the three studied disorders; 50.1% had at least two disorders. The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress was 41.5 %, 66.2% and 52.5% respectively. The majority of symptoms were mild to moderate in severity. The scores for depression, anxiety, and stress were positively and significantly correlated. No significant association was found between the girls' sociodemographic characteristics and the scores of the three studied disorders. One of the most important aspects of a primary care physician's care of females is to screen for and treat common mental disorders.
Adaptation to Portuguese of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) Adaptación para la lengua portuguesa de la Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) Adaptação para a língua portuguesa da Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS)
João Luís Alves Apóstolo; Aida Cruz Mendes; Zaida Aguiar Azeredo
Objective: to adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21), designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. Method: After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101), and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. Results: The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional state...
Park, Seon-Cheol; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Hwang, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of age at onset of the first major depressive episode on the clinical features of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large cohort of Korean depressed patients. We recruited 419 MDD patients of age over 18 years from the Clinical Research Center for Depression study in South Korea. At the start of the study, the onset age of the first major depressive episode was self-reported by the subjects. The subjects were divided into four age-at-onset subgroups: childhood and adolescent onset (ages depressive episodes (F=3.475, p=0.016) and higher scores on the brief psychiatric rating scale (F=3.254, p=0.022), its negative symptom subscale (F=6.082, pdepressive episode is a promising clinical indicator for the clinical presentation, course, and outcome of MDD.
Martin, Colin R; Redshaw, Maggie
The 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is an established screening tool for postnatal depression. Inconsistent findings in factor structure and replication difficulties have limited the scope of development of the measure as a multi-dimensional tool. The current investigation sought to robustly determine the underlying factor structure of the EPDS and the replicability and stability of the most plausible model identified. A between-subjects design was used. EPDS data were collected postpartum from two independent cohorts using identical data capture methods. Datasets were examined with confirmatory factor analysis, model invariance testing and systematic evaluation of relational and internal aspects of the measure. Participants were two samples of postpartum women in England assessed at three months (n = 245) and six months (n = 217). The findings showed a three-factor seven-item model of the EPDS offered an excellent fit to the data, and was observed to be replicable in both datasets and invariant as a function of time point of assessment. Some EPDS sub-scale scores were significantly higher at six months. The EPDS is multi-dimensional and a robust measurement model comprises three factors that are replicable. The potential utility of the sub-scale components identified requires further research to identify a role in contemporary screening practice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Broen, M P G; Moonen, A J H; Kuijf, M L; Dujardin, K; Marsh, L; Richard, I H; Starkstein, S E; Martinez-Martin, P; Leentjens, A F G
Several studies have validated the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and reported adequate reliability and construct validity. However, the factorial validity of the HAMD has not yet been investigated. The aim of our analysis was to explore the factor structure of the HAMD in a large sample of PD patients. A principal component analysis of the 17-item HAMD was performed on data of 341 PD patients, available from a previous cross sectional study on anxiety. An eigenvalue ≥1 was used to determine the number of factors. Factor loadings ≥0.4 in combination with oblique rotations were used to identify which variables made up the factors. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure (KMO), Cronbach's alpha, Bartlett's test, communality, percentage of non-redundant residuals and the component correlation matrix were computed to assess factor validity. KMO verified the sample's adequacy for factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha indicated a good internal consistency of the total scale. Six factors had eigenvalues ≥1 and together explained 59.19% of the variance. The number of items per factor varied from 1 to 6. Inter-item correlations within each component were low. There was a high percentage of non-redundant residuals and low communality. This analysis demonstrates that the factorial validity of the HAMD in PD is unsatisfactory. This implies that the scale is not appropriate for studying specific symptom domains of depression based on factorial structure in a PD population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ayoub Ghanbary Sartang
Full Text Available Shift work has been recognized as an important tool for organizing of work in developing countries. The disturbed depression, stress accident are the most common health‐related effects of shift work. The military personnel shift worker during work, are exposed to stress and psychological pressure that certainly affect the efficiency of their work. The aim of this study was to Investigation Effect of shift work on job burnout and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale in military personnel. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 100 military personnel male in Southern Iran. Respondents were divided into two groups based on their working schedule (50 shift work personnel / 50 day work personnel. Data collection tools were a Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21, demographic characteristics and Maslach job burnout questionnaire. Convenience sampling was used as sampling method. Finally, Data analysis was performed with SPSS (version 20, descriptive statistics, One Way Anova test, ANCOVA and t-independent test. The results of showed that shift work has an impact on burnout and DASS-21 and mean obtained score for DASS-21 and job burnout in shift workers are more day work individuals. Analysis of variance test showed significant difference between job burnout in day workers and shift workers and job burnout were more in shift workers. Also significant difference between DASS-21 in day workers and shift workers and DASS-21 was more in shift workers. This study showed that shift work has an impact on burnout and scale DASS-21 shall is taken to Intervention actions in shift works.
Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann
BACKGROUND: In long-term follow-up studies on depression, the Eysenck Neuroticism Scale (ENS) at the score level of dysthymia has been found to be valid at predicting poor outcome. AIMS: The ENS dysthymia level was compared with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) level to predict the prevalence...... of depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up of patients initially diagnosed with first episode depression using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) to express depressive symptoms. METHODS: A total of 301 in- or outpatients aged 18-70 years with a recent single depressive episode were assessed by ENS, BDI......, and HAM-D from 2005-2007. At 5-year follow-up from 2011-2013, the participants were re-assessed by HAM-D. The HAM-D was used to measure depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up. The Mokken analysis was used to indicate scalability of the BDI and ENS. RESULTS: A total of 185 participants were available...
Khader, Yousef; Alhabashneh, Rola; Alhersh, Fadi
The development of self-reported measures of periodontal disease would be of great benefit to facilitate epidemiological studies of periodontal disease on a larger scale, and to allow for surveillance of the periodontal condition of populations over time. To develop a culturally adapted self-reported measure of periodontal disease, test its predictive and discriminative validity and establish a cut-off value for this measure to diagnose periodontal disease. A total of 288 Jordanian adults completed the questionnaire assessing self-reported periodontal health (18 questions) and underwent periodontal examination. Of the 18 questions, six were significantly associated with at least one clinical definition of periodontitis and were used to constitute the self-reported periodontal disease measure. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were used to examine the overall discriminatory power, sensitivity and specificity, and corresponding cut-off points of the self-reported periodontal disease measure. ROC analysis showed that the self-reported periodontal disease measure had an excellent performance to discriminate between those with and without periodontal disease, regardless of the clinical definition used. A score of 2, on a scale of 0 to 6, had the highest sensitivity and specificity to detect periodontal disease when defined by all study criteria. Significant associations were observed between self-reported periodontal disease measures and all clinical definitions in the regression analysis (the odds ratio ranged from 8.31 to 18.96), according to the clinical definition to be predicted. Self-reported periodontal disease measures have excellent predictive and discriminative validity when tested against clinical definitions, and severity and extent of periodontal disease. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.
Bech, P; Bech, P
as the method for the evaluation of the clinical effects of psychotropic drugs. Inspired by Eysenck, Hamilton took the long route around factor analysis in order to qualify his scales for anxiety (HAM-A) and depression (HAM-D) as scientific tools. From the moment when, 50 years ago, Hamilton published his first...... placebo-controlled trial with an experimental anti-anxiety drug, he realized the dialectic problem in using the total score on HAM-A as a sufficient statistic for the measurement of outcome. This dialectic problem has been investigated for more than 50 years with different types of factor analyses without...
Full Text Available This paper presented the Turkish version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21 in community and clinical samples, examined its psychometric properties. Construct validity and concurrent validity were conducted in validity studies. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-42 (DASS-42 was used for concurrent validity. In reliability analysis, the instruments internal consistency and re-test reliability were studied. Results of explanatory factor analyses demonstrated that 21 items yielded three-factors. Results of confirmatory factor analyses for three-dimensional model showed that acceptable fit index values in community sample and perfect fit index values in clinical sample. Factor loadings ranged from .42 to .72. In the concurrent validity, significant positive relationships were found between DASS-42 and DASS-21. Cronbach alpha internal consistency coefficient was found as α= .87 for depression sub-scale, α= .85 for anxiety sub-scale and α= .81 for stress sub-scale in clinical sample. Moreover, test-retest reliability coefficient was obtained as r=.68 for depression sub-scale, r=.66 for anxiety sub-scale and r=.61 for stress sub-scale in community sample, and corrected item-total correlations ranged from .43 to .77 in clinical sample. In second study, DASS-21 discriminated the patients (depression mean score=10.83; anxiety mean score=10.39; stress mean score=11.85 from the healthy subjects (depression mean score=5.88; anxiety mean score=5.37; stress mean score=7.90 well (U=5310.50; 4748.50; 5562.50, p=0.00. According to psychometric properties, DASS-21 is a reliable and valid instrument in the assessment of depression, anxiety, stress levels. [JCBPR 2018; 7(1.000: 19-30
Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Factor analysis of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS could result in a shorter and easier to handle screening tool. Therefore, the aim of this study was to check and compare the metrics of two different 6-item EPDS subscales. Methods: We administered the EPDS to a total of 3,891 women who had given birth between 1 and 3 months previously. We conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses and plotted receiver-operating characteristics (ROC curves to, respectively, determine construct validity, scale items' fit to the data, and ideal cutoff scores for the short versions. Results: A previously defined 6-item scale did not exhibit construct validity for our sample. Nevertheless, we used exploratory factor analysis to derive a new 6-item scale with very good construct validity. The area under the ROC curve of the new 6-item scale was 0.986 and the ideal cutoff score was ≥ 6. Conclusions: The new 6-item scale has adequate psychometric properties and similar ROC curve values to the10-item version and offers a means of reducing the cost and time taken to administer the instrument.
Dahem, Ahmed Mohammed Faleh
The study aimed to identify the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) the Arabized version by Gharib (2000); the study sample consisted of 500 male and female students from the Kuwaiti universities by 250 males and 250 females on whom the BDI-II scale was applied twice; the psychometric characteristics such as the…
Schroevers, MJ; Sanderman, R; van Sonderen, E; Ranchor, AV
This study examined the reliability and validity of a two-factor structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The study was conducted in a large group of cancer patients (n = 475) and a matched reference group (n = 255). Both groups filled in a questionnaire at two
Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Bucks, Romola S; Skinner, Timothy C; Starkstein, Sergio; Hillman, David; James, Alan; Hunter, Michael
The assessment of depression in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is confounded by symptom overlap. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-short form (DASS-21) is a commonly used measure of negative affect, but it not known whether the DASS-21 is suitable for use in an OSA sample. This study compared the fit of Lovibond and Lovibond's (1995) correlated 3-factor structure of the DASS-21 and measurement invariance between a non-OSA and an OSA sample using confirmatory factor analysis. As measurement invariance was not found, to determine the source of non-invariance differential item functioning (DIF) was examined using dMACS. The correlated 3-factor structure (with correlated errors) of the DASS-21 was a better fit in the non-OSA sample. dMACS indicated that there was a degree of DIF for each of the subscales, especially for the Anxiety subscale, in which 2 symptoms (that are also physiological symptoms of OSA) produced lower severity scores in the OSA sample compared with the non-OSA sample. However, the degree of DIF for each of the subscales is not sufficient to cause concern when using the DASS-21; therefore, the total DASS-21 is suitable for use in an OSA sample. Interestingly, the impact of symptom overlap in anxiety symptoms may be reducing anxiety scores because of DIF, which contrasts with the proposed effect of symptom overlap in depression, where it leads to the inflation of depression scores in OSA. This deserves greater consideration in relation to OSA and other clinical disorders or chronic illness conditions with different patterns of overlapping symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Green, Samuel B.; And Others
Undergraduates completed self-report inventories of assertiveness, participated in behavior role-playing tasks and in vivo measures of assertiveness, and completed the Personality Research Form E (PRF-E). Of 22 PRF-E scales, 11 had at least one significant correlation with assertiveness measures. Some composites of PRF-E scales were related to…
Drury, Helena; Wilkinson, Verity; Robertson, Mary M; Channon, Shelley
Recent work has reported mild impairments in social and emotional processing in Tourette's syndrome (TS), but deliberate attempts to use specific emotion regulation strategies have not been investigated previously. In the present study, adult participants with TS and no comorbidities (TS-alone) were compared to healthy control participants on several self-report measures assessing habitual use of reappraisal and suppression emotion regulation strategies. There were no group differences on measures of reappraisal, but the TS-alone group reported using suppression more frequently than the control group and this was true across a range of negative emotions. The groups did not differ on symptomatology scores of anxiety or depression, although more frequent use of suppression was associated with higher depressive symptomatology for the TS-alone group only. Further work is needed to examine potential factors that may influence emotion regulation in TS, including increased emotional reactivity or expertise in applying strategies to suppress tic symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prochaska, Judith J; Grossman, William; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Benowitz, Neal L
Exposure of adults to secondhand smoke (SHS) has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease. The current study evaluated brief self-report screening measures for accurately identifying adult cardiology patients with clinically significant levels of SHS exposure in need of intervention. A cross-sectional study conducted in a university-affiliated cardiology clinic and cardiology inpatient service. Participants were 118 non-smoking patients (59% male, mean age=63.6 years, SD=16.8) seeking cardiology services. Serum cotinine levels and self-reported SHS exposure in the past 24 h and 7 days on 13 adult secondhand exposure to smoke (ASHES) items. A single item assessment of SHS exposure in one's own home in the past 7 days was significantly correlated with serum cotinine levels (r=0.41, p85% and correct classification rates >85% at cotinine cut-off points of >0.215 and >0.80 ng/mL. The item outperformed multi-item scales, an assessment of home smoking rules, and SHS exposure assessed in other residential areas, automobiles and public settings. The sample was less accurate at self-reporting lower levels of SHS exposure (cotinine 0.05-0.215 ng/mL). The single item ASHES-7d Home screener is brief, assesses recent SHS exposure over a week's time, and yielded the optimal balance of sensitivity and specificity. The current findings support use of the ASHES-7d Home screener to detect SHS exposure and can be easily incorporated into assessment of other major vital signs in cardiology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos
:Depression may occur in teenager pregnant women. The use of a validated tool for screening depression is highly recommended. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) is a screening tool for depression used in women during the postnatal period and pregnancy. However, the EPDS has not been validated in teenager pregnant women. Therefore, we sought to validate a Spanish translated Mexican version of the EPDS in a population of teenager pregnant women. One hundred and twenty teenager pregnant women attending routine prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico participated in the study. All participants submitted a revised Spanish translated Mexican version of the EPDS and were examined by a psychiatrist to evaluate the presence of depression by using DSM-IV criteria. Of the 120 teenager pregnant women studied, 2 had major depression and 25 had minor depression according to the DSM-IV criteria. The optimal EPDS cut-off for screening combined major and minor depression in teenager pregnant women was 8/9. At this threshold, we found a sensitivity of 70.4%, a specificity of 84.9%, a positive predictive value of 47.6%, a negative predictive value of 91.0%, and an area under the curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.07). The EPDS can be used for screening depression in Mexican teenager pregnant women whenever a cut-off score of 8/9 is used.
Latkin, Carl A; Edwards, Catie; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A; Tobin, Karin E
Social desirability response bias may lead to inaccurate self-reports and erroneous study conclusions. The present study examined the relationship between social desirability response bias and self-reports of mental health, substance use, and social network factors among a community sample of inner-city substance users. The study was conducted in a sample of 591 opiate and cocaine users in Baltimore, Maryland from 2009 to 2013. Modified items from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were included in the survey, which was conducted face-to-face and using Audio Computer Self Administering Interview (ACASI) methods. There were highly statistically significant differences in levels of social desirability response bias by levels of depressive symptoms, drug use stigma, physical health status, recent opiate and cocaine use, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores, and size of social networks. There were no associations between health service utilization measures and social desirability bias. In multiple logistic regression models, even after including the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) as a measure of depressive symptomology, social desirability bias was associated with recent drug use and drug user stigma. Social desirability bias was not associated with enrollment in prior research studies. These findings suggest that social desirability bias is associated with key health measures and that the associations are not primarily due to depressive symptoms. Methods are needed to reduce social desirability bias. Such methods may include the wording and prefacing of questions, clearly defining the role of "study participant," and assessing and addressing motivations for socially desirable responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.
Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…
Kita, Yosuke; Inoue, Yuki
The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using...
Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika; Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala
Mental health problems among women of reproductive age group contribute to 7% of Global Burden of Diseases of women of all ages. Purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of antenatal depression among pregnant women in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, and to explore the factor structure of EPDS. Pregnant women with gestational age of 24-36 weeks and residing in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka were recruited to the study using a two stage cluster sampling procedure. Sinhalese version of Edinburgh Post Partum Depression Scale (EPDS) and an interviewer administered questionnaire was use to collect data. A cut off value of 9 was used for the Sinhalese version of EPDS. A total of 376 pregnant women were studied. Median EPDS score among pregnant women was 5 (IQR 2-8). Prevalence of antenatal depression in this study sample was 16.2% (n = 61). Thought of self harming (item number 10) was reported by 26 pregnant women (6.9%). None of the socio-demographic factors were associated with depression in this study sample. Having heart burn was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (p = 0.041). Sri Lankan version of EPDS showed a two factor solution. Anxiety was not emerged as a separate factor in this analysis. Prevalence of antenatal depression in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka was relatively low. Anxiety was not emerged as a separate factor in the Sinhalese version of the EPDS.
Suneth Buddhika Agampodi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mental health problems among women of reproductive age group contribute to 7% of Global Burden of Diseases of women of all ages. Purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of antenatal depression among pregnant women in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, and to explore the factor structure of EPDS. METHODS: Pregnant women with gestational age of 24-36 weeks and residing in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka were recruited to the study using a two stage cluster sampling procedure. Sinhalese version of Edinburgh Post Partum Depression Scale (EPDS and an interviewer administered questionnaire was use to collect data. A cut off value of 9 was used for the Sinhalese version of EPDS. RESULTS: A total of 376 pregnant women were studied. Median EPDS score among pregnant women was 5 (IQR 2-8. Prevalence of antenatal depression in this study sample was 16.2% (n = 61. Thought of self harming (item number 10 was reported by 26 pregnant women (6.9%. None of the socio-demographic factors were associated with depression in this study sample. Having heart burn was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (p = 0.041. Sri Lankan version of EPDS showed a two factor solution. Anxiety was not emerged as a separate factor in this analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of antenatal depression in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka was relatively low. Anxiety was not emerged as a separate factor in the Sinhalese version of the EPDS.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, however reported prevalence varies considerably. Two frequently used instruments to identify depression are the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. The objectives of this study were to test if the CES-D and HADS-D (a satisfy current modern psychometric standards for unidimensional measurement in an early RA sample; (b measure the same construct (i.e. depression; and (c identify similar levels of depression. Methods Data from the two scales completed by patients with early RA were fitted to the Rasch measurement model to show that (a each scale satisfies the criteria of fit to the model, including strict unidimensionality; (b that the scales can be co-calibrated onto a single underlying continuum of depression and to (c examine the location of the cut points on the underlying continuum as indication of the prevalence of depression. Results Ninety-two patients with early RA (62% female; mean age = 56.3, SD = 13.7 gave 141 sets of paired CES-D and HAD-D data. Fit of the data from the CES-D was found to be poor, and the scale had to be reduced to 13 items to satisfy Rasch measurement criteria whereas the HADS-D met model expectations from the outset. The 20 items combined (CES-D13 and HADS-D satisfied Rasch model expectations. The CES-D gave a much higher prevalence of depression than the HADS-D. Conclusion The CES-D in its present form is unsuitable for use in patients with early RA, and needs to be reduced to a 13-item scale. The HADS-D is valid for early RA and the two scales measure the same underlying construct but their cut points lead to different estimates of the level of depression. Revised cut points on the CES-D13 provide comparative prevalence rates.
Covic, Tanya; Pallant, Julie F; Tennant, Alan; Cox, Sally; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G
Background Depression is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), however reported prevalence varies considerably. Two frequently used instruments to identify depression are the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The objectives of this study were to test if the CES-D and HADS-D (a) satisfy current modern psychometric standards for unidimensional measurement in an early RA sample; (b) measure the same construct (i.e. depression); and (c) identify similar levels of depression. Methods Data from the two scales completed by patients with early RA were fitted to the Rasch measurement model to show that (a) each scale satisfies the criteria of fit to the model, including strict unidimensionality; (b) that the scales can be co-calibrated onto a single underlying continuum of depression and to (c) examine the location of the cut points on the underlying continuum as indication of the prevalence of depression. Results Ninety-two patients with early RA (62% female; mean age = 56.3, SD = 13.7) gave 141 sets of paired CES-D and HAD-D data. Fit of the data from the CES-D was found to be poor, and the scale had to be reduced to 13 items to satisfy Rasch measurement criteria whereas the HADS-D met model expectations from the outset. The 20 items combined (CES-D13 and HADS-D) satisfied Rasch model expectations. The CES-D gave a much higher prevalence of depression than the HADS-D. Conclusion The CES-D in its present form is unsuitable for use in patients with early RA, and needs to be reduced to a 13-item scale. The HADS-D is valid for early RA and the two scales measure the same underlying construct but their cut points lead to different estimates of the level of depression. Revised cut points on the CES-D13 provide comparative prevalence rates. PMID:19200388
Johns, Gary; Miraglia, Mariella
Because of a variety of access limitations, self-reported absenteeism from work is often employed in research concerning health, organizational behavior, and economics, and it is ubiquitous in large scale population surveys in these domains. Several well established cognitive and social-motivational biases suggest that self-reports of absence will exhibit convergent validity with records-based measures but that people will tend to underreport the behavior. We used meta-analysis to summarize the reliability, validity, and accuracy of absence self-reports. The results suggested that self-reports of absenteeism offer adequate test-retest reliability and that they exhibit reasonably good rank order convergence with organizational records. However, people have a decided tendency to underreport their absenteeism, although such underreporting has decreased over time. Also, self-reports were more accurate when sickness absence rather than absence for any reason was probed. It is concluded that self-reported absenteeism might serve as a valid measure in some correlational research designs. However, when accurate knowledge of absolute absenteeism levels is essential, the tendency to underreport could result in flawed policy decisions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Koven, Nancy S; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A
Research has established positive associations between anxiety sensitivity (AS) and problematic drinking in clinical samples. The present study confirmed this relationship in a nonclinical sample (N=162) and investigated which AS dimension best predicts self-reports of problematic drinking. Only one AS facet, fear of cognitive dyscontrol (FCC), was associated with symptoms of alcohol dependence, severity of drinking problems, and alcohol-related expectations of global, positive changes, sexual enhancement, and tension reduction. The possible role of depression in these relationships was also evaluated. A series of hierarchical regressions revealed that, when trait anxiety, anxious arousal, and anxious apprehension were statistically removed, depression did not contribute significant variance beyond the effects of FMC and other anxiety measures. Results suggest that FCC is uniquely associated with self-reports of problematic drinking behaviors and attitudes. Implications for tension-reduction models of alcohol are discussed.
Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Lalor, Aislinn; Farnworth, Louise; Pallant, Julie F; Knightbridge, Elizabeth; McLelland, Gayle
Lifestyle may influence many health-related issues currently facing Australian women. The extent to which women with school-aged children attend to their own health is unknown and the associations between health behaviours and health status requires investigation. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of health behaviours (alcohol consumption, health-promoting activities) and their impact on self-reported health (weight, sleep quality, mental health) among mothers of school-aged children in Victoria. Mail-out survey design (n=263) including the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) and Health Promoting Activities Scale was used to explore issues. The results indicated that substantial numbers of mothers reported moderate to extreme DASS scores: depression (n=45, 17%); anxiety (n=41, 15.6%); stress (n=57, 21.7%). The majority participated in physical activity less often than daily. High rates of daily alcohol use (20%) and poor sleep quality were reported. Nearly one-half (n=114, 46%) of the sample were overweight or obese and also reported poorer mental health than other women in the sample (Pmaternal weight, mental health and participation in health-promoting activities. The findings indicate that there is a need for increased health education and services for women with school-aged children. Direct services and population-based health promotion strategies may be required to address healthy lifestyle issues and educate mothers about the possible health legacy of poor health behaviours.
Richter Lagha, Regina Anne
Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…
Hairul Anuar Hashim; Freddy Golok; Rosmatunisah Ali
Background: Psychometrically sound measurement instrument is a fundamental requirement across broad range of research areas. In negative affect research, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) has been identified as a psychometrically sound instrument to measure depression, anxiety and stress, especially the 21-item version. However, its psychometric properties in adolescents have been less consistent. Objectives: Thus, the present study sought to examine the factorial validity and internal c...
Soares-Filho, Gastão L. F.; Freire, Rafael C.; Biancha, Karla; Pacheco, Ticiana; Volschan, André; Valença, Alexandre M.; Nardi, Antonio E.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients complaining of chest pain who seek a chest pain unit attendance. INTRODUCTION: Patients arriving at a Chest Pain Unit may present psychiatric disorders not identified, isolated or co-morbid to the main illness, which may interfere in the patient prognosis. METHODOLOGY: Patients were assessed by the "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale" as a screening instrument wile following a systematized protocol to rule out the...
Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez; Betty Manrique-Espinoza; Isaac Acosta-Castillo; Martha Ma. Téllez-Rojo; Aurora Franco-Núñez; Luis Miguel Gutiérrez-Robledo; Ana Luisa Sosa-Ortiz
Objective. To evaluate the Depression Scale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Brief Version (CESD-7) psychometric properties in Mexican adult population, and validate a cutoff for classifying subjects according to the presence / absence of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CSDS). Materials and methods. Screening cross-sectional study with a subsample of 301 adult residents of the Morelos state in Mexico, originally interviewed for the National Survey of Health and Nutrition 2...
Ownsworth, Tamara; Little, Trudi; Turner, Ben; Hawkes, Anna; Shum, David
To investigate the clinical potential of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS 42) and its shorter version (DASS 21) for assessing emotional status following acquired brain injury. Participants included 23 individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), 25 individuals with brain tumour and 29 non-clinical controls. Investigations of internal consistency, test-re-test reliability, theory-consistent differences, sensitivity to change and concurrent validity were conducted. Internal consistency of the DASS was generally acceptable (r > 0.70), with the exception of the anxiety scale for the TBI sample. Test-re-test reliability (1-3 weeks) was sound for the depression scale (r > 0.75) and significant but comparatively lower for other scales (r = 0.60-0.73, p scale (p DASS in the context of hospital discharge was demonstrated for depression and stress (p 0.05). Concurrent validity with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was significant for all scales of the DASS (p DASS following ABI, further research examining the factor structure of existing and modified versions of the DASS is recommended